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The Divine Comedy of Dante
Translanted by H. F. Cary THE VISION OR, HELL, PURGATORY, AND PARADISE OF DANTE ALIGHIERI

TRANSLATED BY THE REV. H. F. CARY, A.M.

HELL
CANTO I
In the midway of this our mortal life, I found me in a gloomy wood, astray Gone from the path direct: and e’en to tell It were no easy task, how savage wild That forest, how robust and rough its growth, Which to remember only, my dismay Renews, in bitterness not far from death. Yet to discourse of what there good befell, All else will I relate discover’d there. How first I enter’d it I scarce can say, Such sleepy dullness in that instant weigh’d My senses down, when the true path I left, But when a mountain’s foot I reach’d, where clos’d The valley, that had pierc’d my heart with dread, I look’d aloft, and saw his shoulders broad

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Already vested with that planet’s beam, Who leads all wanderers safe through every way. Then was a little respite to the fear, That in my heart’s recesses deep had lain, All of that night, so pitifully pass’d: And as a man, with difficult short breath, Forespent with toiling, ‘scap’d from sea to shore, Turns to the perilous wide waste, and stands At gaze; e’en so my spirit, that yet fail’d Struggling with terror, turn’d to view the straits, That none hath pass’d and liv’d. My weary frame After short pause recomforted, again I journey’d on over that lonely steep, The hinder foot still firmer. Scarce the ascent Began, when, lo! a panther, nimble, light, And cover’d with a speckled skin, appear’d, Nor, when it saw me, vanish’d, rather strove To check my onward going; that ofttimes With purpose to retrace my steps I turn’d. The hour was morning’s prime, and on his way Aloft the sun ascended with those stars, That with him rose, when Love divine first mov’d Those its fair works: so that with joyous hope All things conspir’d to fill me, the gay skin Of that swift animal, the matin dawn

And the sweet season. Soon that joy was chas’d, And by new dread succeeded, when in view A lion came, ‘gainst me, as it appear’d, With his head held aloft and hunger-mad, That e’en the air was fear-struck. A she-wolf Was at his heels, who in her leanness seem’d Full of all wants, and many a land hath made Disconsolate ere now. She with such fear O’erwhelmed me, at the sight of her appall’d, That of the height all hope I lost. As one, Who with his gain elated, sees the time When all unwares is gone, he inwardly Mourns with heart-griping anguish; such was I, Haunted by that fell beast, never at peace, Who coming o’er against me, by degrees Impell’d me where the sun in silence rests. While to the lower space with backward step I fell, my ken discern’d the form one of one, Whose voice seem’d faint through long disuse of speech. When him in that great desert I espied, “Have mercy on me!” cried I out aloud, “Spirit! or living man! what e’er thou be!” He answer’d: “Now not man, man once I was, And born of Lombard parents, Mantuana both

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By country, when the power of Julius yet Was scarcely firm. At Rome my life was past Beneath the mild Augustus, in the time Of fabled deities and false. A bard Was I, and made Anchises’ upright son The subject of my song, who came from Troy, When the flames prey’d on Ilium’s haughty towers. But thou, say wherefore to such perils past Return’st thou? wherefore not this pleasant mount Ascendest, cause and source of all delight?” “And art thou then that Virgil, that well-spring, From which such copious floods of eloquence Have issued?” I with front abash’d replied. “Glory and light of all the tuneful train! May it avail me that I long with zeal Have sought thy volume, and with love immense Have conn’d it o’er. My master thou and guide! Thou he from whom alone I have deriv’d That style, which for its beauty into fame Exalts me. See the beast, from whom I fled. O save me from her, thou illustrious sage! For every vein and pulse throughout my frame She hath made tremble.” He, soon as he saw That I was weeping, answer’d, “Thou must needs Another way pursue, if thou wouldst ‘scape

From out that savage wilderness. This beast, At whom thou criest, her way will suffer none To pass, and no less hindrance makes than death: So bad and so accursed in her kind, That never sated is her ravenous will, Still after food more craving than before. To many an animal in wedlock vile She fastens, and shall yet to many more, Until that greyhound come, who shall destroy Her with sharp pain. He will not life support By earth nor its base metals, but by love, Wisdom, and virtue, and his land shall be The land ‘twixt either Feltro. In his might Shall safety to Italia’s plains arise, For whose fair realm, Camilla, virgin pure, Nisus, Euryalus, and Turnus fell. He with incessant chase through every town Shall worry, until he to hell at length Restore her, thence by envy first let loose. I for thy profit pond’ring now devise, That thou mayst follow me, and I thy guide Will lead thee hence through an eternal space, Where thou shalt hear despairing shrieks, and see Spirits of old tormented, who invoke A second death; and those next view, who dwell

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Content in fire, for that they hope to come, Whene’er the time may be, among the blest, Into whose regions if thou then desire T’ ascend, a spirit worthier then I Must lead thee, in whose charge, when I depart, Thou shalt be left: for that Almighty King, Who reigns above, a rebel to his law, Adjudges me, and therefore hath decreed, That to his city none through me should come. He in all parts hath sway; there rules, there holds His citadel and throne. O happy those, Whom there he chooses!” I to him in few: “Bard! by that God, whom thou didst not adore, I do beseech thee (that this ill and worse I may escape) to lead me, where thou saidst, That I Saint Peter’s gate may view, and those Who as thou tell’st, are in such dismal plight.” Onward he mov’d, I close his steps pursu’d.

Both of sad pity, and that perilous road, Which my unerring memory shall retrace. O Muses! O high genius! now vouchsafe Your aid! O mind! that all I saw hast kept Safe in a written record, here thy worth And eminent endowments come to proof. I thus began: “Bard! thou who art my guide, Consider well, if virtue be in me Sufficient, ere to this high enterprise Thou trust me. Thou hast told that Silvius’ sire, Yet cloth’d in corruptible flesh, among Th’ immortal tribes had entrance, and was there Sensible present. Yet if heaven’s great Lord, Almighty foe to ill, such favour shew’d, In contemplation of the high effect, Both what and who from him should issue forth, It seems in reason’s judgment well deserv’d: Sith he of Rome, and of Rome’s empire wide, In heaven’s empyreal height was chosen sire: Both which, if truth be spoken, were ordain’d And ‘stablish’d for the holy place, where sits Who to great Peter’s sacred chair succeeds. He from this journey, in thy song renown’d, Learn’d things, that to his victory gave rise And to the papal robe. In after-times

CANTO II
Now was the day departing, and the air, Imbrown’d with shadows, from their toils releas’d All animals on earth; and I alone Prepar’d myself the conflict to sustain,

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The chosen vessel also travel’d there, To bring us back assurance in that faith, Which is the entrance to salvation’s way. But I, why should I there presume? or who Permits it? not, Aeneas I nor Paul. Myself I deem not worthy, and none else Will deem me. I, if on this voyage then I venture, fear it will in folly end. Thou, who art wise, better my meaning know’st, Than I can speak.” As one, who unresolves What he hath late resolv’d, and with new thoughts Changes his purpose, from his first intent Remov’d; e’en such was I on that dun coast, Wasting in thought my enterprise, at first So eagerly embrac’d. “If right thy words I scan,” replied that shade magnanimous, “Thy soul is by vile fear assail’d, which oft So overcasts a man, that he recoils From noblest resolution, like a beast At some false semblance in the twilight gloom. That from this terror thou mayst free thyself, I will instruct thee why I came, and what I heard in that same instant, when for thee Grief touch’d me first. I was among the tribe, Who rest suspended, when a dame, so blest

And lovely, I besought her to command, Call’d me; her eyes were brighter than the star Of day; and she with gentle voice and soft Angelically tun’d her speech address’d: “O courteous shade of Mantua! thou whose fame Yet lives, and shall live long as nature lasts! A friend, not of my fortune but myself, On the wide desert in his road has met Hindrance so great, that he through fear has turn’d. Now much I dread lest he past help have stray’d, And I be ris’n too late for his relief, From what in heaven of him I heard. Speed now, And by thy eloquent persuasive tongue, And by all means for his deliverance meet, Assist him. So to me will comfort spring. I who now bid thee on this errand forth Am Beatrice; from a place I come

(Note: Beatrice. I use this word, as it is pronounced
in the Italian, as consisting of four syllables, of which the third is a long one.)

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which I send thee to remove. who so much lov’d thee. So thy command delights me. where I abode Seated with Rachel.” She then: “Since thou so deeply wouldst inquire. flee from their annoy. of all cruelty the foe. and all Who well have mark’d it. nor flame of that fierce fire Assails me. Nor mark the death. which in the torrent flood. As she will’d. for none are terrible beside. Who prompts my speech. as to leave For thy sake all the multitude admires? Dost thou not hear how pitiful his wail. whereat I felt Redoubled zeal to serve thee.Hell Revisited with joy. Thus am I come: I sav’d thee from the beast. why thou art not loth To leave that ample space. would seem late. where to return Thou burnest. that to obey. Love brought me thence. Those things alone Are to be fear’d. What is this comes o’er thee then? 8 . whence evil may proceed.” At her word Sped Lucia.The Divine Comedy of Dante . her she thus bespake: “Now doth thy faithful servant need thy aid And I commend him to thee. As when these words were spoken. To Lucia calling. I will instruct thee briefly. and I thus began: “O Lady! by whose influence alone. That God’s stern judgment to her will inclines. her bright beaming eyes Tearful she turn’d aside. her of ancient days. thy praise to him I oft will tell. Mankind excels whatever is contain’d Within that heaven which hath the smallest orb. Who thy near way across the goodly mount Prevented. I am so fram’d by God. for this centre here beneath. why no dread Hinders my entrance here. In high heaven a blessed dame Besides. Swoln mightier than a sea. thanks to his grace! That any suff’rance of your misery Touches me not. which thee. If it were done already. She thus address’d me: “Thou true praise of God! Beatrice! why is not thy succour lent To him. And coming to the place.” She then was silent.” “When she had ended. When in my Master’s sight I stand. who mourns with such effectual grief That hindrance. None else. trusting the force Of thy pure eloquence. Down from my blessed seat. him struggling holds?” Ne’er among men did any with such speed Haste to their profit. Yet tell the reason. I came here. No need hast thou farther to speak thy will. into honour brings.

outcries of woe. when day has blanch’d their leaves. Supremest wisdom. Through me among the people lost for aye. We are come Where I have told thee we shall see the souls To misery doom’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . With hands together smote that swell’d the sounds.” As florets. And so much certain good my words forebode.” He as one prepar’d replied: “Here thou must all distrust behind thee leave. and lord.” And when his hand he had stretch’d forth To mine. who undertook My succour! and thou kind who didst perform So soon her true behest! With such desire Thou hast dispos’d me to renew my voyage. who intellectual good Have lost. and when he had onward mov’d. Into that secret place he led me on. Made up a tumult. voices deep and hoarse. Here be vile fear extinguish’d. Accents of anger. Lead on: one only will is in us both. Rise all unfolded on their spiry stems. save things Eternal. Various tongues. that for ever whirls CANTO III “Through me you pass into the city of woe: Through me you pass into eternal pain: 9 . Justice the founder of my fabric mov’d: To rear me was the task of power divine. And to my heart such kindly courage ran. That I as one undaunted soon replied: “O full of pity she. That e’en I wept at entering. these words import Hard meaning. Before me things create were none. So was my fainting vigour new restor’d. whence I was cheer’d. Here sighs with lamentations and loud moans Resounded through the air pierc’d by no star. and eternal I endure. I enter’d on the deep and woody way. Thou art my guide. with pleasant looks. That my first purpose fully is resum’d. why dost thou hang back? why in thy breast Harbour vile fear? why hast not courage there And noble daring? Since three maids so blest Thy safety plan.” Such characters in colour dim I mark’d Over a portal’s lofty arch inscrib’d: Whereat I thus: “Master.Hell Why.” So spake I. and primeval love. All hope abandon ye who enter here. my master thou. Horrible languages. e’en in the court of heaven. by the frosty air of night Bent down and clos’d.

beheld a flag. I then. I from speech Abstain’d. that all other lots They envy. who seem so overcome with woe?” He thus to me: “This miserable fate Suffer the wretched souls of those. lest th’ accursed tribe Should glory thence with exultation vain. And lo! toward us in a bark Comes on an old man hoary white with eld. who liv’d Without or praise or blame. who to base fear Yielding. That they lament so loud?” He straight replied: “That will I tell thee briefly. nor the depth Of Hell receives them. but for themselves Were only. That it no pause obtain’d: and following came Such a long train of spirits. Speak not of them. Fame of them the world hath none. From his bounds Heaven drove them forth. who nor rebellious prov’d Nor yet were true to God. and pass them by. with that ill band Of angels mix’d. Which whirling ran around so rapidly.” And I. abjur’d his high estate. Not to impair his lustre.” I then: “Master! what doth aggrieve them thus. Went on in nakedness. Then looking farther onwards I beheld A throng upon the shore of a great stream: Whereat I thus: “Sir! grant me now to know Whom here we view. which bedew’d their cheeks With blood. as I discern Through the blear light?” He thus to me in few: “This shalt thou know. who ne’er lived.The Divine Comedy of Dante . but look. When some of these I recogniz’d. 10 . soon as our steps arrive Beside the woeful tide of Acheron. Forthwith I understood for certain this the tribe Of those ill spirits both to God displeasing And to his foes. that death so many had despoil’d. Fearing my words offensive to his ear. and whence impell’d they seem So eager to pass o’er. mercy and justice scorn them both. I should ne’er Have thought. I saw And knew the shade of him. These wretches. that mix’d with tears dropp’d to their feet. These of death No hope may entertain: and their blind life So meanly passes.Hell Round through that air with solid darkness stain’d. Like to the sand that in the whirlwind flies. who straightway look’d. And by disgustful worms was gather’d there. with error yet encompass’d. Till we had reach’d the river. Nor suffers.” Then with eyes downward cast and fill’d with shame. cried: “O master! What is this I hear? What race Are these. and sorely stung By wasps and hornets.

live spirit! get thee hence. Into eternal darkness.” Then to him thus spake my guide: “Charon! thyself torment not: so ‘t is will’d. as falcon at his call.” Straightway in silence fell the shaggy cheeks Of him the boatman o’er the livid lake. the place. and each.” But soon as he beheld I left them not.” thus spake the courteous guide. One still another following. Which all my senses conquer’d quite. “Son. Each at a beck. Hence ne’er hath past Good spirit. Thus go they over through the umber’d wave. that yet with clammy dews Fear chills my brow. with his oar Strikes. thee a nimbler boat Must carry. and seed That did engender them and give them birth. “Woe to you wicked spirits! hope not Ever to see the sky again. that fear Is turn’d into desire. there to dwell In fierce heat and in ice. Now mayst thou know the import of his words. And thou. Where will and power are one: ask thou no more. as one with sudden slumber seiz’d. If of thee Charon complain. Meanwhile Those spirits. E’en in like manner Adam’s evil brood Cast themselves one by one down from the shore. 11 . demoniac form. soon as the cruel words They heard. “Those. With eyes of burning coal.” said he. faint and naked.Hell Crying. Beck’ning. collects them all. till the bough Strews all its honours on the earth beneath. the gloomy region trembling shook So terribly. And ever they on the opposing bank Be landed. on this side another throng Still gathers. I come To take you to the other shore across. color chang’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Then all together sorely wailing drew To the curs’d strand. God and their parents they blasphem’d. That. and I Down dropp’d. All here together come from every clime.” This said. Not by this passage. And to o’erpass the river are not loth: For so heaven’s justice goads them on. “By other haven shalt thou come to shore. Around whose eyes glar’d wheeling flames. The human kind. who die subject to the wrath of God. and leave These who are dead. “By other way. And gnash’d their teeth. shot forth a vermilion flame. lightening. that lingers. that every man must pass Who fears not God. Charon. who there Standest. The sad earth gave a blast. As fall off the light autumnal leaves. the time.

12 . And for no other evil. they serv’d not God aright. for well I knew Suspended in that Limbo many a soul Of mighty worth. And ent’ring led me with him on the bounds Of the first circle. we are lost. women. Of men. thus: “How may I speed.Hell CANTO IV Broke the deep slumber in my brain a crash Of heavy thunder. that made th’ eternal air Tremble. and thou shalt follow next. My rested eyes I mov’d around. not caus’d by tortures. nor could aught discern. The dread abyss. Wherein I stood. which thou beholdest? Ere thou pass Farther. no plaint was heard Except of sighs. I would thou know. Dark and deep. “Now let us to the blind world there beneath Descend. and infants. And among such am I. since baptism was not theirs. sire rever’d! Tell me. The portal to thy faith. my master!” I began through wish Of full assurance in that holy faith. For these defects. that I shook myself.” So grief assail’d My heart at hearing this. “O tell me. that joins a thund’rous sound Of plaints innumerable. which thou for fear Mistakest. and search’d With fixed ken to know what place it was.The Divine Comedy of Dante . If they before The Gospel liv’d. if thou yieldest to dread. many and vast.” Onward. Come forth from thence. or through his own or other’s merit. Here. For certain on the brink I found me of the lamentable vale. did e’er Any. he mov’d. but from grief Felt by those multitudes. that surrounds th’ abyss. And thick with clouds o’erspread. Who still art wont to comfort me in doubt?” He then: “The anguish of that race below With pity stains my cheek. Only so far afflicted. Our length of way Urges to haste. As one by main force rous’d. Which vanquishes all error. and if aught they merited. It profits not. “say.” Then I his alter’d hue perceiving. whom afterward was blest?” Piercing the secret purport of my speech.” the bard began all pale of look: “I go the first. this said. Then to me The gentle guide: “Inquir’st thou not what spirits Are these. Risen upright. as mine ear could note. that we live Desiring without hope. that these of sin Were blameless. Let us on. mine eye in vain Explor’d its bottom.

Abel his child. which holds them thus advanc’d. And I was sixth amid so learn’d a band. with victorious trophy crown’d. He forth the shade of our first parent drew. as their lord. We were not far On this side from the summit. When thus my master kind began: “Mark him. and well they judge. and David king. with salutation kind Beck’ning me. Of Moses lawgiver for faith approv’d. Lucan is the last. ceas’d not our onward road. be thou assur’d. acquires Favour in heaven. “O thou. of all bards supreme: Flaccus the next in satire’s vein excelling. When they together short discourse had held. Of semblance neither sorrowful nor glad. who every art And science valu’st! who are these. separate from all the rest?” He answer’d: “The renown of their great names That echoes through your world above. while he spake. Israel with his sire and with his sons. The third is Naso.” Meantime a voice I heard: “Honour the bard Sublime! his shade returns that left us late!” No sooner ceas’d the sound. and Noah righteous man. Far as the luminous beacon on we pass’d 13 . They turn’d to me. Still passing through the wood. for so I name Those spirits thick beset. With which the voice singly accosted me. Of patriarch Abraham. No spirit of human kind was ever sav’d. Before these. that o’er the darken’d hemisphere Prevailing shin’d. at the which my master smil’d: Nor was this all. When I beheld a puissant one arrive Amongst us. Honouring they greet me thus. but greater honour still They gave me. And others many more.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Nor without Rachel whom so hard he won. that boast Such honour. This is that Homer. The other three preceding. than I beheld Four mighty spirits toward us bend their steps. Who in his right hand bears that falchion keen. for they made me of their tribe. Because they all that appellation own.” So I beheld united the bright school Of him the monarch of sublimest song. when I kenn’d A flame. that a tribe in honour high That place possess’d.” We.Hell He answer’d: “I was new to that estate. not so far but I in part Discover’d. That o’er the others like an eagle soars. Yet we a little space Were distant. whom he to bliss Exalted.

among whom Hector I knew. Euclid and Ptolemy. We to one side retir’d. whence each one Stood manifest to view. Who sets the world at chance. seated by his child Lavinia. Avicen. Then when a little more I rais’d my brow. Him all admire. and round Defended by a pleasant stream. At foot Of a magnificent castle we arriv’d. Incontinent There on the green enamel of the plain Were shown me the great spirits. and him who made That commentary vast. Electra there I saw accompanied By many. and by Camilla there Penthesilea. There dwelt a race. and in their port Bore eminent authority. Seven times with lofty walls begirt. but all their words were tuneful sweet. On the other side Old King Latinus. 14 . With Heraclitus. Another way My sage guide leads me. Cato’s wife Marcia. Of all to speak at full were vain attempt. Averroes.Hell Speaking of matters. Anchises’ pious son. There Socrates and Plato both I mark’d. Seated amid the philosophic train. Hippocrates. And sole apart retir’d. For my wide theme so urges. and we came Into a mead with lively verdure fresh. I spied the master of the sapient throng. Diogenes. and that Brutus I beheld. Nearest to him in rank. Lucretia. Tully and moral Seneca. Democritus. O’er this As o’er dry land we pass’d. from that air serene. who slow their eyes around Majestically mov’d. Who Tarquin chas’d. And Anaxagoras. Into a climate ever vex’d with storms: And to a part I come where no light shines. Zeno. by whose sight I am exalted in my own esteem. Galenus. into a place Open and bright and lofty. In two The six associates part.The Divine Comedy of Dante . they spake Seldom. and Dioscorides well read In nature’s secret lore. with Julia and Cornelia there. now fitter left untold. and with hawk’s eye Caesar all arm’d. and Empedocles. all pay him rev’rence due. the Soldan fierce. and Thales sage. that ofttimes My words fall short of what bechanc’d. Next through seven gates I with those sages enter’d. Orpheus I mark’d And Linus. then befitting well To speak.

As in large troops And multitudinous. “O thou! who to this residence of woe Approachest?” when he saw me coming. Before him stand Always a num’rous throng. There. It drives them: hope of rest to solace them Is none. below. It all confesses. 15 . beware in whom Thou place thy trust. Now am I come where many a plaining voice Smites on mine ear. there lamentations.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Bellowing there groan’d A noise as of a sea in tempest torn By warring winds. let not the entrance broad Deceive thee to thy harm. and that judge severe Of sins. relinquishing his dread employ. There shrieks are heard. So bears the tyrannous gust those evil souls. strict examining the crimes. and in his turn Each one to judgment passing. considering what place in hell Suits the transgression. and dismisses them beneath. Chanting their dol’rous notes. and hears His fate. And blasphemies ‘gainst the good Power in heaven. The starlings on their wings are borne abroad. Into a place I came Where light was silent all. as degrees beneath He dooms it to descend. Ask thou no more. moans. which. cried Minos. As cranes. thence downward to his dwelling hurl’d. a lesser space Embracing. Minos stands Grinning with ghastly feature: he. so much more of grief contains Provoking bitter moans. when winter reigns. I understood that to this torment sad The carnal sinners are condemn’d. in whom Reason by lust is sway’d. with his tail so oft Himself encircles.” Now ‘gin the rueful wailings to be heard.” To him my guide: “Wherefore exclaimest? Hinder not his way By destiny appointed. nor e’en of milder pang.Hell CANTO V From the first circle I descended thus Down to the second. traverse the sky. above. When they arrive before the ruinous sweep. According as he foldeth him around: For when before him comes th’ ill fated soul. On this side and on that. “Look how thou enter here. The stormy blast of hell With restless fury drives the spirits on Whirl’d round and dash’d amain with sore annoy. Gives sentence. speaks. of all Who enter. so ‘tis will’d Where will and power are one.

Which seem so light before the wind. She in vice Of luxury was so shameless. whom love bereav’d of life. of whom ‘tis writ. by the black air so scourg’d?”—” The first ‘Mong those. is mute. that she made Liking be lawful by promulg’d decree. and Tristan.Hell Stretch’d out in long array: so I beheld Spirits. o’erpower’d By pity. Entreat. to their sweet nest returning home. well-nigh in amaze my mind Was lost. if by none else restrain’d.” Soon as the wind Sway’d them toward us. who the world with bloody stain imbru’d. through this element obscure.” As doves By fond desire invited. Us. of whom thou question’st. and they will come. Our pray’r to him should for thy peace arise. wafted by their will along. If for a friend the King of all we own’d. and beside A thousand more he show’d me. where Dido ranks. hurried on By their dire doom. there the great Achilles.” he replied. for whose sake so long The time was fraught with evil. Paris I saw. of that Freely with thee discourse.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Since thou hast pity on our evil plight. and I began: “Bard! willingly I would address those two together coming. I thus fram’d my speech: “O wearied spirits! come.” He thus: “Note thou. Then by that love which carries them along. and hold discourse With us. on wide wings And firm. To clear the blame she had herself incurr’d. If whatsoe’er to hear or to discourse It pleases thee. “O gracious creature and benign! who go’st Visiting. Is situate on the coast. They through the ill air speeding. where Po descends 16 . that gave me birth. Cleave the air. This is Semiramis. Then I: “Instructor! who Are these. that will we hear.” There mark’d I Helen. When I had heard my sage instructor name Those dames and knights of antique days. And to Sicheus’ ashes broke her faith: Then follows Cleopatra. The next in amorous fury slew herself. That she succeeded Ninus her espous’d. The land. when nearer they to us approach. Thus issu’d from that troop. which now the Soldan rules. who came loud wailing. O’er many tongues was empress. As now. And held the land. and by name Pointed them out. lustful queen. while e’er the wind. who with love fought to the end. with such force My cry prevail’d by strong affection urg’d.

he yet deserts me not. which way Soe’er I move. from me Ta’en in such cruel sort. who weeps and tells his tale. and the hue Fled from our alter’d cheek. what fond desire Must they at length to that ill pass have reach’d!” Then turning. As one. who spilt our life. who ne’er From me shall separate. Entangled him by that fair form. Alone we were. In its leaves that day We read no more. That. that the bard cried: “What art thou pond’ring?” I in answer thus: “Alas! by what sweet thoughts.” While thus one spirit spake. seem’d not far From death. and how love granted. The book and writer both Were love’s purveyors. and like a corpse fell to the ground. I to them my speech address’d. Ofttimes by that reading Our eyes were drawn together. when mis’ry is at hand! That kens Thy learn’d instructor. rapturously kiss’d By one so deep in love. One day For our delight we read of Lancelot. in the time of your sweet sighs. as thou see’st. that ye knew Your yet uncertain wishes?” She replied: “No greater grief than to remember days Of joy. When of that smile we read. Love brought us to one death: Caina waits The soul.” Such were their words. But tell me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . straight around I see New torments. that erewhile had droop’d With pity for the kindred shades. that denial takes from none belov’d. that in gentle heart is quickly learnt.Hell To rest in ocean with his sequent streams. “Love. How him love thrall’d. at once my lips All trembling kiss’d. The other wail’d so sorely. In the third circle I arrive. The wished smile. or turn. From whence our love gat being. new tormented souls. Yet so eagerly If thou art bent to know the primal root. of show’rs 17 . CANTO VI My sense reviving. and no Suspicion near us. At hearing which downward I bent my looks. or bend my sight. Caught me with pleasing him so passing well. whence grief O’ercame me wholly. By what. that heartstruck I through compassion fainting. And thus began: “Francesca! your sad fate Even to tears my grief and pity moves. as grieves me still: Love. But at one point Alone we fell. I will do. then he. And held them there so long.

and in such torment. o’er the shades thrown prostrate by the brunt Of the heavy tempest passing. as curs. if again thou know’st me. who thund’ring stuns The spirits. that they for deafness wish in vain.” He in answer thus: “Thy city heap’d with envy to the brim. We. I with fatigue am worn. E’en as a dog. Thou wast fram’d Or ere my frame was broken.” I replied: “The anguish thou endur’st perchance so takes Thy form from my remembrance. Ye citizens Were wont to name me Ciacco. When that great worm Descried us. His belly large. thence filled with earth Rais’d them. and their limbs Piecemeal disparts. Then my guide. Soon as that way he saw us pass. unchang’d For ever. His eyes glare crimson. and claw’d the hands. he op’d His jaws. and cast it in his ravenous maw. when the morsel comes. “who through the infernal shades art led.” 18 . black his unctuous beard. lets fall His fury. with one side The other screening.Hell Ceaseless. oft they roll them round. sleety flaw Through the dun midnight air stream’d down amain: Stank all the land whereon that tempest fell. that sudden rais’d himself to sit. more disgustful none Can be imagin’d. so dropp’d the loathsome cheeks Of demon Cerberus. godless crew. Own. both in kind and in degree. E’en as thou see’st. Held me in brighter days. and cold. not a limb Of him but trembled. Nor I sole spirit in this woe: all these Have by like crime incurr’d like punishment. Howling there spread. savage Cerberus. “O thou!” He cried. that although Other be greater. that it seems As if I saw thee never. Cerberus. accursed. They all along the earth extended lay Save one. flays them. discolour’d water. bent alone with eager haste To swallow it. and the fangs show’d us. damned vice.The Divine Comedy of Dante . A wretched. Ay that the measure overflows its bounds. that yelling bays for food His keeper. fierce and strange. set our feet Upon their emptiness. Large hail. For the sin Of glutt’ny. Under the rainy deluge. his palms Expanding on the ground. that in a place so sad Art set. cruel monster. heavy. But inform Me who thou art. with which He tears the spirits. Through his wide threefold throat barks as a dog Over the multitude immers’d beneath. beneath this rain. that substance seem’d.

” Here ceas’d the lamentable sound. who bent Their minds on working good. Sir! When the great sentence passes. and the other rise By borrow’d force of one. on the life to come. Oh! tell me where They bide. and the rest. who under shore Now rests. of Giacopo. and to their knowledge let me come. farther parley still entreat. and I my speech resum’d: “Ciacco! thy dire affliction grieves me much. keeping under heavy weight The other oppress’d. I entreat thee.” He answer’d straight: “These are yet blacker spirits.” So pass’d we through that mixture foul Of spirits and rain. But they neglected. For thus I question’d: “Shall these tortures. Of Farinata and Tegghiaio say. Then it behoves. meanwhile Touching. Three fatal sparks. Ere the last angel-trumpet blow. with tardy steps. Av’rice. Various crimes Have sunk them deeper in the dark abyss. have set the hearts of all On fire. indignant at the load. Of me make mention. For I am press’d with keen desire to hear. answer thee no more. envy. And I continu’d thus: “Still would I learn More from thee. And grieving sore.” This said. there. It shall a long space hold aloof Its forehead. within Three solar circles. that this must fall. If heaven’s sweet cup or poisonous drug of hell Be to their lip assign’d. And hear the eternal doom re-echoing rend The vault. The Power Adverse to these shall then in glory come. whether any just one Inhabit there: and tell me of the cause. They who so well deserv’d. Mosca. 19 . But tell me. What shall at length befall the citizens Of the divided city. though slightly. But to the pleasant world when thou return’st.Hell No more he said. A little ey’d me. No more I tell thee. Even to tears. The just are two in number. thou mayst see them.The Divine Comedy of Dante . When thus my guide: “No more his bed he leaves. his fixed eyes he turn’d askance. be increas’d. Each one forthwith to his sad tomb repair. Resume his fleshly vesture and his form. then bent down his head. pride. if thou know’st. Whence jarring discord hath assail’d it thus?” He then: “After long striving they will come To blood. Arrigo. and the wild party from the woods Will chase the other with much injury forth. And ‘midst his blind companions with it fell. If thou so far descendest.

or as now severe?” He then: “Consult thy knowledge. So ‘t is will’d On high.” Then to that sworn lip turning. Both turn’d them round. From one side and the other. and discourse Much more than I relate between us pass’d: Till at the point. is none To hinder down this rock thy safe descent. and each one forthwith Roll’d them back voluble. Gain’d on the dismal shore. we found. the great foe. They to the opposite point on either hand Travers’d the horrid circle: then arriv’d. where the steps led below. Whom more than elsewhere numerous here I found. Arriv’d. new troubles. “Why holdest thou so fast?” Those answering. whom no event surpris’d. “Curs’d wolf! thy fury inward on thyself Prey. So to the ground down dropp’d the cruel fiend. that all the woe Hems in of all the universe. and through the middle space Conflicting met again. Exclaiming these. that decides That as each thing to more perfection grows. Thus we. there where the great Archangel pour’d 20 . Heav’n’s vengeance on the first adulterer proud. “And why castest thou away?” So still repeating their despiteful song. for power in him. Then smote together. be sure. on Charybdis rising.Hell Or mitigated. turning again.” As sails full spread and bellying with the wind Drop suddenly collaps’d. if the mast split. Against encounter’d billow dashing breaks. with loud voice. Ah me! Almighty Justice! in what store thou heap’st New pains.” Compassing that path Circuitous we journeyed. descending to the fourth steep ledge. “Peace!” he cried. Such is the dance this wretched race must lead. To comfort me thus spake: “Let not thy fear Harm thee. as I here beheld! Wherefore doth fault of ours bring us to this? E’en as a billow. there Plutus. and consume thee! Through the dark profound Not without cause he passes. At sight whereof CANTO VII “Ah me! O Satan! Satan!” loud exclaim’d Plutus. Both roll’d on weights by main forge of their breasts. Though ne’er to true perfection may arrive This race accurs’d. in accent hoarse of wild alarm: And the kind sage. yet nearer then than now They shall approach it.The Divine Comedy of Dante . It feels more sensibly both good and pain.

both Popes and Cardinals.” He answering thus: “Vain thought conceiv’st thou. what it is. o’er whom Av’rice dominion absolute maintains. To the church Were separate those. of these toil-worn souls Might purchase rest for one. gave them ruling powers To guide them. Or ever hath been. Superintendence of a guiding hand And general minister. that with no hairy cowls Are crown’d. Beyond prevention of man’s wisest care: Wherefore one nation rises into sway. That ill they gave. The heavens creating. from one to other’s blood. as in the grass 21 . Which made them vile before. The goods committed into fortune’s hands. at each extremity Arriving of the circle. of their wealth. whose transcendent wisdom passes all. which at due time May change the empty vantages of life From race to race. That ignoble life. which needs No labour’d phrase of mine to set if off. that thou speak’st of.” I then: “Mid such as these some needs must be. my guide! What race is this? Were these. Forever they shall meet in this rude shock: These from the tomb with clenched grasp shall rise. so that each part shines to each. Whom I shall recognize. hath of the beauteous world Depriv’d. This clearly from their words collect. Which they howl forth. Those with close-shaven locks. And ill they kept. that is beneath the moon.” I thus rejoin’d: “My guide! of thee this also would I learn. For which the human race keep such a coil! Not all the gold. my son! how brief. He. Another languishes. stung with grief. and set them at this strife. And to all knowledge indiscernible. On our left hand. from us conceal’d.Hell I. that they made. whose heads are shorn. By similar appointment he ordain’d Over the world’s bright images to rule. This fortune. now makes them dark. where their crime Contrary’ in kind disparts them. According to due measure.The Divine Comedy of Dante . thus spake: “O say. that with the blot Of these foul sins were stain’d. Whose talons grasp the blessings of the world?” He thus: “O beings blind! what ignorance Besets you? Now my judgment hear and mark. No use. how vain. e’en as her will Decrees. Their light in equal distribution pour’d. all sep’rate to the church?” He straight replied: “In their first life these all In mind were so distorted. Now may’st thou see.

and in her bliss exults. whose debt To her is rather praise. That boiling pours itself down to a foss Sluic’d from its source. and for that recks not: Amidst the other primal beings glad Rolls on her sphere. the feet. Now on our way pass we. This is she. whose sighs Into these bubbles make the surface heave. They with their hands alone Struck not. expands The dismal stream. to heavier woe Descending: for each star is falling now. and with evil word. Enter’d. But she is blessed. She with foresight plans. As thine eye tells thee wheresoe’er it turn. a segment widely stretch’d Between the dry embankment. when it hath reach’d the foot Of the grey wither’d cliffs.The Divine Comedy of Dante . though by a different track. Into a lake. Carrying a foul and lazy mist within: Now in these murky settlings are we sad. So execrated e’en by those. the breast. and with looks Betok’ning rage. This too for certain know. till to a tower’s low base we came. and the core Of the loath’d pool. whom anger overcame.” Such dolorous strain they gurgle in their throats. journeying by their side. Cutting each other piecemeal with their fangs. the Stygian nam’d. Intent I stood To gaze. Far murkier was the wave Than sablest grain: and we in company Of the’ inky waters.Hell The serpent train. they wrongfully With blame requite her. son! The souls of those. that underneath The water dwells a multitude. But word distinct can utter none. all naked. arriving at a well. Her changes know Nore intermission: by necessity She is made swift. and forbids Too long our tarrying. The good instructor spake. turning meanwhile our eyes Downward on those who gulp’d its muddy lees. so frequent come who claim Succession in her favours.” Our route Thus compass’d we. That mounted at our entrance. but with the head. Nor stopp’d. Judges. and in the marish sunk descried A miry tribe. “Now seest thou. Fix’d in the slime they say: “Sad once were we In the sweet air made gladsome by the sun. 22 . beneath.” We the circle cross’d To the next steep. and carries on her reign. as theirs The other powers divine. Against her nought avails Your utmost wisdom.

so remote. and spake: “O soul Justly disdainful! blest was she in whom Thou was conceiv’d! He in the world was one For arrogance noted. that thou comest ere thine hour?” I answer’d: “Though I come. that through the waves I spied Toward us coming. While we our course o’er the dead channel held.Hell CANTO VIII My theme pursuing. and from afar another light Return the signal.” he replied. whereof my teacher sage Aware. “No longer shalt thou have us. that scarce The eye could catch its beam.” my lord replied. “E’en now what next awaits us mayst thou see. This time thou criest in vain.” Then stretch’d he forth Hands to the bark. E’en thus in filth disguis’d. I know thee well. and said. thus inquir’d: “Say what this means? and what that other light In answer set? what agency doth this?” “There on the filthy waters.” Never was arrow from the cord dismiss’d. to his memory No virtue lends its lustre. “Who art thou. I tarry not. One drench’d in mire before me came. as thou seest. thrusting him back: “Away! down there To the’ other dogs!” then. If the marsh-gender’d fog conceal it not. But who art thou. but while o’er The slimy pool we pass. I relate that ere We reach’d the lofty turret’s base. our eyes Its height ascended. that art become so foul?” “One. and bade me enter next Close at his side. As a small bark. where two cressets hung We mark’d. I turning round To the deep source of knowledge. kiss’d my cheek.” As one who hears Of some great wrong he hath sustain’d. fell spirit?”—”Phlegyas. who cried aloud: “Art thou arriv’d. even so 23 . who mourn: “ he straight replied. My guide descending stepp’d Into the skiff. Curs’d spirit! tarry thou. goes on the ancient prow. whereat Inly he pines. under the sole sway Of one that ferried it. To which I thus: “ In mourning and in woe. nor till my entrance seem’d The vessel freighted. Cutting the waves. Phlegyas. so Phlegyas inly pin’d In his fierce ire. More deeply than with others it is wont. That ran its way so nimbly through the air. with his arms my neck Encircling. Soon as both embark’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante .

Whereat their angry scorn abating. With ireful gestures. my son! Draws near the city. ere a place we reach’d. With its grave denizens. Whereat mine eye unbarr’d I sent abroad. a mighty throng. Sir! There certes in the valley I descry. whereto I stood expos’d. and drawn From peril deep. For thee. Here shalt thou tarry. That inward burns. that of Dis is nam’d.” He replied: “Eternal fire. But on mine ear Sudden a sound of lamentation smote. before we quit the lake. let him prove. And thus the good instructor: “Now. who of old from heaven Were hurl’d. We had made Wide circuit. goes through The regions of the dead?” My sapient guide Made sign that he for secret parley wish’d. thus They spake: “Come thou alone. Nor speak I of him more. Leaving behind them horrible dispraise!” I then: “Master! him fain would I behold Whelm’d in these dregs. The walls appear’d As they were fram’d of iron.” I thus: “The minarets already. as in this nether hell thou seest. shows them with ruddy flame Illum’d. satisfied shall be that wish.” We came within the fosses deep. who through clime so dark Hast been his escort. “Who is this. that moat This region comfortless. when I saw the miry tribes Set on him with such violence. “O my lov’d guide! who more than seven times Security hast render’d me. If well he know it. “that without death first felt. Alone return he by his witless way. Gleaming vermilion. I did believe I never should return. as if they from fire Had issu’d. There above How many now hold themselves mighty kings Who here like swine shall wallow in the mire. reader! What cheer was mine at sound of those curs’d words. Which well deserves completion. where loud The mariner cried vehement: “Go forth! The’ entrance is here!” Upon the gates I spied More than a thousand.Hell Here is his shadow furious. and let him go Who hath so hardily enter’d this realm.” Scarce his words Were ended.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” He thus: “Or ever to thy view the shore Be offer’d. that yet For that render I thanks to God and praise “To Filippo Argenti:” cried they all: And on himself the moody Florentine Turn’d his avenging fangs. 24 . Him here we left.” They cried.” Now bethink thee.

by such high Authority permitted. ere the promis’d help arrive!” I noted. And quits me. Erewhile at gate less secret they display’d. unescorted. Replied: “Fear not: for of our passage none Hath power to disappoint us. comes One whose strong might can open us this land. sith I drew To import worse perchance. for all at once To trial fled within. departs the sire benevolent. Clos’d were the gates By those our adversaries on the breast Of my liege lord: excluded he return’d To me with tardy steps. how long Me seems it. “in this extreme.” CANTO IX The hue. while thus with sighs he spake: “Who hath denied me these abodes of woe?” Then thus to me: “That I am anger’d. I could not hear what terms he offer’d them. stood attentive: for his eye Not far could lead him through the sable air. He.” This said. And the thick-gath’ring cloud. Together trace we back our steps with speed. And inwardly restrain’d it. than that he held.Hell Desert me not. not new. Passing the circles. But not the less My fear was at his saying. think No ground of terror: in this trial I Shall vanquish. and feed with kindly hope. as one Who listens. who thither had conducted me. how the sequel of his words Clok’d their beginning. for the last he spake Agreed not with the first.” My liege. Chas’d that from his which newly they had worn. and from his brow eras’d All confidence. assur’d I will not leave thee in this lower world. —Oh. upon its arch Thou saw’st the deadly scroll: and even now On this side of its entrance. But do thou Expect me here.” I cried. Upon the ground His eyes were bent.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But they conferr’d not long. Which still is without bolt. which coward dread on my pale cheeks Imprinted. Hesitating I remain At war ‘twixt will and will not in my thoughts. meanwhile thy wearied spirit Comfort. when I saw my guide turn back. down the steep. 25 . use what arts they may within For hindrance. And if our onward going be denied. This their insolence. “It yet behooves We win this fight”—thus he began—” if not— Such aid to us is offer’d.

mark well the lore conceal’d Under close texture of the mystic strain! And now there came o’er the perturbed waves 26 .” all looking down exclaim’d. that among us any makes This journey. Where in an instant I beheld uprisen At once three hellish furies stain’d with blood: In limb and motion feminine they seem’d. No long space my flesh Was naked of me. To the left This is Megaera. and Tisiphone I’ th’ midst. in silence he remain’d Their breast they each one clawing tore. For that mine eye toward the lofty tower Had drawn me wholly. when within these walls She made me enter. the noisome stench exhaling. adders and cerastes crept Instead of hair.” he replied. That to the bard I clung. “Doth ever any Into this rueful concave’s extreme depth Descend. to its burning top. which I wend. “Rarely.” This said.” “Turn thyself round. and keep Thy count’nance hid. Around them greenest hydras twisting roll’d Their volumes. out of the first degree. Himself my gentle master turn’d me round.” This said.The Divine Comedy of Dante . for if the Gorgon dire Be shown. whose pain Is deprivation merely of sweet hope?” Thus I inquiring. Erewhile ‘tis true Once came I here beneath. conjur’d by fell Erictho. “It chances. round The city’ of grief encompasses. we took No ill revenge.” Yet more He added: but I hold it not in mind. and their fierce temples bound. thus spake: “Mark thou each dire Erinnys. Alecto. themselves Smote with their palms. but with his own He also hid me. and such shrill clamour rais’d.Hell His mutilated speech. “E’en when by Theseus’ might assail’d. Nor trusted he my hands. to draw forth a spirit From out of Judas’ circle. “Hasten Medusa: so to adamant Him shall we change. That lake. The road Full well I know: thou therefore rest secure. Who wails. which now We may not enter without rage. Lowest place Is that of all. and thou shouldst view it. suspicion-bound. Ye of intellect Sound and entire. thy return Upwards would be for ever lost. and remov’d Farthest from heav’n’s all-circling orb. He knowing well the miserable hags Who tend the queen of endless woe. on the right hand she. sorceress. obscurest. who compell’d the shades Back to their bodies.

then onward passing proudly sweeps Its whirlwind rage.” As frogs Before their foe the serpent. So was it here.” This said. if ye remember. till at the ground each one Lies on a heap. There.Hell Loud-crashing. through the wave Ply swiftly all. while beasts and shepherds fly. and with his wand touch’d it. I perceiv’d That he was sent from heav’n. Then we our steps Toward that territory mov’d. and seem’d alone By that annoyance wearied. That ‘gainst some forest driving all its might. a sound that made Either shore tremble. peel’d of their hair. secure After the hallow’d words. thickest where the smoke ascends. He. he turn’d back o’er the filthy way. “Outcasts of heav’n! O abject race and scorn’d!” Began he on the horrid grunsel standing. Oft his left hand forth stretch’d. We unoppos’d There enter’d. so saw I fleeing before one Who pass’d with unwet feet the Stygian sound. That closes Italy and laves her bounds. from his face removing the gross air. beats them down and hurls Afar. The place is all thick spread with sepulchres. who signal made that I should stand Quiet. And see on every part wide-stretching space Replete with bitter pain and torment ill. hence Bears still. Plucks off the branches. and bend to him. and to my guide Turn’d me. his throat and maw. whereat Open without impediment it flew. and which so oft Hath laid on you enforcement of your pangs? What profits at the fays to but the horn? Your Cerberus. “Whence doth this wild excess of insolence Lodge in you? wherefore kick you ‘gainst that will Ne’er frustrate of its end. Ah me! how full Of noble anger seem’d he! To the gate He came. Or as at Pola. And syllable to us spake none. Mine eyes he loos’d. as if of a wind Impetuous. and keenly press’d. I soon as enter’d throw mine eye around. but wore The semblance of a man by other care Beset. terrible. As where Rhone stagnates on the plains of Arles. save what in horror here 27 . and spake: “And now direct Thy visual nerve along that ancient foam. from conflicting vapours sprung. and my mind eager to learn What state a fortress like to that might hold. more than a thousand spirits Destroy’d. than thought of him Who in his presence stands. near Quarnaro’s gulf.The Divine Comedy of Dante .

with which perchance I too severely dealt. whereat in fear I somewhat closer to my leader’s side Approaching. Between the walls. be seen? Already all the lids are rais’d. but to shun vain length of words. what-time they here From Josaphat return’d shall come. on we pass’d Betwixt the afflicted and the ramparts high.” Sudden that sound Forth issu’d from a vault. he thus spake: “What dost thou? Turn. Here therefore satisfaction shall be soon Both to the question ask’d. and to the wish. “This said. The cemetery on this part obtain With Epicurus all his followers. Who lie within these sepulchres. I thus: “Master! say who are these.” I replied: “I keep not. and satisfy my wish. accompanied By every sect their followers. He to the right hand turning. guide belov’d! from thee my heart Secreted. I close behind his steps. so discreet of speech! Here please thee stay awhile. tombs are freighted: like With like is buried. and bring Their bodies. “Virtue supreme!” I thus began.Hell Excell’d: for ‘midst the graves were scattered flames. interr’d Within these vaults. Their lids all hung suspended. and none O’er them keeps watch. which above they now have left. even as thou will’st.The Divine Comedy of Dante . of whom distinct we hear The dolorous sighs?” He answer thus return’d: “The arch-heretics are here. Who with the body make the spirit die. Which thou conceal’st in silence. Wherewith intensely all throughout they burn’d. Speak thou. CANTO X Now by a secret pathway we proceed. that hem the region round.” He thus in answer spake “They shall be closed all. May those. And the tormented souls: my master first. and beneath From them forth issu’d lamentable moans.” “O Tuscan! thou who through the city of fire Alive art passing. and the monuments Are different in degrees of heat. Thy utterance Declares the place of thy nativity To be that noble land. “who through these ample orbs In circuit lead’st me. Such as the sad and tortur’d well might raise. That iron for no craft there hotter needs. A lesson erewhile taught me by thyself. 28 . and much more. Than thou believest.

Nor mov’d the neck. high as the chin. his brow Somewhat uplifting. He at once Exclaim’d. as eager to explore If there were other with me. “small skill have shown. By him. but perceiving That fond imagination quench’d. an art Which yours have shown. great of soul. who there expects me. Whence I so fully answer’d.” he cried. 29 .” “Though driv’n out. who reigns here Queen of this realm. whom perchance Guido thy son Had in contempt. then in disdainful mood Address’d me: “Say. Ey’d me a space. “And if.” Already had his words And mode of punishment read me his name. and the blood From whence I sprang: twice therefore I abroad Scatter’d them. It look’d around. Led by thy lofty genius and profound.” Then. So to the pleasant world mayst thou return. “They in this art. up starting. my party. Where is my son? and wherefore not with thee?” I straight replied: “Not of myself I come. But not yet fifty times shall be relum’d Her aspect. peering forth from the unclosed jaw. his breast and forehead there Erecting. “return’d. Ere thou shalt know the full weight of that art. with tears Thus spake: “If thou through this blind prison go’st. nor kept back aught: whence he. they are not skill’d to learn. Meanwhile the other. Between the sepulchres to him My guide thrust me with fearless hands and prompt. upon its knees uprais’d. That doth torment me more e’en than this bed.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” continuing the first discourse.” answer’d I. Leaning. willing to obey him. down fell Supine. nor bent his ribbed side. chang’d not count’nance stern. soon as there I stood at the tomb’s foot.Hell Lo. cried: “Fiercely were they Adverse to me. methought. This warning added: “See thy words be clear!” He. yet they each time From all parts. Farinata. “How! said’st thou he had? No longer lives he? Strikes not on his eye The blessed daylight?” Then of some delay I made ere my reply aware. seem’d as in high scorn he held E’en hell.” On his face was mine Already fix’d. Rose from his side a shade. near whom I yet was station’d. what ancestors were thine?” I. through this clime Conducted. not after forth appear’d he more. there! who hath himself Uplifted: from his girdle upwards all Expos’d behold him. straight reveal’d The whole.

” But now my master summoning me back I heard. “That colour’d Arbia’s flood with crimson stain— To these impute.” I thus adjur’d him. And the Lord Cardinal.” Then conscious of my fault. but when they approach Or actually exist. that his offspring still Is to the living join’d.Hell As thou shalt tell me. He answer thus return’d: “More than a thousand with me here are laid Within is Frederick. and by remorse Smitten.” Sighing he shook The head. Florence had to the ground been raz’d. Ye seem to view beforehand. and the sage enjoin’d me straight: “Let thy safe memory store what thou hast heard To thee importing harm. If right I hear. ’Twas that my thought was occupied intent Upon that error. The one who openly forbad the deed. of the present uninform’d. Which now involves my mind.” 30 . which thy help hath solv’d. nor of your human state Except what others bring us know we aught. and of the rest I speak not. I added thus: “Now shalt thou say To him there fallen. Against my kin this people is so fell?” “The slaughter and great havoc.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But singly there I stood. objects far remote: So much of his large spendour yet imparts The’ Almighty Ruler. second of that name. that which time Leads with him. Onward he mov’d.” I replied. why in all their laws. who with him Partook his lot. when by consent Of all. That if from answer silent I abstain’d.” “We view. and bid him know. “plainly. nor without just cause Assuredly should with the rest have stirr’d.” He answer’d. When on futurity the portals close. as one who hath an evil sight. And thus in going question’d: “Whence the’ amaze That holds thy senses wrapt?” I satisfied The’ inquiry. our intellect Then wholly fails.” “So may thy lineage find at last repose. this said. Hence therefore mayst thou understand. that in our hallow’d dome Such orisons ascend. and with more eager haste besought The spirit to inform me.” He. and note thou this. But I my steps towards the ancient bard Reverting. then thus resum’d: “In that affray I stood not singly. from sight withdrew. ruminated on the words Betokening me such ill. that all Our knowledge in that instant shall expire. “as thou solve this knot.

to whom Answering I spake: “Some compensation find 31 . because of man peculiar evil. and beneath The fraudulent are therefore doom’d to’ endure Severer pang. we came. his neighbour. “Are three close circles in gradation plac’d.” He then: “Lo! how my thoughts e’en to thy wishes tend! My son! within these rocks. “Of all malicious act abhorr’d in heaven. To the dire breath accustom’d. By craggy rocks environ’d round. and the flames.” My master thus. she of thy life The future tenour will to thee unfold. Death. and tow’rds the middle space Went by a path. Each one is full Of spirits accurs’d. behind the lid Of a great monument we stood retir’d. by man Force may be offer’d. Where woes beneath more cruel yet were stow’d: And here to shun the horrible excess Of fetid exhalation. pillage. but that the sight alone Hereafter may suffice thee. To God. His substance. and each one that smites CANTO XI Upon the utmost verge of a high bank.” Forthwith he to the left hand turn’d his feet: We left the wall. and because to force Three persons are obnoxious. whom Photinus drew From the right path. Whose bright eye all surveys. Slayers.Hell With his rais’d finger bidding me take heed. listen how And for what cause in durance they abide. The violent occupy All the first circle. Whereon this scroll I mark’d: “I have in charge Pope Anastasius. Which e’en thus high exhal’d its noisome steam. that to a valley strikes. and painful wounds Upon his neighbour he inflicts. as thou soon shalt hear At full. violent death. upward cast From the profound abyss. to himself I say And his possessions. “When thou shalt stand before her gracious beam. The end is injury. As these which now thou leav’st. To God is more displeasing. that somewhat first the sense. That the time past not wholly lost.—Ere our descent behooves We make delay.The Divine Comedy of Dante . afterward Regard it not. and wastes By devastation. and himself. in three rounds Hach within other sep’rate is it fram’d.” he thus began. and all such end Either by force or fraud works other’s woe But fraud.

But tell me this: they of the dull. malice. May be by man employ’d on one. dread seat of Dis. witchcraft. In reckless lavishment his talent wastes. Man can do violence To himself and his own blessings: and for this He in the second round must aye deplore With unavailing penitence his crime. And nature with her kindly law contemning. or whom the tempest drives. Without these walls to vain repentance doom’d. To God may force be offer’d. Seems as the latter way Broke but the bond of love which Nature makes. 32 . Whom the rain beats. all who seduce To lust. And sorrows there where he should dwell in joy. or on another who withholds Strict confidence. and least guilt incurs? If well thou note This judgment. that in every conscience leaves a sting. With such vile scum as these. and remember who they are. and that Which thereto added afterwards gives birth To special faith.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And how incontinence the least offends God. Incont’nence. The traitor is eternally consum’d.Hell In malice. Or who with tongues so fierce conflicting meet. falsehood. wherein thy ethic page describes Three dispositions adverse to Heav’n’s will. And thence the inmost round marks with its seal Sodom and Cahors. fat pool. or set their honesty at pawn. Whence in the second circle have their nest Dissimulation. simony. if God’s wrath be on them? And if it be not. The other way Forgets both Nature’s general love. whose trust He wins. Point of the universe. Whoe’er deprives himself of life and light. and all such as speak Contemptuously’ of the Godhead in their hearts. and mad brutishness. “Fraud. Not so accustom’d? or what other thoughts Possess it? Dwell not in thy memory The words. and all robbers. hence The torment undergo of the first round In different herds. clearly thy discourse Proceeds. Theft. Whence in the lesser circle. Wherefore within the city fire-illum’d Are not these punish’d. distinguishing the hideous chasm And its inhabitants with skill exact.” I thus: “Instructor. flatteries. plund’rers. wherefore in such guise Are they condemned?” He answer thus return’d: “Wherefore in dotage wanders thus thy mind. in the heart Denying and blaspheming his high power.

Yet somewhat turn thee back. For from the mountain’s summit. observing well Thou shalt discover. that some passage it might give To him who from above would pass. But follow now My steps on forward journey bent. for now The Pisces play with undulating glance Along the’ horizon. and this knot Perplex’d unravel. Thou so content’st me. whence it mov’d To the low level. should’ring the wave. and the Wain lies all O’er the north-west. But in another path The usurer walks. 33 . that your art on her Obsequious follows. and less wreakful pours Justice divine on them its vengeance down. Not many leaves scann’d o’er. that usury Offends celestial Goodness. which Adice’s stream On this side Trento struck. when thou solv’st my doubt.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so the headlong rock Is shiver’d. Clearly points out. e’en such Into the chasm was that descent: and there At point of the disparted ridge lay stretch’d The infamy of Crete. “where thou saidst. as every eye would shun. That ignorance not less than knowledge charms. was rough as Alp. and onward there a space Is our steep passage down the rocky height.” “O Sun! who healest all imperfect sight.” I in these words Continu’d. if thou recall to mind Creation’s holy book.” CANTO XII The place where to descend the precipice We came. How imitative nature takes her course From the celestial mind and from its art: And where her laws the Stagyrite unfolds. to an attentive ear. as the learner treads In his instructor’s step.Hell Thou shalt discern why they apart are plac’d From these fell spirits. as one with rage distract. detested brood Of the feign’d heifer: and at sight of us It gnaw’d itself. so that your art Deserves the name of second in descent From God.” He thus made reply: “Philosophy. and Nature in herself And in her follower thus he sets at nought. As is that ruin. Placing elsewhere his hope. Or loos’d by earthquake or for lack of prop. and on its verge Such object lay. not in one part alone. These two. from the beginning Were the right source of life and excellence To human kind.

at the moment when the fatal blow Hath struck him. there are who deem. the world hath oft Been into chaos turn’d: and in that point. Between it and the rampart’s base On trail ran Centaurs. Whereby. in the world Above. that when I erst Hither descended to the nether hell. As to the chase they on the earth were wont. As circling all the plain. that with impetuous spring Darts. And issuing from the troop.” Then me he touch’d. with keen arrows arm’d. and in the eternal then Thus miserably o’erwhelm us. 34 . to weight like theirs Unus’d. that in a bow was bent. Who have by violence injur’d.” Like to a bull. But to behold your torments is he come. At seeing us descend they each one stood. that oft Mov’d underneath my feet. of whom One cried from far: “Say to what pain ye come Condemn’d. whereat the sage exclaim’d: “Run to the passage! while he storms. for so my guide Had told. thy death contriv’d.” Thus down our road we took Through those dilapidated crags. in the which all those are steep’d.” O blind lust! O foolish wrath! who so dost goad us on In the brief life. Who for the fair Deianira died. or else the bow I draw. Ill was thy mind. I beheld An ample foss. who. thus ever quick and rash. but unable to proceed Plunges on either side. Monster! avaunt! He comes not tutor’d by thy sister’s art. then through all its bounds Such trembling seiz’d the deep concave and foul.Hell To him my guide exclaim’d: “Perchance thou deem’st The King of Athens here. I pond’ring went. three sped with bows And missile weapons chosen first.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But fix thine eyes beneath: the river of blood Approaches. ‘t is well That thou descend.” To whom my guide: “Our answer shall be made To Chiron. which I Have vanquish’d now. I thought the universe was thrill’d with love. Know then. and thus he spake: “Perhaps thy thoughts are of this ruin’d steep. Here. who down this steep have journied? Speak From whence ye stand. that old rock toppled down. when nearer him we come. and elsewhere. This rock was not yet fallen. and spake: “Nessus is this. But past doubt (If well I mark) not long ere He arrived. Who carried off from Dis the mighty spoil Of the highest circle. so saw I plunge The Minotaur. Guarded by the brute violence. there.

” Then on his right breast turning. Who this new office to my care consign’d. that with flaxen locks Obizzo’ of Este. thereto induc’d By strict necessity. That brow Whereon the hair so jetty clust’ring hangs. more than his guilt allows. and be their guide. grant us. Here Alexander dwells. and thus he spake. in the world destroy’d By his foul step-son. Drew near. when Chiron took an arrow forth. of whom the mighty Centaur thus: “These are the souls of tyrants.” To the bard rever’d I turned me round. Here they wail aloud Their merciless wrongs. He in the midst. aiming shafts At whatsoever spirit dares emerge From out the blood. She left her joyful harpings in the sky.” Around The foss these go by thousands. Is the great Chiron who Achilles nurs’d.” My trusty guide. not by delight. no dark spirit I. And solitary so must needs by me Be shown the gloomy vale. him mounted on his back. along The border of the crimson-seething flood. as high as to their brow Immers’d.” Then farther on a space 35 . But by that virtue. that on his breast looks down. then his great mouth to view Exposing. to his fellows thus exclaim’d: “Are ye aware. which empowers my step To treat so wild a path.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And with the notch push’d back his shaggy beard To the cheek-bone. that rapid strode along. who now Stood near his breast. for he Is not a spirit that may walk the air. that he who comes behind Moves what he touches? The feet of the dead Are not so wont. Command them keep aloof. Is Azzolino. Whence from those steep’d within loud shrieks arose. And Dionysius fell. where the two natures join. and convey Across.” Onward we mov’d. me but next To him in rank. Some there I mark’d.Hell And wrought himself revenge for his own fate. That other Pholus. One of thy band. “Let him Be to thee now first leader. He is no robber. And if ye chance to cross another troop. who many a year Of woe wrought for fair Sicily. We to those beasts. I pray. who were given To blood and rapine. whom we may trust secure. Chiron thus To Nessus spake: “Return. Who to the ford may lead us. The faithful escort by our side. Thus made reply: “He is indeed alive. prone to wrath.

know thou art now I’ th’ second round. ‘Midst these I many a face remember’d well. It lower still and lower sinks its bed. On Sextus. Till in that part it reuniting join. Pazzo the other nam’d. We enter’d on a forest. CANTO XIII Ere Nessus yet had reach’d the other bank. Which yet is honour’d on the bank of Thames. So that at last it but imbru’d the feet. he turn’d. be thou well assur’d. of the human form Their neck and count’nance.” This said. till thou come Upon the horrid sand: look therefore well Around thee. “As ever on this side the boiling wave Thou seest diminishing. who held the head. There Heav’n’s stern justice lays chastising hand On Attila. who fill’d the ways With violence and war. And quitting us. Less sharp than these. and shalt be. and extracts Tears ever by the seething flood unlock’d From the Rinieri. Thus shallow more and more the blood became. and on Pyrrhus. who was the scourge of earth. arm’d with talons keen The feet. not light The boughs and tapering. who at the throat Were extant from the wave.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and showing us A spirit by itself apart retir’d. The kind instructor in these words began: “Ere farther thou proceed. near some. with venom fill’d. Exclaim’d: “He in God’s bosom smote the heart. but with knares deform’d And matted thick: fruits there were none.” A race I next espied. and such things thou shalt behold. 36 . alone repass’d the ford.Hell The Centaur paus’d. And even all the bust above the stream. and the huge belly fledge with wings These sit and wail on the drear mystic wood. Less intricate the brakes. the same Who from the Strophades the Trojan band Drove with dire boding of their future woe. “So on the other. Here the brute Harpies make their nest.” the Centaur said. Not verdant there The foliage. wherein abide Those animals. but of dusky hue. but thorns Instead. where no track Of steps had worn a way. Where ‘t is the lot of tyranny to mourn. Betwixt Corneto and Cecina’s stream. And there our passage lay athwart the foss. that hate the cultur’d fields. Broad are their pennons. of Corneto this.

had we been The souls of serpents. That burning at one end from the’ other sends A groaning sound. that I from speech Cannot refrain. But tell me. That besides me. O injur’d spirit! could have believ’d What he hath seen but in my verse describ’d. Count it not grievous. And straight the trunk exclaim’d: “Why pluck’st thou me?” Then as the dark blood trickled down its side. That. so burst at once. The harlot.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who held Both keys to Frederick’s heart. and turn’d the wards.” Thereat a little stretching forth my hand. that now are rooted here. I. letting fall the bough. He. who ne’er turn’d her gloating eyes From Caesar’s household. And thus his speech resum’d: “If thou lop off A single twig from one of those ill plants. In amaze Fast bound I stood. in the snare detain’d. That my glad honours chang’d to bitter woes. remain’d as one Assail’d by terror. 37 .” On all sides I heard sad plainings breathe. But I. These words it added: “Wherefore tear’st me thus? Is there no touch of mercy in thy breast? Men once were we. The thought thou hast conceiv’d shall vanish quite. Prompted him to this deed. He never against thee had stretch’d his hand. Thy hand might well have spar’d us. Forth from the broken splinter words and blood.” As a brand yet green. as it seem’d. and hisses with the wind That forces out its way. wherein if I indulge A little longer. And to Augustus they so spread the flame. with a skill so sweet. because the thing surpass’d belief. common vice and pest Of courts. and none could see From whom they might have issu’d. ‘gainst me inflam’d the minds of all. From a great wilding gather’d I a branch. That I had thought so many voices came From some amid those thickets close conceal’d. It cost me the life-blood that warm’d my veins. Opening and shutting. believ’d.” “That pleasant word of thine. I it was. In the upper world (for thither to return Is granted him) thy fame he may revive.Hell As would my speech discredit. for this wrong to do thee some amends. The faith I bore to my high charge was such.” the trunk replied “Hath so inveigled me. and the sage replied: “If he. into his inmost breast Scarce any other could admittance find. which even now Myself I rue. who thou wast.

shall come For our own spoils. and the wind soon Chang’d into sounds articulate like these. in headlong flight. and throughout The dismal glade our bodies shall be hung. such pity’ is at my heart. as a grain of spelt.” Whence I replied: “Question thou him again of whatsoe’er Will. to the seventh gulf By Minos doom’d. The Harpies. torn with briers. by itself Thence torn asunder. then to me the bard began: “Lose not the time.” the foremost cried. When departs The fierce soul from the body. for what a man Takes from himself it is not just he have. as when a man perceives The wild boar and the hunt approach his place Of station’d watch. Briefly ye shall be answer’d. for no power Have I to ask. but speak and of him ask. That they before them broke each fan o’ th’ wood.Hell My soul. We. till the mournful words Were ended. If more thou wish to learn. Each on the wild thorn of his wretched shade. on its leaves Then feeding. yet not so that with them We may again be clad.” First somewhat pausing. when us A noise surpris’d. I swear.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Here we perforce shall drag them. that lies Yet prostrate under envy’s cruel blow.” He thus resum’d. sought Refuge in death from scorn. into the wood it falls. cause both pain and for the pain A vent to grief. disdainful and disgusted. and of you. How in these gnarled joints the soul is tied. unjust toward myself. which fix this stem. that also tell. And whether any ever from such frame Be loosen’d. And lo! there came Two naked. That never faith I broke to my liege lord. No place assign’d.” Thereat the trunk breath’d hard. imprison’d Spirit! to declare. and I became. Who merited such honour. It rises to a sapling. expecting farther speech. as thou yet Be pleas’d.” Attentive yet to listen to the trunk We stood. but wheresoever chance Hurls it. there sprouting. “Haste now. as thou think’st. Just as I was. content me. who of the beasts and boughs Loud rustling round him hears. Clear he from wrong my memory. growing thence A savage plant. “So may he do for thee Freely what thou entreatest. as the rest. By the new roots. “now haste thee death!” 38 . If any to the world indeed return. if thou canst.

Those citizens. Things then first seen Clearlier to manifest. I tell how next A plain we reach’d. they stuck their fangs. On him. that from its sterile bed Each plant repell’d. As greyhounds that have newly slipp’d the leash. my master spake: “Say who wast thou. who now Was hoarse with utt’rance. To the limit thence We came.” CANTO XIV Soon as the charity of native land Wrought in my bosom. There. resembling most The soil that erst by Cato’s foot was trod. for that perchance no longer breath Suffic’d him. Our steps we stay’d. as round the wood Spreads the sad foss. and where of justice is display’d Contrivance horrible.Hell The’ other. It was an area wide Of arid sand and thick. 39 . gaunt and fleet. And having rent him piecemeal bore away The tortur’d limbs. The mournful wood waves round Its garland on all sides. in the lists of Toppo’s field.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “that of me thou hast made thy screen? For thy ill life what blame on me recoils?” When o’er it he had paus’d. that from me My leaves hath sever’d thus. and to him restor’d. I the scatter’d leaves Collected. Behind them was the wood Full of black female mastiffs. on the very edge.” It cried. ye spirits: arriv’d in time To spy the shameful havoc. And led me to the thicket. Whence he for this shall cease not with his art To work her woe: and if there still remain’d not On Arno’s passage some faint glimpse of him.” And then. of himself and of a bush One group he made. “Lano! not so bent for speed Thy sinews. impatient of delay Exclaiming. that at so many points Breath’st out with blood thy lamentable speech?” He answer’d: “Oh. which from the third the second round Divides. I slung the fatal noose from my own roof. In that city’ I dwelt. who squatted down. which in vain Mourn’d through its bleeding wounds: “O Giacomo Of Sant’ Andrea! what avails it thee. gather them up. And at the foot of their sad parent-tree Carefully lay them. My guide then seiz’d my hand. as seem’d. who rear’d once more her walls Upon the ashes left by Attila. Who for the Baptist her first patron chang’d. Had labour’d without profit of their toil.

those fewer who beneath The torment lay. All weeping piteously. from whom in ire He snatch’d the lightnings. that to the ground Came down: whence he bethought him with his troop To trample on the soil. exclaim’d: “Such as I was When living. for easier thus The vapour was extinguish’d. when the wind is hush’d. So fell the eternal fiery flood. Some crouching close were seated. but louder in their grief. while he cries aloud. who read what here my eyes beheld! Of naked spirits many a flock I saw. save thy rage. in accent higher rais’d Than I before had heard him: “Capaneus! Thou art more punish’d. heeds not The burning. that rush’d forth To stop our entrance at the gate. As by the sultry tempest immatur’d?” Straight he himself. that. 40 . I thus began: “Instructor! thou who all things overcom’st. dead such now I am. in that this thy pride Lives yet unquench’d: no torrent.The Divine Comedy of Dante . If Jove Weary his workman out. Except the hardy demons. Were to thy fury pain proportion’d full. help. good Mulciber!” as erst he cried In the Phlegraean warfare.Hell Vengeance of Heav’n! Oh! how shouldst thou be fear’d By all. Now this. but lies writhen in proud scorn. and the bolts Launch he full aim’d at me with all his might. while alone. wherewith The marble glow’d underneath. More numerous. O’er all the sand fell slowly wafting down Dilated flakes of fire. the latter tribe. solid flames. as flakes of snow On Alpine summit. to shake off The heat.” Next turning round to me with milder lip He spake: “This of the seven kings was one. that at my last day Transfix’d me. as seems. the son Of Ammon saw upon his warrior band Descending. others pac’d Incessantly around. who was aware I ask’d My guide of him. to different laws Subjected: for on the’ earth some lay supine. now that way glancing. if the rest be weary out At their black smithy labouring by turns In Mongibello. as under stove The viands. As in the torrid Indian clime. doubly to augment the pain. still falling fresh. He never should enjoy a sweet revenge.” Then thus my guide. “Help. Unceasing was the play of wretched hands. say who Is yon huge spirit.

as I told him. pure silver are the breast And arms. Saturn’s spouse. It was the spot which Rhea. e’en to the lowest depth of all. A mountain rises there. Deserted now like a forbidden thing. Form there Cocytus. Call’d Ida. Each part except the gold.” Silently on we pass’d To where there gushes from the forest’s bound A little brook.” So spake my guide. that turns His shoulders towards Damiata. so ran this Down through the sand. nought else so worthy of regard. Save the right foot of potter’s clay. is rent throughout. The food he too would give.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whose crimson’d wave yet lifts My hair with horror. and either margin at its side. “Of all that I have shown thee.Hell Who girt the Theban walls with siege. Chose for the secret cradle of her son. “A desolate country lies. and look thou set not yet Thy foot in the hot sand. Within the mount. and I him thence besought. since that gate We enter’d first. Follow me now. its bottom and each bank Stone-built. And better to conceal him. Whereon I straight perceiv’d our passage lay. And sets his high omnipotence at nought. and held. and at Rome As in his mirror looks. of whose lake (thyself 41 . As still he seems to hold. that hunger crav’d. Under whose monarch in old times the world Liv’d pure and chaste.” forthwith he began. to be portion’d out Among the sinful women. whose threshold is to none Denied. O’er which the flaming volley all is quench’d. As the rill. but to the wood Keep ever close. that runs From Bulicame. And from the fissure tears distil. which join’d Penetrate to that cave. which Crete is nam’d. They in their course Thus far precipitated down the rock Form Acheron. and Phlegethon. Then by this straiten’d channel passing hence Beneath. drown’d in shouts His infant cries. and Styx. thence to the middle is of brass. That having giv’n me appetite to know. But. Of finest gold His head is shap’d. upright An ancient form there stands and huge. his despiteful mood Is ornament well suits the breast that wears it. has thine eye discern’d. God in disdain. And downward all beneath well-temper’d steel. As is this river. “In midst of ocean. on which Than on the other more erect he stands. joyous once with leaves and streams.

hovers o’er. But not within this hollow. to chase back The ocean. when we met A troop of spirits.” He added: “Time is now we quit the wood. is round. such were the mounds.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Whither to lave themselves the spirits go.” CANTO XV One of the solid margins bears us now Envelop’d in the mist. though not in height or bulk to these Made equal. or the Paduans theirs Along the Brenta. thou know’st. not yet Hast thou the circuit made of the whole orb. They each one ey’d us. And toward us sharpen’d their sight as keen. in the place. that rais’d them here.” Then I again inquir’d: “Where flow the streams Of Phlegethon and Lethe? for of one Thou tell’st not. As the Flemings rear Their mound. Whose blame hath been by penitence remov’d. and saves from fire Both piers and water. who by the skirt 42 . So fram’d. unimpeded by the flames. For over them all vapour is extinct. that turning round I might not have discern’d it. Thou say’st. as at eventide One eyes another under a new moon. ere the genial warmth be felt On Chiarentana’s top. It needs not bring up wonder in thy looks. by the master. Look thou my steps pursue: the margins give Safe passage. and the other of that shower. As an old tailor at his needle’s eye. I was agniz’d of one. who came beside the pier. still to the left Descending to the nethermost. is form’d.” Then I to him: “If from our world this sluice Be thus deriv’d. Thus narrowly explor’d by all the tribe. Wherefore if aught of new to us appear. whosoe’er He was. Yet the red seething wave might have resolv’d One thou proposest. ‘twixt Ghent and Bruges. that from the stream Arising. and though great part Thou have already pass’d. to defend their towns And castles. We from the wood Were not so far remov’d. Lethe thou shalt see. fearing his tumultuous tide That drives toward them.Hell Shall see it) I here give thee no account. wherefore to us but now Appears it at this edge?” He straight replied: “The place.” He answer thus return’d: “Doubtless thy questions all well pleas’d I hear.

“whoever of this throng One instant stops. And by this path homeward he leads me back.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Old fame reports them in the world for blind.Hell Caught me. For thee Thy fortune hath such honour in reserve. Will for thy good deeds shew thee enmity. and leave his fellows to proceed. Covetous.” thus be began. they hinder’d not But I remember’d him. when he to me outstretch’d his arm. I wander’d in a valley lost. “Ere the last day conducts thee here below? And who is this. lies then a hundred years.” I answer’d. and towards his face My hand inclining. for amongst ill-savour’d crabs It suits not the sweet fig-tree lay her fruit. No fan to ventilate him. But yester-morn I left it: then once more Into that vale returning. “in the life Serene. who go mourning their endless doom. Ay and still smack of their rough mountain-flint. That thou by either party shalt be crav’d With hunger keen: but be the fresh herb far 43 . as one who walks in reverent guise. That I here seat me with thee. And if my fate so early had not chanc’d.” I thus to him replied: “Much as I can. Who in old times came down from Fesole. if Brunetto Latini but a little space with thee Turn back. Seeing the heav’ns thus bounteous to thee. and if thou be willing. “What chance or destiny.” he answer’d. Thou canst not miss at last a glorious haven: Unless in fairer days my judgment err’d. Nor wonder. envious. proud. I thereto pray thee.” I dar’d not from the path descend to tread On equal ground with him. “What wonder have we here!” And I. and then rejoin My troop. that shows to thee the way?” “There up aloft. “follow but thy star.” “If thou.” “O son!” said he. But that ungrateful and malignant race. him I met. Before mine age had to its fullness reach’d. first obtain’d. when the fire Smites sorest. Look to it well: Take heed thou cleanse thee of their ways. but held my head Bent down. I consent. answer’d: “Sir! Brunetto! And art thou here?” He thus to me: “My son! Oh let it not displease thee. That although smirch’d with fire. and cried. His leave. I Had gladly giv’n thee comfort in thy work. with whom I journey. I close Will at thy garments walk. Intently fix’d my ken on his parch’d looks. Pass thou therefore on.

benign.” “Were all my wish fulfill’d.” I not the less still on my way proceed. By one same sin polluted in the world. if the wish of so impure a blotch Possess’d thee. Men of great learning and no less renown. When it was made the nest of so much ill. “But of the rest silence may best beseem. What of my fate thou tell’st.” thus he replied. paternal image.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Who by the servants’ servant was transferr’d From Arno’s seat to Bacchiglione. then look’d at me and spake: “He listens to good purpose who takes note.” I straight replied. transmitted From those true Romans. I stand prepar’d. that write I down: And with another text to comment on For her I keep it. The clown his mattock. Do fortune as she list. who still there remain’d. With them is Priscian. not touch the plant. “To know of some is well. That. and Accorso’s son Francesco herds among that wretched throng: And. But must from farther speech and onward way Alike desist. him thou also might’st have seen.Hell From the goat’s tooth.” Thereat my sapient guide upon his right Turn’d himself back. I commend my treasure to thee. This only would I have thee clearly note: That so my conscience have no plea against me. Speed fortune then her wheel. for in my mind Is fix’d.” 44 . In brief I tell thee. In which the holy seed revives. my sole request. the celestial dame. long as life endures. it behooves. Wherein I yet survive. Discoursing with Brunetto. if I to her arrive. A company. Not new or strange such earnest to mine ear. “Thou from the confines of man’s nature yet Hadst not been driven forth. with whom I may not sort. Approaches. when so lately thou didst teach me The way for man to win eternity. The herd of Fesole May of themselves make litter. that all these were clerks. and now strikes full upon my heart The dear. Time would not serve us for report so long. I more would add. where His ill-strain’d nerves he left. all things have their course. and inquire Who are most known and chief among his tribe. as likes her best. And how I priz’d the lesson. such As thine was. for yonder I behold A mist new-risen on the sandy plain. my tongue should speak. If any such yet spring on their rank bed. Who will know all.

naked though he be And reft of all.” Thus one began. grandchild of the chaste Gualdrada. of honour. Three spirits. Not he who loses but who gains the prize. And turn’d to me his visage. both by his wisdom and his sword. That dost imprint with living feet unharm’d The soil of Hell. and of them he seem’d. in whose track thou see’st My steps pursuing. and myself CANTO XVI Now came I where the water’s din was heard. Recent and old. ere in closer strife they meet. “If misery of this drear wilderness. And soon as they had reach’d us. Resounding like the hum of swarming bees: When forth together issu’d from a troop. Who o’er Verona’s champain try their speed For the green mantle. him they Guidoguerra call’d. Whence glide the fiery darts. “Oh do thou stay! Whom by the fashion of thy garb we deem To be some inmate of our evil land. running swift. so that opposite The neck mov’d ever to the twinkling feet. They. when we stopp’d. Who in his lifetime many a noble act Achiev’d. resum’d their ancient wail. and seem’d as one of those. Is Aldobrandi. Attentive to their cry my teacher paus’d. I should have said. next to me that beats the sand. as he wheel’d. As down it fell into the other round. Thus each one. was of more high estate Than thou believest. That haste had better suited thee than them. name deserving well.Hell This said he turn’d.” Ah me! what wounds I mark’d upon their limbs. The other. and then spake. And each one cried aloud. Are wont intent to watch their place of hold And vantage. They towards us came.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That pass’d beneath the fierce tormenting storm. all the three Whirl’d round together in one restless wheel. As naked champions. inflicted by the flames! E’en the remembrance of them grieves me yet.’’ 45 . let our great renown Incline thee to inform us who thou art. do call forth scorn on us And our entreaties. In the’ upper world. He. smear’d with slippery oil. “added to our sad cheer And destitute. his countenance At me directed. “Wait now! our courtesy these merit well: And were ‘t not for the nature of the place.

or have vanish’d clean? For one amidst us late condemn’d to wail. Which made me eager of their wish’d embrace. yonder walking with his peers. when the water’s sound Was now so near at hand. that a sure guide Hath promis’d to me. Dwell in our city. who still Affectionate have utter’d. I am a countryman of yours. as thou shalt tell. whom. that we had scarce Heard one another’s speech for the loud din. Borsiere. when thou art gone. who for an answer took my words. Am Rusticucci.”so easily Satisfy those. Would have restrain’d my going. Pride and excess. Not in so short a time might one have said “Amen. so apt to speak thy thought! Wherefore if thou escape this darksome clime.” “An upstart multitude and sudden gains. Straight my guide Pursu’d his track.” If from the fire I had been shelter’d. But behooves. I follow’d. When thou with pleasure shalt retrace the past. down amidst them straight I then had cast me. If courtesy and valour. I deem. Such as long time alone can cure. but grief much more. O Florence! have in thee Engender’d.” “So may long space thy spirit guide thy limbs. “and so thy fame Shine bright. and have heard Your deeds and names renown’d. more than aught beside Hath to this evil brought.” as they had vanish’d.” This said. that as pinions seem’d their nimble feet.” He answer straight return’d. as men look when truth Comes to their ear. and so swift Fled. Look’d at each other. but that fear Of the dire burning vanquish’d the desire.” They all at once rejoin’d. as they wont. 46 . as ye are. and small space Had we pass’d onward. Leaving the gall For the sweet fruit I go. my wife Of savage temper. who question. nor my guide. Grieves us no little by the news he brings. your doom Fix’d deep within me. “If thou at other times. so that now in tears thou mourn’st!” Thus cried I with my face uprais’d. and they All three. happy thou. past doubt.Hell Who in this torment do partake with them. that far As to the centre first I downward tend. was at hand. I then began: “Not scorn. Returning to behold the radiant stars. Gifted with words. whose tenour taught me to expect That such a race. See that of us thou speak among mankind.The Divine Comedy of Dante . they broke the circle. soon as this my lord Spake words.

although blameless.” he said. Which but the semblance of a falsehood wears. reader! I swear to thee. he incurs reproach. And beckon’d him. Wherewith I erst had thought fast bound to take The painted leopard. ere it descend into the vale. This when I had all Unloosen’d from me (so my master bade) I gather’d up. So that the ear its clamour soon had stunn’d. Who upward springing close draws in his feet. and stretch’d it forth to him. That this dark wave resounded. who hath been down to loose An anchor grappled fast against some rock.” Thus to myself I spake. which Acquacheta higher up They call. which my guide with earnest eye Thus follows. should bar his lip. A man. So may they favour find to latest times! That through the gross and murky air I spied A shape come swimming up. breaks through fenced walls And firm embattled spears. in such guise As one returns. I had a cord that brac’d my girdle round.” Ah! what caution must men use With those who look not at the deed alone.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and by these notes Which now I sing. At Forli by that name no longer known. that he should come to shore. that holds on its course Unmingled. Thus downward from a craggy steep we found. Rebellows o’er Saint Benedict.Hell E’en as the river. But spy into the thoughts with subtle skill! “Quickly shall come. Thine eye discover quickly. cast it down Into the deep abyss. and with his filth Taints all the world!” Thus me my guide address’d. if possible. and from the brink Standing few paces distant. Or to aught else that in the salt wave lies. Where space enough to lodge a thousand spreads. from the mount of Vesulo. roll’d on From the’ Alpine summit down a precipice. Since. that whereof Thy thought is dreaming. But silence here were vain. “signal so strange Betokens. Then to the right he turn’d. CANTO XVII “Lo! the fell monster with the deadly sting! Who passes mountains.” Ever to that truth. 47 . roaring loud. On the left side of Apennine. “And somewhat strange. “what I expect. that might have quell’d The stoutest heart with wonder. toward The east. Near to the stony causeway’s utmost edge.

who couches there. moor’d to the shore. His face the semblance of a just man’s wore. One of them all I knew not. So on the rim. Nor spread Arachne o’er her curious loom. With sting like scorpion’s arm’d. But laid not on the shore his bestial train. Thus use the dogs in summer still to ply Their jaws and feet by turns. Colours variegated more Nor Turks nor Tartars e’er on cloth of state With interchangeable embroidery wove. who lay Beneath the pelting of that dolorous fire. and mark The mien these wear: but hold not long discourse. In the void Glancing. Noting the visages of some. his tail upturn’d its venomous fork. That pendent from his neck each bore a pouch With colours and with emblems various mark’d. better to escape the flame And burning marle. part upon the land. that fenc’d the sand with rock. The beaver settles watching for his prey. Forthwith my master spake: “That to the full thy knowledge may extend Of all this round contains. The rest was serpent all: two shaggy claws Reach’d to the armpits. Stands part in water. that to us he may vouchsafe The aid of his strong shoulders. And either side. His head and upper part expos’d on land. or gadflies swarming round. A little further on mine eye beholds A tribe of spirits. Then thus my guide: “Now need our way must turn few steps apart. when bitten sore By gnats. ten paces on the verge Proceeded. seated on the sand Near the wide chasm. where the mournful tribe Were seated.The Divine Comedy of Dante . On which it seem’d as if their eye did feed. and. Or. were painted o’er with nodes And orbits.” Thereat toward the right our downward course We shap’d. go now. So kind and gracious was its outward cheer. Soon as we to him arrive. or flies. Till thou returnest. Far as to that ill beast. as where dwells the greedy German boor.” Thus alone Yet forward on the’ extremity I pac’d Of that seventh circle. And when amongst them looking round I came. and the back and breast. At the eyes forth gush’d their pangs. Against the vapours and the torrid soil Alternately their shifting hands they plied.Hell Forthwith that image vile of fraud appear’d. Sat perch’d the fiend of evil. but perceiv’d. I with him meantime Will parley. As ofttimes a light skiff. 48 .

Backward my steps from those sad spirits turn’d. if he but eye the shade. His nails already are turn’d blue. easy thy descent. I will be i’ th’ midst.Hell A yellow purse I saw with azure wrought. And one. but that the words to aid My purpose came not. who hath an ague fit so near. 49 . And when he felt himself at large. My guide already seated on the haunch Of the fierce animal I found. who bade me stay not long.” As a small vessel. who bore a fat and azure swine Pictur’d on his white scrip. whence high heaven. “Be thou stout. he writh’d The mouth. be bold.” As one. exclaiming “O haste that noble knight! he who the pouch With the three beaks will bring!” This said. like an eel. Think on th’ unusual burden thou sustain’st. And would have said. Not greater was the dread when Phaeton The reins let drop at random. A goose display of whiter wing than curd. Gath’ring the air up with retractile claws. Such was my cheer at hearing of his words. Embracing. Thus. I settled me upon those shoulders huge. Down such a steep flight must we now descend! Mount thou before: for that no power the tail May have to harm thee. turn’d round There where the breast had been.The Divine Comedy of Dante . held me up. Then still my sight pursuing its career. Soon as I mounted. and he Quivers all o’er. That wore a lion’s countenance and port. Nor when ill-fated Icarus perceiv’d. in his arms aloft. Another I beheld. A Paduan with these Florentines am I. I. so thence the monster loos’d. his forked tail. Her station quits. and thus He me encourag’d. Since yet thou livest. and thus he spake: “Geryon! now move thee! be thy wheeling gyres Of ample circuit. who makes The servant bold in presence of his lord. But shame soon interpos’d her threat. was wrapt in flames. Ofttimes they thunder in mine ears. than blood more red. like an ox That licks his nostrils. addressed me thus: “What dost thou in this deep? Go now and know. “Look thou clasp me firm!” But he whose succour then not first I prov’d. back’ning out from land. that my neighbour here Vitaliano on my left shall sit. Whereof signs yet appear. By liquefaction of the scalded wax. lest longer stay He ill might brook. outstretch’d at length he steer’d. and loll’d the tongue out.

between the gulf and base Of the high craggy banks. all of rock dark-stain’d With hue ferruginous. As falcon. yawns A spacious gulf profound. that hath long been on the wing. Right in the midst Of that abominable region. e’en as the steep That round it circling winds. and swiftly down the sky In many an orbit wheels. struck onward far as to the gulf. And. of his burden there discharg’d. unperceiv’d before. Breathes on me from below. Throughout its round. Such was the place. whereof the frame Due time shall tell. from the rock’s low base Thus flinty paths advanc’d. Now on our right I heard the cataract beneath us leap With hideous crash. so here Were model’d these. Are flank’d with bridges. in its hollow bottom sunk. The circle. that ‘cross the moles And dikes. and as like fortresses E’en from their threshold to the brink without. But that the wind. and other object none Save the fell beast. As where to guard the walls. successive forms Ten trenches. wherein we found ourselves From Geryon’s back dislodg’d. That in one bound collected cuts them off. His sire exclaiming loud. The bard to left 50 . unobserv’d of me.Hell The trusted pennons loosen’d from his loins. CANTO XVIII There is a place within the depths of hell Call’d Malebolge. how our downward course we wound. New terror I conceiv’d at the steep plunge: For flames I saw. that remains.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Ah me! thou stoop’st to earth!” Wearied descends. whence bending down to’ explore. By the dread torments that on every side Drew nearer. He slowly sailing. when round me on each part The air I view’d. full many a foss Begirds some stately castle. and wailings smote mine ear: So that all trembling close I crouch’d my limbs. And then distinguish’d. “Ill way thou keep’st!” Than was my dread. while in despair The falconer cries. arising to my face. So Geryon lighting places us on foot Low down at base of the deep-furrow’d rock. then lighting sits At distance from his lord in angry mood. like an arrow from the string. But lure nor bird hath seen. sure defence Affording to the space within. forthwith Sprang forward. wheels His downward motion.

Meantime as on I pass’d. That on their back unmercifully smote. That swarming peopled the first chasm. to the right Upon its splinter turning. Below Were naked sinners. and consented I should walk Backward a space. “Away! corrupter! here Women are none for sale. But what brings thee Into this bitter seas’ning?” He replied: “Unwillingly I answer to thy words. their means devise For such as pass the bridge. Each divers way along the grisly rock. one met my sight Whom soon as view’d. And if of that securer proof thou need. we depart 51 . That easily ascended. Venedico art thou. “not yet Mine eye hath had his fill. Straight the teacher kind Paus’d with me. new executioners of wrath. for I exclaim’d: “Thou who dost cast thy eye upon the ground. that on one side All front toward the castle.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” cried I. Who thought to hide him.” Forthwith I join’d My escort. Horn’d demons I beheld. But it avail’d him nought. Meeting our faces from the middle point. But thy clear speech. bent his visage down.” With fixed gaze I therefore scann’d him. when the year returns Of Jubilee. Ah! how they made them bound at the first stripe! None for the second waited nor the third. With us beyond but with a larger stride. with lashes huge. and exclaim’d. Betwixt the Reno and Savena’s stream. Nor alone Bologna hither sendeth me to mourn Rather with us the place is so o’erthrong’d That not so many tongues this day are taught. and the tormented spirit. that to my mind recalls The world I once inhabited. New pains. and few paces thence we came To where a rock forth issued from the bank. Remember but our craving thirst for gold.” Him speaking thus. constrains me. Know then ’twas I who led fair Ghisola To do the Marquis’ will. On our right hand new misery I saw. and I behind him mov’d. and approach Saint Peter’s fane. Unless thy features do belie thee much.Hell Held on his way. with better speed to rid The thronging multitudes. on th’ other towards the mount. E’en thus the Romans. To answer Sipa in their country’s phrase. “Of him. however fame The shameful tale have bruited. a demon with his thong Struck. Hitherward they came.

” Now had we come Where. like the rest. now Strike on thy ken. within the foss below. When arriv’d.” 52 . Where underneath the gaping arch lets pass The scourged souls: “Pause here. thy ken?” “Because if true my mem’ry. And thou Alessio art of Lucca sprung. encrusting hung. I mark’d One with his head so grim’d. the straighten’d path Bestrides its shoulders to another arch. Impregnated he left her there forlorn. For that together they with us have walk’d.” From the old bridge we ey’d the pack. Thus far we came.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Who jibber in low melancholy sounds. Excoriate from the lash. that from no part. To the Lemnian isle His passage thither led him. crossing the next pier. That held sharp combat with the sight and smell.” the teacher said. that appear’d Draff of the human body. ‘t were hard to deem. There he with tokens and fair witching words Hypsipyle beguil’d. There beneath Searching with eye inquisitive. And thus much to know Of the first vale suffice thee. So hollow is the depth. If he were clerk or layman. All bear him company. Save on the summit of the rocky span. How yet the regal aspect he retains! Jason is he. Therefore than all the rest I scan thee more. Could I distinguish aught.Hell From those eternal barriers. Loud he cried: “Why greedily thus bendest more on me. And seems too woe-begone to drop a tear. when those bold And pitiless women had slain all their males. whose skill and prowess won The ram from Colchos. Upon the banks a scurf From the foul steam condens’d. thus his speech resum’d: “Behold that lofty shade. who came From th’ other side towards us. faces not yet beheld. Who first had all the rest herself beguil’d. Here too Medea’s inj’ries are avenged. and on themselves Smite with their palms. “I heretofore have seen thee with dry locks. And thence I saw. who this way tends. Such is the guilt condemns him to this pain. With wide-stretch’d nostrils snort. Hence in the second chasm we heard the ghosts. A crowd immers’d in ordure. “And let these others miserable. a virgin young. My gentle guide. By me unquestion’d.” I replied. Than on these other filthy ones. and of those Whom its keen torments urge. who like deceit To his have practis’d.

From out the mouth Of every one. since yours Is the third chasm. them. Upon the following vault We now had mounted. Who there doth rend her with defiled nails. Nor ample less nor larger they appear’d Than in Saint John’s fair dome of me belov’d Those fram’d to hold the pure baptismal streams. sluttish courtezan. So here.Hell Then beating on his brain these words he spake: “Me thus low down my flatteries have sunk. some few years past. whose false lip Answer’d her doting paramour that ask’d. Thais is this. glided the flames. Wisdom Supreme!how wonderful the art. now risen on her feet. than all the rest Glancing in fiercer agony. One of the which I brake. throughout the sides And in its bottom full of apertures. Which should be wedded unto goodness. and circular each. On either foot The soles were burning. do prostitute For gold and silver in adultery! Now must the trumpet sound for you. on whom A ruddier flame doth prey?” I thus inquir’d. And in the evil world. Feeding on unctuous matter. All equal in their width.’ And seeing this here satiate be our view. from heel to point. His wretched followers! who the things of God.” Which thou dost manifest in heaven. Rapacious as ye are. As flame. emerg’d a sinner’s feet And of the legs high upward as the calf The rest beneath was hid. glides along The surface. scarcely touching where it moves.The Divine Comedy of Dante . where the rock impends Directly o’er the centre of the foss. CANTO XIX Woe to thee. Now crouching down. “Master! say who is he. how just a meed Allotting by thy virtue unto all! I saw the livid stone. ‘Thankest me much!’—’Say rather wondrously. whence the flexile joints Glanc’d with such violent motion.” My leader thus: “A little further stretch Thy face. 53 . Simon Magus! woe to you. the harlot. in earth. Wherewith I ne’er enough could glut my tongue. and be this A seal to undeceive whoever doubts The motive of my deed. that thou the visage well mayst note Of that besotted. as had snapt Asunder cords or twisted withs. To save a whelming infant.

” he replied. the spirit all did wrench his feet. When Virgil thus admonish’d: “Tell him quick. soon as he comes. straight replied. For which thou fearedst not in guile to take The lovely lady. Till to his orifice he brought.” And I. Nor from his side my leader set me down.” Thereat on the fourth pier we came.” There stood I like the friar. Under my head are dragg’d The rest. “that I Carry thee down. who e’en when fix’d. that doth shrive A wretch for murder doom’d. we turn’d. For whom I took thee. Sad spirit! thus revers’d. who I am. utter forth thy voice.” I then: “As pleases thee to me is best. So early dost thou surfeit with the wealth. “Whoe’er thou art. where least the slope bank falls. I am not he. as was enjoin’d me. He shouted: “Ha! already standest there? Already standest there. and then mangle her?” I felt as those who. Calleth him back. not he. O Boniface! By many a year the writing play’d me false. whence death awhile delays. than is his doom to stand Planted with fiery feet. 54 . And sighing next in woeful accent spake: “What then of me requirest?” If to know So much imports thee. And on our left descended to the depth. He of himself shall tell thee and his wrongs. stand as if expos’d In mockery. learn That in the mighty mantle I was rob’d. and I thus Upturn’d have stood. piercing not the drift Of answer made them. But already longer time Hath pass’d.Hell “If thou be willing. And of a she-bear was indeed the son. One yet of deeds more ugly shall arrive. Thou art my lord. “If thou be able. whom thou believ’st. ‘Midst them I also low shall fall. when so hastily I question’d. So eager to advance my whelps. A narrow strait and perforated close. That heard.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whose limb Quiv’ring express’d his pang. since my souls kindled. and know’st that ne’er I quit Thy will: what silence hides that knowest thou. my predecessors in the guilt Of simony. that there My having in my purse above I stow’d. And here myself. that thou Hast therefore down the bank descended. Stretch’d at their length they lie Along an opening in the rock. For after him. and as a stake Driv’n in the soil!” I in these words began. nor know what to reply.

