Windows Server Support Interview Questions and Answers (L2) What is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non

Authorized DHCP? To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers, server in windows 2000 must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server in the network it stop serving the clients Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication. Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Intersite replication can be done between two different sites over WAN links BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-site replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site. We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain partition is not possible to replicate using SMTP How to monitor replication We can user Replmon tool from support tools Brief explanation of RAID Levels Microsoft Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 offer two types of disk storage: basic and dynamic. Basic Disk Storage Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP. A disk initialized for basic storage is called a basic disk. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives. Additionally, basic volumes include multidisk volumes that are created by using Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, such as volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, and stripe sets with parity. Windows XP does not support these multidisk basic volumes. Any volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, or stripe sets with parity must be backed up and deleted or converted to dynamic disks before you install Windows XP Professional. Dynamic Disk Storage Dynamic storage is supported in Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. A dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned volumes, striped volumes, mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes. With dynamic storage, you can perform disk and volume management without the need to restart Windows. Note: Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or on Windows XP Home Edition-based computers. You cannot create mirrored volumes or RAID-5 volumes on Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, or Windows XP 64-Bit Edition-based computers. However, you can use a Windows XP Professional-based computer to create a mirrored or RAID-5 volume on remote computers that are running Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000

Advanced Server, or Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, or the Standard, Enterprise and Data Center versions of Windows Server 2003. Storage types are separate from the file system type. A basic or dynamic disk can contain any combination of FAT16, FAT32, or NTFS partitions or volumes. A disk system can contain any combination of storage types. However, all volumes on the same disk must use the same storage type. To convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk: Use the Disk Management snap-in in Windows XP/2000/2003 to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk. To do this, follow these steps: 1. Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group. 2. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. 3. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then doubleclick Computer Management. You can also right-click My Computer and choose Manage if you have My Computer displayed on your desktop. 4. In the left pane, click Disk Management. 5. In the lower-right pane, right-click the basic disk that you want to convert, and then click Convert to Dynamic Disk. You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. 6. Select the check box that is next to the disk that you want to convert (if it is not already selected), and then click OK. 7. Click Details if you want to view the list of volumes in the disk. Click Convert. 8. Click Yes when you are prompted to convert the disk, and then click OK. Warning: After you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, local access to the dynamic disk is limited to Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. Additionally, after you convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk, the dynamic volumes cannot be changed back to partitions. You must first delete all dynamic volumes on the disk and then convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. If you want to keep your data, you must first back up the data or move it to another volume. Dynamic Storage Terms A volume is a storage unit made from free space on one or more disks. It can be formatted with a file system and assigned a drive letter. Volumes on dynamic disks can have any of the following layouts: simple, spanned, mirrored, striped, or RAID-5. A simple volume uses free space from a single disk. It can be a single region on a disk or consist of multiple, concatenated regions. A simple volume can be extended within the same disk or onto additional disks. If a simple volume is extended across multiple disks, it becomes a spanned volume. A spanned volume is created from free disk space that is linked together from multiple disks. You can extend a spanned volume onto a maximum of 32 disks. A spanned volume cannot be mirrored and is not fault-tolerant. A striped volume is a volume whose data is interleaved across two or more physical

disks. reliable. the data can still be accessed from the remaining disk. The data on this type of volume is allocated alternately and evenly to each of the physical disks. Parity (a calculated value that can be used to reconstruct data after a failure) is also striped across the disk array. Active directory is derived from X. A RAID-5 volume cannot be mirrored or extended. Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable. RAID 0 – Striping RAID 1. which maintains Indexes about objects. A RAID-5 volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is striped across an array of three or more disks. but does not have to be. A striped volume cannot be mirrored or extended and is not fault-tolerant. Striping is also known as RAID-0. which maintains the relation ship between resources and enabling them to work together. All of the data on one volume is copied to another disk to provide data redundancy. the portion of the RAID-5 volume that was on that failed disk can be re-created from the remaining data and the parity. A mirrored volume cannot be extended.ini. A mirrored volume is a fault-tolerant volume whose data is duplicated on two physical disks. Boot. Universal Group membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC’s in the forest. If a physical disk fails. The boot volume can be.com). and Ntdetect. The boot volume contains the Windows operating system files that are located in the %Systemroot% and %Systemroot%\System32 folders. If one of the disks fails. the same as the system volume. The system volume can be. but does not have to be.Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required) RAID 5 – Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required) RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy What are the different backup strategies are available Normal Backup Incremental Backup Differential Backup Daily Backup Copy Backup What is a global catalog Global catalog is a role. Ntldr. The system volume contains the hardware-specific files that are needed to load Windows (for example. Mirroring is also known as RAID-1. the same as the boot volume. Active directory . What is Active Directory and what is the use of it Active directory is a directory service.500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like structure. It contains full information of the objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains.

Then Domain controller based on the password information stored in AD for that user it decrypts the encrypted time stamp information. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon session key to logon to the domain. Domain partition 4. Global Catalog – 3268 What is the use of LDAP (X. which is used to exchange directory information from server to clients or from server to servers What are the problems that are generally come across DHCP? Scope is full with IP addresses no IP’s available for new machines If scope options are not configured properly eg default gateway Incorrect creation of scopes etc What is the role responsible for time synchronization? PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol What is the physical and logical structure of AD? Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Forests—Trees —Domains—Child Domains—Grand Child—etc Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions 1. Schema Partition 3. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket when accessing network resources What are the port numbers for Kerberos. Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in the entire forest. Where as Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the same domain What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000? After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated which is used to encrypt the time stamp of the client machine. Application Partition (only in windows 2003 not available in windows 2000) Out of these Configuration.Configuration partition 2.depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP. LDAP – 389. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to domain controller for authentication. LDAP and Global Catalog? Kerberos – 88. Time synchronization is important because Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information What is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS? . If produces time stamp matches to its time stamp. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encryption format.500 standard?) LDAP is a directory access protocol.

TTL is Time to Live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when name resolution happened. The maximum number of Dfs roots per domain is unlimited. or a network adapter that is supported by the RIS boot disk. rename. or replace operating system files and folders Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record Create and format partitions on drives What is DFS & its usage DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and folders even when they are shared in different servers physically. Client requirements PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1. Both the cases we need to create DFS root ( Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links ( A logical link which is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared) The maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1. The maximum numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31.00 or later NIC. Should meet minimum operating system requirements Software Requirements Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network Domain Name System (DNS Service) . There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS How to take DNS and WINS. DHCP backup %System root%/system32/dns %System root%/system32/WINS %System root%/system32/DHCP What is recovery console Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all booting. We cannot provide redundancy for stand alone DFS in case of failure. We can perform fallowing operations from recovery console We can copy.000 What is RIS and what are its requirements RIS is a remote installation service. which is used to install operation system remotely. The maximum number of Dfs links or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by /domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name).

Although this resolution method may be acceptable in some cases. while discarding the changes in all other DCs. Windows 2000/2003 Single-Master Model To prevent conflicting updates in Windows 2000/2003. High Level Can we establish trust relationship between two forests? In Windows 2000 it is not possible. "the last writer wins"). but it also introduces the possibility of conflicts that can potentially lead to problems once the data is replicated to the rest of the enterprise. provides the flexibility of allowing changes to occur at any DC in the enterprise.0). In such cases. For certain types of changes.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Active directory “Directory” service How many root replicas can be created in DFS? 31 What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS? Refer question 17. in which the PDC is . In Windows 2003 it is possible What is FSMO Roles Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roles are Domain Naming Master Schema Master PDC Emulator Infrastructure Master RID Master Brief all the FSMO Roles Windows 2000/2003 Multi-Master Model A multi-master enabled database. there are times when conflicts are just too difficult to resolve using the "last writer wins" approach. Windows 2000/2003 incorporates methods to prevent conflicting Active Directory updates from occurring. such as the Active Directory. One way Windows 2000/2003 deals with conflicting updates is by having a conflict resolution algorithm handle discrepancies in values by resolving to the DC to which changes were written last (that is. it is best to prevent the conflict from occurring rather than to try to resolve it after the fact. This is similar to the role given to a primary domain controller (PDC) in earlier versions of Windows (such as Microsoft Windows NT 4. In a single-master model. the Active Directory performs updates to certain objects in a single-master fashion. only one DC in the entire directory is allowed to process updates.