But in this strain I answer’d: “Tell me now. Which thou in happier time didst hold. when her. Your avarice O’ercasts the world with mourning. but that plenteous dower. Which against Charles thy hardihood inspir’d. he. Our passage from the fourth to the fifth pier. Shall be of France’s monarch shown to him. Not thy conversion. Thence to my view another vale appear’d 55 . His cherish’d burden there gently he plac’d Upon the rugged rock and steep. he listen’d ever to the sound Of the true words I utter’d. Nor weary of his weight he press’d me close.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thy punishment of right is merited: And look thou well to that ill-gotten coin. Fated to cover both his form and mine. a shepherd without law. If reverence of the keys restrain’d me not. I do believe My teacher well was pleas’d. What treasures from St. Till to the summit of the rock we came. violent upsprang Spinning on either sole. Abide thou then. who sits upon the waves. She who with seven heads tower’d at her birth. with so compos’d A lip. Of shepherds. when he put the keys Into his charge? Surely he ask’d no more But. Follow me! Nor Peter nor the rest Or gold or silver of Matthias took. Which the first wealthy Father gain’d from thee!” Meanwhile. a hundred ye? Ah. I yet Severer speech might use. With kings in filthy whoredom he beheld. And from ten horns her proof of glory drew. Constantine! to how much ill gave birth. whether wrath Or conscience smote him. In both arms He caught. Of gold and silver ye have made your god. He a new Jason shall be call’d. and favour such As to that priest his king indulgent show’d.” I know not if I here too far presum’d. Diff’ring wherein from the idolater. When lots were cast upon the forfeit place Of the condemned soul. and raising bad men up. of whom In Maccabees we read. like to you. But he that worships one.Hell From forth the west. and to his bosom lifting me Upward retrac’d the way of his descent. as thus I sung. under foot Treading the good. Long as her spouse in virtue took delight. th’ Evangelist Was ware. a path Not easy for the clamb’ring goat to mount. Peter at the first Our Lord demanded.

Where delves Carrara’s hind. and art thou too witless as the rest? Here pity most doth show herself alive. so that the countenance Was from the reins averted: and because None might before him look. whence the stars And main-sea wide in boundless view he held. raise up. That mark’d the better sex. they were compell’d To’ advance with backward gait. Lo! how he makes The breast his shoulders. ‘Amphiaraus. Whose grapple none eludes. Earnest I look’d Into the depth. Before whose eyes earth gap’d in Thebes. 56 . and who once too far Before him wish’d to see. Tiresias note. who wons beneath. “Aruns. so God Fruit of thy reading give thee! how I long Could keep my visage dry. Moisten’d with tears of anguish. comes. As on them more direct mine eye descends. ere the plumes. That on the hinder parts fall’n from the face The tears down-streaming roll’d. Who semblance chang’d. Against a rock I leant and wept.The Divine Comedy of Dante . A cavern was his dwelling. Thus one perhaps Hath been by force of palsy clean transpos’d. when woman he became Of male. that came along the hollow vale. when I beheld Near me our form distorted in such guise. and then Once more behov’d him with his rod to strike The two entwining serpents. whither rushest? ‘Why leavest thou the war?’ He not the less Fell ruining far as to Minos down. Now. And treads reverse his path. with rere his belly facing. Who with Heaven’s judgment in his passion strives? Raise up thy head. On Luni’s mountains ‘midst the marbles white. When she is dead. In silence weeping: such their step as walk Quires chanting solemn litanies on earth. now backward looks. reader! think within thyself. What guilt exceedeth his. and see the man. whose awful theme records The spirits whelm’d in woe. through every limb transform’d. that open’d to my view. Each wondrously seem’d to be revers’d At the neck-bone. might shoot again.Hell CANTO XX And now the verse proceeds to torments new. when all Cried out. so that my guide exclaim’d: “What. and beheld A tribe. But I ne’er saw it nor believe it so. Fit argument of this the twentieth strain Of the first song.

Long time she went a wand’rer through the world. tumbling o’er Down falls. and more. gath’ring to that place Assembled. When her sire From life departed. whatsoev’er Benacus’ bosom holds not. which overstretchmg as a marsh It covers. the savage maiden saw ‘Midst of the fen a territory waste And naked of inhabitants. Methinks. pestilent in summer oft. There is a spot At midway of that lake. to awe with front oppos’d The Bergamese and Brescian. A garrison of goodly site and strong Peschiera stands. whose loosen’d tresses overspread Her bosom. and the Veronese. water between the vale Camonica and Garda and the height Of Apennine remote. Calling it Mantua. for its strength was great. at foot of that proud Alp. Wherein more numerous the people dwelt. with him Of Brescia. enclos’d On all parts by the fen. If thou hear Henceforth another origin assign’d Of that my country. and liv’d. Aloft in Italy’s delightful land A lake there lies. and left Her body tenantless. here she with her slaves Plying her arts remain’d. To shun All human converse. and in servitude The city dedicate to Bacchus mourn’d. Not far his course hath run. I forewarn thee now. where he who bears Of Trento’s flock the past’ral staff. Nor ask’d another omen for the name. which thou seest not (for each hair On that side grows) was Manto.Hell “The next. for her sake. Hence journeying. when a wide flat It finds. but Mincius. Thenceforth the tribes. she who search’d Through many regions. Who round were scatter’d. and at length her seat Fix’d in my native land. Its name Benacus. That o’er the Tyrol locks Germania in. whence a short space My words detain thy audience. Soon as in his course The steam makes head. who first chose the spot. On those dead bones They rear’d themselves a city. There. Benacus then no more They call the name. till at last Reaching Governo into Po he falls. whence the shore More slope each way descends. and winds a river flood beneath Through the green pastures. might each Passing that way his benediction give. 57 . which a thousand rills. Ere Casalodi’s madness by deceit Was wrong’d of Pinamonte.The Divine Comedy of Dante .

For thereon is my mind alone intent. Marvelous darkness shadow’d o’er the place. that other cables twirls.” I answer’d: “Teacher. Him they nam’d Eurypilus: so sings my tragic strain. The mizen one repairs and main-sail rent So not by force of fire but art divine 58 .Hell That falsehood none beguile thee of the truth. The which my drama cares not to rehearse. Pass’d on. to smear Their unsound vessels. was Michael Scot. That other. what time Graecia was emptied of her males. and in that while His bark one builds anew. other bootless pangs. he had tended still The thread and cordwain. instruct me. that all else shall be to me As embers lacking life. stood To view another gap. who with Calchas gave the sign When first to cut the cable. if thou see Any that merit more especial note. “Guido Bonatti see: Asdente mark. round the loins So slender of his shape. from whose cheek The beard sweeps o’er his shoulders brown. both onward mov’d. within the round Of Malebolge. one at the poop. I conclude thy words So certain. the seer was he In Aulis. that scarce The cradles were supplied. for th’ inclement time Sea-faring men restrains. Who now were willing.” He straight replied: “That spirit. who the needle left. But now of these. One hammers at the prow. In the Venetians’ arsenal as boils Through wintry months tenacious pitch. with other talk. CANTO XXI Thus we from bridge to bridge. But onward now: For now doth Cain with fork of thorns confine On either hemisphere. that hath made many a voyage. Practis’d in ev’ry slight of magic wile. In which majestic measure well thou know’st. Yesternight The moon was round. Thou mayst remember well: For she good service did thee in the gloom Of the deep wood.” This said. and to the summit reaching. touching the wave Beneath the towers of Seville. another stops The ribs of his. The shuttle and the spindle. This shapeth oars. and too late repents. “See next the wretches. Who know’st it all. Who here proceed.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and became Diviners: baneful witcheries they wrought With images and herbs.

and by turns subsiding and fall.” E’en thus the cook bestirs him. Nor ever after thief a mastiff loos’d Sped with like eager haste. They grappled him with more than hundred hooks. All men are there. Cried “Here the hallow’d visage saves not: here Is other swimming than in Serchio’s wave. “keen-talon’d fiends! Lo! one of Santa Zita’s elders! Him Whelm ye beneath. that round Lim’d all the shore beneath. With storm and fury. While there I fix’d my ken below. But therein nought distinguish’d. as when dogs rush forth Upon the poor man’s back. in secret mayst thou filch. That land hath store of such. shrouded by the bridge. while I return for more. up advanc’d along the rock.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Impatient to behold that which beheld He needs must shun. in one mighty swell Heave.” Beyond the bridge’s head Therewith he pass’d. and reaching the sixth pier. the foot’s sinew griping fast. Behov’d him then a forehead terror-proof.” This said. by either haunch He held him. barterers: of ‘no’ For lucre there an ‘aye’ is quickly made. behind a craggy rock Bend low and screen thee. with wings Buoyant outstretch’d and feet of nimblest tread! His shoulder proudly eminent and sharp Was with a sinner charg’d. “Ye of our bridge!” he cried. I turn’d myself as one. fear thou not: For I am well advis’d. Wherein I stood. who have been erst In the like fray. But those dark demons. that it float not on the top. Me then my guide bespake: “Lest they descry. That he his flight delays not for the view. save the surge. o’er the rough rock he turn’d. That running. who suddenly 59 . Rais’d by the boiling. That other sank And forthwith writing to the surface rose. And shouted: “Cover’d thou must sport thee here. if thou canst.Hell Boil’d here a glutinous thick mass. “Mark! mark!” my guide Exclaiming. So. Ah!what fierce cruelty his look bespake! In act how bitter did he seem. drew me towards him from the place. Take heed thou mount not o’er the pitch. or insult. whom sudden fear unmans. To thrust the flesh into the caldron down With flesh-hooks. That thou art here.” Him dashing down. I that beheld. and whate’er of force Be offer’d me. with his grooms. Wherefore if thou desire we rend thee not. Behind me I discern’d a devil black. Except Bonturo.

that he let drop The instrument of torture at his feet. and against him Their weapons all they pointed. come forth from amongst you one. safely now to me return. Turn’d rapid round. one the other thus bespake: “Wilt thou I touch him on the hip?” To whom Was answer’d: “Even so.” Forthwith so fell his pride. The others standing firm. Yesterday. that I should lead Another through this savage wilderness.Hell From whence he standeth makes his suit. “Believ’st thou. Another rock will yield you passage safe. Malacoda! I had come Thus far from all your skirmishing secure. mine eyes With fixt and motionless observance bent On their unkindly visage. “Go. so rush’d Those from beneath the arch. and thus the demon spake: “Stay. Who having heard my words. 60 . Malacoda!” Whereat one advanc’d. nor miss thy aim. Twelve hundred threescore years and six had fill’d The circuit of their course. later by five hours than now. And to the rest exclaim’d: “We have no power To strike him. He aloud: “Be none of you outrageous: ere your time Dare seize me. who was in conf’rence with my guide. lest his covenant The foe should break. With them Go ye: for ye shall find them nothing fell. once I saw Th’ infantry dreading. But would you still proceed. decide he then If he shall tear these limbs. who shall espy If any on the surface bask.” Then to me my guide: “O thou! Who on the bridge among the crags dost sit Low crouching. Up by this cavern go: not distant far.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Scarmiglione!” Then to us He added: “Further footing to your step This rock affords not. so close he hemm’d them round. shiver’d to the base Of the sixth arch.” They shouted loud. “What may this turn avail him?” he exclaim’d. “without will divine And destiny propitious? Pass we then For so Heaven’s pleasure is. since here the way Was broken. Thus issuing from Caprona. I to my leader’s side adher’d. and as he came. and towards him moved with speed: the fiends Meantime all forward drew: me terror seiz’d Lest they should break the compact they had made.” I rose. stay thee. They their hooks Protruding.” My teacher answered. Thitherward I straight dispatch Certain of these my scouts.” But he.

Which he with sound obscene triumphant gave. that. in sign To mariners. horse nor foot. dost not mark How they do gnarl upon us. now of bells. With the ten demons on our way we went. that tack’d by sign from land or star.” To leftward o’er the pier they turn’d. And with inventions multiform. to mark All things whate’er the chasm contain’d. In safety lead them. Unless thy prudence fail thee. and those Who burn’d within.” with that he cried. Arezzo! have I seen. and Cagnazzo thou! The troop of ten let Barbariccia lead. Which. if thou know the way. Light-armed squadrons and fleet foragers Scouring thy plains. journey we alone. but each Had first between his teeth prest close the tongue. Still earnest on the pitch I gaz’d. Nor ship. as they will. Or introduc’d from foreign land. but ne’er To such a strange recorder I beheld. And Farfarello. where the other crag Uninterrupted traverses the dens. heave high their arched backs. That thence forewarn’d they may advise to save 61 . and tilting jousts. or signals made from castled heights. or in muster rang’d. Tabors. Grafflacane fierce. To onset sallying. Or in retreat sometimes outstretch’d for flight.Hell Come Alichino forth. our own. Ah fearful company! but in the church With saints. As dolphins. and their scowl Threatens us present tortures?” He replied: “I charge thee fear not: let them. Fang’d Ciriatto. For these. and mad Rubicant. Now with the sound of trumpets. “And Calcabrina. Search ye around the bubbling tar. Gnarl on: ‘t is but in token of their spite Against the souls. I covet not. with gluttons at the tavern’s mess. Toward their leader for a signal looking. who mourn in torment steep’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . CANTO XXII It hath been heretofore my chance to see Horsemen with martial order shifting camp. In evolution moving.” I then: “O master! what a sight is there! Ah! without escort. And clashing tournaments. With Libicocco Draghinazzo haste.

Seizing him with both arms: “Stand thou apart. And mangled bore away the sinewy part.” he replied. ‘Twixt evil claws The mouse had fall’n: but Barbariccia cried. Him Draghinazzo by his thighs beneath 62 . While I do fix him on my prong transpierc’d.” My leader thus: “Then tell us of the partners in thy guilt. “But now from one. Knowest thou any sprung of Latian land Under the tar?”—”I parted. E’en as the frogs. so they Drew back under the wave. if more thou wish to learn. as from a boar. To ease the pain his back some sinner show’d. on whom their hand His foes have laid.” Shouted together all the cursed crew. Ere he again be rent.” My leader to his side Approach’d. So were I under shelter now with him! Nor hook nor talon then should scare me more.” Straight Ciriatto. As it befalls that oft one frog remains. seiz’d on his arm. Each Already by their names I knew.” Libicocco cried. darting forth a prong. turning to my guide his face.” Then added. master! if thou may. Who of the fiends was nearest. That he appear’d to me an otter. at intervals. A spendthrift of his substance and himself. Then hid more nimbly than the lightning glance.Hell Their threaten’d vessels. The good king Thibault after that I serv’d. one. and dragg’d him sprawling up. and yet My heart doth stagger. I observ’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . grappling seiz’d His clotted locks. with the jaws only out. I saw. Then. Ript him with one of these. For she had borne me to a losel vile. so. so well When they were chosen. from whose mouth a tusk Issued on either side. to whom Was answer’d thus: “Born in Navarre’s domain My mother plac’d me in a lord’s retinue. While the next springs away: and Graffiacan. and mark’d How one the other call’d. who sojourn’d not far thence. that of a wat’ry moat Stand at the brink.”— “Too long we suffer. “Inquire of him. “O Rubicant! See that his hide thou with thy talons flay. Thus on each part the sinners stood. Whereof I give account in this dire heat. that waited thus. Then I: “Inform thee. To peculating here my thoughts were turn’d. but soon As Barbariccia was at hand. Their feet and of the trunk all else concealed. and whence he came inquir’d. What wretched soul is this.

who was the hardest to persuade. thou cam’st to shore?”— “It was the friar Gomita. to plunge him down. him bespake: “If thou do cast thee down. Who had his master’s enemies in hand. “He of Gallura. Money he took. The spirit of Navarre chose well his time. how he grins! More would I say. from whom by evil hap Parting. remaining in this self-same place. whence angrily their chief. Of him.” he rejoin’d. Mischievous as he is. But tremble lest he mean to maul me sore.Hell Would next have caught. My teacher thus without delay inquir’d: “Who was the spirit. Then wagg’d the head and spake: “Hear his device. of new sport expect to hear! They each one turn’d his eyes to the’ other shore. When their strife a little ceas’d. Who roll’d his moony eyes in act to strike. that we may see If singly thou prevail against us all. with threat’ning brow Restrain’d them. and at one leap 63 .” Their captain then to Farfarello turning. the rest gainsaying. And I. reader. whereof their tongue Is never weary. When my shrill whistle shall be heard. but above the pitch will beat My plumes. Quit we the vantage ground. I will cause them to appear. Sardinia is a theme. So that no vengeance they may fear from them.” Cagnazzo at that word deriding grinn’d. And us’d them so that they commend him well. He first.” he thus Quaking with dread resum’d. Meantime let these ill talons bate their fury. play’d the part Of barterer to the height: with him doth herd The chief of Logodoro. So he reports: and in each other charge Committed to his keeping. who fail’d not in rich store Of nice-wove toils.The Divine Comedy of Dante . make sev’n appear. who yet was gazing on his wound. I not on foot Will chase thee. and let The bank be as a shield. Michel Zanche. “ Mischief forsooth extreme. “or Tuscan spirits Or Lombard.” Whereto he thus. Planted his feet on land. Meant only to procure myself more woe!” No longer Alichino then refrain’d. vessel of all guile. Turning on all sides round. Will for myself but one. Out! alas! behold That other. Rebuk’d him thus: “Off! cursed bird! Avaunt!”— “If ye desire to see or hear. as thou has told.” Now. But thus. and them at large dismiss’d. for so Our custom is to call each other up.

Which added doubly to my former fear. “if speedily 64 . but in vain To lift themselves they strove. And in the boiling lake both fell. to their post on each side speedily Descending. where he told What fate unto the mouse and frog befell. So afterward from that another sprang. and look’d eager back. exclaiming. than the savage hound Snatches the leveret. Barbariccia. The present fray had turn’d my thoughts to muse Upon old Aesop’s fable.” I thus began. And as one thought bursts from another forth.” Already I perceiv’d my hair stand all On end with terror. For language hath not sounds more like in sense. “Thou art caught. And he with upward pinion rais’d his breast: E’en thus the water-fowl. As needs must sting them sore. when she perceives The falcon near. more fell They shall pursue us. The heat Was umpire soon between them. who flew After him. the other following his steps. “Teacher. with loss and mock’ry so complete. stretch’d their hooks toward the fiends. And. but the’ other prov’d A goshawk able to rend well his foe. dives instant down.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That chance lamenting. If anger then Be to their evil will conjoin’d. That mockery In Calcabrina fury stirr’d. in pursuit He therefore sped. Them quick resentment stung. For thus I reason’d: “These through us have been So foil’d. panting ‘twixt his jaws. Who flounder’d. inly burning from their scars: And we departing left them to that broil. As minor friars journeying on their road. CANTO XXIII In silence and in solitude we went. so turn’d His talons on his comrade.Hell Escaping disappointed their resolve. Than are these chances. as the rest. so fast were glued Their pennons. O’er the dyke In grapple close they join’d. four in flight dispatch’d From the’ other coast. with desire of strife inflam’d. One first. if the origin And end of each be heedfully compar’d. Who was the cause of failure.” But little it avail’d: terror outstripp’d His following flight: the other plung’d beneath. They. for the barterer had ‘scap’d. but him the most. with all their weapons arm’d. while he Enrag’d and spent retires.

Suddenly my guide Caught me. and wept. Their outside Was overlaid with gold. Not a companion. much I dread Those evil talons. and near her sees The climbing fires. Even now behind They urge us: quick imagination works So forcibly. This moment came thy thoughts Presented before mine.” He had not spoke his purpose to the end. If the right coast Incline so much. Carrying me in his bosom. so that from both I one design have fram’d. When nearest it approaches to the spokes. who snatches up her babe And flies ne’er pausing. There in the depth we saw a painted tribe. Never ran water with such hurrying pace Adown the tube to turn a landmill’s wheel. As then along that edge my master ran. I should not sooner draw unto myself Thy outward image. on their dismal moan intent. than I now imprint That from within. so slowly came The fainting people. that I already feel them. in fashion like to those Worn by the monks in Cologne. that our company 65 . with similar act And count’nance similar. that fell low down Before their eyes. Caps had they on. ev’n as a mother that from sleep Is by the noise arous’d. to that pendent rock.Hell Thyself and me thou hide not. careful more of him Than of herself. Who pac’d with tardy steps around. Power of departing thence took from them all. Which plac’d them ministers of the fifth foss. with hoods. That Frederick’s compar’d to these were straw. Scarcely had his feet Reach’d to the lowest of the bed beneath. but fear In him was none. But leaden all within. and of such weight. that but a single vest Clings round her limbs.’’ He answer’d: “Were I form’d of leaded glass. we shall escape Secure from this imagined pursuit. Faint in appearance and o’ercome with toil. that we may thence descend Into the other chasm. When over us the steep they reach’d. When I from far beheld them with spread wings Approach to take us. Which closes on one part the other chasm. for that high Providence. dazzling to view.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But by the weight oppress’d. Oh. as a child. everlasting wearisome attire! We yet once more with them together turn’d To leftward. Down from the jutting beach Supine he cast him.

” Then one. throughout Distorted. whom intent Thou view’st. but spake not: then turning each To other thus conferring said: “This one Seems. Gardingo’s vicinage can best declare. “In the great city I was bred and grew. Perchance from me thou shalt obtain thy wish. by the action of his throat. who visitest The college of the mourning hypocrites. Joyous friars we were. what privilege allows They walk unmantled by the cumbrous stole?” Then thus to me: “Tuscan. when he saw me. but the load they bare And narrow path retarded their approach. And to that end look round thee as thou go’st. He doth lie Transverse. as men used to take A single and indifferent arbiter. who thereof was ‘ware.Hell Was chang’d at every movement of the step. And wear the body I have ever worn. but him first 66 . alive.” One of them answer’d.” I staid. and by thy land Together taken.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That with their weight they make the balances To crack beneath them. Fix’d to a cross with three stakes on the ground: He. How there we sped. Catalano I. As now I witness. writh’d himself. ruffling with deep sighs his beard. me bespake: “Pause.” “By Arno’s pleasant stream. whose name may by his deeds be known. He Loderingo nam’d. nor any passes. was he who gave the Pharisees Counsel. Bologna’s natives. but who are ye. Cried after us aloud: “Hold in your feet. for one had caught my eye. And. that it were fitting for one man To suffer for the people. be they dead. who understood the Tuscan voice. “your miseries—” But there brake off. they with an eye askance Perus’d me. and then onward at their pace proceed.” “O friars!” I began. Disdain not to instruct us who thou art. Thus spake: “That pierced spirit. And Catalano. courseth down your cheeks? What torment breaks forth in this bitter woe?” “Our bonnets gleaming bright with orange hue. and saw two Spirits in whose look Impatient eagerness of mind was mark’d To overtake me. from whom such mighty grief.” Whereat my leader. “are so leaden gross. turning. Ye who so swiftly speed through the dusk air. Whence I my guide address’d: “See that thou find Some spirit.” I thus replied. Soon as arriv’d. To reconcile their strifes.

‘He is a liar. save that here his cope Is shatter’d. Somewhat disturb’d with anger in his look. Among the rest was said.” To whom the friar: At Bologna erst I many vices of the devil heard. and most the height Rises below. Who yonder hangs the sinners on his hook. without constraint On the dark angels. finding e’en thus soon The world hath chang’d its count’nance. As a discomfited and helpless man. then riseth up The village hind. and the rest Partakers in that council. And now towards equal day the nights recede.” He thus replied: “Nearer than thou dost hope.” With head bent down awhile My leader stood. If so be lawful. which o’ersteps Each vale of horror. To the friar He next his words address’d: “We pray ye tell. Thus abjectly extended on the cross In banishment eternal. In straits like this along the foss are plac’d The father of his consort. I therefore left the spirits heavy laden. whereby We both may issue hence.” I noted then. Then comes he forth again. there is a rock From the next circle moving. whether on our right Lies any opening in the rock. And the father of lies!’” When he had spoke. CANTO XXIV In the year’s early nonage. When as the rime upon the earth puts on Her dazzling sister’s image. his beloved footsteps mark’d. My leader with large strides proceeded on. and feels new hope Spring in his bosom. that compell’d they come To lead us from this depth. but not long Her milder sway endures. when the sun Tempers his tresses in Aquarius’ urn. seed of ill And sorrow to the Jews. then spake: “He warn’d us ill. whom fails his wintry store.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And following. And looking out beholds the plain around All whiten’d. and to his hut returning in. grasps his crook.Hell Behoves make feeling trial how each weighs. By the ruin ye may mount: For on the side it slants. whence impatiently he smites His thighs. And forth to pasture drives his little flock: So me my guide dishearten’d when I saw 67 . There paces to and fro. wailing his lot. How Virgil gaz’d with wonder upon him.

for at the fallen bridge Arriving.” Said he. But Malebolge all toward the mouth Inclining of the nethermost abyss. As smoke in air or foam upon the wave. but who spake 68 . Though on the arch that crosses there I stood. while he works. and some counsel first maintain’d With his own thought. Could mount. “For I am stout and fearless. Narrower and steeper far to climb. as we journey’d. that he seems Still to foresee the’ effect. Regarding well The ruin. The site of every valley hence requires. Scarcely he. nor under shade Of canopy reposing. Thou therefore rise: vanish thy weariness By the mind’s effort.” I straightway rose. though light.The Divine Comedy of Dante . he open’d wide his arm And took me up. “On. “Now needs thy best of man. “Grapple that. And if the precinct of this coast Were not less ample than the last. And I. as that I first beheld At the steep mountain’s foot. and so speedily That ill was cur’d. What were the words I knew not. whereat a voice from the other foss Did issue forth. So was the breath exhausted from my lungs.Hell His troubled forehead. Computes his labour’s issue. so lifting me Up to the summit of one peak. He turn’d him back. so to seem Least faint. but did seat me there. That one side upward slope. though onward push’d from crag to crag. who. more rugged than before.” Up the rock Our way we held. and show’d myself less spent Than I in truth did feel me. A longer ladder yet remains to scale.”I cried. At length the point of our descent we reach’d From the last flag: soon as to that arriv’d. the other fall. if she suffer not the weight Of her corporeal frame to crush her down. if it be such As will sustain thee. profit by my words. fame is won.” so spake my guide: “For not on downy plumes. in each struggle form’d To vanquish. Without which whosoe’er consumes his days Leaveth such vestige of himself on earth. “but first make proof. I could no further. but my strength had surely fail’d. As one. for him I know not. From talk I ceas’d not. for utt’rance suited ill. he fix’d His eye upon another. From these to have escap’d sufficeth not. If well thou note me.” For one capp’d with lead This were no journey. towards me with a look as sweet.

where To the eighth mound it joins. And lo! on one Near to our side. that remembrance in my veins Yet shrinks the vital current. darted an adder up. To fair request Silent performance maketh best return. Of her sands Let Lybia vaunt no more: if Jaculus. When there dissolv’d he lay. Cenchris and Amphisboena. by force demoniac dragg’d To earth. but tears of frankincense alone And odorous amomum: swaths of nard And myrrh his funeral shroud. risen from his trance. “but by the deed. all pour’d out upon the earth. the dust again Uproll’d spontaneous. bend thy steps.”—”I answer not. He knows not how. so strange of shape And hideous. burn’d. Bewilder’d with the monstrous agony He hath endur’d. Transpierc’d him. Pareas and Chelyder be her brood.Hell Seem’d mov’d in anger. he kindled. that deals out 69 .” Said he. wherefore thus I spake: “To the next circle. gazeth around. for as hence I hear and understand not. As one that falls. Teacher. so I see Beneath. Oh! how severe God’s judgment. and the self-same form Instant resumed. But my quick eye might reach not to the depth For shrouding darkness. Or heliotrope to charm them out of view. So stood aghast the sinner when he rose. And. and chang’d To ashes. and springs forthwith Renascent. With serpents were their hands behind them bound. The’ Arabian Phoenix. when five hundred years Have well nigh circled. Amid this dread exuberance of woe Ran naked spirits wing’d with horrid fear. Far more quickly than e’er pen Wrote O or I. plagues so dire Or in such numbers swarming ne’er she shew’d. I saw a crowd within Of serpents terrible. and naught discern.” We from the bridge’s head descended. Which through their reins infix’d the tail and head Twisted in folds before. Blade nor herb throughout his life He tastes. or through obstruction fettering up In chains invisible the powers of man. Down I stoop’d to look.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Not with all Ethiopia. Who. And from the wall dismount we. Nor hope had they of crevice where to hide. dies. and wildly staring sighs. and whate’er Above the Erythraean sea is spawn’d. and then the chasm Opening to view. So mighty sages tell. where the neck is on the shoulders tied.

” CANTO XXV When he had spoke. riveting itself So close. that grief may rend thy heart. Who in Pistoia found my worthy den. And with the guilt another falsely charged. Not long since rained down from Tuscany To this dire gullet. And ask what crime did thrust him hither: once A man I knew him choleric and bloody. wherein Was dismal shame depictur’d. but towards me His mind directing and his face.Hell Such blows in stormy vengeance! Who he was My teacher next inquir’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And sharp and eager driveth on the storm With arrowy hurtling o’er Piceno’s field. So as thou e’er shalt ‘scape this darksome realm Open thine ears and hear what I forebode. I have no power permitted to deny What thou inquirest. tied them. for round his neck One of then rolling twisted. mule that I was. since in evil act so far Thou hast outdone thy seed? I did not mark. thus he spake: “It grieves me more to have been caught by thee In this sad plight. for that the sacristy by me Was rifled of its goodly ornaments. But that thou mayst not joy to see me thus. Spirit. God! I level them at thee!” From that day forth The serpents were my friends. Me the beastial life And not the human pleas’d. A vapour rises. the sinner rais’d his hands Pointed in mockery.” I then to Virgil: “Bid him stir not hence. “Be silent. and thus in few He answer’d: “Vanni Fucci am I call’d. Through all the gloomy circles of the’ abyss. From Valdimagra. 70 . Whence suddenly the cloud shall burst. wrapt in turbid mists. it took from them the power to move. Then Florence changeth citizens and laws. as it said. than When I was taken from the other life. and cried: “Take them. cumb’ring earth No longer. tongue!” Another to his arms Upgliding. which thou beholdest. Reft of the Neri first Pistoia pines. and strike Each helpless Bianco prostrate to the ground.” The sinner heard and feign’d not. Pistoia! Ah Pistoia! why dost doubt To turn thee into ashes. that swell’d so proudly ‘gainst his God. drawn by wrathful Mars.” I am doom’d thus low To dwell. This have I told.

No marvel. To me my guide: “Cacus is this. till they exclaim’d. the hinder on the thighs Were spread. Of the four lengths 71 . A brown tint glides. from his brethren parted. Each melted into other. But. “Where.” said he. that one Had need to name another. mingling hues. He fled. for his fraudful theft Of the great herd. whence found His felon deeds their end. how dost thou change. for myself do scarce allow The witness of mine eyes. The other two Look’d on exclaiming: “Ah. Ivy ne’er clasp’d A dodder’d oak. not turning yet to black.Hell Not him. He. shouting. and after him there came A centaur full of fury. and fastens full upon him: His midmost grasp’d the belly. who headlong fell from Thebes. as round the other’s limbs The hideous monster intertwin’d his own. a forefoot Seiz’d on each arm (while deep in either cheek He flesh’d his fangs). Intent on these alone. to where the human face begins. ‘twixt which the tail inserted curl’d Upon the reins behind. “Doth Cianfa lurk?” I. Thus up the shrinking paper. of whom Nor I nor he was ware. and not the tenth was felt. Behind his head upon the shoulders lay. as they both had been of burning wax.” The two heads now became One. as it chanceth oft. That which was either now was seen no more. befell. ere it burns. O reader! now Thou be not apt to credit what I tell. as on his haunch They swarm’d. “Where Where is the caitiff?” On Maremma’s marsh Swarm not the serpent tribe. that perchance laid on A hundred blows. for a sign my guide Should stand attentive. who underneath the rock Of Aventine spread oft a lake of blood. But as I looked Toward them. “Say who are ye?” We then brake off discourse. And the clean white expires. Nor utter’d more. Then. beneath the mace Of stout Alcides. With open wings. I knew them not. where both were lost. If. a dragon breathing fire On whomsoe’er he met. the centaur sped away: And under us three spirits came. that near him stall’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Agnello! See! Thou art nor double now. and two figures blended in one form Appear’d. here must tread A different journey.” While yet he spake. Nor only one. plac’d against my lips The finger lifted. lo! a serpent with six feet Springs forth on one.

So toward th’ entrails of the other two Approaching seem’d. whose vap’ry columns join’d. Two yet neither seem’d That image miscreate. One he transpierc’d. his indurated to a rind. As never eye hath seen. I envy not. lo! upon his feet One upright rose. and the pierc’d spirit Drew close his steps together. which in the wretch Was cleft in twain. to a snake Him chang’d. Of him who stood erect. then down before him fell Stretch’d out. They in mutual guise So answer’d. the mounting face 72 . The feet behind then twisting up became That part that man conceals. whose two shorter feet So lengthen’d. He ey’d the serpent. yea stood motionless and yawn’d. Nasidius! Ovid now be mute. Wherein both shapes were ready to assume The other’s substance. that no sign of juncture soon Was visible: the tail disparted took The figure which the spirit lost. Not yet their glaring and malignant lamps Were shifted. Shifting from brake to brake. whence our life is nourish’d first. that lays bare the fields. As the dark pepper-grain. What if in warbling fiction he record Cadmus and Arethusa. an adder all on fire. Lucan in mute attention now may hear. and her into a fountain clear. One from the wound. peeling it off From th’ other body. Nor shine. The pierced spirit look’d on him But spake not. the other from the mouth Breath’d a thick smoke. While both the shadowy smoke With a new colour veils. for never face to face Two natures thus transmuted did he sing. Sabellus! tell.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The shoulders next I mark’d. Of former shape All trace was vanish’d. though each feature chang’d beneath. legs and thighs Compacted. that the serpent split his train Divided to a fork. if he thwart the road. As if by sleep or fev’rous fit assail’d.Hell Two arms were made: the belly and the chest The thighs and legs into such members chang’d. In that part. as the other’s dwindling shrunk. and prone the other fell. and generates Th’ excrescent pile on one. the lizard seems A flash of lightning. livid and swart. and so pass’d on With tardy steps. that ent’ring join’d The monster’s arm-pits. and the serpent him. its skin Soft’ning. Nor thy disastrous fate. As underneath the scourge Of the fierce dog-star.

His tongue continuous before and apt For utt’rance. meanwhile extends His sharpen’d visage. thou ere long Shalt feel what Prato. But if our minds. as I have done. and drew me up the steep.Hell Retreated towards the temples. He. transform’d into the brute. as doth the slug his horns. The other’s fate. not backward dragg’d. and swell’d Into due size protuberant the lips. and the other’s fork Closing unites. whence shame to me thy son. on the earth who lay. if it befell thee now. and draws down the ears Into the head. still dost rue. and that chance Were in good time. 73 . and after him The other talking sputters. Sped not our feet without the help of hands. Are of the truth presageful. As my thought turns again to what I saw. that o’er land and sea thy wings Thou beatest. who chang’d not: thou. and in few Thus to another spake: “Along this path Crawling.The Divine Comedy of Dante . O’er mine eyes Confusion hung. shot out in ears From the smooth cheeks. And no proud honour to thyself redounds. glides off. Pursuing thus our solitary way Among the crags and splinters of the rock. The soul. Of its excess did shape the nose. when dreaming near the dawn. which late We downward trac’d. since it must needs befall! For as time wears me. That done the smoke was laid. and my guide Remounting scal’d the flinty steps. speed Buoso now!” So saw I fluctuate in successive change Th’ unsteady ballast of the seventh hold: And here if aught my tongue have swerv’d. and what there Superfluous matter came. but well I mark’d Sciancato: he alone it was Of the three first that came. We from the depth departed. Hissing along the vale. Gaville. (not to say the rest) Would fain might come upon thee. severs. I shall grieve the more. CANTO XXVI Florence exult! for thou so mightily Hast thriven. and on my thoughts amaze. events So strange may be its warrant. Then sorrow seiz’d me. and thy name spreads over hell! Among the plund’rers such the three I found Thy citizens. which e’en now revives. the rest. Would so it were. Yet ‘scap’d they not so covertly. but soon turn’d His new-grown shoulders on him.

beneath him sees Fire-flies innumerous spangling o’er the vale.” I answer’d. “O master! think my prayer a thousand fold In repetition urg’d. that if aught of good My gentle star. Though push’d not from the height. Straining pursu’d them. that Troy Of her Palladium spoil’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . thus to vengeance now Together hasting. apparent. yet I deem’d Already of the truth. or something better gave me. the peasant then Upon some cliff reclin’d. I envy not myself the precious boon.Hell And. These in the flame with ceaseless groans deplore The ambush of the horse. at its departure saw Elijah’s chariot. who is in yon fire. that thou vouchsafe To pause. already wish’d To ask thee. nor less the guile Lament they. who mark’d How I did gaze attentive. As he. Upon the bridge I forward bent to look. Vineyard or tilth. when the depth Was to my view expos’d. And grasp’d a flinty mass. till the flame alone Upsoaring like a misty speck he kenn’d. when the sun least veils His face that lightens all. And there is rued the stratagem. 74 . as erewhile to wrath. Which sow’d imperial Rome. “hath assur’d me. E’en thus along the gulf moves every flame. That none exhibits token of the theft. As in that season. his eyes meanwhile. or else had fall’n. where his day-labour lies: With flames so numberless throughout its space Shone the eighth chasm. A sinner so enfolded close in each.”—”If they have power Of utt’rance from within these sparks. whose wrongs The bears aveng’d. when the steeds erect Rais’d their steep flight for heav’n. that comes So parted at the summit. as it seem’d Ascending from that funeral pile. thus began: “Within these ardours are the spirits. The guide. more than I am wont. thy word. what time the fly Gives way to the shrill gnat. till here the horned flame arrive. each Swath’d in confining fire.”—”Master. whence of her Achilles ‘reft Deidamia yet in death complains.” said I. lest they run Where Virtue guides not. where lay The Theban brothers?” He replied: “Within Ulysses there and Diomede endure Their penal tortures. that open’d wide A portal for that goodly seed to pass. I rein and curb The powers of nature in me.

Hell See.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Forth I sail’d Into the deep illimitable main. “who to the west Through perils without number now have reach’d. nor reverence Of my old father. To the dawn 75 . might shun discourse with thee. and search the ways of life. That should have crown’d Penelope with joy. Threw out its voice. For I divine thy wish: and they perchance. by her charms. when we came To the strait pass. he thus began: “O ye. Nor fondness for my son. and spake: “When I escap’d From Circe. To this the short remaining watch. Move ye not on. “O brothers!” I began. following the track Of Phoebus. till one of you unfold In what clime death o’ertook him self-destroy’d. The walls of Seville to my right I left. And I accept it therefore: but do thou Thy tongue refrain: to question them be mine. that yet Our senses have to wake.” He thus: “Thy prayer is worthy of much praise.” When there the flame had come. how toward it with desire I bend. that I then Could scarcely have withheld them. And the Sardinian and each isle beside Which round that ocean bathes. refuse not proof Of the unpeopled world. For they were Greeks. Man’s evil and his virtue. With but one bark. Call to mind from whence we sprang: Ye were not form’d to live the life of brutes But virtue to pursue and knowledge high. as a fire That labours with the wind. where time and place Seem’d fitting to my guide. Tardy with age Were I and my companions. As Iberia far. On the’ other hand already Ceuta past. Could overcome in me the zeal I had T’ explore the world. as a tongue uttering sounds. Whate’er the measure were of that desert. murmuring. where Hercules ordain’d The bound’ries not to be o’erstepp’d by man. When in the world my lofty strain I pour’d. nor return of love.” Of the old flame forthwith the greater horn Began to roll. who dwell two spirits in one fire! If living I of you did merit aught. With these few words I sharpen’d for the voyage The mind of my associates. who beyond a circling year Had held me near Caieta. and the small faithful band That yet cleav’d to me. Ere thus Aeneas yet had nam’d the shore. then to and fro Wagging the top. Far as Morocco either shore I saw.

Each star of the’ other pole night now beheld. that from the ocean-floor It rose not. and for the witless flight Made our oars wings. the fourth time lifted up The poop. When. betwixt Urbino and the height. whence I draw my sum of guilt. and I spake without delay: CANTO XXVII Now upward rose the flame. when following came Another. Up from the point. Whence Tyber first unlocks his mighty flood.” My reply Was ready. these sounds we heard: “O thou! to whom I now direct my voice! That lately didst exclaim in Lombard phrase.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I solicit thee no more. If but e’en now thou fall into this blind world.” Leaning I listen’d yet with heedful ear. and still’d its light To speak no more. from that pleasant land Of Latium. that the brazen monster seem’d Pierc’d through with pain. as oft Vanish’d the light from underneath the moon Since the deep way we enter’d. And ours so low.Hell Our poop we turn’d. who in Romagna dwell. thus while no way they found Nor avenue immediate through the flame. Forth issuing. Depart thou.’ Though somewhat tardy I perchance arrive Let it not irk thee here to pause awhile. As the Sicilian bull. 76 . and sank the prow: so fate decreed: And over us the booming billow clos’d. Joy seiz’d us straight. and at her foremost side Did strike the vessel. Thrice it whirl’d her round With all the waves. the leader thus: “Speak thou: he is a Latian. For of the mountains there Was I. But soon to mourning changed. drew our eyes that way to look. who had shap’d its mould. and now pass’d on with leave From the mild poet gain’d. Into its language turn’d the dismal words: But soon as they had won their passage forth. loftiest methought Of all I e’er beheld. from whose top a sound confus’d. with the voice of him Tormented. still gaining on the left. Have peace or war. Five times re-illum’d. From the new land A whirlwind sprung. Tell me if those. which vibrating obey’d Their motion at the tongue. when from far Appear’d a mountain dim. And with me parley: lo! it irks not me And yet I burn. as he touch’d my side. that rightfully His cries first echoed.” Did so rebellow.

I cloth’d me then In good Saint Francis’ girdle. that stood erewhile the proof so long. “A man of arms at first. That which before had pleased me then I rued. Wretch that I was! and well it had bested me! The chief of the new Pharisees meantime. And how and wherefore listen while I tell. hoping so T’ have made amends. Or ever summer yields to winter’s frost. And pil’d in bloody heap the host of France. There Polenta’s eagle broods. when each behoves To lower sails and gather in the lines. but that he. The green talons grasp The land. still make. nor is now: But open war there left I none. whose flank is wash’d of Savio’s wave. If true be told me. Long as this spirit mov’d the bones and pulp My mother gave me. Lives so ‘twixt tyrant power and liberty. I answer thee. All ways of winding subtlety I knew. that the sound Reach’d the world’s limit. Nor fear lest infamy record the words. The’ high priest again seduc’d me into sin. I entreat thee. Where they are wont. And certainly my hope Had fail’d not. So may thy name still rear its forehead high. “Lamone’s city and Santerno’s range Under the lion of the snowy lair. Who ever could return unto the world. And she.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who art thou? Be not more hard than others. As ‘twixt the level and the steep she lies. Inconstant partisan! that changeth sides. And in his broad circumference of plume O’ershadows Cervia.Hell “O spirit! who art hidden here below! Never was thy Romagna without war In her proud tyrants’ bosoms. Ravenna hath maintain’d this many a year. an augre of their fangs. The state. In the world.” Then roar’d awhile the fire. less my deeds bespake The nature of the lion than the fox. “Now tell us. its sharpen’d point On either side wav’d. But since ne’er. and thus breath’d at last: “If I did think. And with such art conducted. my answer were to one. Is steadfast. Soon as to that part Of life I found me come. whom curses light on. And to repentance and confession turn’d. 77 . “The’ old mastiff of Verruchio and the young. Waging his warfare near the Lateran. This flame should rest unshaken. That tore Montagna in their wrath. any from this depth Has found his upward way.

I and my leader. and the judge Twin’d eight times round his callous back the tail. but a cherub dark He met. Large promise with performance scant. Nor to repent and will at once consist. Shall make thee triumph in thy lofty seat. No power can the impenitent absolve. then came Saint Francis for me. he spake: “This is a guilty soul.” When he had thus fulfill’d his words. who cried: “‘Wrong me not. beating to and fro. hov’ring at his hair. Heav’n.” To Minos down he bore me.” Oh mis’ry! how I shook myself. He his great charge nor sacred ministry In himself. be sure. nor against Acre one Had fought. I have power to shut And open: and the keys are therefore twain. And answer’d: “Father! since thou washest me Clear of that guilt wherein I now must fall. nor traffic’d in the Soldan’s land). The which my predecessor meanly priz’d. So me to cure the fever of his pride This man besought: my counsel to that end He ask’d: and I was silent: for his words Seem’d drunken: but forthwith he thus resum’d: “From thy heart banish fear: of all offence I hitherto absolve thee. rev’renc’d. In return. that overhangs The foss. “Thou haply thought’st me not A disputant in logic so exact. he is mine. wherein the penalty is paid Of those.’ Hence perdition-doom’d I rove A prey to rankling sorrow in this garb.Hell Not with the Saracens or Jews (his foes All Christians were. 78 .The Divine Comedy of Dante . Far as another arch. nor in me that cord.” Then. E’er since I watch’d him. Of silence as more perilous I deem’d. By contradiction absolute forbid. yielding to the forceful arguments. Teach me my purpose so to execute. Constantine besought To cure his leprosy Sylvester’s aid. As in Socrate. that in the fire Must vanish. For the deceitful counsel which he gave. That Penestrino cumber earth no more. We onward went. And must below to join the wretched crew. and cried. as thou knowest. Which us’d to mark with leanness whom it girded.” “When I was number’d with the dead. Which biting with excess of rage. the flame In dolour parted. And writhing its sharp horn. up along the rock. who load them with committed sin. when he Seiz’d me.

If in one band Collected. And cried. whose bones are gather’d yet At Ceperano. to the’ hideous sight Of the ninth chasm. And those the rest. As one I mark’d. I who am dead Must through the depths of hell. with the multitude.Hell CANTO XXVIII Who. But say who Art thou.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Though he repeated oft the tale? No tongue So vast a theme could equal. O Tagliacozzo. the midriff lay Open to view. a spectacle like this Were but a thing of nought. that standest musing on the rock. another his Clean lopt away. that felt The grinding force of Guiscard’s Norman steel. while they liv’d. “hath overta’en. there where treachery Branded th’ Apulian name. and his limbs One were to show transpierc’d. did sow Scandal and schism. That turns th’ englutted aliment to dross. “Now mark how I do rip me! lo! How is Mohammed mangled! before me Walks Ali weeping. and therefore thus are rent. that hath lost Its middle or side stave. but. stood the people all. without arms The old Alardo conquer’d. e’en in words unfetter’d. torn from the chin throughout Down to the hinder passage: ‘twixt the legs Dangling his entrails hung. Whilst eagerly I fix on him my gaze. who with his sword Hacks us thus cruelly. that he may make Full trial of your state. from the chin his face Cleft to the forelock. who e’er Pour’d on Apulia’s happy soil their blood. and in that long war When of the rings the measur’d booty made A pile so high. and wretched ventricle. might at full Tell of the wounds and blood that now I saw. speech and thought Both impotent alike. He ey’d me. slivering again Each of this ream. Haply so lingering to delay the pain Sentenc’d upon thy crimes?”—”Him death not yet. as Rome’s historian writes Who errs not. when we have compast round The dismal way. A fiend is here behind. Slain by the Trojans. from orb to orb. and the others all Whom here thou seest. for first our gashes close Ere we repass before him. gapes not so wide. 79 .” My guide rejoin’d. A rundlet. with his hands laid his breast bare. or where beyond Thy walls. nor sin Conducts to torment.

“O thou!” said ‘he. “Thou. then so shape his end. Pierc’d in the throat. on the ground Then fix’d it to depart. That they shall need not ‘gainst Focara’s wind Offer up vow nor pray’r. that with good store Of food he arm him. and bar’d His wind-pipe. And there instruct the twain. Stood in the foss to mark me. Another shade.Hell Conduct him. He speaks not for himself: the outcast this Who overwhelm’d the doubt in Caesar’s mind. call thou to mind Piero of Medicina. that without was all o’ersmear’d With crimson stain. if he wish not Here soon to follow me. when that they heard. “Oh how terrified Methought was Curio. for they are true. That one-ey’d traitor (Whose realm there is a spirit here were fain His eye had still lack’d sight of) them shall bring To conf’rence with him. they out of life’s tenement Shall be cast forth. lest impris’ning snows Yield him a victim to Novara’s power. Trust my words. cried: “Lo! this is he I wot of. Forgetful of their pangs. before the rest advanc’d. who with the rest through wonder stood Gazing. from whose throat was cut 80 . by pirates done Or Argive crew of old. whom Fano boasts Her worthiest sons. That if ‘t is giv’n us here to scan aright The future. thou behold’st the pleasant land That from Vercelli slopes to Mercabo.” I answering thus: “Declare. who perchance Shalt shortly view the sun. and whom erst (unless too near Resemblance do deceive me) I aloft Have seen on Latian ground. No easy conquest else. and his jaws Expanding. who is he.” With foot uprais’d For stepping.” More than a hundred spirits. his fellow-spirit. through perfidy Of a fell tyrant.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ne’er hath Neptune seen An injury so foul. this warning thou Bear to Dolcino: bid him. In whom that sight doth wake such sad remembrance?” Forthwith he laid his hand on the cheek-bone Of one. and one ear Lopt off. as thou dost wish that I above May carry tidings of thee. Affirming that delay to men prepar’d Was ever harmful. and whelm’d under the waves Near to Cattolica. if again Returning. his nostrils mutilate E’en from beneath the eyebrows. Guido and Angelo. through amazed. spake Mohammed. “whom sin Condemns not. ‘Twixt the Cyprian isle And Balearic.

which spake that hardy word. His arm aloft he rear’d. such as I may fear without more proof To tell of. my brain Parted. As one grief stung to madness. That in this trunk inhabits.” Whence heaping woe on woe he hurried off. But Virgil rous’d me: “What yet gazest on? Wherefore doth fasten yet thy sight below Among the maim’d and miserable shades? 81 . whom various wounds Disfigur’d.Hell The tongue. that they long’d to stay and weep.” CANTO XXIX So were mine eyes inebriate with view Of the vast multitude. ‘The deed once done there is an end. behold if any else Be terrible as this. I who. For Absalom And David more did not Ahitophel. A headless trunk. Father and son I set at mutual war. lantern-wise Pendent in hand. that they with gory spots Sullied his face. but that conscience makes me firm. and cried: “‘Remember thee Of Mosca. By the hair It bore the sever’d member. uplifted in the gloom The bleeding stumps.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and yet it seems to pass before me.” I added: “Ay. The boon companion. Then one Maim’d of each hand. who breathing go’st To spy the dead. and death to thine own tribe. Without doubt I saw. And two there were in one. “Woe’s me!” The spirit lighted thus himself. which look’d at us and said. he of Born. Spurring them on maliciously to strife.’ that prov’d A seed of sorrow to the Tuscan race. Thus the law Of retribution fiercely works in me. For parting those so closely knit. alas! I carry from its source. But I there Still linger’d to behold the troop. know that I Am Bertrand. and saw Things. thrusting the head Full in our view. who gave King John The counsel mischievous. alas! exclaim’d. that even as the rest Of the sad flock pac’d onward. How that may be he knows who ordereth so. that feels no guilt within And bids him on and fear not. that nearer we might hear The words. thou. which thus it utter’d: “Now behold This grievous torment. When at the bridge’s foot direct he stood. too. and one in two. who her strong breast-plate Buckles on him. And that on earth Thou mayst bear tidings of me.

” “If thou. Had heap’d their maladies all in one foss Together.” So we discours’d to where the rock first show’d The other valley. and already is the moon Beneath our feet: the time permitted now Is short. And adding thus: “Within that cave I deem. in the sultry time ‘Twixt July and September. Know. and the brotherhood Were to our view expos’d. the while I follow’d. and heard him by the others nam’d Geri of Bello. E’en to the lowest depth. one of my blood. Direct elsewhere Its thought.” said I.” Then spake my master: “Let thy soul no more Afflict itself for him. that I clos’d Both ears against the volley with mine hands. if thou wouldst number them That two and twenty miles the valley winds Its circuit. Whereon so fixedly I held my ken. as issuing steams from fester’d limbs. “hadst weigh’d the cause For which I look’d. Then my sight Was livelier to explore the depth.”—”O guide belov’d! His violent death yet unaveng’d. then many a dart Of sore lament assail’d me. and more not seen remains to see. Made him contemptuous: therefore. He pass’d me speechless by. All-searching Justice. “By any. thou hadst perchance excus’d The tarrying still.” I straight replied. At the bridge’s foot I mark’d how he did point with menacing look At thee. Thou so wholly then Wert busied with his spirit. that thou lookedst not That way. with the isle Sardinia and Maremma’s pestilent fen. Soon as we came O’er the last cloister in the dismal rounds Of Malebolge. headed all With points of thrilling pity. had more light been there. and leave him.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Hell Thou hast not shewn in any chasm beside This weakness. We on the utmost shore of the long rock Descended still to leftward. dooms to punishment The forgers noted on her dread record. such was here the torment: dire The stench. As were the torment. ere he was gone. answering him. wherein The minister of the most mighty Lord. as I think. and doing so Hath made me more compassionate his fate. 82 . if each lazar-house Of Valdichiana. who once rul’d The towers of Hautefort. who are partners in his shame.” My leader part pursu’d His way. Wailing the crime that costs him now so dear. There is a spirit dwells.

” weeping he replied. whose ear Those words redounding struck. like scales Scrap’d from the bream or fish of broader mail. and show him hell’s abyss. as bards of yore have told. From rock to rock. that sat Propp’d ‘gainst each other. “Whom tortur’d thus thou seest: but who art thou That hast inquir’d of us?” To whom my guide: “One that descend with this man. 83 . From head to foot. Unseemly and disgustful in its kind. but that. what time Each living thing. e’en to the little worm. One o’er the belly. The crust Came drawn from underneath in flakes. for which I died.Hell More rueful was it not methinks to see The nation in Aegina droop. “And sometimes makest tearing pincers of them. Then two I mark’d. who yet lives. “O thou.” “Both are of Latium. Confus’d they lay. and each turn’d Trembling toward us. with the rest. Step by step We journey’d on. And of what race ye come. To me my liege Address’d him: “Speak to them whate’er thou list. through furiousness Of ne’er abated pruriency. who with thy fingers rendest off Thy coat of proof. “And me Albero of Sienna brought To die by fire. Your punishment. o’er the shoulders one Roll’d of another.” Then started they asunder. as of these each one Plied quickly his keen nails. The ancient people were restor’d anew From seed of emmets) than was here to see The spirits. as ye tell me.” “Arezzo was my dwelling. that languish’d through the murky vale Up-pil’d on many a stack. or himself perchance Tir’d with long watching.” thus spake my guide to one. Deter you not from opening thus much to me.” And I therewith began: “So may no time Filch your remembrance from the thoughts of men In th’ upper world. for whom his lord Impatient waited. as two brazen pans Set to retain the heat.” answer’d one. but after many suns Survive it. so full of malice was the air (And afterward. who ye are. Tell me if any born of Latian land Be among these within: so may thy nails Serve thee for everlasting to this toil. in silence looking round And list’ning those diseas’d. Nor saw I e’er Groom currying so fast. A tetter bark’d them round. sideling crawl’d a third Along the dismal pathway.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who strove in vain To lift their forms. All fell.

One helpless innocent.” Then to the bard I spake: “Was ever race Light as Sienna’s? Sure not France herself Can show a tribe so frivolous and vain. as he was void Of wisdom. Because I made him not a Daedalus. That well my face may answer to thy ken. Prevail’d on one suppos’d his sire to burn me. that I take the lioness And the young lions at the pass: “then forth Stretch’d he his merciless talons. By fortune overwhelm’d. “Spread out. That he his spouse beholding with a babe Laden on either arm. And his rare wisdom Abbagliato show’d A spectacle for all. bend this way thy sharpen’d sight. And he admiring much. Has doom’d me. So shalt thou see I am Capocchio’s ghost. And with her other burden self-destroy’d The hapless mother plung’d: and when the pride Of all-presuming Troy fell from its height. Whom swinging down he dash’d upon a rock. “The meshes. and the old king 84 . with whom Caccia of Asciano Lavish’d his vineyards and wide-spreading woods.” he cried.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Learchus nam’d. True is in sport I told him. grasping one.Hell Leads me not here. Thus needs must well remember how I aped Creative nature by my subtle art. where such seed Roots deepest in the soil: and be that troop Exempted. Him no subterfuge eludes. That thou mayst know Who seconds thee against the Siennese Thus gladly. That I had learn’d to wing my flight in air.” The other leprous spirit heard my words. Such fatal frenzy seiz’d on Athamas. But Minos to this chasm last of the ten. and Niccolo Who first the spice’s costly luxury Discover’d in that garden. he who knew so temp’rately To lay out fortune’s gifts. and if I scan thee right. As more than once in dire mischance was rued. For that I practis’d alchemy on earth. Who forg’d transmuted metals by the power Of alchemy. will’d me to declare to him The secret of mine art: and only hence.” CANTO XXX What time resentment burn’d in Juno’s breast For Semele against the Theban blood. And thus return’d: “Be Stricca from this charge Exempted.

Such mighty power had grief to wrench her soul. 85 . “O ye. That onward passes. And a false shape assuming. A wretch forlorn and captive. there left trembling. As now two pale and naked ghost I saw That gnarling wildly scamper’d. the other upward curl’d. on whom Mine eye was held. when she saw Polyxena first slaughter’d. Her Polydorus. that himself might gain. One I saw In fashion like a lute. to feign’d testament The seal affixing. Bet ne’er the Furies or of Thebes or Troy With such fell cruelty were seen.Hell With his realm perish’d. their goads Infixing in the limbs of man or beast. and her son.” To whom I answ’ring: “Oh! as thou dost hope. Swoln dropsy.” he replied. Wherefore I know not. where it meets the forked part. For his own share. making fresh and soft The banks whereby they glide to Arno’s stream. One reach’d Capocchio. that the paunch Suits not the visage.The Divine Comedy of Dante . One drop of water now. full supply Ne’er lack’d me of what most I coveted. The other may not flesh its jaws on thee. that glitter down the grassy slopes Of Casentino. then did Hecuba. Be patient to inform us. “attentively regard Adamo’s woe.” Thus he began. alas! I crave.”—” That is the ancient soul Of wretched Myrrha. Dragg’d him. in like mood Of random mischief vent he still his spite. He of Arezzo. then reft of sense Did she run barking even as a dog.” When vanish’d the two furious shades. had but the groin Been sever’d. When living. open’d wide his lips Gasping as in the hectic man for drought. dar’d to counterfeit Donati’s features. like the swine Excluded from his stye. are exempt from pain. Ere it speed hence. I turn’d it back to view The other cursed spirits. “who burn’d With most unholy flame for her own sire. And in the neck-joint sticking deep his fangs. The rills. The other shape. spake. who it is. so perform’d The deed of sin. disproportioning the limbs With ill-converted moisture. the lady of the herd. One towards the chin. e’en as the other there. on the wild sea-beach Next met the mourner’s view. who in this world of misery. “That sprite of air is Schicchi. that o’er the solid pavement rubb’d His belly stretch’d out prone.

But if I here might see the sorrowing soul Of Guido.” Said Sinon. Where I transgress’d. thou falsely stamp’dst the coin.” “If I spake false. Takes means to quicken more my lab’ring sighs. So from the place. that false Greek from Troy. For Branda’s limpid spring I would not change The welcome sight.” And thus the dropsied: “Ay.” said he. nor ever shall. induc’d by them I stamp’d The florens with three carats of alloy. Seeking him out amidst the shapeless crew.” He answer’d. That like a drum resounded: but forthwith Adamo smote him on the face. like a band in winter steep’d In the chill stream?”—”When to this gulf I dropt. which makes the flesh Desert these shrivel’d cheeks. not more Than half of one across. For which on earth I left my body burnt. They brought me down Among this tribe. One is that dame The false accuser of the Hebrew youth. When thou wast question’d of the truth. “That closely bounding thee upon thy right Lie smoking. now speak’st thou true. the blow Returning with his arm. since that hour They have not turn’d. In such a cloud upsteam’d. One is e’en now within. I had set forth already on this path. If truly the mad spirits tell. One. that round Are wand’ring. at Troy.” To whom Was answer’d: “When thou wentest to the fire.Hell Stand ever in my view. Then readier when it coin’d th’ impostor gold.” I next inquir’d. Although eleven miles it wind. That I each hundred years might move one inch. gall’d perchance to be so darkly nam’d. Sinon the other. stern justice urging me. Much more than the disease. that seem’d as hard. Thou hadst it not so ready at command. I ween.” When that he heard. 86 . or their brother. There is Romena. But there thou gav’st not such true testimony. “Though my o’erweighty limbs have ta’en from me The power to move. “here I found them. With clench’d hand smote him on the braced paunch. where I falsified The metal with the Baptist’s form imprest. “I have an arm At liberty for such employ. Sharp fever drains the reeky moistness out.” “Who are that abject pair. Till time hath run his course.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “I am here but for one fault. Were I but so light. But wherein besteads me that? My limbs are fetter’d. Alessandro. For more the pictur’d semblance dries me up. and not in vain.

and then the boon of health restor’d. and towards him turn’d With shame so poignant. As a man that dreams of harm Befall’n him. Thitherward not long 87 . Now minister’d my cure. We cross’d th’ encircled mound in silence. and if again Chance bring thee. So terrible a blast Orlando blew not. “More grievous fault than thine has been. no urging would’st thou need To make thee lap Narcissus’ mirror up. The peal it blew had made The thunder feeble. where like conference is held. And that which is. And all the world be witness to thy guilt. desires as if it were not. who wanting power to speak Wish’d to excuse myself. The horse remember. Pains rack thy head.” CANTO XXXI The very tongue. Achilles and his father’s javelin caus’d Pain first. Turning our back upon the vale of woe. witness the fluid mound. that far long the gloom Mine eye advanc’d not: but I heard a horn Sounded aloud.” My master cried. that did teem with death.Hell And thou for more than any imp beside. A mass corrupt. when my guide Admonish’d: “Now beware: a little more.” return’d the Greek. Such then was I. To hear Such wrangling is a joy for vulgar minds.” “Remember. though unweeting that I did. Yet I am stuff’d with moisture. “O perjur’d one. Following its course The adverse way. as remember’d yet Confounds me. whose keen reproof before Had wounded me. my strained eyes were bent On that one spot.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Me if thirst assails. So have I heard. and quench’d His saintly warfare. Therefore cast All sorrow from thy soul. And I do quarrel with thee.” I perceiv’d How angrily he spake. Rear’d by thy belly up before thine eyes.” “To thine. that either cheek was stain’d. less shame. dreaming wishes it a dream.” he replied. Think I am ever at thy side. There Was twilight dim. “might expiate.” To whom the coiner thus: “Thy mouth gapes wide as ever to let pass Its evil saying. and all the while Excus’d me.” I was all fix’d to listen. when that dismal rout O’erthrew the host of Charlemagne. Thou art parch’d. “witness the thirst Whence thy tongue cracks.

” So shouted his fierce lips. As with circling round Of turrets. “Master. which sweeter hymns Became not. Search thy neck. which girdled him below. And fear came o’er me. “Yet know. Was turreted with giants. Resistance none avails. A little therefore urge thee on. Who ponders well confesses her therein Wiser and more discreet. so piercing through the gross And gloomy atmosphere.” As when a fog disperseth gradually. that tops Saint Peter’s Roman fane. as doth the pine. “Raphel bai ameth sabi almi. Montereggion crowns his walls. All-teeming nature. round the bank.” said I. so that from above The bank.” Then tenderly he caught me by the hand. whom Jove from heav’n Yet threatens. and breast. encompassing th’ abyss. when his mutt’ring thunder rolls. Our vision traces what the mist involves Condens’d in air. That it less strange may seem. Thither arriv’d Thou well shalt see. for when brute force And evil will are back’d with subtlety. and th’ other bones Of like proportion. His visage seem’d In length and bulk. how distance can delude The sense.Hell My head was rais’d. E’en thus the shore. these are not towers. did display Past doubt her wisdom. mine error fled. Full thirty ample palms was he expos’d Downward from whence a man his garments loops. and of the belly huge Great part. In the pit they stand immers’d.” said he. Of one already I descried the face. “ere farther we advance. and both arms down along his ribs. as more and more We near’d toward the brink. and if she Repent her not of th’ elephant and whale. But giants. horrible. if rage Or other passion wring thee. that three Friezelanders Had striv’n in vain to reach but to his hair. half their length Uprearing.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “what land Is this?” He answer’d straight: “Too long a space Of intervening darkness has thine eye To traverse: thou hast therefore widely err’d In thy imagining. Each from his navel downward. taking from mad War Such slaves to do his bidding. and my guide address’d him thus: “O senseless spirit! let thy horn for thee Interpret: therewith vent thy rage. such height Arose his stature. when her plastic hand Left framing of these monsters. Shoulders. when many lofty towers Methought I spied. 88 .

The Divine Comedy of Dante - Hell

There shalt thou find the belt that binds it on. Wild spirit! lo, upon thy mighty breast Where hangs the baldrick!” Then to me he spake: “He doth accuse himself. Nimrod is this, Through whose ill counsel in the world no more One tongue prevails. But pass we on, nor waste Our words; for so each language is to him, As his to others, understood by none.” Then to the leftward turning sped we forth, And at a sling’s throw found another shade Far fiercer and more huge. I cannot say What master hand had girt him; but he held Behind the right arm fetter’d, and before The other with a chain, that fasten’d him From the neck down, and five times round his form Apparent met the wreathed links. “This proud one Would of his strength against almighty Jove Make trial,” said my guide; “whence he is thus Requited: Ephialtes him they call. Great was his prowess, when the giants brought Fear on the gods: those arms, which then he piled, Now moves he never.” Forthwith I return’d: “Fain would I, if ‘t were possible, mine eyes Of Briareus immeasurable gain’d Experience next.” He answer’d: “Thou shalt see

Not far from hence Antaeus, who both speaks And is unfetter’d, who shall place us there Where guilt is at its depth. Far onward stands Whom thou wouldst fain behold, in chains, and made Like to this spirit, save that in his looks More fell he seems.” By violent earthquake rock’d Ne’er shook a tow’r, so reeling to its base, As Ephialtes. More than ever then I dreaded death, nor than the terror more Had needed, if I had not seen the cords That held him fast. We, straightway journeying on, Came to Antaeus, who five ells complete Without the head, forth issued from the cave. “O thou, who in the fortunate vale, that made Great Scipio heir of glory, when his sword Drove back the troop of Hannibal in flight, Who thence of old didst carry for thy spoil An hundred lions; and if thou hadst fought In the high conflict on thy brethren’s side, Seems as men yet believ’d, that through thine arm The sons of earth had conquer’d, now vouchsafe To place us down beneath, where numbing cold Locks up Cocytus. Force not that we crave Or Tityus’ help or Typhon’s. Here is one Can give what in this realm ye covet. Stoop

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Therefore, nor scornfully distort thy lip. He in the upper world can yet bestow Renown on thee, for he doth live, and looks For life yet longer, if before the time Grace call him not unto herself.” Thus spake The teacher. He in haste forth stretch’d his hands, And caught my guide. Alcides whilom felt That grapple straighten’d score. Soon as my guide Had felt it, he bespake me thus: “This way That I may clasp thee;” then so caught me up, That we were both one burden. As appears The tower of Carisenda, from beneath Where it doth lean, if chance a passing cloud So sail across, that opposite it hangs, Such then Antaeus seem’d, as at mine ease I mark’d him stooping. I were fain at times T’ have pass’d another way. Yet in th’ abyss, That Lucifer with Judas low ingulfs, I,ightly he plac’d us; nor there leaning stay’d, But rose as in a bark the stately mast.

His firm abutment rears, then might the vein Of fancy rise full springing: but not mine Such measures, and with falt’ring awe I touch The mighty theme; for to describe the depth Of all the universe, is no emprize To jest with, and demands a tongue not us’d To infant babbling. But let them assist My song, the tuneful maidens, by whose aid Amphion wall’d in Thebes, so with the truth My speech shall best accord. Oh ill-starr’d folk, Beyond all others wretched! who abide In such a mansion, as scarce thought finds words To speak of, better had ye here on earth Been flocks or mountain goats. As down we stood In the dark pit beneath the giants’ feet, But lower far than they, and I did gaze Still on the lofty battlement, a voice Bespoke me thus: “Look how thou walkest. Take Good heed, thy soles do tread not on the heads Of thy poor brethren.” Thereupon I turn’d, And saw before and underneath my feet A lake, whose frozen surface liker seem’d To glass than water. Not so thick a veil In winter e’er hath Austrian Danube spread O’er his still course, nor Tanais far remote

CANTO XXXII
Could I command rough rhimes and hoarse, to suit That hole of sorrow, o’er which ev’ry rock

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Under the chilling sky. Roll’d o’er that mass Had Tabernich or Pietrapana fall’n, Not e’en its rim had creak’d. As peeps the frog Croaking above the wave, what time in dreams The village gleaner oft pursues her toil, So, to where modest shame appears, thus low Blue pinch’d and shrin’d in ice the spirits stood, Moving their teeth in shrill note like the stork. His face each downward held; their mouth the cold, Their eyes express’d the dolour of their heart. A space I look’d around, then at my feet Saw two so strictly join’d, that of their head The very hairs were mingled. “Tell me ye, Whose bosoms thus together press,” said I, “Who are ye?” At that sound their necks they bent, And when their looks were lifted up to me, Straightway their eyes, before all moist within, Distill’d upon their lips, and the frost bound The tears betwixt those orbs and held them there. Plank unto plank hath never cramp clos’d up So stoutly. Whence like two enraged goats They clash’d together; them such fury seiz’d. And one, from whom the cold both ears had reft, Exclaim’d, still looking downward: “Why on us Dost speculate so long? If thou wouldst know

Who are these two, the valley, whence his wave Bisenzio slopes, did for its master own Their sire Alberto, and next him themselves. They from one body issued; and throughout Caina thou mayst search, nor find a shade More worthy in congealment to be fix’d, Not him, whose breast and shadow Arthur’s land At that one blow dissever’d, not Focaccia, No not this spirit, whose o’erjutting head Obstructs my onward view: he bore the name Of Mascheroni: Tuscan if thou be, Well knowest who he was: and to cut short All further question, in my form behold What once was Camiccione. I await Carlino here my kinsman, whose deep guilt Shall wash out mine.” A thousand visages Then mark’d I, which the keen and eager cold Had shap’d into a doggish grin; whence creeps A shiv’ring horror o’er me, at the thought Of those frore shallows. While we journey’d on Toward the middle, at whose point unites All heavy substance, and I trembling went Through that eternal chillness, I know not If will it were or destiny, or chance, But, passing ‘midst the heads, my foot did strike

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With violent blow against the face of one. “Wherefore dost bruise me?” weeping, he exclaim’d, “Unless thy errand be some fresh revenge For Montaperto, wherefore troublest me?” I thus: “Instructor, now await me here, That I through him may rid me of my doubt. Thenceforth what haste thou wilt.” The teacher paus’d, And to that shade I spake, who bitterly Still curs’d me in his wrath. “What art thou, speak, That railest thus on others?” He replied: “Now who art thou, that smiting others’ cheeks Through Antenora roamest, with such force As were past suff’rance, wert thou living still?” “And I am living, to thy joy perchance,” Was my reply, “if fame be dear to thee, That with the rest I may thy name enrol.” “The contrary of what I covet most,” Said he, “thou tender’st: hence; nor vex me more. Ill knowest thou to flatter in this vale.” Then seizing on his hinder scalp, I cried: “Name thee, or not a hair shall tarry here.” “Rend all away,” he answer’d, “yet for that I will not tell nor show thee who I am, Though at my head thou pluck a thousand times.” Now I had grasp’d his tresses, and stript off

More than one tuft, he barking, with his eyes Drawn in and downward, when another cried, “What ails thee, Bocca? Sound not loud enough Thy chatt’ring teeth, but thou must bark outright? What devil wrings thee?”—” Now,” said I, “be dumb, Accursed traitor! to thy shame of thee True tidings will I bear.”—” Off,” he replied, “Tell what thou list; but as thou escape from hence To speak of him whose tongue hath been so glib, Forget not: here he wails the Frenchman’s gold. ‘Him of Duera,’ thou canst say, ‘I mark’d, Where the starv’d sinners pine.’ If thou be ask’d What other shade was with them, at thy side Is Beccaria, whose red gorge distain’d The biting axe of Florence. Farther on, If I misdeem not, Soldanieri bides, With Ganellon, and Tribaldello, him Who op’d Faenza when the people slept.” We now had left him, passing on our way, When I beheld two spirits by the ice Pent in one hollow, that the head of one Was cowl unto the other; and as bread Is raven’d up through hunger, th’ uppermost Did so apply his fangs to th’ other’s brain, Where the spine joins it. Not more furiously

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On Menalippus’ temples Tydeus gnaw’d, Than on that skull and on its garbage he. “O thou who show’st so beastly sign of hate ‘Gainst him thou prey’st on, let me hear,” said I “The cause, on such condition, that if right Warrant thy grievance, knowing who ye are, And what the colour of his sinning was, I may repay thee in the world above, If that, wherewith I speak be moist so long.”

Count Ugolino, and th’ Archbishop he Ruggieri. Why I neighbour him so close, Now list. That through effect of his ill thoughts In him my trust reposing, I was ta’en And after murder’d, need is not I tell. What therefore thou canst not have heard, that is, How cruel was the murder, shalt thou hear, And know if he have wrong’d me. A small grate Within that mew, which for my sake the name Of famine bears, where others yet must pine, Already through its opening sev’ral moons Had shown me, when I slept the evil sleep, That from the future tore the curtain off. This one, methought, as master of the sport, Rode forth to chase the gaunt wolf and his whelps Unto the mountain, which forbids the sight Of Lucca to the Pisan. With lean brachs Inquisitive and keen, before him rang’d Lanfranchi with Sismondi and Gualandi. After short course the father and the sons Seem’d tir’d and lagging, and methought I saw The sharp tusks gore their sides. When I awoke Before the dawn, amid their sleep I heard My sons (for they were with me) weep and ask For bread. Right cruel art thou, if no pang

CANTO XXXIII
His jaws uplifting from their fell repast, That sinner wip’d them on the hairs o’ th’ head, Which he behind had mangled, then began: “Thy will obeying, I call up afresh Sorrow past cure, which but to think of wrings My heart, or ere I tell on’t. But if words, That I may utter, shall prove seed to bear Fruit of eternal infamy to him, The traitor whom I gnaw at, thou at once Shalt see me speak and weep. Who thou mayst be I know not, nor how here below art come: But Florentine thou seemest of a truth, When I do hear thee. Know I was on earth

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Thou feel at thinking what my heart foretold; And if not now, why use thy tears to flow? Now had they waken’d; and the hour drew near When they were wont to bring us food; the mind Of each misgave him through his dream, and I Heard, at its outlet underneath lock’d up The’ horrible tower: whence uttering not a word I look’d upon the visage of my sons. I wept not: so all stone I felt within. They wept: and one, my little Anslem, cried: “Thou lookest so! Father what ails thee?” Yet I shed no tear, nor answer’d all that day Nor the next night, until another sun Came out upon the world. When a faint beam Had to our doleful prison made its way, And in four countenances I descry’d The image of my own, on either hand Through agony I bit, and they who thought I did it through desire of feeding, rose O’ th’ sudden, and cried, ‘Father, we should grieve Far less, if thou wouldst eat of us: thou gav’st These weeds of miserable flesh we wear, And do thou strip them off from us again.’ Then, not to make them sadder, I kept down My spirit in stillness. That day and the next

We all were silent. Ah, obdurate earth! Why open’dst not upon us? When we came To the fourth day, then Geddo at my feet Outstretch’d did fling him, crying, ‘Hast no help For me, my father!’ “There he died, and e’en Plainly as thou seest me, saw I the three Fall one by one ‘twixt the fifth day and sixth: Whence I betook me now grown blind to grope Over them all, and for three days aloud Call’d on them who were dead. Then fasting got The mastery of grief.” Thus having spoke, Once more upon the wretched skull his teeth He fasten’d, like a mastiff’s ‘gainst the bone Firm and unyielding. Oh thou Pisa! shame Of all the people, who their dwelling make In that fair region, where th’ Italian voice Is heard, since that thy neighbours are so slack To punish, from their deep foundations rise Capraia and Gorgona, and dam up The mouth of Arno, that each soul in thee May perish in the waters! What if fame Reported that thy castles were betray’d By Ugolino, yet no right hadst thou To stretch his children on the rack. For them, Brigata, Ugaccione, and the pair

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Of gentle ones, of whom my song hath told, Their tender years, thou modern Thebes! did make Uncapable of guilt. Onward we pass’d, Where others skarf’d in rugged folds of ice Not on their feet were turn’d, but each revers’d There very weeping suffers not to weep; For at their eyes grief seeking passage finds Impediment, and rolling inward turns For increase of sharp anguish: the first tears Hang cluster’d, and like crystal vizors show, Under the socket brimming all the cup. Now though the cold had from my face dislodg’d Each feeling, as ‘t were callous, yet me seem’d Some breath of wind I felt. “Whence cometh this,” Said I, “my master? Is not here below All vapour quench’d?”—”’Thou shalt be speedily,” He answer’d, “where thine eye shall tell thee whence The cause descrying of this airy shower.” Then cried out one in the chill crust who mourn’d: “O souls so cruel! that the farthest post Hath been assign’d you, from this face remove The harden’d veil, that I may vent the grief Impregnate at my heart, some little space Ere it congeal again!” I thus replied: “Say who thou wast, if thou wouldst have mine aid;

And if I extricate thee not, far down As to the lowest ice may I descend!” “The friar Alberigo,” answered he, “Am I, who from the evil garden pluck’d Its fruitage, and am here repaid, the date More luscious for my fig.”—”Hah!” I exclaim’d, “Art thou too dead!”—”How in the world aloft It fareth with my body,” answer’d he, “I am right ignorant. Such privilege Hath Ptolomea, that ofttimes the soul Drops hither, ere by Atropos divorc’d. And that thou mayst wipe out more willingly The glazed tear-drops that o’erlay mine eyes, Know that the soul, that moment she betrays, As I did, yields her body to a fiend Who after moves and governs it at will, Till all its time be rounded; headlong she Falls to this cistern. And perchance above Doth yet appear the body of a ghost, Who here behind me winters. Him thou know’st, If thou but newly art arriv’d below. The years are many that have pass’d away, Since to this fastness Branca Doria came.” “Now,” answer’d I, “methinks thou mockest me, For Branca Doria never yet hath died,

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where the pitch Tenacious boils. I was not dead nor living. When this one left a demon in his stead In his own body. Eats. Ah Genoese! men perverse in every way.Hell But doth all natural functions of a man. Where thou hast need to arm thy heart with strength. CANTO XXXIV “The banners of Hell’s Monarch do come forth Towards us. than the giants are in his arms. With every foulness stain’d. Who with him treachery wrought. To shield me from the wind. “If thou discern him. Ill manners were best courtesy to him. transparent. “Lo!” he exclaim’d. a third with face to feet Arch’d like a bow.” so spake my guide. had Michael Zanche reach’d. and ope mine eyes. and yet doth seem In body still alive upon the earth. and sleeps. But now put forth Thy hand. Think thyself If quick conception work in thee at all. Whereat my guide was pleas’d that I should see The creature eminent in beauty once. When to the point we came. That on his head.” I op’d them not. why from the earth Are ye not cancel’d? Such an one of yours I with Romagna’s darkest spirit found. and putteth raiment on. Now came I (and with fear I bid my strain Record the marvel) where the souls were all Whelm’d underneath. which the blast stirs briskly round. Others stood upright. Such was the fabric then methought I saw. when breathes a cloud Heavy and dense. Since words would fail to tell thee of my state. reader! for I write it not. or when the shades of night Fall on our hemisphere. and I in stature am more like A giant. He from before me stepp’d and made me pause. forthwith I drew Behind my guide: no covert else was there.” He thus: “Not yet unto that upper foss By th’ evil talons guarded. “lo Dis! and lo the place. at mid breast from th’ ice Stood forth. seems view’d from far 96 . this upon the soles. How I did feel. Some prone were laid. who sways The realm of sorrow. A windmill.” As. Ask me not. drinks. As for his doings even now in soul Is in Cocytus plung’d. as through glass Pellucid the frail stem.The Divine Comedy of Dante . therefore look. That emperor.” How frozen and how faint I then became. and of one his kin.

such as come from whence old Nile Stoops to the lowlands.” so spake my guide. At every mouth his teeth a sinner champ’d Bruis’d as with pond’rous engine. “That upper spirit. And noting time and place. caught fast the shaggy sides. from the murky jaw Who hangs. which suits With such a part.The Divine Comedy of Dante . If he were beautiful As he is hideous now. Sails never such I saw Outstretch’d on the wide sea.” Then at a rocky opening issued forth. next join’d 97 . And down from pile to pile descending stepp’d Between the thick fell and the jagged ice.” I clipp’d him round the neck. All is seen. panting like a man forespent. wherewith Cocytus to its depth Was frozen. when I did spy Upon his head three faces: one in front Of hue vermilion. that from him issued still Three winds. But were in texture like a bat. But far more Than from that gnawing. But night now re-ascends. Under each shot forth Two mighty wings. well from him May all our mis’ry flow.” thus spake The teacher. as one who mounts. Oh what a sight! How passing strange it seem’d. At six eyes he wept: the tears Adown three chins distill’d with bloody foam. and these He flapp’d i’ th’ air. for so he bade. was the foremost pang’d By the fierce rending. Who hath worse punishment. so that three Were in this guise tormented. and yet did dare To scowl upon his Maker. Of th’ other two. Whose heads are under. whence ofttimes the back Was stript of all its skin. where his feet stood before. No plumes had they. The right ‘twixt wan and yellow seem’d: the left To look on.Hell Mark now how great that whole must be. that appears So large of limb. when the wings Enough were op’d. th’ other two with this Midway each shoulder join’d and at the crest. And plac’d me on a brink to sit. “Expect that by such stairs as these. Soon as he reach’d the point. is Brutus: lo! how he doth writhe And speaks not! Th’ other Cassius. “We must depart from evil so extreme. And grappled at the fell. My leader there with pain and struggling hard Turn’d round his head. And it is time for parting. “Is Judas. enormous as became A bird so vast. he. That into hell methought we turn’d again. he that hath his head within And plies the feet without. whereat the thigh Upon the swelling of the haunches turns.

as it winds with no precipitous course.Hell With wary step my side. Through fear of him did veil her with the sea. and th’ earth. Whose other aspect is Judecca. where I grasp’d Th’ abhorred worm. when I turn’d. and much uncouth the road. and so liv’d. 98 . Thy feet are planted on the smallest sphere. that was born sinless.” thus when risen I began. that descends This way along the hollow of a rock. so long as I Descended. Where is now the ice? How standeth he in posture thus revers’d? And how from eve to morn in space so brief Hath the sun made his transit?” He in few Thus answering spake: “Thou deemest thou art still On th’ other side the centre. “Ere from th’ abyss I sep’rate. On this part he fell down From heav’n. that boreth through the world. “My guide! vouchsafe few words to set me free From error’s thralldom. And underneath whose canopy expir’d The Man. That sprang aloof. Which the great continent doth overspread. I following his steps. he first. when there evening sets: and he. Who see not what the point was I had pass’d. to return To the fair world: and heedless of repose We climbed. Let the grosser sort. But by the sound of brooklet.” my master cried. as extends The vaulted tomb.” It was no palace-hall Lofty and luminous wherein we stood. I rais’d mine eyes. The wave hath eaten. Bethink them if sore toil oppress’d me then. here prominent before. but saw him now With legs held upward. By that hidden way My guide and I did enter. But natural dungeon where ill footing was And scant supply of light. yet standeth fix’d. Believing that I Lucifer should see Where he was lately left. “The way is long. Whose shaggy pile was scal’d. Morn Here rises. “Arise. And now within one hour and half of noon The sun returns. thou didst o’erpass That point. Perchance To shun him was the vacant space left here By what of firm land on this side appears. Which. And to our hemisphere retir’d. discover’d not by sight. From Belzebub as distant. Thou art now arriv’d Under the hemisphere opposed to that. Thou wast on th’ other side. “upon thy feet. As at the first.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” There is a place beneath. to which from ev’ry part is dragg’d All heavy substance.

CANTO II v. v. v. 8. Italia’s plains. v.D. iv.] That the era of the Poem is intended by these words to be fixed to the thirty fifth year of the poet’s age. 1300. With those stars. 29. A. 36. A panther. NOTES TO HELL CANTO I Verse 1. v. A spirit worthier. v.] Pleasure or luxury. in which sign he supposes it to have begun its course at the creation.] O thought that write all that I met. 103. And in the tresorie it set 99 . Aen lib. v.] The sun was in Aries.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 45. In the midway. is situated between Feltro. iii. &c. v. Content in fire. Canto V. 98. lib iii. Compare Apollonius Rhodius. Where the sun in silence rests. lib.] The sun. 29. That planet’s beam. where that date is explicitly marked.] Hence Milton appears to have taken his idea in the Samson Agonistes: The sun to me is dark And silent as the moon. v. 744.] A compendium of Virgil’s description Aen. 56. &c The same metaphor will recur. who conducts the Poet through Paradise. v. Nox erat.] Beatrice. O mind. the country of Can della Scala. and made himself perpetual dictator. ‘Twizt either Feltro.] “Umile Italia. A lion. Peter. The hinder foot. which the Poet feigns to be guarded by an angel placed on that station by St. will appear more plainly in Canto XXI. 30.” from Virgil.] This passage is intended as an eulogium on the liberal spirit of his Veronese patron Can Grande della Scala. 130. 65. 1.] The spirits in Purgatory. Now was the day. through a circular opening in the cave: Thus issuing we again beheld the stars.] It is to be remembered. that in ascending a hill the weight of the body rests on the hinder foot.] Verona. When the power of Julius.] Avarice. and Monte Feltro.] The gate of Purgatory. v. 43. a city in the Marca Trivigiana. v. iv 522. 1058 v. and lib.” v.] Pride or ambition. a city in the territory of Urbino. v. 16. That greyhound. v.] This is explained by the commentators to mean “Although it was rather late with respect to my birth before Julius Caesar assumed the supreme authority. A she wolf. 522. 118. 115. 102.Hell Till on our view the beautiful lights of heav’n Dawn. Into a place I came Where light was silent all. v. Humilemque videmus Italiam. Saint Peter’s gate.

Adone. 97. Cornelii Nepotis Attici Vitae. ix. 29. Redressen hem agen the sunne bright.lib.]The three persons of the blessed Trinity.] Se non fortunae sed hominibus solere esse amicum.Inn. for he is a chosen vessel unto me. “But the Lord said unto him. v. 30. 9. v.]Every other thing comprised within the lunar heaven. 64. st. So in Berni. c. xvii. 8. Three maids. and primeval love. Power divine Supremest wisdom. Lest th’ accursed tribe. v. neither admitted to a state of glory nor doomed to punishment. L. Troilus and Creseide. Milton. Orl Inn. 124. 6 c.The Divine Comedy of Dante . A friend not of my fortune.] This simile is well translated by Chaucer— But right as floures through the cold of night Iclosed. &c. 63. Marino. v. xii. c.18 v. Silvius’sire. P. v. which. v. b. Thy soul. ix. but myself.] L’anima tua e da viltate offesa. ii.] All the grisly legions that troop Under the sooty flag of Acheron Milton. and b.] St. v.] The divine mercy. b.Hell Of my braine. Inn. v. ii. v.] Unnumber’d as the sands Of Barca or Cyrene’s torrid soil Levied to side with warring winds. 86. It has been imitated by many others. all hope abandoned. Se l’alma avete offesa da viltate. 53. v. 908. Who rest suspended.ii. now shall men see If any virtue in thee be. ii. Orl. stoupen in her stalkes lowe. A blessed dame. 14.” and Spenser’s Faery Queen. So Berni. c. Acts.] The divine mercy. The chosen vessel. 15. Lucia. and Beatrice. c. v. 100 . Lascia pur della vita ogni speranza. lib. c. 46. c. i. 35. iii. Go thy way. Like to the sand. 78. st. 53. 5. v. and poise Their lighter wings. A flag. 50. Comus.] The enlightening grace of heaven. 93. v.] Lest the rebellious angels should exult at seeing those who were neutral and therefore less guilty. c. Chaucer. Iib. i.Paul. st.] Aeneas. Temple of Fame. st.] Lasciate ogni speranza voi ch’entrate. condemned to the same punishment with themselves. 61.4. 40. CANTO III v. 1. among whom see Berni. And speden in her kinde course by rowe. st. Orl. being the lowest of all. b.]The spirits in Limbo. As florets. st. Lucia. Whatever is contain’d. v. xii. 127. 34. “Donna vestita di nero. has the smallest circle.” v. and Sor.

v. Honour the bard Sublime. P. Eroiche. 82. Who to base fear Yielding. iv. 92. 214. 56.st. 309 Compare Apoll. and his fiery eyes Like two great beacons glared bright and wide.] v. Aen. 75. His looks were dreadful. 7. 79. Thyer has remarked. who abdicated the papal power in 1294. F. Shakesp.1. In fierce heat and in ice. 50. As fall off the light of autumnal leaves. v. In which an attempt is made to put a different interpretation on this passage. than the sound of dance or song Torment. 32. xviii. 42 CANTO IV v. 8. Aen. b. and printed in Milan in 1701. by Milton. b. 2.] This is commonly understood of Celestine the Fifth.s.] Onorate l’altissimo poeta. vi. vi. and loud lament.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Iib.] The delighted spirit To bathe in fiery floods or to reside In thrilling regions of thick ribbed ice. 102. ii. stant lumina flamma. iii. 104. Virg.] Lo fioco lume So Filicaja. Canz. 242. Measure for Measure. maximeque est profunda vorago. vi. c. 10. Catullus. viii.Hell v. 12. Spenser. Virg. Of semblance neither sorrowful nor glad. Rhod.] Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat Terribili squalore Charon. other. Chaucer’s Dream. But long ere our approaching heard Noise. vi. L. So Chiabrera. vi. b. as Mr. v. Onorando l’altissimo poeta. of the Celestine order. abjur’d his high estate. With eyes of burning coal. Qual fioco lume.] Imitated. a puissant one. Aen. 320 Totius ut Lacus putidaeque paludis Lividissima. through the blear light. lib. 101 .] Quam multa in silvis autumul frigore primo Lapsa cadunt folia. 600. st. An old man. Iib. Compare Milton. and furious rage.Q.] Our Saviour. P. Venturi mentions a work written by Innocenzio Barcellini. v. Virg. cui plurima mento Canities inculta jacet. v. v. L. vii.] She nas to sober ne to glad. 77. 70.] Vada livida. v. A thund’rous sound. canz. a. lib. The livid lake. v.

sect. and who was therefore compelled to avail himself of the unfaithful Arabic versions. 128. in Canzone 14. published by Albert Schultens. Pulci here again imitates our poet: Avicenna quel che il sentimento Intese di Aristotile e i segreti. Bibl. che il favellarne.) he was the source of modern philosophical impiety.] Averroes. Ruccellai. ii. called by the Arabians Roschd. Fitter left untold.” lib. 117. before the Greek originals of Aristotle and his commentators were known to us in Europe. Aristotle—Petrarch assigns the first place to Plato. 1. v. xxv. except that of the Latin translation. “Vie pui bello e il tacerle.” According to D’Herbelot. c. Averrois che fece il gran comento. c. Democritus Who sets the world at chance. that this fanatic admirer of Aristotle translated his writings with that felicity. he died in 1198: but Tiraboschi places that event about 1206. the rival of Richard coeur de lion. et. v. ut de ambobus testimonium reddit poeta noster in octavoubi Aeneas ad Avandrum sic ait “Dardanus Iliacae.who maintained the world to have been formed by the fortuitous concourse of atoms. Ital.” &c. nata magni nombris regis Atlantis. Mag. 100. Orient. c. ii. says. scilicet. See D’Herbelot.] Saladin or Salaheddin. 789.” Gli. with a Latin translation.Hell v. Le Api. who afterwards added to it a very ample commentary. which might be expected from one who did not know a syllable of Greek. 1. and Knolles’s Hist. See Virg. c. by Bohao’edin Ebn Shedad. According to Tiraboschi (storia della Lett. that “Averroes was the first who translated Aristotle from Greek into Arabic. v.] Democritus.The Divine Comedy of Dante . which was made from this Arabic version of this great philosopher (Averroes). Ch’a dire e brutto ed a tacerlo e bello And Bembo. iii. lib. by whom they were held in horror and detestation. c. Julia. v. v. 125. and wife of Pompey. Che’l tacere e bello. and the other scholastic writers. Pulci. p. of the Turks p. Asol. Him who made That commentary vast. 132. 102 . Orient. The Monarch of sublimest song. 1. v. xviii. ep. v. translated and commented the works of Aristotle. on the other hand.] Tu se’il maestro di color che sanno. ii.] Maestro di color che sanno. The Soldan fierce. 140. Electra. ii v. availed themselves. 140. Avicen. D’Herbelot. Aen. v. before the Jews had made their translation: and that we had for a long time no other text of Aristotle. 1143) to show how strongly such sentiments prevailed in the time of that poet. iii. v. and mother of Dardanus the founder of Troy.] The daughter of Atlas. article Sina. He is introduced by Petrarch in the Triumph of Fame. See Triumph of Fame. as referred to by Dante in treatise “De Monarchia. He died in 1050. Morg. The master of the sapient throng. Oper. 57 to 73 and the Life of Saladin. in his Morgante Maggiore. 4. “Electra. viii. t. The critic quotes some passages from Petrarch (Senil.] The daughter of Julius Caesar. 90. ii. informs us. b. Averroes. of which Thomas Aquinas. So our Poet. v. He adds.] See D’Herbelot Bibl.] Homer. 126. La vide in parte che’l tacere e bello. 134.

845.] The place to which murderers are doomed. 118. The land. 46. p. daughter of Guido da Polenta. c. v. Roscoe. iii. 99 Love. Che non sia al fin sempre amato chi ama. st. lord of Ravenna. Amore mal non perdono l’amore a nullo amato. 3. 5. lord of Rimini. a poem. Adone. Marking the tracts of air. E perche amor mal volontier perdona. v. 96. c.Hell CANTO V v.] Ravenna. 251. v. 102. Aeneid. Ricciardetto. iii. Francesca. P. c. Il. v. 63. No greater grief than to remember days Of joy. See Notes to Canto XXVII. 4to edit. 264.] Francesca. in his Ambra. His brother Paolo. in the Morgante Maggiore. A line taken by Marino. in the Appendix to his Life of Lorenzo. Indeed many of the Italian poets have repeated this verse. was given by her father in marriage to Lanciotto. 43 The whole of this passage is alluded to by Petrarch. 257. 105. that in gentle heart is quickly learnt. And Pulci. and Ruccellai. v. they were both put to death by the enraged Lanciotto. Compare Homer.xwhen mis’ry is at hand!] Imitated by Marino: Che non ha doglia il misero maggiore Che ricordar la giola entro il dolore. 113. 100 And by Fortiguerra: Rimembrare il ben perduto Fa piu meschino lo presente stato. cxli. Love. Virgil. and Dante’s Purgatory. c. that denial takes from none belov’d. So Boccacio. Grinning with ghastly feature. xi. in his Filocopo. ii. L. Roscoe. As cranes. v.] Amor. the clamorous cranes Wheel their due flight in varied ranks descried: And each with outstretch’d neck his rank maintains In marshal’d order through th’ ethereal void. i. who unhappily possessed those graces which the husband of Francesca wanted. v. v.1. Adone.] This simile is imitated by Lorenzo de Medici. st. a man of extraordinary courage. first published by Mr. 942. ch’ a null’ amato amar perdona.] Amor. son of Malatesta. 103 . 83. Le Api. and being taken in adultery. xiv. st. Ch’ al cor gentil ratto s’apprende. iv. v. Canto XXIV.] Hence Milton: Death Grinn’d horrible a ghastly smile.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. b. engaged her affections. Caina. but deformed in his person. c. l. 1 x. in his Triumph of Love c.

v. 21. 136.] Al tornar della mente. 66. Of one. 80. in his Orl. and Notes. The divided city. no mention afterwards occurs. divided into the Bianchi and Neri factions. Nov.] So in Canto XXXIV Lucifer is called “Th’ abhorred worm. “In omni adversitate fortunae infelicissimum genus est infortunii fuisse felicem et non esse. My sense reviving. 128. and Notes. signifying a pig. So Pulci: v. v. and Notes. xxii v. Orl. The incident alluded to seems to have made a strong impression on the imagination of Dante. 1. 108. v. Giacopo. c. 3. 69. at the head of which was Corso Donati. because it was headed by Veri de’ Cerchi.] See Canto X. The real name of this glutton has not been transmitted to us. che si chiuse Dinanzi alla pieta de’ duo cognati. v. This must fall. who introduces it again. celebrated in romance. v. 1. and the lover of Ginevra.” 1. v. in the Paradise.] The city of Florence. Ch’ al gran verme infernal mette la briglia. 81. che sol mi vinse. the commentators are not agreed.] The opposite parts of the Neri.] So called from his inordinate appetite: Ciacco. Canto XVI. Arrigo.” Ariosto has imitated Dante: 104 . Tasso. Of Farinata and Tegghiaio. Morgante Maggoire. 79. viii. a. who is said by the commentators to have been of the noble family of the Fifanti. Lancelot. come corpo morto cade. and Canto XVI. st.Hell The original perhaps was in Boetius de Consol. Giorn. iii. l. whose family had lately come into the city from Acone.] Who these two were. CANTO VI v.] So called. that boreth through the world. by whose means the Neri were replaced. Mosca degli Uberti is introduced in Canto XXVIII.] We are referred to the following passage v. The other. or Guinever. 67.] One of the Knights of the Round Table. c. 76. pr.] Giacopo Rusticucci. v. and the woody country of the Val di Nievole.] Questo quel punto fu. in Italian. Inn. Berni has made a sportive application of these lines. i. 73. Il Torrismondo.] Charles of Valois. 65. See Canto XVI. ix. E cadde come morto in terra cade.] Of Arrigo. Fur. xlvi. st. s. The wild party from the woods. who under shore Now rests. 61. v. And like a corpse fell to the ground] E caddi. 4 v. At one point. v. He is introduced in Boccaccio’s Decameron. v. v. less happily.] The Bianchi.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The just are two in number. E che di lui come a lei par dispone. 52. Mosca. 8. Ciacco. That great worm. Consult thy knowledge. Philosoph. c. 124. 2.