At any one time. Each DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates. cross-domain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that effect will be logged on that DC's event log. In a forest. you must have access to the schema master. all the domain controllers have the current data. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. Relative ID (RID) Master: The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. the SID (for references to security principals). This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a domain). it represents the reference by the GUID.responsible for processing all updates in a given domain. Domain naming master: The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest. This is because a Global Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. Infrastructure Master: When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain. When a DC's allocated RID pool falls below a threshold. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group. and it is not important which domain controller holds the infrastructure master role. that DC issues a request for . If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object's SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference. it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest. The five FSMO roles are: Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. As a result. and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security principal SID created in a domain. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. Once the Schema update is complete. and the DN of the object being referenced. it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object. there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain. Note: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a Global Catalog server (GC). It can also add or remove cross references to domains in external directories. To update the schema of a forest. there are five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers.

In a Windows 2000/2003 domain. Windows 2000/2003 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol. All PDC FSMO role holders follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound time partner. and domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4. there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest. there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain. The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the domain's unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000/2003.0-based or earlier clients. The purpose of the time service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage. Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user.additional RIDs to the domain's RID master. At any one time. Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO copy found in the PDC Emulator's SYSVOL share. Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator. The PDC emulator at the root of the forest becomes authoritative for the enterprise. the PDC emulator role holder retains the following functions: Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated preferentially to the PDC emulator. and should be configured to gather the time from an external source. PDC Emulator: The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000/2003 environment. unless configured not to do so by the administrator. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DC’s How can I determine who are the current FSMO Roles holders in my domain/forest? . All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. The PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain. At any one time. member servers.0 Server-based PDC or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4.

Forest-wide and one per forest.Forest-wide and one per forest. the Forest Root Domain) Domain Naming One per forest RID One per domain The first DC in a domain (any domain. This article will list a few of the available methods. How to find out which DC is holding which FSMO role? Well. • Infrastructure master . and what role it holds. The five FSMO roles are: • Schema master . while seizing the roles from a non-operational DC to a different DC is described in the Seizing FSMO Roles article. • PDC . or any Child Domain) . With that knowledge in hand.Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually.Domain-specific and one for each domain. the administrator can make better arrangements in case of a scheduled shut-down of any given DC. The transferring method is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. • Domain naming master . an AD administrator must have the exact knowledge of which one of the existing DCs is holding a FSMO role.e. any Tree Root Domain.Domain-specific and one for each domain. • RID master . including the Forest Root Domain. However. The following table summarizes the FSMO default locations: FSMO Role Number of DCs holding this role Original DC holding the FSMO role Schema One per forest The first DC in the first domain in the forest (i. and better prepare him or herself in case of a nonscheduled cease of operation from one of the DCs. In order to better understand your AD infrastructure and to know the added value that each DC might possess. one can accomplish this task by many means. Method #1: Know the default settings The FSMO roles were assigned to one or more DCs during the DCPROMO process. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC.

4. Select Active Directory Schema. Register the Schmmgmt. 6. Select the appropriate tab for the role you wish to view. 2. Press Add. PDC Emulator. When you're done click close. After it loads right-click it and press . On the Console menu. 4. Click the Active Directory Schema icon. Press Add and press Close. Use this table to see which tool can be used for what FSMO role: FSMO Role Which snap-in should I use? Schema Schema snap-in Domain Naming AD Domains and Trusts snap-in RID AD Users and Computers snap-in PDC Emulator Infrastructure Finding the RID Master. and Infrastructure Master FSMO Roles: 1. Open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder. press Add/Remove Snap-in. You should receive a success confirmation. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon again and press Operation Masters. Finding the Domain Naming Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain Naming Master Role: 1. Finding the Schema Master via GUI To find out who currently holds the Schema Master Role: 1. PDC Emulator. Right-click the Active Directory Users and Computers icon again and press Operation Masters. 3. Press OK. When you're done click close. 2. From the Run command open an MMC Console by typing MMC. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in from the Administrative Tools folder.dll library by pressing Start > RUN and typing: 2. Press OK. and Infrastructure Masters via GUI To find out who currently holds the Domain-Specific RID Master. 3. 3. 7.PDC Emulator One per domain Infrastructure One per domain Method #2: Use the GUI The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of some of the AD snap-ins. 5.

At the select operation target: prompt. where is the name of the server you want to use.CN=Conf iguration.CN=Servers. type Select operation target. 1.CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Sites.CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Servers. click Run. click Start.DC=net RID .CN=Servers. and then press ENTER. and then click OK. and then press ENTER again.CN=Sites.CN=SERVER100.DC=net Domain . On any domain controller.CN=SERVER100. Type connect to server .CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Default-First-SiteName. select operation target: List roles for connected server Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema .CN=Conf .CN=C onfiguration. Type connections.CN=Sites.CN=SERVER100.CN=NTDS Settings.DC=dpetri.CN=Servers. At the server connections: prompt.DC=dpetri.CN=SERVER100.CN=C onfiguration.CN=Sites. Press the Close button.Operation Masters. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. type List roles for connected server. 6. 2. type ?. and then press ENTER.DC=dpetri. and then press ENTER.CN=NTDS Settings. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. 4. At the FSMO maintenance: prompt. 3. 8.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=NTDS Settings. Type roles. type q. Method #3: Use the Ntdsutil command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Ntdsutil command. and then press ENTER again.DC=net PDC . Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. and then press ENTER again. 5. and then press ENTER.

Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb). click Start. Just like Netdom.CN=Si tes. Replmon can be used for a wide verity of tasks. mostly with those that are related with AD replication. and then click OK. The Support Tools pack can be found in the \Support\Tools folder on your installation CD (or you can Download Windows 2000 SP4 Support Tools.iguration.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools.DC=dpetri. 1.CN=SERVER100. You must either download it separately (from here Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools) or by obtaining the correct Support Tools pack for your operating system. Type q 3 times to exit the Ntdsutil prompt. found in the Windows 2000 Resource Kit (and can be downloaded here: Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools). On any domain controller. This tool is basically a one-click Ntdsutil script that performs the same operation described above. In the Command Prompt window.cmd.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools.CN=Default-FirstSite-Name.CN=Servers. 2. Another Note: Microsoft has a nice tool called Dumpfsmos. But Replmon can also provide valuable information about the AD. type CMD in the Open box. Replmon. click Run. Method #4: Use the Netdom command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. Netdom. about .CN=Configuration.DC=net Infrastructure .DC=net select operation target: 8. Download Windows XP SP1 Deploy Tools).DC=dpetri. Close the CMD window.CN=NTDS Settings. Method #5: Use the Replmon tool The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. type netdom query /domain: fsmo (where is the name of YOUR domain). Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb).

How can I forcibly transfer (seize) some or all of the FSMO Roles from one DC to another? Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation). 2.Forest-wide and one per forest. 4. and select Properties. 1. Install the package before attempting to use the tool. • RID master . expand it. However. Since none of the FSMO roles are immediately critical (well. select the Search the Directory for the server to add. and is described in this article. such as GPOs and FSMO roles. Right-click Monitored servers and select Add Monitored Server. to a different DC. • Infrastructure master . type REPLMON in the Open box. 5.Domain-specific and one for each domain. and then click OK. the best thing to do is to try and get the server online again. The five FSMO roles are: • Schema master . Moving the FSMO roles while both the original FSMO role holder and the future FSMO role holder are online and operational is called Transferring. Make sure your AD domain name is listed in the drop-down list. and click to select the server you want to query. there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. 7.PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. • PDC . click Start. However. In the site list select your site. when the original FSMO role holder went offline or became non operational for a long period of time. non-operational holder. almost none. and also about other objects and settings.any DC.Forest-wide and one per forest. Click Ok when you're done. On any domain controller. In the Add Server to Monitor window. Click on the FSMO Roles tab and read the results.Domain-specific and one for each domain. 6. Click Finish. • Domain naming master . the loss . The process of moving the FSMO role from a non-operational role holder to a different DC is called Seizing. as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. If a DC holding a FSMO role fails. click Run. on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. and is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article. In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually. 3. Right-click the server that is now listed in the left-pane. the administrator might consider moving the FSMO role from the original.