CANTO VII v. and if this be not satisfactory. in his Acerba. Augustin:—”Cum fiet resurrectio carnis. made use of that expression. 1. Hence it is that Dante. et bonorum gaudia et malorum tormenta majora erunt. perplex themselves with the inquiry what seven perils these were from which Dante had been delivered by Virgil. 8. If any argument may gainsay this. v.] Boccaccio tells us.] Ariosto. 618. i. 32. ix. we shall have the number. for there She had slain Popes and Cardinals. who was likewise perfect master of the French.” Decam. v. 105 . v. Nugent. See Virg.Hell in St. Aen. Dante. 48. “—At the resurrection of the flesh. O bard of Florence. I recollected what Dante said. by whose vengeance he was cast into Tartarus. Fur. Cerberus.] Satan. p 113. v. CANTO VIII v. Satan! allez. and adding Charon. Orl. that of Dis is nam’d. Minos. paix. who was so incensed against Apollo for having violated his daughter Coronis. The first adulterer proud. n. 32. 22. 42.” v. Popes and cardinals. By necessity. that he set fire to the temple of that deity. paix! in the court of justice at Paris. Mark thou. and the extreme waywardness and irascibility of his temper. as so many others. vii. Spenser. Ah me! O Satan! Satan!] Pape Satan.] So Ariosto. iii c. where the court of justice may be considered as hell. Phlegyas. 59. Pape Satan. divides The doubtful current into divers waves. iv. v. Plutus. &c. E’en as a billow. That filleth all the sea with foam. v. xxvi. That reason cannot conquer. where he mentions “having heard the words Paix. l. F. c.] Phlegyas. “he was a man remarkable for the large proportions and extraordinary vigor of his bodily frame. st.” Orl. says of her— Peggio facea nella Romana corte Che v’avea uccisi Cardinali e Papi. The city. l.] The commentators. and Giotto the painter.Q. translated by Dr. both the happiness of the good and the torments of the wicked will be increased. 12. v. and I have often been surprised that it was never understood in that sense. c. Seven times.The Divine Comedy of Dante . b.] This sentiment called forth the reprehension of Cecco d’Ascoli. st. didst thou err Laying it down that fortune’s largesses Are fated to their goal. st. Herein. Phlegyas and Filippo Argenti. 18. g.] As when two billows in the Irish sowndes Forcibly driven with contrarie tides Do meet together. Filippo Argenti. says Venturi. c. See the Life of Benvenuto Cellini. and visited Paris with particular attention. b. xl. Fur. In cio peccasti. vi. and dashing on all sides. Pape is said by the commentators to be the same as the Latin word papae! “strange!” Of aleppe they do not give a more satisfactory account. Fortune is none. each aback rebounds With roaring rage. Reckoning the beasts in the first Canto as one of them. 91. O Fiorentin poeta. Worse did she in the court of Rome. 1. having personified Avarice as a strange and hideous monster. were together in France. 66. when he with his master Virgil entered the gates of hell: for Dante. c. 1. ii. aleppe. 94. we may suppose a determinate to have been put for an indeterminate number.

97.] Quae corpus complexa animae tam fortis inane. l. hydrus and elops drear. 72 CANTO IX v. Cerastes horn’d.] Che si. iv. l. Aen. son of Pompey the Great. v. are Shakespeare’s. vi.] Virgil assures our poet. Ninf. The plains of Arles. st. Ovid. L. The words I have adopted as a translation. v. 6. Your Cerberus. iii. says the angel. v. 111. b. Erictho. 524. This their insolence.] Imitated by Berni. 106 . who should inform him of the issue of the civil wars between his father and Caesar. 1.] “Of what avail can it be to offer violence to impassive beings?” v. Measure for Measure. 46. ii. 281. ii. by whose aid we shall overcome this opposition.] Cerberus is feigned to have been dragged by Hercules. 122. xxxix.] Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis. was employed by Sextus. a Thessalian sorceress. —spinaque vagi torquente cerastae … et torrida dipsas Et gravis in geminum vergens eaput amphisbaena. st. v. he still bears the marks.” v. 42. Pharsal. restrained those outward tokens of displeasure which his own countenance had betrayed. that these evil spirits had formerly shown the same insolence when our Savior descended into hell. ix. Pharsal. What profits at the fays to but the horn.] Virgil. c. Virgil’s death did not happen till long after this period. l. Fiesol. A wind. st. Orl. See Ariosto. bound with a three fold chain. 25. Fur. st. And dipsas. and gain admittance into the city. v. Il si e il no nel capo gli contende. according to Lucan. 233. 109. No long space my flesh/Was naked of me. 23.Hell v. Lucan. So Milton: Scorpion and asp. b. “an angel has just passed. and amphisbaena dire. The hue. perceiving that Dante was pale with fear. x. 96. l. 719. of which. P. At war ‘twixt will and will not. e. Virg. So Boccaccio. With his wand.] She with her rod did softly smite the raile Which straight flew ope. They attempted to prevent him from entering at the gate. e no nel capo mi tenzona. c. v. not new. to conjure up a spirit. Met. 83. 1. F. Adders and cerastes.” says the Roman poet. vi. Inn. Spenser. Q. v. s. 67.] Erictho. 1. Orl. 2 Dante appears to have fallen into a strange anachronism. l.The Divine Comedy of Dante . over which Dante had read the fatal inscription. xiii f. “That gate which.] In Provence. a.

however. brave and courteous. a noble Florentine. v. the shade of Darius is represented as inquiring with similar anxiety after the fate of his son Xerxes. 1. Notes to Ep. Not yet fifty times. Hist. with so great a slaughter. alone— Ghost of Dar: How will this end? Nay. the difficulty of returning from banishment to thy native city.] The spirit of Cavalcante Cavalcanti.]Guido Cavalcanti.” Macchiavelli. that. For a playful sonnet which Dante addressed to him. 90. that the general judgment will be held in the valley of Josaphat. predecessor and namesake Guido Guinicelli. At Pola.” says Dante in his Vita Nuova. in the Adriatic sea. and his reputation for skill in the art was such as to eclipse that of his 107 . a noble Florentine. by woeful experience. either in exile at Serrazana.Hell v. of Flor.” Joel. but in Lucca. Macchiavelli calls him “a man of exalted soul. much addicted to solitude and study. 481. v. near the river Arbia. December 1300. and great military talents.] Farinata degli Uberti. met with no opposition from any of its citizens or friends. 66. situated near the gulf of Quarnaro. 2. della Volg. being more given to philosophy than poetry. p. near the river Arbia.” according to G. Josaphat. l. or soon after his return to Florence. 86. 112. Farinata.” Muratori. and will plead with them there for my people. 77. Atossa: Xerxes astonish’d. b 2. where the commencement of their friendship is related.] This appears to allude to certain prayers which were offered up in the churches of Florence. The slaughter. or Jehoshaphat: “I will also gather all nations. of the Guelph party. and parted my land. c. 9 l. Script t. Rer.” Hist.” And Dino Compagni terms him “a young and noble knight. during the spring of which year the action of this poem is supposed to be passing. Poes. From the character given of him by contemporary writers his temper was well formed to assimilate with that of our poet. Ital. and for my heritage Israel. Such orisons. in order to maintain the ascendancy of the Ghibelline party in Tuscany. desolate. who openly and without reserve forbade the measure. when they obtained a signal victory over the Guelfi at Montaperto. pause not. whom they have scattered among the nations. except Farinata degli Uberti.] “By means of Farinata degli Uberti. A shade. “of a philosophical and elegant mind. Potter’s Translation. affirming CANTO X v. and a spirited translation of it. 12. Villani.] Guido. Saidst thou he had?] In Aeschylus. which could serve only (the people of that city beingvGuelfi) to enable the party attached to the church to recover its strength. v. v. the son of Cavalcante Cavalcanti. v. which city they considered as lost to them. the Guelfi were conquered by the army of King Manfredi. as we shall see in the Purgatory. He died. if he had not been too delicate and fastidious. as well as among many Christians. “He was. still extant. 59. 62. Guido thy son Had in contempt. Some poetical compositions by Guido are. but of a lofty scornful spirit. v. it was necessary to destroy Florence. was the leader of the Ghibelline faction. v. viii. was perhaps no great admirer of Virgil.83. 41.] A city of Istria.] It seems to have been a common opinion among the Jews. My son. see Hayley’s Essay on Epic Poetry. This cruel sentence. Is he safe? The Persians.] “Not fifty months shall be passed. of Flor.” v. Singly there I stood. “he whom I call the first of my friends. for deliverance from the hostile attempts of the Uberti. v. 52. Crescimbeni Ist. before thou shalt learn. l. passed upon so noble a city. iii. and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v.] Guido Novello assembled a council of the Ghibellini at Empoli where it was agreed by all. that those who escaped from that defeat took refuge not in Florence. iii. ii. Canto XI. 32. His “Canzone sopra il Terreno Amore” was thought worthy of being illustrated by numerous and ample commentaries. b.

Cahors. the sister of the Minotaur. entering. and other just men. 48. much frequented by usurers v. jealous of the integrity of the papal faith. And sorrows. That will not use his gifts for thankless nigardise. F. 108 . who. iii. while a third set.] The remainder of the present Canto may be considered as a syllabus of the whole of this part of the poem. who was enabled. contend that our poet has confounded him with Anastasius 1. v. v.] The commentators are not agreed concerning the identity of the person. 132.] The constellation Bootes. Creation’s holy book.] Theseus. 103. l.] The Emperor Frederick the Second. is well expressed in Spenser. See Canto IV. —I’arte umana.] Ottaviano Ubaldini. carried with him the souls of the patriarchs. c. c. 111. The wain. iv. Her gracious beam. 2. 15. 19.] Our Saviour. “In the next place. when he ascended from hell. 36. The king of Athens. incontinence. that respecting morals there are three sorts of things to be avoided. with no other view than that of being able to pass his days in his own country. Frederick. Q. Her laws. a Florentine. v. by others. 119. Cowper’s Translation. 53.] A city in Guienne. My fault. v. b.” —See the Coltivazione of Alamanni.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 121. CANTO XI v. 21. v.] Homer Il. and brutishness.] This fine moral. v. For he whose daies in wilful woe are worne The grace of his Creator doth despise. made Cardinal in 1245. malice. My son. By some he is supposed to have been Anastasius the Second. v. let it be defined. Pope Anastasius. xvii 522 As when some vig’rous youth with sharpen’d axe A pastur’d bullock smites behind the horns And hews the muscle through. and deceased about 1273. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. at the stroke Springs forth and falls. Macchiavelli. v.” v. he was generally known by the appellation of “the Cardinal. Thy ethic page. according to Dante. v. that not to enjoy our being is to be ungrateful to the Author of it. &c. Emperor of the East. or Charles’s wain.” v.] He refers to Aristotle’s Ethics. b. the Fourth of that name. 9. who died in 1250.] Aristotle’s Physics. v. on another division of the subject. 104. CANTO XII v. 17. See Notes to Canto XIII. i. he. of Flor. Hist. who is here mentioned as a follower of the heretical Photinus.” It is reported of him that he declared. On account of his great influence. The Lord Cardinal.Hell that he had endured so many hardships. viii.] Dante felt remorse for not having returned an immediate answer to the inquiry of Cavalcante. 17. and encountered so many dangers. st. “Art imitates nature.] Beatrice. he had lost his for the Ghibellini. out of the first circle. from which delay he was led to believe that his son Guido was no longer living. v.] Genesis. by the instructions of Ariadne. to destroy that monster. He arriv’d. Like to a bull. 120. if there were any such thing as a human soul. 83.

of England) as he returned from Affrike. by means of forged letters. Broad are their pennons. l ii c. c.] Marquis of Ferrara and of the Marca d’Ancona. The Strophades.] Our poet was probably induced. iii. st 11. the contemporary of Dante. v. v. l. abounding in deer. so as to be somewhat prolix in my answer. c. 10.The Divine Comedy of Dante . iii. to assign to Nessus the task of conducting them over the ford: Nessus edit membrisque valens scitusque vadorum. See Ariosto. of the House of Brunswick. iii.] Sextus either the son of Tarquin the Proud. Ant. That pleasant word of thine. in revenge of the same Simon’s death. 40.” But I am of opinion that Dante makes Virgil allude to his own story of Polydorus in the third book of the Aeneid. v. Verona. 137. st 32. Works. v. Earl of Leicester. He died in 1293 according to Gibbon. Corneto. st. Holinshed’s chronicles p 275. Pazzo the other named. 12. Orl. from a low condition. v. who says of this Centaur— Trach. Lord of Padua. was murdered by his own son (whom. who was then at enmity with the Emperor. 119. I it was. Ezzolino. Villani Hist. 110. by Albertino Mussato. the brother of this Edmund. v. v. goats. for the most unnatural act Dante calls his step-son). and wild boars. His atrocities form the subject of a Latin tragedy. He. 48.D. Berni Orl. or of Pompey the Great: or as Vellutelli conjectures.] Ezzolino. The latter was of the noble family of Pazzi in Florence. a small city on the same coast in the patrimony of the church. by the following line in Ovid. Betwixt Corneto and Cecina’s stream. and Pyrrhus king of Epirus. Orl. the son of Simon de Montfort. In consequence of this supposed crime he was cruelly condemned by his 109 .] See Virg. v. c. that his influence in the empire became unbounded. Fur. 135.] “Henrie. whose confidence in him was such. And Ovid’s authority was Sophocles. Aen. called Eccerinis. 111. Metam. See also Giov. 216. Canto IX. by whose depredations the public ways in Italy were infested. v. l. envious of his exalted situation. contrived. Nessus. brother of Henry III. xxv. ix.Hell v.] Pietro delle Vigne. Aen. Cecina is a river not far to the south of Leghorn. On Sextus and on Pyrrhus. ii. 33. 60.] “Since you have inveigled me to speak my holding forth so gratifying an expectation. and son to the foresaid king of Almaine (Richard. as the same Henrie kneeled there to hear divine service. raised himself by his eloquence and legal knowledge to the office of Chancellor to the Emperor Frederick II. for the sake of the treasures which his rapacity had amassed. Sextus Claudius Nero. of Corneto this. and Brescia. 50. Ariosto.] Two noted marauders. l.] A wild and woody tract of country. who died in 1260. that of which he hath now had ocular proof. was slain at Viterbo in Italy (whither he was come about business which he had to do with the Pope) by the hand of Guy de Montfort. a most cruel tyrant in the Marca Trivigiana. 1272. iii. st. v. let it not displease you if I am as it were detained in the snare you have spread for me. 210. in consequence of my assurances alone. 56. bore the passenger for hire Without or sail or billow cleaving oar. a native of Capua.] The commentators explain this. The murther was committed afore the high altar.” A. Evenus’ stream Deep flowing.” v. 14. of Padua. “If he could have believed. Posth. Vicenza. c. he would not have stretched forth his hand against thee. or Azzolino di Romano. 4to. In my verse described. Obizzo’ of Este. and Tassoni Secchia Rapita. where he had been with Prince Edward. I. and the most elegant writer of Latin verse of that age. to make Frederick believe that he held a secret and traitorous intercourse with the Pope.] From Virg. 96. Inn. See also the Paradise. CANTO XIII v. The courtiers. vii. who.570 He in his arms. The Rinieri. viii. Fur.

28. In Mongibello. 7. Aen.Hell too credulous sovereign to lose his eyes. passed by a place of ill fame. The harlot. viii. conjectures that Dante would imply. 133.] Envy. who. For she ne parteth neither night ne day Out of the house of Cesar. l. x. ix. Canto XVI. and Berni. that city which changed her first patron Mars for St. a Siennese. v. 1179 and Statius. b. Villani.” See Paradise. 152. The relic of antiquity to which the superstition of Florence attached so high an importance. for which reason the vengeance of the deity thus slighted will never be appeased: and. 53. Seven Chiefs. in the engagement which took place at Toppo near Arezzo. 76. being driven to despair by his unmerited calamity and disgrace. c. thus saith Dant. st. F.] Landino refers to Albertus Magnus for the circumstance here alluded to. in the year 1337. l. Orl. to assist the Florentine against the Aretini.” Envie is lavender to the court alway. See Virg.] We are not informed who this suicide was.] Compare Aesch. 44. i. Q. that it was the scene of much licentious merriment among those who frequented its baths. and thus the citizens. v. In that City. Phoen. v. Theb. in the torrid Indian clime. Each fan o’ th’ wood. who.The Divine Comedy of Dante . L. was carried away by a flood. x.] See Lucan. being reduced by prodigality to a state of extreme want. L. 29. By Cato’s foot. G.] Compare Tasso. b. killed himself in despair. with less probability. 15. 6. c. cxix. that destroyed the bridge on which it stood. v. v. Chaucer alludes to this in the “Prologue to the Legende of Good women. who raised her again from the ashes to which Attila had reduced her. Venturi. 144. 9. Aurora’s fan.] Hence perhaps Milton: Leaves and fuming rills. v. st. xvi. she would have been already leveled to the ground. c. CANTO XIV v. st. O Giocomo Of Sant’ Andrea!] Jacopo da Sant’ Andrea. 21. he put an end to his life by dashing out his brains against the walls of a church. v. v. 64. found his existence no longer supportable. ii. c. but without the ill effects that were apprehended from the loss of their fancied Palladium. Dilated flakes of fire. Phars. a Paduan. would have laboured in vain.] “I was an inhabitant of Florence. l.] A warm medicinal spring near Viterbo. 416. v. This of the seven kings was one. As. Hist. It would be endless to refer to parallel passages in the Greek writers. Bulicame. 1. having wasted his property in the most wanton acts of profusion. John the Baptist. 119. See G. 67. v. P. Spenser. Both Frederick and Pietro delle Vigne composed verses in the Sicilian dialect which are yet extant.] More hot than Aetn’ or flaming Mongibell. v. I slung the fatal noose. Lano. and. 122. Euripides. 110 . having been sent by his countrymen on a military expedition. as Landino and Vellutelli affirm. 26. v. Inn 1.] Lano. 821. took that opportunity of exposing himself to certain death. and. 425. in the year 1245. the waters of which. if some remains of his status were not still visible on the bridge over the Arno. 61.

tom. see Hist. and musing with his head bent downwards. On the plain of Roncesvalles he meets a scholar on a bay mule. and is instructed by him how to conquer the passion of love. MSS. For an interesting memoir relating to this work. Mus. As it is perhaps but little known.The Divine Comedy of Dante . It is in the French spoken in the reign of St. or. Villani Hist. 133. which occupy about a fourth part of the poem. Clayton’s Translation of Tenhove’s Memoirs of the Medici. After this he wanders into a desert. and hears the instructions they give to a knight. the fourth. ii. It has been observed. he loses his road. Brunetto. Whither. as it began. till he arrives in a beautiful valley covered with flowers on all sides. the third on Virtues and Vices. Bounty. Hope. and discloses to him the secrets of her operations. addressed to Brunetto. that both the subject of it and the language of it have been mistaken. The Tresor has never been printed in the original language. l. Under whose monarch. v. the first. he passes over valleys.] Daniel. v. CANTO XV v. and the richest in the world. as he expresses it.] A part of the Alps where the Brenta rises. but at length proceeds on his way. b. of Flor.] “Ser Brunetto. vii. Dante’s twenty-fifth sonnet is a jocose one. could not have much enriched himself. with which Nature had furnished him. Here the narrative breaks off. After his escape he makes his confession to a friar. woods. the four Cardinal Virtues. who is accompanied by four ladies. whose figure is described with sublimity. mountains. I will here add a slight sketch of it. It is divided into four books. on which he had been sent by the Guelph party from Florence. and bridges. and contains a species of philosophical course of lectures divided into theory and practice. The poem ends. Fear. 104. that his pupil. ii. or Cupid. 91. ch. till on the third day he finds himself in a large pleasant champaign. 296. His Tesoretto. 32. appears. 17. Tesor.Hell v. with anaddress to Rustico di Filippo. Sir R. on Cosmogony and Theology. hath left us a work so little read. which river is much swoln as soon as the snow begins to dissolve on the mountains. 1. “un enchaussement des choses divines et humaines. Here Brunetto sees also Courtesy. a venerable old man. Loyalty.] Credo pudicitiam Saturno rege moratam In terris. There is a fine manuscript of it in the British Museum. 111 .] On the other side of Purgatory. v. Brunetto describes himself as returning from an embassy to the King of Spain. that the crime of usury is branded by both these poets as offensive to God and Nature: or that the sin for which Brunetto is condemned by his pupil. Louis. This is the region of Pleasure. ii. but which was continually shifting its appearance from a round figure to a square. 10. is mentioned in the Tesoretto with great horror. Who in old times came down from Fesole. the second. where are assembled many emperors. Juv. Chiarentana. 102. one of the earliest productions of Italian poetry. His head. In one part of it he meets with Ovid. with an illuminated portrait of Brunetto in his study prefixed. and Desire. and Dante’s preceptor. Love. the secretary or chancellor of the city. not unlike the writings of Chaucer in style and numbers. is a curious work. iv. des Inscriptions. from obscurity to light. 33. 5. and to escape from that place. though Bembo remarks. vi. ch. c. from the Tesoretto of his master. a Florentine. and Macchiavelli Hist. p. v. He died in 1295. a translation of Aristotle’s Ethics. Satir. 62. and then returns to the forest of visions: and ascending a mountain. under the protection of a banner. Leaving this territory.] See G. E. and sages. and from populousness to solitude. on Rhetoric.” &c. I know not whether it has been remarked. vol. and wanders into a wood. kings.under the title of Tresor. that Dante derived the idea of opening his poem by describing himself as lost in a wood. Struck with grief at these mournful tidings. de l’Acad. he meets with Ptolemy. however largely he had stolen from it. It is the habitation of Virtue and her daughters. i. 28. forests. Brit. on whom he lavishes every sort of praise. and Prowess. who tells him that the Guelfi are driven out of the city with great loss. Here Nature.

The Divine Comedy of Dante - Hell
v. 89. With another text.] He refers to the prediction of Farinata, in Canto X. v. 110. Priscian.] There is no reason to believe, as the commentators observe that the grammarian of this name was stained with the vice imputed to him; and we must therefore suppose that Dante puts the individual for the species, and implies the frequency of the crime among those who abused the opportunities which the education of youth afforded them, to so abominable a purpose. v. 111. Francesco.] Son of Accorso, a Florentine, celebrated for his skill in jurisprudence, and commonly known by the name of Accursius. v. 113. Him.] Andrea de’ Mozzi, who, that his scandalous life might be less exposed to observation, was translated either by Nicholas III, or Boniface VIII from the see of Florence to that of Vicenza, through which passes the river Baccchiglione. At the latter of these places he died. v. 114. The servants’ servant.] Servo de’ servi. So Ariosto, Sat. 3. Degli servi Io sia il gran servo. v. 124. I commend my Treasure to thee.] Brunetto’s great work, the Tresor. Sieti raccomandato ‘l mio Tesoro. So Giusto de’ Conti, in his Bella Mano, Son. “Occhi:” Siavi raccommandato il mio Tesoro. his Majesty’s pleasure, would make her admit the honour of his salute. On overhearing this, she arose from her seat, and blushing, in an animated tone of voice, desired her father that he would not be so liberal in his offers, for that no man should ever be allowed that freedom, except him who should be her lawful husband. The Emperor was not less delighted by her resolute modesty than he had before been by the loveliness of her person, and calling to him Guido, one of his barons, gave her to him in marriage, at the same time raising him to the rank of a count, and bestowing on her the whole of Casentino, and a part of the territory of Romagna, as her portion. Two sons were the offspring of this union, Guglielmo and Ruggieri, the latter of whom was father of Guidoguerra, a man of great military skill and prowess who, at the head of four hundred Florentines of the Guelph party, was signally instrumental to the victory obtained at Benevento by Charles of Anjou, over Manfredi, King of Naples, in 1265. One of the consequences of this victory was the expulsion of the Ghibellini, and the re-establishment of the Guelfi at Florence. v. 39. Many a noble act.] Compare Tasso, G. L. c. i. st. 1. v. 42. Aldobrandiu] Tegghiaio Aldobrandi was of the noble family of Adimari, and much esteemed for his military talents. He endeavored to dissuade the Florentines from the attack, which they meditated against the Siennese, and the rejection of his counsel occasioned the memorable defeat, which the former sustained at Montaperto, and the consequent banishment of the Guelfi from Florence. v. 45. Rusticucci.] Giacopo Rusticucci, a Florentine, remarkable for his opulence and the generosity of his spirit. v. 70. Borsiere.] Guglielmo Borsiere, another Florentine, whom Boccaccio, in a story which he relates of him, terms “a man of courteous and elegant manners, and of great readiness in conversation.” Dec. Giorn. i. Nov. 8. v. 84. When thou with pleasure shalt retrace the past.] Quando ti giovera dicere io fui.

CANTO XVI
v. 38. Gualdrada.] Gualdrada was the daughter of Bellincione Berti, of whom mention is made in the Paradise, Canto XV, and XVI. He was of the family of Ravignani, a branch of the Adimari. The Emperor Otho IV. being at a festival in Florence, where Gualdrada was present, was struck with her beauty; and inquiring who she was, was answered by Bellincione, that she was the daughter of one who, if it was

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So Tasso, G. L. c. xv. st. 38. Quando mi giovera narrar altrui Le novita vedute, e dire; io fui. v. 121. Ever to that truth.] This memorable apophthegm is repeated by Luigi Pulci and Trissino. Sempre a quel ver, ch’ ha faccia di menzogna E piu senno tacer la lingua cheta Che spesso senza colpa fa vergogna. Morgante. Magg. c. xxiv. La verita, che par mensogna Si dovrebbe tacer dall’ uom ch’e saggio. Italia. Lib. C. xvi. v. 69. That noble knight.] Giovanni Bujamonti, a Florentine usurer, the most infamous of his time.

CANTO XVIII
v. 28. With us beyond.] Beyond the middle point they tended the same way with us, but their pace was quicker than ours. v. 29. E’en thus the Romans.] In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII., to remedy the inconvenience occasioned by the press of people who were passing over the bridge of St. Angelo during the time of the Jubilee, caused it to be divided length wise by a partition, and ordered, that all those who were going to St. Peter’s should keep one side, and those returning the other. v. 50. Venedico.] Venedico Caccianimico, a Bolognese, who prevailed on his sister Ghisola to prostitute herself to Obizzo da Este, Marquis of Ferrara, whom we have seen among the tyrants, Canto XII. v. 62. To answer Sipa.] He denotes Bologna by its situation between the rivers Savena to the east, and Reno to the west of that city; and by a peculiarity of dialect, the use of the affirmative sipa instead of si. v. 90. Hypsipyle.] See Appolonius Rhodius, l. i. and Valerius Flaccus l.ii. Hypsipyle deceived the other women by concealing her father Thoas, when they had agreed to put all their males to death. v. 120. Alessio.] Alessio, of an ancient and considerable family in Lucca, called the Interminei. v. 130. Thais.] He alludes to that passage in the Eunuchus of Terence where Thraso asks if Thais was obliged to him for the present he had sent her, and Gnatho replies, that she had expressed her obligation in the most forcible terms. T. Magnas vero agere gratias Thais mihi? G. Ingentes.

CANTO XVII
v. 1. The fell monster.] Fraud. v. 53. A pouch.] A purse, whereon the armorial bearings of each were emblazoned. According to Landino, our poet implies that the usurer can pretend to no other honour, than such as he derives from his purse and his family. v. 57. A yellow purse.] The arms of the Gianfigliazzi of Florence. v. 60. Another.] Those of the Ubbriachi, another Florentine family of high distinction. v. 62. A fat and azure swine.] The arms of the Scrovigni a noble family of Padua. v. 66. Vitaliano.] Vitaliano del Dente, a Paduan.

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Eun. a. iii. s. i. v. 109. Th’ Evangelist.] Rev. c. xvii. 1, 2, 3. Compare Petrarch. Opera fol. ed. Basil. 1551. Epist. sine titulo liber. ep. xvi. p. 729. v. 118. Ah, Constantine.] He alludes to the pretended gift of the Lateran by Constantine to Silvester, of which Dante himself seems to imply a doubt, in his treatise “De Monarchia.”—”Ergo scindere Imperium, Imperatori non licet. Si ergo aliquae, dignitates per Constantinum essent alienatae, (ut dicunt) ab Imperio,” &c. l. iii. The gift is by Ariosto very humorously placed in the moon, among the things lost or abused on earth. Di varj fiori, &c. O. F. c. xxxiv. st. 80. Milton has translated both this passage and that in the text. Prose works, vol. i. p. 11. ed. 1753.

CANTO XIX
v. 18. Saint John’s fair dome.] The apertures in the rock were of the same dimensions as the fonts of St. John the Baptist at Florence, one of which, Dante says he had broken, to rescue a child that was playing near and fell in. He intimates that the motive of his breaking the font had been maliciously represented by his enemies. v. 55. O Boniface!] The spirit mistakes Dante for Boniface VIII. who was then alive, and who he did not expect would have arrived so soon, in consequence, as it should seem, of a prophecy, which predicted the death of that Pope at a later period. Boniface died in 1303. v. 58. In guile.] “Thou didst presume to arrive by fraudulent means at the papal power, and afterwards to abuse it.” v. 71. In the mighty mantle I was rob’d.] Nicholas III, of the Orsini family, whom the poet therefore calls “figliuol dell’ orsa,” “son of the she-bear.” He died in 1281. v. 86. From forth the west, a shepherd without law.] Bertrand de Got Archbishop of Bordeaux, who succeeded to the pontificate in 1305, and assumed the title of Clement V. He transferred the holy see to Avignon in 1308 (where it remained till 1376), and died in 1314. v. 88. A new Jason.] See Maccabees, b. ii. c. iv. 7,8. v. 97. Nor Peter.] Acts of the Apostles, c.i. 26. v. 100. The condemned soul.] Judas. v. 103. Against Charles.] Nicholas III. was enraged against Charles I, King of Sicily, because he rejected with scorn a proposition made by that Pope for an alliance between their families. See G. Villani, Hist. l. vii. c. liv.

CANTO XX
v. 11. Revers’d.] Compare Spenser, F. Q. b. i. c. viii. st. 31 v. 30. Before whose eyes.] Amphiaraus, one of the seven kings who besieged Thebes. He is said to have been swallowed up by an opening of the earth. See Lidgate’s Storie of Thebes, Part III where it is told how the “Bishop Amphiaraus” fell down to hell. And thus the devil for his outrages, Like his desert payed him his wages. A different reason for his being doomed thus to perish is assigned by Pindar. Nem ix. For thee, Amphiaraus, earth, By Jove’s all-riving thunder cleft Her mighty bosom open’d wide,

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Thee and thy plunging steeds to hide, Or ever on thy back the spear Of Periclymenus impress’d A wound to shame thy warlike breast For struck with panic fear The gods’ own children flee. v. 37. Tiresias.] Duo magnorum viridi coeuntia sylva Corpora serpentum baculi violaverat ictu, &c. Ovid. Met. iii. v. 43. Aruns.] Aruns is said to have dwelt in the mountains of Luni (from whence that territory is still called Lunigiana), above Carrara, celebrated for its marble. Lucan. Phars. l. i. 575. So Boccaccio in the Fiammetta, l. iii. “Quale Arunte,” &c. “Like Aruns, who amidst the white marbles of Luni, contemplated the celestial bodies and their motions.” v. 50. Manto.] The daughter of Tiresias of Thebes, a city dedicated to Bacchus. From Manto Mantua, the country of Virgil derives its name. The Poet proceeds to describe the situation of that place. v. 61. Between the vale.] The lake Benacus, now called the Lago di Garda, though here said to lie between Garda, Val Camonica, and the Apennine, is, however, very distant from the latter two. v. 63. There is a spot.] Prato di Fame, where the dioceses of Trento, Verona, and Brescia met. v. 69. Peschiera.] A garrison situated to the south of the lake, where it empties itself and forms the Mincius. nobles, who were obnoxious to them. No sooner was this done, than Pinamonte put himself at the head of the populace, drove out Casalodi and his adherents, and obtained the sovereignty for himself. v. 111. So sings my tragic strain.] Suspensi Eurypilum scitatum oracula Phoebi Mittimus. Virg. Aeneid. ii. 14. v. 115. Michael Scot.] Sir Michael Scott, of Balwearie, astrologer to the Emperor Frederick II. lived in the thirteenth century. For further particulars relating to this singular man, see Warton’s History of English Poetry, vol. i. diss. ii. and sect. ix. p 292, and the Notes to Mr. Scott’s “Lay of the Last Minstrel,” a poem in which a happy use is made of the traditions that are still current in North Britain concerning him. He is mentioned by G. Villani. Hist. l. x. c. cv. and cxli. and l. xii. c. xviii. and by Boccaccio, Dec. Giorn. viii. Nov. 9. v. 116. Guido Bonatti.] An astrologer of Forli, on whose skill Guido da Montefeltro, lord of that place, so much relied, that he is reported never to have gone into battle, except in the hour recommended to him as fortunate by Bonatti. Landino and Vellutello, speak of a book, which he composed on the subject of his art. v. 116. Asdente.] A shoemaker at Parma, who deserted his business to practice the arts of divination. v. 123. Cain with fork of thorns.] By Cain and the thorns, or what is still vulgarly called the Man in the Moon, the Poet denotes that luminary. The same superstition is alluded to in the Paradise, Canto II. 52. The curious reader may consult Brand on Popular Antiquities, 4to. 1813. vol. ii. p. 476.

v. 94. Casalodi’s madness.] Alberto da Casalodi, who had got possession of Mantua, was persuaded by Pinamonte Buonacossi, that he might ingratiate himself with the people by banishing to their own castles the

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CANTO XXI
v. 7. In the Venetians’ arsenal.] Compare Ruccellai, Le Api, 165, and Dryden’s Annus Mirabilis, st. 146, &c. v. 37. One of Santa Zita’s elders.] The elders or chief magistrates of Lucca, where Santa Zita was held in especial veneration. The name of this sinner is supposed to have been Martino Botaio.

CANTO XXII
v. 16. In the church.] This proverb is repeated by Pulci, Morg. Magg. c. xvii. v. 47. Born in Navarre’s domain.] The name of this peculator is said to have been Ciampolo. v. 51. The good king Thibault.] “Thibault I. king of Navarre, died on the 8th of June, 1233, as much to be commended for the desire he showed of aiding the war in the Holy Land, as reprehensible and faulty for his design of oppressing the rights and privileges of the church, on which account it is said that the whole kingdom was under an interdict for the space of three entire years. Thibault undoubtedly merits praise, as for his other endowments, so especially for his cultivation of the liberal arts, his exercise and knowledge of music and poetry in which he much excelled, that he was accustomed to compose verses and sing them to the viol, and to exhibit his poetical compositions publicly in his palace, that they might be criticized by all.” Mariana, History of Spain, b. xiii. c. 9. An account of Thibault, and two of his songs, with what were probably the original melodies, may be seen in Dr. Burney’s History of Music, v. ii. c. iv. His poems, which are in the French language, were edited by M. l’Eveque de la Ravalliere. Paris. 1742. 2 vol. 12mo. Dante twice quotes one of his verses in the Treatise de Vulg. Eloq. l. i. c. ix. and l. ii. c. v. and refers to him again, l. ii. c. vi. From “the good king Thibault” are descended the good, but more unfortunate monarch, Louis XVI. of France, and consequently the present legitimate sovereign of that realm. See Henault, Abrege Chron. 1252, 2, 4. v. 80. The friar Gomita.] He was entrusted by Nino de’ Visconti with the government of Gallura, one of the four jurisdictions into which Sardinia was divided. Having his master’s enemies in his power, he took a bribe from them, and allowed them to escape. Mention of Nino will recur in the Notes to Canto XXXIII. and in the Purgatory, Canto VIII. v. 88. Michel Zanche.] The president of Logodoro, another of the four Sardinian jurisdictions. See Canto XXXIII.

v. 40. Except Bonturo, barterers.] This is said ironically of Bonturo de’ Dati. By barterers are meant peculators, of every description; all who traffic the interests of the public for their own private advantage. v. 48. Is other swimming than in Serchio’s wave.] Qui si nuota altrimenti che nel Serchio. Serchio is the river that flows by Lucca. So Pulci, Morg. Mag. c. xxiv. Qui si nuota nel sangue, e non nel Serchio. v. 92. From Caprona.] The surrender of the castle of Caprona to the combined forces of Florence and Lucca, on condition that the garrison should march out in safety, to which event Dante was a witness, took place in 1290. See G. Villani, Hist. l. vii. c. 136. v. 109. Yesterday.] This passage fixes the era of Dante’s descent at Good Friday, in the year 1300 (34 years from our blessed Lord’s incarnation being added to 1266), and at the thirty-fifth year of our poet’s age. See Canto I. v. 1. The awful event alluded to, the Evangelists inform us, happened “at the ninth hour,” that is, our sixth, when “the rocks were rent,” and the convulsion, according to Dante, was felt even in the depths in Hell. See Canto XII. 38.

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CANTO XXIII
v. 5. Aesop’s fable.] The fable of the frog, who offered to carry the mouse across a ditch, with the intention of drowning him when both were carried off by a kite. It is not among those Greek Fables which go under the name of Aesop. v. 63. Monks in Cologne.] They wore their cowls unusually large. v. 66. Frederick’s.] The Emperor Frederick II. is said to have punished those who were guilty of high treason, by wrapping them up in lead, and casting them into a furnace. v. 101. Our bonnets gleaming bright with orange hue.] It is observed by Venturi, that the word “rance” does not here signify “rancid or disgustful,” as it is explained by the old commentators, but “orangecoloured,” in which sense it occurs in the Purgatory, Canto II. 9. v. 104. Joyous friars.] “Those who ruled the city of Florence on the part of the Ghibillines, perceiving this discontent and murmuring, which they were fearful might produce a rebellion against themselves, in order to satisfy the people, made choice of two knights, Frati Godenti (joyous friars) of Bologna, on whom they conferred the chief power in Florence. One named M. Catalano de’ Malavolti, the other M. Loderingo di Liandolo; one an adherent of the Guelph, the other of the Ghibelline party. It is to be remarked, that the Joyous Friars were called Knights of St. Mary, and became knights on taking that habit: their robes were white, the mantle sable, and the arms a white field and red cross with two stars. Their office was to defend widows and orphans; they were to act as mediators; they had internal regulations like other religious bodies. The above-mentioned M. Loderingo was the founder of that order. But it was not long before they too well deserved the appellation given them, and were found to be more bent on enjoying themselves than on any other subject. These two friars were called in by the Florentines, and had a residence assigned them in the palace belonging to the people over against the Abbey. Such was the dependence placed on the character of their order that it was expected they would be impartial, and would save the commonwealth any unnecessary expense; instead of which,

though inclined to opposite parties, they secretly and hypocritically concurred in promoting their own advantage rather than the public good.” G. Villani, b. vii. c.13. This happened in 1266. v. 110. Gardingo’s vicinage.] The name of that part of the city which was inhabited by the powerful Ghibelline family of Uberti, and destroyed under the partial and iniquitous administration of Catalano and Loderingo. v. 117. That pierced spirit.] Caiaphas. v. 124. The father of his consort.] Annas, father-in-law to Caiaphas. v. 146. He is a liar.] John, c. viii. 44. Dante had perhaps heard this text from one of the pulpits in Bologna.

CANTO XXIV
v. 1. In the year’s early nonage.] “At the latter part of January, when the sun enters into Aquarius, and the equinox is drawing near, when the hoar-frosts in the morning often wear the appearance of snow but are melted by the rising sun.” v. 51. Vanquish thy weariness.] Quin corpus onustum Hesternis vitiis animum quoque praegravat una, Atque affigit humi divinae particulam aurae. Hor. Sat. ii. l. ii. 78. v. 82. Of her sands.] Compare Lucan, Phars. l. ix. 703. v. 92. Heliotrope.] The occult properties of this stone are described by Solinus, c. xl, and by Boccaccio, in his humorous tale of Calandrino. Decam. G. viii. N. 3. In Chiabrera’s Ruggiero, Scaltrimento begs of Sofia, who is sending him on a perilous errand, to lend him the heliotrope. In mia man fida

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L’elitropia, per cui possa involarmi Secondo il mio talento agli occhi altrui. c. vi. Trust to my hand the heliotrope, by which I may at will from others’ eyes conceal me Compare Ariosto, II Negromante, a. 3. s. 3. Pulci, Morg. Magg. c xxv. and Fortiguerra, Ricciardetto, c. x. st. 17. Gower in his Confessio Amantis, lib. vii, enumerates it among the jewels in the diadem of the sun. Jaspis and helitropius. v. 104. The Arabian phoenix.] This is translated from Ovid, Metam. l. xv. Una est quae reparat, seque ipsa reseminat ales, &c. See also Petrarch, Canzone: “Qual piu,” &c. v. 120. Vanni Fucci.] He is said to have been an illegitimate offspring of the family of Lazari in Pistoia, and, having robbed the sacristy of the church of St. James in that city, to have charged Vanni della Nona with the sacrilege, in consequence of which accusation the latter suffered death. v. 142. Pistoia.] “In May 1301, the Bianchi party, of Pistoia, with the assistance and favor of the Bianchi who ruled Florence, drove out the Neri party from the former place, destroying their houses, Palaces and farms.” Giov. Villani, Hist. l. viii. e xliv. v. 144. From Valdimagra.] The commentators explain this prophetical threat to allude to the victory obtained by the Marquis Marcello Malaspina of Valdimagra (a tract of country now called the Lunigiana) who put himself at the head of the Neri and defeated their opponents the Bianchi, in the Campo Piceno near Pistoia, soon after the occurrence related in the preceding note. Of this engagement I find no mention in Villani. Currado Malaspina is introduced in the eighth Canto of Purgatory; where it appears that, although on the present occaision they espoused contrary sides, some important favours were nevertheless conferred by that family on our poet at a subsequent perid of his exile in 1307.

Canto XXV
v.1. The sinner ] So Trissino Poi facea con le man le fiche al cielo Dicendo: Togli, Iddio; che puoi piu farmi? L’ital. Lib. c. xii v. 12. Thy seed] Thy ancestry. v. 15. Not him] Capanaeus. Canto XIV. v. 18. On Marenna’s marsh.] An extensive tract near the sea-shore in Tuscany. v. 24. Cacus.] Virgil, Aen. l. viii. 193. v. 31. A hundred blows.] Less than ten blows, out of the hundred Hercules gave him, deprived him of feeling. v. 39. Cianfa] He is said to have been of the family of Donati at Florence.

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54. whatever they may be. But if our minds. See G. Gaville. near Florence. Thus up the shrinking paper. 85. which Nature.] He is said to have been of the Donati family. l. v. xix The same poetical superstition is alluded to in the Purgatory. 22. P.] Metam. 9. 77.] Phars. are said to be the fall of a wooden bridge over the Arno. 7.] —All my bowels crumble up to dust. 1304. 57. 70 and 71. l. and in revenge of his death several inhabitants of that district were put to death. jam dormitante lucerna. CANTO XXVI v. Shakespeare. 7.] The poet prognosticates the calamities which were soon to befal his native city. 119 . a. drawn up with a pen Upon a parchment. whose wrongs. v.] Namque sub Auroram. c. Prato. ascending from that funeral pile.] “When I reflect on the punishment allotted to those who do not give sincere and upright advice to others I am more anxious than ever not to abuse to so bad a purpose those talents. v. Villani. s. whose familly. Buoso. In that part. in consequence of which accident many lives were lost. in May.] O Rome! thy head Is drown’d in sleep. Agnello. would wish her. viii. 35.] Agnello Brunelleschi v. v. v. even her nearest neighbor. 131. v. and v. and XXVII. 138. ii. Lucan. Venturi says. I am a scribbled form. L. has conferred on me. or rather Providence. 81. 61. c. b. v. His sharpen’d visage. as if conscious of the enmity that actuated them while living. where a large multitude were assembled to witness a representation of hell and the infernal torments. John. v.] The flame is said to have divided on the funeral pile which consumed tile bodies of Eteocles and Polynices. a noted robber. he has not been able to discover. x. v. and all thy body fev’ry. ii. ix. Ben Jonson’s Catiline. K. 140. v. Sciancato.Hell v.] Puccio Sciancato. Ovid. 511 &c. 87. Epist. As if by sleep or fev’rous fit assail’d. Somnia quo cerni tempore vera solent.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 121. Cant.] Francesco Guercio Cavalcante was killed at Gaville. l.] Kings.] Compare Milton. and against this fire Do I shrink up.” It is probable that this declaration was the result of real feeling Textd have given great weight to any opinion or party he had espoused. More than I am wont. v. 766 and 793. Hist. Ovid. IX. and which he says. and a conflagration that in the following month destroyed more than seventeen hundred houses. iv. v. Shall feel what Prato. many of them sumptuous buildings. The calamities more particularly pointed at.] The navel. b. as he. v. and to whom indigence and exile might have offerred strong temptations to deviate from that line of conduct which a strict sense of duty prescribed.

] The mountain of Purgatorg CANTO XXVII. L. 6. 1. Che per veder nell’ altro mondo gisse. v. where his descendants founded the Roman empire. Made our oars wings. v. its former ruler. who then governed it. when he was driven from that city in 1295. xv. G. 106. The ambush of the horse. iii. hy the strategem of Guido da Montefeltro. In 1322 he was deprived of his sovereignty. whom he designates by his coat of arms.Hell Ecce iterum fratris. from their ferocity. Ne timor di fatica o di periglio. Pharsal. Of the mountains there. Aeneid.” v. 26.] Montefeltro. called. A mountain dim.] Malatesta and Malatestino his son. Eroiche. respecting the duration of Guido’s absence from Ravenna. mere enabled. since his government is here represented (in 1300) as not having suffered any material disturbance for many years. Nor fondness for my son] Imitated hp Tasso. for the tyrant Phalaris.l The territory of Forli. in 1265. that caused Aeneas to quit the city of Troy and seek his fortune in Italy. l. v.] “The ambush of the wooden horse. v. who bore an eagle for his coat of arms. vii. in 1282. and died at Bologna in the year following. Storia della Lett. Caieta. a lion vert. v. Ital. This last and most munificent patron of Dante is himself enumerated. Morg. c. ii. Polenta’s eagle. v. Lucan. l. 1. 38. which was the name of their castle. v. It must evidently have been very short. 145. See G. v. G. The name of Polenta was derived from a castle so called in the neighbourhood of Brittonoro. and made himself master of Ravenna. c. among the poets of his time. The old mastiff of Verucchio and the young. The Sicilian Bull. Theb. that it is now in the possession of Sinibaldo Ordolaffi. the inhabitants of which. t. This imagined voyage of Ulysses into the Atlantic is alluded to by Pulci.] The engine of torture invented by Perillus. l. xxv And by Tasso. by the historian of Italian literature. viii. xii.] The straits of Gibraltar. si degno affetto Intiepedir nel generoso petto. c. by the arms of Pietro. or Ardelaffi. ne pietade Del vecchio genitor. v. Tiraboschi. 13. 128. 41. vii. archbishop of Monreale. 43. Villani. Ostendens confectas flamma. c. 1. 26.] Virgil. Ne vaghezza del regno.l So Chiabrera. to defeat with great slaughter the French army by which it had been besieged. l. The strait pass. c. 93. v. lords of Rimini.] Guido Novello da Polenta. xiii Faro de’remi un volo. Statius. 91. v. Cant. 25.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Magg. Guido was the son of Ostasio da Polenta. L. And Tasso Ibid. The poet informs Guido. 81. about fifteen miles to the south of Ravenna. the mastiffs of Verruchio. &c. 60. 122. The passnge in the text might have removed the uncertainty which Tiraboschi expressed. 120 . Cervia is a small maritime city. The land. &c. E sopratutto commendava Ulisse.

they filled three modii and a half. which. 121 . 144.] Montagna de’Parcitati. c.] Boniface VIII. for the loss of this valuable fortress. offering him at the same time absolution for his past sins.] Cesena. Villani. he commanded the golden rings to be poured out in the senate house. CANTO XXVIII. Morg. l. situated at the foot of a mountain. 18. 50. So Pulci. 47. 13. c. The lion of the snowy lair.] Machinardo Pagano.] So in Dante’s treatise De Monarchia: “Dicunt quidam adhue. whose enmity to the family of Colonna prompted him to destroy their houses near the Lateran.] The war of Hannibal in Italy. quod Constantinus Imperator. that kind words and fair promises nonld put his enemies into his power. And those the rest. v.” Lib. that. that often descends with a swoln and rapid stream from the Appenine. l.Hell v. who conquered the kingdom of Naples. See G. Wishing to obtain possession of their other seat. G. v. The nature of the lion than the fox. G. Villani. and fell in such numbers that the bones of the slain were still gathered near Ceperano. is well worthy of observation.] Celestine V. and Santerno at Imola. xix. Whose flank is wash’d of SSavio’s wave.D. tunc summni pontificis imperii sedem.. and died in 1110. 1298.] Non furon leonine ma di volpe. v. Lamone’s city and Santerno’s. which made so large a heap. A. and they accordingly soon aftermards fell into the snare laid for them. as some relate. whose arms were a lion azure on a field argent. and leader of the Ghibelline party at Rimini. v. As in Soracte Constantine besought. donavit ecclesiae.iii. Villani. Hist. See the Purgatory. and washed by the river Savio. v. v. In that long war. 1291. 68. 101. 89.] Robert Guiscard. 12. l.] He alludes to tile victory which Charles gained over Conradino. 10. 64. by whom the Saracens. The regret expressed by the Florentine annalist G. My predecessor. Canto III. 122. “When Mago brought news of his victories to Carthage. v. cum multis allis imperii dignitatibus. Magg. as well as for that which he was then tempting him to commit. A man of arms. wns overcome by Charles of Anjou in 1205. vii. 84. Montagna. 23. v. by the sage advice of the Sieur de Valeri. v. in 1208. The high priest.] Boniface VIII. Canto XVIII.8. 44. iv.] Guido da Montefeltro. murdered by Malatestino.] Lamone is the river at Faenza. 46. Guido’s advice was. v. E furon le sua opre e le sue colpe Non creder leonine ma di volpe.The Divine Comedy of Dante . c.] The army of Manfredi. a noble knight. Villani. vii. Penestrino. 9. viii. v. 27. c. v. See Notes to Canto III. vii. Nor against Acre one/Had fought. O Tagliocozzo. were assisted to recover St. he consulted with Guido da Montefeltro how he might accomplish his purpose. c. in Apri. 72.” Livy. 81.] He alludes to the renegade Christians. in order to make his successes more easily credited. Guiscard’s Norman steel. The chief of the new Pharisee. l. the last possession of the Christians in the Iloly Land. through the treachery of the Apulian troops. mundatus a lepra intercessione Syvestri. A more probable account represents them not to have exceeded one modius. where he is called Machinardo da Susinana. See G. Villani. mentioned again in the Purgatory. c. G. v. l. Canto XIV. He is introduced in the Paradise. scilicet Romam. Villani passim.John d’Acre. v.

and among the leaders of the neighbouring states. v. 69. v. v. not to be relied on. 427. The doubt in Caesar’s mind. see Millot. and other prelates of the holy church. Geri of Bello. c. his sect was much diminished.] Buondelmonte was engaged to marry a lady of the Amidei family. a friar.” G. according to instructions given by him. see Muratori Rer. Villani. v. a.] A kinsman of the Poet’s. c. viii. 70. Landino observes. ix. iii. v. ii. “De Vulg. I believe. For the translation of some extracts from his poems. l. supplied themselves by depredation and rapine. This was so much resented by the former. Script. Focara’s wind. 111. and promulgating a community of property and of wives.” The counsel and its effects were the source of many terrible calamities to the state of Florence. he was taken by the people of Novarra. but broke his promise and united himself to one of the Donati. with Margarita his companion and many other men and women whom his errors had seduced. who was murdered by 122 . 210. 38. For a further account of him. t. who belonged to no regular order. s. l. exclaiming to them “the thing once done.] Lombardy. 2 Hen. The boon companion. 94. CANTO XXIX. 72. v. Hist. in Lombardy.” It happened in 1215.The Divine Comedy of Dante . they mere drowned in their passage near Catolica. and. that he was possessed of singular eloquence. 2. He is quoted in Dante. “was the cause and beginning of the accursed Guelph and Ghibelline parties in Florence. for not observing their duty. there is an end. and burnt. Canto XVI.] Bertrand de Born. v. with many other such heretical doctrines. like beasts. 281. Medicina. 32. Vicomte de Hautefort. and the severity of the snows. 2. Ali. and affirmed that he ought to be pope. 160. but the historical parts of that work are. Bertrand.] What stronger breastplate than a heart untainted? Shakespeare. 85.] Focara is a mountain. to consider of the best means of revenging the insult. v. The twain. Bertrand holds a distinguished place among the Provencal poets. p. Mosca degli Uberti persuaded them to resolve on the assassination of Buondelmonte. Mosca. 102. Ital.] Curio. 53. declaring himself to be a true apostle of Christ. of England. 26. 139. He was followed by more than three thousand men and women.” l. Tolle moras: semper nocuit differre paratis Pharsal. i. Litteraire des Troubadors t. VI. Piero fomented dissensions among the inhabitants of that city. whose speech (according to Lucan) determined Julius Caesar to proceed when he had arrived at Rimini (the ancient Ariminum). a large company of the meaner sort of people. 84. when they wanted provisions. called Dolcino. v. l. were invited by Malatestino da Rimini to an entertainment on pretence that he had some important business to transact with them: and. “This murder. and doubted whether he should prosecute the civil war. from which a wind blows that is peculiarly dangerous to the navigators of that coast. cardinals. two of the worthiest and most distinguished citizens of Fano. See the Paradise. and that both he and Margarita endured their fate with a firmness worthy of a better cause. nor leading the angelic life.] “In 1305. This lasted for two years till. v.] Guido dal Cassero and Angiolello da Cagnano. v. Dolcino. Eloq. c. Villanni. between Rimini and Fano. contrived to raise in Novarra. Henry II. many being struck with compunction at the dissolute life they led. that a meeting of themselves and their kinsmen was held.Hell v.] A place in the territory of Bologna. who incited John to rebel against his father. i. who lived promiscuously on the mountains together. The pleasant land. He blamed the pope. p. and through failure of food. near Perigueux in Guienne.] The disciple of Mohammed.” says G.

and Chiusi. 33. leaving Simon his heir. In the heat of autumn it was formerly rendered unwholesome by the stagnation of the water.] He alludes to the fable of the ants changed into Myrmidons. In that garden. &c. 1. noisome. and to make a will. that it was first used at Florence in 1253. 134. His being placed here. who promised Albero. &c. In Aegina. xiii. Metam. 477. v. Protinos Aelides.] A fountain in Sienna. Was ever race/Light as Sienna’s?] The same imputation is again cast on the Siennese. 18. belonged to a company of prodigal and luxurious young men in Sienna. As were the torment. that he was employed by Simon Donati to personate Buoso Donati. Casentino. l. possessed such a faculty of moulding his features to the resemblance of others. for which crime he was burnt. Landino says. Stricca. Metnm. and Ovid. Hecuba. Maremma’s pestilent fen. vii. 88.” v. 4. Schicchi. 45. v. wherein were laid Numbers of all diseas’d. for which service he was renumerated with a mare of extraordinary value. 60. who is said to have been a fellow-student of Dante’s in natural philosophy. 125. v. in the Paradise. Athamas. called the “brigata godereccia. here called “the lady of the herd. v. Purg. Canto XIII. 77. P. v. 16. Albero prevailed on his father to have him burnt for a necromancer. A lasar-house it seem’d. Niccolo Salimbeni.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 58. v. v. Stricca. v. Hecuba.” Niccolo was the inventor of a new manner of using cloves in cookery.] It is very probable that these lines gave Milton the idea of his celebrated description: Immediately a place Before their eyes appear’d. but has since been drained by the Emperor Leopold II.] Sienna. Villani relates. then recently deceased. 104.] See Ovid. that in his time the peasants still pointed out a pile of stones near Romena as the place of his execution. dark.] The valley through which passes the river Chiana.Hell one of the Sacchetti family. v. Adamo’s woe. CANTO XXX.] From Ovid. v. 121. Valdichiana. son of the Bishop of Sienna. L.] Romena is a part of Casentino. or Meo de Folcacchieri. The florens with three carats of alloy. Met. who was of the family of Cavalcanti. and their brother Aghinulfo. coonterfeited the coin of Florence.] Grifolino of Arezzo. v. an aera of great prosperity in the 123 . Montepulciano. Ovid. lords of Romena. v.] This is said ironically.] See Euripedes. Metam. may be considered as a proof that Dante was more impartial in the allotment of his punishments than has generally been supposed. 1. that he would teach him the art of flying. and which was termed the “costuma ricca.] Capocchio of Sienna. 39. v. Myrrha. b. sad. 117. and because be did not keep his promise. Arezzo was my dwelling. l. all maladies. v. Caccia of Asciano. Branda’s limpid spring. 21. 141.] The floren was a coin that ought to have had tmenty-four carats of pure gold. and Abbagliato.] Gianni Schicci. The Chiana is mentioned as a remarkably sluggish stream. 64. v. at the instigation of Cuido Alessandro. bounded by Arezzo.” v.] Adamo of Breschia. Cappocchio’s ghost.] See Note to Canto XXV. Canto XIII. x. not very well understood by the commentators. 44. 47. iv. v. xi. Cortona.

132. v. See Warton’s Hist. 36. Poetry. Phars. CANTO XXXI. s. The same allusion was made by Bernard de Ventadour. v. 1. 8. P. says— “In quorum numero nec puerilia propter suam simplicitatem ut Mamma et Babbo. a sword of similar quality is introduced: And other folk have wondred on the sweard. v. To where modest shame appears. In Chaucer’s Squier’s Tale. i. of Eng. the other in that tract of country called the Garfagnana. See Liv. But it is not impossible. “This is the horn which Orlando won from the giant Jatmund.” v. x.” l. not far from Lucca. v. p 215. 128. and Lucan. A tongue not us’d/To infant babbling. Hist. was endued with magical power.] Vulnus in Herculeo quae quondam fecerat hoste Vulneris auxilium Pellas hasta fuit. Canto XVIII. Henry VI.] “As high as to the face. p. Rem. ii. ii. The very tongue. vi.] The combat between Hercules Antaeus is adduced by the Poet in his treatise “De Monarchia. 33. Tabernich or Pietrapana. v. that it was a singular instance of erudition in a Troubadour. che chiami mamma. vol. v. Whose smile and frown like to Achilles’ spear Is able with the change to kill and cure. as Warton remarks. That could so piercen through every thing. a Provencal poet in the middle of the twelfth century: and Millot observes. c. and which as Turpin and the Islandic bards report. xxx. sect. 5. iv. l. l. of Engl. a.l When Charlemain with all his peerage fell 124 . or as he calls it. i.] The leaning tower at Bologna At Fontarabia Milton. L. CANTO XXXII. according to the singular superstition of those times.] The one a mountain in Sclavonia. Dante in his treatise “De Vulg.” speaking of words not admissble in the loftier. c. Amor.] A castle near Sienna.” Charlemain and Orlando are introduced in the Paradise. Hist. o babbo. 105. p.Hell annals of the republic. before which time their most valuable coinage was of silver. Alcides. as a proof of the judgment of God displayed in the duel. 47. 1. vii. 54. b. Orlando.] The country near Carthage. Dante has kept the latter of these writers in his eye throughout all this passage. For he couth with it both heale and dere.] Ne da lingua. 123. 590. The tower of Carisenda. The false accuser. 29.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. and might be heard at the distance of twenty miles. Eloq.] Potiphar’s wife. Poetrg. v. And of Achillcs for his queint spere. sec. 98. (Hist. So Shakspeare. l. Montereggnon. Ovid.) but that he might have been indebted for it to some of the early romances. And fell in speech of Telephus the king. The fortunate vale. 14.” l. iii. ii. tragic style of poetry. ii. v. v. 586.

Who are these two. Tribaldello. He is a common instance of treachery with the poets of the middle ages. 80. c. He betrayed the Castel di Piano Travigne. Villani. D. vii.] One of the same family. to the Florentines. l. Moving their teeth in shrill note like the stork. v. Him of Duera. 113. G. in Valdarno.] Tribaldello de’Manfredi. l. who was bribed to betray the city of Faonza. c. mentioned by Archbishop Turpin.] The defeat of the Guelfi at Montaperto. l. 60. at which the people of Cremona were so enraged. and new Ganilion. 35. 4. who. Foccaccia. 1265. 52 and Dino Compagni. and his own ruin. l. c14. c. So Boccaccio. v.] Buoso of Cremona.” v.D. 119. 66. an event which seems ever to have befallen him. and Notes to Canto X. nor do the commentators say to what pope he was legate. 1282. l.D. in the summer of 1302. (the Pistoian family) whose atrocious act of revenge against his uncle is said to have given rise to the parties of the Bianchi and Neri. after the refugees of the Bianca and Ghibelline party had defended it against a siege for twentynine days.” A. “Lo scolar cattivello quasi cicogna divenuto si forte batteva i denti. 125 . occasioned by the treachery of Bocca degli Abbati. 1266. in the year 1300. vii. and Macchiavelli. who also murdered his uncle. A. he was beheaded. Carlino. This event happened in 1260.Hell v. 118. Pis valent que Guenelon. 67. v. l. O false dissembler. 118. 63. cut off the hand of Giacopo del Vacca de’Pazzi. who has headed the populace in Florence.” Peter of Spaine. See G. viii. “put himself at the head of the people. l. of the family of Duera.] Abbot of Vallombrosa. Villani.] Mordrec. Beccaria. G. Hist.” says Villani. who murdered each other. open to the army of Charles of Anjou.The Divine Comedy of Dante . a Florentiue. roi de Navarre O new Scariot. n.] Sassol Mascheroni. where his intrigues in favour of the Ghibellines being discovered. with the defence of which he had been entrusted by the Ghibellines. G. 37. Montaperto. 119. by Vellutello from Pavia. Mascheroni. See G. The account of the latter writer differs much from that given by Landino in his Commentary. v. c. in the hopes of rising into power. Ganellon.] Alessandro and Napoleone. Soldanieri. during the engagement. that they extirpated the whole family. to leave a pass between Piedmont and Parma. vi. ii. by whom his kinsman Ubertino was treacherously pnt to death. I do not find the occurrence in Vallini. v. a river that falls into the Arno about six miles from Florence. v. &c. who was bribed by Guy de Montfort. G. not aware that the result would be mischief to the Ghibelline party. l. Villani. “Nonne’s Prieste’s Tale” And in the “Monke’s Tale. son of King Arthur. v. ii. sons of Alberto Alberti. Villani. Hist.] Focaccia of Cancellieri. v.] The betrayer of Charlemain. v. Camiccione. They were proprietors of the valley of Falterona. v. viii. where the Bisenzio has its source. 81. who was the Pope’s Legate at Florence. c. 7. Not him. Trop son fol e mal pensant.] Camiccione de’ Pazzi of Valdarno. Hist. Thibaut. 53.] Mettendo i denti in nota di cicogna. By Landino he is reported to have been from Parma. vii. viii. 59. Chaucer. bearer of the Florentine standard. 80. v.] “Gianni Soldanieri. A. Villani.

Count Ugolino. united with the Archbishop and his party. in a tower on the Piazza of the Anzania. quitted Pisa. Tydeus. 127.] “In the year 1288. 59. 79. who had imprisoned the Count Uglino. dove’l si suona. i. Chancer has briefly told Ugolino’s story. v. his castle. the Pisans. when dead.Hell v.] The mountain S. In that fair region. In a few days they died of hunger. Sismondi. me vestisti e tu mi spoglia: Ben puoi’l Regno me tor tu che me’l desti.” Hugeline of Pise. between Pisa and Lucca. The power of the Guelphi being so much diminished. and not seeing any means of defending himself. and repaired to a manor of his called Settimo. Italy as explained by Dante himself. he returned to Pisa with great rejoicing and festivity. The Count Ugolino. Imitated by Filicaja. and two of his sons. Signor. his sister’s son.The Divine Comedy of Dante . when everything was settled for his expulsion.] Del bel paese la. c.] See Statius. with the Lanfranchi. consisting of others of the same faction. Eloq. But his greatness was not of long continuauce. with two of his sons and two of his grandchildren. 128. retired to Calci. Pisa was much divided by competitors for the sovereignty. Di questa imperial caduca spoglia Tu. of his son the Count Guelfo. Unto the mountain. were dragged out of the prison. another. in his treatise De Vulg. in the month of July. The Count. Villani l. 29. with their two sons also. before Nino was gone. were conveyed to prison.” Ibid. in order to cover his treachery. Canz. being headed by the Judge Nino di Gallura de’Visconti. in the Merope: Tu disciogleste Queste misere membra e tu le annodi. All the five. the Archbishop devised means to betray the Count Uglino and caused him to be suddenly attacked in his palace by the fury of the people. composed of certain of the Guelphi. viii. they contrived that he and his followers should either be driven out of Pisa. videlicet usque ad promontorium illud Italiae. v. v. “In the following march. 14. and the third by the Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubaldini. and all food to be withheld from them. See “Monke’s Tale. qua sinus Adriatici maris incipit et Siciliam. and given up their castles to the citizens of Florence and of Lucca. 8. c. against the Pisans. and other Ghibelline houses. on account of the envy and fear excited in his mind by the high esteem in which the gracious manners of Anselmo were held by the Pisans. He was immediately compelled to surrender. or their persons seized. and so shall ever be. by telling them that Ugolino had betrayed Pisa. Nino hearing this. and formed an alliance with the Florentines and people of Lucca. as soon as he was informed of Nino’s departure. “Qui autem Si dicunt a praedictis finibus. and yet neither priest nor friar was allowed to shrive him. Thou gav’st.” CANTO XXXIII. as a punishment for his acts of treachery and guilt: for he was said to have poisoned the Count Anselmo da Capraia. the offspring 126 . and was elevated to the supreme power with every demonstration of triumph and honour.” G. iii. l. Theb. 120. v. one party. It pleased the Almighty that a total reverse of fortune should ensue. and meanly interred. e tu le spoglia. his bastard son and his grandson fell in the assault. but the Count first with loud cries declared his penitence. And by Maffei. caused the tower to be locked. (Januensiem) Oreintalem (Meridionalis Europae partem) tenent. the key thrown into the Arno. and having betrayed Nino. whom he had exasperated. and from thence forward the tower was called the tower of famine. by the Count Ugolino de’ Gherardeschi. c. ad finem.] Tu ne vestisti Queste misere carni. l. whence. his sister’s son.to effect his purpose. vii. Gualandi. Giuliano.

Ptolomea. Q. in the Zodiacus Vitae. who is called Typhurgo. xi. L.] This circle is named Ptolomea from Ptolemy. 123. Joyons Friars who having quarrelled with some of his brotherhood. II. c.” v. 94. as others have said. So Giusto de’Conti. Ben Jonson’s “Every Man out of his humour. by whom Simon and his sons were murdered.] —sorrow’s eye. v.] It can scarcely be doubted but that Milton derived his description of Satan in those lines. Like a bat. s. from this passage. glazed with blinding tears. The friar Albigero.] The friar Alberigo. v. Hence. v. Canto XXXIV. represented by that between pale and yellow is envy and not. The glazed tear-drops. Compare Spenser. under pretence of wishing to be reconciled. 7. is a melancholy humour that causes a man’s thoughts to be dark and evil. Thus Pulci.] The author of the Caliph Vathek. a signal for the assassins to rush in and dispatch those whom he had marked for destruction. b. Bella Mano. Milton. justly observes. the son of Abubus. Each passion dimm’d his face Thrice chang’d with pale.] Small islands near the mouth of the Arno. adds Landino. P. introduced in Canto XXII. A wind-mill. c. 116. Morg. v. 114. in the notes to that tale. i. ire. coupled with the remark of Vellutello upon it: “The first of these sins is anger which he signifies by the red face. 162 Romagna’s darkest spirit. F. b.] —His sail-broad vans He spreads for flight. a. invited them to a banquet. ii. Three faces.] The description of an imaginary being. and averse from all joy and tranquillity. one of the Frati Godenti. v. 127 . 2. xxv. L. has some touches very like this of Dante’s Lucifer. that he has had some of the friar Alberigo’s fruit. Branca is said to have murdered his father-in-law.] The family of Doria was possessed of great influence in Genoa.” v. of Faenza. 3. and Fletcher’s Prophetess. 46. 44. a.] Alberigo de’Manfredi.Hell v. ch xvi. at a great banquet he had made for them. Sails. b. denoted by the black.] Lo pianto stesso li pianger non lascia. There very weeping suffers not to weep. Le frutte amare di frate Alberico. 82. envy. st. and the third. Rich. v. 126. v. s. 136. Capraia and Gorgona. Shakspeare. 6. Michel Zanche. See Maccabees. the second. Son. it is said proverbially of one who has been stabbed. 10. at the conclusion of which he called for the fruit. “Quanto il ciel. v. Magg. avarice.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and despair. P. iv. that it is more than probable that Don Quixote’s mistake of the wind-mills for giants was suggested to Cervantes by this simile. Branca Doria.” Che il troppo pianto a me pianger non lassa. 2. 927. 37. v. 2.

Within one hour and half of noon. The vaulted tomb. Made all the orient laugh. O ye hallow’d Nine! for in your train I follow. 120. His haire with fyry garland deckt Puft up in fiendish wise.] The mountain of Purgatory.] “La tomba. and for ascent to Heaven prepares. Well pleas’d to leave so cruel sea behind.” This word is used to express the whole depth of the infernal region. to mine eyes Unwonted joy renew’d. 89. v. And of that second region will I sing. quales vespertilionum Membranis contextae amplis— Nudus erat longis sed opertus corpora villis. v. soon as I ‘scap’d Forth from the atmosphere of deadly gloom. Plac’d hie on lofty chaire. By what of firm land on this side appears. that in his escort came. but I fear in vain. 128 . Nor let Calliope refuse to sound A somewhat higher song. Which when the wretched birds of chattering note Had heard. they of forgiveness lost all hope. here the deadened strain revive. ix. that by Brutus and Cassius are not meant the individuals known by those names. but any who put a lawful monarch to death. A mighty king I might discerne. That had mine eyes and bosom fill’d with grief. crines flammanti stemmate cinctum —utrinque patentes Alae humeris magnae. In which the human spirit from sinful blot Is purg’d. He maintains. Vit. Googe’s Translation v. Yet if Caesar was such. that was spread O’er the serene aspect of the pure air. l.] Landino struggles. the conspirators might be regarded as deserving of their doom.123. &c. 61.Purgatory Ingentem vidi regem ingentique sedentem In solio. High up as the first circle. M. * * * * * * PURGATORY CANTO I O’er better waves to speed her rapid course The light bark of my genius lifts the sail. that to love invites. Zod. Large wings on him did grow Framde like the wings of flinder mice. and veil’d beneath The Pisces’ light. Here. according to which the third hour answers to our twelve o’clock at noon.] The poet uses the Hebrew manner of computing the day. The radiant planet. to extricate Brutus from the unworthy lot which is here assigned him. of that loud tone. Palingenii. Brutus.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. Sweet hue of eastern sapphire.

had besought me in my charge To bring. That makes the infernal valley ever black? Are the firm statutes of the dread abyss Broken. Low down his beard and mix’d with hoary white Descended. and fix’d my mind On the’ other pole attentive. and with such radiance clear Deck’d it. that little space was left to turn. ye to my caves approach?” My guide. where I saw Four stars ne’er seen before save by the ken Of our first parents. From high descends the virtue. That under thy command are purg’d from sin. “Who hath conducted. And purpose now those spirits to display. Mine is not to deny thee thy request. “Say who are ye. Then. Heaven of their rays Seem’d joyous. then laying hold on me. In the search Of liberty he journeys: that how dear 129 . as before I told. How I have brought him would be long to say. condemn’d. or in high heaven new laws ordain’d. or with lantern sure Lights you emerging from the depth of night. since of these depriv’d! As from this view I had desisted. There from whence now the wain had disappear’d. so worthy of rev’rence in his look. That ne’er from son to father more was ow’d. and no way remain’d Save this which I have ta’en. The beams Of those four luminaries on his face So brightly shone. Forth from th’ eternal prison-house have fled?” He spoke and moved those venerable plumes. by whose aid I to thy sight and hearing him have led. straight Turning a little tow’rds the other pole. that I beheld him as the sun. Now may our coming please thee. a Dame from heaven Descending. I was dispatch’d To work his rescue. that more Our true condition I unfold at large. That thus. and widow’d. which parting fell Upon his breast in double fold. But since thy will implies. that stemming the blind stream. like his locks.The Divine Comedy of Dante . O thou northern site. by words And intimations given with hand and head. I have display’d Before him all the regions of the bad. I saw an old man standing by my side Alone. Made my bent knees and eye submissive pay Due reverence. But erring by his folly had approach’d So near.Purgatory To the right hand I turn’d. then thus to him replied. bereft Indeed. “Not of myself I come. This mortal ne’er hath seen the farthest gloom.

We travers’d the deserted plain. and to my guide retiring close. “My son! observant thou my steps pursue. thinks every step Trodden in vain till he regain the path. That in the last great day will shine so bright. and I myself uprais’d Speechless. or harden’d in its stalk. to whom death for her was sweet In Utica. for which best thanks I for thy favour will to her return. as thou sayst. Now that beyond the’ accursed stream she dwells. where yet the tender dew Strove with the sun. where fresh 130 . Then by her love we’ implore thee. that now rises. this way return not. For us the’ eternal edicts are unmov’d: He breathes. wander’d from his track. Where the wave beats it. there far beneath. by that law. Who stands the foremost minister in heaven. so that from afar I spy’d the trembling of the ocean stream. let us pass Through thy sev’n regions. That all she ask’d me I was fain to grant. After. Which was ordain’d me. Go therefore now: and with a slender reed See that thou duly gird him. if Dame from heaven. Which deaf before it. not bending to the water’s sway. Cover’d with leaves. Not so. “while I was there. for that way The champain to its low extreme declines. and I am free of Minos’ power. Toward him turn’d mine eyes.” “Marcia so pleasing in my sight was found. Moves and directs thee. where to take The mountain in its easiest ascent. For not with eye. then no flattery needs. on the oozy bed Produces store of reeds. There lives. as one Who. Enough for me that in her name thou ask. who still in look Prays thee.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Purgatory They know. O hallow’d spirit! to own her shine.” The dawn had chas’d the matin hour of prime. We must retreat to rearward. and his face Lave. till all sordid stain thou wipe from thence. This islet all around. No other plant. but the sun Will show you. and in a place. who for her sake have life refus’d. He thus began. If mention there below thou not disdain. when I issued thence. She may no longer move me. where thou didst leave those weeds. Would it be seemly before him to come.” He disappear’d. When we had come. Thou knowest. by any cloud obscur’d. Abiding in that circle where the eyes Of thy chaste Marcia beam.” He then to him rejoin’d.

over the ocean floor. And night. nor other sail CANTO II Now had the sun to that horizon reach’d. “Down. No winged course might equal its career. what once again I hope to view. Both hands extended on the watery grass My master plac’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . while motionless the body rests. while the brightness. Aurora’s white and vermeil-tinctur’d cheek To orange turn’d as she in age increas’d. Salem’s walls. So seem’d. Like men. Through the thick vapours Mars with fiery beam Glares down in west. Stretch’d out to him my cheeks suffus’d with tears. strange to tell! As he selected every humble plant. which the dun shades of hell conceal’d. down. straightway in its place arose. that we first discern’d.Purgatory The wind breath’d o’er it. Holding the scales. My preceptor silent yet Stood. musing on their road. who. from the stream of Ganges issued forth. that opposite to him her orb Sounds. A light so swiftly coming through the sea. cried aloud. Then on the solitary shore arriv’d. Whence I of his intent before appriz’d. in thought Journey. That covers. From which when for a space I had withdrawn Thine eyes. and O. When lo! as near upon the hour of dawn. behold God’s angel: fold thy hands: Now shalt thou see true Ministers indeed. in graceful act and kind. that could after measure back his course. He girt me in such manner as had pleas’d Him who instructed. Open’d the form of wings: then when he knew The pilot. There to my visage he anew restor’d That hue. with the most exalted point Of its meridian circle. bend low Thy knees. And by degrees from underneath it came Another. 131 . but what I knew not of bright hue. while it slowly dried. Meanwhile we linger’d by the water’s brink. that from her hands are dropp’d When she reigns highest: so that where I was. Wherever one was pluck’d. another there Resembling. Lo how all human means he sets at naught! So that nor oar he needs. to make inquiry of my guide. Again I look’d and saw it grown in size And brightness: thou on either side appear’d Something. That never sailing on its waters saw Man.

By other road so rough and hard. Then soon as with the sign of holy cross He bless’d them. when that strange tribe Lifting their eyes towards us: If ye know. To follow it I hasten’d. it might be made all fair. I To do the like was mov’d. they as oft return’d Empty into my breast again. The crew. 132 . Within a hundred spirits and more there sat. e’en so at sight Of me those happy spirits were fix’d. “In Exitu Israel de Aegypto. O shadows vain Except in outward semblance! thrice my hands I clasp’d behind it. Declare what path will Lead us to the mount. between such distant shores. Surprise I needs must think was painted in my looks. nor could the eye Endure his splendor near: I mine bent down. that in its course no wave it drank. Where cleans’d from sin. more bright Appear’d the bird of God. each one Forgetful of its errand. The swiftly as he came return’d. The heav’nly steersman at the prow was seen.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and in their haste Tread one another down. As the multitude Flock round a herald. Winnowing the air with those eternal plumes. that now The’ ascent will seem to us as play. There left.” The spirits.Purgatory Except his wings. appear’d astounded with the place. That not like mortal hairs fall off or change!” As more and more toward us came. Gazing around as one who sees new sights. before you but a little space.” Them Virgil answer’d. but with voice Of sweetness it enjoin’d me to desist. Then one I saw darting before the rest With such fond ardour to embrace me. Lo how straight up to heaven he holds them rear’d. From every side the sun darted his beams. “Ye suppose perchance Us well acquainted with this place: but here. Who from my breathing had perceiv’d I liv’d. Grew pale with wonder. To hear what news he brings. For that the shadow smil’d and backward drew. Then who it was I knew. We.” All with one voice together sang. Not long erst We came. and pray’d of it. with what In the remainder of that hymn is writ. are strangers. He drove ashore in a small bark so swift And light. sent with olive branch. Visibly written blessed in his looks. to depart. they at once leap’d out on land. And with his arrowy radiance from mid heav’n Had chas’d the Capricorn. as yourselves.

so loos’d forth it I love thee still. And therefore pause. He. if he Who when and whom he chooses takes. to their food Collected. It answered: “Thee as in my mortal frame I lov’d. for there always throng All such as not to Archeron descend. “How is this. That while all my cares had power to ‘swage. If aught alarm them. me oft This passage hath denied. of pain is overcome. that within The sweetness thrills me yet. so well were pleas’d. blade or tares.Purgatory To talk with me. tow’rd which His wings are pointed. it would a little pause. ye tardy spirits? What negligence detains you loit’ring here? Run to the mountain to cast off those scales. of him gain’d kind Admittance. suddenly desert Their meal. CANTO III Them sudden flight had scatter’d over the plain. Fast fix’d in mute attention to his notes We stood. since of just will His will he makes. Thou find’st me.” As a wild flock of pigeons. whither reason’s voice 133 . the song Deserting. where I am Journeying this way. Please thee with it a little to console My spirit.The Divine Comedy of Dante . hasten to the mountain’s side. whence I wand’ring by the shore Where Tyber’s wave grows salt. with free leave Hath taken. and in still and quiet sort. when lo! that old man venerable Exclaiming. That seem’d naught else might in their thoughts have room. at that river’s mouth. Nor with less hurried step did we depart. So I that new-come troop beheld. As one who goes yet where he tends knows not. my Casella. that incumber’d with its frame. Turn’d tow’rds the mountain.” Then I: “If new laws have not quite destroy’d Memory and use of that sweet song of love. without their pride Accustom’d. whose chose to enter.” He then Began in such soft accents.” I said. but why walkest thou here?” “Not without purpose once more to return. These three months past indeed. My gentle guide And all who came with him.” “Love that discourses in my thoughts. assail’d by more important care. “but how of thee Hath so much time been lost?” He answer’d straight: “No outrage hath been done to me. That from your eyes the sight of God conceal. Travelling so far.

” And then he bent Downwards his forehead. no need had been For Mary to bring forth. The most remote Most wild untrodden path. My mind.The Divine Comedy of Dante . when I beheld Only before myself the ground obscur’d.Purgatory Drives us. Seek not the wherefore. or who beside Would o’er the mountainous tract have led my steps He with the bitter pang of self-remorse Seem’d smitten. Could ye have seen the whole. I to my faithful company Adhering. for in me His rays resistance met. that flar’d behind. To endure Torments of heat and cold extreme. in all the tract ‘Twixt Lerice and Turbia were to this A ladder easy’ and open of access. and there the rock Found of so steep ascent. and the Stagyrite. O clear conscience and upright How doth a little fling wound thee sore! Soon as his feet desisted (slack’ning pace). And others many more. and in troubled mood Broke off his speech. Moreover ye Have seen such men desiring fruitlessly. that in itself before was wrapt. Nor thou Marvel. Its thoughts expanded. which how it works Wills not to us should be reveal’d. Meanwhile we had arriv’d Far as the mountain’s foot. I turn’d aside With fear of being left. in which I cast a shade. That now but serve them for eternal grief. Which holds three persons in one substance knit. remov’d To Naples from Brundusium’s wall. where buried lies The body. thy sure guide? It now is evening there. that mars all decency of act. like frames That virtue hath dispos’d. For how of him Depriv’d. where highest to heav’n its top o’erflows. The sun. if before me no shadow fall. When thus my solace. More than that in the sky element One ray obstructs not other. with ruddy beam Before my form was broken. Insane Who hopes. To whose desires repose would have been giv’n. From haste. I speak of Plato. Bespake me kindly: “Why distrustest thou? Believ’st not I am with thee. our reason may that space explore. that nimblest steps To climb it had been vain. left it not. race of human kind. as with joy restor’d: And full against the steep ascent I set My face. turning him around. “Who knows on which hand now the steep declines?” 134 . might I have sped.

that do The others.” As sheep. Who journey’st thus this way. Instruct us where the mountain low declines. Simple and quiet. and what the foremost does. and with free speech replied: “Let us tend thither: they but softly come. This is a human body which ye see.” Making a signal to us with bent hands. nor the cause discern. him loss of time most grieves. And thou be firm in hope. gath’ring round her. Of spirits. and firmly stood unmov’d As one who walks in doubt might stand to look.” Now was that people distant far in space A thousand paces behind ours. of whom thou may’st obtain Counsel. So that the shadow reach’d the cave. Who of that fortunate crew were at the head. who journeys without aid of wine.” So them bespake My master. Yet moving seem’d not. if she stops. and that virtuous tribe rejoin’d. they stopp’d And somewhat back retir’d: the same did all. So that attempt to mount it be not vain. Which. or three at once. When all drew backward on the messy crags Of the steep bank. though unweeting of the cause “Unask’d of you. Marvel not: but believe. “O spirits perfect! O already chosen!” Virgil to them began. yet freely I confess. as I deem. and before you there the entrance lies. And I gaz’d upward round the stony height. meanwhile the rest Stand fearfully. they so slow approach’d. For who knows most. Who follow’d. thy visage turn. Of modest mien and graceful in their gait. “so that he may Ascend. by one. That the sun’s light is broken on the ground. Then of them one began. Lo that way some. Or pairs.Purgatory My master said and paus’d. 135 . is for you all prepar’d.?” And while with looks directed to the ground The meaning of the pathway he explor’d. as much As at a throw the nervous arm could fling. bending the eye and nose To ground. “by that blest peace. So saw I moving to advance the first. we to climb Over this wall aspire. When they before me had beheld the light From my right side fall broken on the ground. that toward us mov’d their steps. that step from forth their fold. “Whoe’er thou art. if of thyself thou find’st it not!” Straightway he look’d. my son belov’d. I thus my guide address’d: “Upraise thine eyes.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Turn. that not without Virtue deriv’d from Heaven.

But that the eternal love may turn. but the rain now drenches them. grandson to the Queen Costanza: whence I pray thee. that it receives All who turn to it. how Thou hast beheld me. and beside the terms Laid on me of that interdict. I betook myself Weeping to him. but so wide arms Hath goodness infinite. Entire the soul collects herself. if of me Aught else be told. out of the kingdom’s bounds. the parent glad Of Aragonia and Sicilia’s pride. Yet at the bridge’s head my bones had lain. And the wind drives. 136 . he remov’d them from their bed. “I am Manfredi. while hope Retains her verdant blossoms. where. for here By means of those below much profit comes. Who then by Clement on my hunt was set. And thus the error is disprov’d which holds The soul not singly lighted in the breast. and with fix’d eye beheld.” I tow’rds him turn’d. When humbly I disclaim’d to have beheld Him ever: “Now behold!” he said.The Divine Comedy of Dante . True it is. and fair. That firmly keeps the soul toward it turn’d. Revealing to my good Costanza.Purgatory Think if me elsewhere thou hast ever seen. Far as the stream of Verde. with lights Extinguish’d. if such decree Be not by prayers of good men shorter made Look therefore if thou canst advance my bliss. My sins were horrible. And of the truth inform her. And therefore when as aught is heard or seen. when return’d. That any of our faculties hath seiz’d. Yet by their curse we are not so destroy’d. it seems She is intent upon that power alone. That such one as in contumacy dies Against the holy church. Must wander thirty-fold for all the time In his presumption past. who of free will forgives. and show’d High on his breast a wound: then smiling spake. by the heavy mole Protected. When by two mortal blows My frame was shatter’d. Near Benevento. He seem’d. though he repent. and gentle of aspect.” CANTO IV When by sensations of delight or pain. but on one brow a gash was mark’d. Comely. To my fair daughter go. Had this text divine Been of Cosenza’s shepherd better scann’d.

till to us Some practis’d guide appear. when that troop Departing left us. And with light furnish’d to direct my way. On Sanleo’s road Who journeys. “and to a track Pointed. For that. Then rais’d them to the sun. Whence he thus to me: 137 . If thou stay not. That I behind him clamb’ring.Purgatory Time passes. When we arriv’d Near on the highest ridge of the steep bank. whereby he hearken. than was the path. who gave me hope. This is as it were bound.”—” My son!” He straight reply’d. Another that. Soon perceiv’d That Poet sage how at the car of light Amaz’d I stood. and I behind him close. or to Noli low descends. But here a man had need to fly. close Pent on each side. and a man perceives it not. whence was our ascent: and oft Many beside have with delight look’d back. Conducted by his aid. that. and behold how I remain alone. Where the plain level open’d I exclaim’d. forc’d myself. which the whole spirit hash. turn’d we round To eastward.” That eminence Was lofty that no eye might reach its point. By which my guide. round Circles the hill. “Here is what ye ask. more than line From the mid quadrant to the centre drawn. When we arriv’d where all with one accord The spirits shouted. “O master! say which way can we proceed?” He answer’d. for full fifty steps aloft The sun had measur’d unobserv’d of me. His words so spurr’d me on. hearing that spirit And wond’ring. Till my feet press’d the circuit plain beneath. I wearied thus began: “Parent belov’d! Turn. must use his feet. while that is free. “Let no step of thine recede. on this side projecting. First on the nether shores I turn’d my eyes. There both together seated. Or mounts Bismantua’s height. This found I true by proof. When the ripe grape imbrowns. “Thus far put forth thy strength. Behind me gain the mountain. and wond’ring mark’d That from the left it smote us. I mean With the swift wing and plumes of high desire.The Divine Comedy of Dante . We through the broken rock ascended. while underneath the ground Ask’d help of hands and feet.” A larger aperture ofttimes is stopp’d With forked stake of thorn by villager. And the side proudly rising. where ‘twixt us and the north Its course it enter’d. is one power. Ascended solitary.

that the mid orb Of the supernal motion (which in terms Of art is called the Equator.” Straight he turn’d to us. As in a vessel to go down the tide. But. How that may be if thou would’st think. 138 . Then of this path thou wilt have reach’d the end. Where lies the path that Phaeton ill knew To guide his erring chariot: thou wilt see How of necessity by this on one He passes.Purgatory “Were Leda’s offspring now in company Of that broad mirror. and two hemispheres apart. If with clear view shine intellect attend. How far we have to journey: for the hill Mounts higher. sat him down. and thus far for certain know.” As he his words had spoken. if its ancient course it not forsook. “behold that man.” He thus to me: “Such is this steep ascent. while by that on the’ other side.” At sound thereof each turn’d. within Pond’ring. “Sweet Sir!” I cry’d. And with his arms did fold his knees about. so that to both be one Horizon. imagine Sion with this mount Plac’d on the earth. from hence toward the north Departs. near to us A voice there sounded: “Yet ye first perchance May to repose you by constraint be led. No more I answer. and on the left A huge stone we beheld. see it tow’rds the warmer part. that high up and low Imparts his light beneath. as a man Thru’ idleness might stand. That it is ever difficult at first. Holding his face between them downward bent. When pleasant it shall seem to thee. more a man proceeds. kind teacher!” I exclaim’d. who shows Himself more idle. Who seem’d to me much wearied.” “Of truth. than if laziness Were sister to him. as I now discern Where seem’d my ken to fail. so much That upward going shall be easy to thee. of which nor I Nor he before was ware. There hope to rest thee from thy toil. thou might’st behold The ruddy zodiac nearer to the bears Wheel. find there were some. Thither we drew. and remains Ever between the sun and winter) for the cause Thou hast assign’d. who in the shady place Behind the rock were standing.The Divine Comedy of Dante . than this sight of mine can mount. But if it please thee. “so clear Aught saw I never. less evil grows. when those who in the Hebrew land Inhabit. Among them one. I would gladly know.

o’er the thigh lifting his face.The Divine Comedy of Dante . cried: “Haste thee. why thou art seated upright there? Waitest thou escort to conduct thee hence? Or blame I only shine accustom’d ways?” Then he: “My brother. and to their babblings leave The crowd. observ’d. That riseth up from heart which lives in grace. and then at me And the light broken underneath. seems to be led on. saying “Well hast thou discern’d.” His lazy acts and broken words my lips To laughter somewhat mov’d. firmly set. As living. But tell.” What other could I answer save “I come?” I said it. Still of his aim is wide.” CANTO V Now had I left those spirits. who at the portal sits? Behooves so long that heav’n first bear me round Without its limits. in whose bosom thought on thought shoots out. now for thee I grieve no more. when I began: “Belacqua. “that thou hast slack’d thy pace? or how Imports it thee. and pursued The steps of my Conductor. in that the one Sicklies and wastes to nought the other’s strength. when beheld Pointing the finger at me one exclaim’d: “See how it seems as if the light not shone From the left hand of him beneath. of what use to mount. for see the sun Has touch’d the point meridian. Shakes not its top for any blast that blows! He.Purgatory And. by turns. what thing is whisper’d here? Come after me. and he. as in life it bore. he scarce his head Uplifted. Nor could the pain I felt (for want of breath Still somewhat urg’d me) hinder my approach. proceed Thou valiant one. saw them gaze Through wonder first at me. What other kind avails. “Why are thy thoughts thus riveted?” my guide Exclaim’d. not heard in heaven?”’ Before me now the Poet up the mount Ascending. How from the left the sun his chariot leads.” Mine eyes I at that sound reverting.” Straight who it was I knew. And when I came to him. and the night Now covers with her foot Marocco’s shore. that. Because I to the end repentant Sighs Delay’d. somewhat with that colour ting’d 139 . When to my suffering would not let me pass The bird of God. Be as a tower. if prayer do not aid me first. Then in these accents spake: “Up then.

But if aught. as I deem. Go therefore on. Meanwhile traverse along the hill there came. repenting and forgiving. gentle spirits! Speak. Whence I. If. Entreat thee. So as the will fail not for want of power. who sole before the others speak. and listen as thou go’st. wherefore go’st thou on? Ah wherefore tarriest thou not? We all By violence died. there arriving. as with loose rein a troop. Which lies between Romagna and the realm Of Charles. “Ye may return. So that. that tidings of him there Thou mayst report. that of thy courtesy thou pray Those who inhabit Fano.” Then I: “The visages of all I scan Yet none of ye remember. Ah. and to our latest hour Were sinners. they may prize him well.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who throng Around us: to petition thee they come. some who sang The “Miserere” in responsive Strains.” Shouting they came. Which on the steps of guide so excellent Following from world to world intent I seek. A little way before us. Look if thou any one amongst our tribe Hast e’er beheld. with the rest Wheel back on us. and inquiring ask’d: Of your condition we would gladly learn. That I can do. that his frame Is real flesh. Him let them honour. but then warn’d by light from heav’n.” “O spirit! who go’st on to blessedness With the same limbs. we Did issue out of life at peace with God.” To them my guide. “Many. and bear Tidings to them who sent you. and I will perform it. enough is answer’d them.Purgatory Which ofttimes pardon meriteth for man. in guise of messengers. that clad thee at thy birth. Nor August’s clouds athwart the setting sun. their song Straight to a long and hoarse exclaim they chang’d. “a little rest thy step. When they perceiv’d that through my body I Gave way not for the rays to pass. That upward these did not in shorter space Return. though not promis’d with an oath.” Ne’er saw I fiery vapours with such speed Cut through the serene air at fall of night. “are these. may please you. Who with desire to see him fills our heart.” In answer he began: “None here distrusts Thy kindness. and. to view His shade they paus’d.” exclaim’d the bard. And two of them. Ran on to meet us. that for me 140 . by that peace. if thou ever see that land.

and tenantless my flesh remain’d. But to the marsh I sped. Soon as it mounts where cold condenses it. by virtue of the power Given by his nature. which thou again0 Tell to the living. returning into water. so that the air Impregnate chang’d to water. To the great river with such headlong sweep 141 . as mightiest streams are wont.” Then said another: “Ah! so may the wish. As thou shalt graciously give aid to mine.Purgatory Their adorations duly be put up. The author of the deed was Este’s prince. By which I may purge off my grievous sins. “at Casentino’s foot A stream there courseth. And in the mire and rushes tangled there Fell. other rule I make. there came I. Here sight and speech Fail’d me. E’en where its name is cancel’d. sprung In Apennine above the Hermit’s seat. more than right could warrant. Fell the rain. came. he cover’d o’er with cloud From Pratomagno to the mountain range. And bloodying the plain. with his wrath Pursued me. and rais’d the wind And smoky mist.The Divine Comedy of Dante . be fulfill’d. Me God’s angel took. Pierc’d in the heart. Thence the valley. But of the other. soon As day was spent. And to the fosses came all that the land Contain’d not. still Might I have breath’d. But the deep passages.” “Thou knowest how in the atmosphere collects That vapour dank. which in his intellect Still follows evil. and. And stretch’d the sky above. That evil will. That takes thee o’er the mountain. where to be more secure I thought. nam’d Archiano. and beheld my life-blood float the plain. Whence issued out the blood wherein I dwelt. Upon my bosom in Antenor’s land Were made. When overta’en at Oriaco. fleeing away on foot. From thence I came. and finishing with Mary’s name I fell.” I thus: “From Campaldino’s field what force or chance Drew thee. that ne’er thy sepulture was known?” “Oh!” answer’d he. Of Montefeltro I. Who. Whilst he of hell exclaim’d: “O thou from heav’n! Say wherefore hast thou robb’d me? Thou of him Th’ eternal portion bear’st with thee away For one poor tear that he deprives me of. Had I towards Mira fled. Sorrowing with these I therefore go. Buonconte I: Giovanna nor none else have care for me. I will report the truth.