unless you're building hundreds of users or computer object per week. NT 4. However. then the original domain controller must not be activated in the forest again. Infrastructure Group memberships may be incomplete. This operation. If you only have one domain. then there will be no impact. as this table lists: FSMO Role Administrator must be a member of Schema Schema Admins . Important: If the RID. PDC Emulator Will be missed soon.of the PDC Emulator FSMO role might become a problem unless you fix it in a reasonable amount of time). RID Chances are good that the existing DCs will have enough unused RIDs to last some time. so it is not a problem to them to be unavailable for hours or even days. The following table summarizes the FSMO seizing restrictions: FSMO Role Restrictions Schema Original must be reinstalled Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Can transfer back to original Infrastructure Another consideration before performing the seize operation is the administrator's group membership.0 BDCs will not be able to replicate. and transfer the FSMO roles to a reliable computer. Domain Naming Unless you are going to run DCPROMO. It is necessary to reinstall Windows if these servers are to be used again. Only seize a FSMO role if absolutely necessary when the original role holder is not connected to the network. If a DC becomes unreliable. What will happen if you do not perform the seize in time? This table has the info: FSMO Role Loss implications Schema The schema cannot be extended. in the short term no one will notice a missing Schema Master unless you plan a schema upgrade during that time. should be performed only if the original FSMO role owner will not be brought back into the environment. or Domain Naming FSMOs are seized. you will probably not be able to change or troubleshoot group policies and password changes will become a problem. there will be no time synchronization in the domain. in most cases. try to get it back on line. then you will not miss this FSMO role. Administrators should use extreme caution in seizing FSMO roles. Schema.

type Ntdsutil in the Open box. where is the role you want to seize. At the server connections: prompt. On any domain controller. and then press ENTER.Domain Naming Enterprise Admins RID Domain Admins PDC Emulator Infrastructure To seize the FSMO roles by using Ntdsutil. Transfer of infrastructure FSMO failed. fsmo maintenance: Seize infrastructure master Attempting safe transfer of infrastructure FSMO before seizure. and then click OK. Click on Yes. Type roles. 4. and then press ENTER.CN=NTDS Settings. For example. ldap.) ) Depending on the error code this may indicate a connection. Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. 2. 5. 6. click Run.. 3. click Start. follow these steps: Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality.CN=Default-First-Site- .CN=Servers. you would type seize rid master: Options are: 7. Type seize . to seize the RID Master role. 1. and then press ENTER again. Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema . where is the name of the server you want to use. You will receive a warning window asking if you want to perform the seize. proceeding with seizure . Type connect to server . Type connections. type ?. The current FSMO holde r could not be contacted.CN=SERVER200. Ldap extended error message is 000020AF: SvcErr: DSID-03210300. or role transfer error.. ldap_modify_sW error 0x34(52 (Unavailable). type q. and then press ENTER. problem 5002 (UNAVAILABLE) data 1722 Win32 error returned is 0x20af(The requested FSMO operation failed. and then press ENTER.

and then press ENTER until you quit the Ntdsutil tool. After you seize or transfer the roles. .CN=Servers.CN=Servers. which is disturbed in all DC’s In non-authoritative restore. Objects that are restored will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain.CN=NTDS Settings.DC=dpetri.DC=dpetri.CN=NTDS Settings. 9.CN=SERVER100.CN=Default-FirstSite-Name.DC=net fsmo maintenance: Note: All five roles need to be in the forest.DC=dpetri. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or specifically restore a single object.CN=Default-First-SiteName. Remember that Active Directory is a multi-master independent model where updates are occurring in each of the domain controllers with the changes being replicated over time to the other domain controllers.CN=SERVER100.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=Configuration. This is because a GC server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest.DIT will often be different sizes across the domain controllers in a domain. What is Active Directory De-fragmentation? De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation) Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation The size of NTDS.Name.CN=Sites.CN=Default-First-SiteName.DC=net PDC .CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Sites.CN=Servers.CN=Servers. type q.DC=dpetri.CN=Sites.CN=SERVER100.CN=SERVER200.DC=net Infrastructure .CN=Configuration. If the first domain controller is out of the forest then seize all roles. Note: Do not put the Infrastructure Master (IM) role on the same domain controller as the Global Catalog server. If the Infrastructure Master runs on a GC server it will stop updating object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold.CN=Configuration.CN=Configuration.CN=Sites. What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore In authoritative restore.CN=Configuration. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you've seized all the required FSMO roles.DC=dpetri.CN=Sites.DC=netDomain . Determine which roles are to be on which remaining domain controllers so that all five roles are not on only one server. Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers based on the latest modification time.DC=net RID . 8.CN=NTDS Settings.