When I was freed From all those spirits. Straight I began: “O thou. That he knows. from my breast Loos’ning the cross. And rested after thy long road. That heaven’s supreme decree can never bend To supplication. entreated. with his hand Stretch’d forth. yet with this design Do these entreat. Here Frederic Novello.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And dash’d it into Arno. My stiffen’d frame Laid at his mouth the fell Archiano found. my luminary! It seems expressly in thy text denied. Revolving in his mind. 142 . He. And from its frame a soul dismiss’d for spite And envy. who hath lost. Sienna gave me life. who fell By Ghino’s cruel arm. Who in his chase was swallow’d by the stream.” so spake Next the third spirit. Who me with jewell’d ring had first espous’d. what luckless throws He cast: but meanwhile all the company Go with the other.” And thus he from the press defends himself. remains in sadness fix’d. Here of Arezzo him I saw.Purgatory Rush’d. that nought stay’d its course. “then remember me. Along the banks and bottom of his course. And promising. While she yet lives. and of Pisa he.” “Ah! when thou to the world shalt be return’d. as it said. well knows he bids him stand aside. I ‘scap’d from it with pains. Count Orso I beheld. that Lady of Brabant Let her beware. And one behind his mantle twitches. He stops not. that of myself I made When overcome with pain. And turning so my face around to all. but for no crime: I speak of Peter de la Brosse. Can then their hope be vain. Maremma took it from me. Who put the good Marzuco to such proof Of constancy. He hurl’d me on. one before him runs. I once was Pia. and here. who pray’d for others’ prayers To hasten on their state of blessedness. and each one. Or is thy saying not to me reveal’d?” CANTO VI When from their game of dice men separate. lest for so false a deed She herd with worse than these. one Fast by his side bids him remember him. to whom his hand Is stretch’d. Then in his muddy spoils encircling wrapt. E’en such was I in that close-crowding throng. and him beside.

Upon this mountain’s crown. “Mantuan! I am thy countryman Sordello. Ah slavish Italy! thou inn of grief. But lo! a spirit there Stands solitary. Her thou shalt behold above. ere thou once more behold Him back returning. that as erst his beam Thou dost not break.Purgatory He thus to me: “Both what I write is plain. Besides. if well Thy mind consider. but otherwise Than thou supposest is the truth. Vessel without a pilot in loud storm. that the sacred height Of judgment doth not stoop. And these deceiv’d not in their hope. but let us onward pass. while now thy living ones In thee abide not without war. fair seat of joy. But of our country and our kind of life Demanded.” We soon approach’d it.” Each the other then embrac’d. ay of those 143 .The Divine Comedy of Dante . For there Thou canst not be. O thou Lombard spirit! How didst thou stand.” the solitary shadow quick Rose towards us from the place in which it stood. I mean Beatrice. I3ut Virgil with entreaty mild advanc’d. and toward us looks: It will instruct us in the speediest way. “Mantua. for now I tire not as before. because love’s flame In a short moment all fulfils. who behind the steep Is now so hidden. and lo! the hill Stretches its shadow far. in right should satisfy. Eyeing us as a lion on his watch.” He answer’d thus: “Our progress with this day shall be as much As we may now dispatch. and one Malicious gnaws another. Scarce moving with slow dignity thine eyes! It spoke not aught. And cry’d. When my courteous guide began. Requesting it to show the best ascent. when I this point concluded thus. But brothel-house impure! this gentle spirit. Yet in this deep suspicion rest thou not Contented unless she assure thee so. in high abstracted mood. I know not if thou take me right. Lady no longer of fair provinces. Ev’n from the Pleasant sound of his dear land Was prompt to greet a fellow citizen With such glad cheer. which he Who sojourns here. It answer to his question none return’d. By praying no defect could be supplied.” Then I: “Sir! let us mend our speed. Because the pray’r had none access to God. Who betwixt truth and mind infuses light.

for some good end. The garden of the empire to run waste. and mark If any part of the sweet peace enjoy. Then homeward to thy bosom turn. What boots it. When thou should’st clasp her flanks with forked heels. For me. O Almighty Power. Many have justice in their heart. who so wisely speed. What safety Santafiore can supply. And mark their injuries: and thou mayst see. wretched one! around thy sea-coasts wide. If it be lawful. and a great Marcellus made Of every petty factious villager. Just judgment from the stars fall on thy blood! And be it strange and manifest to all! Such as may strike thy successor with dread! For that thy sire and thou have suffer’d thus. that long Waiteth for counsel to direct the bow. if thy saddle be unpress’d? Nought doth he now but aggravate thy shame. Or ere it dart unto its aim: but shine 144 . And in the saddle let thy Caesar sit. Seek. My Florence! thou mayst well remain unmov’d At this digression. Come see the Capulets and Montagues. cruel one! Come and behold the’ oppression of the nobles. Since to the bridle thou hast set thine hand. why dost thou desert my side?” Come and behold what love among thy people: And if no pity touches thee for us. Entirely from our reach of thought cut off? So are the’ Italian cities all o’erthrong’d With tyrants. Through greediness of yonder realms detain’d. That is grown savage and unmanageable. O German Albert! who abandon’st her. If well thou marked’st that which God commands Look how that beast to felness hath relaps’d From having lost correction of the spur. The Philippeschi and Monaldi! man Who car’st for nought! those sunk in grief. Come and blush for thine own report. and these With dire suspicion rack’d. Who wast in earth for our sakes crucified! Are thy just eyes turn’d elsewhere? or is this A preparation in the wond’rous depth Of thy sage counsel made.Purgatory Whom the same wall and the same moat contains. Ah people! thou obedient still shouldst live. Desolate widow! day and night with moans: “My Caesar.The Divine Comedy of Dante . which affects not thee: Thanks to thy people. Come. who calls on thee. Come and behold thy Rome. that thy reins Justinian’s hand Befitted.

short respite seeks from pain. Such he appear’d.” So answer’d him in few my gentle guide. cries “It is yet is not. That to the middle of November scarce Reaches the thread thou in October weav’st. except for lack of faith. for civil arts renown’d. “Behold I stoop!” Make thyself glad. where mourning’s voice Sounds not of anguish sharp. Thou wilt perceive thyself like a sick wretch. then downward bent his eyes. “thus far Am I arriv’d. “In whom our tongue its utmost power display’d! Boast of my honor’d birth-place! what desert Of mine. Made little progress in improving life Tow’rds thee. whence his wonder riseth. who usest such nice subtlety. where of mean estate might clasp His lord. say if from below thou com’st And from what cloister’s pale?”—”Through every orb Of that sad region. not made by torments sad. Many refuse To bear the common burdens: readier thine Answer uneall’d.” he reply’d. and offices Have been by thee renew’d. within thy memory. How many times. and cry. But by dun shades alone. Caught him. hut oft Shifting her side. Customs. but breathes in sighs. There I with little innocents abide. CANTO VII After their courteous greetings joyfully Sev’n times exchang’d. I am Virgil. and coins. and people chang’d! If thou remember’st well and can’st see clear. Sordello backward drew Exclaiming.Purgatory Have it on their lip’s edge. for no sin Depriv’d of heav’n. “Who are ye?” “Before this mount 145 . who of old Enacted laws.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Athens and Lacedaemon. There is a place There underneath. what favour rather undeserv’d. by heav’nly influence led And with such aid I come. As one. And drawing near with reverential step. Thou wealthy! thou at peace! thou wisdom-fraught! Facts best witness if I speak the truth. Shows thee to me? If I to hear that voice Am worthy. Who finds no rest upon her down. who aught before him suddenly Beholding.” wav’ring in belief. for thou hast reason now. By spirits worthy of ascent to God Was sought. “Glory of Latium!” he exclaim’d. my bones had by Octavius’ care Been buried. and laws.

not that aught else impedes Thy going upwards. along the ground Trailing his finger. and silver thrice refin’d. Where Purgatory its true beginning takes. or through his own weakness fail?” The good Sordello then. That. Direct us. And scarlet grain and ceruse.Purgatory Who by death’s fangs were bitten. But if thou know’st and canst. as wond’ring at his speech. Exclaim’d: “Then lead us quickly. With them thou haply mightst return beneath. soon as the sun Hath disappear’d. There I with those abide. Where more than half the sloping edge expires. “who so wish’d To ascend by night. “That way. save the shades of night. But understood the rest. When I perceiv’d the mountain hollow’d out. If thou Consentest. “we go. we may enjoy delight.” the’ escorting spirit cried. not without delight. our power Excels: therefore it may be well to choose A place of pleasant sojourn. and without blame Follow’d them all. Far as I can. while we stay. To the right Some spirits sit apart retir’d.” He answer’d thus: “We have no certain place Assign’d us: upwards I may go or round.” My master straight.The Divine Comedy of Dante . by the herbs and flowers Plac’d in that fair recess. Or to and fro around the mountain’s side Wander. spoke: “Only this line Thou shalt not overpass. ere exempt From human taint.” “How chances this?” was answer’d. But thou beholdest now how day declines: And upwards to proceed by night. as great surpasses less. 146 . where thou sayst. fresh emeralds But newly broken. Nor nature only there lavish’d her hues. Where in a bosom the high bank recedes: And thou await renewal of the day. Refulgent gold. how we soonest may arrive. But of the sweetness of a thousand smells A rare and undistinguish’d fragrance made. in color all Had been surpass’d. Who the three holy virtues put not on. would he be thence debarr’d By other. These with the wont of power perplex the will. Ev’n as large valleys hollow’d out on earth. I join thee for thy guide.” A little space we were remov’d from thence. Indian wood Of lucid dye serene. while day is in the horizon shut. I to these will lead thy steps: And thou wilt know them.” Betwixt the steep and plain a crooked path Led us traverse into the ridge’s side.

As more than Beatrice and Margaret Costanza still boasts of her valorous spouse. his virtue then From vessel to like vessel had been pour’d.Purgatory “Salve Regina. For from this eminence ye shall discern Better the acts and visages of all. He. He. Sway’d in that country. a bearded man. thence comes the grief that rends them thus. who sits high above the rest. Rarely into the branches of the tree Doth human worth mount up. King after him had liv’d. Which may not of the other heirs be said. and Elbe Rolls to the ocean: Ottocar his name: Who in his swaddling clothes was of more worth Than Winceslaus his son. with’ring the lily’s flower. And to the others’ song moves not his lip. and seems To have neglected that he should have done. That Moldaw’s river to the Elbe. Look there how he doth knock against his breast! The other ye behold. with frequent sighs. so robust of limb. and so ordains He who bestows it. who measure keeps In song. who for his cheek Makes of one hand a couch. “‘Mid those desires not that I lead ye on. To Charles my words apply No less than to his brother in the song. Pamper’d with rank luxuriousness and ease. “Behold the king of simple life and plain. who our steps had turn’d. So much that plant degenerates from its seed.” on the grass and flowers Here chanting I beheld those spirits sit Who not beyond the valley could be seen. They are the father and the father-in-law Of Gallia’s bane: his vicious life they know And foul. that as his free gift It may be call’d. So that by others she revives but slowly. By James and Frederick his realms are held. Than in the nether vale among them mix’d.” Began the Mantuan. with him of feature prominent. “Before the west’ring sun sink to his bed. where the water springs. And if that stripling who behinds him sits. The Emperor Rodolph call. 147 . who might have heal’d The wounds whereof fair Italy hath died. Neither the better heritage obtains. Flying expir’d. “He. who close In counsel seems with him of gentle look. Which Pouille and Provence now with grief confess.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And that one with the nose depress. With ev’ry virtue bore his girdle brac’d. who with kindly visage comforts him.

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Harry of England, sitting there alone: He through his branches better issue spreads. “That one, who on the ground beneath the rest Sits lowest, yet his gaze directs aloft, Us William, that brave Marquis, for whose cause The deed of Alexandria and his war Makes Conferrat and Canavese weep.”

And the rest after, softly and devout, Follow’d through all the hymn, with upward gaze Directed to the bright supernal wheels. Here, reader! for the truth makes thine eyes keen: For of so subtle texture is this veil, That thou with ease mayst pass it through unmark’d. I saw that gentle band silently next Look up, as if in expectation held, Pale and in lowly guise; and from on high I saw forth issuing descend beneath Two angels with two flame-illumin’d swords, Broken and mutilated at their points. Green as the tender leaves but newly born, Their vesture was, the which by wings as green Beaten, they drew behind them, fann’d in air. A little over us one took his stand, The other lighted on the’ Opposing hill, So that the troop were in the midst contain’d. Well I descried the whiteness on their heads; But in their visages the dazzled eye Was lost, as faculty that by too much Is overpower’d. “From Mary’s bosom both Are come,” exclaim’d Sordello, “as a guard Over the vale, ganst him, who hither tends, The serpent.” Whence, not knowing by which path

CANTO VIII
Now was the hour that wakens fond desire In men at sea, and melts their thoughtful heart, Who in the morn have bid sweet friends farewell, And pilgrim newly on his road with love Thrills, if he hear the vesper bell from far, That seems to mourn for the expiring day: When I, no longer taking heed to hear Began, with wonder, from those spirits to mark One risen from its seat, which with its hand Audience implor’d. Both palms it join’d and rais’d, Fixing its steadfast gaze towards the east, As telling God, “I care for naught beside.” “Te Lucis Ante,” so devoutly then Came from its lip, and in so soft a strain, That all my sense in ravishment was lost.

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He came, I turn’d me round, and closely press’d, All frozen, to my leader’s trusted side. Sordello paus’d not: “To the valley now (For it is time) let us descend; and hold Converse with those great shadows: haply much Their sight may please ye.” Only three steps down Methinks I measur’d, ere I was beneath, And noted one who look’d as with desire To know me. Time was now that air arrow dim; Yet not so dim, that ‘twixt his eyes and mine It clear’d not up what was conceal’d before. Mutually tow’rds each other we advanc’d. Nino, thou courteous judge! what joy I felt, When I perceiv’d thou wert not with the bad! No salutation kind on either part Was left unsaid. He then inquir’d: “How long Since thou arrived’st at the mountain’s foot, Over the distant waves?”—”O!” answer’d I, “Through the sad seats of woe this morn I came, And still in my first life, thus journeying on, The other strive to gain.” Soon as they heard My words, he and Sordello backward drew, As suddenly amaz’d. To Virgil one, The other to a spirit turn’d, who near Was seated, crying: “Conrad! up with speed:

Come, see what of his grace high God hath will’d.” Then turning round to me: “By that rare mark Of honour which thou ow’st to him, who hides So deeply his first cause, it hath no ford, When thou shalt he beyond the vast of waves. Tell my Giovanna, that for me she call There, where reply to innocence is made. Her mother, I believe, loves me no more; Since she has chang’d the white and wimpled folds, Which she is doom’d once more with grief to wish. By her it easily may be perceiv’d, How long in women lasts the flame of love, If sight and touch do not relume it oft. For her so fair a burial will not make The viper which calls Milan to the field, As had been made by shrill Gallura’s bird.” He spoke, and in his visage took the stamp Of that right seal, which with due temperature Glows in the bosom. My insatiate eyes Meanwhile to heav’n had travel’d, even there Where the bright stars are slowest, as a wheel Nearest the axle; when my guide inquir’d: “What there aloft, my son, has caught thy gaze?” I answer’d: “The three torches, with which here The pole is all on fire. “He then to me:

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“The four resplendent stars, thou saw’st this morn Are there beneath, and these ris’n in their stead.” While yet he spoke. Sordello to himself Drew him, and cry’d: “Lo there our enemy!” And with his hand pointed that way to look. Along the side, where barrier none arose Around the little vale, a serpent lay, Such haply as gave Eve the bitter food. Between the grass and flowers, the evil snake Came on, reverting oft his lifted head; And, as a beast that smoothes its polish’d coat, Licking his hack. I saw not, nor can tell, How those celestial falcons from their seat Mov’d, but in motion each one well descried, Hearing the air cut by their verdant plumes. The serpent fled; and to their stations back The angels up return’d with equal flight. The Spirit (who to Nino, when he call’d, Had come), from viewing me with fixed ken, Through all that conflict, loosen’d not his sight. “So may the lamp, which leads thee up on high, Find, in thy destin’d lot, of wax so much, As may suffice thee to the enamel’s height.” It thus began: “If any certain news Of Valdimagra and the neighbour part

Thou know’st, tell me, who once was mighty there They call’d me Conrad Malaspina, not That old one, but from him I sprang. The love I bore my people is now here refin’d.” “In your dominions,” I answer’d, “ne’er was I. But through all Europe where do those men dwell, To whom their glory is not manifest? The fame, that honours your illustrious house, Proclaims the nobles and proclaims the land; So that he knows it who was never there. I swear to you, so may my upward route Prosper! your honour’d nation not impairs The value of her coffer and her sword. Nature and use give her such privilege, That while the world is twisted from his course By a bad head, she only walks aright, And has the evil way in scorn.” He then: “Now pass thee on: sev’n times the tired sun Revisits not the couch, which with four feet The forked Aries covers, ere that kind Opinion shall be nail’d into thy brain With stronger nails than other’s speech can drive, If the sure course of judgment be not stay’d.”

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CANTO IX
Now the fair consort of Tithonus old, Arisen from her mate’s beloved arms, Look’d palely o’er the eastern cliff: her brow, Lucent with jewels, glitter’d, set in sign Of that chill animal, who with his train Smites fearful nations: and where then we were, Two steps of her ascent the night had past, And now the third was closing up its wing, When I, who had so much of Adam with me, Sank down upon the grass, o’ercome with sleep, There where all five were seated. In that hour, When near the dawn the swallow her sad lay, Rememb’ring haply ancient grief, renews, And with our minds more wand’rers from the flesh, And less by thought restrain’d are, as ‘t were, full Of holy divination in their dreams, Then in a vision did I seem to view A golden-feather’d eagle in the sky, With open wings, and hov’ring for descent, And I was in that place, methought, from whence Young Ganymede, from his associates ‘reft, Was snatch’d aloft to the high consistory.

“Perhaps,” thought I within me, “here alone He strikes his quarry, and elsewhere disdains To pounce upon the prey.” Therewith, it seem’d, A little wheeling in his airy tour Terrible as the lightning rush’d he down, And snatch’d me upward even to the fire. There both, I thought, the eagle and myself Did burn; and so intense th’ imagin’d flames, That needs my sleep was broken off. As erst Achilles shook himself, and round him roll’d His waken’d eyeballs wond’ring where he was, Whenas his mother had from Chiron fled To Scyros, with him sleeping in her arms; E’en thus I shook me, soon as from my face The slumber parted, turning deadly pale, Like one ice-struck with dread. Solo at my side My comfort stood: and the bright sun was now More than two hours aloft: and to the sea My looks were turn’d. “Fear not,” my master cried, “Assur’d we are at happy point. Thy strength Shrink not, but rise dilated. Thou art come To Purgatory now. Lo! there the cliff That circling bounds it! Lo! the entrance there, Where it doth seem disparted! Ere the dawn Usher’d the daylight, when thy wearied soul

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Slept in thee, o’er the flowery vale beneath A lady came, and thus bespake me: “I Am Lucia. Suffer me to take this man, Who slumbers. Easier so his way shall speed.” Sordello and the other gentle shapes Tarrying, she bare thee up: and, as day shone, This summit reach’d: and I pursued her steps. Here did she place thee. First her lovely eyes That open entrance show’d me; then at once She vanish’d with thy sleep.” Like one, whose doubts Are chas’d by certainty, and terror turn’d To comfort on discovery of the truth, Such was the change in me: and as my guide Beheld me fearless, up along the cliff He mov’d, and I behind him, towards the height. Reader! thou markest how my theme doth rise, Nor wonder therefore, if more artfully I prop the structure! Nearer now we drew, Arriv’d’ whence in that part, where first a breach As of a wall appear’d, I could descry A portal, and three steps beneath, that led For inlet there, of different colour each, And one who watch’d, but spake not yet a word. As more and more mine eye did stretch its view, I mark’d him seated on the highest step,

In visage such, as past my power to bear. Grasp’d in his hand a naked sword, glanc’d back The rays so toward me, that I oft in vain My sight directed. “Speak from whence ye stand:” He cried: “What would ye? Where is your escort? Take heed your coming upward harm ye not.” “A heavenly dame, not skilless of these things,” Replied the’ instructor, “told us, even now, ‘Pass that way: here the gate is.”—”And may she Befriending prosper your ascent,” resum’d The courteous keeper of the gate: “Come then Before our steps.” We straightway thither came. The lowest stair was marble white so smooth And polish’d, that therein my mirror’d form Distinct I saw. The next of hue more dark Than sablest grain, a rough and singed block, Crack’d lengthwise and across. The third, that lay Massy above, seem’d porphyry, that flam’d Red as the life-blood spouting from a vein. On this God’s angel either foot sustain’d, Upon the threshold seated, which appear’d A rock of diamond. Up the trinal steps My leader cheerily drew me. “Ask,” said he, “With humble heart, that he unbar the bolt.” Piously at his holy feet devolv’d

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I cast me, praying him for pity’s sake That he would open to me: but first fell Thrice on my bosom prostrate. Seven times0 The letter, that denotes the inward stain, He on my forehead with the blunted point Of his drawn sword inscrib’d. And “Look,” he cried, “When enter’d, that thou wash these scars away.” Ashes, or earth ta’en dry out of the ground, Were of one colour with the robe he wore. From underneath that vestment forth he drew Two keys of metal twain: the one was gold, Its fellow silver. With the pallid first, And next the burnish’d, he so ply’d the gate, As to content me well. “Whenever one Faileth of these, that in the keyhole straight It turn not, to this alley then expect Access in vain.” Such were the words he spake. “One is more precious: but the other needs Skill and sagacity, large share of each, Ere its good task to disengage the knot Be worthily perform’d. From Peter these I hold, of him instructed, that I err Rather in opening than in keeping fast; So but the suppliant at my feet implore.” Then of that hallow’d gate he thrust the door,

Exclaiming, “Enter, but this warning hear: He forth again departs who looks behind.” As in the hinges of that sacred ward The swivels turn’d, sonorous metal strong, Harsh was the grating; nor so surlily Roar’d the Tarpeian, when by force bereft Of good Metellus, thenceforth from his loss To leanness doom’d. Attentively I turn’d, List’ning the thunder, that first issued forth; And “We praise thee, O God,” methought I heard In accents blended with sweet melody. The strains came o’er mine ear, e’en as the sound Of choral voices, that in solemn chant With organ mingle, and, now high and clear, Come swelling, now float indistinct away.

CANTO X
When we had passed the threshold of the gate (Which the soul’s ill affection doth disuse, Making the crooked seem the straighter path), I heard its closing sound. Had mine eyes turn’d, For that offence what plea might have avail’d? We mounted up the riven rock, that wound On either side alternate, as the wave

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Flies and advances. “Here some little art Behooves us,” said my leader, “that our steps Observe the varying flexure of the path.” Thus we so slowly sped, that with cleft orb The moon once more o’erhangs her wat’ry couch, Ere we that strait have threaded. But when free We came and open, where the mount above One solid mass retires, I spent, with toil, And both, uncertain of the way, we stood, Upon a plain more lonesome, than the roads That traverse desert wilds. From whence the brink Borders upon vacuity, to foot Of the steep bank, that rises still, the space Had measur’d thrice the stature of a man: And, distant as mine eye could wing its flight, To leftward now and now to right dispatch’d, That cornice equal in extent appear’d. Not yet our feet had on that summit mov’d, When I discover’d that the bank around, Whose proud uprising all ascent denied, Was marble white, and so exactly wrought With quaintest sculpture, that not there alone Had Polycletus, but e’en nature’s self Been sham’d. The angel who came down to earth With tidings of the peace so many years

Wept for in vain, that op’d the heavenly gates From their long interdict) before us seem’d, In a sweet act, so sculptur’d to the life, He look’d no silent image. One had sworn He had said, “Hail!” for she was imag’d there, By whom the key did open to God’s love, And in her act as sensibly impress That word, “Behold the handmaid of the Lord,” As figure seal’d on wax. “Fix not thy mind On one place only,” said the guide belov’d, Who had me near him on that part where lies The heart of man. My sight forthwith I turn’d And mark’d, behind the virgin mother’s form, Upon that side, where he, that mov’d me, stood, Another story graven on the rock. I passed athwart the bard, and drew me near, That it might stand more aptly for my view. There in the self-same marble were engrav’d The cart and kine, drawing the sacred ark, That from unbidden office awes mankind. Before it came much people; and the whole Parted in seven quires. One sense cried, “Nay,” Another, “Yes, they sing.” Like doubt arose Betwixt the eye and smell, from the curl’d fume Of incense breathing up the well-wrought toil.

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” And she. Round about them troop’d Full throng of knights.”—” What to thee is other’s good. as one Made hasty by her grief. and pity bids me stay. An disentangle with thy lab’ring view. who then is. Trajan th’ Emperor. Think that at worst beyond the mighty doom It cannot pass. attir’d In tears and mourning. Reader! I would not that amaz’d thou miss Of thy good purpose. and overhead in gold The eagles floated. Shapes yet more precious for their artist’s sake. To behold the tablet next. sire! for. Whose mighty worth mov’d Gregory to earn His mighty conquest. These to the lofty steps shall guide us on. A widow at his bridle stood. woe beshrew this heart My son is murder’d. bears no trace Of human semblance. if thou Dost not return?”—”Where I am.” the poet whisper’d. nor of aught beside That my foil’d sight can guess. At a great palace. If thou neglect thy own?”—”Now comfort thee. I mov’d me. though bent on view of novel sights Their lov’d allurement.” He. “O sire.” I began. The wretch appear’d amid all these to say: “Grant vengeance. ere I move hence: So justice wills. from the lattice forth Look’d Michol. “It beseemeth well My duty be perform’d. “Wait now till I return. struggling with the wind. like a lady full of scorn And sorrow. Which at the hack of Michol whitely shone. a multitude advance. were not slow to turn. When “Lo. “Instructor. onward came With light dance leaping. Fondly I gaz’d Upon those patterns of meek humbleness. that mine eye at first Struggled as thine. Think on what succeeds. produc’d That visible speaking. Opposite. Ponder not The form of suff’ring. girt in humble guise. “where this way (But slack their pace). whose ken nothing new surveys.” He answering thus: “So courb’d to earth. 155 . hearing how just God Decrees our debts be cancel’d.” Mine eyes.The Divine Comedy of Dante . May right thee. “What I see hither tending. There was storied on the rock The’ exalted glory of the Roman prince.” He replying seem’d. beneath their heavy teems Of torment stoop they. But look intently thither.” At length he answers. new to us and strange The like not found on earth.Purgatory Preceding the blest vessel. Sweet Israel’s harper: in that hap he seem’d Less and yet more than kingly.

imp’d with angel plumes That to heaven’s justice unobstructed soars? Why buoy ye up aloft your unfleg’d souls? Abortive then and shapeless ye remain. dearest Lord! is made 156 . and of our merit take no count. came indeed Or more or less contract. as his back was laden.” CANTO XI O thou Almighty Father. when I noted well their guise. not in bounds confin’d. That crumples up its knees unto its breast. But that with love intenser there thou view’st Thy primal effluence. ‘Gainst the old adversary prove thou not Our virtue easily subdu’d. but free From his incitements and defeat his wiles. As of their will the angels unto thee Tender meet sacrifice. to support incumbent floor or roof. unless it come. Like the untimely embryon of a worm! As. Wailing exclaim’d: “I can endure no more. who show’d most patience in his look. so of theirs be done By saintly men on earth. E’en now. Each. who dost make The heavens thy dwelling. With the feign’d posture stirring ruth unfeign’d In the beholder’s fancy. for worthy humblest thanks and praise Is thy blest Spirit. but it appear’d As he. for we.The Divine Comedy of Dante . pardon thou Benign.Purgatory What underneath those stones approacheth: now. For corbel is a figure sometimes seen. lean your trust Upon unstaid perverseness! Know ye not That we are worms. May thy kingdom’s peace Come unto us. As we to each Pardon the evil done us. circling thy throne With loud hosannas. mayst thou discern the pangs of each.” Christians and proud! O poor and wretched ones! That feeble in the mind’s eye. Grant us this day Our daily manna. so I saw These fashion’d. yet made at last to form The winged insect. With all our striving thither tend in vain. who most Toils to advance his steps. This last petition. hallow’d be thy name: Join each created being to extol Thy might. without which he roams Through this rough desert retrograde.

whence needs I stoop My visage to the ground. appear’d not. But with unequal anguish. that I fell. And ye shall find a pass that mocks not toil Of living man to climb: and were it not That I am hinder’d by the rock. what can here For them be vow’d and done by such. wearied all. and to such excess. “Ah! so may mercy-temper’d justice rid Your burdens speedily. I know not if ye e’er have heard. But for their sakes who after us remain. who yet lives. whose wills Have root of goodness in them? Well beseems That we should help them wash away the stains They carried hence. My old blood and forefathers’ gallant deeds Made me so haughty. They may spring upward to the starry spheres. Despite his better will but slowly mounts. him. as ye show us on which hand Toward the ladder leads the shortest way. Each child in Campagnatico. For this man who comes with me. Those spirits went beneath a weight like that We sometimes feel in dreams. Here my lot ordains Under this weight to groan.” From whom the answer came unto these words. Instruct us of that easiest to ascend. since I did it not Amongst the living. and bears yet The charge of fleshly raiment Adam left him. purging as they go. sore beset. but my kindred all involv’d In mischief with her. but ’twas said “Along the bank to rightward come with us. I am Omberto. Which my guide spake. can tell.” 157 . by what fate Sienna’s sons. Fell therefore. which e’en to your desire Shall lift you. of a Tuscan horn A mighty one: Aldobranlesco’s name My sire’s.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that ye have power To stretch your wing. till I appease God’s angry justice. I was of Latiun. And if there be more passages than one. all. not me only pride Hath injur’d. Whose name thou speak’st not him I fain would view.Purgatory Not for ourselves. that so made pure and light.” Thus for themselves and us good speed imploring. here amongst the dead. The world’s gross darkness off: In our behalf If there vows still be offer’d. that I clean forgot The common mother. Round the first circuit. To mark if e’er I knew him? and to crave His pity for the fardel that I bear. Wax’d in my scorn of all men. since that were needless now. wherewith This arrogant neck is tam’d.

and call’d.” I thus to him: “True are thy sayings: to my heart they breathe The kindly spirit of meekness. mine borrow’d light. And his might withers it. Holding his eyes With difficulty fix’d Intent upon me. and shifts its name Shifting the point it blows from. by whom it sprang Crude from the lap of earth. The noise Of worldly fame is but a blast of wind. “O!” I exclaim’d. and now Is in Sienna scarce with whispers nam’d: There was he sov’reign. whose hue doth come and go. and his name eclips’d. through eagerness of zeal For that pre-eminence my heart was bent on. in that day Proud as she now is loathsome. if. to eternity compar’d. a space. glory of that art Which they of Paris call the limmer’s skill?” “Brother!” said he. Briefer than is the twinkling of an eye To the heaven’s slowest orb. if thy flesh Part shrivel’d from thee. Bolognian Franco’s pencil lines the leaves.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and now The cry is Giotto’s. Thus hath one Guido from the other snatch’d The letter’d prize: and he perhaps is born.Purgatory List’ning I bent my visage down: and one (Not he who spake) twisted beneath the weight That urg’d him. “with tints that gayer smile. art not thou Agobbio’s glory. In truth I had not been thus courteous to him. Your renown Is as the herb. if an age Less bright succeed not! Cimabue thought To lord it over painting’s field. than if thou hadst died. O powers of man! how vain your glory. nipp’d E’en in its height of verdure. Here of such pride the forfeiture is paid. far and wide Through Tuscany resounded once. Nor were I even here. His all the honour now. He there who treads So leisurely before me. The whilst I liv’d. Before the coral and the pap were left. Who shall drive either from their nest. when destruction caught The madd’ning rage of Florence. “Art thou not Oderigi. 158 . Shalt thou more Live in the mouths of mankind. stooping as I went Companion of their way. But who is he Of whom thou spak’st but now?”—”This. Or ere some thousand years have passed? and that Is. That blows from divers points. and allay What tumours rankle there. able still To sin. knew me straight. saw me. I had not turn’d me unto God.” he replied.

Who languish’d in the prison-house of Charles.” As in memorial of the buried. but with more curious skill Of portraiture o’erwrought. Upright. at the sway Of all Sienna. I with that laden spirit journey’d on 159 . the sculptur’d form Of what was once. The Thymbraean god CANTO XII With equal pace as oxen in the yoke. since he died. and proceed (For “here. Thus he still hath gone. So saw I there. I know. This is the work. my words are. beyond measure. appears (at sight whereof Tears often stream forth by remembrance wak’d. Who.” said he. On one part Him I beheld.” said he. with grasp presumptuous. unless good prayers befriend. drawn Upon earth-level tombs. Nor hither mount. Whose sacred stings the piteous only feel). Such is th’ acquittance render’d back of him. whate’er of space From forth the mountain stretches. “Respect of dignity all cast aside. I now my leader’s track not loth pursued. as best he may.The Divine Comedy of Dante . still in thought submissive bow’d. I rais’d My body. that from these limits freed him. but thy neighbours soon Shall help thee to a comment on the text. Freely He fix’d him on Sienna’s plain. And each had shown how light we far’d along When thus he warn’d me: “Bend thine eyesight down: For thou to ease the way shall find it good To ruminate the bed beneath thy feet. as one dispos’d for speed. push on his bark”). More I will not say.Purgatory “Is Provenzano. Thus goeth never-resting. Nor for his sake refus’d through every vein To tremble. But when he bade me quit him. above all creatures erst Created noblest. because He reach’d.” Long as the mild instructor suffer’d me. linger in that lower space. light’ning fall from heaven: On th’ other side with bolt celestial pierc’d Briareus: cumb’ring earth he lay through dint Of mortal ice-stroke. He is here. A suitor to redeem his suff’ring friend. and dark. “behooves with sail and oars Each man.” I then: “If soul that to the verge of life delays Repentance. dar’d on earth. How chanc’d admittance was vouchsaf’d to him?” “When at his glory’s topmost height.

and how a corpse they left him there. ye sons of Eve! veil not your looks. while I went Low bending. take thy fill of blood!” Was shown how routed in the battle fled Th’ Assyrians. round their sire. The living seem’d alive. How abject. was thy semblance there! What master of the pencil or the style Had trac’d the shades and lines. from that hour Ne’er visited with rain from heav’n or dew! O fond Arachne! thee I also saw Half spider now in anguish crawling up Th’ unfinish’d web thou weaved’st to thy bane! O Rehoboam! here thy shape doth seem Louring no more defiance! but fear-smote With none to chase him in his chariot whirl’d. Arm’d still. Than mine what I did tread on. Holofernes slain.Purgatory With Mars. Was shown beside upon the solid floor How dear Alcmaeon forc’d his mother rate That ornament in evil hour receiv’d: How in the temple on Sennacherib fell His sons. As if bewilder’d. Behold That way an angel hasting towards us! Lo Where duly the sixth handmaid doth return From service on the day. I saw. who with still wakeful caution went. Admonish’d: “Raise thou up thy head: for know Time is not now for slow suspense. O Niobe! in what a trance of woe Thee I beheld.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and e’en The relics of the carnage. Sev’n sons on either side thee slain! O Saul! How ghastly didst thou look! on thine own sword Expiring in Gilboa. Nimrod I saw: At foot of the stupendous work he stood. that might have made The subtlest workman wonder? Dead the dead. and gazing on the giant’s limbs Strewn o’er th’ ethereal field. Troy I mark’d In ashes and in caverns. Lest they descry the evil of your path! I noted not (so busied was my thought) How much we now had circled of the mount. Ilion. And of his course yet more the sun had spent. Wear thou in look And gesture seemly grace of reverent awe. Was shown the scath and cruel mangling made By Tomyris on Cyrus. When he. 160 . looking on the crowd Leagued in his proud attempt on Sennaar’s plain. Oh! how fall’n. and Pallas. Now swell out. with clearer view His eye beheld not who beheld the truth. upon that highway drawn. when she cried: “Blood thou didst thirst for. and with stiff necks Pass on.

sang: “Blessed are the poor In spirit.” Time’s loss he had so often warn’d me ‘gainst. all clean razed out. snowy white In vesture. His arms he open’d. behold! are near. finds. upon whose head is plac’d Somewhat he deems not of but from the becks Of others as they pass him by. here songs to usher us.” Ah how far unlike to these The straits of hell. whence thus I spake: “Say. and with visage casting streams Of tremulous lustre like the matin star. Shall be. As to ascend That steep. which here Precipitous from the other circuit falls: But on each hand the tall cliff presses close. As ent’ring there we turn’d. There shrieks of woe! We climb the holy stairs: And lighter to myself by far I seem’d Than on the plain before. The goodly shape approach’d us. they not alone shall feel No sense of labour. and spake: “Onward: the steps. though well nigh effac’d. master. Consider that this day ne’er dawns again. Thus is th’ acclivity reliev’d. Then shall thy feet by heartiness of will Be so o’ercome. searches. I could not miss the scope at which he aim’d.) up the right Th’ impetuous rise is broken by the steps Carv’d in that old and simple age. why suffer ye a wind So slight to baffle ye? He led us on Where the rock parted. O ye race of men Though born to soar.” A scanty few are they. of what heavy thing have I Been lighten’d. here against my front Did beat his wings.The Divine Comedy of Dante . when still The registry and label rested safe. that scarce aught the sense of toil Affects me journeying?” He in few replied: “When sin’s broad characters. his hand Lends therefore help to’ assure him. And well performs such office as the eye Wants power to execute: so stretching forth The fingers of my right hand. in strain Ineffable. then promis’d I should fare In safety on my way. did I find 161 . that yet remain Upon thy temples. and now Th’ ascent is without difficulty gain’d. who when they hear Such tidings. then his wings. voices.” Then like to one. upon whose brow the chapel stands (O’er Rubaconte. looking lordly down On the well-guided city.Purgatory That gladly he may forward us aloft. but delight much more Shall wait them urg’d along their upward way. hasten. as one is.

The Divine Comedy of Dante .” he cried. girdles round the hill. And when we pass’d a little forth. Conduct us thou. thy beams should ever be our guide. I heard CANTO XIII We reach’d the summit of the scale. as thou shalt hear (If I deem rightly). The curb Is of a harsher sound. Where pardon sets them free.” said the bard. smil’d. and the cords are therefore drawn By charity’s correcting hand. and stood Upon the second buttress of that mount Which healeth him who climbs.” Then fixedly upon the sun his eyes He fastn’d. leading to the bourn We seek. that first? flew by. “What tongues are these?” and as I question’d. who courteously Unto love’s table bade the welcome guest. ere thou reach the pass. and thou shalt see A multitude before thee seated. Save that its arch with sweep less ample bends.” and alike Wing’d its fleet way. But fix thine eyes Intently through the air. lo! A third exclaiming. and turn’d the left aside. “I am Orestes. and towards us flying. “on this new way.Purgatory Six only of the letters. all smooth The rampart and the path. each Along the shelving grot. as he mark’d mine action. Shadow nor image there is seen. nor yet lost In the faint distance. “If here we wait For some to question. A cornice there. call’d forth aloud. Far.” 162 . The leader. now were heard Spirits invisible. which his sword Who bare the keys had trac’d upon my brow. made his right the central point From whence to move. before me view’d. If no other cause Forbid. my confidence and hope.” Then more than erst I op’d my eyes. such prompt will Impell’d. The universal world to thee Owes warmth and lustre. “Oh father!” I exclaim’d. The voice. as is measur’d for a mile on earth. reflecting nought But the rock’s sullen hue.“ so on behind us past. Where now I venture. Like to the former. and saw Shadows with garments dark as was the rock. “They have no wine. “knots the scourge For envy.” “This circuit. In brief space had we journey’d. “Love ye those have wrong’d you. Those sounds reiterating. “O pleasant light. when another came Crying. “I fear Our choice may haply meet too long delay.” said my teacher.

impiercing. not by sound Of words alone. sole object of your wish. A thread of wire. That through the dread impalement forc’d a way.” So heard I answering. through the orbs of all. when now I stood so near them. that he hath not yearn’d With pity at the sight that next I saw. to pass and look On others. E’en thus the blind and poor. a voice That onward came some space from whence I stood. So most to stir compassion. and be brief. their cheeks Bathing devout with penitential tears. E’en so was heav’n a niggard unto these Of his fair light. in whose look was mark’d Expectance. I turn’d me to them. if I learn so much. Stand. we are each one citizens Of one true city. methought. Who lived a stranger in Italia’s land. He knew the meaning of the mute appeal. Of sackcloth vile Their cov’ring seem’d. So may heaven’s grace clear whatsoe’er of foam Floats turbid on the conscience.” On that part of the cornice. knits them up. but said: “Speak. Ask ye how? The chin was rais’d As in one reft of sight. but that. and all lean’d Against the cliff. that their semblances Came clearly to my view. 163 . did Virgil come.” “My brother. On the’ other side me were the spirits. It were a wrong. The sight of mis’ry. “Blessed Mary! pray for us.Purgatory A crying. A spirit I noted. “Spirit.The Divine Comedy of Dante . yet myself the while unseen. Mine eyes a load of sorrow teemed. Near the confessionals. And as never beam Of noonday visiteth the eyeless man. and perchance That soul may profit. which moves not less. leaning. Michael and Peter! all ye saintly host!” I do not think there walks on earth this day Man so remorseless. As ye declare (for so shall ye impart A boon I dearly prize) if any soul Of Latium dwell among ye. Any thou wouldst say. and on his shoulder one Did stay another.” said I. be subtle in thy words. As for the taming of a haggard hawk. as appeal’d. To my sage counsel therefore did I turn. whence no rim Engarlands its steep fall. each his head upon his fellow’s sunk. to crave an alms. “Assur’d that to your eyes unveil’d shall shine The lofty light. for. and “O shades!” said I. that thenceforth The stream of mind roll limpid from its source. Nor waited for my questioning.

if my folly were not as I speak it.” answer’d I.) or by place Or name. “who standeth mute beside me. “It is over. who set their hope On Telamone’s haven. In his devout orisons thought on me. than of the good befell me. Vouchsafe him to us. with lids unclos’d. that I may know thee. Which most thou covetest. were it not The hermit Piero. who is. Though Sapia nam’d In sapience I excell’d not. and waxing out of bounds In gladness. That thou mayst own I now deceive thee not. Soliciting with tears that He.Purgatory “Who for thy rise are tutoring (if thou be That which didst answer to me. That nether load already weighs me down. When now my years slop’d waning down the arch. And like the merlin cheated by a gleam. nor repentance had supplied What I did lack of duty. And I pray’d God to grant what He had will’d. thou save my fame Amongst my kindred. gladder far Of others’ hurt. For they have not offended grievously With envious glances. Heav’n! I fear thee not. There were they vanquish’d. I mark’d the hunt. chosen spirit. It so bechanc’d. disclose thyself. it is great sign That God doth love thee. and betook themselves Unto the bitter passages of flight.The Divine Comedy of Dante . touch’d with charity.” it answer’d.” Upon my verge of life I wish’d for peace With God. more shall when the fancied stream They sought of Dian call’d: but they who lead 164 .” She thus: “Who then amongst us here aloft Hath brought thee.” “I was. Who go’st to my belief. If thou desire I yonder yet should move For thee my mortal feet. Them shalt thou behold With that vain multitude. “of Sienna: here I cleanse away with these the evil life.”—”Oh!” she replied. my fellow citizens Near Colle met their enemies in the field. But who art thou that question’st of our state. but not long. if thou weenest to return?” “He. But the woe beneath Urges my soul with more exceeding dread. I live: of me ask therefore. “This is so strange a thing. there to fail Confounded. Cried. Therefore with thy prayer Sometime assist me: and by that I crave. “May yet be here ta’en from me. lifted up my shameless brow. And breathest in thy talk?”—”Mine eyes.” said I. that if thy feet E’er tread on Tuscan soil. Hear.

” To whom the other: “Why hath he conceal’d The title of that river. more than ruin’d hopes shall mourn.” To tell you who I am were words misspent: For yet my name scarce sounds on rumour’s lip. whose well-head Springs up in Falterona. Do thou ask of him. talk’d of me. tendest towards the sky! For charity.” said he. then both Addressing me. we pray thee’ comfort us. ‘Midst brute swine. when he some hundred miles Hath measur’d.” “If well I do incorp’rate with my thought The meaning of thy speech. and who thou art: For thou dost make us at the favour shown thee Marvel. what heaven Drains from th’ exhaustless store for all earth’s streams. who Thereof was question’d. Recounting whence thou com’st.Purgatory Their navies. did acquit him thus: “I know not: but ‘tis fitting well the name Should perish of that vale. and take heed Accost him gently. it seems as they Had shar’d of Circe’s feeding. As ‘twere a snake. I straight began: “a brooklet. And thus the one began: “O soul. Throughout the space is virtue worried down. but know thus much He comes not singly. “thou dost speak of Arno’s wave. 165 . who first Addrest me. From his banks bring. Or ever death has prun’d his wing for flight. Nature is so transform’d. as at a thing that ne’er hath been. who yet Pent in the body. for mortal foe. (that doth scarcely pass Beyond that limit.) even to the point Whereunto ocean is restor’d. That opes his eyes and covers them at will?” “I know not who he is. That custom goads to evil: whence in those. so that he may speak. I this frame. with his race Not satisfied. Worthier of acorns than of other food CANTO XIV “Say who is he around our mountain winds. Or through disastrous influence on the place. Or else distortion of misguided wills.” “There stretches through the midst of Tuscany. as a man Doth of some horrible thing?” The spirit. The dwellers in that miserable vale. for from the source Where teems so plenteously the Alpine steep Maim’d of Pelorus. their faces backward lean’d.” Thus on the right two Spirits bending each Toward the other.The Divine Comedy of Dante . For thou art nearer to him. by all.

himself of worth And goodly estimation. They do not fear that skill can master it. thou hadst mark’d A livid paleness overspread my cheek. who had turn’d to listen. and cows them all with dread: Their flesh yet living sets he up to sale. Envy so parch’d my blood. why place thy heart where there doth need Exclusion of participants in good? This is Rinieri’s spirit. from whate’er part The peril grasp him. and the shore. Where of his worth no heritage remains. soon as he had caught the word. The shade. who late addrest me. Many of life he reaves. But since God’s will is that so largely shine His grace in thee. from whom He turns with scorn aside: still journeying down. whereof with meek entreaty I inquir’d.) Of all that truth or fancy asks for bliss. finds Curs. so replete with craft. It shall be well For this man. then. the mount. that had I seen A fellow man made joyous. I will be liberal too. the Reno. Lo! I behold thy grandson. Descending still Through yet more hollow eddies. he shapeth first His obscure way. Nor his the only blood. By how much more the curst and luckless foss Swells out to largeness.” As one. 166 . that in thousand years It spreads not to prime lustihood again. snarlers more in spite than power. that hath been stript (‘twixt Po. upon the shore Of the fierce stream.Purgatory Created for man’s use. thus resum’d: “Thy wish imports that I vouchsafe to do For thy sake what thou wilt not do for mine. who tidings hears of woe to come. struck With sadness. His visage and the other’s speech did raise Desire in me to know the names of both. sloping onward. Leaving such havoc. next he meets A race of foxes. Nor will I cease because my words are heard By other ears than thine.The Divine Comedy of Dante . O man. this the boast And honour of the house of Calboli. Changes his looks perturb’d. Guido of Duca know then that I am. so beheld I change That spirit. e’en so much it finds Dogs turning into wolves. Such harvest reap I of the seed I sow’d. if he keep in memory What from no erring Spirit I reveal. that becomes A hunter of those wolves. Then like an aged beast to slaughter dooms. Smear’d with gore Mark how he issues from the rueful wood.

Guido of Prata. Traversalo. “Whosoever finds Will slay me. and of Azzo him That dwelt with you. O Brettinoro! wherefore tarriest still. Such pity for your sakes hath wrung my heart. when it rives the air. Where now such malice reigns in recreant hearts.The Divine Comedy of Dante . as the bolt Lanc’d sudden from a downward-rushing cloud.” I at the sound Retreating drew more closely to my guide. But. as long would mock Slow culture’s toil. And Conio worse. who care to propagate A race of Counties from such blood as theirs. That witch’d us into love and courtesy. With Traversaro’s house and Anastagio s. lo! a voice that seem’d Like vollied light’ning. Advancing onward.” We knew those gentle spirits at parting heard Our steps. warping from thy stock. and shouted. Pagani. howe’er. go thy ways. And many. Tignoso and his troop. The ladies and the knights. (Each race disherited) and beside these. But your old enemy so baits his hook. And in Faenza yon Bernardin sprouts. Their silence therefore of our way Assur’d us. for now I take Far more delight in weeping than in words. Where is good Lizio? where Manardi. then When from amongst you tries your demon child. that henceforth there remain True proof of what ye were. Well shall ye also do. Castracaro ill. When it had giv’n short truce unto our hearing. if thou see me weep. join’d their steps? Well doeth he. Not so. Soon as we had quitted them.Purgatory But in those limits such a growth has sprung Of rank and venom’d roots. Tuscan. Now in mute stillness rested all the air: And thus he spake: “There was the galling bit. Since forth of thee thy family hath gone. Wonder not. and Carpigna? O bastard slips of old Romagna’s line! When in Bologna the low artisan. Tuscan. Behold the other with a crash as loud As the quick-following thunder: “Mark in me Aglauros turn’d to rock.” then fled from us. When I recall to mind those once lov’d names. the toils and ease. that bids his lineage cease. 167 . A gentle cyon from ignoble stem. since none is look’d for after thee To cloud its lustre. O Hugolin! Thou sprung of Fantolini’s line! thy name Is safe. hating evil. Met us. Bagnacavallo.

heard behind us chanted sweet. Evening was there. whence in sudden haste My sight recoil’d. For round the mountain. so our path Had led us. my guide and I Pursued our upward way. Therefore He smites you who discerneth all. “yet with dazzling radiance dim Thy sense it is a messenger who comes.” and “happy thou! That conquer’st. “What is this. leaps unto the opposite part.” Striking On water or the surface clear Of mirror.” Lonely each. and full upon our forehead smote the beams.” We forthwith Ascending. (And so much differs from the stone. circling. Ascending at a glance. Not grievous. that falls Through equal space. than before. Some profit from his words I hop’d to win. that toward the sun-set now Direct we journey’d: when I felt a weight Of more exceeding splendour.The Divine Comedy of Dante . CANTO XV As much as ‘twixt the third hour’s close and dawn. The cause unknown. Press on my front. if the family of heav’n.” The blessed angel. I interpos’d them. as practice skill hath shown. So much appear’d remaining to the sun Of his slope journey towards the western goal. Appeareth of heav’n’s sphere. and both hands against my brow Lifting. amaze Possess’d me. nor reclaiming call. e’en as it fell. as a screen. Inviting man’s ascent. “and which towards us moving seems?” “Marvel not. As thy perception is by nature wrought Up to their pitch. sire belov’d! ‘Gainst which I strive to shield the sight in vain?” Cried I. soon As we had reach’d him. Thus with refracted light before me seemed The ground there smitten. Yet your eye Turns with fond doting still upon the earth.” He answer’d. hail’d us with glad voice: “Here enter on a ladder far less steep Than ye have yet encounter’d. “Blessed the merciful. and as we went. and here the noon of night. Such sights ere long. Heav’n calls And round about you wheeling courts your gaze With everlasting beauties. that ever whirls As restless as an infant in his play. That of its gorgeous superflux of light Clipp’d the diminish’d orb. As when the ray. 168 .Purgatory He drags you eager to him. shall impart to thee delight. Hence nor curb Avails you.

The sempiternal effluence streams abroad Spreading. a crowd Of many persons. that good distributed. envy bloweth up the sighs of men.” “Now lack I satisfaction more. that reflect. If these my words avail not to allay Thy thirsting. more good is there to love. Than if ‘t were shar’d by few?” He answering thus: “Thy mind. since he knows. If he chide others. Because ye point your wishes at a mark. those five scars. who said. and heighten’d charity Wraps that fair cloister in a brighter flame. ineffable. And straight the vision fled. when he spake Of bliss exclusive with no partner shar’d?” He straight replied: “No wonder. Where. And doubt more gathers on my lab’ring thought. No fear of that might touch ye. There suddenly I seem’d By an ecstatic vision wrapt away. wherever charity extends. fram’d my speech: “What meant Romagna’s spirit. as beam to lucid body darts. and so held her peace. For there. What sorrow waits on his own worst defect. And in a temple saw. and of all else thou hast. methought. by how much more they call it ours. makes more rich. if the love Of higher sphere exalted your desire.” when I saw The other round was gain’d. as mirrors. And more is lov’d. whose sweet demeanour did express A mother’s love. “content’st me. that possess it. by communion of possessors. reverting still to things of earth.” I had said. Strikes darkness from true light. and wond’ring eyes Did keep me mute. That when they pain thee worst. Giving as much of ardour as it finds. So that the more aspirants to that bliss Are multiplied. “Than if thou hadst been silent at the first. Provide but thou That from thy temples may be soon eras’d. Shall rid thee to the full. E’en as the two already. So much propriety of each in good Increases more.” “Thou.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The highest good Unlimited. doth so speed To love. part Is lessen’d. “Child! why hast thou Dealt with us thus? Behold thy sire and I Sorrowing have sought thee”. A female next 169 . then kindliest heal. How can it chance. that they less may mourn. Who of this want. Each unto other. The many.Purgatory And thus of him inquiring. and at th’ entrance stood A dame.” said I. propagated light. Beatrice thou shalt see.

With looks. that With compassion to their aim. “and to fuel. nam’d with such debate Of adverse gods. who might see I mov’d. Pisistratus. I not ask’d. Exclaim’d: “What ails thee. Her sovran spake: “How shall we those requite. who bow’d Heavy with death unto the ground. that flow diffus’d From their eternal fountain.” said I. sought again the things. when their hour of watch returns. from her airy flight Returning. that they be found Not wanting. that freely thou mightst ope thy heart To the waters of peace. that thou canst not hold Thy footing firm. Avenge thee of those arms. with visage undisturb’d. I will tell thee what appear’d Before me.” He thus: “Not if thy Countenance were mask’d With hundred vizards. Such goads The slow and loit’ring need. who struggles to shake off his sleep. Amidst that cruel conflict. who seem’d to say: “If thou. a fog made tow’rds us. Soon as my spirit. but ask’d. I observ’d How she had rov’d to no unreal scenes Meanwhile the leader. if we thus condemn The man that loves us?” After that I saw A multitude. yet made His eyes. What thou saw’st Was shown. whose truth Depends not on her shaping. whose bold embrace Hath clasp’d our daughter. on his foes. As one. but more than half a league Hast travel’d with clos’d eyes and tott’ring gait. when so fail’d my sinking steps. Praying forgiveness of th’ Almighty Sire. be lord indeed Over this city. destroy“: and him I saw. Like to a man by wine or sleep o’ercharg’d?” “Beloved father! so thou deign. as our eyes With level view could stretch against the bright Vespertine ray: and lo! by slow degrees Gath’ring. gates to heav’n. in fury burning. dark as night. far onward. and shout amain “Destroy. What ails thee? for such cause as he doth. slay With stones a stripling youth. down whose visage cours’d Those waters. “To listen. Who wish us evil. elude me. could a thought of thine How small soe’er. unfolded upward.Purgatory Appear’d before me. When spiritless the body lies. meseem’d. To give fresh vigour to thy foot. who Looks only with that eye which sees no more. that grief forces out from one By deep resentment stung.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” So on we journey’d through the evening sky Gazing intent. Benign and meek. and whence each science sparkles. 170 .

” Thus I. And ask. nor to the sense So palpable and gross. Offering me his shoulder for a stay. one measure ran. or night unlustrous. Still list’ning to my escort’s warning voice. near me drew the faithful guide. As the blind man behind his leader walks. “Are these I hear 171 . and that mist Bereft us. And for compassion. He wills me to behold his kingly state. Of every planes ‘reft. And. Mine eye endured not with unclosed lids. and pall’d in clouds. “Look that from me thou part not. ere death Had loos’d thee. O master?” I exclaim’d.” “Now who art thou. and since the cloudy smoke Forbids the seeing. Spirits. Lest he should err.” “O being! who dost make thee pure. and am hither come Through the fearful agony of hell.Purgatory There was no room for ‘scaping. Which marking. and he: “Thou aim’st aright: these loose the bonds of wrath. I journey’d through that bitter air and foul. but instruct me: and instruct If rightly to the pass I tend. Did never spread before the sight a veil In thickness like that fog.” and through all the choir. Ent’ring its shade. shall my steps Follow on thine. whence my master said: “Reply. From me conceal not who thou wast.” I then forthwith began “Yet in my mortal swathing. clean beside all modern precedent. to stand Beautiful once more in thy Maker’s sight! Along with me: and thou shalt hear and wonder.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” Straight I heard Voices. if so largely God hath doled his grace. I ascend To higher regions. that perfect seem’d The concord of their song. or perhaps destroy. or stumble unawares On what might harm him. whereto the spirit answering spake: “Long as ‘t is lawful for me. and each one seem’d to pray for peace. One voice. to the Lamb of God That taketh sins away. both of sight and the pure air. that through our smoke dost cleave? And speak’st of us. hearing in its stead Shall keep us join’d. That. Their prelude still Was “Agnus Dei. as thou thyself e’en yet Dividest time by calends?” So one voice Bespake me. if upward hence the passage lead. dark. thy words CANTO XVI Hell’s dunnest gloom.

Of some slight good The flavour soon she tastes. And of the will free power. who charm’d beholds Her image ere she yet exist. Save that her Maker being one who dwells With gladness ever.Purgatory The way directing as a safe escort. doubled now By thine opinion. When thou shalt come aloft. Yet one doubt remains. when I couple that With one elsewhere declar’d. Seek in yourselves the cause. nor justice would There should be joy for virtue. yet said I all. To better nature subject. Yet. He added. beseech thee. “Brother!” he thus began. That wrings me sorely.” Then heaving forth a deep and audible sigh. if I solve it not. replying thus. which forms in you The reasoning mind uninfluenc’d of the stars. Conquers at last.” “I was of Lombardy. Free choice in you were none. Singly before it urg’d me. “I beseech thee pray for me. woe for ill. who live. that myself may see. E’en as its motion of necessity Drew with it all that moves. 172 . willingly she turns To whate’er yields her joy. Thy course tends right Unto the summit:” and. “Forth from his plastic hand. if it stand Firm and unwearied in Heav’n’s first assay. ye abide Free. which. from which all have turn’d The nerveless bow aside. and Marco call’d: Not inexperienc’d of the world. so it be cherish’d well. If then the present race of mankind err. snar’d by that. As artless and as ignorant of aught. what then ensues? Light have ye still to follow evil or good. Triumphant over all.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that worth I still affected. and find it there. Ye. that wantons sportively Weeping and laughing in its wayward moods. Do so each cause refer to heav’n above. Your movements have their primal bent from heaven. To mightier force. And unto others show it: for in heaven One places it. and. and one on earth below. the soul Comes like a babe. If this were so. The world indeed is even so forlorn Of all good as thou speak’st it and so swarms With every evil. point The cause out to me.” And I to him: “Accept my faith for pledge I will perform What thou requirest. Herein thou shalt confess me no false spy. “the world is blind. And thou in truth com’st from it. not constrain’d by that. each strength’ning other. Not all.

One since hath quench’d the other. nam’d In Gallic phrase more fitly the plain Lombard. That land. that as thou sayst Is left a sample of the perish’d race. for shame. Appear’st not to have heard of good Gherado. Three aged ones are still found there. Laws indeed there are: But who is he observes them? None. A sovereign hence behov’d. or come near their haunts. and Guido of Castello. But ill-conducting.” “O Marco!” I replied. whose piercing view Might mark at least the fortress and main tower Of the true city. and so conjoin’d Each must perforce decline to worse. if no guide Recall. If thou doubt me. now secure may pass Those limits. Thus the cause Is not corrupted nature in yourselves. through which Adice and the Po Their waters roll. On this at last conclude. The church of Rome. And for rebuke to this untoward age?” “Either thy words. who see their guide Strike at the very good they covet most. That frown’d on Frederick. that turn’d it unto good. or else Are meant to try me. that hath turn’d the world To evil. Therefore the multitude. Who chews the cud but doth not cleave the hoof. fall’n into the mire. no rein direct her wand’ring course. by which I know him. Was wont to boast two suns. Mixing two governments that ill assort. not he. Who goes before. in whom The old time chides the new: these deem it long Ere God restore them to a better world: The good Gherardo. whose several beams Cast light on either way. shine arguments Convince me: and the cause I now discern Why of the heritage no portion came To Levi’s offspring. of Palazzo he Conrad. And there herself and burden much defil’d. and the sword Is grafted on the crook. But resolve me this Who that Gherardo is. Unless I borrow’d from his daughter Gaia 173 . speaking Tuscan. unaw’d By fear of other. the shepherd of the flock. The sole addition that. whosoe’er hath left. Rome. Hath miss’d her footing. the law should be a curb.The Divine Comedy of Dante . To talk with good men. the world’s and God’s. was once the residence Of courtesy and velour. Hence it behov’d. mark The blade: each herb is judg’d of by its seed. Feed there and look no further.Purgatory With fondness she pursues it. “deceive. that thou.” said he. ere the day.

how at first I re-beheld The sun. when now expir’d The parting beams from off the nether shores. wherein he died. whose visage spake Fell rancour. so thy nimble thought May image. how faintly the sun’s sphere Seem’d wading through them. Now hast thou lost me. that most Delights itself in song: and here my mind Was inwardly so wrapt. ere I fall. whene’er The wat’ry vapours dense began to melt Into thin air. reader. Blameless in word and deed.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” E’en as a sleep breaks off. Portray’d before me came The traces of her dire impiety. a mother’s timeless end. then. Esther his bride. if the senses stir not? Light 174 . Whose form was chang’d into the bird. I bear you company no more. if suddenly New radiance strike upon the closed lids. spontaneous. it gave no place To aught that ask’d admittance from without. than the mole Doth through opacous membrane. been ta’en by cloud. Thus with my leader’s feet still equaling pace From forth that cloud I came. that bedward now his couch o’erhung. CANTO XVII Call to remembrance. desp’rate thou hast slain thyself. in my vision straight uprose A damsel weeping loud. and cried. Through which thou saw’st no better. malice deep. I am she. self-inform’d. “O queen! O mother! wherefore has intemperate ire Driv’n thee to loath thy being? Not to lose Lavinia. Next shower’d into my fantasy a shape As of one crucified. As of itself That unsubstantial coinage of the brain Burst. we take no mark Though round about us thousand trumpets clang! What moves thee. Behold The dawn with white ray glimm’ring through the mist. and would not hear me more. I must away—the angel comes—ere he Appear. and Mordecai the just. Kindled in heav’n. God be with you. whose tears Mourn.” He said.Purgatory Another name to grace him. Which the water fails That fed it. And round him Ahasuerus the great king. if thou e’er Hast. like a bubble. on a mountain top. Or likelier gliding down with swift illapse By will divine. O quick and forgetive power! that sometimes dost So rob us of ourselves.

Save will so eager to behold who spake. Who marshals us our upward way.” He thus to me: “The love of good. I perceiv’d Near me as ‘twere the waving of a wing. nor created being. That many a star on all sides through the gloom Shone out. For whoso waits imploring. and thou shalt cull Some fruit may please thee well. We had reach’d The summit. unsought. so now is done for us. And in his own light shrouds him. And waiting a short space. Thou hast not that to learn. and said: “Lov’d sire! Declare what guilt is on this circle purg’d. Before it darken: for we may not then. And the first stair approaching. As round I turn’d me to survey what place I had arriv’d at. Here plies afresh the oar. but the other swerves. As ‘fore the sun. that other purpose left me none. If aught should meet mine ear in that new round. Thus from before me sunk that imagery Vanishing. ne’er. thus my virtue fail’d Unequal. from this delay.. And to one ladder both address’d our steps. soon as on my face there struck The light. Refuse we not to lend a ready foot At such inviting: haste we to ascend.Purgatory The broken slumber quivering ere it dies. Then to my guide I turn’d. But that thou mayst yet clearlier understand. My son. Till morn again return. “was without love. “Here ye mount. As a man Doth for himself. “Why partest from me.” he thus began. for I felt My o’ertoil’d sinews slacken. Or natural. If our feet rest. and veils his form In light transcendent.” So spake my guide. 175 . here fulfils. That fann’d my face and whisper’d: “Blessed they The peacemakers: they know not evil wrath. and were fix’d like to a bark Arriv’d at land. whate’er Wanted of just proportion. that loiter’d ill. “Creator. yet sees need Of his prompt aidance.” Now to such height above our heads were rais’d The last beams. Give ear unto my words.” exclaim’d A voice. ere the suit be made. or the free spirit’s growth. I could not choose but gaze. The natural still Is without error. no need thy speech should pause. sets himself prepar’d For blunt denial.The Divine Comedy of Dante . outshining far our earthly beam. “This is Spirit from above. O my strength?” So with myself I commun’d. follow’d close by hooded night. That weighs our vision down.

or defect. Account of that division tripartite Expect not. But let it warp to evil. and so sickens at the thought. a bar Of equal force restrains from hating that. Here beneath This threefold love is mourn’d. Fame. or through excess Of vigour. “Grant the distinction just. Partakes of ill. Of th’ other sort Be now instructed. The love too lavishly bestow’d on this. and since No being can be thought t’ exist apart And independent of the first. Three ways such love is gender’d in your clay. and his high discourse 176 . fitter for thine own research. which is lov’d. Hence thou must infer That love is germin of each virtue in ye. While e’er it seeks The primal blessings.) Preeminence himself. and coverts hence For his own greatness that another fall. Whom wrong or insult seems to gall and shame That he doth thirst for vengeance. Other good There is. that merits pain. There is who so much fears the loss of power. and it remains The’ evil must be another’s. is mourn’d. Pursue the good. Now since it may not be. or less. or with measure due Th’ inferior. not that blest Essence. If ye behold Or seek it with a love remiss and lax. of every good the branch and root.The Divine Comedy of Dante . no delight. Along three circles over us.Purgatory If on ill object bent. “All indistinctly apprehend a bliss On which the soul may rest. There is who hopes (his neighbour’s worth deprest. that which follows good But with disorder’d and irregular course. And of each act no less. and to that wished bourn All therefore strive to tend. He loves their opposite: and there is he. All from self-hatred are secure. This cornice after just repenting lays Its penal torment on ye. the thing created then Works ‘gainst its Maker. but love intend The welfare mainly of the thing it loves. the hearts of all Yearn after it. and such needs Must doat on other’s evil. favour. glory (should his fellow mount Above him). CANTO XVIII The teacher ended. Or with more ardour than behooves. where man finds not his happiness: It is not true fruition. that flows from it.

O guide! And my own docile mind. earnest in my looks inquir’d If I appear’d content. tend she right or wrong. and the spirit knows No other footing. reveal. who make themselves The guides of men. incline toward it. The soul. with matter join’d Not in confusion mix’d. Enough to show thee. hath in itself Specific virtue of that union born. Of substance true Your apprehension forms its counterfeit. Is no desert of hers.Purgatory Concluding. whom this heart Holds dearest! thou wouldst deign by proof t’ unfold That love. my Sight Gathers so lively virtue from thy beams.” He answering thus: “What reason here discovers I have power To show thee: that which lies beyond. from which as from their source thou bring’st All good deeds and their opposite. e’en thus Enters the captive soul into desire. For from without if love Be offer’d to us. and thou plainly shalt behold How much those blind have err’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . expect From Beatrice. Then as the fire points up. moves versatile which way soe’er Aught pleasing prompts her. And in you the ideal shape presenting Attracts the soul’s regard. it follows not th’ impression must. Yet thence New doubts have sprung.” He then: “To what I now disclose be thy clear ken Directed. that ne’er rests Before enjoyment of the thing it loves. Yet if the wax Be good. distinct is seen. whom still Unsated thirst to hear him urg’d. And a new nature knit by pleasure in ye. substantial form. “thy words. father. love is that inclining. Wherefore I pray thee. Mute outwardly. gave Me boldness thus to speak: “Master. nor prov’d But through effect. how the truth from those Is hidden. If she. true father. faith not reason’s task. created apt To love. who aver all love a thing Praise-worthy in itself: although perhaps Its substance seem still good. thus drawn. That all.” “What love is. was mute. soon as she is wak’d By pleasure into act. as vegetable life 177 .” I return’d. Which is not felt except it work. and I. and mounting seeks His birth-place and his lasting seat. yet inwardly I said: “Perchance my too much questioning offends But he. mark’d the secret wish By diffidence restrain’d. Which is a spiritual motion. and speaking. Spirit. thy words convey.

The Divine Comedy of Dante . but not long Slumber’d. Ye have that virtue in you. and her broad disk Seem’d like a crag on fire. And now the weight. stood as one Musing in dreary slumber. That as she list are summon’d to her bar. mark’d That innate freedom. well nigh To midnight hour belated. so came these Tumultuous. Caesar to subdue Ilerda. Who raiseth Andes above Mantua’s name. Man therefore knows not. meriting nor blame nor praise. as up the vault That course she journey’d.” 178 . for suddenly a multitude. such in you. From whence his intellect Deduced its primal notices of things. Here is the source. and whose word should keep The threshold of assent. With fury and like random rout. to dismiss Or harbour it. and were thence induc’d To leave their moral teaching to the world.” The moon. that from necessity arise All love that glows within you. I therefore. Volition. And flew to Spain. When they of Rome behold him at his set. Those men Who reas’ning went to depth profoundest. Beatrice. that hung upon my thought. The steep already turning. whose just voice Uttereth counsel. Soon they o’ertook us. from behind. Betwixt Sardinia and the Corsic isle. as zeal In bees to gather honey. at the first. when my questions had obtain’d Solution plain and ample.”—”Oh tarry not: away. Denominates free choice by eminence The noble virtue. Grant then. for his Thebes If Bacchus’ help were needed. made the stars Appear to wink and fade. darted in Marseilles his sting. “Blessed Mary sought with haste The hilly region.Purgatory By the green leaf. Remember. with such swiftness mov’d The mighty crowd. Was lighten’d by the aid of that clear spirit. winnow’d as the chaff. or his appetites Their first affections. Two spirits at their head Cried weeping. By eagerness impell’d of holy love. Or severs. which the sun then warms. curving each his rapid step. Whence cause of merit in you is deriv’d. As echoing on their shores at midnight heard Ismenus and Asopus. if in talk with thee She touch upon that theme. Rush’d on. But o’er each lower faculty supreme. in her style. E’en as the affections good or ill she takes. the pow’r is in yourselves.

to whom the sea Open’d. So morning rise to light us. “let not time be lost Through slackness of affection. Or here was mute.Purgatory The others shouted. and in rememb’rance treasur’d it. to absolve your part Of good and virtuous. and each unlike Its fellow: till led on from thought to thought. where lukewarm erst ye fail’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who yet lives. And born in evil. That name. who never fail’d me at my need. In Verona I Was abbot of San Zeno. or planetary sway Of Saturn. and the geomancer sees His Greater Fortune up the east ascend. Where gray dawn checkers first the shadowy cone.” Whether more he spake. CANTO XIX It was the hour. 179 .” Soon as they had fled Past reach of sight. O’erpower’d by earth. We may not linger: such resistless will Speeds our unwearied course. Vouchsafe us then Thy pardon. ne’er utter’d without tears in Milan. mine eye Was clos’d. (Credit my tale. and thou shalt find the cleft. hath one foot in his grave. or ever Jordan saw his heirs: And they. Therefore say Which hand leads nearest to the rifted rock?” So spake my guide. Hearty zeal To serve reanimates celestial grace. I know not: he had sped E’en now so far beyond us. Lo! two with sharp remorse Chiding their sin!” In rear of all the troop These shouted: “First they died. He then.” “O ye. he hath set in place Of its true pastor. Yet thus much I heard. Of body ill compact. for their portion chose Life without glory. Ruing his power misus’d: for that his son. And there is he. to whom a shade return’d: “Come after us. And pleasur’d with the fleeting train. when the hand Of Barbarossa grasp’d Imperial sway. Slow or neglectful. who with Aeneas to the end Endur’d not suffering. Cried. this man. and meditation chang’d to dream. new thought within me rose By others follow’d fast. Who for that monastery ere long shall weep. “Hither turn. when of diurnal heat No reliques chafe the cold beams of the moon. though strange) desires t’ ascend. in whom intenser fervency Haply supplies. and worse in mind. if our duty seem to thee Discourteous rudeness.

he approach’d. how loth soe’er. And show’d the belly to me. then mov’d his plumes. And fanning us. Whoe’er frequents me once Parts seldom. “Come. pour’d down from high.The Divine Comedy of Dante . her robes tearing. Rise. whereon My soul intent allows no other thought 180 . while th’ angelic shape A little over us his station took. eyes aslant. and faded face With love’s own hue illum’d. so I charm him. as we journey’d. I from his course Ulysses by my lay Enchanted drew. when thus I heard. wak’d me. that still thou look’st to earth?” Began my leader. Who thus had spoken marshal’d us along. “I am the Siren. And. Recov’ring speech She forthwith warbling such a strain began. and thus the teacher: “At the least Three times my voice hath call’d thee. Let us the opening find where thou mayst pass. “hath rais’d in me Surmisings strange and anxious doubts. Where each side of the solid masonry The sloping. she. as a man. who is this?” Which hearing.” thus she sang. With swan-like wings dispread and pointing up. for that comfort shall be theirs. stooping low My forehead. enter here. Now day. and his heart Contented knows no void. Round I turn’d Mine eyes. That I. “Say.” in tone so soft and mild. with eyes still bent Toward that goodly presence: th’ other seiz’d her. Fill’d all the circuits of the sacred mount. o’ercharg’d with thought. whom mariners On the wide sea are wilder’d when they hear: Such fulness of delight the list’ner feels. That midway spans the flood. walls retir’d. I look’d upon her. on our shoulder smote The early ray. Are blessed. and colour pale. As never met the ear on mortal strand. “I. next in brief space her form Decrepit rais’d erect.” I replied. I follow’d. whence a smell. With stern voice She utter’d. “What aileth thee. open’d her before. Exhaling loathsome. e’en thus my look Unloos’d her tongue. to shame her at her side appear’d A dame of semblance holy. could scarce have held Attention from the song. affirm’d that those. who mourn. “New vision.Purgatory When ‘fore me in my dream a woman’s shape There came. O Virgil. begone. And. and as sunshine cheers Limbs numb’d by nightly cold. with lips that stammer’d.” Or ere her mouth Was clos’d.” I straightway rose. Distorted feet. hands maim’d. Who bends him to the likeness of an arch.

Beyond us some short space. and the name And title of my lineage from that stream. which heav’n’s eternal King Whirls in the rolling spheres. And he. so the call I heard. forthwith interpreting their suit. And.” As on his feet The falcon first looks down. on the ground All downward lying prone and weeping sore. Free then to act. whose wiles alone The spirits o’er us weep for? Hast thou seen How man may free him of her bonds? Enough. and such the words. for a while suspend For me that mightier care. A month and little more by proof I learnt. With what a weight that robe of sov’reignty Upon his shoulder rests. See that ye still to rightward keep the brink.” He answering spake “The cause why Heav’n our back toward his cope Reverses.—”Hast thou seen. As pleas’d me. and forth stretches eager for the food. “in whom repentant tears Mature that blessed hour. So onward. in answer came. whose words I late had mark’d. direct Tow’rds the steep rising our uncertain way. Beckon’d his glad assent.” said he. and took my stand O‘er that shade. “O ye elect of God. I journey’d. they well nigh choak’d the words. A race appear’d before me. and thy rais’d ken Fix on the lure. “That old enchantress.Purgatory Or room or entrance. till the plain was reach’d. On the fifth circle when I stood at large.” I heard With sighs so deep. “Spirit!” I said.” “If ye approach secure from this our doom. Say who thou wast. when thou with God Shalt find acceptance. shalt thou know: but me know first The successor of Peter. And if in aught ye wish my service there. Late. then to the sky Turns. Whence living I am come. I drew near.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” So them the bard besought. I noted what remain’d yet hidden from them: Thence to my liege’s eyes mine eyes I bent. who from the mire Would guard it: that each other fardel seems But feathers in the balance. That woos him thither. her. “My soul hath cleaved to the dust. whose penal woes Both hope and justice mitigate. Prostration—and would urge your course with speed. alas! Was my conversion: but when I became 181 . Let thy heels spurn the earth. far as the dividing rock Gave way. That’ twixt Chiaveri and Siestri draws His limpid waters through the lowly glen. Why thus ye grovel on your bellies prone.

I have on earth a kinswoman. Now. I drew the sponge yet thirsty from the wave. thus hath justice level’d us Here on the earth. of that life No more enamour’d. and “What cause.” I rejoin’d. thus Here justice holds us prison’d. and linger here no more. and would have spoke. as a man Walks near the battlements on narrow wall. Go thy ways now. her name Alagia. Such cleansing from the taint of avarice Do spirits converted need. Onward I mov’d: he also onward mov’d. ‘gainst will more wise that strives His pleasure therefore to mine own preferr’d. As avarice quench’d our love Of good.” said he. so ill Example of our house corrupt her not: And she is all remaineth of me there.” CANTO XX Ill strives the will. nor e’er to loftier clime Were lifted. while heaven’s just Lord shall please. wherever place Along the rock was vacant. here punish’d for my doting. For till then I was a soul in misery. in my bosom love Of purer being kindled.” he exclaim’d. saw that the heart Rested not there. but he. If thou hast ever mark’d those holy sounds Of gospel truth.” “Up. With which I hasten that whereof thou spak’st. So long to tarry motionless outstretch’d. and yet no prouder height Lur’d on the climber: wherefore. hand and foot Chain’d down and bound. I discern’d at once the dream And cozenage of life.Purgatory Rome’s pastor. as thou seest. who drop by drop 182 . ‘nor shall be given ill marriage.’ Thou mayst discern the reasons of my speech. (Thine and all others’) of one Sovran Power.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “brother! upon thy feet Arise: err not: thy fellow servant I.” My knees I stoop’d. “And inward awe of your high dignity. coasting still. worthy in herself. Ere my beginning. and covetous of all earthly things. Who led me. This mount inflicts No direr penalty. alienate From God. Thy tarrying is a let unto the tears. E’en as our eyes Fasten’d below. by his ear perceiv’d I did him reverence. without which is no working. “Hath bow’d thee thus!”—” Compunction. For those on th’ other part.

” answer’d he. as seems. and I attentive to the shades. before great wealth with vice. And vengeance I of heav’n’s great Judge implore. for whom fate reserves To chase her hence?—With wary steps and slow We pass’d. which on the maidens he Bounteous bestow’d. I was root Of that ill plant. yet is not fill’d! So bottomless thy maw!—Ye spheres of heaven! To whom there are.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “will tell thee. Hugh Capet was I high: from me descend The Philips and the Louis. born of one. Still speeding to its close on restless wing. whose shade such poison sheds O’er all the Christian land. “Spirit! who dost speak of deeds So worthy. And. with full store of friends.” I said. That boon vouchsaf’d Haply shall meet reward. from whose bones th’ anointed race begins. that desire to know The spirit. when is the day Of his appearing. if I return To finish the Short pilgrimage of life.” it added. Yet it spake the gift Of Nicholas. “And why thou dost with single voice renew Memorial of such praise. O good Fabricius! thou didst virtue choose With poverty. Lille and Bruges power.” “I. When the race Of ancient kings had vanish’d (all save one Wrapt up in sable weeds) within my gripe I found the reins of empire. That soon the widow’d circlet of the crown Was girt upon the temples of my son. who ply’d The slaughterer’s trade at Paris.” The words so pleas’d me. from whose lip they seem’d to come. Accurst be thou! Inveterate wolf! whose gorge ingluts more prey. Vengeance soon should come. one before us heard Cry out “O blessed Virgin!” as a dame In the sharp pangs of childbed. Did draw me onward. who attribute All change in mortal state. tell me who thou was. that seldom thence Good fruit is gather’d. ‘midst the wailing. and “How poor Thou wast. and such powers Of new acquirement. Whom piteously I heard lament and wail. but that in thyself Grace so exceeding shines.Purgatory Wring out their all-infecting malady. 183 . Had Ghent and Douay. Which thence I look for. to save their youthful prime Unblemish’d. Too closely press the verge. before thy time Of mortal dissolution. “witness that low roof Where thou didst lay thy sacred burden down. He. Than every beast beside. not for hell. of whom France Newly is govern’d.

then A different strain we utter. To Italy came Charles. and for amends Young Conradine an innocent victim slew. and that He carries with so home a thrust. that yet obscur’d our lowly blood. for amends. Still for amends. parricide: the woes Of Midas. lo! the flower-de-luce Enters Alagna! in his Vicar Christ Himself a captive. exposing to the mart His daughter. and on which thou turn’dst To me for comment. With no degree to sanction. is the general theme Of all our prayers: but when it darkens. saving with that lance. as do The Corsairs for their slaves. Navarre and Gascony.Purgatory Till the great dower of Provence had remov’d The stains. after. and his mockery Acted again! Lo! to his holy lip The vinegar and gall once more applied! And he ‘twixt living robbers doom’d to bleed! Lo! the new Pilate. I see the other. but sin and shame Shall be his guerdon. and so much the more As he more lightly deems of such foul wrong. as rives The bowels of poor Florence. how he stole the prey. whom he bargains for. I see the time at hand. whom his gluttonous thirst of gold Made traitor. they feel no care Of their own flesh? To hide with direr guilt Past ill and future. Poitou it seiz’d. then record Pygmalion. which thy wrath well-pleas’d In secret silence broods?—While daylight lasts. robber. That forth from France invites another Charles To make himself and kindred better known. sole spouse Of the Great Spirit. which his greedy wish ensued. 184 .The Divine Comedy of Dante . Mark’d for derision to all future times: And the fond Achan. And sent th’ angelic teacher back to heav’n. Began its rapine. No increase Of territory hence. but howe’er It wrought no evil: there. Which the arch-traitor tilted with. of whose cruelty Such violence cannot fill the measure up. with force and lies. pushes on Into the temple his yet eager sails! “O sovran Master! when shall I rejoice To see the vengeance. O avarice! What canst thou more. Unarm’d he issues. Its sway indeed was narrow. who a prisoner late Had steps on shore. That yet he seems by Joshua’s ire pursued. who hast subdued our blood So wholly to thyself. So long what thou didst hear of her.

Whereof the woman of Samaria crav’d. So shook not Delos. Is led through many a pitch. that with furious ramp Spurn’d Heliodorus. CANTO XXI The natural thirst. though just. When lo! even as Luke relates. if my memory do not err. ne’er quench’d but from the well. After my guide. The flavour of thy gold. so first it spake. as nodding to its fall. All the mountain round Rings with the infamy of Thracia’s king. The mountain tremble. nor myself could aught discern. The shepherds. As in that moment. and cried: “Doubt not. who first heard in Bethlehem’s field That song: till ceas’d the trembling. When I did feel. Who slew his Phrygian charge: and last a shout Ascends: “Declare. 185 . O Crassus! for thou know’st. as each his impulse prompts. to us A shade appear’d. impell’d. that Christ Appear’d unto the two upon their way. And praise the forefeet. and essay’d With utmost efforts to surmount the way.Purgatory Sapphira with her husband next. as on one to death convey’d. So on I far’d in thoughtfulness and dread. who near me swell’d the sounds) “Glory in the highest be to God.” “Glory!” all shouted (such the sounds mine ear Gather’d from those.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and the song Was ended: then our hallow’d path resum’d. Excited: haste along the cumber’d path. we blame. like to those. I erewhile rehears’d That blessedness we tell of in the day: But near me none beside his accent rais’d.” We stood Immovably suspended. and pity mov’d My bosom for the ‘vengeful deed. Never in my breast Did ignorance so struggle with desire Of knowledge. nor through haste dar’d I To question. We were not ware of it. Eying the prostrate shadows. acute or grave. New-risen from his vaulted grave. Contemplating the crowd beneath its feet. while I conduct thee. and after us approach’d. who renew’d Their custom’d mourning. when Latona there Couch’d to bring forth the twin-born eyes of heaven. not singly. Therefore. whence an icy chill Seiz’d on me. that suddenly my guide Drew near.” The voice of each Now high now low.” From him we now had parted. Forthwith from every side a shout arose So vehement.

His soul. Purification by the will alone Is prov’d. Lower perchance. Clotho apportions to each wight that breathes. on the fatal distaff pil’d. I know not how. whom God Vouchsafes not room above. or by punctual rule Unsanction’d. who up the height Has been thus far your guide?” To whom the bard: “If thou observe the tokens. from forth the ample gulf Of hell was ta’en. hail or snow. that it may rise. the mount erewhile Thus shook and trembled: wherefore all at once Seem’d shouting. “God give you peace. Hoar frost or dewy moistness. nor Thaumantian Iris gleams. to lead him. no influence Can reach us. “If that ye be spirits. That yonder often shift on each side heav’n. But sithence she. The thirst did feel abatement of its edge E’en from expectance. But. Tempest none. through wind in earth’s deep hollow pent. Instruct us for what cause. whereon Peter’s vicegerent stands. yet never trembled: then Trembles. trembles the soil: But here. ‘Tis plain that in the kingdom of the just He needs must share. gave. higher falls Than that brief scale of threefold steps: thick clouds Nor scudding rack are ever seen: swift glance Ne’er lightens.The Divine Comedy of Dante . if thou know. here from every change exempt. and will lead Far as my lore avails. and cried: “Peace in the blessed council be thy lot Awarded by that righteous court.” That questioning so tallied with my wish. which. for not like ours Her ken: whence I. whose wheel Spins day and night. Other than that. which this man Trac’d by the finger of the angel bears. shower. He forthwith replied. which heaven in itself Doth of itself receive. With various motion rock’d. or move For rising.Purgatory Saying. for him not yet had drawn That yarn. nor from his speed mean while Desisting. and such loud acclaim ensues. even from his wave-wash’d foot. when any spirit feels itself So purified. which me To everlasting banishment exiles!” “How!” he exclaim’d. Vapour adust doth never mount above The highest of the trinal stairs. that free to change society 186 . As fitted that kind greeting. my brethren!” then Sudden we turn’d: and Virgil such salute. that sister is to mine and thine. Not of herself could mount. “In its devotion nought irregular This mount can witness.

Aveng’d those piteous gashes. Bears not supreme control: laughter and tears Follow so closely on the passion prompts them. utter praise To that liege Lord. and how the toils are loos’d. I would bide The revolution of another sun Beyond my stated years in banishment. whence the blood By Judas sold did issue. Who on the earth thou wast. whom I entreat their joy To hasten. and the spirits devout Heard’st. “I see the net That takes ye here. No words may speak my fullness of content. and wherefore here So many an age wert prostrate. that from thy lips I next may learn. from whom my veins Drank inspiration: whose authority Was ever sacred with me. They wait not for the motions of the will In natures most sincere.” the shade reply’d. Statius they name me still. with Heav’n’s King to help. And next of great Achilles: but i’ th’ way Fell with the second burthen. from Tolosa. Of Thebes I sang.” Thus he spake: and since the draught Is grateful ever as the thirst is keen. Propension now as eager to fulfil Th’ allotted torment. Why rocks the mountain and why ye rejoice.”—”In that time.” The Mantuan. And I who in this punishment had lain Five hundred years and more. To have liv’d Coeval with the Mantuan. but now have felt Free wish for happier clime. over all his limits. And holding silence: by his countenance Enjoin’d me silence but the power which wills. I did but smile. to that wish By the just ordinance of heav’n oppos’d. where I merited A myrtle garland to inwreathe my brow. Of my flame Those sparkles were the seeds. with the name Most lasting and most honour’d there was I Abundantly renown’d. which I deriv’d From the bright fountain of celestial fire That feeds unnumber’d lamps. Therefore thou felt’st The mountain tremble. But strong propension hinders.Purgatory Seizes the soul rejoicing in her will. Vouchsafe. that the nurse. So passing sweet My vocal Spirit. when he heard him. When the good Titus. Rome To herself drew me. turn’d to me. “Not yet with faith endued. 187 . as erewhile to sin.” said the instructor sage. “Now. the song I mean Which sounds Aeneas’ wand’rings: that the breast I hung at.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Desire of bliss is present from the first.

But he forbade him: “Brother! do it not: Thou art a shadow.” Whereon I thus: “Perchance. I follow’d upward the swift-footed shades. and believe Those words. “I thirst:” and I. But tell me: and if too secure I loose The rein with a friend’s license. he is that Mantuan. “Say. shouted forth: “Blessed!” and ended with. “So to good event Mayst thou conduct such great emprize. More nimble than along the other straits. that. Came down the spirit of Aquinum’s hard. led by whom Thou didst presume of men arid gods to sing. Leave it as not the true one. and behold’st a shade. So journey’d. There is room For yet more wonder. as a friend Forgive me. Hence from that hour. “Speak on. When ‘mongst us in the purlieus of the deep. and thereupon the shade Broke off. Th’ other to silence binds me: whence a sigh I utter. “ The teacher cried.Purgatory As one who winks. indeed the cause. O ancient spirit! Thou marvel’st at my smiling. “and do not fear to speak. When Virgil thus began: “Let its pure flame From virtue flow. He who guides my ken On high. But tell him what so earnestly he asks. thou spak’st of him. but now. And as a substance treat an empty shade. The lightning of a smile!” On either part Now am I straiten’d. and the sigh is heard. Whose wishes tend to justice. one conjures me speak. Who told of thine affection. When I forget we are but things of air. and speak now as with a friend: 188 . Therefore these stairs will now seem short to me.” Now down he bent t’ embrace my teacher’s feet.” CANTO XXII Now we had left the angel.” He rising answer’d thus: “Now hast thou prov’d The force and ardour of the love I bear thee.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who had turn’d To the sixth circle our ascending step. and peer’d into mine eyes. without the sense of toil.” he cried. One gash from off my forehead raz’d: while they. and love can never fail To warm another’s bosom so the light Shine manifestly forth. where best Our looks interpret. why across thy visage beam’d. If other cause thou deem’dst for which I smil’d. my good will Hath been for thee of quality as strong As ever link’d itself to one not seen.

And know. As from my other evil. ‘Lo! A renovated world! Justice return’d! 189 . ‘Why. or what candle pierc’d the dark That thou didst after see to hoist the sail. so from this In penitence. did not repent. journeying through the darkness. From thy discourse with Clio there. and quaff’d Of the clear spring. ‘midst such ample store Of wisdom. what sun Rose on thee. when thou exclaimedst. illumin’d first by thee Open’d mine eyes to God. and turn’d. And if so. Thy question doth assure me. through reverse Of their transgression. And were it not that I with heedful care Noted where thou exclaim’st as if in ire With human nature. Statius replied: “Each syllable of thine Is a dear pledge of love. thou believ’st I was on earth a covetous man. Know then I was too wide of avarice: And e’en for that excess. Then was I ware that with too ample wing The hands may haste to lavishment. of this offence. I enter’d the Parnassian grots. as one. such hath been my lot. thou cursed thirst Of gold! dost not with juster measure guide The appetite of mortals?’ I had met The fierce encounter of the voluble rock. that profits not himself. How many from their grave Shall with shorn locks arise. but makes His followers wise.Purgatory How chanc’d it covetous desire could find Place in that bosom. aye And at life’s last extreme. thousands of moons Have wax’d and wan’d upon my sufferings. who wail Their avarice. The fault which lies direct from any sin In level opposition. Through ignorance. Who. where the fisherman had led?” He answering thus: “By thee conducted first. Thou didst. hears a light Behind. it seems As faith had not been shine: without the which Good deeds suffice not. here With that Wastes its green rankness on one common heap. When their true causes are remov’d from sight. And follow. Therefore if I have been with those.” To whom the sovran of the pastoral song: “While thou didst sing that cruel warfare wag’d By the twin sorrow of Jocasta’s womb. who living. as thy zeal had treasur’d there?” First somewhat mov’d to laughter by his words.The Divine Comedy of Dante . perhaps Because thou found’st me in that circle plac’d. Things oft appear That minister false matters to our doubts. to cleanse me.

Domitian’s rage Pursuing them. Of mortals. and as sorrowful as erst Ismene.” “These. Varro: if condemn’d They dwell. that. Say. which did hide such blessing from me. Argia. it well behooves us to the brink Bend the right shoulder’ circuiting the mount. who hast rais’d The covering.” Either poet now Was silent. to the streams of Thebes. Before I led the Greeks In tuneful fiction. on whose top For aye our nurses live. the most cherish’d by the Nine. Thou then. And blind Tiresias’ daughter. and the Teian. still succour’d them. That thou mayst mark more clearly what I trace. and the bride Sea-born of Peleus. T for that lukewarmness was fain to pace Round the fourth circle. Four handmaids of the day Had finish’d now their office. 190 . And.Purgatory Times of primeval innocence restor’d! And a new race descended from above!’ Poet and Christian both to thee I owed. where our old Terence bides. By messengers from heav’n. Of thy train Antigone is there. I mix’d my tears with theirs. Deiphile. Five centuries and more. and no longer by th’ ascent Or the steep walls obstructed. and conform’d long time To Pagan rites. There ofttimes We of that mount hold converse. My hand shall stretch forth to inform the lines With livelier colouring. to the new instructors chim’d. And their most righteous customs made me scorn All sects besides. Plautus. and the fifth Was at the chariot-beam. Agatho. I was baptiz’d. and soon their sanctity So won upon me. I was wont Resort to them. In the first ward of darkness. round them cast Inquiring eyes. directing still Its balmy point aloof. Remain’d a Christian. but secretly.The Divine Comedy of Dante . are with that Greek. We have the bard Of Pella.” said my guide. when thus my guide: “Methinks. if thou know. Simonides. the true belief Teem’d now prolific. Whilst much of this ascent is yet to climb. Caecilius. and who show’d Langia’s wave: Deidamia with her sisters there. through fear. Soon o’er all the world. “with Persius and myself. And others many more. and that word of thine Accordant. while on earth I stay’d. Induc’d by which agreement. and many a Grecian else Ingarlanded with laurel. and in what province of the deep.

“Spirits.” And after added: “Mary took more thought For joy and honour of the nuptial feast. for midway of the road A tree we found. belov’d! Say what is this I hear?” Thus I inquir’d.” said he. eyed us. Their debt of duty pay. But stay not.Purgatory As we have ever us’d. approaching from behind With speedier motion. Upon the side. and that eminence of glory reach’d And greatness.” As on their road The thoughtful pilgrims. and through the sprays above Stream’d showering.” So custom there Was usher to the road. that none. Daniel fed On pulse. The primal age Was beautiful as gold. the which we chose Less doubtful. That clos’d our path.” CANTO XXIII On the green leaf mine eyes were fix’d. I sole pursued. perchance.” Thereat my face and steps at once I turn’d Toward the sages. with goodly fruitage hung. Linger not: away. O Lord!” and these so mingled. when thus I heard The more than father warn me: “Son! our time Asks thriftier using. The women of old Rome were satisfied With water for their beverage. and wisdom gain’d. 191 . Whereon the Baptist in the wilderness Fed. a liquid crystal fell From the steep rock. They on before me went. And pleasant to the smell: and as a fir Upward from bough to bough less ample spreads. List’ning their speech. So downward this less ample spread. it gave birth To pleasure and to pain. thus. and from amidst the leaves A voice was heard: “Ye shall be chary of me. Methinks. by whose converse cheer’d I journey’d on. Than for herself who answers now for you. and felt no toil: and lo! A sound of weeping and a song: “My lips. But soon they ceas’d. as that worthy shade complied. “O Sire.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “who as they go. like his Who throws away his days in idle chase Of the diminutive. Honey and locusts were the food. and look. that to my thoughts convey’d Mysterious lessons of sweet poesy. as they pass’d. overtaking some Not known unto them. With associate step the bards Drew near the plant. aloft may climb. and hunger then Made acorns tasteful. thirst each rivulet Run nectar. which the’ Evangelist records. turn to them.

said I? solace rather: for that will To the tree leads us. Who reads the name Of man upon his forehead. And spray. by Heav’n. The eyes of each were dark and hollow: pale Their visage. When pinc’ed by sharp-set famine to the quick. that showers upon the verdure. breathe. “this macerated flesh. Virtue possesses. Not knowing how it wrought? While now I stood Wond’ring what thus could waste them (for the cause Of their gaunt hollowness and scaly rind Appear’d not) lo! a spirit turn’d his eyes In their deep-sunken cell. and fasten’d then On me. joyful when he paid 192 . disposes me not less For weeping. I do not think Thus dry and meagre Erisicthon show’d. by th’ eternal will Infus’d. Inflames us with desire to feed and drink.Purgatory A crowd of spirits. who lost Jerusalem. Whose song bewails his gluttony indulg’d Too grossly. ask not Speech from me: unapt Is he to speak. “which dead I once bewail’d. when I see It thus transform’d. and so lean withal. the which so pines me. Say then. And who Are those twain spirits. Every spirit. Remembrance of his alter’d lineaments Was kindled from that spark. He thus: “The water and tee plant we pass’d. which the fruit. that scent Of water and an apple. “Ah! respect This wan and leprous wither’d skin. “the race. The odour. Who would deem. then cried with vehemence aloud: “What grace is this vouchsaf’d me?” By his looks I ne’er had recogniz’d him: but the voice Brought to my knowledge what his cheer conceal’d. the bones Stood staring thro’ the skin.” The sockets seem’d as rings.” thus he Suppliant implor’d. silent and devout.” I answer’d him. whom other will employs. and I agniz’d The visage of Forese. here in hunger and in thirst Is purified.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that escort thee there? Be it not said thou Scorn’st to talk with me. could have prov’d Powerful to generate such pining want. what blasts ye thus? The whilst I wonder.” “That face of thine. Speak to me truly of thyself. “Lo!” to myself I mus’d. when Mary with dire beak Prey’d on her child. by which Christ was led To call Elias. there the M Had trac’d most plainly. From which the gems were drops. Nor once alone encompassing our route We come to add fresh fuel to the pain: Pain.

that follows. while I speak. was due to him Who there precedes me. in which the world For better life thou changedst. for whom there needed scourge Of spiritual or other discipline. To force them walk with cov’ring on their limbs! But did they see. to which this hour Shall not be counted of an ancient date. The tract most barb’rous of Sardinia’s isle.” I answering thus: “Forese! from that day. some few evenings past. Thou seest how not I alone but all Gaze. even yet Remembrance of those days may grieve thee sore. What Saracens. lest they bare Unkerchief’d bosoms to the common gaze.” He straight replied: “To drink up the sweet wormwood of affliction I have been brought thus early by the tears Stream’d down my Nella’s cheeks. What savage women hath the world e’er seen. O sweet brother! What wouldst thou have me say? A time to come Stands full within my view. She whom I lov’d so fondly. who shines with sister lamp To his. which re-espouses us To God. Hath dames more chaste and modester by far Than that wherein I left her. how hither art thou come so soon? I thought to find thee lower. not five years Have circled.Purgatory Our ransom from his vein. Ah! now. and have set me free From th’ other circles. as she ranks More singly eminent for virtuous deeds. Their mouths were op’d for howling: they shall taste Of Borrow (unless foresight cheat me here) Or ere the cheek of him be cloth’d with down Who is now rock’d with lullaby asleep. where time Is recompense for time. hide thyself no more. that glisters yonder. “Tis he. my brother.The Divine Comedy of Dante . with this flesh As true. Her sighs have drawn me from the coast. When she was round. Her prayers devout. the shameless ones. In the sight of God So much the dearer is my widow priz’d. ere thou knew’st That kindly grief.” and I show’d The sun. If the power of sinning more Were first concluded in thee.” Whence I replied: “If thou recall to mind What we were once together. From that gloom the aid 193 . who through profoundest night Of he true dead has brought me. where thou veil’st the intercepted sun. When from the pulpit shall be loudly warn’d Th’ unblushing dames of Florence. there. That I forsook that life. that Heav’n Wafts on swift wing toward them. where oft Expectance lingers.

I saw through hunger Ubaldino grind His teeth on emptiness. pierc’d Unto a leaner fineness than the rest. ‘Twixt beautiful and good I cannot say Which name was fitter ) wears e’en now her crown. I saw the Marquis.”—”My sister (she for whom.” Saying this. who tad time erewhile To swill at Forli with less drought.” He show’d me many others. exulting shook Through every pendent cliff and rocky bound.” and I pointed to him. he Of Lucca: and that face beyond him. among this multitude. For no dark gesture I discern’d in any. So singled him of Lucca. one by one. “He journeys up Perhaps more tardily then else he would.The Divine Comedy of Dante . singles out one. Nor yet our talk by journeying. ‘t is lawful here to name Each one. And climbing wind along this mountain-steep. and thus spake. That gazing ‘midst a crowd.—Buonaggiuna. Virgil is that spirit. And triumphs in Olympus. Which rectifies in you whate’er the world Made crooked and deprav’d I have his word. as he arose. and Boniface. as they were nam’d. Who eye me thus. But tell me. This. if thou know’st. Still we spake. like him. Had keeping of the church: he was of Tours. and I my words Continued. The shadowy forms. drew in At their deep-delved orbs rare wonder of me. “Is Buonaggiuna. seem’d well content. He added: “Since spare diet hath so worn Our semblance out. Where is Piccarda? Tell me. And all. like a ship When the wind sits astern. I howe’er. for methought CANTO XXIV Our journey was not slacken’d by our talk.Purgatory Of his sure comfort drew me on to climb. Perceiving I had life. That wav’d the crozier o’er a num’rous flock. For others’ sake. if I see 194 . Who thus hath promis’d. yet so Was one ne’er sated. “The other is that shade. That seem’d things dead and dead again. That he will bear me company as far As till I come where Beatrice dwells: But there must leave me.” and his finger then he rais’d.” Any of mark. for whom so late Your realm. And urg’d our travel stoutly. And purges by wan abstinence away Bolsena’s eels and cups of muscadel.

“the hind’rance which once held The notary with Guittone and myself. Sees not the distance parts one style from other. “I know not. Passes before my vision. and stays behind his company. This know. that so strips them. Then stretch themselves in file for speedier flight. and murmur’d there.” To whom I thus: “Count of me but as one Who am the scribe of love. Till his o’erbreathed lungs keep temperate time. Go then with this forewarning. Let me hear thee. behind them lingering at my side. Mutual wish To converse prompts. more scoop’d of all its good. how soon soever I return. Each step increasing swiftness on the last. Somewhat I heard him whisper of Gentucca: The sound was indistinct. which let us both indulge. if of a truth I see the man Of that new lay th’ inventor. when he breathes. as he dictates. Slacks pace. Like as the bird. on it speeds. straight began: “Woman is born. Where guilt hath no redemption. where I am set to live. “it seems as thou wouldst fain Speak with me. Short of that new and sweeter style I hear. as they turn’d Their visage. write. Ours did not. And dismal ruin seems to threaten it. Where justice. fix’d her sting.” And. faster deaf. Is now disclos’d.” He. E’en so Forese let that holy crew Proceed. day by day. And as a man. nimble alike Through leanness and desire. which. as contented. “Spirit!” said I.” said I. Thus all the tribe of spirits. and. ye that con the lore of love’. that. that leaveth him 195 .Purgatory Was none amongst them took such note of me. Take up my pen. Is. Whose brow no wimple shades yet. which begins With ‘Ladies. And saying: “When shall I again behold thee?” “How long my life may last. no question. dragg’d at heels Of an infuriate beast. that winter near the Nile. here he held his peace. th’ event shall tell But say. Until a blow it strikes. Tir’d With the motion of a trotting steed. Toward the vale. blame it as they may.” “Brother!” said he.” he cried: “lo! he. In squared regiment direct their course. that shall make My city please thee. My wishes will before me have arriv’d. He that seeks a grace beyond. I see how ye your plumes Stretch. as th’ inditer guides them. Sithence the place.The Divine Comedy of Dante . answ’ring.” “Go now. whose guilt is most. If aught false My whisper too implied.

each contemplative and mute. And come not near. As he to Midian march’d adown the hills. as undeceiv’d they went their way: And we approach the tree. “Remember. thick hung. full thousand paces on We travel’d. not far off it rose to view. like greedy and fond brats. whence Gideon’s ranks were thinn’d. and answer none obtain from him. Then along the lonely path. Once more at large. still we heard The sins of gluttony. E’en as our steps Turn’d thither. That beg. How they their twofold bosoms overgorg’d Oppos’d in fight to Theseus: call to mind The Hebrews. Who were such mighty marshals of the world. When he beyond us had so fled mine eyes No nearer reach’d him.” Thus near one border coasting. as was the shape 196 . with woe erewhile Reguerdon’d. “Why pensive journey thus ye three alone?” Thus suddenly a voice exclaim’d: whereat I shook. And left me on the way with those twain spirits. pass’d forth beyond. Whence I.Purgatory A corse most vilely shatter’d. Whereof Eve tasted.”Such sounds from midst the thickets came. in furnace. “those noblest creatures of the clouds. than my thought his words. And blooming fresh. glass. who vows and tears Sue to in vain. how effeminate they stoop’d To ease their thirst.The Divine Comedy of Dante . At length. Then rais’d my head to look from whence it came. thus measuring my pace with shine. or metal seen So bright and glowing red. and hides it not. as doth a scar’d and paltry beast. Stands higher up the wood. Pricks forth at gallop. eager to display His prowess in the first encounter prov’d So parted he from us with lengthen’d strides. that rais’d Their hands. No long space Those wheels have yet to roll” (therewith his eyes Look’d up to heav’n) “ere thou shalt plainly see That which my words may not more plainly tell. and shouted forth I know not What Unto the boughs. with either bard. “Pass on. but more to draw them on. Beneath it were a multitude.” next We heard. I quit thee: time is precious here: I lose Too much. He at arm’s length the object of their wish Above them holds aloft. The branches of another fruit.” As from a troop of well-rank’d chivalry One knight. close to the side That rose. the mighty tree. appear’d. Was ne’er. more enterprising than the rest. Of whom they beg. and from it was ta’en ‘this plant.

This way he goes. and drops it. and to my guides I fac’d Backward. “hadst remember’d thee. as sound directs. Still hung’ring as the rule of temperance wills. to harbinger the dawn. by equal fires consm’d. How Meleager with the wasting brand Wasted alike.” Encourag’d thus I straight began: “How there can leanness come. that on thy lip Stands trembling for its flight.” He cried. and breathes Of fragrance.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that appetite in them Exhaleth no inordinate desire.” His countenance Had dazzled me. and the moving of a wing Perceiv’d. whom grace Doth so illume. This would not trouble thee: and hadst thou thought. E’en as the young stork lifteth up his wing Through wish to fly. and pray That he would now be healer of thy wound. And then a voice: “Blessed are they. what now seems Hard. none That steep and narrow scale admits to climb. “If ye desire to mount.” One before other. when he who climbs. had appear’d no harder than the pulp Of summer fruit mature. Who goes in quest of peace. Him all our haste Restrain’d not.Purgatory I now beheld. 197 . Where is no want of nourishment to feed?” “If thou. and fell. so in me desire Of questioning my guide arose. but singly. springs up On freshen’d wing the air of May. And to the Scorpion left the night. How in the mirror your reflected form With mimic motion vibrates. but thus spake the sire belov’d: Fear not to speed the shaft. Lo Statius here! on him I call. “here must ye turn. for. that moving shed ambrosial smell. but presses on his road.” “If in thy presence I unfold to him CANTO XXV It was an hour.” he answer’d. if some urgent need Impel: so enter’d we upon our way. yet ventures not to quit The nest. like one who walks. But that thy will In certainty may find its full repose. E’en such a wind I felt upon my front Blow gently. that marks A man prepar’d for speech. As one That makes no pause. had need To walk uncrippled: for the sun had now To Taurus the meridian circle left. all impregn’d with herb and flowers. Whate’er betide him. Arriving even to the act. As when.

Know soon as in the embryo. “When Lachesis hath spun the thread. Which passes through the veins itself to make them. one dispos’d T’ endure. Blood. Articulation is complete. then turns The primal Mover with a smile of joy On such great work of nature. Then each unite together. to the brain. and in thy mind Receive them: so shall they be light to clear The doubt thou offer’st. And forms an individual soul. as being that. than that this is on the way And at its limit that) continues yet To operate.The Divine Comedy of Dante . remains For thy consid’ring. and bends reflective on itself. O son. That from the generating heart proceeds. And feels. Then vivifies what its own substance caus’d To bear. to exculpate me. how that to wine doth change. that what here Active it finds. and imbreathes New spirit replete with virtue. 198 . because he saw No organ for the latter’s use assign’d. to be ta’en From the replenish’d table. in the heart Derives effectual virtue. to act the other. And that thou less mayst marvel at the word. And rests as food superfluous. Than thou hast err’d. Which by the thirsty veins is ne’er imbib’d. “Open thy bosom to the truth that comes. more wise. With animation now indued. The active virtue (differing from a plant No further. coagulating first. Mix’d with the moisture filter’d through the vine. that informs The several human limbs. through meet frame Of its recipient mould: that being reach’d. Yet more concocted it descends. As sea sponge clinging to the rock: and there Assumes th’ organic powers its seed convey’d.Purgatory The secrets of heaven’s vengeance. that now it moves. to its own substance draws. son! at which the virtue. for each limb Is in the heart by forgeful nature plann’d. let me plead Thine own injunction. that lives. and forthwith began: “Attend my words. making the soul disjoin’d From passive intellect. It ‘gins to work.” So Statius answer’d. Mark the sun’s heat. where shame Forbids to mention: and from thence distils In natural vessel on another’s blood. concocted well. Is pliant and expansive. the soul Takes with her both the human and divine. ‘This is the period. How babe of animal becomes. and feels. At this point.

thither follows. when saturate with showers. and will. Here the rocky precipice Hurls forth redundant flames. That border’d on the void. No pause allow’d. on th’ other fear’d Headlong to fall: when thus th’ instructor warn’d: “Strict rein must in this place direct the eyes. Behoov’d us. At the hymn’s close They shouted loud. The casual beam refracting. and is shadow call’d. And when I saw Spirits along the flame proceeding. and the bands Of wedded love. hence laughter. and felt No less desire to turn. in act Far keener than before. which influence of the soul Imprints on it. intelligence.” Then in low voice again took up the strain. “I do not know a man. and like the flame. Who liv’d in virtue chastely. one by one. sequester’d from its bound. Here learns her destin’d path. the other powers Inactive all and mute. where the departed roam. And this the cause of what thou marvel’st at. she falls. Distinct as in the living limbs before: And as the air. “To the wood.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so henceforth The new form on the spirit follows still: Hence hath it semblance.” they cried. to one strand Of those. round the plastic virtue beams. and I Fear’d on one hand the fire. I Between their footsteps and mine own was fain To share by turns my view. and from the rim A blast upblown. And to the right hand turning. Of such skill appliance needs 199 . With each sense even to the sight endued: Hence speech is ours. with forcible rebuff Driveth them back. A little swerving and the way is lost. stung With Cytherea’s poison:” then return’d Unto their song. “Ran Dian.” Now the last flexure of our way we reach’d. and drave forth Callisto. other care Awaits us. and sighs Which thou mayst oft have witness’d on the mount Th’ obedient shadow fails not to present Whatever varying passion moves within us. Nor from that task. so here the ambient air Weareth that form. Soon as the place Receives her. I ween. tears. In wond’rous sort self-moving. decks itself With many a hue. Which once more ended. Surcease they. then marry a pair extoll’d. along the side. “O God of mercy!” heard I sung.” Then from the bosom of the burning mass. that where The fire moves. whilesoe’er the scorching fire Enclasps them.Purgatory Memory. to pass.

E’en so the emmets. there came. on whom Earnestly gazing. who followest The others.” said they. if attention had not turn’d To new appearance. That friendly greeting parted. answer me. sev’rally Each snatch a hasty kiss. spake: “O spirits secure. that healeth last. I. Avail it that I caution thee. Who had erewhile besought me. At so strange a sight I mark’d That many a spirit marvel’d on his way. Tell us. and those the sun. how is it that thou mak’st thyself A wall against the sun.Purgatory To medicine the wound. That part towards the Riphaean mountains fly. Midway the burning path. as I pass’d. “He seems. as thou not yet Into th’ inextricable toils of death 200 .” The sun Now all the western clime irradiate chang’d From azure tinct to white. Hadst enter’d?” Thus spake one. Again drew near my side the very same. Meeting these. and their looks Mark’d eagerness to listen. “no insubstantial frame:” Then to obtain what certainty they might. Peer closely one at other. who burn In thirst and fire: nor I alone. Oft the good master warn’d me: “Look thou well. and I had straight Declar’d me. who twice Their will had noted. from each part I view The shadows all press forward. these to avoid The ice. than doth Indian or Aethiop for the cooling stream. CANTO XXVI While singly thus along the rim we walk’d. careful not to overpass The burning pale. so hasteth off One crowd.The Divine Comedy of Dante . haply not more slow than they. and. advances th’ other. Part towards the Lybic sands. But mov’d by rev’rence. ere dispatch Of the first onward step. and how they thrive. but these All for thine answer do more thirst. “The cow Pasiphae enter’d. Stretch’d towards me. and their several shout. and resume Their first song weeping. from either tribe Loud clamour rises: those. and then away. Shout Sodom and Gomorrah!” these. to spy out Their mutual road perchance. that the beast she woo’d Might rush unto her luxury. “O thou. This bred occasion first to speak of me. My passing shadow made the umber’d flame Burn ruddier. a crowd. who newly come. ‘mid their dusky troops.” Then as cranes.

but long time thoughtfully I went. As the two sons upon their mother gaz’d From sad Lycurgus rescu’d. nor can I. Hence parting from them. But when rid of that amaze. When my eyes were fed By looking on him. There is a dame on high. and to those My betters. Following like beasts our vile concupiscence. And what this multitude. Our sinning was Hermaphrodite: but we. in thy bark! Their crime. was that. Confounded and struck dumb. and how we sinn’d. of peaceful end! My limbs. by which my mortal through your realm I bear. and of most ample space. tak’st Experience of our limits. who wind for us This grace. round him stares agape. Because the law of human kind we broke. Who was a father to me. by whom the beast In bestial tire was acted. that the orb of heaven. (Not long the inmate of a noble heart) He. mountain-bred. Who having truly sorrow’d ere my last.” As one. So nought I heard Nor spake. Now our deeds Thou know’st.The Divine Comedy of Dante . e’en such appear’d Each spirit. and sinew-strung. nor in mature old age. But may your utmost wish soon meet Such full fruition. 201 . who. Receive you. nor crude. That I no more May live in blindness. Approach’d not nearer. only for the fire. who before had question’d. For which. who have ever us’d the sweet And pleasant rhymes of love. Rugged and clownish. such my joy (Save that I more represt it) when I heard From his own lips the name of him pronounc’d. and.” With such pious joy. if some city’s walls He chance to enter. with such solemn pledge. Gazing on him. to rebuke Themselves. thus resum’d: “O blessed.’ as they parted. Of myself Learn what thou wishest. Already cleanse me. If thou by name Wouldst haply know us. that at your backs Have past behind us. for death preparing. Guinicelli I. Hence their cry Of ‘Sodom. as he did triumph. as ye tell (upon my page Henceforth to stand recorded) who ye are. hence I tend aloft. Caesar heard The snout of ‘queen. who not with us proceed. fed With blood. Have I left yonder: here they bear me. time permits not now To tell so much. Fullest of love. to our own disgrace Record the name of her.Purgatory Whene’er the time may be.’ to taunt him. and aid the burning by their shame.

drew A little onward. Thorough this ford of fire I wade. as long As of our tongue the beauty does not fade. I am Arnault. Shall make us love the very ink that trac’d them. the waves Of Lethe shall not wash it off. I hope for. Rumour and the popular voice They look to more than truth. CANTO XXVII Now was the sun so station’d. and besought his name. I said. I devoted me Unto his service wholly. “there is one. In reply He thus bespake me: “What from thee I hear Is grav’d so deeply on my mind. But as now thy oath Has seal’d the truth. I have nor power nor will To hide me. Sorely lamenting for my folly past.” With such words He disappear’d in the refining flame. If thou own So ample privilege. far as needs For dwellers in this world. kept gracious room. to the spirit he had shown me. who think the songster of Limoges O’ertops him. and see The day. whose mother speech Doth owe to him a fairer ornament. smiling in my view.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and so confirm Opinion. nor make A whit less lively. He in love ditties and the tales of prose Without a rival stands. in time Remember ye my suff’rings. as to have gain’d Free entrance to the cloister. 202 . declare what cause impels That love. For which my heart.” Haply to make way For one. He frankly thus began: “Thy courtesy So wins on me. ere by art or reason taught.Purgatory As forces credence. till truth By strength of numbers vanquish’d.” “Brother!” he cried. I.” “Those dulcet lays. say to him One paternoster for me. and pointed at a shade Before him. which both thy looks and speech bewray. and lets the fools Talk on. “which. where power to sin No longer tempts us. and with songs. when that was said. I pray ye by the worth that guides ye up Unto the summit of the scale. Thus many of the elder time cried up Guittone. that glances diving to the deep. giving him the prize. that follow’d next. as when first His early radiance quivers on the heights. whereof Christ Is Abbot of the college. as through the wave A fish.” I answer’d. He vanish’d through the fire.

Th’ escorting spirits turn’d with gentle looks Toward me. Remember thee. so intense Rag’d the conflagrant mass. if I Safe e’en on Geryon brought thee: now I come More near to God. remember thee. who erewhile no little space Had parted us. Lay now all fear. and come onward undismay’d. when I heard his saying. “How long. relenting. The sire belov’d. though conscience urg’d’ no step advanc’d. as he proceeded.” As at Thisbe’s name the eye Of Pyramus was open’d (when life ebb’d Fast from his veins). If thou doubt my truth. was as one Laid in the grave. when I heard The name. Joy was in his mien. and list Attentive to the song ye hear from thence. on the fire I look’d. from thy head No hair should perish. as one would smile Upon a child. from Beatrice thou art by this wall Divided. And with a voice.” I. holy spirits!” he cried. And upward stretching. To comfort me.Purgatory Where stream’d his Maker’s blood. Turn hither. And busy fancy conjur’d up the forms Erewhile beheld alive consum’d in flames.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Linger we now?” then smil’d. my son. when the’ angel of God Appear’d before us. that eyes the fruit and yields. My hands together clasp’d. Here torment thou mayst feel. And Statius. “Ere the fire pierce you: enter in. still 203 . but canst not death. O lay all fear aside. “Blessed are the pure In heart. he pray’d to come behind. Approach.” he Sang: then near him as we came.” he said. While vermeil dyed the mulberry. that springs forever in my breast. Forth of the flame he stood upon the brink.” I still. He shook his forehead. “Go ye not further. and with thy hands thy vesture’s hem Stretch forth. Into the fire before me then he walk’d. I would have cast me into molten glass To cool me. and took one parting glance. while Libra hangs Above Hesperian Ebro. and for thyself confirm belief. Somewhat disturb’d he cried: “Mark now. and new fires Meridian flash on Ganges’ yellow tide. When still he saw me fix’d and obstinate. thus I turn’d To my sage guide. whose lively clearness far Surpass’d our human. and. when I enter’d. So day was sinking. wilt thou not trust me now? Of this be sure: though in its womb that flame A thousand years contain’d thee. and the Mantuan spake: “My son.

each of us had made A stair his pallet: not that will. when Venus from the east First lighten’d on the mountain.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and. strive ye for the pass.Purgatory Of Beatrice talk’d. lest beast of prey Disperse them. Sleep overcame me.” saith he. As I lay. she whose orb Seems always glowing with the fire of love. That late have skipp’d and wanton’d rapidly Upon the craggy cliffs. Gazing on them.” it added. which shone So radiant. Nor many stairs were overpass. “Come. sleep. “The sun. whoever of my name would ask. Yet by that little I beheld the stars In magnitude and rustle shining forth With more than wonted glory. I dream’d. that lodges out all night In quiet by his flock. that sang. that bringeth oft Tidings of future hap. now silent lie And ruminate beneath the umbrage brown. did guide us.” Our way Upright within the rock arose. I as a goat and as the shepherds they. “Come. and in that fit of musing. A little glimpse of sky was seen above. I could not endure the view.” From the other side A voice. and the voice Following. and the night her lot Held individual. As the goats. “E’en now I seem to view. Was passing o’er a lea. when now By fading of the shadow we perceiv’d The sun behind us couch’d: and ere one face Of darkness o’er its measureless expanse Involv’d th’ horizon. with heedful ear. About the hour.” Such the sounds. that from before my steps The beams were shrouded of the sinking sun. As I believe. even so all three abode. and fac’d Such part of heav’n. Close pent on either side by shelving rock. Delay not: ere the western sky is hung With blackness. and leaning watches them: And as the swain. A lady young and beautiful. Methought I saw her ever and anon Bending to cull the flowers. “hastes: and evening comes. Had fail’d us. That I am Leah: for my brow to weave 204 . and the goatherd leans Upon his staff. ere they had ta’en Their supper on the herb. That hail’d us from within a light. blessed of my Father. as she came. by the nature of that mount Forbidden further travel. “Her eyes.” we heard. but power. While noonday rages. There where the path led upward. and thus she sang: “Know ye. we issued forth.

whose thick shade With lively greenness the new-springing day Attemper’d. Thenceforward at each step I felt the wings Increasing for my flight. as he Sojourns less distant on his homeward way. Thou hast o’ercome the steeper way. my son. When we had run O’er all the ladder to its topmost round. where of itself my ken No further reaches. made me haste To succour thee. Her joy In contemplation. and with it fled My slumber. and search Its limits round. as in labour mine. forthwith I left the bank. Which through so many a branch the zealous care Of mortals roams in quest of. The temporal and eternal. O’ercome the straighter. eager now to roam. Darkness from all sides fled. Within me straight Desire so grew upon desire to mount. which of itself This land pours forth profuse! Till those bright eyes With gladness come. I invest thee then With crown and mitre. which.” CANTO XXVIII Through that celestial forest. Discreet. “That delicious fruit. thou hast seen. To distrust thy sense Were henceforth error.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and thus he spake: “Both fires. on me the Mantuan fix’d His eyes. weeping. As there we stood. these fair hands unwearied ply. charm’d no less. Or wander where thou wilt. here I deck me. I with skill and art Thus far have drawn thee. Expect no more Sanction of warning voice or sign from me. whence I rose and saw my guide Already risen.Purgatory A garland. And art arriv’d. The arboreta and flowers. But my sister Rachel. To please me at the crystal mirror. shall this day Appease thy hunger. she Before her glass abides the livelong day. Now thy pleasure take For guide. that breaks More welcome to the pilgrim still.” And now as glimm’ring dawn appear’d. Her radiant eyes beholding. and never greeting heard So pleasant as the sounds. judicious. Than I with this delightful task. Free of thy own arbitrement to choose. o’er the ground. Along the champain leisurely my way Pursuing.” Such the words I heard From Virgil’s lip. sovereign o’er thyself. that darts His beam upon thy forehead! lo! the herb. that on all sides 205 . thou mayst or seat thee down. Lo! the sun.

which to the left With little rippling waters bent the grass. which ne’er Admits or sun or moon light there to shine. as a wind Of softest influence: at which the sprays. That from our bosom every thought beside With the rare marvel chases. and she the bloomy spring. that I may list thy song. never veer’d. Are worthy of our trust). My feet advanc’d not. when her child The mother lost. I beheld A lady all alone. who (if looks. compar’d with this. And culling flower from flower. Beholding thee and this fair place. yet darkly on it roll’d. and with full joy Welcom’d those hours of prime. That intermitted never. Along the piney forests on the shore Of Chiassi. o’er the streamlet. with love’s own beam Dost warm thee. When Eolus hath from his cavern loos’d The dripping south. flush’d through many a hue. rising suddenly to view. Doth foot it featly. methinks.” As when a lady. Darkly beneath perpetual gloom. On earth no wave How clean soe’er. so far into that ancient wood Transported me. A pleasant air. who. As object. went. Smote on my temples. in that season. but my wond’ring eyes Pass’d onward. That issued from its brink. gently. that to their jocund lays inept tenor. to survey The tender May-bloom. wherewith her way Was all o’er painted. turning in the dance. Yet were not so disorder’d. Over the yellow and vermilion flowers 206 . even as from branch to branch. In prodigal variety: and there.Purgatory Delicious odour breath’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I could not ken the place Where I had enter’d. Already had my steps. but that still Upon their top the feather’d quiristers Applied their wonted art. “Lady beautiful! Thou. I call to mind where wander’d and how look’d Proserpine. that use to speak the heart. that would not seem to have Some mixture in itself. Though slow. Obedient all. when behold! my path Was bounded by a rill. rolls the gath’ring melody. and warbled shrill Amid the leaves. and advances scarce One step before the other to the ground. Transpicuous.” thus to her my speech I fram’d: “Ah! please thee hither towards the streamlet bend Thy steps so near. lean’d trembling to that part Where first the holy mountain casts his shade. clear. singing.

chang’d Laughter unblam’d and ever-new delight. this mountain rose So high toward the heav’n. That I distinctly caught the dulcet sound. whence that proceeds. follow). with what I late have heard Of opposite report.Purgatory Thus turn’d she at my suit. Or from the waters (which. Upon the opposite bank she stood and smil’d through her graceful fingers shifted still The intermingling dyes. and didst make thy suit to me. That cradled human nature in its birth. whose joy Is only in himself. Because the circumambient air throughout 207 . her eyes she deign’d to raise.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And. Which may uncloud your minds. for the bitterness of sorrow. as I ween Ne’er glanced from Cytherea’s. where the gate his limit bars. The First Good. Say if aught else thou wish to hear: for I Came prompt to answer every doubt of thine. and gave this goodly place. created man For happiness. with inhospitable wave ‘Twixt Sestus and Abydos. (A curb for ever to the pride of man) Was by Leander not more hateful held For floating.” She spake.’ will give ye light. exhal’d from earth beneath. Which makes thee wonder. By the stream Three paces only were we sunder’d: yet The Hellespont. where Xerxes pass’d it o’er. “Strangers ye come. And thou.” She answering thus: “I will unfold the cause. That shot such splendour on me. wherever heat Attracts them. Lord! hast made me glad. Wond’ring. and haply in this place. That vapours none. might ascend thus far To vex man’s peaceful state. who stand’st The foremost. through his own defect He fell. which without seed That lofty land unbosoms. and here made short sojourn. and so purge the cloud That hath enwraps thee. ye not without suspicion view My smiles: but that sweet strain of psalmody. nor fears the rage 0f elements contending. His pledge and earnest of eternal peace. when her son Had sped his keenest weapon to her heart. ‘Thou. he fell. because it gave no passage thence. and I replied: “l know not how To reconcile this wave and rustling sound Of forest leaves. than by me That flood. from that part Exempted. most maiden-like. Favour’d thus highly. Valing her sober eyes. Arriving where the limped waters now Lav’d the green sward. and came so near.

doth conceive. here Perpetual spring and every fruit. This when thou hast heard. that warms it). The marvel ceases. that intermittently repairs And spends his pulse of life. Here was man guiltless. From whence its name of Lethe on this part. They. As stream. as if enamour’d. And further learn. doth that motion strike.The Divine Comedy of Dante . undecaying. On this devolv’d with power to take away Remembrance of offence. if in yonder earth Some plant without apparent seed be found To fix its fibrous stem. CANTO XXIX Singing. I noted in their looks A smile at her conclusion. and th’ other land Receiving (as ‘t is worthy in itself. On the Parnassian mountain. whose verse of yore The golden age recorded and its bliss. she resum’d 208 . And by the will omnific. thou behold’st. When she had ceas’d. sure. and makes Beneath its sway th’ umbrageous wood resound: And in the shaken plant such power resides. if they somewhat pass The stretch of promise. No more revealing: yet a corollary I freely give beside: nor deem my words Less grateful to thee. full supply Feeds whatsoe’er On either side it pours. That with prolific foison of all seeds. unless Aught interpose to cheek or thwart its course. and this The far-fam’d nectar. of this place Perhaps had dream’d. but issues forth From fountain. springs not from vein. On th’ other Eunoe: both of which must first Be tasted ere it work. “The water. and in itself Bears fruit that ne’er was pluck’d on other soil.Purgatory With its first impulse circles still. on that to bring Remembrance back of every good deed done. That it impregnates with its efficacy The voyaging breeze. then my face Again directed to the lovely dame. solid. which on every side To visitation of th’ impassive air Is open. upon whose subtle plume That wafted flies abroad. Albeit thy thirst may now Be well contented. Or in the clime. if I here break off. This holy plain is fill’d.” Turning to the bards. Upon the summit. And from its womb produces many a tree Of various virtue. the last exceeding All flavours else.

ineffable as these. their beauteous garniture 209 . Had from the first. Onward a space. that ministers Discourse to reason. plays on the misdeeming sense. one Eager to view and one to ‘scape the sun. that tripp’d Singly across the sylvan shadows. Then did I chide With warrantable zeal the hardihood Of our first parent. Woman. but when I was come So near them. she only. been mine. that no lineament was lost Of those. Then did the faculty. like a blazing fire. cold and watching. the creature of an hour.” Above. and cried: “My brother! look and hearken. Now through my breast let Helicon his stream Pour copious. her mincing step Observing. and long time since. That doth unfold it. So mov’d she on. seen Remotely. Between us not an hundred paces trod. and Urania with her choir Arise to aid me: while the verse unfolds Things that do almost mock the grasp of thought. and. and yet Expectant of beatitude more high. While through that wilderness of primy sweets That never fade. on each side bending equally. and it th’ singing trace the sound “Hosanna. these for tapers of gold Distinguish. suspense I walk’d. and this during still And waxing still in splendor. with which a doubtful object. The intervening distance to mine eye Falsely presented. so bright I doubted whether lightning were abroad. the air Under the green boughs glow’d. Before us. endur’d not Restraint of any veil: which had she borne Devoutly. for a song. O ye thrice holy virgins! for your sakes If e’er I suffer’d hunger. Occasion calls on me to crave your bounty. But that expiring ever in the spleen. against the current. what seem’d seven trees of gold. Nor our way Far onward brought us.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Purgatory And clos’d the song.” Like the wood-nymphs then. with as tardy step pursued. with “Blessed they whose sins Are cover’d. I. when to me at once She turn’d. up The verdant rivage.” And lo! a sudden lustre ran across Through the great forest on all parts. Distinct the sound of melody was heard. The bank. made me question What it might be: and a sweet melody Ran through the luminous air. Gave me to face the orient. joys. for that there were earth Stood in obedience to the heav’ns.

When I had chosen on the river’s edge Such station. for he paints them. Beneath a sky So beautiful. And dost not look on that which follows them?” I straightway mark’d a tribe behind them walk. John accords with me. that in this I may not give my bounty room. and gave me back. And the fresh herblets. save as to the pennons. and ten paces. 210 .Purgatory Flam’d with more ample lustre. came foul and-twenty elders. I turn’d me full of wonder to my guide. more rhymes Will not waste in shadowing forth their form: For other need no straitens. In whirlwind. than the moon Through cloudless sky at midnight in her full. Reader. On my left. and Cynthia her zone. there. With six wings each was plum’d. whence the sun Maketh his bow. as I guess. As if attendant on their leaders. From him departing. Parted the outermost. with flower-de-luces crown’d. as light In heav’n doth second light. The lady called aloud: “Why thus yet burns Affection in thee for these living. came after them Four animals. But read Ezekiel. All sang one song: “Blessed be thou among The daughters of Adam! and thy loveliness Blessed for ever!” After that the flowers. which came So slowly moving towards us. cloth’d With raiment of such whiteness. Here were they. when there I look’d. leaving. as they went. that the bride Would have outstript them on her bridal day. As in a mirror. and even such As thou shalt find them character’d by him. By two and two. the plumage full Of eyes. And he did answer with a countenance Charg’d with no less amazement: whence my view Reverted to those lofty things. The air behind them painted as with trail Of liveliest pencils! so distinct were mark’d All those sev’n listed colours. and beheld The flames go onward. cloud and fire. on the opposite brink. from the north How he beheld them come by Chebar’s flood. the wat’ry gleam Borrow’d. my left side portray’d. These streaming gonfalons did flow beyond My vision. Were they endued with life.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that the distance of the stream Alone did separate me. there I stay’d My steps for clearer prospect. and th’ eyes of Argus would be such. Were free from that elected race. as on earth Was never. lights. each crown’d with verdurous leaf.

So that the wings did cleave or injure none. With a shrewd visage. That they were all on fire above their brow. by the just doom Mysterious of all-seeing Jove. came circling in smooth dance. Bearing a sword. His fellow mark’d an opposite intent. were golden. each Like the first troop were habited. at whose voice it seem’d The chosen multitude were stay’d.Purgatory The space. whom nature made To serve the costliest creature of her tribe. hut wore No braid of lilies on their temples wreath’d. as of them one The rest conducted.The Divine Comedy of Dante . which in blazing ruin fell At Tellus’ pray’r devout. but little distant. One single old man. The members. on each side three. Appall’d me.k the right wheel. Next four others I beheld. E’en as I view’d it with the flood between. the others took Their treasure. Rather with roses and each vermeil flower. him. made they solemn halt. Whenas the car was o’er against me. And out of sight they rose. far As he was bird. sleeping. white the rest With vermeil intervein’d. but in port and gesture like. straight. A sight. behind them all. Was heard a thund’ring. upon whose front Three eyes were seen. With the first ensigns. might have sworn. that her form had scarce Been known within a furnace of clear flame: The next did look. And these seven. enclos’d A car triumphal: on two wheels it came Drawn at a Gryphon’s neck. dissimilar In raiment. At th’ other wheel. that chariot of the sun Erroneous. whose glitterance and keen edge. ‘tween the midst And the three listed hues. So beautiful A car in Rome ne’er grac’d Augustus pomp. one. surrounded by the four. swift or slow. Solid and mainly grave. And from her song who led. for there. A band quaternion. the ruddy now. as he came. Two old men I beheld. In rear of all this group. of whom the one Did show himself some favour’d counsellor Of the great Coan. The one so ruddy. Or Africanus’: e’en the sun’s itself Were poor to this. 211 . Advanc’d with festal step. Three nymphs . as if the flesh and bones Were emerald: snow new-fallen seem’d the third. and he above Stretch’d either wing uplifted. each in purple clad. Of humble seeming: and. Now seem’d the white to lead.

” and. like a babe. as that lower doth The steersman to his port. and e’en In childhood. Forthwith the saintly tribe. And the sun’s face so shaded. and the sky Oppos’d. Did turn them to the car. “O. to duty each one there Safely convoying. that from those hands angelic rose. as to their rest: And one. and with mists Attemper’d at lids rising. As.Purgatory CANTO XXX Soon as the polar light. Fell showering. which years past. stood firmly fix’d.” they cried. within and outside of the car. panting. than towards Virgil I Turn’d me to leftward. The eastern clime all roseate. rob’d in hue of living flame: And o’er my Spirit. fair ornament Of the first heav’n.The Divine Comedy of Dante . No sooner on my vision streaming. That doth not quiver in me. one deep and beautiful serene. A virgin in my view appear’d. yet there mov’d from her A hidden virtue. who in the van Between the Gryphon and its radiance came. thrill’d me. from Libanus!” and all the rest Took up the song—At the last audit so The blest shall rise. In holy chant thrice shorted forth aloud: “Come. No shudd’ring terror crept. from forth his cavern each Uplifting lightly his new-vested flesh. cast Flowers over head and round them on all sides. I have beheld. as if commission’d from above. If aught have terrified or work’d him woe: And would have cried: “There is no dram of blood. The power of ancient love was strong within me. sprang A hundred ministers and messengers Of life eternal. so saying. at break of day. Mine eyes no more Had knowledge of her. which never knows Setting nor rising. that the eye Long while endur’d the sight: thus in a cloud Of flowers. And down. The old flame Throws out clear tokens of reviving fire:” 212 . “Blessed thou! who com’st!” And. smote The heav’nly influence. beneath Green mantle. spouse. in white veil with olive wreath’d. ere now. at the voice Authoritative of that elder. nor the shadowy veil Of other cloud than sin. at whose touch awak’d. That flees for refuge to his mother’s breast. on the sacred litter. that in former days Within her presence had abode so long. “from full hands scatter ye Unwith’ring lilies.

Still in their warbling chime: but when the strain Of dulcet symphony. who speaking keepeth back The bitterest saying. What! and hast thou deign’d at last Approach the mountain? knewest not. express’d for me Their soft compassion. or ever these Did sing. our prime mother lost. avail’d to save My undew’d cheeks from blur of soiling tears.Purgatory But Virgil had bereav’d us of himself. Weep thou not yet: behooves thee feel the edge Of other sword. And straightway melting it distils away. that with the chiming of heav’n’s sphere. Recoil’d. my best-lov’d father. (Turning me at the sound of mine own name. Breathe but the land whereon no shadow falls. across the stream. that Virgil leaves thee: nay. When ‘mid the sail-yards all hands ply aloof. Thus on the left side of the car I saw. she bent her eyes. to conclude the speech: “Observe me well. suffer’d not That I beheld her clearly. O man! Thy happiness is whole?” Down fell mine eyes On the clear fount. I am. I am Beatrice. bound With foliage of Minerva. but there. Towards me. “Thou Lord. Added. as one. in sooth. which doth surround mother’s presence to her awe-struck child. inspiriting his crew. why so consum’st him?” then the ice. some admiral Paces the deck. and suddenly the angels sang: “In thee. All. 213 .” As snow.The Divine Comedy of Dante . She look’d. that lies Amidst the living rafters on the back Of Italy congeal’d when drifted high And closely pil’d by rough Sclavonian blasts. Though from her brow the veil descending. Like a fire-wasted taper: thus was I. weep not. still insulting o’er her thrall. Which here I am compell’d to register) The virgin station’d. “Dante. my hope hath been:” But went no farther than. myself espying. a flavour of such bitterness Was mingled in her pity.” As to the prow or stern. he To whom I gave me up for safety: nor. more than could the words “Virgin. There her words Brake off. Without a sigh or tear. who before appeared Veil’d in that festive shower angelical. and thou shalt weep for that. then with act Full royal. hast set My feet in ample room. Virgil. and sought the greensward: such a weight Of shame was on my forehead. Virgil. O gracious Lord. With a mien Of that stern majesty.

both in dreams of night. I. If Lethe should be past. and otherwise. that in him All better habits wond’rously had thriv’d. that the sorrow now May equal the transgression. and increase Of beauty and of virtue circled me. Not alone Through operation of the mighty orbs. and thus address’d her words To those bright semblances with pity touch’d: “Ye in th’ eternal day your vigils keep. The more of kindly strength is in the soil. So much doth evil seed and lack of culture Mar it the more. I was less dear to him. and such food tasted Without the cost of some repentant tear. but through benign Largess of heav’nly graces. Upon the chariot’s right edge still she stood. So gifted virtually. that make No promise perfect. and with anguish forth Gush’d through the lips and eyelids from the heart. and make it run to wildness. Such depth he fell. Following false images of good. which rain down From such a height. for his ear intended. save that he should view The children of perdition. then he left me.Purgatory Congeal’d about my bosom. turn’d itself To spirit and water. that all device was short Of his preserving. who hath conducted him thus high. and led him by their light In upright walking. this man Was in the freshness of his being. Nor avail’d me aught To sue for inspirations. As with aspect or fortunate or ill The constellations meet. Conveys from you a single step in all The goings on of life: thence with more heed I shape mine answer.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Immovable. His steps were turn’d into deceitful ways. That mark each seed to some predestin’d aim. and valued less. of them so little reck’d him. Receiv’d my supplications urg’d with weeping. as mocks our vision. and chang’d My mortal for immortal. Did call him back. for I show’d My youthful eyes. with close stealth. It were a breaking of God’s high decree. These looks sometime upheld him. When from flesh To spirit I had risen. So that nor night nor slumber. such. To this end I visited the purlieus of the dead: And one. And gave himself to others.” 214 . with the which. Who there stands weeping. Soon as I had reach’d The threshold of my second age.

who stand’st beyond the holy stream. from my lips Did such a “Yea” produce. or denied what thou avow’st. as needed help Of vision to interpret.” She answering spake: “Hadst thou Been silent. ‘Say thou. turn’d My steps aside. while I unfold How opposite a way my buried flesh Should have impell’d thee. What bar of thwarting foss or linked chain Did meet thee. Thus. As when breaks In act to be discharg’d. then she spake: “What dost thou muse on? Answer me. wailing: “Thy fair looks with drawn.” On my faculty Such strange amazement hung. that thou elsewhere should’st rather wait?” A bitter sigh I drew. ere its organs gave it birth. Howe’er that thou may’st profit by thy shame For errors past. She straight began: “When my desire invited thee to love The good. then scarce found voice To answer.The Divine Comedy of Dante . turn’d their point on me. The flagging weapon feebly hits the mark. tears and sighs forth gushing. that in their beauteous frame 215 . both nerve and bow o’erstretch’d. that thou so should’st quit the hope Of further progress. The wave On thy remembrances of evil yet Hath done no injury. when thou hear’st the Siren-voice. hardly to these sounds my lips Gave utterance. with deceitful pleasures. in our court the wheel Of justice doth run counter to the edge. a cross-bow bent Beyond its pitch. Never didst thou spy In art or nature aught so passing sweet. or what bait of ease Or promise of allurement led thee on Elsewhere. As were the limbs. And lend attentive ear. and thus my voice Was slacken’d on its way. Things present. the voice expir’d Imperfect. which sets a bound to our aspirings. A little space refraining. If this be true.Purgatory CANTO XXXI “O Thou!” her words she thus without delay Resuming. A charge so grievous needs Thine own avowal. But whene’er the sinner’s cheek Breaks forth into the precious-streaming tears Of self-accusing. did I burst Beneath the heavy load.” A mingled sense Of fear and of confusion. to whom They but with lateral edge seem’d harsh before. and that henceforth more strength May arm thee. Lay thou aside the motive to this grief. Thou hadst not hid thy sin the more: such eye Observes it.

When now my strength Flow’d back. as children silent and asham’d Stand. in my departing For better realms. with their eyes upon the earth.” and lo! had dragg’d me high As to my neck into the stream. The lady. and never stoop’d again To ‘bide a second blow for a slight girl. now the more I Was loathsome. afterward. in loveliness appear’d as much Her former self surpassing. And. Than downward sunk that vision I beheld Of goodly creatures vanish. Still as she drew me after. or from Iarbas’ land. and mine eyes Yet unassur’d and wavering. thy wing thou should’st have prun’d To follow me.” she cried: “Loose not thy hold. In vain the net is spread.” I stood. The new and inexperienc’d bird awaits. Raise thou thy beard. bounding o’er the wave. that on the ground O’erpower’d I fell: and what my state was then. even under shadow of her veil.” that I 216 . I found above me. Who joins two natures in one form. Each thing else. Remorseful goads Shot sudden through me. “Tu asperges me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that blows From off the pole. whom alone I first had seen. Rent from its fibers by a blast. She knows who was the cause. the fowler’s aim. or thrice. “Loose me not. Or other gaud as transient and as vain. If sweetest thing thus fail’d thee with my death. Than I at her behest my visage rais’d: And thus the face denoting by the beard. she turn’d. What. and lo! what sight shall do!” With less reluctance yields a sturdy holm. The blessed shore approaching then was heard So sweetly. No sooner lifted I mine aspect up. And parted by the verdant rill. list’ning. And she resum’d: “If. returning outward from the heart. bent their light On Beatrice. of mortal should thy wish Have tempted? When thou first hadst felt the dart Of perishable things. while she. Twice it may be. but to hear thus pains thee. that flow’d Between. as on earth All others she surpass’d. the more Its love had late beguil’d me. Acknowledging their fault and self-condemn’d. I mark’d the secret sting her words convey’d. whose plumes are full. Towards the animal. and are scatter’d now in dust. swept along. Swift as a shuttle. But in the sight of one. the arrow wing’d. On my heart so keenly smote The bitter consciousness.Purgatory Enclos’d me.

where ‘t was fit The wave should drench me: and thence raising up. “Turn. but the light Of gladness that is in them. A thousand fervent wishes riveted Mine eyes upon her beaming eyes.The Divine Comedy of Dante . now in other. of deeper ken than ours. clasp’d My temples. we Appointed for her handmaids.” O splendour! O sacred light eternal! who is he So pale with musing in Pierian shades. tended on her. and with their arm They each did cover me. Yet in its imag’d semblance mutable. For ever varying. When under cope of the still-chiming heaven Thou gav’st to open air thy charms reveal’d. well to scan. And in the heav’n are stars. Who to behold thee many a wearisome pace Hath measur’d. that declar’d a loftier line. Within the fourfold dance of lovely nymphs Presented me so lav’d.” Thus began their song. Or ever earth Was visited of Beatrice. Beatrice stood. the other three With gesture. turn’d toward us. much less tell the sound. While. and immerg’d me. now conceal’d. albeit steadfast in itself. “Spare not thy vision. even thus Within those orbs the twofold being. 217 . that stood Still fix’d toward the Gryphon motionless. Gracious at our pray’r vouchsafe Unveil to him thy cheeks: that he may mark Thy second beauty. We have stationed thee Before the emeralds. We to her eyes will lead thee. whereof still desire Grows with satiety. shone. Or with that fount so lavishly imbued. while my soul Fed on the viand. Reader! muse How wond’rous in my sight it seem’d to mark A thing. and joyous. Those yonder three. The beauteous dame.Purgatory May not remember. Full of amaze. Thy sight shall quicken. As the sun strikes a mirror. Whose spirit should not fail him in th’ essay To represent thee such as thou didst seem. Beatrice!” was their song: “O turn Thy saintly sight on this thy faithful one. And then they led me to the Gryphon’s breast. in one figure now Reflected. whence love erewhile Hath drawn his weapons on thee. Advanc’d: to their own carol on they came Dancing in festive ring angelical. her arms expanding. “Here are we nymphs. “As they spake.

whence late I had perforce been sunder’d) on their right I mark’d that glorious army wheel. Its tresses. as the view Was now recover’d (lesser in respect To that excess of sensible.” circling next a plant Despoil’d of flowers and leaf on every bough. whose beak hath never pluck’d that tree Pleasant to taste: for hence the appetite Was warp’d to evil.” And turning to the chariot-pole. spreading more as more they rose. When forcibly toward the left my sight The sacred virgins turn’d. So tangled in its custom’d toils that smile Of saintly brightness drew me to itself. for from their lips I heard the warning sounds: “Too fix’d a gaze!” Awhile my vision labor’d. Whose orbit. now void (the more her blame. “Blessed thou! Gryphon.Purgatory CANTO XXXII Mine eyes with such an eager coveting. as when late Upon the’ o’erstrained eyes the sun hath smote: But soon to lesser object. to whom return’d The animal twice-gender’d: “Yea: for so The generation of the just are sav’d. mark’d a lesser arch. and on the Gryphon mov’d The sacred burden. ere the whole can change their ground: E’en thus the goodly regiment of heav’n Proceeding. Against the sun and sev’nfold lights. ere the car Had slop’d his beam. with a pace so smooth. Attendant at the wheels The damsels turn’d. and turn. Onward had we mov’d. when from her station down Descended Beatrice. rolling. The fair dame Who through the wave had drawn me.” Round the stately trunk Thus shouted forth the rest. Were bent to rid them of their ten years’ thirst. to foot 218 . pursued the wheel. companied By Statius and myself. No other sense was waking: and e’en they Were fenc’d on either side from heed of aught. as far Perchance as arrow at three several flights Full wing’d had sped. No feather on him trembled. their front. their bucklers for protection rais’d. With one voice All murmur’d “Adam. as ‘midst their forest wilds for height The Indians might have gaz’d at. As when. with portly banners curl’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . A well-rang’d troop. Who by the serpent was beguil’d) I past With step in cadence to the harmony Angelic. all did pass us. Were such. Wheel circling. Through the high wood.

And deeper than the violet. On Tabor’s mount. more faint than rose. I know not. But feign who will the slumber cunningly. “And where. and doth make Perpetual feast in heaven. “Beneath the fresh leaf seated on its root. and one cries out: “Arise. whence deeper sleeps Were broken. whose fruit Is coveted of angels. I pass it by to when I wak’d. admitted to behold The blossoming of that fair tree. but mine eyes had now Ta’en view of her. Upon the Gryphon tend.Purgatory He drew it of the widow’d branch. as she had there been left A guard upon the wain. Unearthly was the hymn. I might design The manner of my falling into sleep. Both Moses and Elias gone.” she replied. (eyes that paid So dearly for their watching. And in their hands upheld those lights secure From blast septentrion and the gusty south.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” all doubting. by whom all other thoughts Were barr’d admittance. I exclaim’d. with a melody more sweet And more profound. ere the sun have yok’d Beneath another star his flamy steeds. nor to the end Endur’d the harmony. As when large floods of radiance from above Stream.) then like painter. who cross the stream had brought My steps. and bound There left unto the stock whereon it grew.” If there her words Were clos’d. The seven nymphs Did make themselves a cloister round about her. which then arose. “Is Beatrice?”—”See her. with that radiance mingled. On the very ground Alone she sat. Thus putting forth a hue. journeying to higher realms. that they their tribe diminish’d saw. Had I the skill To pencil forth. which ascends Next after setting of the scaly sign. 219 . to themselves Returning at the word. which I beheld Bound to the twyform beast. and chang’d The stole their master wore: thus to myself Returning. erewhile in all its branches bare. I understood it not. Our plants then burgeon. what dost thou?” As the chosen three. was renew’d The plant. and each wears anew His wonted colours. Behold th’ associate choir that circles her. over me beheld I stand The piteous one. The others. and tell How suddenly a flash of splendour rent The curtain of my sleep. That with a model paints. when Syrinx warbled. how clos’d th’ unpitying eyes Slumb’ring.

and. But. As I beheld the bird of Jove descending Pounce on the tree. At her side. returning to that place. Whose ken rov’d loosely round her. like that which issues forth From heart with sorrow riv’d. keep now Thine eyes upon the car. and the beam. did issue forth From heav’n. away Scamp’ring he turn’d. And I beheld a dragon issue thence. a shameless whore. and. the first like oxen horn’d. it reel’d. directed. O’er it methought there sat. and went his way Exulting. So drawing forth his baleful train. But with a single horn upon their front The four. to starboard now. Next springing up into the chariot’s womb A fox I saw. as she bade. so quickly A sigh were not breath’d sooner. secure as rock On mountain’s lofty top. Of that true Rome. Thus transform’d. What remain’d. and therewith were cloth’d the wheels. my thought and eyes. whence. he dragg’d Part of the bottom forth. The holy structure. for his ugly sins The saintly maid rebuking him.Purgatory “A little while thou shalt be forester here: And citizen shalt be forever with me. On the car with all his might He struck. and one On every side. it seem’d. And now to larboard.” Thus Beatrice: at whose feet inclin’d Devout. so did clothe itself with plumes. I. That through the chariot fix’d his forked train. Next. Disparting crush beneath him. “How badly art thou freighted!” Then. With so swift motion. the rind. wherein Christ dwells a Roman To profit the misguided world. fast as his hide-bound corpse Would bear him. forth a stormy cloud Leap’d downward from the welkin’s farthest bound. staggering like a ship. as he rush’d. Which haply had with purpose chaste and kind Been offer’d. Both one and other. at her behest. I saw the eagle dart into the hull O’ th’ car. with hunger seeming pin’d Of all good food. from whence before he came. Take heed thou write.The Divine Comedy of Dante . buds much more And leaflets. And then a voice. And like a wasp that draggeth back the sting. 220 . Never fire. and what thou seest. and leave it with his feathers lin’d. “O poor bark of mine!” it cried. through its several parts. At random driv’n. as lively turf With green herb. Did put forth heads. three on the beam. Like monster sight hath never seen. o’ercome. That the earth open’d between either wheel. by the vaulting waves.

And.” Before her then she marshall’d all the seven. But. beck’ning only motion’d me. he. when with mine eyes Her eyes encounter’d. as she stood beside the cross. that from me its shades alone Shielded the harlot and the new-form’d brute. which thou saw’st the serpent break. so far across The forest. and ye shall see me. She. Thus far be taught of me: The vessel. and dragg’d on.” Soon as duly to her side I now had hasten’d: “Brother!” she began. to the song’.” she cried. draw not forth the voice Alive unto their lips. her lustful eyes Chancing on me to wander. So on she pass’d. and. the dame. and Beatrice listen’d.” She answering thus: “Of fearfulness and shame. sad And sighing. and anon They mingled kisses. Did answer: “Yet a little while. my beloved sisters. then. their sweet psalmody began. risen upright on her feet. As one who dreams. Her tenth step to the ground. I saw A giant stand. speaking with too reverent an awe Before their betters. Weeping.Purgatory As ‘t were that none might bear her off. Was and is not: let him. and. then full Of jealousy. “So mend thy pace. to follow her. And what will suit my need. But when they gave her place To speak. with visage mild. in such a mood. Again a little while. and had not set. that fell minion Scourg’d her from head to foot all o’er. with a colour glowing bright as fire. befell me shell That I in sounds imperfect thus began: “Lady! what I have need of. The trinal now. that thou know’st. and now the virgin band Quaternion. As thus we walk together?” Like to those Who. And that remaining sage. that thou Henceforth do rid thee: that thou speak no more. Was scarce more chang’d. unloos’d The monster. Lord! are come!”responsive thus. CANTO XXXIII “The heathen. who left the chariot plum’d. and fierce with rage. I will. thou mayst still be aptly plac’d To hear them. That Mary. Hope not to scare God’s vengeance with a sop. and ye Shall see me not. 221 . “Why mak’st thou no attempt at questioning. who hath the blame. “that if my words Address thee.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I ween. Without an heir for ever shall not be That eagle. and ever.

both shall slay. And. “I thus: “As wax by seal. keep in mind Not to conceal how thou hast seen the plant. for the cause.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Without due cause: and were not vainer thoughts. So that thine eye is dazzled at my word. (Five hundred. that. This whoso robs. “the school.Purgatory Which monster made it first and next a prey. its learning halts: And mayst behold your art. one sent from God. In such momentous circumstance alone. and therefore speak. as the disagreement is 222 . The giant. But wherefore soars thy wish’d-for speech so high Beyond my sight. Plainly I view. to that hardness. free From all impediment and bar. do mark him out) That foul one. that changeth not Its impress. This whoso plucks. the stars E’en now approaching. That thou hast follow’d. Who punish’d in himself the fatal gust. with blasphemy of deed Sins against God. brings on A season. and how far behind. dark as Themis or as Sphinx. In pain and in desire. five. When following my discourse. That twice hath now been spoil’d. to thy soul. and as these words By me are utter’d. I will. That one brings home his staff inwreath’d with palm. thou hadst seen. and ten. Fail to persuade thee. who for his use alone Creating hallow’d it. teach them even so To those who live that life. now is stamp’d my brain by thee. in the which. As Elsa’s numbing waters. yet at least Painted thou take it in thee. which is a race To death: and when thou writ’st them. whose conjunction. For taste of this. (since like them it foils The intellect with blindness) yet ere long Events shall be the Naiads. spotted too and stain’d. and no damage light On flock or field.” she answer’d straight. Take heed. “Thy reason slumbers. five thousand years And upward. from the divine As distant. and th’ accomplice of her guilt. And if perchance My saying. that loses it the more. And their fond pleasures had not dyed it dark As Pyramus the mulberry. God’s equal justice morally implied In the forbidden tree. But since I mark thee In understanding harden’d into stone. The more it strains to reach it?”—”To the end That thou mayst know. if it deem this height And summit thus inverted of the plant. that will solve This knotty riddle. the first soul did yearn for him. if not written.

sent in vaward of a troop For escort. mine art 223 . From henceforth verily my words shall be As naked as will suit them to appear In thy unpractis’d view. though but in part.” As a courteous spirit. oft To overbrow a bleak and alpine cliff. which from one source deriv’d Itself removes to distance from itself?” To such entreaty answer thus was made: “Entreat Matilda. Tigris and Euphrates both beheld. “O enlight’ning beam! O glory of our kind! beseech thee say What water this. that varies still As th’ aspect varies of each several clime. if perchance he spy Vestige of somewhat strange and rare: so paus’d The sev’nfold band. when she had ta’en me. like friends. arriving at the verge Of a dun umbrage hoar. And. as one. Beneath green leaves and gloomy branches. nor for such fault Doth conscience chide me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and I am safe That Lethe’s water hath not hid it from him. before them. That proffers no excuses. But. perchance hath made His mind’s eye dark. And. such as is seen. Reader. Makes it his own.” Smiling she return’d: “If thou canst. And with retarded course the sun possess’d The circle of mid-day. with whose sweetness I had ne’er Been sated. revive His fainting virtue. Then. where they stood. thus The lovely maiden mov’d her on. Linger at parting. and call’d To Statius with an air most lady-like: “Come thou with him. In that forgetfulness itself conclude Blame from thy alienated will incurr’d.” I replied. When. that she teach thee this.” And here. as one.” And Beatrice: “Some more pressing care That oft the memory ‘reeves. Appointed for this second strain. call to mind How lately thou hast drunk of Lethe’s wave.Purgatory ‘Twixt earth and heaven’s most high and rapturous orb. pauses. as it seem’d. but as soon As he hath token of another’s will. might I sing.” “I not remember. since all the leaves are full. as thou art wont. That beverage. who clears himself of blame Imputed. the fair dame return’d: “Of me He this and more hath learnt.” Were further space allow’d. But lo! where Eunoe cows! Lead thither. Forth from one fountain issue. “that e’er I was estrang’d from thee. not remember. sure as smoke doth indicate a flame. and.” More sparkling now. and.

59: Che non hen visto ancor l’ultima sera. or Bootes.] The constellation Libra. c. If ‘en as new plants renew’d with foliage new. The farthest gloom.] NOTES TO PURGATORY CANTO I Verse 1. so that while the sun was setting with respect to that place which he supposes to be the middle of the inhabited earth. Now had the sun. viii. v. See Canto XXXI v. and were by them changed into magpies.] Venus. v. a. i. Orl. and Temperance. 41: —the plumes. Ma trattar l’acre coll’ eterne plume v. 1.] Hence Chaucer. 79.] Connubil il tremolar della marina. Al Sonno. Met. who challenged the muses to sing.] Berni. 30. Pure and made apt for mounting to the stars. 2. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . to him it was rising. 35.] “When Israel came out of Egypt. 1. Made all the orient laugh. Marcia. Prudence Justice. laugheth of the sight. s. Trissino. The wain. 19. Now the down/Of softness is exchang’d for Da fredera prisci Illibata tori: da tantum nomen inane Connubil: liceat tumulo scripsisse. And Filicaja. 344. It is used by Ford in the Lady’s Trial.] Trattando l’acre con l’eterne penne. 105.Purgatory With warning bridle checks me. 224 .] Symbolical of the four cardinal virtues. O’er better waves. in the Sofonisba.] From Virg. O debil navicella del mio ingegno. —visto il tremolar della marine. v. Ariosto.] Dante was now antipodal to Jerusalem.] Charles’s wain. c.” It is sometimes read “orient. 80 Filicaja. Venerable plumes. canz. v. Inn. 135. v. 110. L’ultima sera. 5. v. cxiv.] The same metaphor has occurred in Hell Canto XX.” v. Primo avulso non deficit alter CANTO II v. v. 11. regenerate. st. c. Aen. 24. The scales. ii. “Knight’s Tale”: “And all the orisont Fortitude.] E resta in tremolar l’onda marina And Fortiguerra. xxxiv st. 1. Planet. another.] L’ultima sera. v. Phars. st. 45. v. 20. vi. Oroando Furioso c. ix. 17. L 2. 92. v. Birds of chattering note. 143. fab. Rleelardetto. 4. 1. 11. v. v. Four stars. Winnowing the air. I spy’d the trembling of the ocean stream. see Ovid. An old man. plumes of age.] For the fable of the daughters of Pierus. 58. v. In exitu. That mark’d the better sex.] Cato. I return’d From the most holy wave. ix.” Ps. Per correr maggior acqua alza le vele. 6. 31. Catonis Martia Lucan.

v. v. See G. 322. The shore. v. and dancing. l. My Casella. 121. He fell in the battle with Charles of Anjou in 1265.] Casella had been dead some years but was only just arrived. King Charles did allow of his being buried in sacred ground. t. but he was interred near the bridge of Benevento. c. v. 110. vii. 170. Aen. Canto IV. celebrated for his skill in music. and that it was buried by the river Verde.] Ter conatus ibi eollo dare brachia eircum. 351. Milton has a fine allusion to this meeting in his sonnet to Henry Lawes. vi. 111. during which all spirits not condemned to eternal punishment.] A Florentine. Ediz. Burney’s History of Music. excommunicated. Villani. p 34. 38. p. Ter frustra eomprensa manus effugit imago. 205. c. and delighted in poetry. p. “in whose company. for a different purpose. CANTO III v. sect.] The eonducting angel. 1. 1793. As sheep. v. v. 90.] Virgil died at Brundusium. xlvii. 96.” The first verse of a eanzone or song in the Convito of Dante. alluded to in Canto XXVIII. ii. to mention one of these places as remarkably secluded by its mountainous situation “On an eminence among the mountains. v. in his motions. the Bishop of Cosenza took up his body and sent it out of the kingdom. 78. He was lively end agreeable in his manners. p.” that he is “quick 225 .] See H. by command of the Pope. 9. ii. and on his grave there was cast a stone by every one of the army whence there was formed a great mound of stones. 878. 59. v. Hath so much time been lost. and Mr. v. L. Electra. 39. Aristotle in his Physiog iii. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Nice and Manoca. the latter on the west. How doth a little failing wound thee sore. Virg. v. and the natural son of Frederick II. xl. i. Void of religion. Desiring fruitlessly. ‘Twixt Lerice and Turbia. 13.” Compare Sophoeles. Od. because it was the land of the church. iv. vol. x. 94. I. Hist. however. were supposed to pass over to Purgatory as soon as they pleased. 794. c.” G. Par levibus ventis voluerique simillima sommo.”] “Amor che nella mente mi ragiona. Haste. 26. Matthias’s Tiraboschi. music. that mars all decency of act. He. which he again cites in his Treatise de Vulg. Costanza.Purgatory v.] Ostia. c. ii. Tasso. x. King of Naples and Sicily. reekons it among the “the signs of an impudent man. c. vi.] See Paradise Canto III. that afterwards. A very ingenious writer has had occasion. this.] The imitative nature of these animals supplies our Poet with another comparison in his Convito Opere. “Dying. But some ave said. a name formed from the Greek Mitford on the Harmony of Language. These three months past. we do not affirm. v. on the borders of the kingdom and of Carapagna.” says Landine. 9. v. st. from whence his body is said to have been removed to Naples. Thrice my hands. 91.] Since the time of the Jubilee. 49. 75. is the village of Torbia. Ven. 88. v. 2d edit. the former on the east. “Love that discourses in my thoughts. 11. Compare Homer.” See Dr. “Dante often recreated his spirits wearied by severe studies. To Naples. G. 38.] At that time the two extremities of the Genoese republic. Eloq. between the two little cities. v. and in his philosophy an Epicurean.] (Ch’era al cor picciol fallo amaro morso. Manfredi. v. Villani l. of Hell. But he was luxurious and ambitious.

62: Tal suol fendendo liquido sereno Stella cader della gran madre in seno. 1. Bismantua. Villani. G. and notes to Canto VII. 130. affirm the former. Serm.] It must be owned the beginning of this Canto is somewhat obscure. is not easy to decide. passage in South’s Sermons. Hope. CANTO IV v. Arabes. v.Purgatory v.] Imitated by Tasso.] “If you consider that this mountain of Purgatory and that of Sion are antipodal to each other. P. King of Sicily and James. judgement memory. and invention.] Vellutello observes an imitation of Lucan in this passage: Ignotum vobis. 112. Noli. —infin che verde e fior di speme. Belacqua. venistis in orbem. My fair daughter. i. s. Tasso. v. Stood like a tower. v.” Vol. you will perceive that the sun must rise on opposite sides of the respective eminences. between Finale and Savona. 119. The stream of Verde. P. Phars. the commentators afford no information. v.] Mentre che la speranza ha fior del verde. . And by Milton. 558: v. 1. 127. Clement. viii.] A fortress on the summit of Montefeltro. G. 25. 1. 591. (or whether the soul be one individual substance) but only receiving these several denominations rom the several respects arising from the several actions exerted immediately by itself upon several objects. v. CANTO V v. and it is well that it is not necessary Aquinas. c. Umbras mirati nemornm non ire sinistras. Be as a tower. c. xvi. L. v. or several qualities of the same object. 24. by whom she was mother to Frederick. Sanleo. 55. L. See G.] Sta ome torre ferma Berni. 1. b. st. c.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 1. 53. Inn. iv. Bellutello refers. L. are three distinct things. c. 14. When. From the left. xix t.] Costanza. and Scotus with his followers the latter. 36. and likewise from the substance of the soul itself. b. I say whether of these it is. 23. st. L. Now whether these three.] In the Genoese territory. iv. King of Arragon. and wife of Peter III. 69 Thou wilt see. 248 v. 48: In quei due piedi sta fermo il gigante Com’ una torre in mezzo d’un castello. the daughter of Manfredi. Ne’er saw I fiery vapours. 122. Perhaps some illustration may be derived from the following. both in being distinguished from one another.] A river near Ascoli. to the reasoning of Statius in the twenty-fifth canto.] A steep mountain in the territory of Reggio. 18.] Concerning this man. 1. xix. in which I have ventured to supply the words between crotchets that seemed to be wanting to complete the sense. The “xtinguished lights “ formed part of the ceremony t the interment of one excommunicated.” v. that falls into he Toronto. considered without any such faculties. And Milton. King of Arragon With the latter of these she was at Rome 1296. Orl. for an elucidation of it. v. iii. and most with him.] Pope Clement IV.

that he even kissed the hands of the slayer of his son. in Maremma.] Secretary of Philip III of France. eldest son of Philip. his uncle.] Benincasa of Arezzo. higher up on that river. was murdered by Ghino. Pia. so entirely overcame the feelings of resentment. exhorted his kinsmen to reconciliation. the kingdom of Charles of Anjou.] From Pratomagno now called Prato Vecchio (which divides the Valdarno from Casentino) as far as to the Apennine. between Bibbiena and Poppi. fighting on the side of the Aretini. 75. The hermit’s seat.] The city of Padua. Him beside.] Farinata de’ Scornigiani of Pisa. v.] Son of the Conte Guido da Battifolle. Ghino was not only suffered to escape in safety. v. of the family of Tolommei. as he was following the funeral. 91. 131. Antenor’s land. Henault represents the matter very differently: “Pierre de la Brosse. and slain by one of the family of Bostoli. Count 0rso. 15. of the same city. 88. Nello della Pietra. prevailed on Mary of Brabant to charge him falsely with an attempt upon her person for which supposed crime he suffered death.] Either the wife. in an apartment of his own house. envying the high place which he held in the king’s favour. 20.The Divine Comedy of Dante . for his robberies in Maremma. fearing the too great attachment of the king for his wife Mary. secretly made away with by her husband. 95. v.] The hermitage of Camaldoli. v. accuses this princess of having poisoned Louis. where he had some possessions.] Giacopo del Cassero. He is said to have been carried by his horse into the Arno.] She is said to have been a Siennese lady. Of Pisa he. Louis.Purgatory Swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. if he had fled towards Mira. Peter de la Brosse. who. Giovanna.] Buonconte (son of Guido da Montefeltro. Of Arezzo him. said to be founded by Antenor. 18. from whence.] The Marca d’Ancona. Where its name is cancel’d. N. Of Montefeltro I. His father Marzuco. who had entered the order of the Frati Minori. was overtaken by the assassins at Oriaco a place near the Brenta. x. v. 87. slain by Alberto da Mangona. v. So say the Italian commentators. v. instead of making for the marsh on the sea shore. That land. having condemned to death Turrino da Turrita brother of Ghino di Tacco. v. v.] That is. where the Archiano falls into the Arno. when vapours fir’d Impress the air. Marquis of Ferrara. 14. and there drowned. From Pratomagno to the mountain range. 17. was by his orders put to death. 67. 23. CANTO VI v. eminent for his skill in jurisprudence. but (as the commentators inform us) obtained so high a reputation by the liberality with which he was accustomed to dispense the fruits of his plunder. v.] Son of Napoleone da Cerbaia. v. and treated those who fell into his hands with so much courtesy. The courtiers. v. 115. From thence I came. whom we have had in the twenty-seventh Canto of Hell) fell in the battle of Campaldino (1289). a citizen of Fano who having spoken ill of Azzo da Este. Giacopo. and knighted by Boniface VIII. formerly barber to St. or kinswoman. of Buonconte. afterwards the favorite of Philip. v. in the presence of many witnesses.] Ciacco de’ Tariatti of Arezzo. A story is told of him by Boccaccio. 76. 2. he might have escaped. between Romagna and Apulia. G. v. and. by 227 . that he was afterwards invited to Rome. Frederic Novello. while he was in pursuit of certain of his enemies.

v.] Our ears are so familiarized to the names of these rival families in the language of Shakespeare.” v. i. 127. which is the top of judgment. by whose interposition in the affairs of Italy our Poet hoped to have been reinstated in his native city. v. vi.] “What avails it that Justinian delivered thee from the Goths. v. Marcellus. Measure for Measure. too intent on increasing his power in Germany to give much of his thoughts to Italy. That he distinguished himself by his skill in Provencal poetry is certain. 108. st. Thy successor. 98. and reformed thy laws. La Brosse is hung. Thou inn of grief. Ceu lectum peragrat membris languentibus aeger In latus alterne faevum dextrumque recumbens Nec javat: inde oculos tollit resupinus in altum: Nusquam inventa quies. What safety.] The successor of Albert was Henry of Luxembourg. that I have used them instead of the “Montecchi” and “Cappelletti. 5. semper quaesita: quod illi 114 v. Richard II a. In thy text. &c.] A place between Pisa and Sienna. That which God commands. G.] Un Marcel diventa Ogni villan che parteggiando viene. t. This calumny is discovered by a nun of Nivelle in Flanders. 376.] Thou most beauteous inn Why should hard-favour’d grief be lodg’d in thee? Shakespeare. x. 76. Justinian’s hand. 51. Santafiore can supply. may be pointed at. 58. 107.” Abrege Chron. Philippeschi and Monaldi. i. Sordello. s.] Imitated by the Cardinal de Polignac in his AntiLucretius. 37.] A guisa di Leon quando si posa. v. 76. Repeated by Alamanni in his Coltivazione. i. and died about the middle of the succeeding century. if thou art no longer under the control of his successors in the empire?” v. 113. 1. A line taken by Tasso. a. that it is not certain whether we should not read “come si cura”—” How Santafiore is governed. 15.] He refers to Virgil. See Par Canto XIX v.” v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Desine fata deum flecti sperare precando.” v. and was murdered in 1308. Eloq. succeeded Adolphus in 1298. 103. If he. 1. Aen. 228 . What he alludes to is so doubtful. 66. O German Albert!] The Emperor Albert I. I sick wretch. Shakespeare.Purgatory his first marriage. 1. 275. Eyeing us as a lion on his watch. v. 56. Tiraboschi has taken much pains to sift all the notices he could collect relating to him. The sacred height Of judgment. It is probable that he was born towards the end of the twelfth. v.] Two other rival families in Orvieto. Thy sire. 30. 94.] The Emperor Rodolph. 101. v.” Perhaps the event related in the note to v. “the garden of the empire. c.]The history of Sordello’s life is wrapt in the obscurity of romance. s. Capulets and Montagues. Honourable mention of his name is made by our Poet in the Treatise de Vulg.] He alludes to the precept-”Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s. 1052. 1. 1. v. Canto XI. 89. c. L. ii. 2.

123. The three holy virtues. We shall. Lonis. He is again taxed with luxury in the Paradise Canto XIX. ] Philip III of France. Peter the youngest son.Purgatory Primum in deliciis fuerat. See G. p. iii. 14. 1278. speaken in this sentence CANTO VII v. v. at Perpignan. xiv. Justice. by whom Charles was surpassed either in military renown. His son. c. That one with the nose deprest. v. 113. Alonzo. v. Ottocar. L. v. Des Troubadours. 793 Compare Ariosto. c. the eldest son of Peter III who died in 1291. P. 79. Orl. I. Him of feature prominent. 104. He died in 1291. That country. Salve Regina.] The beginning of a prayer to the Virgin. Milton.] Under foot the violet. v. 91. was killed in the battle of Marchfield. and Temperance. Full well can the wise poet of Florence That hight Dante. James. 19 E l’abbracciaro. that “there had been no sovereign of the house of France. c. Frederick and Peter. Villani. died in 1305. v. 49.who succeeded him in the kingdom of Bohemia. He so robust of limb.] Henry of Naverre. The former was a young prince of virtue sufficient to have justified the eulogium and the hopes of Dante. st. He died in 1284. King of Naples. as it may seem best to suit the purpose of the verse. 14. v. in his retreat from Arragon. 102. 97. 101. August 26. It is sufficient here to observe. The two former succeeded him in the kingdom of Arragon. Winceslaus II. and Frederick in that of Sicily. v. F. who died in 1285. xiv. 1. more colour’d than with stone Of costliest emblem. xxxiv.] Prudence. 1.] See the last Canto. Where one of mean estate might clasp his lord. leaving four sons. who died in 1285. Him of gentle look. and Mariana. 95. and hyacinth with rich inlay Broider’d the ground. c. v. v.” v. mox torquet et angit: Nec morburm sanat. nec fallit taedia morbi.] King of Bohemia. vii. whom Dante calls “mal di Francia”—” Gallia’s bane. He is enumerated among the Provencal poets by Millot. at the age of 27. Villani.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Count of Anjou. 111. Rarely. Hist.” G. find many of his actions severely reprobated in the twentieth Canto.” Charles I. The annalist of Florence remarks. vii. c. or in the loftiness of his understanding. st. according to Venturi. fought with Rodolph. ove il maggior s’abbraccia Col capo nudo e col ginocchio chino. b. or. and prowess. 119.] Ariosto Orl. 94. and brother of St. The red. 9. v. iv.] Either (as the old commentators suppose) Alonzo III King of Arragon. 31.] “Dal maschio naso”—with the masculine nose. v. father of Jane married to Philip IV of France. t. 150.] Bohemia. That stripling. xxiv. c. Fortitude. 32. Crocus. 1. King of Arragon. that in similar instances I shall either preserve the original Latin words or translate them. See Mariana.] Faith. F. 72. however. Hope and Charity. since the time of Charlemagne. 110. 229 . Fresh emeralds.] Peter III called the Great. Litt.] v. 102. The Emperor Rodolph.

] My earthly by his heav’nly overpower’d **** As with an object. 115. 133. 53. 112. at Alessandria. 276. that brave Marquis.] The cock was the ensign of Gallura.” v. Pindar. William.] “The sun shall not enter into the constellation of Aries seven times more. 13. 144. Milton. v. The viper. than James and Frederick to theirs. See Paradise. v. 65. Canto XXIV. Hell. Shrill Gallura’s bird. the latter to his brother Charles of Anjou. Conrad. v. Gray’s Elegy. 133.Purgatory Lo! in such manner rime is Dantes tale. Wife of Bathe’s Tale. the former married to St. v. xi. 457. CANTO VIII v. 135. and Notes. 80. v.] The daughter of Nino. of whose glory our Poet was perhaps a witness. 130. in his visit to England. 73.”—”Charles II King of Naples.] See Hell. v. See G. was treacherously seized by his own subjects. v. Villani. Chaucer. v. 48 and Euripides. and betrayed by him. 71 My Giovanna. that excels the sense. Harry of England. As faculty. 122. b. 369.] William. That seems to mourn for the expiring day. that men may hurt and maime. 81. 36. By Beatrice and Margaret are probably meant two of the daughters of Raymond Berenger. and Notes. Nem. The white and wimpled folds. v.] The weeds of widowhood. b. Dante therefore considers Peter as the most illustrious of the three monarchs.] The arms of Galeazzo and the ensign of the Milanese. A war ensued between the people of Alessandria and those of Monferrat and the Canavese.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 1. 74. L. v. Better issue. Te Lucis Ante.] “Al Nasuto. v.] Henry III. P. v. 80. v.D. Her mother. in Lombardy. 135. A. v. See Notes to Hell Canto XXXIII. Nino’s province in Sardinia. c. and after his death married to Galeazzo de’ Visconti of Milan. Electra. Louis of France. ii. v.] Widow of Peter III She has been already mentioned in the third Canto. marchioness of Este wife of Nino. Canto Vl.] Currado Malaspina. Nino.] Beatrice.] Edward l. v. Peter III. Canto XXII. Count of Provence. thou courteous judge. Dazzled and spent. viii. v. Valdimagra. is no less inferior to his father Charles I. Od. Marquis of Monferrat.] Nino di Gallura de’ Visconti nephew to Count Ugolino de’ Gherardeschi. To Charles. and wife of Riccardo da Cammino of Trevigi.] The curfew tolls the 230 . before thou shalt have still knell of parting day. Full selde upriseth by his branches smale Prowesse of man for God of his goodnesse Woll that we claim of him our gentlenesse: For of our elders may we nothing claime But temporal thing. and ended his life in prison. Sev’n times the tired sun. 129. 127. 6. Costanza. 1290. vii.] The beginning of one of the evening hymns. Compare Homer.

sound Th’ infernal doors. v. v. 21. —dabat ascensum tendentibus ultra Scissa tremensque silex. CANTO X v. A. to denote the seven sins (Peccata) of which he was to be cleansed in his passage through purgatory. CANTO IX v. the fervour with which he resolves on the future pursuit of piety and virtue. 97. 15. Of that chill animal. during his banishment. Canto XVIII. viii. Milton describing “the gate of heaven. abducto patuerunt temple Metello. Hence. 18. Tunc rupes Tarpeia sonat: magnoque reclusas Testatur stridore fores: tune conditus imo Eruitur tempo multis intactus ab annnis Romani census populi. 5.” P. and by that of porphyry. 231 . Much of his description is closely imitated from Dante. c. La puttanella del canuto amante. That Wound. v. L. The lowest stair. 14. tenuique erratica motu.] La concubina di Titone antico. iii. v. Each stair mysteriously was meant. 50.” Dante was hospitably received by the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. ] Chaucer. ii 882 v. Our minds. 127. in the house of Fame at the conclusion of the first book and beginning of the second.] On a sudden open fly With impetuous recoil and jarring. Seven times. their account. 1307. Secchia Rapita. Ph. Canto II. A golden-feathered eagle. The verb “muover”’ is used in the same signification in the Inferno. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . represents himself carried up by the “grim pawes” of a golden eagle. P. v. b. &c. So Tassoni. L. 1. 6.] Venturi justly observes. Lucia. 7. that the Padre d’Aquino has misrepresented the sense of this passage in his translation.] By the white step is meant the distinctness with which the conscience of the penitent reflects his offences. his contrition on. 115. grace of heaven Hell. st. Cosi da imo della roccia scogli Moven. 100. 157. 128. The Turpeian. no doubt. v. and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder Milton.] The enIightening.] Seven P’s.D.Purgatory better cause for the good opinion thou expresses” of Valdimagra. 516. 85.] Protinus. v.] Compare Hell. Canto XXVI. iii.] The scorpion.] The golden key denotes the divine authority by which the priest absolves the sinners the silver expresses the learning and judgment requisite for the due discharge of that office. Harsh was the grating. in the kind reception thou shalt there meet with. 1. b. Lucan. One is more precious. by the burnt and cracked one. Now the fair consort of Tithonus old.

As to support. 8. the friend of our Poet. The passage in the text I find to be nearly a translation from that work. When a woman appeared to him with a suit.] The illuminator. For this story.] The first four lines are borrowed by Pulci. and he was afterwards patronized by Pope Benedict XI and Robert King of Naples.] Ibid. whom he calls “Heunando. which seem in great buildings to labour under the weight they bear.) had eclipsed the literary fame of Guido Guinicelli. office awes mankind.] Some imagine. in the territory of Sienna His arrogance provoked his countrymen to such a pitch of fury against him. 1. v 58. and “Polycrato. v. and died in 1300. 58. Cimabue. by whom is meant John of Salisbury. Gregory.” And Lord Shaftesbury has a similar illustration in his Essay on Wit and Humour. v. v. s. the restorer of painting. v. 1. in his ‘Credo. Gregory’s prayers are said to have delivered Trajan from hell. See Paradise. v. 59. 79. with much probability.Purgatory —from the rock’s low base Thus flinty paths advanc’d. Morg. c. that he was murdered by them at Campagnatico. &c.’ has again versified the Lord’s prayer.] Guido Cavalcanti. the son of Guglielino Aldobrandeseo.] Franco of Bologna.] Chillingworth.] Seo 2 Sam. 232 . as he was on a journey. 97. 4. in 1240. v. that Dante here augurs the greatness of his own poetical reputation.] In Giotto we have a proof at how early a period the fine arts were encouraged in Italy. 93. Canto XX. He perhaps is born. c. 68.] Omberto. Dante. Guinicelli died in 1276. Jan. where it is told of the Emperor Hadrian. hitherto in MS. Oderigi. G. Trajan the Emperor. and heard her cause. Preceding. 69.’ but she crying out to him. whose likeness he has transmitted to posterity. 83. whom we shall meet with in the twenty-sixth Canto and of whom frequent mention is made by our Poet in his Treatise de Vulg. But Petrarch was CANTO XI v. The original appears to be in Dio Cassius. and enjoyed the society and friendship of Dante.vi. 3. who is said to have been a pupil of Oderigi’s. v. of a noble family in Bologna. at first he answered her. 40. Eloq. lib. v. vi.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Sic tenuit vivens: nunc tenet astra poli. His talents were discovered by Cimabue. ch. Count of Santafiore. Many of Cavalcanti’s writings. Landino refers to two writers. (see Hell. That from unbidden. while he was tending sheep for his father in the neighbourhood of Florence. at the age of 60. Magg. p. Others have fancied that he prophesies the glory of Petrarch. ‘I have no leisure. I xix. 52. of a noble family. v. was born at Florence. 119.” v.] St. He died in 1336. a monk and chronicler.” of England. a friend of Giotto and Dante v. v.” of France.] Giovanni Cimabue. author of the Polycraticus de Curialium Nugis. 54. 1813. The cry is Giotto’s. in the twelfth century. Bolognian Franco. ‘then reign no longer’ he turned about. Canto X. 95. In neither place is actual motion intended to be expressed. The passage in the text is an illusion to his epitaph: Credidit ut Cimabos picturae castra tenere. 14. are now publishing at Florence” Esprit des Journaux. One Guido from the other. 0 thou Mighty Father. in the reign of Philip Augustus. 96. or miniature painter. I was of Latinum. speaks of “those crouching anticks. by whom he means Elinand.

103. 29. s. was so overjoyed at a defeat which her countrymen sustained near that place that she declared nothing more was wanting to make her die contented. Love ye those have wrong’d you. As a curb and restraint on this vice. 3. who was detained in captivity by Charles I of Sicily. suitor. 26. The chapel stands. vi.” By model. 2. b. which is near at hand. 46.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 33. 509. charity. those of threatening and punishment. as personally to supplicate the people of Sienna to contribute the sum required by the king for his ransom: and this act of self-abasement atoned for his general ambition and pride. v. Citizens Of one true city. who.] A lady of Sienna. v. CANTO XII v. 3. living in exile at Colle. 14.] John. but we seek to come. Beaumont and Fletcher. The registry. What master of the pencil or the style. 325. The Thymbraen god. Mars. 87. 136. iii. by whom the bridge was founded in 1237. c. The scourge. The well-guided city] This is said ironically of Florence. 37. 42. P. quem perhibes. v. 445.] The church of San Miniato in Florence situated on a height that over looks the Arno. 26. Milton. 233 . where it is crossed by the bridge Rubaconte. C. Sennacherib. of Milan chief magistrate of Florence.] 2 Kings. 99. 58. Od. 323.” v.] In allusion to certain in stances of fraud committed with respect to the public accounts and measures See Paradise Canto XVI. 18. L.Purgatory not yet born.] Provenzano salvani humbled himself so far for the sake of one of his friends. so called from Messer Rubaconte da Mandelia.] With such a grace. v. ii. They have no wine.’ lest they should be refused thee. v. v. Thy neighbours soon. v. 140. v. Sapia.] Apollo Si modo. These words of the Virgin are referred to as an instance of charity. A1cmaeon. v.” Heb. 48. Orestes] Alluding to his friendship with Pylades. Villani. v. v. and Homer. 101. The Prophetess. 27. 37.] —nimitable on earth CANTO XIII v. l. 96. a. xix. pater est Thymbraeus Apollo. v. 44.] Virg. c. xii.] “For here we have no continuing city. what it is to solicit favours of others and ‘tremble through every vein. c.] 1 Kings. v. xiii. v. Georg. The giants that attempted to scale heaven When they lay dead on the Phlegren plain Mars did appear to Jove. Aen.] “Thou wilt know in the time of thy banishment.] Matt. 32. O Rehoboam. iv. or by shading pencil drawn. Virg. v. 1. c. xi. vi. 94. See G. you will presently hear very different sounds.] “The chastisement of envy consists in hearing examples of the opposite virtue.

v. She to whom Dryden has given the name of Honoria. was named the Demon. The atrocities predicted came to pass in 1302. Canto XXIX. v. v. who is here speaking. N. v. viii c. L.] These two lines express the true spirit of chivalry.] The story of the merlin is that having been induced by a gleam of fine weather in the winter to escape from his master.] Two noble families of Ravenna. Aen. 232 v.] Fulcieri de’ Calboli. v. Yon Bernardin.] Ugolino of the Ubaldini family in Tuscany He is recounted among the poets by Crescimbeni and Tiraboschi. Traversaro.] The Pisans v. &c. Venturi says he leaves it to the antiquaries of Sienna to conjecture. iii. 1.] Virg.] Lizio da Valbona. 114.” Why they gave the appellation of Diana to the imagined stream. 55. a holy hermit of Florence. 117. v. ‘Midst brute swine. was of the former: her lover and the specter were of the Anastagi family.] A place between Faenza and Ravenna. a seaport on the confines of the Maremma. who governed at Faenza. has led them to conceive hopes of becom ing a naval power: but this scheme will prove as chimerical as their former plan for the discovery of a subterraneous stream under their city. See G. Maim’d of Pelorus. Pagani. The ladies. Prata.] Federigo Tignoso of Rimini. 118.] A castle between Imola and Ravenna v. lord of Ravenna.] The Pagani were lords of Faenza and Imola. Traversaro’s house and Anastagio’s. Villani. ‘Twixt Po. the Reno.] The boundaries of Romagna. 109. 34. 111. Pier Traversaro. “Agi” is understood by the commentators whom I have consulted. v. the mount. CANTO XIV v. “Their acquisition of Telamone. i. 4. 119. v. Foxes. That vain multitude. Thy grandson. v. Baynacavallo. 49. Lizio. One of them Machinardo. 107. or as some say. 61. and Guido di Carpigna of Montefeltro. 107. Tignoso. 95.” But surely it signifies the alter nation of ease with labour. b. 141. and the shore. 108.Purgatory v. from his treachery. introduced into Boccaccio’s Decameron. 45. in the fable so admira bly paraphrased from Boccaccio. 99. 121.] One who had been a mechanic named Lambertaccio. v.] Piero Pettinagno. Of Azzo him. G.] The Siennese. who is here spoken to. 103. Manardi. arrived at almost supreme power in Bologna. The merlin. v. 118. 100. 1. v. 102. and Carpigna. v.] The Florentines. grandson of Rinieri de’ Calboli. See Hell. 59 v. v. Castracaro ill And Conio worse. 114.] The Arno leaves Arezzo about four miles to the left. he was soon oppressed by the rigour of the season. 53.] Both in Romagna. Wolves. v. v. In Bologna the low artisan. of Brettinoro. —a hill Torn from Pelorus Milton P. a man of low origin but great talents.1 Arrigo Manardi of Faenza. O Brettinoro. 414. See Hell. 234 . v. Curs.] A beautifully situated castle in Romagna. the hospitable residence of Guido del Duca.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] The people of Casentino. The hermit Piero. v.to mean “the ease procured for others by the exertions of knight-errantry.] Bernardin di Fosco.

iii. Villani. Of this be sure. c. “Lombardo” both was his surname and denoted the country to which he belonged. 105. 124. How shall we those requite. 101. and Note. vol. Hugolin. 16. 38. and Apol. 20. and Marco call’d. 70. Mr. v.] It wanted three hours of sunset. 88. when she urged him to inflict the punishment of death on a young man. v. &c CANTO XV v. iv.] The protomartyr Stephen. vii. 35. 94.] Lucretius. c. Gen. fate. Aglauros. 235 . p.] This reminds one of the Emperor Hadrian’s verses to his departing soul: Animula vagula blandula.] The answer of Pisistratus the tyrant to his wife. A dame. 14. xi. a noble and virtuous person in Faenza. v. v.] Ovid. Matthias’s edit. had snatched v. Whosoever finds Will slay me. c. Where freedom is not. v. Like a babe that wantons sportively. 120.] “Though ye are subject to a higher power than that of the heavenly constellations. there no virtue is. 145. 46. 1. 87. on account of his age probably. 1. The fortress. Ascending at a glance.] Guido del Duea. If this were so. v.] Ugolino Ubaldini. v. Canto XIII. He is enumerated among the poets by Crescimbeni. As thou.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Compare Origen in Genesim. yet ye are still left in the possession of liberty. v. vol. as the commentators explain it. Met. G. 755. Matt. Differs from the stone. inflamed with love for his daughter. v.] A Venetian gentleman.] Mr. who. e.] Justice. Romagna’s spirit.] Luke. 8vo. 136. 1.v. 14.] “If thou wert still living. 1. from her a kiss in public. 22. v. iv. 18 v. CANTO XVI v. ii. of Brettinoro whom we have seen in the preceding Canto. There was the galling bit. 1. v.” v. Blessed the merciful. v. 143.] Referring to what had been before said. who. Rhod. Elsewhere. 19. ii. Aen.” v. As much. 12.] The words of Cain.] Compare Virg. e`en to the power of the great Creator himself. 215. I was of Lombardy. terms him “a wise and worthy courtier.” v. The story is told by Valerius Maximus. and Tiraboschi. the most necessary virtue in the chief magistrate.] He refers to what Guido del Duca had said in the thirteenth Canto. 99. &c. 79. 47. 1. v. v.viii. 142. concerning the degeneracy of his countrymen. Crowe in his Lewesdon Hill has expressed similar sentiments with much energy. 1783. Patrum Graecorum. 7. A stripling youth. was not likely to leave any offspring behind him. 1. I.] The motion of light being quicker than that of a stone through an equal space. 58.Purgatory Canto XXVII. To mightier force. i. Wirer burgi. As when the ray. 43.

144. but through mistake slew 236 .] “It is impossible for any being. et dono divun gratissima serpit. Conrad. 117. Tempus erat quo prima quies mortalibus aegris Incipit. on account of the union of the temporal with the spiritual power in his person. says Tiraboschi. 1. mourning for her mother Amata. 81. All the Italians were called Lombards by the French. in the Alcippo. The love. is here removed. 1. b. 103. destroyed herself. 110. 102.” v. s. Gaia. Ibid. 4. 26. v. impelled by grief and indignation for the supposed death of Turnus.The Divine Comedy of Dante . as it is found in Homer’s Odyssey. 595. v. because he cheweth the cud. and others as a cheerful one. 137. 35. 43. Chiabrera appears to have come nearest the truth. v. Unwearied still reiterates her lays. t. delightful to the ear. Dante probably alludes to the story of Philomela. v. i. c. Non mal si stanca d’ iterar le note O gioconde o dogliose. v. 119. 1. vii.] A lady equally admired for her modesty.] Currado da Palazzo. a. when he says. 137. 1. or lukewarmness in piety. v. v. 34. G. A damsel.] Temporal good.] He compares the Pope. 95. The broken slumber quivering ere it dies.Purgatory v. that while some have considered its song as a melancholy. v. 9. l.] Gherardo di Camino of Trevigi.] Matt. 173 Venez. incited to it. 1793. Guido of Castello. v.] The Emperor and the Bishop of Rome. to an unclean beast in the levitical law. but divideth not the hoof. Th’ inferior. 68.] Before the Emperor Frederick II was defeated before Parma. 518 rather than as later poets have told it. We can therefore only her own son Itylus. “She intended to slay the son of her husband’s brother Amphion.] Haman. Aen. v.” Opere di Dante. Al sentir dilettose. c. One crucified. 21. who had six children. The good Gherardo.] Lavinia. c. xix. v. in 1248. The primal blessings.” Cowper’s note on the passage. In speaking of the nightingale. who. ii. that most Delights itself in song. CANTO XVII v. may perhaps lay claim to the praise of having been the first among the Italian ladies. Aen. Villani. v. he is unclean unto you. 8vo. 127. Jocund or sad. a gentleman of Brescia. xi.] Spiritual good. 126.] Of Reggio. by which it exists. and the excellency of her talents. See Mr.] Venturi suggests that this bold and unusual metaphor may have been formed on that in Virgil. either to hate itself. The peace-makers. “The camel. The bird.” Levit.] Lombardy. Who. 127. p. And Tiraboschi supposes him to have been the same Gherardo with whom the Provencal poets were used to meet with hospitable reception. i. See the book of Esther. 268. by whom the vernacular poetry was cultivated. v. Two sons. while herself had only two. and for her punishment was transformed by Jupiter into a nightingale. That land. xii. p. vi. Matthias’s edition. He is honourably mentioned in our Poet’s “Convito.] I cannot think with Vellutello. t. that the swallow is here meant. v. 94. p. His daughter Gaia. let me observe. v. Now. by the envy of his wife. c. Ere the day. or to hate the First Cause of all.] “A defect in our love towards God. the beauty of her person.

Caesar left Brutus to complete the siege of Marseilles. c i. might also make her seem broken at her rise.] Luke. v.] I have preferred the reading of Landino. edit. now Pietola. v. 118. v. 111. which the Italians call accidia.] According to the allegorical commentators. A crag. 99. v.] The proud.] The moon passed with a motion opposite to that of the heavens. and indifference.] The great moral philosophers among the heathens. and Sense under that of Dante. &c. at Ilerda (Lerida) in Spain. CANTO XVIII v. v. i. There is he. i. The teacher ended. through the constellation of the scorpion. Rhod. v. v.” conceiving it to be more poetical than secchion. CANTO XIX v. 23.” which is the common reading. Caesar. made more famous than Mantua near which it is situated. by whom Milan was besieged and reduced to ashes. Andes. The former leaves to the latter to discover for itself the three carnal sins. 98. The hour. L. gluttony and libidinousness. Mary. 1. 135. 135. who. P. There is.] Rivers near Thebes v.] See Lucan. And they. and displays the intention within you. and Milton. v. p. and Caesar de Bello Civiii. “Your apprehensive faculty derives intention from a thing really existing. v. Protagoras.] The envious.] Andes. from the Greek word. or lukewarmness in piety.] The human soul. 133. lord of Verona.] Virg Aen. pride. I. iii. The angel ended. v. 78. Reason is represented under the person of Virgil. Apoll. abbot of San Zeno in Verona. 237 . avarice. 84. Up the vault. having already declared the nature of the spiritual sins. when Frederick I was emperor. 40 v. inasmuch as. in which the sun is. died before reaching the promised land. be re solved into the words of the translation in the text. the vapours. There is he.Purgatory rejoice in the evil which befalls others.] The Israelites. which differs from that of brutes.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Three men.] Near the dawn. it has a separate existence of its own. 114. v. though united with the body. on account of their disobedience. 1. Your apprehension. v. and hastened on to the attack of Afranius and Petreius.] Alberto. 123. There is. Spirit. v. 1. 47. “crag. 92. abbot. 1.] The resentful.] Compare Plato. The same cause. v. v. v. 513.] It is literally. envy. First they died. I think. when to those who are in Rome he appears to set between the isles of Corsica and Sardinia. I.” The commentators labour in explaining this.] Alberto della Scala. 117. so that it makes the soul turn to it. Bip. who had made his natural son abbot of San Zeno. the generals of Pompey. 65.” v. Along Three circles. iii. Ismenus and Asopus. which the commentators say might give the appear ance of increased magnitude to the moon. 78. viii. and iv. and what ever sense they have elicited may. anger. 39. scheggion. 1. 121. as Venturi has observed. by having been the birthplace of Virgil. “bucket. b. Phars.