for example if you deleted a large number of records at one time. However. Click OK. but this is limited to the disposal of tombstoned objects. and press Enter. file maintenance:compact to c:\temp .DIT file that has been defragmented offline (compacted). Use the local SAM’s administrator account and password to log on. W2K will start in safe mode. Normally. Reboot the server. you’ll see the following text.. To create a new.DIT) and doesn’t reduce the file’s size . So why defrag it in the first place? One reason you might want to defrag your NTDS. Select the Directory Services Restore Mode option. the database self-tunes and automatically tombstoning the records then sweeping them away when the tombstone lifetime has passed to make that space available for additional records. defragmenting the NTDS. You’ll see a dialog box that says you’re in safe mode. Active Directory routinely performs online database defragmentation.. select Run and type cmd. can be much smaller than the NTDS.DIT file and to enable offline defragmentation. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 servers running Directory Services (DS) perform a directory online defragmentation every 12 hours by default as part of the garbage-collection process.the database file cannot be compacted while Active Directory is mounted.The changed data is replicated between domain controllers.DIT file on its peers. perform the following steps: Back up Active Directory (AD). so there is no guarantee that the files are going to be the same size across all domain controllers. The database file cannot be compacted while Active Directory is mounted (or online). This defragmentation only moves data around the database file (NTDS. (Enter the commands in bold.exe In the command window. Press Enter again to start the OS. From the Start menu. Defragging the NTDS. with no DS running. An NTDS.DIT file isn’t something you should really need to do. and press F8 for advanced options.DIT file is to save space. not the database.) C:\> ntdsutil ntdsutil: files file maintenance:info . select the OS option.DIT file probably won’t help your AD queries go any faster in the long run. smaller NTDS..

SNMP Need to enable . What is tombstone period Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion.dit %systemroot%\ntds\ntds. If the process was successful. What is white space and Garbage Collection? refer question 7 What are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Heath. In 2 node active-passive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. Then. We need to approve new update based on the requirement. which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DC’s. We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove programs. (Enter the commands in bold. This cluster will not provide any high availability. When active server fails the application will FAILOVER to stand by server . Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy.You’ll see the defragmentation process. and boot as normal.) C:\> copy c:\temp\ntds. We need to configure an option called “Synchronize with Microsoft software update server” option and schedule time to synchronize in server. After deleting an object in AD the objects will not be deleted permanently. In Windows we can configure two types of clusters NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. Then approved update will be deployed to clients We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group policy by adding WUAU administrative template in group policy What is Clustering. How to deploy the patches and what are the softwares used for this process Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network.dit Restart the computer. Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or activepassive cluster. replace the old NTDS. How to define alert mechanism Spot Light . compressed version. After 60 days object will be deleted permanently from all Dc’s. which is used to provide High Availability for mission critical applications. enter quit to return to the command prompt. Briefly define & explain it Clustering is a technology.DIT file with the new.

This is very important if Quorum disk fails entire cluster will fails Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluster.SNMP service -. What is SOA Record SOA is a Start Of Authority record.Security Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how? In Windows 2000 it is not possible. making DNS more efficient especially over slow WAN links. especially in a split namespace scenario. which controls the startup behavior of DNS. On Domain controller by going to MYCOMPUTER properties we can change.msc--.automatically. We can configure TTL. When the original server backs we need to FAILBACK the application Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situation. How to configure SNMP SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools from Add and Remove programs. They also help reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network. This can be configured from services. In windows 2003 it is possible. and retry intervals in this record. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it. refresh. Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to streamline name resolution. But the BIND version should be 8 or greater . For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those machines where SNMP programs (eg DELL OPEN MANAGER) running. which is a first record in DNS. which is used to identify the status of other servers in cluster. What are the different types of partitions present in AD? Active directory is divided into three partitions Configuration Partition—replicates entire forest Schema Partition—replicates entire forest Domain Partition—replicate only in domain Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003) What are the (two) services required for replication File Replication Service (FRS) Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain? We can use.