Purgatory v. 98. A dame.] The river Lavagna. named from so many stars which constitute the end of Aquarius and the begin ning of Pisces. Un Curio ed un Fabricio. v. A woman’s shape. Fabricius. 135. 4. v. in the battle of Courtrai. that an angel having revealed to him that the father of a family was so impoverished as to resolve on expos ing the chastity of his three daughters to sale.” v.] These cities had lately been seized by Philip IV. 97. he threw in at the window of their house three bags of money. Who mourn. v. had failed. on account of the melancholy temper of his mind. and therefore no longer retain my former dignity. 14. My soul. love’s proper hue. Had Ghent and Douay. containing a sufficient portion for each of them. the second race of French monarchs. xxii. 3. A kinswoman. 52. This allegory reminds us of the “Choice of Hercules. in the Genoese territory. Palingenii Zodiacus Vitae.] Compare Petrarch. 619 —facies pulcherrima tune est Quum porphyriaco variatur candida rubro Quid color hic roseus sibi vult? designat amorem: Quippe amor est igni similis. See Canto VIII. 1. v. says Landino. 98.” v. Milton. The geomancer. c. 72. 4. 1. One of these they called “the greater fortune. when they divined. 7. L. CANTO XX v. The spirit is made to imitate the ap proaching defeat of the French army by the Flemings. to have always clothed himself in black. b. viii. della Fama.] This reflection on the birth of his ancestor induced Francis I to forbid the reading of Dante in his dominions Hugh Capet. in 1276. The successor of Peter Ottobuono.] Alagia is said to have been the wife of the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. v. Canto I. 30. ancestor of Philip IV.] Hugh Capet. c.] “I did not persevere in my inquiries from the spirit though still anxious to learn more. Lille and Bruges power. 30. 49. v. v. flammasque rubentes Ignus habere solet. xii. 140. one of the poet’s protectors during his exile. The slaughter’s trade. v. v. v. who was the brother of Eudes. 25.The Divine Comedy of Dante . with the title of Adrian V.] The posterity of Charlemagne. 11. Of his appearing. who came to the throne of France in 987. 42. See Hell.] He is thought to allude to Can Grande della Scala.] Psalm cxix. with the exception of Charles of Lorraine who is said. nor shall be giv’n in marriage. That stream.] Worldly happiness. drew a figure consist ing of sixteen marks.” v. Wolf. I drew the sponge. P.] Philosophy. “Since in this state we neither marry nor are given in marriage. King of France in 888. c.] Avarice. 5 v.] The geomancers.] The story of Nicholas is. v. which happened in 1302. Love’s own hue. Root. was however the grandson of Robert. 26. Tr.] Matt.] A smile that glow’d Celestial rosy red. of the family of Fieschi Counts of Lavagna. died thirty-nine days after he became Pope. 133.] Matt. 16. All save one. v. Nicholas. Venturi suggest that Dante may have 238 . 46. I am no longer the spouse of the church. &c. v. v. 51.

contrary to the directions of his father. Navarre and Gascony. 64. was sent by Pope Boniface VIII to settle the disturbed state of Florence. c. v. ibid. Landino has “Potti. v. Canto VI. viii. See G. 71. Poitou it seiz’d. the admiral of Peter of Arragon. Villani. 85. 66. 19. Aen. G. says Henault. married two of the four daughters of Raymond Berenger Count of Provence. Pygmalion.Purgatory confounded him with Childeric III the last of the Merosvingian.. King of Naples.” v. took the title of King of Navarre: and the subjugation of Navarre is also alluded to in the Paradise. by order of Philip IV. He was reported to have been poisoned by a physician. For amends. viii. 63. 25.] Charles of Anjou put Conradine to death in 1268. If I remember right.. v. or first. Thracia’s king. Villani. 57. &c.] Charles. but Philip IV.] Louis IX. 114. Th’ angelic teacher. The flower-de-luce. c.] Boniface VIII was seized at Alagna in Campagna. In 1293. 135. In conse quence of the measures he adopted for that pur pose. who wished to ingratiate himself with Charles of Anjou. Hell. Young Conradine. c.] Joshua. and became King of Naples. 78. Parthica. ix. 140. 348. v. 1284. 111. 239 . with a terrible rider upon him. and Note. race.] Hugh Capet caused his son Robert to be crowned at Orleans.] Charles of Valois. Normandy and Gascogny. I. who was deposed and made a monk in 751. The other. 1. in the year 1303. iii. v. Abrege Chron.] This is ironical v. v. Philip IV summoned Edward I.] Marcus Crassus. A.] Thomas Aquinas. -with that lance Which the arch-traitor tilted with. and soon after died of grief. Achan. l. to do him homage for the duchy of Gascogny. v. v.] Polymnestor. “For there appeared unto them a horse.] Virg. which he had conceived the design of seizing. brother of Philip IV. 94. v. 1. Canto XXX. See Hell. Into the temple. married his daughter to Azzo VI11.] I venture to read Potti e Navarra prese e Guascogna.] con la lancia Con la qual giostro Guida. in consideration of a large sum of money. He afterwards. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. Canto XXVIII. and he ran fiercely and smote at Heliodorus with his forefeet. a circumstance of which it is diffi cult to imagine that Dante should have been igno rant. Normandy had been united to it long before by Philip Augustus. 112. June. our poet and his friend.] 2 Maccabees. having. 59. The Great dower of Provence. c. the murderer of Polydorus. 63. See Par. Another Charles. Canto XIX. c. 107. Marquis of Ferrara. l283. were condemned to exile and death. and his brother Charles of Anjou. We shall find him in the Paradise. i. vii. Canto X. the eldest son of Charles of Anjou. was made prisoner and carried into Sicily. See Appian. engaged with Ruggier de Lauria. 16.D. v. v. Heliodorus. See Henault. who fell miser ably in the Parthian war. My son. Crassus. 69. v. 4. in one of the old romances.] It is uncertain whether our Poet alludes still to the event mentioned in the preceding Note.” and he is probably right for Poitou was annexed to the French crown by Philip IV. Villani. Judas is represented tilting with our Saviour. instead of Ponti e Normandia prese e Guascogna Seiz’d Ponthieu. G. 218. 103. or to the destruction of the order of the Templars in 1310. but the latter appears more probable. 67. and adorned with a very fair cover ing.

1.” v. She. 57 Venturi supposes that Dante might have mistaken the meaning of the word sacra. and construed it “holy.] Figlia di Taumante Compare Plato. Thus Chaucer. 1.] Lachesis. Thaumantian. Mary took more thought. The twin sorrow of Jocasta’s womb. v. 49. —that. at the marriage in Cana of Galilee. The Tholason.] Juvenal had celebrated his contemporary Statius.] Homer v. but the honour of the nuptial banquet.] Quid non mortalia pecaora cogis Anri sacra fames? Virg. 41.” v. 1. The shocking story is well told v. ‘they have no wine.The Divine Comedy of Dante . edit. v. or Thoulouse. p. v.] In this habit Met I my father with his bleeding rings Their 240 . ix. yet. ii.] Statius lived to write only a small part of the Achilleid. 954 Ed Genev. 76. 5. 26. 28. who answers for yon now in heaven. 82. 100. 142 The women of old Rome. the daughter of Tiresias. c. 5 v. The eyes. v. 94. 57. v. 14. iii. 25. i. v. With shorn locks. 71. Temple of Fame. 15. 1. 85.] Psalm ii.] “The blessed virgin. though some critics imagine that there is a secret derision couched under his praise. v.] Dante. See Diodorus Siculus. one of the three fates. Lombardi excuses our author better. 26. Sat. confounds Statius the poet. That Greek. that although she was placed there as a sinner. c. v. ii.] Ibid.” But I see no necessity for having recourse to so improbable a conjecture. fol. xxi. My lips. v. 27. Bip..Purgatory CANTO XXI v. Vellutello endeavours. Faery Queen. iii. c. Ecl. Metam. 26. st. with a rhetorician of the same name. 89. 20. Blessed. Theaet.] See Valerius Maximus. b. 43. Virg. b. v. The fierce encounter. among the sorcerers. v. vii.] Dante appears to have forgotten that he had placed Manto. that height Stace.] Venturi. Tiresias’ daughter. rather awkwardly. who was of Tolosa. Eteocles and Polynices CANTO XXII v. 107. p. by observing. A renovated world. as many others have done. 3. 9. 112. The name.” instead of “cursed.] Josephus.] Virg. when she said to Jesus. which heaven in itself Doth of itself receive. Canto VII. 1611. I think rightly interprets this to be light. v. viii. Rings. Of thy train. iv.] Matt. who was a Nea politan. she had also a place among the worthies in Limbo.] v. v. and Spenser. 66. See Hell Canto XX.] The name of Poet. v. by observing that Tiresias had a daughter named Daphne. Aen. Fell. Why. 46. 801 v. CANTO XXIII v. Aen.’ regarded not the gratification of her own taste. From Tolosa. as one of famous memory.] See Hell. Aquinum’s bard. ] Of those celebrated in thy Poem. vii. 6. 5. 1. De Bello Jud. 139.] Compare Ovid. 58. v. to recon cile the inconsistency. When Mary. iv.

“There is a canzone by this poet. ii.] Landino’s note exhibits a curious instance of the changeableness of his countrywomen. Concerning. by Vellutello. the Florentine ladies exposed the neck and bosom. Shakespeare. 39. Forese. v. 20. 91. p. on account of the uncivilized state of its inhabitants. Whose brow no wimple shades yet. of Lucca. But. 97. 76. 8vo. Lower. a dress.The Divine Comedy of Dante . the son of the above. (t. 23. page 196. 44.] Of this lady it is thought that our Poet became enamoured during his exile. ye that con the lore of love.] The wife of Forese. and the eyes the two O’s placed within each side of it. 5.] The Marchese de’ Rigogliosi. so have I hopes they will change again. more suitable to a harlot than a matron.). no doubt. to all nations (except the Jew’s) who did not profess Christianity. Blame it as they may. v.] In the Ante-Purgatory. p. My Nella. Ubaldino. a Frenchman. Who reads the name. v. vol. 32. 209. how happens it thou art arrived here so early?” v. If the power. to which that name was given.” Tiraboschi. 87. in the Florentine territory. who pretends to distinguish the letters which form OMO in the fea tures of the human face.] Archbishop of Ravenna.] See Hell. The Marquis. 72. with the title of Martin IV in 1281 and died in 1285.” The temples. He was of Tours. 30.Purgatory precious stones new lost. was indiscriminately applied to Pagans and Mahometans. printed in the collection made by the Giunti. V. v. 241 . covering the whole of the neck and throat.] “He. (p.] The Barbagia is part of Sardinia.” says the commentator. v. v. The tract most barb’rous of Sardinia’s isle. who are said to have gone nearly na ked. that are preserved in MS. v. 159. a note.” Mr. (p 169. Canto XXI. Matthias’s ed. The’ unblushing domes of Florence. as Quadrio supposes. v.] “Who has not yet assumed the dress of a woman. Saracens. Lear. Crescimbeni may be consulted. she who is again spoken of in the next Canto.The first verse of a canzone in our author’s Vita Nuova. mentioned Ubaldini and by Laudino Francioso. 29. “might easily have traced out the M on their emaciated countenances.] Simon of Tours became Pope. other poems by Buonaggiunta. i. of Pila. “In those days. a Genoese. CANTO XXIV v. in short. when thou hadst lost the power of sinning. v. and forehead are supposed to repre sent this letter. v. 3 v.] Ubaldino degli Ubaldini. not indeed so much from motives of decency. 38.) but towards the end of the thirteenth cen tury. 51.] One of the brothers of Piccarda. and intro duced in the Paradise. See Canto II.” v. as they changed soon after.] Buonaggiunta Urbiciani. insomuch that they wore collars up to the chin. 45. 28. By Venturi he is called Bonifazio de Fieschi. nose. Boniface.] “If thou didst delay thy repentance to the last. i. a. 1805. v. Lond. gentucca. of Forli.] “This word.” v. Buonaggiunta. “no less than in ours. 46. which per vades every action of their lives. 80. Ellis’s specimens of Early English Metrical Romances. in some libraries. 115. Canto III. He even goes beyond the acrimony of the original.) from which we collect that he lived not about 1230. as through that fickleness. v.]Donne ch’ avete intelletto d’amore. Ladies. Mr. s. during the middle ages.land a sonnet to Guido Guinicelli in that made by Corbinelli.

Ovid. 56. fab. after relating at length the circumstances of his fate. 6. Helena.] Luke. Triumph of Love.. c 12. 79. holds a distinguished place in Italian literature.] See Ovid. f. -More wise Than thou. 72. He was also the first who gave to the sonnet its regular and legitimate form. c. Ital. ix. v. v. I. 1495. p. 1.] Hell. Ibid. viii. v.” v. but it is in reality taken from a passage in Cicero “de Senectute. Crescimbeni (1. deinde maturata dulcescit. cap. for the opinion that there is only one universal intellect or mind pervading every individual of the human race. Lib. in the Trea tise de Vulg. ii.) have considered this an anticipation of a profound discovery of Galileo’s in natural philosophy. He. 123. Eloq. man of his age in Italy.Purgatory v. c. was the son of Viva di Michele. and in his time had formed many conspira cies in Florence and entered into many scandalous practices. Mark the sun’s heat. Poes p. 96. Guittone. Par. CANTO XXV v. p. “ quae. called the Colliget. vii. Canto V. ii. 58. v. for the sake of attaining state and lord ship. a poet of these times. 1. terms him one of “the illustrious Apulians.] The fetus is in this stage is zoophyte. iv. speaking of the grape. and Statius. i. 119. 63. iii. t.] Corso Donati was suspected of aiming at the sovereignty of Florence. The character of Corso is forcibly drawn by another of his contempo raries Dino Compagni. ii. 12. i. A. 46. 1400. The Notary. 36. have since so much delighted. Dante. Creatures of the clouds. Matthias’s edit. primo est peracerba gustatu. To escape the fury of his fellow citizens. 1. He was probably an Apulian: for Dante. to show that the whimsical compositions called “Ariette “ are not of modern invention. “that he was one of the wisest and most valorous knights the best speaker. They were published at Rome in 1743. 81. 4 v.” G. but failing. Ven. adds. 1. a species of composition in which not only his own countrymen. i.” of which an account may be seen in the Notes to Hell. p. See “Sennuccio mio” v. 1. 13. The contemporary annalist. He was of the order of the “ Frati Godenti. he founded a monastery of the order of Camaldoli. V. . fol. i. 126. has erred. 5. 123. a comely knight and of graceful carriage. he says. was overtaken and slain. Guittone. 1308. and Son. with learned illustra tions by Giovanni Bottari. v. Venturi refers to his commentary on Aristotle. 10. as besides his poems printed in the collection of the Giunti. a native of Arezzo. I do.] Jucopo da Lentino. 34.] Judges. Script. Villani. De Anim 1. 66. (De Vulg.] Fra Guittone. Tiraboschi. but many of the best poets in all the cultivated languages of modern Europe. called the Notary. Theb. 56. he has left a collection of letters. and died in the following year. of Arezzo. fab. forty in number. 129. ed. In the year 1293. Euripides.) quot ing a verse which belongs to a canzone of his pub lished by the Giunti. Rer.” where.] Averroes is said to be here meant. Much of the knowledge displayed by our Poet in the present Canto appears to have been derived from the medical work o+ Averroes.” praefulgentes Apuli. 4to. et succo terrae et calore solis augescens. he fled away on horseback. Muratori. Met..] The Centaurs. and Petrarch twice places him in the company of our Poet. iii. As sea-sponge. The birds. but very worldly. not know a man. 137. c. c. Callisto. 1. Eloq. c. See Tiraboschi. and 1. the most expert statesman. v.D.The Divine Comedy of Dante . printed in Allacci’s Collection. 523. Met. blames him for preferring the plebeian to the mor courtly style. c. Mr. Canto XXIII. The Hebrews. without mentioning the writer’s name. v. Matthias’s ed.] Redi and Tiraboschi (Mr. p. the most renowned and enterprising. Della Volg. 1698) gives an extract from one of his poems. which afford the earliest specimen of that kind of writing in the language. in Florence. ii. 5. i. vol.

one sign remaining to all.) characterizes Hypsipile. 1. that the reader will perhaps not be displeased it I give an abstract of it. Teutonic. and the third by the Latins (or Italians). 479). 87. and many of his poems are still remaining in MS. It is to be regretted that we have not an opportunity of judging for ourselves of his “love ditties and his tales of prose “ Versi d’amore e prose di romanzi. English. c. That he was born of poor but noble parents. Caesar. is the amount of Millot’s information concerning him (t. and appears to have been in favour with the mon archs of Castile. beginning from the Hungarian limits and stretching towards the east.] Arnault is here made to speak in his own tongue. 7.] See Note to Canto XI. to the western limits of England. Millot. iv. “has its own claims to distinction The excellency of the French language consists in its being best adapted. the first spoken by the Spaniards. and si. and of Petrarch. Eloq. and on the south by the people of Provence and the declivity of the Apennine. 23. Julius Caesar. v. p. Hypsipile had left her infant charge.) The whole of Europe. (our English ay. Guittone. has a second idiom which reaches still further than the end of Europe into Asia. The first occupy the western part of southern Europe. 1. 1 and 23.The Divine Comedy of Dante . (Della Volg. 111. to prose narration. x. p.] For the opprobrium east on Caesar’s effeminacy.) He died in 1189. Poes. where the Adriatic sea begins. when she went to show the Argive army the river of Langia: and. 70. Hist.] Giraud de Borneil.] See Cano XXIV. He was a troubadour. One idiom obtained over the whole of this space: but was afterwards subdivided into. places Arnault Daniel at the head of the Provencal poets. In all that remains of Europe. (quicquid redactum. and by the ocean. and the criticism on them must go for little better than nothing. lycurgus. Far as needs. the joy her own children felt at the sight of her was such as our Poet felt on beholding his predecessor Guinicelli. 1.] See Canto XI. “One of these extends from the mouths of the Danube. and seem to have made an impression on Dante. e. Hungarian. that is. and Arragon He is quoted by Dante. p. and is bounded by the limits of the French and Italians.] The united testimony of Dante. there is a third idiom subdivided into three dialects. He. on her escaping the effects of Lycurgus’s resentment. According to Nostradamus he died in 1278. Thy courtesy. and the mountains of Arragon. v.” Ibid. and the vernacular tongues of several other people. 110. and that he did not live to see so late a period. that they use the affirmative io. 56. t. 8. sive inventum 243 . The account there given of his writings is not much more satis factory.] Statius. Eloq. (De Vulg. The third occupy the eastern part from the said limits. or the lake of Maeotis.Purgatory CANTO XXVI v. 1.) the Provencal was one language with the Spanish. the Sclavonian. Litt. begin ning from the limits of the Genoese. as far. iv.. oc. of Sideuil. c. He first makes three great divisions of the European languages. The songster of Limoges. Theb. which may be severally distinguished by the use of the affirmatives. much admired and caressed in his day. 118. and v. 132. at the castle of Ribeyrae in Perigord. the Provencal. ii. v. on the west they are bounded by the English sea. and that he was at the English court. ed. 113. Guinicelli. 49. the next by the French. c. v. and to Sicily. where it was destroyed by a serpent. Navarre. a castle in Limoges.” he observes. on account of its facility and agreeableness. Leon. the son of Lycurgus. The incidents are beautifully described in Statius. 83. But I suspect that there is some error in this date. Saxon. Ac cording to Crescimbeni. as the promontory of Italy. According to Dante. see Suetonius. This is the Greek. 123. What he says on this subject is so curious. 1. ii. The second are in a manner northern with respect to these for they have the Germans to the east and north. v. as herWho show’d Langia’s wave. 1698. des Troub. v. in his Triumph of Love. for he again (Canto XXII. Our Poet frequently cities him in the work De Vulgari Eloquentia. 96. “Each of these three. on a bank. De Vulg. v. oil.

certain general rules of gram mar. v. v. Lord hast made me glad. &c. The privileges of the Latin. 4 v. Thou. and.] At Jerusalem it was dawn.] Di sette liste tutte in quel colori. 11. and the boughs trembling.] For an explanation of the allegorical meaning of this mysterious procession. while it was sunset in Purgatory v. 244 . and in so doing give it. in the church of S. in Spain midnight. F. 135. —a bow Conspicuous with three listed colours gay. who in the last Canto is called Matilda. 20 But it seems more probable that she should be intended for an allegorical personage. n. c. iv. Fiammetta. Come. The sun. 79. xxxiv. and the next. v. Listed colours. 865.” iv. A pleasant air. Villani. —”Hear the querulous birds plaining with sweet songs. c. “Odi i queruli uccelli. 8. The feather’d quiristers] Imitated by Boccaccio.] Psalm xcii.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Purgatory est ad vulgare prosaicum suum est).” v. v. e. v. A lady. 102. And x.] In bicipiti somniasse Parnasso. 14. da Pistoia and his friend. the vernacular poetry: among whom are Pierre d’Auvergne. O. On the Parnassian mountain. and p 247. with many other histories and works of instruction. a very weighty pretension to preference.] This is the wood where the scene of Boccaccio’s sublimest story is laid. xxv. and oth ers: and adds that it is evident the Poet has accom modated to his own fancy many sacred images in the Apocalypse. xi. in the number of whom are Cino.] Most of the commentators suppose. in the opinion of the intelligent. 50. as affording fit subjects for his pencil. 41. CANTO XXVII v. 76. who endowed the holy see with the estates called the Patrimony of St. CANTO XXIX v.] By Leah is understood the active life. Vellutello. and he instances the books compiled on the gests of the Trojans and Romans and the delightful adventures of King Arthur. Ten paces. In Vasari’s Life of Giotto. g. that by this lady. we learn that Dante recommended that book to his friend. 146. Pietro in Vincolo. and Dryden’s Theodore and Honoria Our Poet perhaps wandered in it daring his abode with Guido Novello da Polenta. that its writers seem to adhere to. Peter. v.] Matt. Blessed. or Italian are two: first that it may reckon for its own those writers who have adopted a more sweet and subtle style of poetry.” &c.] The west. and died in 1115. and others more ancient. See Dec. v. 8. 1. The divinity is the mirror in which the latter looks. v. The Span ish (or Provencal) may boast of its having produced such as first cultivated in this as in a more perfect and sweet language. Duppa’s Life of Michel Angelo. 1. Chiassi.] Matt.] Compare Ariosto. See Mr. c. CANTO XXVIII v. Those bright eyes.] The eyes of Beatrice. v. Sculpture viii. L. Michel Angelo has made these allegorical personages the subject of two statues on the monument of Julius II. P. moved by a gentle wind. is to be understood the Countess Matilda. 5. and in India noonday. 34. 1. See G. 80. Venturi refers those “who would see in the dark” to the commentaries of Landino. 57. st. To that part. 7. I am Leah. as it were keeping tenor to their notes. Persius Prol. b. Milton. as Rachel figures the contemplative. 10.

1. 19. The polar light. an imaginary creature. Faith may be produced by charity. 133. but I should rather take them to be four principal doctors of the church. 9. St. the forepart of which is an eagle. 1. Tellus’ prayer. A band quaternion. The land whereon no shadow falls. or charity by faith. But. 129. 140. John. Gryphon. in which I was.] “When the wind blows. Four others. ‘Three nymphs. v. Giusto de’ Conti. 138. into one of his Italian poems. at the time of the equinox.] Under the Gryphon. 12.] The four evangelists.] The seven candlesticks. 245 . were sufficient to allay my grief. Two old men. La Bella Mano. Blessed. MSS. 125. 1. “suppose these four to be the four evangelists. v. 101. under his character of the author of the Apocalypse. bodies being under the equator cast little or no shadow. v.] Virg. ii. 96. But in the poem attributed to Giacopo. The old flame. but the inducements to hope must arise either from one or other of these. 4. or. this old man is said to be Moses. and is descriptive of its plan. 3459 of the Harl. 116.] They sang the thirty-first Psalm. 884. c. c.” says Venturi. 8. 279. to the end of the eighth verse. and the hinder a lion. in other words. v. 89.” Yet both Landino and Vellutello expressly call them the authors of the epistles. Four.] The leafless woods on the Apennine. and the third Faith.] “Not all the beauties of the terrestrial Paradise.] The four moral or cardinal virtues. Peter. v. c. though scarcely worth the pains of removing. v. is shadowed forth the union of the divine and human nature in Jesus Christ. 90. iv.] Rev. man. The ice. xxi. The car is the church.] Matt. Nor. v. in the British Museum. Aen 1. vi. Come. the next Hope. accompanies the original of this work. 104. Was Moses. The living rafters. the son of our Poet. E’l vecchio. iv. v. And the old man. 85. which in some MSS. “whom nature made for the benefit of her favourite creature. CANTO XXX v. who was behind them all. where.] The three evangelical virtues: the first Charity. v. v. Conosco i segni dell’ antico fuoco. Of the great Coan.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. v. James. See No. ch’ era dietro a tutti loro Fu Moyse. Ezekiel. of whom Prudence directs the others.” v. from off Africa.] Chap. v.] Saint Luke.] Hippocrates. 20. One single old man. 97.” v. 8. 61.Purgatory v. John.” v.] Agnosco veteris vestigia flammae Virg. v.] “The commentators.] Ovid. v. 87. From full hands. v. when the wind is south. 98. I. Aen.] As some say. 115. 23. John and Jude. son. Met. characterized as the writer of the Arts of the Apostles and Saint Paul. v.] Song of Solomon. I.] Milton has transferred this conceit.

A dragon. 136. v. “The understanding is sometimes so intently engaged in contemplating the light of divine truth in the scriptures. Bird.].] Beatrice had been dead ten years. With his feathers lin’d. &c. A fox. instead of telling me to lift up my head. b. 69. which is imitated from Ezekiel.” v.] The words of Beatrice.] Quos oceano proprior gerit India lucos. 98. Those lights. Heads. 2. 17 v. i. The beard. v. Two fix’d a gaze.] The tapers of gold. v. iv. v.” v.] Daniel.] The south. by the three with two horns. when not addressed directly to himself. 63. v. 97. that it becomes dazzled. a severe reflection was implied on my want of that wisdom which should accompany the age of manhood. v.] The donations before mentioned. P. 1. And in the heaven are stars. c. Its tresses. moderation” v. From Iarbas’ land. 4. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] The allegorical interpretation of Vellutello whether it be considered as justly terrible from the text or not. Their ten years’ thirst. 24. Dante had thought sufficiently harsh.] This. the constellation next to that of the Fish. v. When large floods of radiance. The bird of Jove. Virg.] By the fox perhaps is represented the treachery of the heretics.] “The weapons of divine justice are blunted by the confession and sorrow of the offender. 1. v. 130. The Indians. are meant the seven capital sins. L. v. 106. 41.] See Canto I. 10. Tu asperges me.] See Ovid. v. that it deserves our notice. anger. Th’ unpitying eyes. 689. That true Rome. 3. 51. 9. 116. 39. than if it had sought after it with greater 246 . Such as at this day to Indians known. ix. 58.Purgatory CANTO XXXI v. 124. c. ii.] A prayer repeated by the priest at sprinkling the holy water. With plumes. v. v. Milton.] Our Saviour’s transfiguration. injurious both to man himself and CANTO XXXII v. and is made less capable of attaining such knowledge. The blossoming of that fair tree. Counter to the edge. 71. appears to be typical of the persecutions which the church sustained from the Roman Emperors. v. conveys so useful a lesson. it is supposed with sufficient probability. v. 110. 74. The emeralds.] When the sun enters into Aries. c. and avarice. 142. An allusion to the donations made by the Roman Emperors to the church. 39. 118. i. but speaking to the angel of hell. Met.] Probably Mahomet. Georg.] “I perceived. With lateral edge. 3.] The eyes of Beatrice.] Prov.] Heaven.] By the seven heads. 122. xvii. 101. v. pride. that when she desired me to raise my beard. v. 1102.

is said to possess a petrifying quality. a little stream.The Divine Comedy of Dante . as it has been since corrected. It is unnecessary to point out the imitation of the Apocalypse in the manner of this prophecy. brings home his staff.] The Elsa. where he foundCarmina Naiades non intellecta priorum. v. The Naiads. their staves serving them instead of horses or mules. edit. I. Lombardi refers to Pansanias. in our poet’s time. by M. he may substitute Events 247 .” v. v. du Cange p. it is observed. hope to appease the anger of the Deity by any outward acts of religious. such as was that. has been led into a mistake by a corruption in the text of Ovid’s Metam. O’er it. that vessel which the serpent brake. however that this name has been given to such sort of staves. where “the Nymphs” are spoken of as expounders of oracles for a vindication of the poet’s accuracy. appointed the leader of the Ghibelline forces. 75. 67. then called bourdons and burdones. or bourdon.] Dante. chiefly to him who is guilty of them. 36. because pilgrims usually travel and perform their pilgrimages on foot. v. hurtful. The word is thrice used by Chaucer in the Romaunt of the Rose.] The removal of the Pope’s residence from Rome to Avignon is pointed at. concupiscence. 50. lukewarmness. &c. Johnes’s Translation of Joinville’s Memoirs. or rather superstitious. instead of Carmina Laiades. 4to. v. v. 38. 1. why it has been applied to a pilgrim’s staff. it is not easy to guess. Dragg’d on. as Lombardi supposes. shall be the Oedipus will solve. and envy. 152.] “Let not him who hath occasioned the de-struction of the church.] “For the same cause that the pilgrim.” that is.Purgatory to his neighbor: by the four with one horn.] He prognosticates that the Emperor of Germany will not always continue to submit to the usurpations of the Pope. I believe.” Mr. who imagined himself secure from vengeance.] The harlot is thought to represent the state of the church under Boniface VIII and the giant to figure Philip IV of France. “In regard to the word bourdon. 146. Elsa’s numbing waters. if he ate a sop of bread in wine. 78. That one brings home his staff inwreath’d with palm. v. CANTO XXXIII v. performed by a murderer at Florence. or. of Can Grande della Scala. vii. upon the grave of the person murdered. The Heathen. Hope not to scare God’s vengeance with a sop. gluttony. and foretells the coming of Henry VII Duke of Luxembourg signified by the numerical figures DVX. That eagle. 155. 1. to show where he has been. returning from Palestine. which flows into the Arno about twenty miles below Florence. Should the reader blame me for not departing from the error of the original (if error it be). at least in their primary effects. Dissertation xv. Che si reca ‘I bordon di palma cinto. by writers in the middle ages. ceremony.] Psalm lxxix. bound with palm. &c. within the space of nine days.

but through that which joins Four circles with the threefold cross.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and to the worldly wax best gives Its temper and impression. In heav’n. For to that honour thou. shall now be matter of my song. Witness of things. and in happiest constellation set He comes. As thy own laurel claims of me belov’d. Blackness the other part. and in one part Sheds more resplendence. and crown myself with leaves. when to the left 248 . Here eve was by almost such passage made. and there breathe So. Pierces the universe. by whose might all things are mov’d. From a small spark Great flame hath risen: after me perchance Others with better voice may pray. Nathless all. Through diver passages. so near approaching its desire Our intellect is to such depth absorb’d. and gain From the Cirrhaean city answer kind. PARADISE CANTO I His glory. Thus far hath one of steep Parnassus’ brows Suffic’d me. That in my thoughts I of that sacred realm Could store. the world’s bright lamp Rises to mortals. as when Marsyas by thy hand was dragg’d That of that happy realm the shadow’d form Trac’d in my thoughts I may set forth to view. If but seldom. O power divine! If thou to me of shine impart so much. Morning there. henceforth there is need of both For my remaining enterprise do thou Enter into my bosom. was I. which to relate again Surpasseth power of him who comes from thence. Thou shalt behold me of thy favour’d tree Come to the foot. mighty Sire! To grace his triumph gathers thence a wreath Caesar or bard (more shame for human wills Deprav’d) joy to the Delphic god must spring From the Pierian foliage. elsewhere less. For that. when one breast Is with such thirst inspir’d. Benign Apollo! this last labour aid. in best Course. And make me such a vessel of thy worth. and my high theme Will fit me. And whiteness had o’erspread that hemisphere.Paradise Forth from his limbs unsheath’d. That memory cannot follow. That largeliest of his light partakes.

The newness of the sound. as never eagle fix’d his ken. Keener than e’er was felt.” Although divested of my first-rais’d doubt. So of her act. Words may not tell of that transhuman change: And therefore let the example serve. I rest 249 . when he tasted of the herb. For light’ning scap’d from its own proper place Ne’er ran. as he. Thou know’st. to know their cause. That made him peer among the ocean gods. as thou hast hither now return’d. Had with another sun bedeck’d the sky. And suddenly upon the day appear’d A day new-ris’n. and reflected upwards rise. that rain or flood ne’er made A lake so broad. Whence she who saw me. And that great light. For those whom grace hath better proof in store If I were only what thou didst create. that through the eyesight pass’d Into my fancy. E’en as a pilgrim bent on his return. To calm my troubled mind. clearly as myself. and on the sun Gazing. Thou art not on the earth as thou believ’st. had that been shaken off. I fix’d mine eyes Upon the sun. Whenas the wheel which thou dost ever guide. Desired Spirit! with its harmony Temper’d of thee and measur’d. thanks to the place Made for the dwelling of the human kind I suffer’d it not long. Open’d her lips. and yet so long That I beheld it bick’ring sparks around. such inwardly became As Glaucus. though weak. That here exceeds our pow’r. before I ask’d. charm’d mine ear. and I with ken Fix’d upon her. Yet in new doubt was I entangled more. and gracious thus began: “With false imagination thou thyself Mak’st dull. Beyond our mortal wont. mine was form’d. Her eyes fast fix’d on the eternal wheels. who by thy light didst bear me up. Then seem’d to me so much of heav’n to blaze With the sun’s flame. As iron that comes boiling from the fire. so that thou seest not the thing. By those brief words. accompanied with smiles.Paradise I saw Beatrice turn’d. who hath the power. Love! by whom the heav’n is rul’d. inflam’d me with desire. Which thou hadst seen. Then newly. As from the first a second beam is wont To issue. and straight. And said: “Already satisfied. Beatrice stood unmov’d. from upward gaze remov’d At her aspect.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Much is allowed us there.

” So said. that never looses dart. Are aim’d at by this bow. who in small bark have following sail’d. (if I rightly deem. This to the lunar sphere directs the fire. All natures lean. diversely.Paradise From admiration deep. she turn’d toward the heav’n her face. on the advent’rous track Of my proud keel. free of hind’rance. By vicious fondness.” Whence. From its original impulse warp’d. who so well orders all. She tow’rds me bent her eyes. Thou no more admire Thy soaring. which makes The universe resemble God.The Divine Comedy of Dante . are pierc’d. to bend elsewhere. some more. That have intelligence and love. Some less approaching to their primal source. With her own light makes ever calm the heaven. and each one With instinct giv’n. with such a look. but now admire How I above those lighter bodies rise. That Providence. But at fair aim and glad. and binds. That as ofttimes but ill accords the form To the design of art. we are carried by the force Of that strong cord. Is turn’d: and thither now. which is the end Whither the line is drawn. This prompts the hearts of mortal animals. after utt’rance of a piteous sigh. thou hadst fix’d thyself Below. In which the substance. In this their order. There would in thee for wonder be more cause. If. so this course Is sometimes quitted by the creature. This the brute earth together knits. like fire unmoving on the earth. CANTO II All ye. As on her frenzied child a mother casts. Thus they to different havens are mov’d on Through the vast sea of being. that hath greatest speed. and your own shores 250 . As from a cloud the fire is seen to fall. directed thus. Eager to listen.) than lapse Of torrent downwards from a mountain’s height. as to our seat Predestin’d. Then thus began: “Among themselves all things Have order. Backward return with speed. to earth. Yet is it true. who Hath power. that singing cuts its way. through sluggishness Of unreplying matter. and from hence the form. hut even those. In this The higher creatures see the printed steps Of that eternal worth. that bears it in its course. void of intellect. Nor only creatures.

how much more Must the desire inflame us to behold That essence. yet never know satiety. Beatrice upward gaz’d. Turning to me. Bespake me: “Gratefully direct thy mind To God. wonder’d not as ye will do. I saw myself Arriv’d. Who hath remov’d me from the mortal world. and I on her. and rests unbroken. But in itself intelligibly plain. then spake: “If mortals err In their opinion. Timely for food of angels. and another Nine To my rapt sight the arctic beams reveal. Where losing me. Through the deep brine ye fearless may put out Your vessel. and polish’d bright. then loosen’d flies. I answered: “Lady! I with thoughts devout. how one dimension thus Another could endure. solid. who have outstretch’d the neck. Like adamant. But tell. where wond’rous thing engag’d my sight. glorious. The increate perpetual thirst. on which here They live. Apollo guides me. The way I pass Ne’er yet was run: Minerva breathes the gale. when the key of sense 251 . not shown by proof. firm. bore us Swift almost as the heaven ye behold. which discovers by what means God and our nature join’d! There will be seen That which we hold through faith. If I then Was of corporeal frame. perchance ye may remain Bewilder’d in deep maze. which needs must be If body enter body. with aspect glad as fair. through whom to this first star we come. Translucent. marking. whence the gloomy spots Upon this body. which the sun’s beam had smit Within itself the ever-during pearl Receiv’d us.Paradise Revisit. Whence she. to whom no work of mine was hid. who pass’d o’er To Colchos. that on both sides Equal returns. Ye other few. E’en as the truth that man at first believes. When they saw Jason following the plough. well the furrow broad Before you in the wave. Such as I best can frame. nor put out to open sea. I pray thee. and it transcend Our weaker thought. that draws Toward the realm of God’s own form. which below on earth Give rise to talk of Cain in fabling quaint?” She somewhat smil’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . give thanks to Him. as the wave a ray of light Receives. And in such space as on the notch a dart Is plac’d. Those.” Me seem’d as if a cloud had cover’d us.

or. which behind it lead conceals. shall meet thine eyes. The fountain whence your arts derive their streame. Must be pour’d back. Then turn’d toward them. Betwixt the former pair. Beside. as bodies share Their fat and leanness.Paradise Unlocks not. Will by thy reasoning be destroy’d. Three mirrors shalt thou take. The first. Though that beheld most distant do not stretch A space so ample. as through aught rare beside effus’d. One single virtue then would be in all. in like manner this Must in its volume change the leaves. save one. if thereof thou trial make. whence Its contrary no further lets it pass. that on the three shall shine. If it were true. since thou find’st. declare. either in some part That planet must throughout be void. which I Shall bring to face it. the wings Of reason to pursue the senses’ flight Are short. there needs must be a limit. that there of murkier hue Than in the other part the ray is shown. nor fed With its own matter. cause behind thy back A light to stand.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The eighth sphere displays Numberless lights. and two remove From thee alike. If rare or dense of that were cause alone.” Then I: “What various here above appears. From this perplexity will free thee soon Experience. Different virtues needs must be the fruits Of formal principles. Therefore remains to see The other cause: and if the other fall. If rarity were of that dusk the cause.” She then resum’d: “Thou certainly wilt see In falsehood thy belief o’erwhelm’d. by transparency Of light. or more. by bodies dense or rare. yet in brightness thou 252 . And thus reflected come to thee from all. and more remote the third. But what thy own thought is. or less. the which in kind and size May be remark’d of different aspects. If not from side to side this rarity Pass through. But this is not. Is caus’d. that from without proceeds. And hence the beam. Erroneous so must prove what seem’d to thee. through glass Reflected. had through the sun’s eclipse Been manifested. Now wilt thou say. Which thou inquirest. as colour comes. By being thence refracted farther back. and these. surely wonder’s weapon keen Ought not to pierce thee. if well Thou listen to the arguments. Alike distributed. I deem.

and of the false reproof. From its original nature full of joy. that generates Proportion’d to its power. On its own unity revolving still. As mallet by the workman’s hand. so thee. that moves its circling sphere. As thou beholdest now. safe. from step to step. By proof of right. Made beauteous by so many luminaries. As under snow the ground. that which from light to light Seems different. for their own seed and produce apt. Its image takes an impress as a seal: And as the soul.Paradise Will own it equaling the rest. the dusk or clear. remains dismantled of the hue And cold. Within the heaven. The virtue mingled through the body shines. The other orbs Their separate distinctions variously Dispose. “The virtue and motion of the sacred orbs. yet together form’d. Through different essences. that the tremulous beam Shall quiver where it falls. How through this passage to the truth I ford. which erst with love my bosom warm’d Had of fair truth unveil’d the sweet aspect. I will inform With light so lively. The following heaven. this being divides.The Divine Comedy of Dante . From the deep spirit. circles round A body. 253 . from it distinct. With which it knits. Where peace divine inhabits. that cover’d it before. must needs By blessed movers be inspir’d. The truth thou lov’st. and not from dense or rare. Different virtue compact different Makes with the precious body it enlivens. And thence transmitting downwards.” CANTO III That sun. Their influences from above deriving. that thou henceforth alone. Through members different. in whose virtue dies the being Of all that it contains. And yet contain’d within it. May’st know to keep the shallows. as life in you is knit. As joy through pupil of the living eye. that dwells within your dust. But now. Thus do these organs of the world proceed. In different pow’rs resolves itself. if the warm ray Smites it. This is the formal cause. untold. e’en so The intellectual efficacy unfolds Its goodness multiplied throughout the stars. Mark me well. From hence proceeds. Dismantled in thy mind. This heaven. That hath so many lights.

” Straight to the shadow which for converse seem’d Most earnest. but. Our hearts. Then turn’d them back. and nothing saw. Hither through failure of their vow exil’d. 254 . listen. no more than she above. Who would have all her court be like herself. I turn’d mine eyes. who smiling shot forth beams From her celestial eyes. rais’d my head Erect for speech. Bars not the door. With such addition grac’d of loveliness. as it still is wont. as I perceiv’d them.” Whence she. amorous flame. deeming these Reflected semblances to see of whom They were. when I see Thy childish judgment. which thou behold’st. to own myself convinc’d and free Of doubt. with kindness prompt. Sudden. which rais’d Between the man and fountain. and began. from the Holy Spirit conceiv’d. Will not conceal me long. Here ‘mid these other blessed also blest. “at this my smiling. directed on the light Of my sweet guide. and flowing not so deep As that its bed is dark. since not yet on truth It rests the foot.” She cry’d. in the tardiest sphere thus plac’d. And eyes glist’ning with smiles: “Our charity. this form. “Wonder not thou. not tasted. the shape returns So faint of our impictur’d lineaments. so intent to mark it. which fills them with desire. or wave Clear and unmov’d. That of confession I no longer thought. And if thy mind observe me well. from whence I straight conceiv’d Delusion opposite to that. Permits not from its beams their feet to stray. whose high affections burn alone With pleasure. That on white forehead set a pearl as strong Comes to the eye: such saw I many a face. and believe. But soon a sight appear’d. and this Your station here. To any wish by justice introduc’d. Which. That the true light. but thou wilt know Piccarda. As one by over-eagerness perplex’d: “O spirit. All stretch’d to speak. But speak thou with them. True substances are these. I was a virgin sister in the earth. I addressed me. As through translucent and smooth glass. me it well would please. If thou wouldst tell me of thy name. Makes thee fall back in unsound vacancy.Paradise And I. passes far All apprehension. as much as needed. of that sweetness know’st The flavour. held me fix’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . born for joy! who in the rays Of life eternal. which.

Then must our wishes jar with the high will Of him. So that as we from step to step Are plac’d throughout this kingdom. if one sort of food Hath satiated. Then answer’d with such gladness. long ye for a higher place More to behold. 255 . And in his will is our tranquillity. And if her nature well thou contemplate.” Then saw I clearly how each spot in heav’n Is Paradise. who accepts each vow. who in us plants his will. which in these orbs Thou wilt confess not possible. e’en so did I In word and motion. to that intent. who here Are happy.” Whence I to her replied: “Something divine Beams in your countenance.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and more in love to dwell?” She with those other spirits gently smil’d. Is for this cause assign’d us. which appears so low. though with like gracious dew The supreme virtue show’r not over all. Therefore to recollect was I so slow. E’en as our King. and of another still The appetite remains. It is the mighty ocean. whither tends Whatever it creates and nature makes. wond’rous fair. if here To be in charity must needs befall. Rather it is inherent in this state Of blessedness. If we should wish to be exalted more. who sets us here. But as it chances. From former knowledge quite transmuting you. through which she had not drawn The shuttle to its point. and nought beyond desire. to keep ourselves within The divine will. who makes us will alone What we possess. pleases all. that our vows Were in some part neglected and made void. by which our wills with his Are one.Paradise Admitted to his order dwell in joy. She thus began: “Exalted worth and perfectness of life The Lady higher up enshrine in heaven. Yet inform me. that she seem’d With love’s first flame to glow: “Brother! our will Is in composure settled by the power Of charity. that this is ask’d. bent from her to learn What web it was. That e’en till death they may keep watch or sleep With their great bridegroom. But what thou sayst hath to my memory Given now such aid. And this condition. ye. that to retrace your forms Is easier. By whose pure laws upon your nether earth The robe and veil they wear. And thanks for that return’d.

in her vesture mantling me. From her. CANTO IV Between two kinds of food. Silent was I. as heavy substance through deep wave. ere he one could freely choose. burning with all the light Of this our orb. As Daniel. This is the luminary Of mighty Constance. from the world. That power produc’d.” She ceas’d from further talk. E’en so would stand a lamb between the maw Of two fierce wolves. with like violence were torn The saintly folds. But she as light’ning beam’d upon my looks: So that the sight sustain’d it not at first. which thou beholdst At my right side. that far as it was capable. that shaded her fair brows. that spurr’d him on to deeds unjust And violent. And bent on Beatrice all its gaze. Mine eye. if I was silent.” she thus her words address’d. so look’d Beatrice then. Turn’d to the mark where greater want impell’d. Whence I to question her became less prompt. for ill than good more apt. This other splendid shape. Yet not for that the bosom’s inward veil Did she renounce. and. in dread of both alike: E’en so between two deer a dog would stand. Pursued her. 256 . and with that song Vanish’d. both equally Remote and tempting. and thus I spake My wish more earnestly than language could. to follow her. by equal doubts Held in suspense. fault nor praise I to myself impute. when the haughty king he freed From ire.Paradise Which to his gracious pleasure love conforms. yet desire Was painted in my looks. God knows how after that my life was fram’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . like me A sister. since of necessity It happen’d. who from that loud blast. Which blew the second over Suabia’s realm. E’en when she to the world again was brought In spite of her own will and better wont. first a man might die Of hunger. and then began “Ave Maria” singing. when in dimness she was lost. what of myself I tell May to herself apply. “Well I discern. Forth snatch’d me from the pleasant cloister’s pale. “How contrary desires each way constrain thee. when young Escap’d. Thereafter men. Wherefore. which was the third and last. Made promise of the way her sect enjoins.

nor so means: and holy church Doth represent with human countenance Gabriel. but all To intellectual. to the eye of man. When nature gave it to inform her mold: Since to appearance his intention is E’en what his words declare: or else to shun Derision. that ye may apprehend. as Plato deem’d. That other doubt. The judgment of Timaeus. Thou arguest. haply thus he hath disguis’d His true opinion. Moses and Samuel. Erewhile perverted well nigh all the world. “That. Perchance he doth not wholly miss the truth. Nor more or fewer years exist. Here were they shown thee. we speak: Since from things sensible alone ye learn That. Have not in any other heav’n their seats. is less harmful. nor even Mary’s self.Paradise So that thy anxious thought is in itself Bound up and stifled. That to the influencing of these orbs revert The honour and the blame in human acts. That spirits to the stars. and either John. our justice seems Make the first circle beauteous. What reason that another’s violence Should stint the measure of my fair desert? “Cause too thou findst for doubt. If his meaning be. and him who made Tobias whole. Return. nor breathes freely forth. diversely Partaking of sweet life. Believing it to have been taken thence. hands and feet to God Attributes. if the good intent remain. and therefore I the first Of that will treat which hath the more of gall. which digested rightly after turns 257 . Of seraphim he who is most ensky’d. who affirms Each soul restor’d to its particular star. in that it seems. And Mercury. for it brings No peril of removing thee from me. Unlike what here thou seest. condescending graciously To your perception. but for a sign to thee Of that celestial furthest from the height. For no other cause The scripture. not understood aright.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Than have those spirits which so late thou saw’st. This principle. Choose which thou wilt. not that fate assigns This for their sphere. as more or less Afflation of eternal bliss pervades them. and Mars. Which moves thee. So that it fell to fabled names of Jove. Thus needs. and Michael. These are the questions which thy will Urge equally.

The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise

Unjust, is argument for faith, and not For heretic declension. To the end This truth may stand more clearly in your view, I will content thee even to thy wish “If violence be, when that which suffers, nought Consents to that which forceth, not for this These spirits stood exculpate. For the will, That will not, still survives unquench’d, and doth As nature doth in fire, tho’ violence Wrest it a thousand times; for, if it yield Or more or less, so far it follows force. And thus did these, whom they had power to seek The hallow’d place again. In them, had will Been perfect, such as once upon the bars Held Laurence firm, or wrought in Scaevola To his own hand remorseless, to the path, Whence they were drawn, their steps had hasten’d back, When liberty return’d: but in too few Resolve so steadfast dwells. And by these words If duly weigh’d, that argument is void, Which oft might have perplex’d thee still. But now Another question thwarts thee, which to solve Might try thy patience without better aid. I have, no doubt, instill’d into thy mind, That blessed spirit may not lie; since near

The source of primal truth it dwells for aye: And thou might’st after of Piccarda learn That Constance held affection to the veil; So that she seems to contradict me here. Not seldom, brother, it hath chanc’d for men To do what they had gladly left undone, Yet to shun peril they have done amiss: E’en as Alcmaeon, at his father’s suit Slew his own mother, so made pitiless Not to lose pity. On this point bethink thee, That force and will are blended in such wise As not to make the’ offence excusable. Absolute will agrees not to the wrong, That inasmuch as there is fear of woe From non-compliance, it agrees. Of will Thus absolute Piccarda spake, and I Of th’ other; so that both have truly said.” Such was the flow of that pure rill, that well’d From forth the fountain of all truth; and such The rest, that to my wond’ring thoughts l found. “O thou of primal love the prime delight! Goddess! “I straight reply’d, “whose lively words Still shed new heat and vigour through my soul! Affection fails me to requite thy grace With equal sum of gratitude: be his

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To recompense, who sees and can reward thee. Well I discern, that by that truth alone Enlighten’d, beyond which no truth may roam, Our mind can satisfy her thirst to know: Therein she resteth, e’en as in his lair The wild beast, soon as she hath reach’d that bound, And she hath power to reach it; else desire Were given to no end. And thence doth doubt Spring, like a shoot, around the stock of truth; And it is nature which from height to height On to the summit prompts us. This invites, This doth assure me, lady, rev’rently To ask thee of other truth, that yet Is dark to me. I fain would know, if man By other works well done may so supply The failure of his vows, that in your scale They lack not weight.” I spake; and on me straight Beatrice look’d with eyes that shot forth sparks Of love celestial in such copious stream, That, virtue sinking in me overpower’d, I turn’d, and downward bent confus’d my sight.

Illume me, so that I o’ercome thy power Of vision, marvel not: but learn the cause In that perfection of the sight, which soon As apprehending, hasteneth on to reach The good it apprehends. I well discern, How in thine intellect already shines The light eternal, which to view alone Ne’er fails to kindle love; and if aught else Your love seduces, ‘t is but that it shows Some ill-mark’d vestige of that primal beam. “This would’st thou know, if failure of the vow By other service may be so supplied, As from self-question to assure the soul.” Thus she her words, not heedless of my wish, Began; and thus, as one who breaks not off Discourse, continued in her saintly strain. “Supreme of gifts, which God creating gave Of his free bounty, sign most evident Of goodness, and in his account most priz’d, Was liberty of will, the boon wherewith All intellectual creatures, and them sole He hath endow’d. Hence now thou mayst infer Of what high worth the vow, which so is fram’d That when man offers, God well-pleas’d accepts; For in the compact between God and him,

CANTO V
“If beyond earthly wont, the flame of love

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This treasure, such as I describe it to thee, He makes the victim, and of his own act. What compensation therefore may he find? If that, whereof thou hast oblation made, By using well thou think’st to consecrate, Thou would’st of theft do charitable deed. Thus I resolve thee of the greater point. “But forasmuch as holy church, herein Dispensing, seems to contradict the truth I have discover’d to thee, yet behooves Thou rest a little longer at the board, Ere the crude aliment, which thou hast taken, Digested fitly to nutrition turn. Open thy mind to what I now unfold, And give it inward keeping. Knowledge comes Of learning well retain’d, unfruitful else. “This sacrifice in essence of two things Consisteth; one is that, whereof ‘t is made, The covenant the other. For the last, It ne’er is cancell’d if not kept: and hence I spake erewhile so strictly of its force. For this it was enjoin’d the Israelites, Though leave were giv’n them, as thou know’st, to change The offering, still to offer. Th’ other part, The matter and the substance of the vow,

May well be such, to that without offence It may for other substance be exchang’d. But at his own discretion none may shift The burden on his shoulders, unreleas’d By either key, the yellow and the white. Nor deem of any change, as less than vain, If the last bond be not within the new Included, as the quatre in the six. No satisfaction therefore can be paid For what so precious in the balance weighs, That all in counterpoise must kick the beam. Take then no vow at random: ta’en, with faith Preserve it; yet not bent, as Jephthah once, Blindly to execute a rash resolve, Whom better it had suited to exclaim, ‘I have done ill,’ than to redeem his pledge By doing worse or, not unlike to him In folly, that great leader of the Greeks: Whence, on the alter, Iphigenia mourn’d Her virgin beauty, and hath since made mourn Both wise and simple, even all, who hear Of so fell sacrifice. Be ye more staid, O Christians, not, like feather, by each wind Removable: nor think to cleanse ourselves In every water. Either testament,

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The old and new, is yours: and for your guide The shepherd of the church let this suffice To save you. When by evil lust entic’d, Remember ye be men, not senseless beasts; Nor let the Jew, who dwelleth in your streets, Hold you in mock’ry. Be not, as the lamb, That, fickle wanton, leaves its mother’s milk, To dally with itself in idle play.” Such were the words that Beatrice spake: These ended, to that region, where the world Is liveliest, full of fond desire she turn’d. Though mainly prompt new question to propose, Her silence and chang’d look did keep me dumb. And as the arrow, ere the cord is still, Leapeth unto its mark; so on we sped Into the second realm. There I beheld The dame, so joyous enter, that the orb Grew brighter at her smiles; and, if the star Were mov’d to gladness, what then was my cheer, Whom nature hath made apt for every change! As in a quiet and clear lake the fish, If aught approach them from without, do draw Towards it, deeming it their food; so drew Full more than thousand splendours towards us, And in each one was heard: “Lo! one arriv’d

To multiply our loves!” and as each came The shadow, streaming forth effulgence new, Witness’d augmented joy. Here, reader! think, If thou didst miss the sequel of my tale, To know the rest how sorely thou wouldst crave; And thou shalt see what vehement desire Possess’d me, as soon as these had met my view, To know their state. “O born in happy hour! Thou to whom grace vouchsafes, or ere thy close Of fleshly warfare, to behold the thrones Of that eternal triumph, know to us The light communicated, which through heaven Expatiates without bound. Therefore, if aught Thou of our beams wouldst borrow for thine aid, Spare not; and of our radiance take thy fill.” Thus of those piteous spirits one bespake me; And Beatrice next: “Say on; and trust As unto gods!”—”How in the light supreme Thou harbour’st, and from thence the virtue bring’st, That, sparkling in thine eyes, denotes thy joy, I mark; but, who thou art, am still to seek; Or wherefore, worthy spirit! for thy lot This sphere assign’d, that oft from mortal ken Is veil’d by others’ beams.” I said, and turn’d Toward the lustre, that with greeting, kind

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Erewhile had hail’d me. Forthwith brighter far Than erst, it wax’d: and, as himself the sun Hides through excess of light, when his warm gaze Hath on the mantle of thick vapours prey’d; Within its proper ray the saintly shape Was, through increase of gladness, thus conceal’d; And, shrouded so in splendour answer’d me, E’en as the tenour of my song declares.

Christ’s nature merely human, with such faith Contented. But the blessed Agapete, Who was chief shepherd, he with warning voice To the true faith recall’d me. I believ’d His words: and what he taught, now plainly see, As thou in every contradiction seest The true and false oppos’d. Soon as my feet Were to the church reclaim’d, to my great task, By inspiration of God’s grace impell’d, I gave me wholly, and consign’d mine arms To Belisarius, with whom heaven’s right hand Was link’d in such conjointment, ‘t was a sign That I should rest. To thy first question thus I shape mine answer, which were ended here, But that its tendency doth prompt perforce To some addition; that thou well, mayst mark What reason on each side they have to plead, By whom that holiest banner is withstood, Both who pretend its power and who oppose. “Beginning from that hour, when Pallas died To give it rule, behold the valorous deeds Have made it worthy reverence. Not unknown To thee, how for three hundred years and more It dwelt in Alba, up to those fell lists Where for its sake were met the rival three;

CANTO VI
“After that Constantine the eagle turn’d Against the motions of the heav’n, that roll’d Consenting with its course, when he of yore, Lavinia’s spouse, was leader of the flight, A hundred years twice told and more, his seat At Europe’s extreme point, the bird of Jove Held, near the mountains, whence he issued first. There, under shadow of his sacred plumes Swaying the world, till through successive hands To mine he came devolv’d. Caesar I was, And am Justinian; destin’d by the will Of that prime love, whose influence I feel, From vain excess to clear th’ encumber’d laws. Or ere that work engag’d me, I did hold

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Nor aught unknown to thee, which it achiev’d Down to the Sabines’ wrong to Lucrece’ woe, With its sev’n kings conqu’ring the nation round; Nor all it wrought, by Roman worthies home ‘Gainst Brennus and th’ Epirot prince, and hosts Of single chiefs, or states in league combin’d Of social warfare; hence Torquatus stern, And Quintius nam’d of his neglected locks, The Decii, and the Fabii hence acquir’d Their fame, which I with duteous zeal embalm. By it the pride of Arab hordes was quell’d, When they led on by Hannibal o’erpass’d The Alpine rocks, whence glide thy currents, Po! Beneath its guidance, in their prime of days Scipio and Pompey triumph’d; and that hill, Under whose summit thou didst see the light, Rued its stern bearing. After, near the hour, When heav’n was minded that o’er all the world His own deep calm should brood, to Caesar’s hand Did Rome consign it; and what then it wrought From Var unto the Rhine, saw Isere’s flood, Saw Loire and Seine, and every vale, that fills The torrent Rhone. What after that it wrought, When from Ravenna it came forth, and leap’d The Rubicon, was of so bold a flight,

That tongue nor pen may follow it. Tow’rds Spain It wheel’d its bands, then tow’rd Dyrrachium smote, And on Pharsalia with so fierce a plunge, E’en the warm Nile was conscious to the pang; Its native shores Antandros, and the streams Of Simois revisited, and there Where Hector lies; then ill for Ptolemy His pennons shook again; lightning thence fell On Juba; and the next upon your west, At sound of the Pompeian trump, return’d. “What following and in its next bearer’s gripe It wrought, is now by Cassius and Brutus Bark’d off in hell, and by Perugia’s sons And Modena’s was mourn’d. Hence weepeth still Sad Cleopatra, who, pursued by it, Took from the adder black and sudden death. With him it ran e’en to the Red Sea coast; With him compos’d the world to such a peace, That of his temple Janus barr’d the door. “But all the mighty standard yet had wrought, And was appointed to perform thereafter, Throughout the mortal kingdom which it sway’d, Falls in appearance dwindled and obscur’d, If one with steady eye and perfect thought On the third Caesar look; for to his hands,

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The living Justice, in whose breath I move, Committed glory, e’en into his hands, To execute the vengeance of its wrath. “Hear now and wonder at what next I tell. After with Titus it was sent to wreak Vengeance for vengeance of the ancient sin, And, when the Lombard tooth, with fangs impure, Did gore the bosom of the holy church, Under its wings victorious, Charlemagne Sped to her rescue. Judge then for thyself Of those, whom I erewhile accus’d to thee, What they are, and how grievous their offending, Who are the cause of all your ills. The one Against the universal ensign rears The yellow lilies, and with partial aim That to himself the other arrogates: So that ‘t is hard to see which more offends. Be yours, ye Ghibellines, to veil your arts Beneath another standard: ill is this Follow’d of him, who severs it and justice: And let not with his Guelphs the new-crown’d Charles Assail it, but those talons hold in dread, Which from a lion of more lofty port Have rent the easing. Many a time ere now The sons have for the sire’s transgression wail’d;

Nor let him trust the fond belief, that heav’n Will truck its armour for his lilied shield. “This little star is furnish’d with good spirits, Whose mortal lives were busied to that end, That honour and renown might wait on them: And, when desires thus err in their intention, True love must needs ascend with slacker beam. But it is part of our delight, to measure Our wages with the merit; and admire The close proportion. Hence doth heav’nly justice Temper so evenly affection in us, It ne’er can warp to any wrongfulness. Of diverse voices is sweet music made: So in our life the different degrees Render sweet harmony among these wheels. “Within the pearl, that now encloseth us, Shines Romeo’s light, whose goodly deed and fair Met ill acceptance. But the Provencals, That were his foes, have little cause for mirth. Ill shapes that man his course, who makes his wrong Of other’s worth. Four daughters were there born To Raymond Berenger, and every one Became a queen; and this for him did Romeo, Though of mean state and from a foreign land. Yet envious tongues incited him to ask

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all.” Yet blank awe. Not long that mood Beatrice suffer’d: she. Which lords it o’er me. to evil turn’d. if thou regard The nature in assumption doom’d: ne’er wrong So great. below. it yields him.Paradise A reckoning of that just one. did bow me down As one in slumber held. and the rest unto their dance With it mov’d also. God therefore and the Jews one sentence pleased: CANTO VII “Hosanna Sanctus Deus Sabaoth Superillustrans claritate tua Felices ignes horum malahoth!” Thus chanting saw I turn that substance bright With fourfold lustre to its orb again. with such a smile. But through itself alone was driven forth From Paradise. And. As might have made one blest amid the flames. Me doubt possess’d. In sudden distance from my sight were veil’d. scantly dealt.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who return’d Twelve fold to him for ten. speak unto thy lady. pure and good. Aged and poor He parted thence: and if the world did know The heart he had. The nature with its Maker thus conjoin’d. “Speak. who since him have liv’d. and like swiftest sparks. By the mere act of his eternal love. begging his life by morsels. in himself. For they of weighty matter shall possess thee. Created first was blameless. who took Such nature on him. to his own person joining The nature. ‘T would deem the praise. Revolving. because it had eschew’d The way of truth and life.” “Thou in thy thought art pond’ring (as I deem. that she quench Thy thirst with drops of sweetness. and endur’d the doom. Until it pleas’d the Word of God to come Amongst them down. the human kind Lay sick in grievous error many an age. Ne’er then was penalty so just as that Inflicted by the cross. in reference to him. even at the sound Of Beatrice’s name. And what I deem is truth how just revenge Could be with justice punish’d: from which doubt I soon will free thee. who was unborn. so thou mark my words. and “Speak.” it whisper’d me. His offspring: whence. Contemplate here the wonder I unfold. from its Maker far estrang’d. thus her words began: 265 . himself condemn’d. “That man. Beaming upon me.

May fathom this decree. The celestial love. It is a mark. that spume All envying in its bounty. whose bright beams. and explore. But yet I see thy mind By thought on thought arising sore perplex’d. The only fords were left through which to wade. Either that God had of his courtesy Releas’d him merely. which entirely in its seed Trangress’d. which resemble him the most.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Brother! no eye of man not perfected. Though all partake their shining. intently as thou canst. or else man himself For his own folly by himself aton’d. for that its light in him Is darken’d.Paradise So different effects flow’d from one act. eludes my search. Sin alone is that. No longer stainless. no end of being knows. And to dignity thus lost Is no return. unless. thou sayst: but wherefore God this way For our redemption chose. Free wholly. Which doth disfranchise him. where guilt makes void. is free. He needs must forfeit his nobility. and but little kenn’d: And I will therefore show thee why such way Was worthiest. yet in those Are liveliest. And with how vehement desire it asks Solution of the maze. nor means Found of recovery (search all methods out As strickly as thou may) save one of these. no less Than from its state in Paradise. “Fix now thine eye. Instructed by my words. Whatever thence immediate falls. In sooth. He for ill pleasure pay with equal pain. Bearing its seal immutably impress’d. What distils Immediate thence. the dread abyss. And heav’n was open’d. much aim’d at. On th’ everlasting counsel. What I have heard. uncontrollable by power Of each thing new: by such conformity More grateful to its author. Your nature. “Man in himself had ever lack’d the means Of satisfaction. These tokens of pre-eminence on man Largely bestow’d. Count it not hard henceforth. though the earth did quake. when thou dost hear That a just vengeance was by righteous court Justly reveng’d. and make unlike To the chief good. Is plain. if any of them fail. Nor fully ripen’d in the flame of love. as sends forth All beauteous things eternal. in itself With such effulgence blazeth. for he could not stoop 266 . from these distinctions fell.

to corruption turn. “Now. The ray and motion of the sacred lights. as indeed they are In their whole being. if what were told me. the air. Which thou hast nam’d. Either for him who gave or who receiv’d Between the last night and the primal day. the fire I see. whose broad signature Is on the universe. if thy mind Consider how the human flesh was fram’d. But the elements. remains I somewhat further to thy view unfold. That thou mayst see as clearly as myself. from whence he fell. had been true They from corruption had been therefore free. “I see. and soon Dissolve. in humility so low. had not the Son of God Humbled himself to put on mortal flesh. I call created. every method else Were all too scant.” 267 . and what of them is made. Was or can be. Then behooved That God should by his own ways lead him back Unto the life. of all its ways To raise ye up. And for his justice. But this our life the’ eternal good inspires Immediate. For God more bounty show’d. than had the terms Been mere and unconditional release. to fulfil each wish of thine. So that our wishes rest for ever here. or one alone. With complex potency attract and turn. impassible and pure. thought to soar: And for this reason he had vainly tried Out of his own sufficiency to pay The rigid satisfaction. and all things of them Compounded. But since the deed is ever priz’d the more. thou sayst. The earth and water. restor’d: By both his ways. Because. and create the’ informing virtue In these bright stars. disobeying. Giving himself to make man capable Of his return to life.The Divine Comedy of Dante . As high he. “And hence thou mayst by inference conclude Our resurrection certain. Goodness celestial. Are by created virtue’ inform’d: create Their substance. I mean. that round them circling move The soul of every brute and of each plant. was fain to leave out none. When both our parents at the first were made. Nor aught so vast or so magnificent.Paradise Obeying. The more the doer’s good intent appears. O my brother! and this clime Wherein thou art. “The angels. and enamours of itself. Yet these were also things create.

so in that light I other luminaries saw. and her son. The other comes and goes. Not her alone with sacrifice ador’d And invocation. him whom they feign’d To sit in Dido’s bosom: and from her. yet are of love so full. who in the van appear’d. Whom I have sung preluding. And as in flame A sparkle is distinct.The Divine Comedy of Dante . the sun. Whether invisible to eye or no. Such an hosanna sounded. but the new loveliness That grac’d my lady. deem’d of them Her mother. Conducted by the lofty seraphim. in their old error blind. to hear Renew’d the strain. One motion. ne’er since extinct in me. shed on men By stream of potent radiance: therefore they Of elder time. it had not seem’d To linger in dull tardiness. when one its even tenour keeps. gave me ample proof That we had entered there. with those who rule Princedoms in heaven. rapid more or less. that cours’d In circling motion. and sole began: “We all Are ready at thy pleasure.Paradise CANTO VIII The world was in its day of peril dark Wont to believe the dotage of fond love From the fair Cyprian deity. And after them. but like honours paid To Cupid and Dione. and with voice 268 . Leaving the circuit of their joyous ring. To whom thou in the world erewhile didst Sing ‘O ye! whose intellectual ministry Moves the third heaven!’ and in one orb we roll. as hath left Desire. borrow’d they The appellation of that star. they turn’d again unto the light Who had so largely promis’d.” After mine eyes had with meek reverence Sought the celestial guide. As their eternal phases each impels. Never was blast from vapour charged with cold. or voice in voice Discern’d. who rolls In her third epicycle. and were by her Assur’d. compar’d To those celestial lights. Then parting from the rest One near us drew. Now obvious and now averse. that tow’rds us came. We are they. well dispos’d To do thee gentle service. which views. That to please thee ‘t will be as sweet to rest. one impulse. Descended with such speed. I was not ware that I was wafted up Into its orb.

when thou lookst Into the source and limit of all good. Nature in him. Thence priz’d of me the more. And thus it answer’d: “A short date below The world possess’d me. from bounty fall’n to thrift. with its boroughs old.” “My liege. lest more freight be laid On his already over-laden bark. laves. Around. Forthwith it grew In size and splendour. Which gave me sov’reignty over the land By Danube wash’d. when he hath mix’d with Sorga. as an animal In its own silk unswath’d. There. and Gaeta pil’d. And truly need there is. Had the time been more. it doth enhance the joy thy words Infuse into me. Thou lov’dst me well. and Croton. sprung through me from Charles and Rodolph. that will come.Paradise That bare the lively pressure of my zeal. 269 . Already on my temples beam’d the crown. Bari. In me its lord expected. Or other for him. whenas he strays beyond The limits of his German shores.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Would ask the guard of braver arms. The beautiful Trinacria lies in gloom (Not through Typhaeus. “Tell who ye are. mighty as it is. That Rhone. than such As only care to have their coffers fill’d. the love I bare thee Had put forth more than blossoms. had not ill lording which doth spirit up The people ever. Betwixt Pelorus and Pachynian heights. and that horn Of fair Ausonia. Now make intelligent. The left bank. To think my gladness manifest to thee. With Verde mingled. through augmented joy. The realm. Glad thou hast made me. And had’st good cause. but the vap’ry cloud Bituminous upsteam’d). He had been warier that the greedy want Of Catalonia might not work his bale. My gladness hides thee from me. Had but my brother’s foresight kenn’d as much. in Palermo rais’d The shout of ‘death. Much evil. Where. As to myself. clearing the doubt Thy speech hath raised in me. From where the Trento disembogues his waves. to the salt sea-flood. who own it. That too did look To have its scepter wielded by a race Of monarchs. that he forecast.” I cried. on the gulf by stormy Eurus lash’d. and shroud me. had never chanc’d.’ re-echo’d loud and long. for much I muse. which doth shine. where thou markest that which thou dost speak. for had my sojourning Been longer on the earth.

which thy questioning declares Behind thee now conceal’d. he forthwith replied: “If I have power to show one truth.” He straight rejoin’d: “Say. Therefore one is Solon born. that is the seal to mortal wax. But. Were it not thus. still pursue Unswervingly. Thus place I in thy sight That. if different estates Grow not of different duties in your life? Consult your teacher. And were the world below content to mark 270 . that move these stars. in generation. The Good. in sign Of more affection for thee. whose airy voyage Cost him his son. Doth well her art. And then concluded: “For this cause behooves. but no distinctions owns ‘Twixt one or other household. thou dost visit. and he tells you ‘no. were it worse for man.Paradise How bitter can spring up. these heavens. Fail not. Nature. ‘t is my will Thou wear this corollary.” I thus inquiring.”’ Thus did he come. or who. Hence befalls That Esau is so wide of Jacob: hence Quirinus of so base a father springs. The roots. Nature ever Finding discordant fortune. must the path Trac’d by the generator. Xerxes. But is as level with the destin’d aim.The Divine Comedy of Dante . In her circuitous course. Ordains its providence to be the virtue In these great bodies: nor th’ all perfect Mind Upholds their nature merely. Another. first faulty made them fail.” answer’d I. Would their effect so work. that guides And blessed makes this realm. which was late behind thee. from whence your operations come. like all seed Out of its proper climate. Nature. I see. “nor here a reason needs. soon that Shall face thee. which thou dost mount. but in them Their energy to save: for nought. and he a fourth. Were it not That providence celestial overrul’d. deducing to this point. it would not be Art. thrives but ill. Wilt thou this truth more clearly evidenc’d?” To whom I thus: “It is enough: no fear. If th’ intellectual powers. when sweet is sown. and Melchisidec A third. lest nature in her part should tire. that lies Within the range of that unerring bow. If he liv’d not in fellowship on earth?” “Yea.” “And may that be. Must differ. but destruction. As ever mark to arrow’s point oppos’d. He dates from Mars his lineage. and this may not chance.

Paradise And work on the foundation nature lays. Firmly upon me. Nor grudge myself the cause of this my lot. The eyes 271 . Alas for you!—And lo! toward me.” Thereat the light. by its outward bright’ning. That yet was new to me. whose plenitude of bliss Sufficeth all. That. “This jewel. and the fountain-springs Of Brenta and of Piava. From whence erewhile a firebrand did descend. that my inmost thoughts I can reflect on thee. Where it before was singing. CANTO IX After solution of my doubt. save that the meed Of sorrow well-deserv’d shall quit your wrongs. Therefore your steps have wander’d from the paths. “And O. And of the fluent phrasemen make your king. that fills it. as before.” Said he. for that by its light This star o’ercame me. thy Charles. From one root I and it sprang. who from such a good estrange Your hearts. Which haply vulgar hearts can scarce conceive. there doth rise. who was born to gird on him the sword. But ye perversely to religion strain Him. Another of those splendent forms approach’d. a hill. Yet I naught repine.” Of Beatrice.” I cried. O ye misguided souls! Infatuate. It would not lack supply of excellence. If to excel be worthy man’s endeavour. which lies Between Rialto. And not to perish. But to no lofty eminence. manifested forth Approva1 of my wish. thus began. great renown hath left. And now the visage of that saintly light Was to the sun.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Blest spirit! quickly be my will perform’d. “Tell it not. of the treachery spake That must befall his seed: but. my name on earth Cunizza: And here I glitter. O fair Clemenza. Consider thou. from the recess. and bend your gaze on vanity. That sorely sheet the region. that is next me in our heaven. As one who joys in kindness: “In that part Of the deprav’d Italian land. Lustrous and costly. ere these hundred years Five times absolve their round. turn’d again. testified The will it had to pleasure me. And prove thou to me. next. As to the good. resting. “and let the destin’d years come round.” Nor may I tell thee more.

Mirrors. Pastime of heav’n. effulgence comes Of gladness. thus his words began: “The valley’ of waters. That other joyance meanwhile wax’d A thing to marvel at. in splendour glowing. That voice which joins the inexpressive song. Between discordant shores. Who knew my name were wont to call me Folco: And I did bear impression of this heav’n. Where was before th’ horizon. murkier grows the shade. nor will the gift ill suit The country’s custom. The hour is near. Of so deep stain. the which those ardours sing. for whom The web is now a-warping. wert thou known To me. Of that vale Dwelt I upon the shore. still Impenitent. and appear’d on other thoughts Intent. in show of party-zeal. widest next to that Which doth the earth engarland. that never. Yet they Care not for this. as thoroughly I to thee am known. Like choicest ruby stricken by the sun. Too large should be The skillet. ye call them thrones. from which to us Reflected shine the judgments of our God: Whence these our sayings we avouch for good.” She ended. for the like.Paradise When such life may attend the first. in that upper clime. Was Malta’s bar unclos’d. as here laughter: and below. The which this priest. against the sun Inward so far.” Said I. Courteous will give. who ounce by ounce would weight it. Whose haven erst was with its own blood warm. re-ent’ring on the wheel she late Had left. And wearied he. East and west Are nearly one to Begga and my land. We descry above. that laves Vicena And where Cagnano meets with Sile. “blest Spirit! Therefore will of his Cannot to thee be dark. and bears his head aloft. ‘twixt Ebro’s stream And Macra’s. “God seeth all: and in him is thy sight. Why then delays Thy voice to satisfy my wish untold. For. that would hold Ferrara’s blood. As the mind saddens. 272 . tho’ scourg’d. it makes meridian there. That cowl them with six shadowing wings outspread? I would not wait thy asking. the crowd that now are girt By Adice and Tagliamento. Feltro too Shall sorrow for its godless shepherd’s fault. shapes its course.’’ He forthwith answ’ring.The Divine Comedy of Dante . When for their stubbornness at Padua’s marsh The water shall be chang’d. one Lords it. that divides with passage brief Genoan bounds from Tuscan.

For that she favour’d first the high exploit Of Joshua on the holy land. the Vatican. Not for the fault (that doth not come to mind). Shall be deliver’d from the adult’rous bond. She should remain a trophy. and the good Discern’d. that fashioneth With such effectual working. Here The skill is look’d into.” 273 . He to that heav’n. in some part of heav’n. at which the shadow ends Of your sublunar world. Demands my further parle. of all souls redeem’d: For well behoov’d. that here Beside me sparkles. And yet there hides No sorrowful repentance here. whereof The Pope recks little now. when the charms of Iole Were shrin’d within his heart. Long as it suited the unripen’d down That fledg’d my cheek: nor she of Rhodope. Pope and Cardinals. And other most selected parts of Rome. was taken up. That hath made wander both the sheep and lambs. as the sun-beam doth On the clear wave. Know then.Paradise That now bears mine: for not with fiercer flame Glow’d Belus’ daughter. But for the virtue. The decretals. injuring alike Sichaeus and Creusa. Who of this light is denizen. But fully to content Thy wishes. whose o’erruling sway And providence have wrought thus quaintly. Yet it may chance. plant Of him. erelong. to our tribe United. And of whose envying so much woe hath sprung. Thy city. Engenders and expands the cursed flower. Nor Jove’s son. the soul of Rahab Is in that gladsome harbour. That was beguiled of Demophoon. in Christ’s triumph. First. where Gabriel op’d his wings. than did I. as their stuft margins show. Turning the shepherd to a wolf. Are the sole study.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ne’er journey but in thought To Nazareth. but mirth. Intent on these. Inquire thou wouldst. that. That were the grave of Peter’s soldiery. and the foremost rank assign’d. accruing to this upper world From that below. The gospel and great teachers laid aside. to declare The mighty contest won with either palm. that on his Maker turn’d the back. all that in this sphere have birth. For this.

and muse Anticipative of the feast to come. the first Might Ineffable. the great minister Of nature. from direct Were its departure distant more or less. As one. since no eye above the sun Hath ever travel’d? Such are they dwell here. she who passeth on So suddenly from good to better. And if our fantasy fail of such height. where each hour sooner comes. and doles out Time for us with his beam. time Counts not the act. And I was with him. Join’d with the part. who till arriv’d. then. with me.Paradise CANTO X Looking into his first-born with the love. What marvel. O reader! to the lofty wheels. practice—I might not so speak. went circling on Along the spires. henceforth Demands entire my thought. All power well nigh extinct: or. Now rest thee. how thence oblique Brancheth the circle. ensue. As none may see and fail to’ enjoy. Who of his spirit and of his offspring shows. But light transparent—did I summon up Genius. whereat One motion strikes on th’ other. reader! on thy bench. oh thank. So shall delight make thee not feel thy toil. Which breathes from both eternal. art. and here on earth. both in heav’n and here beneath. oh then how great must needs Have been her brightness! What she was i’ th’ sun (Where I had enter’d). and the sight be justly crav’d. Fourth family of the Omnipotent Sire. not through change of hue. whence eye or mind Can roam. And thus to me Beatrice: “Thank. It should be e’er imagin’d: yet believ’d It may be. For Beatrice. Lo! I have set before thee. Who loves his work so inwardly.The Divine Comedy of Dante . hath in such order all dispos’d. for thyself Feed now: the matter I indite. in heav’n above Much virtue would be lost. weets not his coming. weetless of ascent. Raise. And holds them still enraptur’d with the view. See. There begin Thy wonder of the mighty Architect. Which late we told of. his eye Doth ever watch it. 274 . that upon the world imprints The virtue of the heaven. Thy ken directed to the point. I’ th’ universal order. where the planets roll To pour their wished influence on the world. great defect Must. Whose path not bending thus.

Where well they thrive. So dear and beautiful. In the celestial court. let him look from thence For tidings from the dumb. shines So multiplied in thee. in silent pause. Than in their visage beaming. Sometime Latona’s daughter we behold. him. that held me. Thomas I. for his saintly flock. it leads thee up Along this ladder. Then saw I a bright band. down whose hallow’d steps None e’er descend. who spake: “Since with its beam The grace. from within. Who doth not prune his wing To soar up thither. Than water flowing not unto the sea. that bloom In the bright garland. which. admiring. till they have caught the strain anew: Suspended so they stood: and. in liveliness Surpassing. And master to me: Albert of Cologne Is this: and of Aquinum. Cinctur’d thus. and mount them not again. List’ning. Thus heard I one. And us their centre: yet more sweet in voice. Let thine eye. As nearest stars around the fixed pole. waiting on the words I speak. brother was. they cannot brook Transporting from that realm: and of these lights Such was the song. As mine was at those words: and so entire The love for Him. no less constrained were. that Dominic Leads. And with complacency so absolute Dispos’d to render up itself to God. Whence I return.Paradise The Sun of angels. singing thus. Thou fain wouldst hear. nearest on my right hand.” Never was heart in such devotion bound. but smil’d thereat so joyously. who strengthens thee for heav’n. who themselves did make the crown. Then seem’d they like to ladies. who by his grace To this perceptible hath lifted thee. I then was of the lambs. Naught displeas’d Was she. When the impregnate air retains the thread. That after doth increase by loving. along the way. not sworn with vanity. whence true love lighteth first his flame. girds This fair dame round. That of her laughing eyes the radiance brake And scatter’d my collected mind abroad. from the dance Not ceasing. 275 .The Divine Comedy of Dante . Who from his phial should refuse thee wine To slake thy thirst. what plants are these. If thou of all the rest wouldst be assur’d. When. are many jewels found. That weaves her zone. He. but suspense. Those burning suns that circled round us thrice. it eclips’d Beatrice in oblivion.

It can be known but where day endless shines. that shows The world’s deceitfulness. as favour wins in Paradise. Is. was the beam Of one. that calleth up the spouse of God To win her bridegroom’s love at matin’s hour. who to either forum lent Such help. Who ‘scap’d not envy. on high musings bent. more than man. The limbs. Now. that is. In the other little light serenely smiles That pleader for the Christian temples. he that with the widow gave To holy church his treasure. That with a ken of such wide amplitude No second hath arisen. CANTO XI O fond anxiety of mortal men! How vain and inconclusive arguments Are those. which make thee beat thy wings below 276 . while yet in flesh it dwelt. Lo! further on. The other. with the sight of all the good. Where flames the arduous Spirit of Isidore. As clock. Was Peter. thus heard Voice answ’ring voice. whose spirit. to all who hear him. of the eighth Thy thirst is next. Lastly this. erewhile. of note so sweet. Clearliest. Upon my praises following. is by such love inspired. and Richard. Each part of other fitly drawn and urg’d. The saintly soul. It is the eternal light of Sigebert. endow’d With sapience so profound. who adorns our quire.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Affection springs in well-disposed breast. Next behold That taper’s radiance. if truth be truth.Paradise In circuit journey round the blessed wreath. Thus saw I move the glorious wheel.” Forthwith. Blest there. from whom Thy look on me reverteth. if thy mind’s eye pass from light to light. nearest. lie Down in Cieldauro. Rebuk’d the ling’ring tardiness of death. there is the lofty light. whence it was driven. That all your world craves tidings of its doom: Within. Of Bede. Goodliest of all. The fifth light. when of truth he argued. so musical and soft. he Who did provide Augustin of his lore. the nature and the ministry Angelical. In deep discernment. to whose view was shown. That next resplendence issues from the smile Of Gratian. Reading in the straw-litter’d street. and from martyrdom And exile came it here. Sends out a tinkling sound.

’ which no small distinction needs. 277 . and clearly mark Thy thoughts. To rob another. Safe in herself and constant unto him. arose A sun upon the world. To call things rightly. Might keep her footing towards her well-belov’d. Where erst it was. who speak Of that place. Hath two ordain’d. which of them so’er Be taken: for their deeds were to one end. “Between Tupino. In depth of counsel by created ken Unfathomable. one moiling lay Tangled in net of sensual delight.’ and that ‘no second such Hath risen. He was not yet much distant from his rising. Then within The lustre. smiling With merer gladness. where I told thee late That ‘well they thrive. With Beatrice. And one to witless indolence resign’d. and made the guest of heav’n. Where it doth break its steepness most. and one for aphorisms Was hunting. say Ascesi. as may be smooth To thy perception. for wisdom upon earth. had turn’d. for its name Were lamely so deliver’d. who should on either hand In chief escort her: one seraphic all In fervency. The other splendour of cherubic light. this the priesthood follow’d. but the East. Who one commendeth. be it henceforth styl’d. I thus gloriously Was rais’d aloft. in its rear Mourn for their heavy yoke. Who with loud cries was ‘spous’d in precious blood. What time from all these empty things escap’d. I but of one will tell: he tells of both. that I should bolt my words afresh In such plain open phrase. from whence they rise. and another sought By civil business wealth. “The providence. that erewhile bespake me. When his good influence ‘gan to bless the earth. there hangs Rich slope of mountain high. that falls From blest Ubaldo’s chosen hill. As candle in his socket. Upon that side. so I look Into the eternal light. that By force or sophistry aspir’d to rule. as duly this From Ganges doth: therefore let none. each one. Thou art in doubt.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And wouldst. to the end that she. and steady glow’d.Paradise For statues one. whence heat and cold Are wafted through Perugia’s eastern gate: And Norcera with Gualdo. heard I thus begin: “E’en as his beam illumes me. and the wave. They of the circle to that point. that governeth the world.

take at large The rovers’ titles—Poverty and Francis. So much. remain’d Without a single suitor. O hidden riches! O prolific good! Egidius bares him next. that trac’d HIS steps. for that he was son Of Pietro Bernardone. yet deem’d his footing slow. and there preach’d Christ and his followers. was pleas’d T’ advance him to the meed. that. And with that family. And sweet regard gave birth to holy thoughts. he from Christ Took the last Signet. Before the Spiritual court. But royally His hard intention he to Innocent Set forth. with Amyclas. Who to such good had destin’d him. till he came. in pursuit of peace So heavenly. through Honorius’ hand A second crown. she Was found unmov’d at rumour of his voice. Was by the eternal Spirit inwreath’d: and when He had.Paradise A dame to whom none openeth pleasure’s gate More than to death. Nor aught avail’d. Then. Then lov’d her more devoutly. through thirst of martyrdom. His stripling choice: and he did make her his. whom now the cord Girt humbly: nor did abjectness of heart Weigh down his eyelids. and. ‘gainst his father’s will. slighted and obscure. And reap’d Ausonian lands. When Mary stay’d beneath. wonder and love. Their concord and glad looks. but found the race Unripen’d for conversion: back once more He hasted (not to intermit his toil). Who shook the world: nor aught her constant boldness Whereby with Christ she mounted on the cross. And in his father’s sight: from day to day. and by men In wond’rous sort despis’d. and next Sylvester. with his spouse.The Divine Comedy of Dante . by nuptial bonds. ‘Twixt Arno and the Tyber. which he had earn’d 278 . when numerous flock’d The tribe of lowly ones. was. stood up In the proud Soldan’s presence. Thousand and hundred years and more. But not to deal Thus closely with thee longer. On the hard rock. She. And follow both the bridegroom. to deck their Guardian’s virtues. that venerable Bernard first Did bare his feet. Then the season come. so the bride Can please them. Whose marvellous life deservedly were sung In heights empyreal. bereav’d Of her first husband. The father and the master. which his limbs two years Did carry. that he. Thenceforth goes he on his way. and from him first receiv’d the seal On his religion. ran.

in truth. as ray Of primal splendour doth its faint reflex. There are of them. but these so few. ‘That well they thrive not sworn with vanity. nor would have His body laid upon another bier. as he enjoins. And they who gaze. When the footing. about us thus Of sempiternal roses. “Now. as sun the mist). song to song. if my words be clear. take good lading in.Paradise By his self-humbling. light with light accordant. who were a fit colleague. Therefore who follow him. Motion to motion. of the world No more to be o’erflow’d. each 279 . recall To mind. which I have told. And other great festivity. and trick’d alike. And to the shepherd cleave. if that.The Divine Comedy of Dante . which that implies. to his brotherhood. Two arches parallel. and such our Patriarch was. Our Sirens with their tuneful pipes. of song. if Juno bid her handmaid forth. compass’d it. Thou mayst be certain. destitute of milk. nor yet had once revolv’d.”’ CANTO XII Soon as its final word the blessed flame Had rais’d for utterance. conjoining. if thou have ta’en Good heed. A little stuff may furnish out their cloaks. returning To its appointed kingdom. thy wish may be in part fulfill’d: For thou wilt see the point from whence they split. the outer taking birth From that within (in manner of that voice Whom love did melt away. Song. so much mole they come Home to the sheep-fold. bending. who fear their harm. from her bosom. Or ere another. presageful call to mind The compact. straight the holy mill Began to wheel. made with Noah. that as much our muses doth excel. he gave in charge His dearest lady. Nor miss of the reproof. And radiance. As their just heritage. circling. “Think now of one. So that they needs into strange pastures wide Must spread them: and the more remote from him The stragglers wander. To keep the bark of Peter in deep sea Helm’d to right point. wreath’d Those garlands twain. and to the innermost E’en thus th’ external answered. will’d His goodly spirit should move forth. As when. But hunger of new viands tempts his flock. and enjoin’d their love And faith to her: and. Span the thin cloud.

Prompts me to tell of th’ other guide. Two champions to the succour of his spouse He sent. And with thin ranks. Messenger he seem’d. She was inspir’d to name him of his owner. wherein the lion lies Subjected and supreme. Whom Christ in his own garden chose to be His help-mate. at entering found That he had ris’n in silence. nor from those billows far. The hollow’d wrestler. after weary course. that makes me beautiful. 280 . In that clime. And not through its deserving. Slow. Are shut and rais’d together). that when first Created. Many a time his nurse. from the heart Of one amongst the new lights mov’d a voice. for the drooping host Did make provision. with which Europe sees herself New-garmented. That made me seem like needle to the star. in her sleep Beheld the wondrous fruit. who by their deeds and words might join Again his scatter’d people. even in the mother’s womb. alike Should be their glory. had at their pleasure still’d (E’en as the eyes by quick volition mov’d. It prophesied. The dame. When. And that such He might be construed. after its banner mov’d The army of Christ (which it so clearly cost To reappoint). Who reigneth ever. As thou heard’st. Whose he was wholly. So replete His soul with lively virtue. who was his surety. Where springs the pleasant west-wind to unfold The fresh leaves. And there was born The loving million of the Christian faith. as the labourer. when its imperial Head. The other worthily should also be. and friend Fast-knit to Christ. The spousals were complete ‘twixt faith and him. for whom Such good of mine is spoken. thorough grace alone. Where pledge of mutual safety was exchang’d. that was from him And from his heirs to issue.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The sun doth sometimes hide him. And to his enemies terrible. and was prostrate.Paradise Jocund and blythe. and the first love he show’d. And I speak of him. Beyond whose chiding. and full of doubt. gentle to his own. In turning to its whereabout. and so call’d him Dominic. and thus Began: “The love. safe abides The happy Callaroga. at the sacred font. Was after the first counsel that Christ gave. That as their warfare was alike. Where one is. as indeed he was. under guard Of the great shield.

hath declar’d So courteously unto thee. whence Of those. Bonaventura’s life in me behold. Which its smooth fellies made. for which now they pore Upon Ostiense and Taddeo’s page. Illuminato here. Licence to fight. When the rejected tares in vain shall ask Admittance to the barn. I question not But he. ‘I am as I was wont. “My errand was for this. But for the real manna. and have fed its plants. Not for the world’s sake. ‘gainst an erring and degenerate world. From which the twice twelve cions gird thee round. Thou canst not doubt its fellow’s excellence. Then. where resistance was most stout. No dispensation for commuted wrong. But the track. in favour of that seed. is now deserted: That mouldy mother is where late were lees. One stretches and another cramps its rule. and did set himself To go about the vineyard. Thence many rivulets have since been turn’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Which Thomas. But. dashing ‘gainst the stocks of heresy. And rode triumphant through the civil broil. if not tended well: And from the see (whose bounty to the just And needy is gone by. nor the tenth). Might still find page with this inscription on’t.Paradise As who should say. Like torrent bursting from a lofty vein. Turn backward.’ Yet such were not From Acquasparta nor Casale. Over the garden Catholic to lead Their living waters. that wont to trace his path. That to God’s paupers rightly appertain. with sage doctrine and good will to help. who in discharge Of my great offices still laid aside All sinister aim. But his who fills it basely). And. Smote fiercest. who search’d our volume. ere my coming. Forth on his great apostleship he far’d. His family. Wherein the holy church defended her. leaf by leaf.” O happy father! Felix rightly nam’d! O favour’d mother! rightly nam’d Joanna! If that do mean. not through its fault. one. that soon turns To wan and wither’d. Nor the first vacant fortune. who come to meddle with the text. 281 . “If such one wheel of that two-yoked car. erelong To rue the gathering in of their ill crop. soon he grew Mighty in learning. he besought. as men interpret it. From Bagnororegio. and invert their steps.

CANTO XIII Let him. sweet charity Invites me with the other to like toil.Paradise And Agostino join me: two they were. for things there as much Surpass our usage. And he of Spain in his twelve volumes shining. and Anselmo. Among the first of those barefooted meek ones. such as Ariadne made. Donatus. who deign’d To put his hand to the first art. Imagine (and retain the image firm. The bright courtesy Of friar Thomas. and that one of them Did compass in the other’s beam. who would conceive what now I saw. conceiving thus. Pietro Mangiadore. and his goodly lore. that circled me. Then silence brake. As mountain rock. The song fulfill’d its measure. 282 . Who sought God’s friendship in the cord: with them Hugues of Saint Victor. T’ have rang’d themselves in fashion of two signs In heav’n. that. Spins ever on its axle night and day. in which the wondrous life Of the meek man of God was told to me. Of that true constellation. Joachim . and to us Those saintly lights attended.” With the bright summit of that horn which swells Due from the pole. And thus it spake: “One ear o’ th’ harvest thresh’d. and the dance Twofold. as the swiftest heav’n Is swifter than the Chiana. and with me have mov’d this throng. Metropolitan Chrysostom. happier made At each new minist’ring. Raban is here: and at my side there shines Calabria’s abbot. Amid th’ accordant sons of Deity. round which the first wheel rolls.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And its grain safely stor’d. that. but Three Persons in the Godhead. O’ercome the massiest air: thereto imagine The wain. and no Io Paean. he shall attain As ‘t were the shadow. in the bosom of our sky. from midst the ethereal host Selected. Of stars fifteen. and. endow’d With soul prophetic. and both In such sort whirl around. with lively ray serene. that each should tend With opposite motion and. That luminary. and in one Substance that nature and the human join’d. Have mov’d me to the blazon of a peer So worthy. When death’s chill seized her. the whilst he hears me speak). There was sung No Bacchus. Nathan the prophet.

and in that. Which passeth from his brightness. both after and before Such satisfaction offer’d. Open now thine eyes To what I answer thee. and mark The primal virtue. “Did I advance no further than this point. as ‘t were in new existences. and the heav’n In its disposing influence supreme. of beatitudes A second.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Are in your talents various. ye. differ much: And thence with lustre. Howe’er. at your birth. Mirror’d. congregate itself. to his enclos’d In the fifth radiance. and such The clay was made. Whose faultering hand is faithless to his skill. for that lively light. are but each the beam Of that idea. “Descending hence unto the lowest powers. who form’d Both one and other: and thou thence admir’st In that I told thee. That life can teem with. mortal men. Doth. which pierc’d By the keen lance. produce. The lustre of the seal should be complete: But nature renders it imperfect ever.Paradise “Thou know’st. there is none. if love itself dispose. As centre in the round. at last it makes But brief contingencies: for so I name Things generated. which our Soverign Sire Engendereth loving. Its energy so sinks. more or less. 283 . and thou shalt see Thy deeming and my saying meet in truth. not disjoin’d From him. Their wax. And that which can die. Itself unalterable and ever one. such as in them it was. such the burden fill’d The virgin’s bosom: so that I commend Thy judgment. which the heav’nly orbs Moving. accomplish’d with each gift. Were the wax Molded with nice exactness. And worse: and. hath better fruit. with seed or without seed. as outweighs Each evil in the scale. must all Have by his virtue been infus’d. through his bounty. that the human nature ne’er Was or can be. whence the rib Was ta’en to fashion that fair cheek. that in the bosom. whate’er of light To human nature is allow’d. ‘How then had he no peer?’ thou might’st reply. There all perfection is vouchsafed. Resembling thus the artist in her work. and that which molds it. whose taste All the world pays for. That which dies not. it shows Th’ ideal stamp impress: so that one tree According to his kind. kindling with bright view. nor from his love triune with them.