ASR then installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a restoration using the backup created by the ASR Wizard. What is the use of SYSVOL FOLDER? Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. It restores all the disk signatures. ASR also creates a file that contains information about the backup. Domain controller policy.What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6? Refer Question 1 What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it ASR is a two-part system. system services. thus allowing the system to dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to whom the . The wizard backs up the system state. the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object: User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection In the Properties of the folder. By default domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO. and partitions on (at a minimum) the disks that you need to start the computer. Local policy and Group policy Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain. The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path. does the backup portion. ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creates. the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes). Local policy will be applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only. Once you create the group policy and link it to the appropriate folder object. an administrator can designate which folders to redirect and where To do this. FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts What is folder redirection? Folder Redirection is a User group policy. because by default it will be associated with domain GPO. ASR will try to restore all the disk configurations. and you can designate the server file system path to which the folder should be redirected. and all the disks that are associated with the operating system components. but under some circumstances it might not be able to. you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirection. it includes ASR backup and ASR restore. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level What is Domain Policy. volumes. You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup. located in Backup. The ASR Wizard. Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller. and how to perform a restore.

a set of default Active Directory features becomes available. native & intrim…. Important Raising the domain and forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003 is a nonreversible task and prohibits the addition of Windows NT 4. After this requirement is met. all domain controllers in the forest must be running Windows Server 2003.0 or Windows 2000–based domain controllers in the environment will no longer function. These levels only affect the way that domain controllers interact with each other. To activate the new domain features. The following table summarizes the Active Directory features that are available by default on any domain . To activate new forest-wide features. What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed. new Active Directory features are activated by the Windows Server 2003 operating system over its Windows 2000 counterparts. Any existing Windows NT 4. When a computer that is running Windows Server 2003 is installed and promoted to a domain controller. Note: Network clients can authenticate or access resources in the domain or forest without being affected by the Windows Server 2003 domain or forest functional levels. Before raising functional levels to take advantage of advanced Windows Server 2003 features.0–based or Windows 2000–based domain controllers to the environment.policy object applies.0 or Windows 2000 in your environment. After this requirement is met. the administrator can raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003 (read Raise Domain Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Domains for more info). ensure that you will never need to install domain controllers running Windows NT 4. and the current forest functional level must be at Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003 domain level. When the first Windows Server 2003–based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest.etc) What are the domain and forest function levels in a Windows Server 2003-basedActive Directory? Functional levels are an extension of the mixed/native mode concept introduced in Windows 2000 to activate new Active Directory features after all the domain controllers in the domain or forest are running the Windows Server 2003 operating system. all domain controllers in the domain must be running Windows Server 2003. Additional Active Directory features are available when all domain controllers in a domain or forest are running Windows Server 2003 and the administrator activates the corresponding functional level in the domain or forest. the administrator can raise the domain functional level (read Raise Forest Function Level in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory for more info).

the domain or forest operates by default at the lowest functional level that is possible in that environment. not the entire global catalog. This allows you to take advantage of the default Active Directory features while running versions of Windows earlier than Windows Server 2003. Application directory partitions Allows you to configure the replication scope for application-specific data among domain controllers. or computer can own in a given directory partition. For example. Members of the Domain Administrators and Enterprise Administrators groups are exempt from quotas. Drag and drop functionality Allows you to move Active Directory objects from container to container by dragging one or more objects to a location in the domain hierarchy. Partial synchronization of the global catalog Provides improved replication of the global catalog when schema changes add attributes to the global catalog partial attribute set. Only the new attributes are replicated. Universal group membership caching Prevents the need to locate a global catalog across a wide area network (WAN) when logging on by storing universal group membership information on an authenticating domain controller. group. Active Directory quotas Quotas can be specified in Active Directory to control the number of objects a user. Secure Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) traffic Active Directory administrative tools sign and encrypt all LDAP traffic by default. you can control the replication scope of Domain Name System (DNS) zone data stored in Active Directory so that only specific domain controllers in the forest participate in DNS zone replication. Saved queries Allows you to save commonly used search parameters for reuse in Active Directory Users and Computers Active Directory command-line tools Allows you to run new directory service commands for administration scenarios. You can also add objects to group membership lists by dragging one or more objects (including other group objects) to the target group. Ability to add additional domain controllers by using backup media Reduces the time it takes to add an additional domain controller in an existing domain by using backup media. Signing LDAP traffic guarantees that the packaged data comes from a known source and that it has not been tampered with.controller running Windows Server 2003: Feature Functionality Multiple selection of user objects Allows you to modify common attributes of multiple user objects at one time. Efficient search capabilities Search functionality is object-oriented and provides an efficient search that minimizes network traffic associated with browsing objects. . When the first Windows Server 2003–based domain controller is deployed in a domain or forest. InetOrgPerson class The inetOrgPerson class has been added to the base schema as a security principal and can be used in the same manner as the user class.