For he among the fools is down full low. or whether that Be granted. ‘Risen. by distortion marr’d. Both to the ‘yea’ and to the ‘nay’ thou seest not. and the other fools.’ Thou shalt discern it only hath respect To kings. And. noting that.Paradise But. With this distinction take my words. At which the dart of my intention aims. that first motion is. And they may well consist with that which thou Of the first human father dost believe. who ask’d For wisdom. and knew not whither: so did Sabellius. perish at the last. “Whence. Bryso. that I told thee. is Without distinction. of whom are many. and the crowd beside. “Much more than vainly doth he loose from shore. Who. he was a king.The Divine Comedy of Dante . to the end he might be king Sufficient: not the number to search out Of the celestial movers. by art. that what now appears not. and what (When he was bidden ‘Ask’ ). For I have seen The thorn frown rudely all the winter long And after bear the rose upon its top. which I have said. and the good Are rare. ponder. If necessary with contingent e’er Have made necessity. Whose affirmation. And bark. That thou mayst see. or to know. may appear Right plainly. Or ere the crop be ripe. Thou kingly prudence and that ken mayst learn. who he was. be made Triangle with each corner. or denial. the motive sway’d To his requesting. blunt or sharp. Arius. Melissus. or if Of the mid circle can. I have spoken thus. E’en in the haven’s mouth seeing one steal. reflected back The scripture-image. to make Thee slow in motion. in each case alike Since it befalls. Who fishes for the truth and wanteth skill. As one who reckons on the blades in field. like to scymitars. as a weary man. And of our well-beloved. that all the way across the sea Ran straight and speedy. “Let not the people be too swift to judge. 284 . And open proofs of this unto the world Have been afforded in Parmenides. Since he returns not such as he set forth. that in most instances Current opinion leads to false: and then Affection bends the judgment to her ply. And let this Henceforth be led unto thy feet. Who journey’d on. and this. marking clearly.

who lives ever. And that as far in blessedness exceeding. light. And from the lesser orb the goodliest light. CANTO XIV From centre to the circle. Tell him. Let not Dame Birtha and Sir Martin thence Into heav’n’s counsels deem that they can pry: For one of these may rise. gratuitous. As it hath grave beyond its virtue great. ministering aid. thenceforth to live Immortally above. Therefore shall increase. bounding all. as now: and. Whate’er of light. Our love shall shine around that raiment. and spring with gladder bound. who in a ring Tread the light measure. fervent. of that heav’nly shower. water moves In the round chalice. Our shape. With gentle voice and mild. when ye shall regain your visible forms. That also tell.” Thus. in their fitful mirth Raise loud the voice. 285 . Unbounded. And Beatrice after him her words Resum’d alternate: “Need there is (tho’ yet He tells it to you not in words. with such melody. his offering to the priest. The saintly circles in their tourneying And wond’rous note attested new delight. if it doth. or from without. the other fall. if the light. As the great spirit of Aquinum ceas’d. that we must doff this garb Of frail mortality. imparts The Supreme Good. he hath not seen The sweet refreshing. Show yet more gracious. regarmented with glorious weeds Of saintly flesh.Paradise Another brine.” As those. being thus entire. shall stay with you Eternally. as in vision blest. nor e’en In thought) that he should fathom to its depth Another mystery. thus replied: “Long as the joy of Paradise shall last. How. such as perhaps The angel’s once to Mary. as but to hear For highest merit were an ample meed. Wherewith your substance blooms. Whoso laments. even as the blow Impels it. Such was the image glanc’d into my mind. must. The sight may without harm endure the change. Him. inwardly. and so back From circle to the centre. each spirit thrice Sang. bright.The Divine Comedy of Dante . As fervent. and for ever reigns In mystic union of the Three in One. at the hearing of that pious suit.

but for their kindred dear. With such mighty sheen And mantling crimson. So there new substances. that I cried. to more lofty bliss Translated: for the star. and I beheld myself. sweep their ampler circuit wide. Beatrice show’d. Nor will such excess of light O’erpower us. So thickly studded.” So ready and so cordial an “Amen. Than shall our fleshly robe.Paradise The better disclose his glory: whence The vision needs increasing. And lo! forthwith there rose up round about A lustre over that already there. thus this circling sphere Of splendour. in two listed rays The splendours shot before me. an holocaust I made To God. which yonder earth Now covers.” Followed from either choir. much increase The fervour. and susceptible of all delight. But as the greed Which gives out flame. and that too The ray. Distinguish’d into greater lights and less. methought began To rise in view. Thence mine eyes regain’d Power to look up. and round the other twain Enwheeling. Mind cannot follow it. As at an evening hour Of twilight. yet perchance Not for themselves. shall to view less radiant seem. befitting the new grace vouchsaf’d. in corporeal organs made Firm.The Divine Comedy of Dante . doubtfully descried. like the brightening up Of the horizon. Of equal clearness. And from my bosom had not yet upsteam’d The fuming of that incense. “God of Sabaoth! that does prank them thus!” As leads the galaxy from pole to pole. when I knew The rite accepted. Mothers and sires. and with that tongue which speaks The same in all. new appearances through heav’n Peer with faint glimmer. which it kindles. with warmer smile Impurpled. and those whom best they lov’d. as plainly spoke Desire of their dead bodies. With all the heart. in the depth of Mars. So passing lovely. yet it its whiteness shines More lively than that. 286 . Ere they were made imperishable flame. nor words express Her infinite sweetness. that comes from it. O gentle glitter of eternal beam! With what a such whiteness did it flow. Sole with my lady. which the wisest fail to spell. O’erpowering vision in me! But so fair. well denoted our ascent. Its pathway. and so preserves Its proper semblance.

But whoso takes his cross.Paradise Those rays describ’d the venerable sign. The higher they are ris’n. Thus oft are seen. with ravishment Possess’d me. To move along the sunbeam. long or short. interpos’d by art Against the noontide heat. Yet I mark’d it was a hymn Of lofty praises. as they met and pass’d. The atomies of bodies. whose slant line Checkers the shadow. as loose appetite in wrong. in accordance thus were mute? He hath in sooth good cause for endless grief. that ever shows itself as clear In kindness. a pleasant dining makes To him. And as the chime Of minstrel music. which there appear’d to me. who is aware those living seals Of every beauty work with quicker force. that are by heav’n’s right hand Unwound and tighten’d. who heareth not distinct the note. and pattern fails me now. he may well Excuse me that. for there came to me “Arise and conquer. whereof in my excuse I do accuse me.” as to one who hears And comprehends not. From horn to horn. flow to righteous prayers Should they not hearken. Perhaps my saying over bold appears. and that there I had not turn’d me to them. That. Christ Beam’d on that cross. and may own my truth. But he.The Divine Comedy of Dante . now rapid and now slow. Gather’d along the cross a melody. Accounting less the pleasure of those eyes. When in the flecker’d dawning he shall spy The glitterance of Christ. That quadrants in the round conjoining frame. And ‘tween the summit and the base did move Lights. that never till that hour was thing That held me in so sweet imprisonment. and still’d The sacred chords. with ever-changeful glance. Straight or athwart. and help With many strings. Which grows in transport as we mount aloof. indistinctly heard. and follows Christ Will pardon me for that I leave untold. Whereon to look fulfilleth all desire. scintillating. Here memory mocks the toil of genius. Me such ecstasy O’ercame. 287 . to give me will For praying. That holy pleasure here not yet reveal’d. CANTO XV True love. dulcimer. So from the lights. Silenced that lyre harmonious. who.

288 . yet no gem Dropp’d from its foil. Triunal Deity! That hast such favour in my seed vouchsaf’d!” Then follow’d: “No unpleasant thirst. As oft along the still and pure serene. one luminary ran From mid the cluster shone there. and through the beamy list Like flame in alabaster. “O thou. Forthwith To hearing and to sight grateful alike. That on the dexter of the cross extends. then unto my dame My sight directed. And therefore dost not ask me who I am. my blood! O most exceeding grace divine! to whom. who is first of all. within this light. I thought that mine Had div’d unto the bottom of my grace And of my bliss in Paradise. From whence my voice thou hear’st. for his high conception scar’d Beyond the mark of mortals. “Best he thou. And seems some star that shifted place in heav’n. Who for such lofty mounting has with plumes Begirt thee. That nearer to the level of our thought The speech descended. the first sounds I heard Were. so profound he spake. tho’ long. thus from the horn. in the’ Elysian bower. Thou dost deem thy thoughts to me From him transmitted. E’en as all numbers ray from unity. Thou hast allay’d. At nightfall.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Down to its foot. When he perceiv’d his son. for the love of thing that lasteth not. Or why to thee more joyous I appear. whence it kindles. Whose leaves or white or dusky never change. glow’d its course. Which took me reading in the sacred book. Yet not of choice but through necessity Mysterious. more thanks to her. erewhile at rest. And it is soon extinct. As now to thee. none is lost. Attracting with involuntary heed The eye to follow it. hath twice the heav’nly gate Been e’er unclos’d?” so spake the light. my son. whence I Turn’d me toward him. Only that. for in her eyes Was lighted such a smile. When the flight Of holy transport had so spent its rage. So forward stretch’d him (if of credence aught Our greater muse may claim) the pious ghost Of old Anchises. The spirit to his proem added things I understood not. Despoils himself forever of that love. Than any other in this gladsome throng. and on either side Amazement waited me.Paradise Who. glides a sudden trail of fire.

his long Endurance should he shorten’d by thy deeds. Wisdom and love were in one measure dealt. May be contended fully.The Divine Comedy of Dante . For thy paternal greeting. This howe’er I pray thee. And. as in its rising. Time was not yet. For that they are so equal in the sun.” “I am thy root. and who. hath pleas’d me: “thus the prompt reply Prefacing. Urging with sacred thirst of sweet desire. or ere thou think’st. what time ye kenn’d The nature. With unlike wings are fledge. on its first ledge Hath circuited the mountain. and frank and jocund.” I turn’d me to Beatrice. Well befits. From whence ye drew your radiance and your heat. Was chaste and sober. Whereto my ready answer stands decreed. of whom Thy kindred appellation comes. Which calls her still to matin prayers and noon. As makes all likeness scant. which keeps me wakeful ever. within her ancient limit-mark. That to my will gave wings. but in the heart. 289 . and she heard Ere I had spoken. No purfled dames. In mortals. that the love. and abode in peace. A mortal I Experience inequality like this. She had no armlets and no head-tires then. In which thy thoughts. utter forth Thy will distinctly. “he. nor yet had come Hardanapalus. These hundred years and more. to exhibit feats Of chamber prowess.Paradise The truth is as thou deem’st. But will and means. living topaz! that ingemm’st This precious jewel. But. Montemalo yet O’er our suburban turret rose. let thy voice. and I began “To each among your tribe. next it added. in whom naught unequal dwells. for in this hue Both less and greater in that mirror look. with no artful colouring on her cheeks. For fear the age and dowry should exceed On each side just proportion. as much To be surpass in fall. I saw Bellincione Berti walk abroad In leathern girdle and a clasp of bone. And therefore give no thanks. for the cause ye well discern. smiling. are shown. When at his daughter’s birth the sire grew pale. that caught the eye More than the person did. an assent. “Florence. utter forth the wish. was my son And thy great grandsire. let me hear thy name. House was none Void of its family. O leaf! whom to expect Even. Fearless. no zone.

as ye would A Cincinnatus or Cornelia now. and there In your old baptistery. Such faithful and such fair equality. by that foul crew Was I releas’d from the deceitful world. That our infirm affection here below Thou mov’st to boasting. “In such compos’d and seemly fellowship. in such good part he took My valiant service. And Beatrice. drawing off The tresses from the distaff. for that time. The sons I saw Of Nerli and of Vecchio well content With unrob’d jerkin. as were my brethren. Eliseo and Moronto. Resuming then With greeting such. with her maidens. lectur’d them Old tales of Troy and Fesole and Rome. O happy they! Each sure of burial in her native land.” CANTO XVI O slight respect of man’s nobility! I never shall account it marvelous. After him I went To testify against that evil law. Unless thou be eked out from day to day. I follow’d then The Emperor Conrad. I was made Christian at once and Cacciaguida.The Divine Comedy of Dante . call’d on with loud cries. when I could not choose.Paradise His lady leave the glass. But since hath disaccustom’d I began. A Salterello and Cianghella we Had held as strange a marvel. 290 . Goes round thee with his shears. usurping. Mary at my birth Bestow’d me. but make my vaunt in thee! Yet cloak thou art soon shorten’d. And hence thy surname grew. hushing it With sounds that lull’d the parent’s infancy: Another. and his knighthood he Did gird on me. smil’d reminding me of her. And none left desolate a-bed for France! One wak’d to tend the cradle. Whose people. was first to bear. that a little space Was sever’d. as Rome. “From Valdipado came to me my spouse. by the shepherd’s fault. In so sweet household. There. Whose cough embolden’d (as the story holds) To first offence the doubting Guenever. E’en in that region of unwarp’d desire. Whose base affection many a spirit soils. and their good dames handling The spindle and the flax. And from the martyrdom came to this peace. possess Your right. In heav’n itself.

And whence they hither came. That hath Saint John for guardian. And I. And trades and traffics. Such one. as it grew More fair to look on. Ran purely through the last mechanic’s veins. so that light I saw Shine at my blandishments. been stepdame unto Caesar. and who in it were highest seated?” As embers. Than to have them within. The Conti were possess’d Of Montemurlo still: the Cerchi still Were in Acone’s parish. which of all the world Degenerates most. Through so many streams with joy My soul is fill’d. and what years were mark’d In your first childhood? Tell me of the fold. So that it bears the mighty tide. and. more honourable It is to pass in silence than to tell. had there our birth-place. Yet not in this our modern phrase. and Signa’s. “you give me heart Freely to speak my thought: above myself You raise me. as hath become a Florentine. But then the citizen’s blood. 291 . as a mother. where his grandsire ply’d The beggar’s craft. Five hundred fifty times and thrice. him. so with voice more sweet. where the last Partition of our city first is reach’d By him. what was then Its state. of whom I sprang. forthwith It answer’d: “From the day. by which my mother. that gladness wells from it. its beams To reilumine underneath the foot Of its own lion. Were but the fifth of them this day alive.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That hath his eye already keen for bart’ring! Had not the people.” said I. when it was said ‘ Hail Virgin!’ to the throes. that now is mix’d From Campi and Certaldo and Fighine. O how much better were it. gracious to her son. had been turn’d adrift To Simifonte. They. this fire had come. my honour’d stem! what ancestors Where those you sprang from. All those. and bursts not Say then. and bear the stench Of Aguglione’s hind. Their flame enliven. that these people Were neighbours to you. fit to carry arms. lighten’d her of me Whom she was heavy with.Paradise “You are my sire. that runs her annual game. nor had haply From Valdigrieve past the Buondelmonte. ye should have your bound’ry. and that at Galluzzo And at Trespiano. Thus much Suffice of my forefathers: who they were. Who now is sainted. at the breathing of the wind. But. who in that time were there from Mars Until the Baptist.

Paradise The city’s malady hath ever source In the confusion of its persons. that appertain t’ ye. who now. The column. Giouchi. The Ravignani sat. and you Pass by so suddenly. Hence admire not At what of them I tell thee. whose renown Time covers. I saw The Ughi. illustrious citizens: And great as ancient. as turn and show the tooth. Greci and Ormanni. And as the moon Doth. Such the sires of those. As surely as your church is vacant. Galli and Barucci. and ‘t will seem No longer new or strange to thee to hear. like yourselves. So fortune deals with Florence. Now in their wane. At the poop. With him of Arca saw. in his house. and whoso hath since His title from the fam’d Bellincione ta’en.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Of the Calfucci still the branchy trunk Was in its strength: and to the curule chairs Sizii and Arigucci yet were drawn. in variety of food: And the blind bull falls with a steeper plunge. Than five. and at leisure There stall them and grow fat. That families fail. The Alberichi. The o’erweening brood. Mark Luni. when cities have their end. So cumb’rous it may speedily sink the bark. Catilini and Filippi. the first Florentines. cloth’d with verrey. That now is laden with new felony. Hide and reveal the strand unceasingly. and after them how go Chiusi and Sinigaglia. Than the blind lamb. Sifanti. With them who blush to hear the bushel nam’d. All things. flock Into her consistory. of Sannella him. That plays the dragon after him that flees. whom since their pride Hath undone! and in all her goodly deeds Florence was by the bullets of bright gold O’erflourish’d. How they are gone. and Soldanieri And Ardinghi. But unto such. Urbisaglia mark. by the rolling of her heav’nly sphere. and Bostichi. they endure so long. of whom is sprung The County Guido. 292 . Are mortal: but mortality in some Ye mark not. How mighty them I saw. still was seen Unshaken: the Sacchetti still were great. Fair governance was yet an art well priz’d By him of Pressa: Galigaio show’d The gilded hilt and pommel. as The body’s. and oftentimes one sword Doth more and better execution.

is gentle as a lamb. E’en such was I. named from those of Pera. Was on its rise. I saw Florence in such assur’d tranquility. She had no cause at which to grieve: with these Saw her so glorious and so just. But so was doom’d: On that maim’d stone set up to guard the bridge. Which had been fasten’d on him. Albeit one. it. and that saintly lamp. would rejoice. Already Caponsacco had descended Into the mart from Fesole: and Giuda And Infangato were good citizens. who came to Clymene To certify himself of that reproach. but to the end. When thus by lady: “Give thy wish free vent. from whence your tears have had their spring. That Ubertino of Donati grudg’d His father-in-law should yoke him to its tribe. and those consorted with it.” CANTO XVII Such as the youth. With these and others like to them. At thy last peace. Florence! fell. nor unobserv’d was such Of Beatrice. who borders them With gold. This day is mingled with the common herd. that ne’er The lily from the lance had hung reverse. O Buondelmonte! what ill counseling Prevail’d on thee to break the plighted bond Many. (he whose end Still makes the fathers chary to their sons. Each one. not that aught thy words May to our knowledge add. A thing incredible I tell. tho’ true: The gateway. led Into the narrow circuit of your walls. Had God to Ema giv’n thee.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who now are weeping. who bears the sightly quarterings Of the great Baron (he whose name and worth The festival of Thomas still revives) His knighthood and his privilege retain’d. 293 . bearing true report Of the mind’s impress. Who had erewhile for me his station mov’d. the victim. And Importuni: well for its repose Had it still lack’d of newer neighbourhood. In Borgo yet the Gualterotti dwelt. Or through division been with vermeil dyed. Through the just anger that hath murder’d ye And put a period to your gladsome days. The house. Was honour’d. That it may issue.Paradise Ay or the purse. the first time Thou near our city cam’st. but yet so slight esteem’d.

Nor with oracular response obscure. 294 . How hard the passage to descend and climb By other’s stairs. so clear Dost see contingencies. affix the blame Unto the party injur’d: but the truth Shall. and will ere long effectuate. As earthly thought determines two obtuse In one triangle not contain’d. Such. and thus spake: “Contingency. Yet in his smile apparent. replied The spirit of paternal love. Therefore my will Were satisfied to know the lot awaits me. and my will declar’d. ere in themselves Existent. looking at the point whereto All times are present. seen beforehand. by his cruel stepdame’s wiles. Thou shalt prove How salt the savour is of other’s bread. find A faithful witness. as to the ear sweet harmony From organ comes.Paradise That thou mayst use thyself to own thy thirst And men may mingle for thee when they hear. From thence. But hence deriveth not necessity. thou seest as clear. enshrin’d. hurried down the flood. Is all depictur’d in the’ eternal sight.” “O plant! from whence I spring! rever’d and lov’d! Who soar’st so high a pitch. Such as driv’n out From Athens. that reflects the scene. there. as ‘t is ever wont. More then the tall ship. But that shall gall thee most Will he the worthless and vile company. As Beatrice will’d. Beguil’d the credulous nations. Hippolytus departed. in the vengeance it dispenseth.” So said I to the brightness. the whilst I scal’d With Virgil the soul purifying mount. as or ere the Lamb of God was slain. such must thou Depart from Florence. Touching my future destiny have heard Words grievous.The Divine Comedy of Dante . I. unfolded not to view Upon the tablet of your mortal mold. The common cry. Doth from the vision. Throughout the livelong day. but. though I feel me on all sides Well squar’d to fortune’s blows. slacks its flight. Will. explicitly. This they wish. so comes before mine eye The time prepar’d for thee. The arrow. Where gainful merchandize is made of Christ. which erewhile To me had spoken. Thou shall leave each thing Belov’d most dearly: this is the first shaft Shot from the bow of exile. in terms Precise and unambiguous lore. And visited the nether world of woe. and this Contrive.

And after through this heav’n from light to light. which I had streteh’d for him Upon the warp. His bounty shall be spread abroad so widely. first place of rest. Rich men and beggars interchanging fortunes. who was at his birth impress So strongly from this star. I began. my son. Down through the world Of infinite mourning.—Lo! the ambushment That a few circling seasons hide for thee! Yet envy not thy neighbours: time extends Thy span beyond their treason’s chastisement. that driven from the place Most dear to me. as the saintly spirit.Paradise With whom thou must be thrown into these straits. the granting shall Forerun the asking. and along the mount From whose fair height my lady’s eyes did lift me. Look thou to him And his beneficence: for he shall cause Reversal of their lot to many people. “First refuge thou must find. With him shalt thou see That mortal. I may not lose myself All others by my song. but tell it not. who most Abandoned himself. Then added: “So interpret thou. Therefore ‘t is good I should forecast. for these wheels Only nine years have compass him about.The Divine Comedy of Dante . He shall behold thee with such kind regard. In the great Lombard’s courtesy. Sparkles of virtue shall shoot forth in him. that of his deeds The nations shall take note. was woven. As not to let the tongues e’en of his foes Be idle in its praise. What hath been told thee. As one. His unripe age Yet holds him from observance. by his silence.” Soon. the contrary to that Which falls ‘twixt other men. 295 . That ‘twixt ye two. And thou shalt bear this written in thy soul Of him. who bears Upon the ladder perch’d the sacred bird. For all ungrateful. Shall turn ‘gainst thee: but in a little while Theirs and not thine shall be the crimson’d brow Their course shall so evince their brutishness T’ have ta’en thy stand apart shall well become thee. “and things he told Incredible to those who witness them. Which falls most heavily on him. Had shown the web. who in perplexity desires Counsel of other. But. In equal scorn of labours and of gold. ere the Gascon practice on great Harry. wise. ready to inflict the blow. benign and friendly: “My father! well I mark how time spurs on Toward me. impious all and mad.

and proof apparent urge. when tasted first. What though. first shone glisteningly. I fear my life may perish among those. Which I had found there. The cry thou raisest. thus the hallow’d light. Throughout these orbs. as the wind doth. I leave in silence here: nor through distrust Of my words only.” At the sweet sounds of comfort straight I turn’d. Affection found no room for other wish. notwithstanding. which if I tell again. ruminating. will feel thy saying sharp. These eyes are not thy only Paradise. with second view From her fair countenance my gladden’d soul Contented. that did full On Beatrice shine. the mountain. and list. all deceit remov’d. bewray’d its will 296 . Which is of honour no light argument.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whom fame hath note of. joy’d That blessed spirit. Thus much Yet may I speak. It may with many woefully disrelish. For the mind Of him. And. dimm’d or by its own Or other’s shame. and the deep. sole. admonish’d: “Muse On other thoughts: bethink thee. that near Him I dwell. Like to a golden mirror in the sun. To whom I turn’d. Thou. And let them wince who have their withers wrung. For this there only have been shown to thee. as I gaz’d on her. is loth to acquiesce And fix its faith.” CANTO XVIII Now in his word. in the saintly eyes what love was seen.Paradise Have I learnt that.” As here we sometimes in the looks may see Th’ affection mark’d. flashing. where enclos’d the treasure smil’d. unless the instance brought Be palpable. thy voice shall prove Unwelcome. when that its sway hath ta’en The spirit wholly. Spirits.” The brightness. and I fed on mine. on digestion it will turn To vital nourishment. Tempting the sweet with bitter: she meanwhile. who hears. To whom these days shall be of ancient date. but that to such bliss The mind remounts not without aid. Shall. smite the proudest summits. Who led me unto God. that. who recompenseth every wrong. if I am a timid friend to truth. vanquishing me with a beam Of her soft smile. Next answer’d: “Conscience. While the everlasting pleasure. she spake: “Turn thee. See the whole vision be made manifest. And.

as doth 1n summer cloud Its nimble fire. now in round. what next behoov’d. and with the choir Of heav’nly songsters prov’d his tuneful skill. Looking for intimation or by word Or act. greeting. The saintly creatures flying. whom I name. now I. Which from its fairness doth discharge the weight Of pudency. A splendour gliding. so. fashion to my view Our language. who perseveres In good deeds doth perceive from day to day His virtue growing. At the repeated name of Joshua. another move With whirling speed.Paradise To talk yet further with me. So mighty in renown. as every muse Might grace her triumph with them. within the lights. such in her. Like the change In a brief moment on some maiden’s cheek. To Beatrice on my right l bent. and did descry Such mere effulgence in her eyes. the man. whose fruit is ever fair And leaf unwith’ring. blessed spirits abide. And to mine eyes so sudden was the change. I saw. Last. and Robert Guiscard. as the eye pursues A falcon flying. together with the heav’n The circuit widen’d. and began: “On this fifth lodgment of the tree. such joy. Ere it was done: then. singing. whose life Is from its top. now L. and made Now D. And. On the horns Look therefore of the cross: he. ere they arriv’d in heav’n.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The next for Charlemagne And for the peer Orlando. at the naming saw Of the great Maccabee. Who spake with me among the other lights Did move away. and Renard.” Along the cross I saw. the clear sparks Of love. Their new-found pastures. two my gaze Pursued. to their notes they mov’d. First. It past all former wont. intently. from river banks Arisen. and gladness was the scourge Unto that top. Array them in their flight. That were below. as by sense Of new delight. I e’en thus perceiv’d Of my ascent. William. as seems. and Duke Godfrey drew My ken. sang. then one 297 . that reign’d there. Through silvery whiteness of that temperate star. now lengthen’d troop. nor. figur’d I’ th’ air. And as birds. the word was said. noting the increase Of beauty in that wonder. Whose sixth orb now enfolded us. Within that Jovial cresset. along the cross. Shall there enact. and mix. that stain’d it. And the soul.

Sweet star! what glorious and thick-studded gems Declar’d to me our justice on the earth To be the effluence of that heav’n. Vocal and consonant. Ye host of heaven! whose glory I survey l O beg ye grace for those. Of the fifth word they held their station. And when each one Had settled in his place. lively Grav’d in that streaky fire. that seem’d Erewhile. Sparkles innumerable on all sides Rise scatter’d. War once had for its instrument the sword: 298 . I saw Descending other lights. The characters. And every line and texture of the nest Doth own from him the virtue. That he would look from whence the fog doth rise. And on the summit of the M. the first. with lilied crowning. a little while Did rest them. from whom Thy motion and thy virtue are begun. methinks. source of augury to th’ unwise. well content To over-canopy the M. As fancy doth present them. and the extreme Qui judicatis terram. Then. fashions it. The other bright beatitude. Hath none to guide him. Singing. Diligite Justitiam. that I may set forth the shapes. and some less. the head and neck Then saw I of an eagle. as drive Their traffic in that sanctuary. mak’st glorious and long-liv’d. which thou Inspir’st. e’en as the sun. Which kindleth them. Thus more than thousand twinkling lustres hence Seem’d reascending. Making the star seem silver streak’d with gold. and were mute. O nymph divine Of Pegasean race! whose souls. mov’d forth. I mark’d. as they appear’d. that are on earth All after ill example gone astray. In the M. their bliss and primal good. Both verb and noun all blazon’d. To vitiate thy beam: so that once more He may put forth his hand ‘gainst such. whose walls With miracles and martyrdoms were built. were five-fold seven.Paradise Becoming of these signs.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thyself a costly jewel. decreed. of himself he guides. that rested there. dost inlay! Therefore I pray the Sovran Mind. Who painteth there. Following gently the impress of the bird. and a higher pitch Some mounting. as they Cities and realms by thee! thou with thyself Inform me. which thou. as at shaking of a lighted brand. In order each. Be thy power Display’d in this brief song.

That rears his head. and.” Straight I saw. while they leave its course untrod. That writes but to cancel. and mark thy doings. that shows In faithful mirror the celestial Justice. which thou wastest. Finding no food on earth. which next Befalls me to portray. what intention form’d Of many. voice hath not utter’d. that they. taking the bread away Which the good Father locks from none. This well I know. and let the hunger be appeas’d. Who for the vineyard. That with great craving long hath held my soul. in fruition sweet Gladdening the thronged spirits. Nor hath ink written. Beginning: “For that I was just and piteous. Whence I address them: “O perennial flowers Of gladness everlasting! that exhale In single breath your odours manifold! Breathe now. that issued from them all.” it began.” Thus is one heat from many embers felt. e’en by the bad Commended. I wist not of the fisherman nor Paul. ye the doubt that urges me With such inveterate craving. died. Thou hast good cause to cry. with open wings. nor in fantasy Was e’er conceiv’d. His beauty and his eagerness bewraying. Each did seem A little ruby. think.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Peter and Paul live yet. As in that image many were the loves. Like to a falcon issuing from the hood. with praise Of grace divine inwoven and high song Of inexpressive joy.Paradise But now ‘t is made. The beauteous image. singly as of one express. “Who turn’d his compass on the world’s extreme. So saw I move that stately sign. Ye discern The heed. And one the voice. and claps him with his wings. That if there be in heav’n a realm. wherewith I do prepare myself To hearken. “My heart so cleaves To him. For I beheld and heard The beak discourse. —And thou. whereon so intense The sun-beam glow’d that to mine eyes it came In clear refraction. And from the wilds was dragg’d to martyrdom. that liv’d in solitude remote. Yours without veil reflects it. 299 . And that.” The which no wish exceeds: and there on earth Have I my memory left. l am exalted to this height of glory. CANTO XIX Before my sight appear’d. “He.

who subtilizes thus with me. Hath from itself. which hath hidden from thy search The living justice. or shadow of the flesh. But hidden through its deepness.” As on her nest the stork. which though it mark The bottom from the shore. Justice consists in consonance with it. in such wise Could not through all the universe display Impression of his glory. that on the stool wouldst sit To judge at distance of a thousand miles With the short-sighted vision of a span? To him. As eye doth in the sea. that the Word Of his omniscience should not still remain In infinite excess. In proof whereof. The ken. and none is there Who speaks of Christ. and void of faith. which knows No limit. descends In th’ everlasting Justice as low down. that in itself is good. for thou saidst—’A man Is born on Indus’ banks. and in secret. And who art thou.Paradise And in that space so variously hath wrought. He first through pride supplanted. if he believeth not?’—What then. And all his inclinations and his acts. ne’er been mov’d. the chief Good. who was sum Of each created being. Whose very cause depends upon its beam. and ne’ertheless it is. measur’d by itself alone. And he offendeth not in word or deed. But unbaptiz’d he dies. its origin must own Surpassing far its utmost potency. Both openly. Light is none. of the which thou mad’st Such frequent question. “O animals of clay! O spirits gross I The primal will. As far as human reason sees. There would assuredly be room for doubt Even to wonder. of th’ omnipresent Mind A single beam. nor who doth read nor write. Or else its poison. are good. that turns about 300 . Where is the justice that condemns him? where His blame. in the wide main Discerns it not. your world is gifted with. did not the safe word Of scripture hold supreme authority. Save that which cometh from the pure serene Of ne’er disturbed ether: for the rest. and abortive fell. Therefore your sight. waited not For light celestial. Whence needs each lesser nature is but scant Receptacle unto that Good. ‘Tis darkness all. Derivable by no created good.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Here confess reveal’d That covert.

for his vices No less a mark than million. Who still to worth has been a willing stranger. further off from him by far. There shall be read the woe. The delicate living there of the Bohemian. Which will give speedy motion to the pen. Christ. that speak Much in a narrow space. that he doth work With his adulterate money on the Seine. to whom his name was never known. The writing must be letters maim’d. such is Th’ eternal judgment unto mortal ken. of Portugal And Norway. Those burning splendours of the Holy Spirit Took up the strain. who hath counterfeited ill The coin of Venice. who understand’st them not. and bending so The ever-blessed image wav’d its wings. While they with upward eyes do look on her. O blest Hungary! 301 . spread to view? There amidst Albert’s works shall that be read. Who hath not a believer been in Christ. The halter of Jerusalem shall see A unit for his virtue. All there shall know His uncle and his brother’s filthy doings. He. in the which All their dispraise is written. One rich eternally. In judgment. Who by the tusk will perish: there be read The thirsting pride. There shall be seen the Spaniard’s luxury. And better to denote his littleness. When Prague shall mourn her desolated realm.’ there shall be many found. So lifted I my gaze.Paradise Unto her young. And they. there shall be expos’d with him Of Ratza. and did say: “As are my notes To thee. Who so renown’d a nation and two crowns Have bastardized. the other poor. But lo! of those Who call ‘Christ. Either before or after the blest limbs Were nail’d upon the wood.The Divine Comedy of Dante . impatient of their bound. Wheeling round It warbled. and thus it spake again: “None ever hath ascended to this realm.” Then still abiding in that ensign rang’d. “What may the Persians say unto your kings. Wherewith the Romans over-awed the world. that maketh fool alike The English and Scot. Christians like these the Ethiop shall condemn: When that the two assemblages shall part. whom lately she hath fed. Than such. When they shall see that volume. Lab’ring with such deep counsel. who guards The isle of fire by old Anchises honour’d Shall find his avarice there and cowardice.

making known The richness of his spring-head: and as sound Of cistern. for that all those living lights.” After the precious and bright beaming stones. that shines Midmost for pupil. putting forth Innumerable lights wherein one shines.. In mortal eagles. disappearing. methought I heard The murmuring of a river. O blest Navarre! If with thy mountainous girdle thou wouldst arm thee In earnest of that day. that sees. Waxing in splendour. and bare about The ark from town to town. who sang The Holy Spirit’s song. at the wind-hole. Erewhile irradiate only with his beam. modulate and tun’d. burst forth into songs. Who keepeth even footing with the rest. Is yet again unfolded. glittering in mine eye.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Sweet love! that dost apparel thee in smiles. ceas’d the chiming Of their angelic bells. was the same. grudging at their beast. that doth fall From rock to rock transpicuous. The world’s enlightener vanishes. “The part in me. That make the circle of the vision. How lustrous was thy semblance in those sparkles. rose That murmuring of the eagle. “must now Be noted steadfastly: for of the fires. those. and thence along the beak Issued in form of words.Paradise If thou no longer patiently abid’st Thy ill-entreating! and. such as my heart Did look for. suddenly the sky. and day On all sides wasteth. Such as from memory glide and fall away.” it began. That figure me. Of such vicissitude in heaven I thought. Are chief of all the greatest. Of the five. That did ingem the sixth light. that marshaleth the world And the world’s leaders. from our hemisphere. he Who to the beak is nearest. as it were hollow. Thus up the neck. As the great sign. e’en now are heard Wailings and groans in Famagosta’s streets And Nicosia’s. and forthwith Voice there assum’d. Is. or of pipe. and bears the sun. now doth he know The merit of his soul-impassion’d strains By their well-fitted guerdon. comforted CANTO XX When. at the fret-board. This. on whose tables I inscrib’d them. in the blessed beak Was silent. Which merely are from holy thoughts inspir’d! 302 .

when through pious prayer below Today’s is made tomorrow’s destiny. The other following. So that thy knowledge waits not on thy faith: As one who knows the name of thing by rote. Because I tell them. but discern’st not how. That Trojan Ripheus in this round was set Fifth of the saintly splendours? now he knows Enough of that. but conquers it. Fervent love And lively hope with violence assail The kingdom of the heavens. That warbling in the air expatiates long. From good intent producing evil fruit: Now knoweth he. trilling out his last sweet melody. deriv’d From his well doing. pass’d o’er to Greece.The Divine Comedy of Dante . such appear’d That image stampt by the’ everlasting pleasure. which thou seest in the under bow. That. with the laws and me. Replied: “I see that thou believ’st these things. which weeps For Charles and Frederick living: now he knows How well is lov’d in heav’n the righteous king.” Like to the lark. how all the ill. albeit e’en his sight Reach not its utmost depth. But is a stranger to its properties. As is through glass the hue that mantles it. Drops satiate with the sweetness. still. whom that land bewails.Paradise The widow for her son: now doth he know How dear he costeth not to follow Christ. Till other’s tongue reveal them. who follows In the circumference. The grace divine. In silence waited not: for to my lips “What things are these?” involuntary rush’d. that the degrees of heav’n Alter not. And of its opposite. Though it have brought destruction on the world. for the over arch. 303 . Who in the erring world beneath would deem. And forc’d a passage out: whereat I mark’d A sudden lightening and new revelry. Which fashions like itself all lovely things. He next. not in such sort As man prevails o’er man. Was William. and overcome The will of the Most high. By true repenting slack’d the pace of death: Now knoweth he. doth not helm him aught. The eye was kindled: and the blessed sign No more to keep me wond’ring and suspense. though my doubting were as manifest. which the world cannot see. Which he betokens by his radiant seeming. I. Because ‘t is willing to be conquer’d. To yield the shepherd room. Then. Both from experience of this pleasant life.

Predestination! is thy root from such As see not the First cause entire: and ye. Cause thee to marvel. Gentiles but Christians. Of lively hope Such was the meed. in believing.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Their beamy circlets. This of the feet in future to be pierc’d. The other. And. was giv’n to me Sweet medicine to clear and strengthen sight. of whom I speak to thee. through the riches of that grace. The three nymphs. Attendant on some skilful songster’s voice Bids the chords vibrate. Plac’d all his love below on just and right: Wherefore of grace God op’d in him the eye To the redemption of mankind to come. and God’s will and ours are one. that at the second death He was made sharer in our gamesome mirth. O how far remov’d. Whom at the right wheel thou beheldst advancing. who see our Maker. Were sponsors for him more than thousand years Before baptizing. Where never any with good will returns. in the eye who live the first and fifth. It doth remember me. They quitted not their bodies. as thou deem’st. nourish’d such a flame Of holy love. in that thou behold’st The region of the angels deck’d with them. he endur’d no more The filth of paganism. Came back unto his bones. dancing to the sounds.Paradise Though conquer’d. Wherein believing. O mortal men! be wary how ye judge: For we.” So. know not yet The number of the chosen: and esteem Such scantiness of knowledge our delight: For all our good is in that primal good Concentrate. that I beheld The pair of blessed luminaries move. who had the means to help. Which from so deep a fountain doth distil. And. That of feet nail’d already to the cross. in firm rooted faith. 304 . The glorious Spirit. Believ’d in him. and for their ways Rebuk’d the stubborn nations. of lively hope. Like the accordant twinkling of two eyes. “Those. A little while returning to the flesh. As never eye created saw its rising. by its mercy conquering. that wing’d The prayers sent up to God for his release. by that form divine. so. the whilst it spake. as one handling skillfully the harp. And put power into them to bend his will. One from the barrier of the dark abyss. and therein the song Acquires more pleasure.

cross their flight. when to new thoughts I chang’d. As upon certain stair it met. Was shed thence. commingled with his might. And one ling’ring near us. Returning. “Did I smile. Thy mortal puissance would from its rays Shrink. that in her looks Found all contentment. Thy mind be with thine eyes: and in them mirror’d The shape. so seem’d That glitterance. in this hour. which records the name. of my own desert. “thou wouldst be straight Like Semele when into ashes turn’d: For. and I began: “I am not worthy. mounting these eternal palace-stairs. which my ken pursued in vain. prompted me T’ indulge the fervent wish. Saw wherefore I was silent. as the leaf doth from the thunderbolt. but for her sake. (As its remoter circle girds the world) Of that lov’d monarch. I saw rear’d up. that seeth all. at dawn of day Bestirring them to dry their feathers chill. which in this mirror shall be shown. May know. that in my thought: said: “The love. As the rooks. how fondly I had fed My sight upon her blissful countenance. Some speed their way a-field. and homeward some. ev’ry light in heav’n. by whom my silence and my speech Are order’d. Which this betokens me. were no temp’ring interpos’d. which the loftier it climbs. To her. and clash’d Its shining. while some abide And wheel around their airy lodge.” Unwillingly from question I refrain. As thou hast noted.” quoth she. methought. admits no doubt. what joy To do the bidding of my heav’nly guide: In equal balance poising either weight. So lofty was the summit. My beauty. Within the crystal. still doth kindle more. That underneath the burning lion’s breast Beams. That thou shouldst answer me. So shines.Paradise CANTO XXI Again mine eyes were fix’d on Beatrice. And with mine eyes my soul. Into the seventh splendour are we wafted.The Divine Comedy of Dante . In colour like to sun-illumin’d gold. 305 . Who in the sight of Him. that. Yet no smile she wore And. A ladder. down whose steps I saw the splendours in such multitude Descending. wax’d So bright. wafted on alternate wing. looking for a sign: whence she.” Whoso can deem. in whose happy reign No ill had power to harm.

That no created ken may fathom it. That is in heav’n most lustrous. and thus Supported. Wherewith I sparkle. nor distant from thy land. like rapid mill. Below.” Was the reply: “and what forbade the smile Of Beatrice interrupts our song. Doth the sweet symphony of Paradise Keep silence here. lifts me so above myself. “‘Twixt either shore Of Italy. That makes us ready servants. I thus far Descend these hallow’d steps: not that more love Invites me. The thunder doth not lift his voice so high. A stony ridge ariseth. That on the sov’ran essence. Be this reported. piercing through these folds. replied: “Splendour eternal. what passeth her ability. Upon its centre whirl’d the light. which it wells from. And. in such sort. nor the seraph That hath his eyes most fix’d on God. When she is ta’en to heav’n. Which bringeth thee so near: and wherefore. “O sacred lamp! Love no compulsion needs. “That in this court. Look then if she may do. that none henceforth dare Direct his footsteps to so dread a bourn. say. spirit blest! That in thy joy art shrouded! say the cause. to the mortal world when thou return’st. when. as much Or more of love is witness’d in those flames: But such my lot by charity assign’d. pervading with such sounds Of rapt devotion ev’ry lower sphere?” “Mortal art thou in hearing as in sight. on the earth Is wrapt in mist. that did inhabit there.” By words like these Admonish’d. I the question urg’d no more. and then The love. that here is radiant. And of the spirit humbly sued alone T’ instruct me of its state.” I had not ended. Only to yield thee gladness of my voice. I have the power to gaze: and hence the joy. as thou seest. And of the light that vests me.” said I. for lo! there aloft. but follows free Th’ eternal Providence. 306 . Its virtue to my vision knits. shall solve What thou hast ask’d: for in th’ abyss it lies Of th’ everlasting statute sunk so low. But not the soul. why of thy peers Thou only to this office wert foredoom’d. I well discern: This harder find to deem.Paradise Who hath vouchsaf’d my asking. The mind. equaling with my blaze The keenness of my sight.The Divine Comedy of Dante . To execute the counsel of the Highest.

so deaf’ning was the thunder. Rich were the returns And fertile. which that cloister once was us’d To render to these heavens: now ‘t is fall’n Into a waste so empty. O patience! thou That lookst on this and doth endure so long. and that nothing there is done But is done zealously and well? Deem now. and wax. So burly are they grown: and from behind Others to hoist them. to the guardian of my steps I turn’d me. and stay’d them. easily I pass’d the heats Of summer and the winter frosts. At the first table.—Cephas came. as chanc’d. in the house Of our blest Lady. eating their bread. since thus the shout had pow’r to move thee. thou art in heav’n? And know’st not thou. Is holy. uttered them a shout So loud. more beautiful. Soothing me: “Know’st not thou. it hath no likeness here: nor I Wist what it spake. Down the palfrey’s sides Spread their broad mantles.” I at those accents saw the splendours down From step to step alight. then added: “There So firmly to God’s service I adher’d. And she was like the mother. Near upon my close Of mortal life. 307 . What change in thee the song. who always runs Thither for succour. so as both the beasts Are cover’d with one skin. like the chill. and wheel. for thus she spake. through much importuning I was constrain’d to wear the hat that still From bad to worse it shifted. Modern Shepherd’s need Those who on either hand may prop and lead them.Paradise They call it Catria: at whose foot a cell Is sacred to the lonely Eremite. He came. For worship set apart and holy rites. whatever is in heav’n.” A third time thus it spake. and what my smile Had wrought. and he is cheer’d. Barefoot and lean. when before I dwelt Beside the Adriatic. with her voice Soothes him. Each circuiting. who was the Holy Spirit’s vessel. That with no costlier viands than the juice Of olives. that ere long Detection must lay bare its vanity Pietro Damiano there was I y-clept: Pietro the sinner. who her son Beholding pale and breathless.The Divine Comedy of Dante . CANTO XXII Astounded. content In heav’n-ward musings. where he trusteth most. Round this They came.

when the consummate flower Has spread to utmost amplitude. “If thou. beheldst the charity That burns amongst us. But that. Who in desire or fear doth look for it. ere the lofty bound Thou reach. Which thou hast such respect of. like me. I saw A hundred little spheres. The spirits of men contemplative.Paradise In which couldst thou have understood their prayers. as to gaze Upon thine image.” I answ’ring. So shalt thou many a famous spirit behold. 308 . wakening it Full-blossom’d in my bosom. whose kindly force Gives birth to flowers and fruits of holiness.” “Brother!” he thus rejoin’d. The sword of heav’n is not in haste to smite. I behold Not unobservant. expectance may not weary thee. Who brought the soul-subliming truth to man. Who thither carried first the name of Him. I remain’d. at whose side Cassino rests. In old days. Have rais’d assurance in me. when amid those pearls. Romoaldo here: And here my brethren. That it might yield contentment to my wish. by no covering veil’d. The vengeance were already known to thee. And such a speeding grace shone over me. as a rose Before the sun.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That from their impious worship I reclaim’d The dwellers round about. That mountain. Abates in him the keenness of desire. And this the cheerful semblance. were all Enliven’d by that warmth. One largest and most lustrous onward drew. These other flames. Of thee Therefore entreat I. Here is Macarius. thus. Nor yet doth linger. as she will’d. save unto his seeming. But elsewhere now l bid thee turn thy view. Nor dares to question. Was on its height frequented by a race Deceived and ill dispos’d: and I it was. and held firm their heart. that fairer grew By interchange of splendour. Were utter’d. father! to declare If I may gain such favour. “Thy gentle words and kind. “in the last sphere Expect completion of thy lofty aim. what thy mind conceives. who their steps refrain’d Within the cloisters.” Mine eyes directing. who with the world Were in delusion lost. beaming in ye all. As one. I will make answer even to the thought. Which thou must witness ere thy mortal hour. who fearful of o’er-much presuming. And from within it these the sounds I heard.

And a less wonder. May at God’s pleasure work amendment here. entire. than that fruit which makes The hearts of monks so wanton: for whate’er Is in the church’s keeping. unto the acorn’s setting. good beginnings last not From the oak’s birth. that no natural motion. ere The sign. reader. grateful I refer. by that influence only. And so at giddy distance mocks thy view. The walls. Had. And if thou note the point. O glorious stars! O light impregnate with exceeding virtue! To whom whate’er of genius lifteth me Above the vulgar. then the refluent sea. Foul usury doth not more lift itself Against God’s pleasure. and smite my breast. Thither the Patriarch Jacob saw it stretch Its topmost round. There all things are as they have ever been: For space is none to bound. To such. and not To those who in respect of kindred claim. thou shalt find The white grown murky. I with pray’rs and fasting mine. Mortal flesh Is grown so dainty. turned into dens. as my hope is to return Unto the holy triumph. I beheld. But to mount it now None lifts his foot from earth: and hence my rule Is left a profitless stain upon the leaves. nor pole divides. than I was. as sue for heav’n’s sweet sake. Or on more vile allowance. The cowls to sacks choak’d up with musty meal. Jordan was turn’d back. for the which I ofttimes wail my sins. His convent Peter founded without gold Or silver. to his assembly back he drew: And they together cluster’d into one. that followeth Taurus. when it appear’d to him With angels laden. So. Then all roll’d upward like an eddying wind. as I mounted. all pertains. Ascending or descending here below. with my pennon vied.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The sweet dame beckon’d me to follow them: And.” So saying. And enter’d its precinct. so prevail’d Over my nature. And Francis his in meek humility. Then look what it hath err’d to. And there on mine: where every aim is found Perfect. and for fulfillment ripe. With ye the parent of all mortal life 309 . Thou hadst been longer drawing out and thrusting Thy finger in the fire.Paradise For there on each desire completion waits. for abbey rear’d. whence each proceeds. Our ladder reaches even to that clime.

till the dawn. CANTO XXIII E’en as the bird. 310 . how bulky each. With her sweet brood. This petty area (o’er the which we stride So fiercely). Nor might I not descry Of all the seven. sat darkling through the night. Present itself to the triumphal throng. in its blithest mood. To you my soul Devoutly sighs. “that behooves thy ken Be vigilant and clear. That overhangs their couch. Which through the’ etherial concave comes rejoicing. And. of the time prevenient. how swift. on the spray. Forth from the havens stretch’d unto the hills. And mark’d. Removeth from the east her eager ken. nor ever.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who esteems it least: whose thoughts Elsewhere are fix’d. when grace Vouchsaf’d me entrance to the lofty wheel That in its orb impels ye. In the fond quest unconscious of her toil: She.” Said Beatrice. hence Look downward. him worthiest call and best. Hyperion! of thy sun. appear’d before me all. what a world Already stretched under our feet there lies: So as thy heart may. and to bring home their food. as along the eternal twins I wound my way. fate decreed My passage at your clime. Then to the beauteous eyes mine eyes return’d. Here I sustain’d The visage. and contemplate. how near him with their circle. and saw this globe So pitiful of semblance. round Move Maia and Dione. impatient to descry Their wished looks. I saw the daughter of Latona shine Without the shadow. with wakeful gaze Expects the sun. Nor of their several distances not learn. and with mine eye return’d Through all the seven spheres. here discern’d Jove’s tempering ‘twixt his sire and son. Or even thou advance thee further. in her nest. “Thou art so near the sum of blessedness. for virtue even now To meet the hard emprize that draws me on. to this end.Paradise Arose and set. whereof late I deem’d That dense and rare were cause. who midst the leafy bower Has. and afterward. when I did first inhale The Tuscan air. and hence Their changes and their various aspects Distinctly scann’d. that perforce It moved my smiles: and him in truth I hold For wisest.” I straight obey’d.

and he strives in vain To shape it in his fantasy again. I was not held. Betwixt the heav’n and earth. ‘mid th’ eternal nympus. That paint through all its gulfs the blue profound In bright pre-eminence so saw I there. that had been yearned for so long. not with all their help to boot. My song might shadow forth that saintly smile. That. and mark me: thou hast seen Things. that o’erpow’reth thee. Whenas that gracious boon was proffer’d me. In whom desire is waken’d. from whom all drew Their radiance as from ours the starry train: And through the living light so lustrous glow’d The substance. that. Long in expectance. while she spake her image all did burn. and the hope Of somewhat new to come fills with delight. Wherein the past is written. where the sun Abateth most his speed. Which never may be cancel’d from the book. “Behold. when I saw the heav’n Wax more and more resplendent. And I am fain to pass unconstrued by. It falleth against nature to the ground. In peerless beauty. flow merely in her saintly looks it wrought. That. I say. And in her eyes such fullness was of joy. And here the wisdom. and all the harvest reap’d at length Of thy ascending up these spheres.Paradise So stood the dame erect. 311 . O’er million lamps a sun. which did open lay The path. when a forgotten dream Doth come across him. and bent her glance Wistfully on that region. As in the calm full moon. that empower thee to sustain my smile. “the triumphal hosts Of Christ. in the transport lost.” Like to the fire. Holds now remembrance none of what she was. when Trivia smiles.” I was as one. Here is the might. Short space ensued. Unto the thousandth parcel of the truth. “Ope thou thine eyes.” Cried Beatrice. O Beatrice! sweet and precious guide! Who cheer’d me with her comfortable words! “Against the virtue.” Meseem’d. that my ken endur’d it not. in a cloud imprison’d doth break out Expansive. Avails not to resist. that have on sweetest milk Of Polyhymnia and her sisters fed And fatten’d. seeing her Suspense and wand’ring. so that from its womb enlarg’d. I became as one. and. and.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thus in that heav’nly banqueting my soul Outgrew herself. Now were all Those tongues to sound.

Wherein the word divine was made incarnate. brooks No unribb’d pinnace. in my eyeballs lively portray’d. And girt the star. with all her might Collected. if it tremble with the burden. as once here on earth Were. as that thou dost not turn Unto the beautiful garden. as it ended. Lo! from within the sky a cresset fell. 312 . Though veil’d themselves in shade. O gracious virtue! Thou. was crown’d. as the bright dimensions of the star In heav’n excelling.Paradise And with such figuring of Paradise The sacred strain must leap. “thus Enamour thee. whom duly I invoke Both morn and eve. who thinks how ponderous the theme. our ventrous keel must furrow. Mine eyes a flower-besprinkled mead have seen.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whose broad stamp is on them. long as thou Thy Son shalt follow. “ Angelic Love I am. so saw I there Legions of splendours. on the goodliest ardour fix’d. no self-sparing pilot. But he. yet saw I not The fountain whence they flow’d. that meets A sudden interruption to his road. blossoming Beneath the rays of Christ? Here is the rose. As erewhile. Through glance of sunlight. The track. “Why doth my face. Might seem a rent cloud when it grates the thunder. Compar’d unto the sounding of that lyre. May pardon. Wherewith the goodliest sapphire. And here the lilies. like one. and diviner joy Shall from thy presence gild the highest sphere. and hov’ring round it wheel’d. my soul. that inlays The floor of heav’n. And that ‘t is lain upon a mortal shoulder.” Prompt I heard Her bidding. by whose odour known The way of life was follow’d. And draws the spirit most unto itself. higher up Thou didst exalt thy glory to give room To my o’erlabour’d sight: when at the name Of that fair flower.” Such close was to the circling melody: And. all the other lights Took up the strain. Circling in fashion of a diadem. and echoed Mary’s name. Whatever melody sounds sweetest here. who thus with hov’ring flight enwheel The lofty rapture from that womb inspir’d. Lady of Heav’n! will hover. and encounter once again The strife of aching vision. And. stream’d through broken cloud. Where our desire did dwell: and round thee so.” said Beatrice. on whom burning rays Shed lightnings from above.

Of the fount ye alway drink. trail’d a blaze Of comet splendour. Through zealous love to Mary: then in view There halted. the last. Made me to rate the riches of their joy. Or ever death his fated term prescribe. that with tears Were in the Babylonian exile won. Whence flows what most he craves. That yet no glimmer of its majesty Had stream’d unto me: therefore were mine eyes Unequal to pursue the crowned flame. and “Regina Coeli “ sang So sweetly. and as wheels. And like to babe. that wind Their circles in the horologe. which I did note in beauty most Excelling. After the milk is taken. O what o’erflowing plenty is up-pil’d In those rich-laden coffers. Here are the treasures tasted. But may some influence of your sacred dews Sprinkle him.Paradise The robe. so outstretch’d Their wavy summits all the fervent band. 313 . so work The stated rounds. Be ye not heedless of his urgent will. To whom the keys of glory were assign’d.” Beatrice spake. as it flew. held so far retir’d Its inner hem and skirting over us. From that. the delight hath left me never. or slow. Victorious he his mighty triumph holds. CANTO XXIV “O ye! in chosen fellowship advanc’d To the great supper of the blessed Lamb.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and with the nearer breath of God Doth burn and quiver. and. And the rejoicing spirits. When gold had fail’d them. Whereon who feeds hath every wish fulfill’d! If to this man through God’s grace be vouchsaf’d Foretaste of that. whose harvest now they keep. They by the measure pac’d. which from your table falls. Under the Son of Mary and of God. like to spheres On firm-set poles revolving. Round Beatrice thrice it wheel’d about. that with its regal folds enwraps The world. That rose and sought its natal seed of fire. that to th’ observant eye The first seems still. as none was left more goodly there. saw I issue forth a flame So bright. which below Sow’d the good seed. that stretches forth its arms For very eagerness towards the breast. E’en thus their carols weaving variously. Here in synod high Of ancient council with the new conven’d. or swift.

they have in belief alone Their being.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But since true faith Has peopled this fair realm with citizens. Summoning up each argument to aid. And speaks not. who arms himself. and then proof. where all things are beheld In liveliest portraiture.” said I. who with thee conspir’d To bring Rome in unto the way of life. to approve. Meet is. why first He hath defin’d it. and the proof Of things not seen. Declare thee. soon as it was stay’d: To whom she thus: “O everlasting light Of him.” “The deep things. while she spake. Nor e’en the inward shaping of the brain. Thou dost unbind me from that beauteous sphere. in silence. are below from mortal eye So hidden. substance. “which here I scan Distinctly. “vouchsafe to me Apt utterance for my thoughts!” then added: “Sire! E’en as set down by the unerring style Of thy dear brother. and herein doth consist Methinks its essence. Be steadfast. And such profession: “As good Christian ought. whence this had breath’d. Thou in his audience shouldst thereof discourse. If he in love. that to exalt its glory more.” I replied. touching the faith.” Was answer’d: “if thou well discern.Paradise With so divine a song. and in belief. within whose mighty grasp our Lord Did leave the keys. So I. arm’d me. “O saintly sister mine! thy prayer devout Is with so vehement affection urg’d. By the which thou didst on the billows walk. Faith of things hop’d is substance. “May the grace. in hope. That giveth me the captain of the church For confessor. till the master have propos’d The question. that fancy’s ear Records it not. What is faith?” Whereat I rais’d My forehead to the light.”—”Rightly hast thou deem’d. Then turn’d to Beatrice. which of this wondrous bliss He bare below! tent this man. and in her looks Approval met. is not hid from thee: for thou Hast there thy ken. Hath colours fine enough to trace such folds. and not to end it. that from their inmost fount I should unlock the waters. as thou wilt. With lighter probe or deep. and the pen passeth on And leaves a blank: for that our mortal speech. As was behooveful for such questioner.” Such were the accents towards my lady breath’d From that blest ardour. on which credence hope sublime 314 .” Like to the bachelor.

that follow’d. The rest were not an hundredth part so great. that holds sweet dalliance with thy soul. whatsoe’er has past them. and no miracle been wrought. that we now Approach’d the topmost bough. he straight resum’d. I commend.— Here is the reas’ning.” Then heard I: “Wherefore holdest thou that each. It once was. Were understood.” “O saintly sire and spirit!” I began.” “The flood. “Praise we one God!” In song of most unearthly melody. came to thee. through the high celestial court Resounded all the spheres. “from the Spirit of God Rain’d down upon the ancient bond and new.” Next issued from the deep imbosom’d splendour: “Say. now is grown unsightly bramble.” said I. I answer’d: “Nature did not make for these The iron hot. E’en thou wentst forth in poverty and hunger To set the goodly plant. had led me. Examining. hence of proof Th’ intention is deriv’d. “should have bee turn’d To Christian. “that they in very deed Are that they purport? None hath sworn so to thee.The Divine Comedy of Dante . are the voice of heav’n?” “The works. “The grace. evidence their truth”.Paradise Is built. The elder proposition and the new.” said I. both in weight and in alloy.” “Even so glittering and so round. And when that Worthy thus. on the which Is founded every virtue.” Forthwith I heard: “If thus. which thou didst so believe. Would in itself be such a miracle. the sophist would want room To exercise his wit. all respect To other view excluded. Was the reply. And inasmuch as we must needs infer From such belief our reasoning. The next. 315 .” I answer’d. But tell me. each argument beside Seems blunt and forceless in comparison. that convinceth me So feelingly. whence the costly jewel.” “That all the world. from branch to branch. what thou believ’st. or on her anvil mould them. Which so persuade thee.” That ended. and therefore substance it intends. whate’er by learning men attain. “Who seest that.” So breath’d the flame Of love: then added: “Current is the coin Thou utter’st. that from the vine. So far discreetly hath thy lips unclos’d That. and whereon thy belief hath grown.” “Who voucheth to thee of the works themselves. Behooves thee to express. “I not a whit misdoubt of its assay. if thou hast it in thy purse.

full of gladness. 316 . and then enfoldeth in his arms The servant. which is shed Through Moses. of whose love All heav’n is mov’d. With other voice and fleece of other grain I shall forthwith return. whose behest Had op’d lips. which. whence had issued forth The first fruit of Christ’s vicars on the earth. Thus benediction uttering with song Soon as my peace I held. The Gospel. mysterious league Of union absolute. One sole eternal Godhead. CANTO XXV If e’er the sacred poem that hath made Both heav’n and earth copartners in its toil. Nor demonstration physical alone. and like heav’n’s star Doth glitter in me. himself unmov’d the while. for its sake. And thou the cause of it hast likewise ask’d. at view whereof My Lady. And having told the errand keeps his peace. and that ye yourselves did write. Persuades me to this faith. compass’d me thrice The apostolic radiance. Toward the sepulchre? thy will is here.Paradise As to outstrip feet younger than thine own. who hath joyful tidings brought. spake to me: “Lo! lo! behold the peer of mickle might. The word of gospel lore upon my mind Imprints: and from this germ. and. And with lean abstinence. That I the tenour of my creed unfold. the rapt Prophets. this firstling spark. and the Psalms. which bars me forth Of the fair sheep-fold. so well their answer pleas’d. be destin’d to prevail Over the cruelty.’’ As the master hears. where a sleeping lamb The wolves set on and fain had worried me. Essence threefold and one.The Divine Comedy of Dante . standing up At my baptismal font. shall claim the wreath Due to the poet’s temples: for I there First enter’d on the faith which maketh souls Acceptable to God: and. In three eternal Persons I believe. Next from the squadron. many a time. Faded my brow. When ye were gifted of the Holy Ghost. but from that truth It cometh to me rather. The lively flame dilates. Toward us mov’d a light. Peter had then circled my forehead thus. through many a year. Or more intelligential and abstruse. And I reply: I in one God believe. Well pleas’d.

which hither from the mortal world Arriveth. As Jesus stood before thee. so that having view’d The glories of our court. and mine eyes I lifted up Unto the mountains that had bow’d them late With over-heavy burden. with his lords Shouldst be confronted. What is that hope. Before me sat they down. “Hope. well can’st speak them. thou mayst therewith Thyself. And whence thou hadst it?” Thus proceeding still. I could not look upon them.Paradise That makes Falicia throng’d with visitants!” As when the ring-dove by his mate alights.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so God give him grace. And murmuring cooes his fondness. as clear. Seconds his teacher gladly. Beatrice spake: “O life in glory shrin’d!” Who didst the largess of our kingly court Set down with faithful pen! let now thy voice Of hope the praises in this height resound. The other points. but that he may tell How dear thou holdst the virtue. Th’ effect of grace divine and merit preceding. must be ripen’d in our beam. extolling both Their heavenly banqueting. Smiling then. not one more full of hope. so burning bright. to see. For thou. thus preventing me. that leads to blissful end. “Sith our Liege Wills of his grace that thou.” Such cheering accents from the second flame Assur’d me. rejoin’d: Among her sons. or ere thy death. how it doth flourish in thee. declare. Hath the church militant: so ‘t is of him Recorded in the sun. The second light: and she.” said I. hence permitted he is come. these to him Leave I.” “Lift up thy head. In circles each about the other wheels. Not for more knowledge. In the most secret council. but when an end Was to their gratulation. both which thou hast inquir’d. each. With kindly greeting hail’d. invigorate With hope. silent. “Is of the joy to come a sure expectance. and be thou strong in trust: For that. From Egypt to Jerusalem. for he may answer thee with ease. practis’d in his task.” Like to the scholar. and all who hear. And without boasting. 317 . willing to give proof of diligence. Who. whose liberal orb Enlighteneth all our tribe: and ere his term Of warfare. thus saw I One. of the other great and glorious prince. who figur’st them in shapes. whose gentle love My soaring pennons in that lofty flight Escorted.

What promise thou from hope in chief dost win. as became their rapture.’ and with my faith who know not that? From thee. Play’d tremulous. the next. ‘Let all hope In thee. Were such a crystal in the Cancer’s sign. As he. And the dame Held on them fix’d her looks: e’en as the spouse Silent and moveless.’ so speak his anthem. and inspires To ask of thee. who sang The songs of the Supreme. “This is he. and their proper lands this delicious life. So I beheld the new effulgence come Unto the other two. where he tells Of the white raiment destin’d to the saints. “Propose the mark (which even now I view) For souls belov’d of God. In thine epistle. And enters on the mazes of the dance. who in a ring Wheel’d. as of quick and vollied lightning. himself supreme Among his tuneful brethren. A light of so clear amplitude emerg’d. new and ancient.” I reply’d. Within the bosom of that mighty sheen. Glows vigorous yet within me.” first heard we cried: whereto Answer’d the carols all. into whose keeping from the cross The mighty charge was given. Amidst them next. distilling from his spring.” Thus she spake. whom also it delights. Isaias saith. Though gay. who looks intent. “They hope in thee. And strives with searching ken.” Whileas I spake. Or when they clos’d. in their own land. Yet therefore naught the more remov’d her Sight From marking them. That winter’s month were but a single day. Like as a virgin riseth up. as the words were ending. how he may see 318 . Than to do fitting honour to the bride.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who lay Upon the bosom of our pelican: This he.Paradise This light from many a star visits my heart. thy brother hath set forth This revelation to us. from above.” “Both scriptures. But flow’d to me the first from him. In the dance And in the song it mingled. ‘who have known Thy name. yet innocent of worse intent. That. In terms more full. that I on others shower The influence of their dew.” And. and goes. or ere her words began. then forth these accents breath’d: “Love for the virtue which attended me E’en to the palm. fell on me the drops So plenteously. A lamping. each one must be clad In twofold vesture. and issuing from the field. And clearer far.

Paradise The sun in his eclipse. on my form O’erspent. So report below. the flamy circle at that voice So rested.’’I answering thus: “Be to mine eyes the remedy or late Or early. And say. When. in her look Hath potency. loseth power of sight: so I Peer’d on that last resplendence. with the rest. through desire Of seeing. 319 . shine alone With the two garments. on the happy coast she stood. although Not distant. Forth of the beamy flame which dazzled me. that sight in thee Is but o’erpowered a space. regain its virtue. while I heard: “Why dazzlest thou thine eyes in seeking that. and these words it spake: “‘T were well. and spake: “Behooves thee sift more narrowly thy terms. Which from the trinal band soft-breathing rose. who level’d at this scope thy bow. That Alpha and Omega. Beginning. whilst wond’ring I remain’d. All rest.” “Philosophy. at which she enter’d. the like to that which dwelt In Ananias’ hand. and did light Her never dying fire.” Yet again The voice which had dispers’d my fear. And this place hath authority enough ‘T’ imprint in me such love: for. of constraint. so long. looking at my side again to see Beatrice. The oars. In this our blessed cloister. I descried her not. In earth: and shall be. CANTO XXVI With dazzled eyes. for they were The gates. and. As till our number equal the decree Of the Most High. Which here abides not? Earth my body is. erewhile dash’d frequent in the wave. ‘’hath arguments. and the mingling sound was still. My wishes here Are centered. That. to converse urg’d. but ah! how trembled in my thought. I turn’d. Issued a breath. that in attention mute Detain’d me.” said I. to what point thy soul aspires: And meanwhile rest assur’d. at her pleasure. for ease of labour. is to all The lessons love can read me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The two that have ascended. not wholly quench’d: Since thy fair guide and lovely. in this palace is the weal. when daz’d With that excess.” As when. Say then. or to shun Suspected peril at a whistle’s breath. long as till thy vision. with discourse Thou compensate the brief delay.

The being of the world. which he led to. and resum’d: “All grappling bonds. and in degree the more. that in the garden bloom. must needs attract The soul of each one. And that. that knit the heart to God. Confederate to make fast our clarity.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And as a sleep is broken and dispers’d Through sharp encounter of the nimble light. as is the good Dealt by th’ eternal hand. To what intent the eagle of our Lord Had pointed his demand. who shows me the first love Of all intelligential substances Eternal: from his voice I learn. and mine own being. So. holy. To the foremention’d lively knowledge join’d. at his sudden waking. as I do. found without it. ‘I will make all my good before thee pass. where such advantage is. With the resplendence of her own. The essence then. from membrane on to the membrane urg’d. With the eye’s spirit running forth to meet The ray. As for the leaves. inasmuch as we perceive the good. If thou yet other cords within thee feel’st That draw thee towards him. That each good. which all the faithful hope. In mortal ears the mystery of heav’n. who the truth Discerns. that of himself to Moses saith. so that thou report How many are the fangs.Paradise Good. The death which he endur’d that I should live.’ Lastly from thee I learn. on which this proof is built. Such truth Learn I from him.” “Through human wisdom. E’en at the outset of thy heralding. But say. who chief proclaim’st. Kindles our love. and “Holy. Have from the sea of ill love sav’d my bark. till assurance waits On better judgment: thus the saintly came Drove from before mine eyes the motes away.” Accordant with the rest my lady sang. with which this love Is grappled to thy soul. And on the coast secur’d it of the right. whose word Is truth. he misdeems Of all around him. and th’ authority Therewith agreeing. loving. “keep The choicest of thy love for God. yea noted well Th’ avowal. is naught else But of his light the beam. And the upstartled wight loathes that be sees. As it comprises more of goodness in ‘t.” I did not miss. My love for them is great. that cast 320 . holy. and therewith a song most sweet Rang through the spheres. that tends them all.” heard I answer’d.” I ended.

The Divine Comedy of Dante . and. ask’d Of a fourth light. This wouldst thou hear. or ever Nimrod’s race Their unaccomplishable work began. from whose hounds She led me up in this ladder. But only my transgressing of the mark Assign’d me. than thou whatever thing Thou holdst most certain: for that will I see In Him. For naught. that stirs in him and conforms His outside seeming to the cheer within: And in like guise was Adam’s spirit mov’d To joyous mood. ere was lasting. clearer shall before. my son. that now with us I saw. till the sun had made complete. still was I debarr’d This council. that through the covering shone. That ever the first virtue fram’d. whence at thy lady’s hest The Mantuan mov’d him. the whilst she said. Then eagerness to speak embolden’d me. and. how long since God Plac’d me high garden. admires Within these rays his Maker. when first engender’d! Ancient father! That doubly seest in every wedded bride Thy daughter by affinity and blood! Devoutly as I may. thousand miles below. The fondness. awe-stricken bow’d. There. 321 . that man inclines to. Through the sleek cov’ring of his furry coat. And what the language. So I. well nigh astounded. and I. I pray thee hold Converse with me: my will thou seest. when to pleasure me it spake: “No need thy will be told. steep and long. That bows its lithe top till the blast is blown. And I began: “O fruit! that wast alone Mature. Transparent. which I spake and fram’d Not that I tasted of the tree. The language I did use Was worn away. tell it not “ It chanceth oft some animal bewrays. More speedily to hear thee. Whence I my vision. By its own virtue rear’d then stands aloof. and Himself Parhelion unto all things. Recover’d.Paradise Their brightness downward. Was in itself the cause of that exile. and naught else To him. Thousand save sev’nty times. And Beatrice: “The first diving soul. the whilst I dwelt Upon the earth. through every light In his broad pathway.” Like the leaf. Four thousand and three hundred rounds and twice. which I untold Better discern. What space endur’d my season of delight. His annual journey. who is truth’s mirror. Whence truly sprang the wrath that banish’d me. saw I him return.

As is the sky that sways him. to the Son. Through the blest quire. all my life. who here appoints Vicissitude of ministry. And to the Holy Spirit. who from hence Malignant fell. began to wax In brightness.” Such colour. by Him. Whose joy enfolds me: Eli then ‘t was call’d And so beseemeth: for. yet at bare report Of other’s failing. So Beatrice in her semblance chang’d: And such eclipse in heav’n methinks was seen. El was the name on earth of the Chief Good. to that which cometh next (As the sun changes quarter). Before mine eyes stood the four torches lit. paints and adverse cloud. One universal smile it seem’d of all things. these shalt thou see All in like manner change with me. At eve or morning. that with the song My spirit reel’d. while I speak. the same hath made my cemetery A common sewer of puddle and of blood: The more below his triumph. for. That he speaks. if he and Mars were birds. 322 . Both innocent and guilty. to the sixth. Is nature’s prompting: whether thus or thus. Then the words CANTO XXVII Then “Glory to the Father. She leaves to you. My place He who usurps on earth (my place. Ere I descended into hell’s abyss. and variable.The Divine Comedy of Dante . if my hue Be chang’d. ay. enjoin’d. When the Most Holy suffer’d. so passing sweet the strain: And what I saw was equal ecstasy. as ye do most affect it. mine. And that. Which in the presence of the Son of God Is void). which first had come. Imperishable life of peace and love. Joy past compare. in mortals. And interchang’d their plumes. And other comes instead. did but reach From the first hour. Silence ensued. And as th’ unblemish’d dame. Exhaustless riches and unmeasur’d bliss. Then saw I sprinkled over all the sky.Paradise Left by his reason free. and in semblance such became.” rang aloud Throughout all Paradise. gladness unutterable. Upon the mount Most high above the waters. use Is as the leaf upon the bough. who in herself Secure of censure. When thus I heard: “Wonder not. shrinks with maiden fear. that goes. as the sun. As Jove might be.

Will not delay its succour: and thou.” From the hour When I before had cast my view beneath. nor hide What is by me not hidden. who with us had linger’d late And with glad triumph deck th’ ethereal cope. which did defend Through Scipio the world’s glory unto Rome. alter’d from itself So clean. And hitherward the shore. nor that the keys. With that of Linus. where thou. And part upon their left. “Not to this end was Christ’s spouse with my blood. but that the sun. Which makes me oft to bicker and turn red. open thy lips. that do levy war On the baptiz’d: nor I.The Divine Comedy of Dante . son. Onward my sight their semblances pursued. All the first region overpast I saw. Pius. Who through thy mortal weight shall yet again Return below. for sigil-mark Set upon sold and lying privileges. Europa! Mad’st thee a joyful burden: and yet more Of this dim spot had seen. And Urban. In shepherd’s clothing greedy wolves below Range wide o’er all the pastures. Arm of God! Why longer sleepst thou? Caorsines and Gascona Prepare to quaff our blood. marking me no more intent On upward gazing. No purpose was of our That on the right hand of our successors Part of the Christian people should be set. So far pursued. should for ensign serve Unto the banners.” As a Hood Of frozen vapours streams adown the air. had ta’en His progress in the zodiac underneath. That onward thence from Gades I beheld The unwise passage of Laertes’ son. they. said. and of Cletus fed: That she might serve for purchase of base gold: But for the purchase of this happy life Did Sextus. and Callixtus bleed. the semblance did not alter more. Which from the midmost to the bound’ry winds. O good beginning To what a vile conclusion must thou stoop! But the high providence. A constellation off and more. Then by the spirit. as till the space between From its reach sever’d them: whereat the guide Celestial. “Look down and see What circuit thou hast compass’d. What time the she-goat with her skiey horn Touches the sun. with voice. Which were vouchsaf’d me. that doth never leave 323 .Paradise Proceeded. whose doom was not without Much weeping seal’d. so saw I there stream wide The vapours.

Whose welcome is the morn and eve his parting. I may not say. As by the fifth or half ye count forth ten. that God’s love Seem’d from her visage shining. The vase. by the dripping of perpetual rain. So suddenly doth the fair child of him. wherein time’s roots are plung’d. Whenas I turn’d me. When through the hundredth in his reck’ning drops Pale January must be shor’d aside 324 . Who draws the bound. Made mere abortion: faith and innocence Are met with but in babes. loves and listens to His mother. thou seest. She my secret wish Divin’d. he. Back with redoubled ardour were mine eyes Led unto her: and from her radiant smiles. Is kindled. Look elsewhere for the leaves.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that whatever bait Or art or nature in the human flesh. Except the soul divine. O mortal lust! That canst not lift thy head above the waves Which whelm and sink thee down! The will in man Bears goodly blossoms. One circle. and the virtue that it sheds. One yet a babbler. note that none Bears rule in earth. enclasping it. than he doth wish her in her grave. Its boon influence From the fair nest of Leda rapt me forth. Yet before the date. Or in its limn’d resemblance. and with such gladness. light and love. counted unto them forth. it doth divide Motion to all. and the rest All mov’d around. motionless the centre. And wafted on into the swiftest heav’n. While yet a stammerer. and to Him. As this doth clasp the others. What place for entrance Beatrice chose. so uniform was all. “Thou. with his tongue let loose Gluts every food alike in every moon. thus began: “Here is the goal. which ruleth o’er its orb. that fasts. Measur’d itself by none. but no sooner hath free use Of speech. whence motion on his race Starts. To negro blackness change her virgin white. its limit only known. the soul divine. can combine Through greedy eyes to take the soul withal. Place in this heav’n is none.Paradise Its amorous dalliance with my lady’s looks. Liveliest and loftiest. Wherein the love. pleasure so divine Did lighten on me. to abate thy wonder. Were to her beauty nothing. each taking leave Ere cheeks with down are sprinkled. and its frail family Are therefore wand’rers. but its ruddy promise Is.

when most dense the vapour spreads. in the world Appointed. may bear up Against its keenness. The guide belov’d Saw me in anxious thought suspense. The circle thereto most conjoin’d observe. unclosing. And so far off. spies The shining of a flambeau at his back. Looking upon the beauteous eyes. And that. “To whom I thus: “It were enough. that to the sparkle’ of truth Was nearest. Perchance. and true fruit. where she hath now the prow. When lo! as one who. and spake: “Heav’n. whence love Had made the leash to take me. and all nature. that its bow. which first girds The world. in their circles. did befall to me. that fortune shall be fain To turn the poop. Of its reality. set by its side. struck On mine. Expected long. There wheel’d about the point a circle of fire. had seem’d a moon. and that glow’d With flame most pure. even thus. that darted light So sharp. such as in these wheels is seen. Lit sudden ore he deem of its approach. CANTO XXVIII So she who doth imparadise my soul. shall crown at last the bloom!” From hence. in a mirror. And bar’d the truth of poor mortality. if the glass Have told him true. The least star we view 325 . As I turn’d. hangs upon that point. methinks. More rapid than the motion. So that the fleet run onward. As star by side of star. and sees the record faithful As note is to its metre. And turneth to resolve him. no lid.Paradise From winter’s calendar. I well remember. Was tardier in motion. which. as is the halo from the light Which paints it. nor should I further seek. Beyond the sev’nth. as partaking most. that by intenser love its course Is to this swiftness wing’d. round Enring’d each other. none who spies. And know. Had drawn the veil from off our pleasant life. Then. lied scarce been held entire. a point I saw. these heav’nly spheres Shall roar so loud. As more in number distant from the first. And every one. Had I but witness’d order. Can miss of. in itself apparent.The Divine Comedy of Dante . till the seventh reach’d Circumference so ample. Within the span of Juno’s messenger. circle after circle. Follow’d yet other two.

Hence. every cirque Ebullient shot forth scintillating fires: And every sparkle shivering to new blaze. thus began: “In the first circles. whom thou beheldst. if thy fingers foil’d Do leave the knot untied: so hard ‘t is grown For want of tenting. when Beatrice drove With clear reply the shadows back. My wish may have completion I must know.The Divine Comedy of Dante . they. that hung on it before. who saw by inward meditations. In number did outmillion the account Reduplicate upon the chequer’d board.” to the fixed point. And entertain them subtly. and smiles. That is each round shows more divinity.” “It is no marvel. Contemplating. Thus swift Follow their hoops. And shall for ever hold them to their place. whose swift course enwheels The universal frame answers to that. and. Each to the’ intelligence that ruleth it. From everlasting. Are seraphim and cherubim. Then heard I echoing on from choir to choir. That hath for confine only light and love. Which is supreme in knowledge and in love Thus by the virtue.Paradise But in the sensible world such diff’rence is. Glitters. that scours the sky. 326 .” As when the sturdy north blows from his cheek A blast. and smaller unto less. “Hosanna. Wherefore such disagreement is between Th’ exemplar and its copy: for myself. not unlike To iron in the furnace. breadth Of substance. With his beauties all unveil’d. in likeness to the point. forthwith our air. And when the words were ended. The greater is the body (if all parts Share equally) the more is to preserve. my words. Every orb Corporeal. The greater blessedness preserves the more.” She added. If in this wondrous and angelic temple. irremovable. as a star in heaven. Suited in strict and wondrous harmony.” Thus she said: “But take. As each is wider from the centre. Clear’d of the rack. not the seeming. thou shalt see the heav’ns. doth proportion its extent Unto the virtue through its parts diffus’d. that holds. “if thou wish thy cure. measure. Therefore the circle. and truth Was manifested. I fail to pierce the cause. Such was my cheer. The firmament looks forth serene. Musing awhile I stood: and she. Greater to more.

e’en so brief a space Did Beatrice’s silence hold. girding the’ horizon hang. Those. From an eye-witness to heav’n’s mysteries. These once a mortal view beheld. Fearless of bruising from the nightly ram. changing hemisphere. hierarchy of gods. which of sight Is aftergrowth. A smile Bat painted on her cheek. 327 . not in loving.Paradise Near as they can. and downward with such sway prevail. All. That round them fleet. approaching. Thus happiness hath root In seeing. gazing the Godhead next. each. The next to whom Are princedoms and archangels. as unto each in due degree Grace and good-will their measure have assign’d. one refus’d his sacred read.” CANTO XXIX No longer than what time Latona’s twins Cover’d of Libra and the fleecy star.The Divine Comedy of Dante . dominations first. next then Virtues. marshal’d in his thought. From him Dissentient. Till from that verge. at which my vision fail’d: When thus her words resuming she began: “I speak. the loftier their vision. The other trine. And all Are blessed. and powers the third. for he had learnt Both this and much beside of these our orbs. Gregory at his error smil’d Nor marvel. Part the nice level. Are thrones. and her fix’d gaze Bent on the point. That all with mutual impulse tend to God. Desire In Dionysius so intently wrought. look Aloft. And of the seeing such The meed. with glad round To tread their festal ring. even as their sight descends Deeper into the truth. Breathe up in warbled melodies threefold Hosannas blending ever. and they can The more. Together both. and last the band Angelical. as they circle in their orders. But soon as in this heav’n his doubting eyes Were open’d. disporting in their sphere. wherein rest is For every mind. for aye Rejoicing. from the three Transmitted. In even balance from the zenith pois’d. and nam’d Their orders. nor what thou wouldst inquire demand. in whom the first trine ends. that with still opening buds In this eternal springtide blossom fair. that a denizen of earth Should scan such secret truth. as I have done rang’d them. That he.

and amber. forth To perfect being started. as he will’d. Ere one had reckon’d twenty. Of that fatal lapse the cause Was the curst pride of him. Eternal Love unfolded. thus Did. Thou know’st. and how: and knowing hast allay’d Thy thirst. For not in process of before or aft Upon these waters mov’d the Spirit of God. bound with strict league. as thou by diligent search shalt find And reason in some sort discerns the same. Simple and mix’d. but forth To manifest his glory by its beams. like unto himself.Paradise For I have mark’d it. e’en so soon Part of the angels fell: and in their fall Confusion to your elements ensued. Yet in order each Created his due station knew: those highest.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so long a space. But that what I disclose to thee is true. which may not be increas’d. Describ’d on Jerome’s pages thou hast seen. like three darts Shot from a bow three-corded. were lowly to confess themselves Of his free bounty. shines entire. Those. E’en at the moment of its issuing. who had made them apt For ministries so high: therefore their views Were by enlight’ning grace and their own merit 328 . at one act Produc’d coeval. whom the Holy Spirit mov’d In many a passage of their sacred book Attest. And as ray In crystal. Nor before. Long tract of ages by the angels past. Their circling. Inhabiting his own eternity. which from the triple question rose. glass. unsever’d bond. Into new natures. Thus when and where these spirits of love were made. day nor night. Whereon thou lookst. As if in dull inaction torpid lay. where all time and place Are present. Beyond time’s limit or what bound soe’er To circumscribe his being. beam entire His threefold operation. whom thou hast seen Pent with the world’s incumbrance. Who scarce would grant the heav’nly ministers Of their perfection void. Those penmen. Who pure intelligence were made: mere power The lowest: in the midst. The others kept their station: and this task. whom here Thou seest. Intelligence and power. That they surcease not ever. began with such delight. Ere the creating of another world. Not for increase to himself Of good. from th’ eternal Sovran. both form and substance.

memory. reasoners in the schools. which heav’n vouchsafes. whose office is To preach the Gospel. how at Christ’s suffering the wan moon Bent back her steps. provokes Heav’n’s anger less. with the Jew. and shadow’d o’er the sun With intervenient disk. Canvas the’ angelic nature. Or from its straightness warp’d: no reck’ning made What blood the sowing of it in the world Has cost. Therefore. And pass their own inventions off instead. that. Remembrance there needs none to gather up Divided thought and images remote “So that men. if with good heed My words thy mind have treasur’d. One tells. Now. nor feel to fall.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Pure and without disguise. intent Upon the glorious vision. thou henceforth This consistory round about mayst scan. though their eyes be open. let the gospel sleep. even as the soul With prompt affection welcometh the guest. what favour for himself he wins. from the which Naught absent is nor hid: where then no change Of newness with succession interrupts. which they below. than the names Of Bindi and of Lapi in her streets. Is meritorious. thus at variance with the truth Dream.Paradise Exalted. Who meekly clings to it. ‘t is well thou take from me the truth. than when the book of God Is forc’d to yield to man’s authority. But since thou hast on earth Heard vain disputers. Bandied about more frequent. The aim of all Is how to shine: e’en they. and has a byway of his own: So much the restless eagerness to shine And love of singularity prevail. reckless some Of error. choice. from the first. Yet this. To whom more guilt and shame are justly due. as she withdrew: Another. how the light shrouded itself Within its tabernacle. these substances. darken and perplex. offensive as it is. Each the known track of sage philosophy Deserts. For do not doubt. “Know thou. others well aware they err. and dispute Its powers of apprehension. But to receive the grace. so that in their will confirm’d They stand. and left dark The Spaniard and the Indian. Equivocating. And gaze thy fill. Have held unceasingly their view. 329 . Such fables Florence in her pulpit hears. without further help. Rejoicing in the countenance of God.

What Daniel of their thousands hath reveal’d With finite number infinite conceals. so there be no lack Of laughter. To aid them in their warfare for the faith. Saint Anthony Fattens with this his swine. No mortal tongue Nor thought of man hath ever reach’d so far. nor needed they. and he has won the meed he sought: Could but the vulgar catch a glimpse the while Of that dark bird which nestles in his hood. With light supplies them in as many modes. They scarce would wait to hear the blessing said. When from the midmost of this blue abyss By turns some star is to our vision lost. Paying with unstamp’d metal for their fare.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who diet at his lazy board. that it shines on: each According to the virtue it conceives. fed with wind: and what avails For their excuse. Fade. Differing in love and sweet affection.” CANTO XXX Noon’s fervid hour perchance six thousand miles From hence is distant.’ But gave them truth to build on. That every counterfeit. and others worse Than swine. and the shadowy cone Almost to level on our earth declines. That of these natures he might count the tribes. return From pasture. yet remains Whole in itself and one. broken and dispers’d Over such countless mirrors. light by light. poor witless ones. other spear or shield. all. Which now the dotards hold in such esteem. as at the first. his big cowl Distends. finds a throng Of credulous fools beneath. “But (for we far have wander’d) let us seek The forward path again. and the spangled firmament shuts in.Paradise The sheep. and the sound Was mighty on their lips. which. The preacher now provides himself with store Of jests and gibes. who spreads abroad The hands of holy promise. and. The fountain at whose source these drink their beams. they do not see their harm? Christ said not to his first conventicle. meanwhile. 330 . while he vents them. so as the way Be shorten’d with the time. Beside the gospel. ‘Go forth and preach impostures to the world. Look then how lofty and how huge in breadth The’ eternal might. As there are splendours. And straightway as the handmaid of the sun Puts forth her radiant brow.

when on this earth I first Beheld her charms. that transcends all sweetness of delight. seeming (for it did) Engirt by that it girdeth. For. in a sudden spleen Unfolded. When it doth touch the limit of his skill. that hitherto is told of her. as the sun doth to the feeblest sight. Her words resum’d. which plays ever round the point. At this point o’erpower’d I fail. Not merely to exceed our human. Unequal to my theme. My course here bounded. Love of true happiness replete with joy. Joy. up to that view of them. If all. that stills this heav’n. as never bard Of buskin or of sock hath fail’d before. Here shalt thou look on either mighty host Of Paradise. E’en so remembrance of that witching smile Hath dispossess my spirit of itself. For its own flame the torch this fitting ever! No sooner to my list’ning ear had come The brief assurance. with vigour to sustain 331 . Mine eyes did look On beauty. than I understood New virtue into me infus’d. Have I with song applausive ever ceas’d To follow. such.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thus vanish’d gradually from my sight The triumph. and left me swath’d And veil’d in dense impenetrable blaze. She (such as I bequeath her to the bruit Of louder trump than mine. Such weal is in the love. none can to the full Enjoy it. dashes from the blinding eyes The visive spirits dazzled and bedimm’d. as I believe in sooth. in gesture and in voice Resembling one accustom’d to command: “Forth from the last corporeal are we come Into the heav’n. forc’d me bend Mine eyes on Beatrice once again.” As when the lightning.Paradise E’en to the loveliest of the glittering throng. That save its Maker. Not from that day. but. Urging its arduous matter to the close). With loss of other object. that is unbodied light. fulminating streams Of living radiance play’d. but not follow them no more. Wherefore love. Which in the final judgment thou shalt see. Light intellectual replete with love. as each artist’s is. round about me. ‘t were too weak To furnish out this turn. That overcame me. and one in that array. So. and sight Kindled afresh. Were in one praise concluded. which hasteneth on.

But first behooves thee of this water drink. Incredible how fair. pleases me the more. and in the flow’rs Did set them. however pure. forthwith Seem’d it unto me turn’d from length to round.The Divine Comedy of Dante . outstarting. then thus subjoin’d: “This stream. Then. when they put Their vizors off. as the eaves Of mine eyelids did drink of it. plung’d again Into the wondrous flood. from which. flew Sparkles instinct with life. as if drunk with odors. Rush. which being hence and vigour takes. whose goodly shine Makes the Creator visible to all Created. Or ere that longing be allay’d. And in the likeness of a river saw Light flowing. To make the better mirrors of mine eyes In the refining wave. There is in heav’n a light. And diving back. that from the bottom eyes 332 . as they glided on ‘Twixt banks. So into greater jubilee were chang’d Those flowers and sparkles. as one Re’enter’d. shadowy of the truth They emblem: not that. Reflected from the summit of the first. in themselves. There ever and anon. whereby thou art inflam’d. like to rubies chas’d in gold. painted with spring. a living topaz each. forth issuing from its gulf. That moves. still another rose. For that thy views not yet aspire so high. That the circumference were too loose a zone To girdle in the sun. the things Are crude. O prime enlightener! thou who crav’st me strength On the high triumph of thy realm to gaze! Grant virtue now to utter what I kenn’d. and in a circle spreads so far. look other than before. and these. to the milk. The more it warms thee. “The thirst Of knowledge high. from whose amber-seeming waves Flash’d up effulgence. I look’d. on either side. All is one beam. The counterfeited semblance thrown aside. Are but a preface. that in seeing him alone Have peace.” Never did babe. bending me. As I toward the water.Paradise Excess of light. To search the meaning of what here thou seest. and. that had outslept his wont.” So spake The day-star of mine eyes. and distinct I saw Before me either court of heav’n displac’d. With all this laughter on its bloomy shores. but on thy part is the defect. And as some cliff. with such eager straining. Then as a troop of maskers. from the tide. and.

Before her day be ripe. and. and Nature.Paradise Its image mirror’d in the crystal flood. eminent. but thrust him down To Simon Magus. “This fair assemblage! stoles of snowy white How numberless! The city. but my view with ease Took in the full dimensions of that joy. nor amplitude Nor height impeded. what there avails. holds thine eyes—or ere thyself Mayst at the wedding sup. where their fragrant labour glows. on more than million thrones. “Behold. Behold how vast! and these our seats so throng’d Few now are wanting here! In that proud stall.” CANTO XXXI In fashion. shall with him Accordant walk: Whom God will not endure I’ th’ holy office long. Near or remote. redolent Of praises to the never-wint’ring sun. suspends Her sway? Into the yellow of the rose Perennial. by the world Augustas hail’d. to Italy must come. Stood.” she said. clustering. or rose 333 . And in your tetchy wantonness as blind. Beatrice led me. awed. Amid the vernal sweets alighting now. That he. Whose lowest step embosoms such a space Of ample radiance! Yet. Lays forth its gradual blooming. who in the sacred forum sways. as a snow-white rose. lay then Before my view the saintly multitude. where God Immediate rules. As is the bantling. As if ‘t admire its brave appareling Of verdure and of flowers: so. that of hunger dies. which in bright expansiveness. like a troop of bees. that soar aloft to gaze And celebrate his glory.—shall rest the soul Of the great Harry. where Magna’s priest Will sink beneath him: such will be his meed. already o’er its state Suspended. As one. Which in his own blood Christ espous’d. Now. he who. where we dwell. round about. But ye are sick. Hover’d around. Meanwhile That other host. Flew downward to the mighty flow’r. whatever from our earth Has to the skies return’d. whom they love. and.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Nor may it be. On which. And drives away the nurse. the crown. How wide the leaves Extended to their utmost of this rose. Openly or in secret. Eyeing the light. who fain would speak yet holds his peace.

The rest was whiter than the driven snow. or view Obstructed aught. I saw instead a senior. Whisper’d the peace and ardour. and now aloft. Vouchsafe one glance to gild our storm below! If the grim brood. Faces had they of flame. that charmst them thus. celestial light Glides freely. Joy benign Glow’d in his eye. who reign in safety and in bliss. Sparkles a mother’s fondness on her son) Stood in mute wonder ‘mid the works of Rome. But answer found from other than I ween’d. and out of Florence To justice and to truth. Rob’d. Shadow none. as a pilgrim. streaming back Unto the steadfast dwelling of their joy. Where charity in soft persuasion sat. how might I choose But marvel too? ‘Twixt gladness and amaze. And. fanning their plumy loins. on one sole mark Their love and vision fix’d. when I thought to see. which they won From that soft winnowing. as the rest. Now low. Smiles from within and radiance from above. And in each gesture grace and honour high. from time Unto eternity. from above. So rov’d my ken. O trinal beam Of individual star.Paradise From the redundant petals. (Where helice. as she wheels. In sooth no will had I to utter aught. looks round In breathless awe. when he rests Within the temple of his vow.The Divine Comedy of Dante . through the universe. For. the vast Interposition of such numerous flight Cast. Ages long past or new. and wings of gold. Wherever merited. All there. And as they flitted down into the flower. in glory. “Whither is she vanish’d?” straight I ask’d. Or hear. upon the flower. 334 . at my side. Looks I beheld. that held my thought suspense. and now around. forever. and hopes some time to tell Of all its goodly state: e’en so mine eyes Cours’d up and down along the living light. and its general form All Paradise survey’d: when round I turn’d With purpose of my lady to inquire Once more of things. When to their view the Lateran arose In greatness more than earthly. From range to range. Beatrice. With gestures such as spake a father’s love. I. For. and o’er his cheek diffus’d. And. from Arctic shores that roam’d. Visiting every step. who then From human to divine had past. and no obstacle prevents.

mine eyes I rais’d. that of this realm Is sovran. for the charity of him. That. so distant. my true Lord and God? And was this semblance thine?” So gaz’d I then Adoring. I.” Answering not. by ray divine Kindled. to the furthest. and yet the form Came through that medium down. saith Unto himself in thought: “And didst thou look E’en thus. the queen. virtue owe and grace. at large.Paradise “By Beatrice summon’d. “O Lady! thou in whom my hopes have rest! Who. there Behold her on the throne. thy ken a higher flight shall mount.” Like a wight. for that I Am her own faithful Bernard. then tow’rds th’ eternal fountain turn’d. Who musing. Looking aloft To the third circle from the highest. As was my ken from hers. And thus the senior. all that he hath heard revolving. unmix’d and pure. for my safety. to thy power And goodness. This garden through: for so. till thou spy Seated in state. 335 . hast not scorn’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Not from the centre of the sea so far Unto the region of the highest thunder.” Straight mine eyes I rais’d. wherein her merit Hath plac’d her. look’d down. Of slave. in hell To leave the traces of thy footsteps mark’d! For all mine eyes have seen. if thine eyes are held Still in this depth below. Hangs over it with never-sated gaze. “I come to aid thy wish. Thy liberal bounty still toward me keep. it may find Favour with thee. Is loosen’d from this body. which thou madest whole. And saw her. All gracious aid befriend us. And from heav’n’s queen. and the while ‘t is shown. in the world that peace enjoy’d. whom fervent I adore. By supplication mov’d and holy love) Let thy upsoaring vision range. and no means.” he replied. And smil’d. And. But search around The circles. her brow A wreath reflecting of eternal beams. where aloof she sat. Stood lively before me. hast left untried. “Child of grace!” Thus he began: “thou shalt not knowledge gain Of this glad being.” So I my suit preferr’d: And she. O Jesus. For my deliverance apt. holy and rever’d: “That thou at length mayst happily conclude Thy voyage (to which end I was dispatch’d. and bright. Who haply from Croatia wends to see Our Veronica. Thou hast to freedom brought me. when my spirit. as appear’d.

as infus’d Ardour into my breast. the eastern clime Above th’ horizon. Bernard gaz’d With so exceeding fondness. ‘T were all too poor to utter the least part Of that enchantment. where the sun declines. As is the colouring in fancy’s loom. unfelt before. Had I a tongue in eloquence as rich. So burn’d the peaceful oriflamb. whereby The sacred stairs are sever’d. in resplendence each Distinct. successively. When he saw mine eyes Intent on her. as the faith In Christ divides them. 336 . CANTO XXXII Freely the sage. and quaint adornment. which Phaeton Ill knew to guide. smil’d the Lovely One of heav’n. Who sits so beautiful at Mary’s feet. that charm’d him. lo! Rachel with Beatrice. That waits the sloping beam. On this part. as from vale To mountain sped. To mine eyes. and slack’d On every side the living flame decay’d. that upward. believ’d. a part Excell’d in lustre all the front oppos’d. Judith.The Divine Comedy of Dante . abide All they. that Mary clos’d. Sarah next. All. and mild began: “The wound. And in that midst their sportive pennons wav’d Thousands of angels. at the birth of morn. Assum’d the teacher’s part. For these are a partition wall. down from deaf to leaf. where blooms Each leaf in full maturity. who sang the songs Of sore repentance in his sorrowful mood. are set Such as in Christ. where an intersected space Yet shows the semicircle void. On th’ other. Rebecca. And as our Lady on her glorious stool. Meek ancestress of him. who look’d to Christ already come. Are in gradation throned on the rose. or ere he came. And as the glow burns ruddiest o’er the wave. underneath her. Adown the breathing tresses of the flow’r Still doth the file of Hebrew dames proceed. at th’ extreme bound. And from the seventh step. though wrapt in musings high. she open’d first. and the gleaner maid. At their glee And carol. and on each part the light Diminish’d fades. intensest in the midst.Paradise As. The third in order. That joy was in the eyes of all the blest. as I name them.

thirst. past or to come. Exactly. And for a proof th’ effect may well suffice. none there are Who place obtain for merit of their own. or sorrow can. In early times with their own innocence More was not wanting. behoov’d That circumcision in the males should imp The flight of innocent wings: but since the day Of grace hath come. that downward from the step. And gladly will I loose the knot. than the parents’ faith. But have through others’ merit been advanc’d. wherein Thy subtle thoughts have bound thee. that these. O’erspeedy comers to immortal life. and the rest. Created in his joyous sight to dwell. Nor is there aught thou seest.Paradise And they who on their stools beneath her sit. The mighty Baptist that way marks the line (He who endur’d the desert and the pains Of martyrdom. I know thy doubt. Benedict. From this realm Excluded. that doth not fit. And. so every brow Weareth its proper hue of orient light. without baptismal rites In Christ accomplish’d. Ere for themselves they had the power to choose. Are different in their shares of excellence. Our Sovran Lord—that settleth this estate In love and in delight so absolute. Thus far from round to round. Learn too. It is not therefore without cause. Hath each his several degree assign’d. With faith in either view. This way distinction make: e’en so on his. which cleaves Midway the twain compartments. chalice no entrance here may find. “Here. Therefore. Augustin. if thou mark and listen to them well. And merely in respect to his prime gift. Francis. where the twins are said To. as grace Inweaves the coronet. That wish can dare no further—every soul. On set conditions: spirits all releas’d. and beneath. silent as thou art. innocence herself 337 . as the finger to the ring. No more shall hunger. And ‘t is moreover most expressly mark’d In holy scripture.The Divine Comedy of Dante . A law immutable hath establish’d all. With grace at pleasure variously endows. So heav’n’s decree Forecasts. and for two years of hell. Not in reward of meritorious deed. Their childish looks and voice declare as much. this garden equally to fill. have struggled in the womb. Yet still continued holy). To save them: those first ages past.

oppos’d To the first father of your mortal kind. Are as it were two roots unto this rose. met: And so beseems: for that he bare the palm Down unto Mary. The twain. when the Son of God Vouchsaf’d to clothe him in terrestrial weeds. Is Lucia. whose rash taste Proves bitter to his seed. 338 . winging that profound.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that with moveless eye She chants the loud hosanna: while. Now raise thy view Unto the visage most resembling Christ: For. for me. Maria.Paradise Must linger yet below. That ancient father of the holy church. who had to her descended. Now let thine eyes wait heedful on my words. or in angel.” sang: To whose sweet anthem all the blissful court. who with the lance and nails Was won. Whatever of buxomness and free delight May be in Spirit. rang: that holier joy Brooded the deep serene. rests The leader.” So I again resorted to the lore Of my wise teacher. and so enamour’d glows Of her high beauty. so well content to look On her lov’d daughter. he. lo! Where Anna sits. the parent. now hail’d in heav’n. That. And he. ere he died. in her splendour only. shalt thou win The pow’r to look on him. On earth. Who thus in answer spake: “In him are summ’d. On th’ other part. From all parts answ’ring. Wherein thou sittest. Had not so much suspended me with wonder. saw all the grievous times Of the fair bride. Or shown me such similitude of God. on each hand next our empress thron’d. And note thou of this just and pious realm The chiefest nobles. Those. Into whose keeping Christ did give the keys Of this sweet flow’r: near whom behold the seer. once. as the sun the morning star. at whose hest thy lady sped. Gratia Plena. “Ave. who that angel is. near unto the other. whatsoever I had yet beheld. that with such glee Beholds our queen. to quit the pleasant place. and on pois’d wing. under whom on manna fed Th’ ungrateful nation. That.” Forthwith I saw Such floods of gladness on her visage shower’d. and. And. whom Mary’s charms Embellish’d. facing to Peter. by eternal lot! Say. on the right. From holy spirits. that all fire he seems. highest in bliss. He to the left. fickle and perverse. “Father rever’d: Who deign’st.

Thy bounty succours. “But (for the vision hasteneth so an end) Here break we off. Grace then must first be gain’d. Here kneeleth one. large munificence. as in height. and yield me all thy heart. This flower to germin in eternal peace! Here thou to us. who ne’er Coveted sight. That shapes the cloak according to the cloth: And to the primal love our ken shall rise. whilst I sue. for myself. (And pray they be not scant) that thou wouldst drive Each cloud of his mortality away.Paradise When on the edge of ruin clos’d thine eye. Term by th’ eternal counsel pre-ordain’d. fain would have desire Fly without wings. so advanc’d In thee. alas! in sooth Beating thy pennons. Himself. that its great Maker did not scorn. Ennobler of thy nature. pity mild. beneath. Art. my prayers to thee prefer. That thou mayst penetrate the brightness. And I. far As sight can bear thee. Whatsoe’er may be Of excellence in creature. Nor only him who asks. of hope a living spring. more fondly. lady! and so great. Attend. That he who grace desireth. but doth freely oft Forerun the asking. This also I entreat of thee. as the noon-day torch: and art. Are all combin’d in thee. daughter of thy Son. whose might can help thee. with affection. and comes not To thee for aidance. So mighty art thou. whose genial influence makes now 339 . To mortal men. of charity and love. Her grace. From the world’s lowest gap unto this height.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Created beings all in lowliness Surpassing. thinking to advance. That on the sovran pleasure he may gaze. Yet. Thou backward fall’st. Who of all spirits hath review’d the state. Suppliant to thee he kneels. yet more high to lift his ken Toward the bliss supreme. as the good workman doth. Relenting mercy. Than now for him. O queen! Who canst do what thou wilt! that in him thou CANTO XXXIII “O virgin mother. Thou in prayer Seek her: and. in his own work enclos’d to dwell! For in thy womb rekindling shone the love Reveal’d. imploring grace For virtue. above them all.” He said. And thus the saintly orison began.

Already of myself aloft I look’d. so far Can travel inward. Thus in the sun-thaw is the snow unseal’d. if thou waken aught Of memory in me. that I look’d. E’en such am I: for all the vision dies. 340 . that heav’n with love and awe regards. away. in furtherance of my suit!” The eyes. The ardour of my wish (for so behooved). meanwhile. That sprang from it. Bare me into the ray authentical Of sovran light. whatever The universe unfolds. Saw in one volume clasp’d of love. For visual strength. but. but to leave one sparkle of thy glory. methinks. many a saint Stretch their clasp’d hands. and endure to hear The record sound in this unequal strain. O grace! unenvying of thy boon! that gav’st Boldness to fix so earnestly my ken On th’ everlasting splendour.Paradise Wouldst after all he hath beheld. I. nor memory’s self To stand against such outrage on her skill. Beck’ning smil’d the sage. witness’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who drew Near to the limit. refining more and more. yet still retains Impression of the feeling in his dream. I had been lost. Lo! Where. As ‘t were. till my view Hover’d the brink of dread infinitude. Ended within me. Thenceforward. that shall not lose Thy triumph wholly. beheld. Unto the race to come. As one. and yet the sense of sweet. While sight was unconsum’d. ere he bade. who from a dream awaken’d. so embolden’d. Thus in the winds on flitting leaves was lost The Sybil’s sentence. wherein no eye Of creature. still trickles in my heart. Such keenness from the living ray I met. Was not for words to speak. give my tongue Power. All he hath seen forgets. That I should look aloft: but. and. how benign She looks on pious pray’rs: then fasten’d they On th’ everlasting light. as may well be thought. O eternal beam! (Whose height what reach of mortal thought may soar?) Yield me again some little particle Of what thou then appearedst. as I remember. preserve Affection sound. if mine eyes had turn’d away. in that depth. straight. Fix’d on the suitor. on I pass’d. what I saw. That. with Beatrice. all properties Of substance and of accident. where all wishes end. and human passions quell.

one reflected seem’d. still new miracles descry’d. And toil’d me with the change. and therein How plac’d: but the flight was not for my wing.The Divine Comedy of Dante . seem’d methought. as I gaz’d. there Is summ’d. elsewhere defective found. like a wheel 341 . that beginning. willingly. present. till I speak. and. which he needs. to give Conception birth! Yet this to what I saw Is less than little. e’en such was I. in that sole Appearance. and. in its own hue Beheld our image painted: steadfastly I therefore por’d upon the view. which in thee Seem’d as reflected splendour. that first made Neptune wonder At Argo’s shadow darkening on his flood.Paradise Compounded. One moment seems a longer lethargy. and of thyself Sole understood. who looks upon that light. that will may covet. And in the spleen unfolded what it sought. That one. Three orbs of triple hue clipt in one bound: And. methought. Than five-and-twenty ages had appear’d To that emprize. My tongue shall utter now. clear and lofty. Oh speech How feeble and how faint art thou. or to come! Thou smiledst. breath’d equally from both. and trace out the form. suspense and motionless. With fixed heed. no more E’en what remembrance keeps. my soul dilates Beyond her proper self. For I therein. though pondering long And deeply. than could the babe’s That yet is moisten’d at his mother’s breast. would fain Measure the circle. yet one individual light The whole. intent to scan The novel wonder. For all the good. Not that the semblance of the living light Was chang’d (that ever as at first remain’d) But that my vision quickening. his view. And of such bond methinks I saw The universal form: for that whenever I do but speak of it. and admiration still Was kindled. and all. Here vigour fail’d the tow’ring fantasy: But yet the will roll’d onward. Had not a flash darted athwart my mind. As one Who vers’d in geometric lore. Finds not. In that abyss Of radiance. past. on that circling. Wond’ring I gaz’d. can turn To other object. How to the circle fitted. It may not be. Complete. from another. Oh eternal light! Sole in thyself that dwellst. while I mus’d. As rainbow is from rainbow: and the third Seem’d fire.

i. and the equinoctial colure. All new of God another sunne.] Being in the opposite hemisphere to ours. 1. ***** Thou shalt see me go as blive Unto the next laurer I see. v. Ne simil tanto mal raggio secondo Dal primo usci. canz. the horizon. Filicaja.” which he compares to a pilgrim hastening homewards. as may be seen in the armillary sphere. Through that. Caesar. Onor d’imperadori e di poeti. 19. II Filocopo. As from the first a second beam. The laurel. As iron that comes boiling from the fire. 37. the last threeintersecting each other so as to form three crosses. 1.] Aries. Benign Apollo. fab. iii.” &c. v. Fir. If. v.] “Like a reflected sunbeam. First Booke of Fame E par ch’ agginuga un altro sole al cielo. “Egli nel mio petto entri. Upon the day appear’d. Thus for. st. Some understand the planetVenus by the “miglior stella “ v. F. 1. or bard.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” v. p. Arbor vittoriosa e trionfale. Son. v.] So Petrarch. Met. 594. NOTES TO PARADISE CANTO 1 Verse 12. 44. meed of mighty conquerours And poets sage. ii. 9. “ v. the equator. 29. Ediz. 15. —As glowing iron with fire. 69. join. Prima. 39. 1723. thou Wilt helpe me to shewe now That in my head ymarked is. Marsyas. 342 . In happiest constellation. P. To the left. by the Love impell’d. And Spenser. when he made that daring mortal deserve to come forth unsheathed from his limbs. And kisse it for it is thy tree Now entre thou my breast anone. v. Beatrice that she may behold the rising sun.] “Where the four circles. turns herself to the left. Par. Q. Chaucer.] So Milton. 25. b. That moves the sun in heav’n and all the stars. b. and let my voice sound like his own. v. —If the heaven had ywonne. L. 4.] He appears to mean nothing more than that this part of his poem will require a greater exertion of his powers than the former. c. 15.“May he enter my bosom. v. . 47. 58. 5.] Chaucer has imitated this invention very closely at the beginning of the Third Booke of Fame. st.Paradise In even motion. Compare Boccaccio. the zodiac.] Ovid. vi. divine vertue. 7.

Save one. Milton. there wanteth not him skill and desire to bring his labour to the best effect. 27. b.Paradise Ariosto. 1. L. Through sluggishness.” By “formal principles. are meant constituent or essential causes. &c.] The fixed stars. If. 5. Perche a risponder la discordia e sorda “The workman hath in his heart a purpose. Quanto l’acqua comporta un picciol legno Ibid. 71. 1. Compare Euripides. the eighth spheres containing the fixed stars. This first star. as Glaucus. c. and the empyrean. knowest whether 1 had not risen above my human nature. In small bark. 311. in imitation of this passage. he carrieth in mind the whole form which his work should have.] Virg. b. c. there are ten heavens. i. Io me n’andro con la barchetta mia. O F. as a late French translator of the Paradise well remarks. “principj formali. Met.] “Except that principle of rarity and denseness which thou hast assigned.] According to our Poet’s system.” v. 1. L.” v. Manno. but is self-evident. 109. G. Fab. st. which differ both in bulk and splendor.] Like a truth that does not need demonstration. Principio coelum. Ion. Adone. Quando a paro col sol ma piu lucente L’angelo gli appari sull. 66. st 9. Ed ecco un lustro lampeggiar d’ intorno Che sole a sole aggiunse e giorno a giorno. P.” Milton. the primum mobile. v. 71. xxviii. that of Dante partly metaphysical and partly theologic.” Hooker’s Eccl. —Seems another morn Ris’n on mid-noon. v. v. Morg. formed me. 123. Magg. 52. v. Within the heaven.] the moon v.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Con la barchetta mia cantando in rima Pulci. E’en as the truth. ] Ovid. But. c. c. oriente Tasso. introduces the angel arguing with Adam respecting the causes of the spots on the moon. xi.] Perch’ a risponder la materia e sorda. which he hath to work on is unframeable. And Note v. st.] Compare Hell. vi. CANTO II v. and were not merely such as thou hadst then.] “Thou O divine Spirit. the seven planets. So Filicaja. Xiii. 30. 46. 1550. 9 v. 9. 143. vi 724. v. 111. Number1ess lights. Canto XX. The virtue mingled. 65. 125. his reasoning is physical. Polity. x. Aen. . only the matter. canz. Cain.

Piccarda. v. That to the eye of man. Milton. 598. and Ricordano Malaspina even mentions her decease as happening before that of her husband. Him who made Tobias whole. The Lady. D.] The empyrean. distributed to the stars an equal number of souls. with some others. was married to the Emperor Henry Vl. the foundress of the order called after her She was born of opulent and noble parents at Assisi. (Muratori. 13. and secur’d His marriage with the sev’n times wedded maid. 90. king of Sicily. appointing to each soul its several star. 48. I v. The death of Henry Vl. Henry V. 107. t. x. Daniel. Laurence.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Of will. Bip. Hist. who.” v. v. The second. son of Frederick I was the second emperor of the house of Saab. and “because it was not credited that she could have a child at that age. 16. 67.] “What Piccarda asserts of Constance.] See Daniel.] See Liv. for so this author. that any lady. v. was at liberty to see her. 50. The French translator above mentored speaks of her having poisoned her husband. who pleased. Alcmaeon. Villani. because he mistook a shadow for a substance. c. 1813. v. mugitibus armentorum —Ultusque parente parentem Natus. v. by an anonymous writer. 8vo. ix. t.] “That the ways of divine justice are often inscrutable to man. v. 1. in the same words. and that which I affirm is spoken of the will 344 . 223. f. 12. 6. L.] St. p. t. that she retained her affection to the monastic life. Script. v. 82. Constance.) but not a word of his having been poisoned by Constance. 27. being taken by force out of a monastery where she had professed. diversa valle duorum Extimulata fame.] “An error the contrary to that of Narcissus. It. Ovid. 121. and his son Frederick II “the third and last. Hist.. 1. 1. She was fifty years old or more at the time. the sociable spirit.] The sister of Forese whom we have seen in the Purgatory.Paradise CANTO III v. and saw her.” v. Scaevola. 34. CANTO IV v. 16.” Neseit utro potius ruat. Clare.” Such appears to me the most satisfactory explanation of the passage. 100. Metam.] Ovid. b. Rer. ii. v.] Who suffered martyrdom in the third century. The first circle. 24. “The Creator. 939. c. is recorded in the Chronicon Siciliae. 166 v. that deign’d To travel with Tobias. P.” Ricordano Malaspina in Muratori. et ruere ardet utroque. Canto XXIII. v. p. and the suspicion ceased. v. Edit. Plato. she was delivered in a pavilion and it was given out. and by him was mother to Frederick 11.] Plato Timaeus v. terms him. 1. Delusion. viii. p.] Raphael. 1. when he had framed the universe. Of that. v. ix. Many came. and died in 1253. ought rather to be a motive to faith than an inducement to heresy. Between two deer] Tigris ut auditis. is said absolutely and without relation to circumstances. Paris.] Plato’s opinion. I a substance for a shadow. and G. 10. ii.] Daughter of Ruggieri. v. 122. v. 326. Univ.] Henry Vl. in 1193. erit facto pius et sceleratus eodem. See Biogr. Met. 82.

v. 56. This sphere. Aeneas. that of the incarnate word. or form of it. Christ’s nature merely human. and xxvii.] Quintius Cincinnatus. the Imperial ensign. Either key.] The city of Fesulae.] Agapetus. whose Scheda Regia. c.] See Lev. 56. v.] The Ghibellines. p. Petrarca. v.] See Virgil. What then it wrought. 5.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. which was sacked by the Romans after the defeat of Cataline. ii. 48. is oftenest hidden by that luminary CANTO VI v. 1.] Near the time of our Saviour’s birth. from whence the first founders of Rome had emigrated. viz. in transferring the seat of empire from Rome to Byzantium. Aen. from the west to the east. which. the other. p.] Purgatory. 50. v. 43.] The Emperor Constantine entered Byzantium in 324. 1.Paradise conditionally and respectively: so that our apparent without any disagreement.] The light of divine truth.] In the following fifteen lines the Poet has comprised the exploits of Julius Caesar. Down. being nearest to the sun. v. 8. 13.] The planet Mercury. 108. 119. addressed to the Emperor Justinian.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 345 .] Constantinople being situated at the extreme of Europe. A hundred years twice told and more. v. difference is v. Two things. v. The rival three. v. xii. After that Constantine the eagle turn’d. Arab hordes. v.” who taught that in Christ there was but one nature.” v. That truth. v. It was enjoin’d the Israelites.] As some explain it. 34. vi. 15. v. v. the substance of the vow.” Ibid.” v. Agapete. 16. Quintius. 39. CANTO V v.] The Arabians seem to be put for the barbarians in general. 33. e. v. 47. Canto IX.] The one. E Cincinnato dall’ inculta chioma. 6. That region. Bishop of Rome. v. 86. 54.] Constantine. That hill. t. v. procured him a place among the wisest and most judicious writers of this century. carried the eagle. ii c. and on the borders of Asia. 33. the compact. 41. v. 13. v. v.] The code of laws was abridged and reformed by Justinian. on the contrary had moved along with the sun’s course. And who oppose ] The Guelphs. To clear th’ incumber’d laws. the east. 124.] The Horatii and Curiatii. Who pretend its power. v. Pallas died.] Justinian is said to have been a follower of the heretical Opinions held by Eutyches. Cent. when he passed from Troy to Italy. 59. Cent. near those mountains in the neighbourhood of Troy. ii. and Justinian began his reign in 527. Near the hour. At Europe’s extreme point.] “From the rape of the Sabine women to the violation of Lucretia. according to others the equinoctial line. X. ii.

and of a higher kind. 1. but the spirit of the former emperor is represented. 75. the next. and parted as he came. James in Galicia. and brother to Louis. to Henry III. 140. “Qual salamandra. 92. He is in the list of Provencal poets. Raymond Berenger. As might have made one blest amid the flames. who lived so near the time. v. and without intervention of secondary causes. There might however have been more than one person of the name of Romieu. the last of the house of Barcelona. by destroying the city of .] “Venturi appears to mistake the Poet’s reasoning. was married to Louis IX of France. 95. about this time. who was the contemporary of that prince. who was count of Provence. with the promise of being made emperor? See G.The Divine Comedy of Dante . the staff. The yellow lilies. of England. 104. and the scrip. c. 112. count of Provence: and they rest this assertion chiefly on the fact of a certain Romieu de Villeneuve. 1. I think. v. 4. to Richard. v. Charles. when an account was required from him of the revenues whichhe had carefully husbanded. Four daughters. What distils. and thus revenging the cause of God himself on the Jews.] Of the four daughters of Raymond Berenger. Is it not more likely to allude to Charles of Valois. Hist. In its next bearer’s gripe. v. 61. 131. Eleanor.] With Augustus Caesar. after he had long been a faithful steward to Raymond. The conclusion is that as before sin man was immortal. and King of the Romans. 42. as conscious of the events that had taken place after his own time. vi. Henry’s brother. into Italy by Pope Boniface. c. ii. with which he v. The French writers assert the continuance of his ministerial office even after the decease of his soverign Raymond Berenger. Villani. Sancha. signifying “kingdoms. Romeo’s light.” v. who was sent for. v. nor was it ever known whence he was or wither he went.] Justinian. both in this instance and in what follows.” It is here intended. P. if we had not arguments more convincing.” Che puommi nelle fiammi far beato. having left large possessions behind him. Our resurrection certain. son of Philip III of France. to assure us of the truth of our resurrection. that the whole of God’s dispensations to man should be considered as a proof of our resurrection. King of Naples and Sicily.” G. CANTO VII 346 .] The French ensign.] So Giusto de’ Conti. had it in his power to surpass the glory of all who either preceded or came after him. That man who was unborn. v. See Millot. Bella Mano. were misinformed in an occurrence of such notoriety.Jerusalem.] This prince. as appears by his will. That substance bright. 135.” v. 3. and his master as lavishly disbursed. 89. viii. According to them.] Adam.] “Tiberius the third of the Caesars. Malahoth.] “That which proceeds immediately from God. v.] The story of Romeo is involved in some uncertainty.] Dante could not be ignorant that the reign of Justinian was long prior to that of Charlemagne. died in 1245. Litt des Troubadours. 17. v. to Charles I. v. so being restored to the favor of heaven by the expiation made for sin. Charlemagne. Vengeance for vengeance ] This will be afterwards explained by the Poet himself. t. the eldest. The third Caesar. Villani. Margaret. 136. 98.Paradise v.” v. a stranger pilgrim from the shrine of St. as Titus afterwards did. 23. Nor is it probable that the Italians. Beatrice. when he observes: “Wretched for us. 110. and the youngest. “He demanded the little mule. he had first entered into the count’s service.] The commentators explain this to mean Charles II.] A Hebrew word. v. the third. or Romeo which answers to that of Palmer in our language. king of Naples and Sicily. in immortal. preserved in the archives of the bishopric of Venice.

was the friend of Petrarch. when. i. There is much in this poem to justify the encomium which the learned Salvini has passed on it. the year of his death. is a little sphere.] Virgil. he did not succeed. what themes my mind engage? The lonely hours I give to Dante’s page. Vll.” &c. v. the latter emperor of Germany. v. Florentines and he showed no less love towards them. See his Convito. v. in 1282 v. The land. che ho riletto Dante. t. 1793.] The spirit now speaking is Charles Martel crowned king of Hungary.] “If the ill conduct of our governors in Sicily had not excited the resentment and hatred of the people and stimulated them to that dreadful massacre at the Sicilian vespers. viii. v. to which dominions dying in his father’s lifetime. His brother Robert. waiting for his father King Charles and his brothers during which time great honour was done him by the.” 1. Had not ill lording. v. he says— And dost thou ask. 73.] He seems to tax his brother Robert with employing necessitous and greedy Catalonians to administer the affairs CANTO VIII v. p.Paradise necessarily recovers his claim to immortality. in an epistle to Redi. The first line in our Poet” first canzone. 53. 13. 347 . Opere. so called from its three promontories. 40. 11. v.” in consequence of which the kingdom fell into the hands of Peter III of Arragon. of which Pachynus and Pelorus. are two. here mentioned. Che nelle scuole fattto io non avria. that “he remained more than twenty days in Florence. The left bank. p. Ibid.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Villani. that the duties of life might be better learnt from the Grecian bard than from the teachers of the porch or the academy. “Upon the back of this circle. 48. The retinue and the habiliments of the young monarch are minutely described by G. Sprang through me from Charles and Rodolph. 78. And meet more sacred learning in his lines Than I had gain’d from all the school divines. ed. 62. 81. my father-in-law. i.] Provence. Thou lov’dst me well. whereof we are now treating. v. had the time been more. and he was much in favour with all. 1. descended through me from Charles I and Rodolph I the former my grandfather king of Naples and Sicily. imitating what Horace had said of Homer.” v. “both celebrated in the Purgatory Canto. v.] “Sicily would be still ruled by a race of monarchs. That horn Of fair Ausonia. in the heaven of Venus.] “In sul dosso di questo cerchio. 718. ‘O ye whose intellectual ministry.] Charles Martel might have been known to our poet at Florence whither he came to meet his father in 1295. and son of Charles 11 king of Naples and Sicily. Se volete saper la vita mia.] Hungary. v.] The kingdom of Naples. 4. who adds. My brother’s foresight. 40. v. Aen. Epicycle. which has in that heaven a revolution of its own: whose circle the astronomers term epicycle.] Sicily. 60. 68. Studiando io sto lungi da tutti gli nomini Ed ho irnparato piu teologia In questi giorni. 14 ‘Typhaeus.] Voi ch’ intendendo il terzo ciel movete. 57. The beautiful Trinaeria. c. To sit in Dido’s bosom. king of Naples.] The giant whom Jupiter is fabled to have overwhelmed under the mountain Aetna from whence he vomits forth smoke and flame. 77. Ven. Convito di Dante.

which have been followed by Crescimbeni. c. commonly termed Folques of Marseilles.] “How a covetous son can spring from a liberal father. are related by the chronicler Rolandino of Padua. Lord of Padua by Can Grande. 2. 173. v. Robert. are detected by the diligence of Tiraboschi. whose wife was living at the same time in the same city. Script. 43 The crowd. Cunizza. (see Purgatory. The hour is near. and the soul. and property of master and slave. and Millot. It. 136. in the first instance. 3. v. and VII. at Vicenza.] Charles Martel. on the 18th September 1314.) it necessarily follows that the excellence of all the members of the state cannot be one and the same. consists of soul and body. v.) with whom she is supposed to have cohabited before her marriage: then lived with a soldier of Trevigi. See G. 22. a celebrated Provencal poet.] The five hundred years are elapsed: and unless the Provencal MSS. v. 137. of which place he was perhaps bishop. 1. iii. 125. How bitter can spring up. v. Villani. and Adice to the west. of France. 62. of man and woman.] Genesis c. 1. De Vulg. the birth-place of the famous tyrant Ezzolino or Azzolino. is what we are told in this Canto. CANTO IX v. v. See G. 32. that his parentage was attributed to Mars. regarding him. 40. and by Petrarch in the Triumph of Love.Paradise of his kingdom. c. Many errors of Nostradamus. v. viii. though his general character was that of a bounteous prince. Eloq. who is said to have been murdered at Trevigi. 4. iv. Canto VI. 6. in the company of Sordello. should be brought to light the poetical reputation of Folco must rest on the mention made of him by the more fortunate Italians.] Cunizza foretells the defeat of Giacopo da Carrara. Quirinus.] Daughter of Charles Martel. “Since a state is made up of members differing from one another.The Divine Comedy of Dante . p. viii. Five times. or Charles. v. in exclusion of his brother s son Carobert. Canto XII. O fair Clemenza. and a family. ix. of reason and desire. the rightful heir. This. Matthias’s ed. One of his verses is cited by Dante. in like manner a state consists both of all these and besides these of other dissimilar kinds. 348 . the brother of Cunizza.” Hell. Consult your teacher. De Rep. where the rivers (Sile and Cagnano meet) while he was engaged in playing at chess. (for even as an animal. Esau. c. 18. who is now speaking. in Muratori Rer. v. P. c. v. 1. v. Villani. One. v. 7.] The people who inhabited the tract of country bounded by the river Tagliamento to the east.] Romulus.] Between Rialto and the Venetian territory. and second wife of Louis X. and on his being murdered by her brother the tyrant.] Aristole. In that part. 2. was by her brother married to a nobleman of Braganzo. The tyrant we have seen in “the river of blood. c. that he was better known by the appellation he derived from Marseilles. xxv. 1. v. that he was of Genoa. v. 1. 112. v. lastly when he also had fallen by the same hand she. i. All that appears certain. born of so obscure a father. overcome by the influence of her star. 45. and at last resumed the religious habit. was again wedded in Verona.] He alludes to the occupation of the kingdom of Sicily by Robert. c. Mr. 78. t. Boniface. She eloped from her first husband.] Folco of Genoa. 25. 37. after her brother’s death. and the sources of the rivers Brenta and Piava is situated a castle called Romano.] The adventures of Cunizza. The treachery. That saintly light. 99.] She predicts also the fate of Ricciardo da Camino. 110. Richard of St.” v.” Yet that father has himself been accused of avarice in the Purgatory Canto XX. 1. 48. ii. Quadrio.

56 This priest. 91. This heav’n. Rahab. c. v. 50.] A place in Africa. CANTO X v.] The net or snare into.] “We behold the things that we predict. That. “Wherever a man is.] Europe and Africa. into Italy. She of Rhodope. 7. who. which took place in the pontificate of Clement V. 88. v.] Dido. The point.] The planet Venus. had committed the above-mentioned act of treachery. 85. 112.] “To that part of heaven. according to the yet more probable conjecture of Lombardi. a river to the west.] “Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings. and the greater part of them there put to death. nearly opposite to Genoa. under a promise of protection. which under the tyranny of Ezzolino. 98. as it were.] The coin of Florence. v. With either palm.] The canon law. v. That other joyance. v. v. 134. 58. v. in which the Pope was accustomed to imprison such as had been guilty of an irremissible sin. The decretals.” 349 .] “By the crucifixion of Christ” v.] He alludes either to the death of Pope Boniface VIII.] Extending to the east. The Vatican. 64. as Venturi supposes.] The great ocean. c. The cursed flower. v. 83.] A tower. 89. which he is destined to fall. that falls into the lake of Bolsena. where the common motion of the heavens from east to west may be said to strike with greatest force against the motion proper to the planets. v. either in the citadel of Padua.] The Bishop of Felto having received a number of fugitives from Ferrara. called the florin. to the east of Genoa.] Phyllis. v. 120. v. Jove’s son. afterwards gave them up. Discordant shores. 96. and this repercussion. because the velocity of each is increased to the utmost by their respective distance from the poles. 53. above his head. Malta’s.” v. “there he has. the Mediterranean at last reaches the coast of Palestine.] Heb. “in which the equinoctial circle and the Zodiac intersect each other. Belus’ daughter. vi. v. to show himself a zealous partisan of the Pope.” or (as some say) near a river of the same name.] Hercules. 126. or. 2. —’Twixt Ebro’s stream And Macra’s. v. v. who were in opposition to the Pope. 130.” says Vellutello. 50. We descry. v.] Eora. xi. 31. to the transfer of the holy see from Rome to Avignon. Meridian.] The Mediterranean sea. Whose haven. Such at least is the system of Dante. or else. is here the strongest. v.” Isaiah. v. 93. so that they were reconducted to that city. Six shadowing wings. which is on its horizon when it enters the straits of Gibraltar. to the coming of the Emperor Henry VII. The web. Begga. for which event Vellutello refers to the history of Augustino Giustiniani. where Folco was born. 76. 80.] Alluding to the terrible slaughter of the Genoese made by the Saracens in 936. and Macra.Paradise v. The valley of waters. in the mirrors of eternal truth.” as Venturi explains it. 80. had been “with many a foul and midnight murder fed.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. 82. v.” v. Feltro.] The bishop. his own particular meridian circle.] Folco.

v.” as Venturi explains it “the civil with the canon law.] The zodiac. and in two years after resigned it. Where. Gratian. 101.] The inhabitants of the sun. The fifth light.] The procession of the third. but vainly. and by birth a Tuscan.] “Pietro Lombardo was of obscure origin. v. His Liber Sententiarum is highly esteemed. No less constrained. a Benedictine monk belonging to the convent of St.] “The song of these spirits was ineffable. Albert of Cologne.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. endeavoured to divert him from a life of celibacy and study. iii. Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum. 96. 11. whose pupil he had been. and I will overturn the v. Felix and Nabor. and died in 1274. Peter. that it may be deemed an original work. Storia della Lett.] Albertus Magnus was born at Laugingen. part 2. Lut. brother of Louis VII. “Take but Thomas away. With a recommendation from the bishop of Lucca to St. Ital. of whom Bucer is reported to have said. 46. v. v. It contains a system of scholastic theology. v. 271. ibid. Paul. Minister.” Tiraboschi. Fourth family. 86.] The sun. for the use of the schools.] “Gratian. in 1193. v. disciple of St. the fourth planet. v. v. and returned to his cell in Cologne. He held his bishopric only one year. where Peter says: “Cupiens aliquid de penuria ac tenuitate nostra cum paupercula in gazophylacium domini mittere.” v. 112. 1. 162. as we could deny thee thy request.” and whom Hooker terms “the greatest among the school divines. being chosen bishop of Paris.” v. Thomas Aquinas was his favourite pupil. v. Par. 104. 101.] Solomon. v. Oblique. 350 . at the age of fourty-seven. c. 105. composed.” v. Who with the widow gave. p. The part. and the writings of the ancient doctors. 4. 30. and particularly at Cologne. 25. Dionysius the Areopagite. fol. He then taught theology in various parts of Germany. Echard and Quetif. the decrees of councils. whence he afterwards proceeded to Paris. 45. iii. v.] “By reconciling. and for that purpose remained some time at Rheims. 91. and died in 1160. v. See also Purgatory Canto XX. p. 6. was born of noble parents. That taper’s radiance. To either forum.. 3. who gave himself out for Dionysius the Areopagite. and who. 104. The absurd imputation of his having dealt in the magical art is well known. c. nor is the place of his birth in Lombardy ascertained. 67. at Bologna.] Thomas Aquinas. Here his reputation was so great that Philip. I then. Bernard.] St. i. 1. Such was the song.] “The rivers might as easily cease to flow towards the sea.] This alludes to the beginning of the Liber Sententiarum. 2. 1719. He died in 1280. Of his spirit and of his offspring. who anxiously.” (Eccl. 12. 9). by Quetif and Echard. Of Aquinum.” v. about the year 1130. In 1260. Thomas. v. “The famous Grecian fanatic. 70.] “I was of the Dominican order. resigned that dignity to Pietro. under the protection of this church of Rome. cent. he reluctantly accepted the bishopric of Ratisbon. b. at the latter of which places he entered into the Dominican order.] The above-mentioned intersection of the equinoctial circle and the zodiac.] In which the sun rises every day earlier after the vernal equinox. where the remainder of his life was passed in superintending the school. and studied at Paris and at Padua. 95. t. t. and the generation of the second person in the Trinity.The Divine Comedy of Dante . in Thuringia. an abridgment or epitome of canon law. and his biographers take some pains to clear him of it. 26.Paradise v. drawn from the letters of the pontiffs. so much more complete than any which had been yet seen. Pol. and in composing his voluminous works on divinity and natural science. he went into France to continue his studies.

p.” v. iii.] “A monk of the abbey of Gemblours who was in high repute at the end of the eleventh. Isidore. 1. One. 351 . t. v.”—” who have written prose with the greatest loftiness of style. 131.” Ibid.] The name of a street in Paris: the “Rue du Fouarre.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. iii. was received with the greatest avidity. Hist. 4. Pietro in Ciel d’oro. 17. v. 11.] A rivulet near Assisi. 12.] Saint Francis. The eighth. or Ascesi where Francis was born in 1182. in his treatise De Vulg. v. among those “qui usi sunt altissimas prosas. 127. and died in 735. Bede. about 470. and beginning of the twelfth century. “In 524 he was cruelly put to death by command of Theodoric. See Mariana. in the bishopric of Durham.] The spirit of Thomas Aquinas v. lived most probably in this century (the fourth). entitled the Mystical Ark. 40. 119. as one of his favourite authors. whose critical opinions in general must be taken with some allowance. 34.] 1n the fifth century. i. a native either of Scotland or Ireland. gave laws and instructions to those that were desirous of raising their souls above all human things in order to unite them to their great source by sublime contemplation. Invited to Rome by Pope Sergius I. ii. c. whose book De Consolatione Philosophiae excited so much attention during the middle ages. p.Paradise venerable name.] Lucretius. v. 14 O miseras hominum mentes! O pectora caeca Qualibus in tenebris vitae quantisque periclis Degitur hoc aevi quodcunque est! v. was canon and prior of the monastery of that name at Paris and died in 1173. v. and died in 635. A similar train of argument was pursued by Augustine.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 3. Richard. 1. v. 29.] Saint Dominic. Tupino. either on real or pretended suspicion of his being engaged in a conspiracy.] Boetius was buried at Pavia. v. than judgment and taste. 116. p. in the monastery of St. and by his books against the Pelagians and Priscillianists. vi. 2. Paulus Orosius. Eloq. 127. 126.” v. 1. c. CANTO XI v. cent.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. ‘The lustre.] Richard of St. xii. others after.] Boetius. 136. That pleader. Cieldauro.] Bede. v. 6.] The church. She.” Della Lett. Aphorisms. was born in 672 at Wearmouth and Jarrow. c.” v. v.. 4. 36. v. A catalogue of his numerous writings may be seen in Kippis’s Biographia Britannica. c. c. and historical productions.] The study of medicine. though some place him before. iv. I ii c. 2.” Dict. was born. cent. “acquired a considerable degree of reputation by the History he wrote to refute the cavils of the Pagans against Christianity. v. as Tiraboschi conjectures. 132. the present period. Sigebert. Mosheim.] He was Archbishop of Seville during forty years. 1. which contains as it were the marrow of this kind of theology. ii. v. The other. 2. ii. v. Ital.] The church. de Moreri. cent. v. i. 2. 7. whose virtues obtained him the appellation of the Venerable. observes that “his grammatical theological. 124. discover more learning and pedantry. The straw-litter’d street. Victor. O fond anxiety of mortal men. The spouse of God. v. Orosius is classed by Dante. in his book De Civitate Dei. 23. “He was at the head of the Mystics in this century and his treatise. 2. he preferred passing almost the whole of his life in the seclusion of a monastery.

127. 76. 58. 106. 531. The wave. v.] Alluding to the stigmata. The east. Bernard. or bishop. 5. or marks resembling the wounds of Christ. on witnessing the secure poverty of the fisherman Amyclas: —O vite tuta facultas Pauperis. Honorius. Annales Ordinis Minoris. 72.] The third of his disciples. His flock] The Dominicans.] Poverty.] Another of his earliest associates.] “The rule of their order. v. Amyclas.The Divine Comedy of Dante . a stream that rises in a mountain near Agobbio. p. Our Patriarch] Saint Dominic.] His successor Honorius III who granted certain privileges to the Franciscans.] Christ. 316. The planet from whence they split. v.] One of the first followers of the saint. 113. v. will admit of either sense.] Pope Innocent III. Caesarea pulsante manu? v. The blessed flame. Innocent. and Juliet is the sun. v. 100.] A man in an humble station of life at Assisi. Heat and cold.] Cold from the snow. 93. 86.” Lucan Phars. v. 83. 55.] v. chosen by St. v. v.] Lucan makes Caesar exclaim. was published in 1534. 60. Egidius. Sylvester.] In opposition to the wishes of his natural father v. and heat from the reflection of the sun. Ubaldo for the place of his retirement. This is the east. CANTO XII v. v. v. v. who died in 1262. said to have been found on the saint’s body. at Antwerp See Lucas Waddingus. v. 42. nullo trepidare tumultu.] Thomas Aquinas 352 . Pietro Bernardone. and Venturi (as I have taken it) of the heavy impositions laid on those places by the Perugians. 76. 50. For GIOGO.] The mountain Alverna in the Apennine. 45.Paradise v. v. 63.] Chiascio. His work. 40. His dearest lady. On the hard rock. Aut potuit muris. which the Dominicans neglect to observe. like the Latin JUGUM. v. 1. v. 90. angustique lares! O munera nondum Intellecta deum! quibus hoc contingere templis. Gainst his father’s will. Yoke. v. in whose presence he made a profession of poverty.] Vellutello understands this of the vicinity of the mountain to Nocera and Gualdo. The last signet. Shakespeare. v. entitled Verba Aurea.] The spiritual father. 1. Her first husband. In his father’s sight.

his mother’s dream. 75. The see. v. and one of the most profound divines of his age.] “For that seed of the divine word. which was offered him by Clement IV. In that clime. 25. and died in 1274. Hugues of St. v.] A cardinal. but through the fault of the pontiff. 1719. v. a Franciscan. from which he communicated light to the east and the west. Victor. Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum. v. v. In the mother’s womb. 82. 1170. v. I question not. -Illuminato here.] His godmother’s dream was. designated by the royal coat of arms. fol. v. 1221. Lyon. is made to proclaim the praises of St. but such would come neither from Casale nor Acquasparta:” of the former of which places was Uberto. As men interpret it. who still observe the rule of the order. He was born at Bagnoregio or Bagnorea. who explained the decretals.] The nymph Echo.] “Some indeed might be found. who had enforced it with unnecessary rigour. v. A. and published by Quetif and Echard. Matteo. who fed ill 1142 at the age of forty-four.] Between Osma and Aranda. Par. And Agostino. 125. by whom the discipline had been relaxed.] Grace or gift of the Lord.Paradise v. with a lighted torch in its mouth. is said to have dreamt that she should bring forth a white and black dog.] Two among the earliest followers of St. 110.] Dominic did not ask license to compound for the use of unjust acquisitions. 1804. 55. and died August 6.” v.] His mother. but afterwards was prevailed on to accept the bishopric of Albano and a cardinal’s hat. his name of Dominic. one master general. Francis. In favour of that seed. Ed. a Dominican.] “But the rule of St. by dedicating a part of them to pious purposes. when pregnant with him. of Florence. The love.] Dominic was born April 5. 101. v. are all told in an anonymous life of the saint. given him in consequence of a vision by a noble matron.] A physician. 59. 12. 77. v.D. who is seated in it. 111. 28. not indeed through its own fault. 73. Felix and Joanna. These writers deny his having been an inquisitor. Callaroga. v. v.” v. Buonaventura. The loving minion of the Christian faith. that he had one star in his forehead.] “The apostolic see. has celebrated those of St.] By an act of mutual courtesy. in Old Castile. p. Francis is already deserted and the lees of the wine are turned into mouldiness. who treated in his writings of all the 353 . and indeed the establishment of the inquisition itself before the fourth Lateran council. from which have sprung up these four-and-twenty plants. 42. Histor. 89. That voice. in Tuscany. Ibid. 25.” v. which no longer continues its wonted liberality towards the indigent and deserving. v.] A Saxon of the monastery of Saint Victor at Paris. Taddeo. and another in the nape of his neck. 1221. that now environ thee. v.] Spain. Dominic. 121. 77.” Dict. “A man distinguished by the fecundity of his genius. transformed into the repercussion of the voice. his father and mother’s names. v. and of the latter. Ostiense.] Saint Buonaventura. “He refused the archbishopric of York. The dame. general of the Franciscan order.] Felix Gusman. v. p. 88. t 1. in which he effected some reformation. as its doctrines are still the same. His birthplace. Tares. as Thomas Aquinas. Felix. another. No dispensation.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 51. Francis. But the track. 48. said to be written in the thirteenth century. One. par Chaudon et Delandine. who stood sponsor to him. Callaroga.] He adverts to the parable of the taxes and the wheat. 85.

CANTO XIII v. iii. was so many ages back discovered and brought to light by Anselm. ranged in two circles. about 1034. One ear. Jerome. v. 125. I have looked into his writings. must imagine to himself fifteen of the brightest stars in heaven. are only emanations from the archetypal idea residing in the Divine mind. Hist. of which Des Cartes is thought to be the author. one of the preceptors of St. 129. Archbishop of Mentz. in 1093. where he afterwards devoted himself to a religious life. Archbishop of Canter bury. after he had been pontiff only eight months and as many days. 21.] Thomas Aquinas. c. born at Troyes. where he died in 1198. He enjoyed this dignity till his death. iv. cent. There is much depth and precisian in his theological works. xiv. written in the name of Peter of Spain (by which he was known before he became Pope).” Maclaine’s Mosheim. Mariana.” Ibid. 2. is his Historia Scolastica. Ital. 1768. v. In three years he was made prior.” Tiraboschi. v.] The eloquent patriarch of Constantinople.] “Whoever would conceive the sight that now presented itself to me. by the falling in of the roof of his chamber. He relinquished these benefices to become a regular canon of St. ix. Donatus. v. v. or the Eater. and moving round m opposite directions. ii. 131. v. together with seven stars of Arcturus Major and two of Arcturus Minor. 1277. 2.Paradise branches of sacred and profane erudition that were known in his time. Stor. That. Oper. 1804. 23. 2 c. 1. della Lett. xii. 29. 1. one within the other. 570. in 1109. 2. Leibnitz himself makes the remark. Piatro Mangiadore.] “To Pope Adrian V succeeded John XXI a native of Lisbon a man of great genius and extraordinary acquirements. 2.] Abbot of Flora in Calabria. cent.] Aelius Donatus. 2. to succeed to the archbishopric.] “Things corruptible and incorruptible. cent. may testify. Lyon. 2. 126.” v. especially in logic and in medicine. iii . then. 130. and who composed several dissertations that are not destitute of merit. and studied under Lanfrane at the monastery of Bec.] St. as his books. 128. Raban. c. 2.” v. taken from the idea of a Supreme Being.] “Having solved one of thy questions. Hist.] “Anselm. Genev. that Adam and Christ were both endued with all the perfection of which the human nature is capable and therefore wonderest at what has been said concerning Solomon” v. and found some reason for this high eulogium. Victor at Paris. iii. vol. c. A. v. v. v. A peer. in his twenty-seventh year. Ibid. 14. 31. t. Canto XXIX. de Esp. 48. 45. for he was killed at Viterbo. p.” Mosheim. v. in the fourth century. The work by which he is best known. Edit.D. That luminary. He of Spain. that the demonstration of the existence of God. Joachim.] “Rabanus Maurus.” 354 . p. 128. His life was not much longer than that of his predecessors. Ed. and afterwards chancellor of the church of Paris. was canon and dean of that church. I proceed to answer the other.] “Petrus Comestor. “It is an observation made by many modern writers. 134. Let him. though it was disturbed by many dissentions with William II and Henry I respecting the immunities and investitures. Dominic. Anselmo.] See Hell. v. 33. in Normandy. p. The Chiava. l. p. the grammarian. v. Thou thinkest. vacant by the death of Lanfrane. v. Chrysostom. Chaudon et Delandine Dict. Hist.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Eccl. “whom the multitude revered as a person divinely inspired and equal to the most illustrious prophets of ancient times. v. is deservedly placed at the head of the Latin writers of this age. and then abbot of that monastery! from whence he was taken. was born at Aosta. c. each resembling the crown of Ariadne. xiii. which I shall have occasion to cite in the Notes to XXVI.

57. v. l. I am thy root. 120. The mountain. 2. v. father to Alighieri. 89. which has given some trouble to the commentators. v. Such was the image.] For the singular opinions entertained by the two former of these heathen philosophers. iii.] Purgatory. who wrote before Dante. i. New existences. or to pry into the subtleties of metaphysical and mathematical science: but asked for that wisdom which might fit him for his kingly office. CANTO XIV v. c. 1. 92. 24. informs us. 52. iii. v.] A passage in the travels of Bertradon de la Brocquiere.Paradise v.) as 3.] See G. c. v. and three eterne on live That raignest aie in three. 1 and Phys. from a consideration of his present character and actions. 62. iii.] “He who considers that the eyes of Beatrice became more radiant the higher we ascended.” v. 138. v. affording instances of false reasoning. v. c. 1. c.] The Word: the Son of God. v. The goodliest light. must not wonder that I do not except even them as I had not yet beheld them since our entrance into this planet. His brightness.] The cross. translated by Mr. and the virtue or energy that acts on it.] The influence of the planetary bodies. Which calls her still. 124. and all maist circonscrive.] The public clock being still within the circuit of the ancient walls. 1. of whom our Poet was the great-grandson. 94. and Rhet. 81. That traveler. i. 78.] The voice of Thomas Aquinas proceeding.] To the planet Mars. Thou one two. v. 1. 84. will explain this allusion. 77. Their wax and that which moulds it. Him. To more lofty bliss. Florence. Troilus and Cresseide. 123. His love triune with them.] “Let not short-sighted mortals presume to decide on the future doom of any man. from the circle to the centre and that of Beatrice from the centre to the circle. v. 26. p. and Aristot. Villani. The lowest powers.] Solomon.] Cacciaguida. 5. 55. Sabellius. Aristotle (Anal Post.] Well-known heretics. 2. two and one Uncircumscript. v.] Virgil Aen. Johnes. The clay. Who ask’d. v.] Matter. 53.” v. 68. 2. ix. He. The last is also twice adduced by 2. Our greater Muse.] Literally translated by Chaucer. v.] Adam.” CANTO XV 355 . The venerable sign. Let not. 1. v. de Caelo. 88. v. v. Scymitars. 684. 9.] The Holy Ghost. The heav’n.] “He did not desire to know the number of the stars. 126. v. —Parmenides Melissus Bryso. 125.] Irrational life and brute matter. l. Arius. that the wandering Arabs used their scymitars as mirrors. 93. v. c. v. see Diogenes Laertius.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Angels and human souls. vi.

44. From the day.] The latter a shameless woman of the family of Tosa. near Florence.] The luxurious monarch of Assyria Juvenal is here imitated. Void. 103.] Cacciaguida’s wife. 110. 1 vi. called Val di Pado. v. 120. See G. 103. 38. Canto XX. 50. whose family name was Aldighieri.] Hell. Piero. Villani. v. which was the last reached by the competitor in the annual race at Florence. CANTO XVI v. Campi and Certaldo and Fighine. See Hell.] Through the civil wars. v. 125. Mary.] The Virgin was involved in the pains of child-birth Purgatory. from whence that city was discovered.] Country places near Florence. Conrad. from its being watered by the Po. commanding a view of Rome. v. and did not expect too large a portion. c.Paradise v. 1. with which it is supposed to have a congenial influence.] The city was divided into four compartments. with whom Dante was at variance. who uses his name for an instance of effeminacy. 136. 101. Bellincion Berti. v. Canto V. 34. Guinever. who were left in possession of the Holy Land. v. 98. See G. v. 10.” Hell. Canto XVI. v.] Beatrice’s smile encouraged him to proceed just as the cough of Ginevra’s female servant gave her mistress assurance to admit the freedoms of Lancelot.] The Mahometans. 130 Valdipado. A Salterello and Cianghella. With greeting.] The Poet. who had addressed the spirit. Of Nerli and of Vecchio. c. The last. The Elisei. The fold.] “Both in the times of heathenish and of Christianity. 144. Sat. 102 Sardanapalus. be placed about 1106. the site of the villa Mellini.] “None fearful either of dying in banishment. v. 101. of which John the Baptist was the patron saint. v. with a plain “Thou. 31.] Two of the most opulent families in Florence. 23. Whose people. and calls him “You. 38. 131. 113. His birth may. iv.] When the women were not married at too early an age. 71. or of being deserted by her husband on a scheme of battle in France. Each. a lawyer. therefore.] The Emperor Conrad III who died in 1152.] Florence.] From the Incarnation to the birth of Cacciaguida. Montemalo ] Either an elevated spot between Rome and Viterbo. Our suburban turret.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Villani. From Mars. nd Notes. v. 21.” now uses more ceremony. v. v. came from Ferrara. the ancestors of Dante. v. the planet Mars had returned five hundred and fifty-three times to the constellation of Leo. married to Lito degli Alidosi of Imola: the former Lapo Salterello. 15. v. There is a curious description of the simple manner in which the earlier Florentines dressed themselves in G. v.” according to a custom introduced among the Romans in the latter times of the empire. 48. 1. 10. Canto XIII. v.] That the inhabitants of the above-mentioned places had not been mixed with the citizens: nor the limits of Florence 356 . Villani. That these people. 124. When. resided near the entrance of that named from the Porta S. or Monte Mario. through the supineness of the Pope. v.] Uccellatojo. v. iv. not knowing him to be his ancestor.

] “The fortune of us. 110.Paradise extended beyond Galluzzo and Trespiano. in one whereof his memory was celebrated at Florence on St.] Cities formerly of importance. with less probability. 91. 61. The blind bull. Compare Aristotle. v. Luni. v. a. Villani. and had yet added to his arms a bordure or. who.] So Chaucer.] Whoever is curious to know the habitations of these and the other ancient Florentines. 1. Ethic.] Baldo of Aguglione. being sprung from the founders of the bishopric of Florence are the curators of its revenues. Troilus and Cresseide.] A castle dismantled by the Florentines. in consequence of which he sold all his possessions in Germany. The Ughi. Ediz. 1st. and Bonifazio of Signa. who resided at Florence as lieutenant of the Emperor Otho III. “gate. See G. whenever it becomes vacant. Supp.” 357 . v. Giolito. 99 v. c. 124. 113. v. 74. and is there also scarce understood by the critics. b. 109. 86. v. The sires of those. belonging to one of the families thus distinguished.] The Marchese Ugo. Villani. The bullets of bright gold. v. v. c. 80.]Two families in the v.] Landino refers this to the smallness of the city: Vellutello. G. The gateway. v. l.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 56. 2. Nic. 99. 13. Simifonte. but then fallen to decay. 86. See Macchiavelli. 38.” v. Th’ o’erweening brood. With them. Had not the people. vi. that are the moon’s men doth ebb and flow like the sea. may consult G.] The arms of the Abbati. l. that Ubertino Donato.] The Adimari. Aguglione’s hind and Signa’s.] The symbols of knighthood v. The great baron. the Tosinghi and the Cortigiani. Urbisaglia. iv. 130. 2. 100.] If Rome had continued in her allegiance to the emperor. iv. s. p. that crown your city’s poop. Villani. Canto XII. 69. ii. v. 1.] The arms of the Pigli. where the vision is related. Chiusi and Sinigaglia. and the Guelph and Ghibelline factions had thus been prevented. v. himself indeed derived from the same stock (see Note to Hell Canto XVI. The column cloth’d with verrey. v.] “Of the Visdomini.” Shakespeare.. 2. v. 127.] Either the Chiaramontesi.] Giano della Bella. 1 Henry IV.] The same. v. For swifter course cometh thing that is of wight When it descendeth than done things light. who had married a daughter of Bellincion Berti. i. 72. as it is conjectured. 30. and founded seven abbeys. See Purgatory. The individual here alluded to is no longer known. v.] Many editions read porta.) was offended with his father-in-law. Respect these wreaths. gave many of the chief families license to bear his arms. 54. which they do not spare. Fior.” -The same metaphor is found in Aeschylus. The gilded hilt and pommel. c. Florence would not have been polluted by a race of upstarts. who no longer retained his place among the nobility. Thomas’s day. 132. v. At the poop. v. or the Tosinghi one of which had committed a fraud in measuring out the wheat from the public granary. One. 103. This family was so little esteemed. for giving another of his daughters in marriage to one of them. nor lost the most respectable of her ancient families. 356. 1. As the moon. to the simplicity of the people in naming one of the gates after a private family. -Gualterotti dwelt And Importuni.

but at this time only nine years old v. That mortal. The house. 102. of Hell. v. born under the influence of Mars. v. in token of her defeat. 43. See Notes to Canto XXVIII.] Either Alberto della Scala. The lily. 49. the view of the Deity. Canto XIII.] Pope Clement V. in 1300. Great Harry. Ovid. v.] “From the eternal sight. The cry thou raisest.] “They shall be ashamed of the part they have taken aga’nst thee.] Phaeton. v. The Gascon. To Ema. 135.” v. when the Guelfi gained the predominance. Trionfo del Tempo v. 69.” as they afterwards were. no more necessitates that future than does the image. who came to his mother Clymene.] At Rome.] See Hell. 6. Near the remains of the statue of Mars. v. 3. with the same clearness of evidence. Theirs. 127.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 144. 15.] Can Grande della Scala. The great Lombard.” v.] Nam praevisa minus laedere tela solent. to inquire of her if he were indeed the son of Apollo. 80. To own thy thirst. Che piaga antiveduta assai men duole. 142. 1. 1.] Of Amidei.” v.] The Emperor Henry VII. From thence. nor been changed from argent to gules.] “Thou beholdest future events. where the expulsion of Dante’s party from Florence was then plotting.Paradise compartment of the city called Borgo.] 358 . Met. Thou seest as clear. necessitate the motion of the vessel. v. reflected in the sight by a ship sailing down a stream. v.” v. Petrarca. See Ovid. 144. v. Contingency. The youth. that we discern the simplest mathematical demonstrations. v. Their coat of arms was a ladder and an eagle. That saintly lamp. 65. CANTO XVIII v. 12.] “That thou mayst obtain from others a solution of any doubt that may occur to thee.] “Thou shalt stigmatize the faults of those who are most eminent and powerful. Temp’ring the sweet with bitter. Buondelmonti was slain. i. 150.] “It had been well for the city. 38. 80. as if he had been a victim to the god. The point.] “The evidence with which we see the future portrayed in the source of all truth. 75.” CANTO XVII v.] Cacciaguida. 19. when he crossed that stream on his way from Montebuono to Florence. if thy ancestor had been drowned in the Ema.] The divine nature.” v. v.] “The arms of Florence had never hung reversed on the spear of her enemies. or Bartolommeo his eldest son. On that maim’d stone. The arrow. 27. There. and Florence had not since known the blessing of peace. ad finem. v. v.

b. See Coxe’s House of Austria. c. William II of Orange. v. 4to. Taking the bread away. 37. in Duchesne. Par. Duke Godfey.” v. under the name of Rinaldo.] “And thou. Hist. 116. des Croisades. and his kinsman Raimbaud. ye that be judges of the earth “ Wisdom of Solomon. 28. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . William l. vii 224. “Love righteousness. 508. Shakespeare. xx. according to Joseph de la Piser.” Eccl. Pulci commends Dante for placing Charlemagne and Orlando here: Io mi confido ancor molto qui a Dante Che non sanza cagion nel ciel su misse Carlo ed Orlando in quelle croci sante. 1682. v. That volume. Robert Guiscard.] Purgatory. 43. 117. xii. t. in 359 . Prague. 96. That writest but to cancel. As you Like it. Morg. And Milton. Che come diligente intese e scrisse. v. Charlemagne. i. he would not have fallen.] The eagle predicts the devastation of Bohemia by Albert. Albert. 46. William and Renard. The latter is better known by having been celebrated by Ariosto. p.] Mars. which had been misrepresented in the songs of the itinerant bards. v. L. v. CANTO XIX v. 114. 38. or the interdiction of the Eucharist. Canto VI. 12. 27. v. as the commentators have imagined. 98. viii. To him. 3. v.] The coin of Florence was stamped with the impression of John the Baptist. 81. Hist. Who turn’d his compass. c.] “Excommunication.] Judas Maccabeus.] “That he may again drive out those who buy and sell in the temple. ed. after the battle of Courtrai. 12. i. 42. a. 124. The former. That once more. Magg. The characters. died about 808. 41.] Probably not. The great Maccabee. des Princes et Principante d’Orange. 108. He.” v. which happened soon after this time. v.] Philip IV of France. 126. c.] Compare Proverbs. (Maimbourg. Of this Lucifer was a proof. of Orange. s.] L. On this fifth lodgment of the tree. 130. 116.) but rather the two more celebrated heroes in the age of Charlemagne. P.” v. p. is now employed as a weapon of warfare. 39. v. for had he thoroughly comprehended it. 43. The Word] “The divine nature still remained incomprehensible.] Matt.” Vulgo canitur a joculatoribus de illo.Paradise Chewing the end of sweet and bitter fancy. when that Emperor obtained the kingdom for his eldest son Rodolph. Tableau de l’Hist. 1. the fifth v. who writest thy ecclesiastical censures for no other purpose than to be paid for revoking them. The Ethiop. i. v.” v. 3. two of the crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon. 112. 26. v. part 1. c.] See Hell. sed jure praeferenda est relatio authentica. cantilena. Canto XXVIII. Pope Boniface. Normann Script. 1302. v.] Rev. 87 v. Ordericus Vitalis. v. c. 12mo.] Diligite justitiam qui judicatis terrarm. p. supposed to have been the founder of the present illustrious family of that name. Our countryman.] Godfrey of Bouillon. professes to give his true life. ed. Hist.

-Famagosta’s streets And Nicosia’s. The Bohemian. at that time ruled by Henry II a pusillanimous prince. v.] He adverts to the disputes between John Baliol and Edward I. Regno degli Slavi. 4to edit.] James II of Arragon. v. p. 141. v. and Winceslaus. 133. 1288. 122.” Modern Univ. v. He. de Malte. v.] The eagle. the Imperial ensign. v. king of Majorca and Minorca. Ediz. Hungary. v. He died in 1328. 1. CANTO XX v. v. 215. Uladislaus appears to have been the sovereign in Dante’s time. i. v. Mountainous girdle. See Purgatory. v. whence he supposes the other celestial bodies to derive their light v. The halter of Jerusalem. the latter of whom is commended in the Purgatory. 18. 135. v. Purgatory. or Ratza. des Chev. Mariana. 123. vol. -Him Of Ratza. Navarre. The isle of fire is Sicily. in consequence.] Charles II of Naples and Jerusalem who was lame. iii. and does not seem to have deserved the stigma here fastened on him. as it was supposed. Canto VII. v. v. 136. c. Who. xv. where was the tomb of Anchises. v. v. Norway. and died in 1312.] James. in Sclavonia. and XX. of his extreme intemperance. The Spaniard’s luxury. 143. son of Charles Martel. c. 117.] The light of the sun. who. king of Norway. Canto VII. which ruled the kingdom of Rassia. See Coxe’s House of Austria. Erie VIII. and 1. commenced a war against his successor. Wherein one shines. 122. Hist. v. 138. It soon after (in 1328) followed the advice of Dante and had a monarch of its own. from 1161 to 1371. son of Winceslaus II.] Navarre was now under the yoke of France.] David. Vertot. 125. Hist. 1.] In the time of Dante. A D.] Haquin. almost to the utter ruin and destruction of both kingdoms. Purgatory.] One of the dynasty of the house of Nemagna. See Mariana. who died in 1327. 117. v. is not recorded by the historian v. 19. but the disgraceful forgery adverted to in the text. 121. See note to Purgatory.Paradise which the French were defeated by the Flemings. Canto VII. 78.] The kingdom of Hungary was about this time disputed by Carobert. raised the nominal value of the coin. at the age of twenty four.derers of Eric VII king of Denmark. after a reign of near forty-six years. This king died in consequence of his horse being thrown to the ground by a wild boar. Canto VII. 130. 8. v. 360 . v. 136. v.] Cities in the kingdom of Cyprus. in 1314 v. 11. The meaning appears to be. xv. Canto VII. 127. See Mariana.] The commentators refer this to Alonzo X of Spain.] Frederick of Sicily son of Peter III of Arragon. that the complaints made by those cities of their weak and worthless governor. 34. Pesaro. 1. It seems probable that the allusion is to Ferdinand IV who came to the crown in 1295. having given refuge to the mur. 140. xv. Dionysius was king of Portugal. 133. Perhaps the rebellious son of Dionysius may be alluded to. xxxii p. and whose history may be found in Mauro Orbino. His uncle. is probably meant. prince of Bohemia. The English and Scot. vi. Of Portugal. p.] Winceslaus II. 86. Hist I. His brother. may be regarded as an earnest of his condemnation at the last doom. 1601. “which continued for nine years.] The Pyrenees. The great sign. 6. c.The Divine Comedy of Dante . brother to Peter III.

30. The hat.] Ripheus. Gregory v. See Hell. at the latter part of the twelfth century He was of the Norman line of sovereigns. His letters throw much light on the obscure history of these times.] William II. v.] St.] Trajan. v.] At Ravenna. 21. The seventh splendour. 97.] The cardinal’s hat. 103.Paradise v. This. about 1007. v. 91. What forbade the smile. William. 130. as the poet says his loss was as much the subject of regret in his dominions.] Ripheus. ii. Of that lov’d monarch.] “My pleasure was as great in complying with her will as in beholding her countenance. v. he preferred his former retreat in the monastery of Fonte Aveliana. 1. Canto II. however. 68.] The Apennine. by the pains he took to correct the abuses among the clergy. 112. king of Sicily. v. Virg. before he was sent on other embassies.” 361 . The prayers. v. t. 12. 4—. Ravenna is supposed to have been the place of his birth.] “S. v. Paul.] Faith. and rewarded by Stephen IX with the dignity of cardinal. 118. justissimus unus Qui fuit in Teneris. Round this. 119.] The planet Saturn v. 57. v. There aloft. The pair. and obtained the appellation of “the Good” and.] Saturn. Canto X. v. Peter. v. He. His eloquence is worthy of a better age. Besides them. 24.] Hezekiah. Beside the Adriatic. Canto XXIX. that had arisen from the mixture of the civil with the ecclesiastical power. according to which reading. and Charity. iv. Purgatory. The three nymphs. There is no passage in which Dante’s opinion of the evil. v. and prevailed on Alexander II to permit him to retire thither. Trojan Ripheus. 114. 50. He died at Faenza in 1072. 61. A stony ridge. ‘The other following.] Where the other souls were. Canto XIV. v. who was termed “Peccator. he has left several treatises on sacred and ecclesiastical subjects. 116. v. 44. In equal balance. See Purgatory. 97. 117. He next. 2. Storia della Lett Ital. v.” v. Hope. That.] Constantine.] Ripheus and Trajan. Some editions have FU instead of FUI. to which.] St. Pietro Damiano obtained a great and wellmerited reputation.] The constellation Leo. was of sorrow and complaint. Pietro Damiano. Compare Hell. 119 The Holy Spirit’s vessel. 13. Cephas. Aen. 62. et servantissimus aequi.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] “Because it would have overcome thee. 98. 138. v. Yet he did not long continue in this seclusion. iii. c. CANTO XXI v. The burning lion’s breast. as the presence of Charles I of Anjou and Frederick of Arragon. 1.] Trajan. 56. is more unequivocally declared. v. 39. v.” the sinner. v.] Round the spirit of Pietro Damiano. He was employed in several important missions.] The prayers of St.” Tiraboschi. Pietro distinguishes himself from another Pietro. and the bishopric of Ostia.

was instituted.] The angel Gabriel. 98. L. now contain the fruit of their pious endeavours. Romoaldo. v. The sign. 86.] So Chaucer.] By synecdoche. an Egyptian monk.] Beatrice. cent. “Jam ipsa terra ita mihi parva visa est. 73. Thou didst exalt thy glory. v. the lyre is put for the angel v. 70. 99.] A name of Diana. cent. ii. v. That region. A cresset. And down from thence fast he gan avise This little spot of earth.] Towards the south. as his works displayed. 130. See Purgatory.] The apostles. 2 .] Our Saviour v. v. p.] The constellation of Gemini. i. That lyre. The lilies. G. Romoaldo.] The planets Mercury and Venus. 126. iii. Eccles.6. The name of that fair flower.Paradise CANTO XXII v. Somn.] The name of the Virgin.” v. 529. 10. it is supposed. v.” &c. 2. 48. 48. Maia and Dione. v.9. st. In the following chapter. 26. by Benedict of Nursis. 140. CANTO XXIII v. 36. 26. having sown the seed of good works on earth. This globe. died in 1027.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. some few things excepted. xiv. Canto XX. b. 71. undoubtedly deserves the first rank among the practical matters of this time. The patriarch Jacob. The goodliest sapphire.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Trivia. vi.] The Virgin Mary. ix. 11 ch. Cassino. than. and the founder of the order of Camaldoli. to render the eyes of Dante more capable of enduring the spectacle which now presented itself. 362 . “Macarius. v. v. Scip. v. P. The vengeance. when he is in the east or the west.] The stars.] A castle in the Terra di Lavoro. 84. A. 2 .] So Milton. iv p. where the course of the sun appears less rapid. L. 510: The stairs were such. b. which in a manner absorbed all the others that were established in the west. v. and fully gan despite This wretched world.] The diving light retired upwards. v. v. ch. 92. that with the sea Embraced is. c. it is said. 11. Troilus and Cresseide. 9. v.] S.D. a native of Ravenna. v. 107. v. Th’ eternal nymphs.] The Virgin v. 14. 86. The Might. The rose. 11. intimates the approaching fate of Boniface VIII. I it was. 11. He was the author of a commentary on the Psalms.] Those spirits who. v. Those rich-laden coffers. Macarius. Hist. v. Lucan. Compare Cicero. bands Of guardians bright. 36. and Tasso. 38. v.] There are two of this name enuerated by Mosheim among the Greek theologians of the fourth century. the brightest and most lovely portraiture of sanctity and virtue. 10. Phar 1. as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending. a man of piety and reputation for the age he lived in.] “A new order of monks.

146. James was discovered. v. in a passage from his third book De Monarchia: “Dicit etiam Johannes ipsum (scilicet Petrum) introiisse SUBITO. cum venit in monumentum. v. 39. qua spiritualia et aeterna bona speratam. Iii. ed. 40.” v. 13.” &c.Paradise v. 26. See his Introduction to the New Testament. James is here attributed to the elder apostle of that name.” Ps. 1. 129. 91.] “I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills. Cambridge. though Peter was the first to enter it. hospitals for the reception of the pilgrims. Lomb. Hope. 67. 31. Eloy afterwards (the precise time is not known).The Divine Comedy of Dante . but let me know if thy inward persuasion is conformable to thy profession. 3. Marsh. is obliged to leave the question undecided. T. He. Cxxi. Current. 133. Dist. CANTO XXV v.] In the transfiguration on Mount Tabor.] St. the devotion for that place extended itself not only over all Spain.] The Old and New Testament.” for that John came first to the sepulchre. “En el tiempo. “made a slip. CANTO XXIV v. along the whole read. Ed. N. Hist. id est. P. The fair sheep-fold.” Pet. which reached as far as to France. From Egypt to Jerusalem. by the roughness and barrenness of those parts. whence he was banished. As to outstrip. who after all. 10. 363 .] Hebrews.] Florence. but is well answered by Michaelis. St. 20. 28. in Galicia. As Jesus. v. c. built. sed praesumptio. E delle non visioili argomento.] For the sake of that faith. v.” So in Boccaccio.] Venturi insists that the Poet has here. The canons of St.1. Bas. The learned and candid Michaelis contends very forcibly for its having been written by James the Elder. in many places.] During their abode in this world. videns allum discipulum cunctantem ad ostium. . 82. “Est autem spes virtus. v. Peter. Who. xi. 1793. v. 1. who made captives many of the pilgrims. That Worthy.] Pindar has the same bold image: On which Hayne strangely remarks: Ad ambitus stropharum vldetur. Galicia throng’d with visitants.] From the lower world to heaven. v. with a desire of remedying these evils. vi.] Quel Baron. 13. c. I lifted up. In the Babylonian exile. 1. James. James is called “Barone. So Marino. which calls Divozioni: Fede e sustanza di sperate cose. with the other holy men of the Old and New testament. 2. 65. from whence cometh my help. 59. 6. Multitudes from all parts of the world came to visit it. while Benson argues against it. v. Faith.” v. “At the time that the sepulchre of the apostle St.” Opere de Dante. Sine meritis enim aliquid sperare non spes. ii. 1.] The Epistle of St.” v.] This is from the Sentences of Petrus Lombardus.] “The answer thou hast made is right. iv. dici potest. v. v. The second flame. 124. and by the incursions of the Moors. 1793. 35. Many others were deterred by the difficulty for the journey. in one of his sonnets. translated by Dr. For its sake. but even round about to foreign nations. Lardner rejects that opinion as absurd. V. Such folds. xi.] St. v.] See Mariana. we find “Baron Messer Santo Antonio. beatitudinem aeternam. Sent. 26. v. Which of the two was the author of it is yet doubtful. G. The ancient bond and new. But let Dante have leave to explain his own meaning. 114. In the next Canto. Ven. whose shrine was at Compostella.

v. cap. Paul.” v. 127. x. and others. John in the Revelation.] From Horace. viro sanae mentis in promptu esse non dubito ipsum fuisse quod Deus est.] Exodus. 133. 121. The first living soul. 4. 1. The leaves. 42. His anthem. which followed the death of Christ. c.] St.] He looked so earnestly. This. lxi. i. “Primum apud Hebraeos Dei nomen El dicitur.] Psalm ix. 10. All my life. v. 117. John.] St. Whence. 11. Ars. Use.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Thy brother. Peter’ who looked as the planet Jupiter would.] Who. xxxiii. in the last Canto but one. 107. c. p. 4to. 177. John v.] Adam. 10. were to shine throughout the month following the winter solstice during which the constellation Cancer appears in the east at the setting of the sun. ix. Fol. v. &c. 1.] “If a luminary. restored his sight. it is said of our first parents: Quidam tradunt eos fuisse in Paradiso septem horae. The two. The beamy flame. v. 82. Op. v. 138.] St. John were present there in body. CANTO XXVI v. 112. there would be no interruption to the light. 2. referred to in the twenty-eighth Canto. v. Par. 1513.Paradise 1486. Bip. i. and to whose charge Jesus recommended his mother. Eloq.” v. 36. 1.] St. Isaias ] Chap. John.] St. Acts. v. James. videlicet El.” St. v.] Who enlightens and comprehends all things. 74. See Hell. or in spirit only. from Limbo. EL] Some read UN. that he tarry till I come what is that to thee. Areopagite. ed. to descry whether St. Ananias’ hand. who. vii. “One. Adam says that 5232 years elapsed from his creation to the time of his deliverance. but is himself enlightened and comprehended by none. v. 9. 135. is the cause to us of the greatest goods “ Plat. 40. The eagle of our Lord. v. 62. From him. Parhelion. That. who reclined on the bosom of our Saviour. ed.” I. and. 9. but the whole month would be as a single day. 53. 94. being the eldest. if it 364 .] “I remained in the terrestrial Paradise only tothe seventh hour. Poet.” In the Historia Scolastica of Petrus Comestor.] St. vii. v. 1. 17. So I. 62.] Some suppose that Plato is here meant. 1. At the outset. Winter’s month. St. St. v. 19.] John. in his Banquet. Isidore in the Origines. c. “Quod prius vox primi loquentis sonaverit. Others have understood it of Aristotle. like that which now appeared. as rising above his sight. 101. I will make. 13. whom he has described. and Adam. c. c. t.] That is. having had his doubts raised by that saying of our saviour’s: “If I will. v. 51. by putting his hand on St. v. Peter. Four torches. v.” v. makes Phaedrus say: “Love is confessedly amongst the eldest of beings. 90. had said. of the writer who goes by the name of Dionysius the CANTO XXVII v.” instead of EL: but the latter of these readings is confirmed by a passage from Dante’s Treatise De Vulg.] Created beings. John. v.] Christ and Mary. Canto II.

terms the day. xii. No purpose was of ours. and the others. From the hour. v. 131.] “From the Gemini. bishops of the same see. such colour. Lombardi refers the prognostication to Can Grande della Scala: and. From Gades. He. &c.] Bishops of Rome in the first century.] He alludes to Jacques d’Ossa. shall amount to so large a portion of time. 93. v. because Leda was the mother of the twins. where Europa. “are the roots. v.” as we say familiarly. 37. Castor and Pollux. who filled the papal chair in 1316. 76. Cahorsines and Gascons.” says Beatrice. None.] Dante was in the constellation Gemini. 86. Peter) should serve as a mark to authorize iniquitous grants and privileges. v.] Since he had last looked (see Canto XXII.] Because. and Callixtus bleed And Urban. v. Ovid. v. L.] Boniface VIII. the shepherds are become wolves. and a quarter of the heaven. v.] The commentators in general suppose that our Poet here augurs that great reform. 40. 184.] “We did not intend that our successors should take any part in the political divisions among Christians. Met.] See Hell. Fortune shall be fain. v.” And she then breaks out into an exclamation on the degeneracy of human nature. 365 . v.] The former two. v. which does not lift itself to the contemplation of divine things.] So she calls human nature.) he perceived that he had passed from the meridian circle to the eastern horizon.” thus called. and the sun in Aries. 20. which he vainly hoped would follow on the arrival of the Emperor Henry VII.] “Before many ages are past. or that my figure (the seal of St. before those fractions. The fair child of him. from whence time springs: for the parts. Did Sextus. Canto XIX. b. the other heavens must be considered. aut purpureae Aurorae.] When the sun is in Capricorn. and assumed the name of John XXII. it will happen soon. The she-goat. Time’s roots.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that January shall be no more a winter month. 26.” By this periphrasis is meant “ in a short time. Canto XXVI. and Note. v. Pindar by a more easy figure.. and the whole of Taurus. a Gascon. There was.] Compare Milton. in the second. when we consider that this Canto was not finished till after the death of Henry. Pius. v. of whom see Hell. 63. in his shape of a bull. Wolves. in Italy. v. after it had been two years vacant. 508. 80. Before the date.Paradise assumed the sanguine appearance of liars. the half of our hemisphere. Of Linus and of Cletus. 72. P. v. The shore. 135. in the fourth century.] Phoenicia. 42.] Qui color infectis adversi solis ab ietu Nubibus esse solet. such a thing will happen before a thousand years are over when we mean.” v. 106 v. 53. part of those two constellations. The fair nest of Leda.” v. a native of Cahors. the daughter of Agenor mounted on the back of Jupiter. into which it is divided. and to Clement V. which are drops in the reckoning of every year. as appears from the mention that is made of John XXII. v. iii. 1. 112. 51. therefore. “child of the sun. as has been before said. 126. between them. The sun. it cannot be denied but the conjecture is probable. 129. 78.] “Here.

b.The Divine Comedy of Dante . v. and the latter. P. or planet of Saturn. c. which goes under his name.] There was neither “before nor after.” no distinction. Dominations.] [GREEK HERE] Aristot. to the eighth sphere. xxxiv.] He seems to mean that spiritual beings. 110. as the sun and moon are in changing hemispheres. 30. princedoms. “From that beginning depend heaven and nature. the one under the sign of Aries. which participates both of spirit and matter. The sturdy north. that the book. not in process of before or aft. Such diff’rence.Paradise CANTO XXVIII v. the more ample the body is. was the production of a later age. f. quia videlicet esse. if for the first we reckoned one. He had learnt. four. hangs upon that point. 524. 124. virtutes. Pent. Dionysius. 126.” Divi Gregorii. CANTO XXIX v. The seeming contradiction is thus accounted for by Beatrice. Milton. were produced at once. v. 43. No longer. that the orbits of the latter are more swift. Heav’n. v. and so went on doubling to the end of the account. or heaven of fixed stars. 7. 70. 22. Thrones. the more they approximate to the central point. he says. thronos. Hom.] The material world and the intelligential (the copy and the pattern) appear to Dante to differ in this respect. or primum mobile.] Compare Homer. ed. 601. Fearless of bruising from the nightly ram. 366 . that of the cherubim. 119. progeny of light. of time. that of the seraphim. v. by the influence of autumn. had learnt from St.] Hear all ye angels. His threefold operation. 106. v. archangelos. for the next. the greater is the good of which it is capable supposing all the parts to be equally perfect.] Dionysius. and the other under that of Libra. 125. brute matter. In orbs Of circuit inexpressible they stood. when they are opposite to one another. and both hang for a moment. noised as it were in the hand of the zenith. the nearer they are to the centre. domination’s. when the constellation Aries rises at sunset. Par. Canto XXXIV.] As short a space. principatus. Paul. like the productions of our spring. and the intermediate part of the creation. 1518.] Gregory the Great. Jerome had described the angels as created before the rest of the universe: an opinion which Thomas Aquinas controverted. b.] The sparkles exceeded the number which would be produced by the sixty-four squares of a chess-board. scimus: Angelos. two. the third. In the material world.] The Areopagite. till the creation of the world. and in like manner throughout the two other trines of circles and spheres. v. Gregory. had Scripture on his side. whereas the contrary is the case with the orbits of the former. 105. dominationae. v. as Dante thinks. the second. v. 51. to the seventh sphere. 596.] See Hell. that is. corresponds to the ninth sphere. or circle of thrones. xii. fol. Thus the first circle. 36. Orb within orb Milton. testante sacro eloquio. v. L. the circles are more excellent and powerful. It is almost unnecessary to add.” v. virtues. L. 82. 1.] Not injured. powers. 1. b. For. P. v. On Jerome’s pages. But in the intelligential world. otestates. and all nature. II. v. cherubin atque seraphin. which is God. 38. v. v. for the third.] St. In number. v. “Novem vero angelorum ordines diximus. Metaph. in his book De Caelesti Hierarchia. above referred to.

v. c. 108. when you should woo a soul. From behind the swine of St. 491. 44. 140.28. v. L. 118. Six thousand miles. ii. This turn. v. 80. 111. History in Dr. in his Religious Musings. L. v. Coleridge. Saint Anthony.” Rev.” Macbeth. P. 18. b. 10. v. cent.] Far and wide his eye commands For sight no obstacle found here. and of beatified souls.] From the ninth sphere to the empyrean. Forth. a. that remained faithful. Milton. v. b. The sheep. So Mr.] Common names of men at Florence v. vii. b. xi.] Thus Cowper. &c. —underneath a bright sea flow’d Of jasper. Anthony supported themselves and their paramours. CANTO XXX v. when it is noon-day six thousand miles off. which are in reality encompassed by it. ‘Tis pitiful To court a grin. “in 1297. I.Paradise v. nor shade. v. Rot inwardly. p. P.] He compares the vanishing of the vision to the fading away of the stars at dawn. 2.The Divine Comedy of Dante . . 367 . Engirt. 13. the brothers of St. they obtained the dignity and privileges of an independent congregation. 616.] “appearing to be encompassed by these angelic bands. 406. Lycidas.] On the sale of these blessings.] So Milton. Anthony. Of the great Harry. c. The hungry sheep look up and are not fed. cxxii. proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. 263. Of Bindi and of Lapi.] “And he showed me a pure river of water of life. Boniface VIII. But all sunshine. b. 1. swoln with wind and the rank mist they draw. —the eves Of mine eyelids. 131. formed by the earth over the part of it inhabited by the Poet. As some cliff. who died in 1313. 39. But. Maclaine’s Translation. 112. s.] Son di lor vero ombriferi prefazii. and the shadow. v. 88. ii. Fattens with this his swine. v. the latter in that form which they will have at the last day. iii. 135.] Of angels. Life is a vision shadowy of truth. viii. our Poet levels a blow at the object of his inveterate enmity. l. Either mighty host.] The Emperor Henry VII. This turn hath made amends. v. Milton. which is more light. b. Light flowing. v. v. 3. P. 121.” v.] Questa vice.” Dan. 518.] “Thousand thousands ministered unto him. Daniel.” See Mosheim’s Eccles. iv. 2. P. or of liquid pearl.] A lake That to the fringed bank with myrtle crown’d Her crystal mirror holds. Hence perhaps Milton. clear as crystal. is about to disappear. L. Milton. from whom. Task. My view with ease. The preacher. and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him.] Thus Shakespeare calls the eyelids “penthouse lids. Shadowy of the truth. 1. 61. iii. v. v.

See Canto XXVII. 1145. fab. v. p. 79. In holy scripture. Bernard.] “A moment seems to me more tedious. v. Hell. et Thet. 101. b. Canto II. 22.] Callisto. v. v. in his sixtythird year. 109. ii. ii. 445. 60. 89. ii. cent. v. 118.] St. Catullus. v. 97. v. CANTO XXXIII v. 3 . That circling. P. 15.] The Virgin Mary. xii. de l’Hist.] St. xxv. Ancestress. v.] Ruth. as it supposed her being honoured with a privilegewhich belonged to Christ Alone Dr. Helice. 123. l. 119. Argo’s shadow] Quae simul ac rostro ventosnm proscidit aequor. “Light of Light. 768. changed into the constellations of the Greater Bear and Arctophylax. or Bootes. the venerable abbot of Clairvaux. —Iignages of Guillaume Ghyart. His sermons are called by Henault. 1153.19. 108. Alagna’s priest. c. v.] The Trinity. Three orbs of triple hue. She.] Menage on this word quotes the Roman des Royau End Paradise. Virg.] Pope Clement V. and opposed the doctrine itself with the greatest vigour. Bees. the ancestress of David. than fiveand-twenty ages would have appeared to the Argonauts. and Milton. then preserved at Rome. 92. Met. v. CANTO XXXII v. L. v. v. Oriflamme est une banniere De cendal roujoyant et simple Sans portraiture d’autre affaire. and the great promoter of the second crusade.] Compare Homer.” in which he dimly beheld the mystery of the incarnation. “chefs~d’oeuvres de sentiment et de force. Aen. See Ovid. clipt in one bound. 8. They have even been preferred to al1 the productions of the ancients. who died A. 368 . CANTO XXXI v. 1. Him. and the author has been termed the last of the fathers of the church. The queen. iii. Our Veronica ] The holy handkerchief. 63.] The second of the circles. Canto XIX. Bernard. on which the countenance of our Saviour was supposed to have been imprest.] Virg. 53. 29. Emersere feri candenti e gurgite vultus Aequoreae monstrum Nereides admirantes.” Abrege Chron. De Nupt. Aen. Pel. 3. vi. Bernard.D. and her son Arcas. v. Iliad. One moment.The Divine Comedy of Dante . de Fr.] Eve. v. Maclaine’s Mosheim. 87. v. The Sybil’s sentence. when they had resolved on their expedition. 430. 95. Tortaque remigio spumis incanduit unda. when we consider that he severely censured the new festival established in honour of the Immaculate Conception of the virgin. Lucia.Paradise v. He. 93. That the part he acts in the present Poem should be assigned to him appears somewhat remarkable. 6. It is uncertain whether they were not delivered originally in the French tongue. v. I. 145. iii.] See Hell. 141.] Gen.] Pope Boniface VIII. Oriflamb. c.

XI. who shall be at the trouble of examining into the degree of accuracy with which the task has been executed. Giotto. Pierre de la Brosse. C. 104. and Par. daughter of Folco Portinari. of England is succeeded by Edward I. D. I have subjoined. 16 and Purg C. 38. XI. Purg. Fra. Instead of a Life of my Author. C. even in the present version of it. I believe. may not be without interest for the mere English reader. Two of the Frati Godenti chosen arbitrators of the differences at Florence. X. by turning to the passages referred to in the Poem and Notes. C. 56. XXVIII. 129. executed. 97. H.Appendixes PREFACE In the years 1805 and 1806. during which (to use the eloquent language of Mr. Par. Purg. C. is born. termed it simply “The Comedy. 13. in Italian. Canto XV. and C. since. XX. January. 83. 67. I may be allowed to suggest. 1275. Pope Adrian V. because the style was of the middle kind: and in the next. Hell. Henry III. C. and becomes King of Naples. C.” was begun long before the first. I have had to make my choice out of a variety of readings and interpretations. and lulled to sleep amid the music of nobler thoughts. presented by different editions and commentators. C. VI. the poet. Our Poet first sees Beatrice. the poet. and XVI.” in the first place. in more instances than I have noticed. have made their appearance in this country. C. Purg. 1814 A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF THE AGE OF DANTE A. is defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou. 1265. I do not regard those hours as the least happy of my life. of France. Guido Novello of Polenta obtains the sovereignty of Ravenna. that their judgment should not be formed on a comparison with any single text of my Author. the painter. Coleridge) “my individual recollections have been suspended. dies. Guittone d’Arezzo. in chronological order. Of his own ancestry he speaks in the Paradise. 96. 1266. but of the chief public occurrences that happened in his time: concerning both of which the reader may obtain further information. Dante. not concluded till the summer before last. On a retrospect of the time and exertions that have been thus employed. 1274. XXVIII. and as early as the year 1797. because the story (if story it may be called) ends happily. Purg. C. Guido Guinicelli. In one or two of those editions is to be found the title of “The Vision. In the same year. C. 118. 95. C. owing to many interruptions. III. 96. dies. H. VII. To those. XXVI. The translation of the second and third parts.” which I have adopted. 1268. 369 . two impressions of the whole of the Divina Commedia. I published the first part of the following translation. with the text of the original. Purg. C. XIX. 23. C. H. XXIII. a view not only of the principal events which befell him. 1272. Buonaventura dies. XXVII. which has familiarized me with one of the sublimest efforts of the human invention. secretary to Philip III. Since that period. It is not necessary that I should add a third: and I am induced to hope that the Poem. Gianni de’ Soldanieri heads the populace in that city. Charles of Anjou puts Conradine to death. as more conformable to the genius of our language than that of “The Divine Comedy. 25. XXIV. 110. XX. And Purgatory. dies. Manfredi. but. Thomas Aquinas dies. son of Alighieri degli Alighieri and Bella. XXXII. 1276. 66.” Dante himself. C. H. Purg. “The Purgatory” and “The Paradise. is born at Florence. king of Naples and Sicily.” nor that study as misapplied. Purg. C. XII.

Purg. XII. of Arragon. and is succeeded by James II. 56. XIX. and Par. H. becomes king of Sicily. and Par. During his absence at Rome. H. 80. Purg. of Arragon. and VII. 1300. son of Peter III. XXIV. 92. 1294. XIX. 135. XXIV. Par. I. 142. He is sentenced. XXVII. 47. C. 78. XXVII. By this marriage he had five sons and a daughter. January 27. dies. H. 1284. of Arragon. C. H. Cimabue. H. 97. Philip III. Par. H. C. 1282. 55. C. 117. C. 133. He serves in the war waged by the Florentines upon the Pisans. XI. makes war on Denmark. dies. V. H. and Purg C. C. C. C. 135. 113. dies. 133. C. The Sicilian vespers.” 1288. 16. C. 1289. VI. H. Dante is mulcted by his fellow-citizens in the sum of 8000 lire. 1295. Charles Martel. king of Naples. C. Charles I. XX. visits Florence. The French vanquished in the battle of Courtrai. to be burned. 96. C. dies. Brunetto Latini. Purg. if taken. XIX. 28. I. or first of the Priors of Florence. C. dies. XIX. 119. X. III. 111. Purg. Purg. and is present at the surrender of Caprona in the autumn. 1287. Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made prisoner by Rugiez de Lauria. admiral to Peter III. Dionysius succeeds to the throne of Portugal. VIII. Tribaldello de’ Manfredi betrays the city of Faenza. X. H. XXXII. comes to the throne. with whom he lives unhappily. The Bianca party expels the Nera from Pistoia. Purg. Par. Carlino de’ Pazzi betrays the castle di Piano Travigne. March 9. Count Ugolino de’ Gherardeschi dies of famine. C. 61. Henry II. C. 41. H. king of Bohemia. Purg. Purg. Pope John XXI. 2. XVII. VIII. C. C. C. C. He is chosen chief magistrate. 127. 1281. XX. June 11. 44. the painter. Purg. Par. Par. Par. 59. 1. Purg. Haquin. VII. 101 and 110. C. 86. John D’Acre. Forese. 370 . VII. 1285. XI. 93. and condemned to two years’ banishment. the companion of Dante. XXXIII. H. and dies in the same year. C. 1278. Frederick. H. The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to recover St. H. and Peter III. Ottocar. C. Guido Cavalcanti. Par. 75. He marries Gemma de’ Donati. 1296. C. XXXII. XIV. the most beloved of our Poet’s friends. and continues in office from June 15 to August 15. 1291. Alonzo III. Pope Martin IV. 91. dies. C. king of Hungary. Dante writes his Vita Nuova. His preceptor. The Bianca and Nera parties take their rise in Pistoia. die. Fulcieri de’ Calboli commits great atrocities on certain of the Ghibelline party. XV. Dante studies at the universities of Bologna and Padua. C. Can Grande della Scala is born. VII. dies. XXI. XIX. 84. and XXVII. C. C. Clement V. XXXII. Purg. C. Purg. March 10. king of Cyprus. James. XIX 71. 104. VII. XX. Guido dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in his De Vulgari Eloquio) writes “The War of Troy. C. C. dies. C. H. The Emperor Rodolph dies. This is the year in which he supposes himself to see his Vision. XX. XXXIII. C. 23. 1303. 57. The French defeated by the people of Forli. C. king of Majorca and Minorca. Albertus Magnus dies. Purg. C. dies. Par. 60. C. 95. of France. abdicates the papal chair. 109. of Arragon dies. 126. 1279. 1302. 1301. C. C. C. where the Florentines defeat the people of Arezzo. Beatrice dies. 67. Par. VII. king of Norway. 1280. XIX. XXXII. and XXI. C. Pope Nicholas III. Purg. 1290. to the Florentines. 14. C. in Valdarno. Dante is in the battle of Campaldino. Purg. 90.Appendixes 1277. H. XXXII. Pope Boniface VIII. Purg. dies. 135. C. XIX. 98. 144. C. dies.

C. XIX 123. C. whose father had been banished two years before from Florence. Par. and Par. A conflagration happens at Florence. and Par. under Alessandro da Romena. of France dies. 133. He appears to have been much dissatisfied with his colleagues. He seeks an asylum at Verona. 61. under the roof of the Signori della Scala. Par. XVII. 1313. Winceslaus II. XXVIII. 135. C. XIX. He is in Lunigiana with the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. 86. VIII. C. 1305. 81. C. the fanatic. Petrarch. 1304. XXIV. VII. dies. and Par.psu. Dante dies at Ravenna. Corso Donati. is burned. He takes refuge at Ravenna with Guido Novello da Polenta. 117. 1307. king of Bohemia. May. Par. Purg. His obsequies are sumptuously performed at Ravenna by Guido. 1306. for his patron Guido Novello da Polenta. VI. The Emperor Albert I. C. dies. C. C. 45. Par. 1321. Par. return to http://www2. H. XVII. C.hn. July 20. 1314. and Par. XXVII. 99. Ferdinand IV. XXVII. IX. C. C. over various parts of Italy. XIX. king of Naples. return to http://www2. Dante visits Padua. 141. elected Pope. of Spain. 9. XVII. and XXX. XIX. XIX. He wanders. who himself died in the ensuing year. C. John XXII.htm If you wish to download more copies of Dante’s works. 108. 1309. 80. 114. dies. XXVI. Purg. C. 140.htm 371 . C. XIX. 125. 9. C. Par. as one of the early commentators reports. Purg. Purg. Charles II. 20. of a complaint brought on by disappointment at his failure in a negotiation which he had been conducting with the Venetians. by whom he had hoped to be restored to Florence. XX. He is at Paris twice. slain. and Par. 1310. XXVI. murdered. 122.psu. and C. VII. The Emperor Henry of Luxemburg. If you wish to download more Electronic Classics Series electronic books. 53. 94. Giacopo da Carrara defeated by Can Grande. 53. dies. 53.edu/faculty/jmanis/ jimspdf. Purg. July. Pope Clement V. 98. C. Dolcino. at Oxford. is born at Arezzo. Philip IV. C. and.hn. 1316. Purg. The bridge over the Arno breaks down during a representation of the infernal torments exhibited on that river. Par. 1308. about this time. 69.edu/faculty/jmanis/ dante. H. XIX. C. Dante’s political enemy. C. C. dies. The Order of the Templars abolished. C. H. C. The other exiles appoint Dante one of a council of twelve. XXVII. See his Convito. H.Appendixes 146. He joins with the exiles in an unsuccessful attack on the city of Florence. and XXX.

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