converting groups between security groups and distribution groups. User password support on the InetOrgPerson objectClass. Windows 2000 domains maintain their current domain functional level when Windows 2000 domain controllers are upgraded to the Windows Server 2003 operating system. This applies to the forest functional level as well.0. logon timestamp attribute updated and replicated. If you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003. Windows Server 2003 • Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 • Supported features: domain controller rename. but fewer features than the Windows Server 2003 forest functional level supports. The four domain functional levels. Windows Server 2003 is the highest functional level that is available for a domain or forest. This mode is only used when you upgrade domain controllers in Windows NT 4. only Windows Server 2003 domain controllers can operate in that domain or forest. their corresponding features. The Windows Server 2003 functional level supports the most advanced Active Directory features. You can raise the domain functional level to either Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003. All domains in a forest are automatically raised to this level when the forest level increases to interim. universal groups. however. you can redirect the Users and Computers containers. global catalog support Windows 2000 native • Supported domain controllers: Windows 2000. the Windows Server 2003 interim forest functional level supports more features than the Windows 2000 forest functional level. Windows 2000.0 domains to Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. Domain Functional Level Domain functionality activates features that affect the whole domain and that domain only.0 or created by the promotion of a Windows Server 2003-based computer operate at the Windows 2000 mixed functional level. Windows Server 2003 • Supported features: There are no domain-wide features activated at this level. . you cannot introduce any domain controllers that are running versions of Windows earlier than Windows Server 2003 into that domain. SidHistory. Windows Server 2003 • Activated features: group nesting.When you raise the functional level of a domain or forest.0. Constrained delegation. and supported domain controllers are as follows: Windows 2000 mixed (Default) • Supported domain controllers: Microsoft Windows NT 4. Windows Server 2003 • Activated features: local and global groups. Domains that are upgraded from Windows NT 4. you can raise domain levels by increasing the forest level settings Windows Server 2003 interim • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. a set of advanced features becomes available. For example.

0. Note that with each successive level increase.After the domain functional level is raised. Trust-Direction. Message Queuing-Multicast-Address. No global catalog full sync when attributes are added to the PAS Windows Server 2003 domain controller assumes the Intersite Topology Generator (ISTG) role. 15-second intrasite replication frequency for Windows Server 2003 domain controllers upgraded from Windows 2000 .0. Attributes added to the global catalog.0 Domain" section of this article. Improved Replication Topology Generation. domain controllers that are running Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to that domain. ms-DS-TrustForest-Trust-Info. Dynamic auxiliary classes. Message Queuing-Secured-Source. Domain Rename. Print-Memory. Windows Server 2003 interim • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. Windows Server 2003. the corresponding features. and their supported domain controllers are listed below. Application Groups. The following describes the domain functional level and the domain-wide features that are activated for that level. Windows 2000. SecurityIdentifier. InetOrgPerson objectClass change. rapid global catalog demotion. Cross Forest Trust. For example. application partitions. Single Instance Store (SIS) for System Access Control Lists (SACL) in the Jet Database Engine. ms-DS-Entry-Time-To-Die. Windows 2000 (default) • Supported domain controllers: Windows NT 4. Forest Functional Level Forest functionality activates features across all the domains in your forest. Trust-Attributes. Trust-Partner. Print-Rate-Unit Windows Server 2003 • Supported domain controllers: Windows Server 2003 • Activated features: all features in Interim Level. install from media. • Activated features: Windows 2000 features plus Efficient Group Member Replication using Linked Value Replication. ISTG Aliveness no longer replicated. domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the domain. if you raise the domain functional level to Windows Server 2003. See the "Upgrade from a Windows NT 4. the feature set of the previous level is included. Print-Rate. Three forest functional levels. Improved topology generation event logging. quotas. Windows Server 2003 • New features: Partial list includes universal group caching. Defunct schema objects. Trust-Type.

domain controllers that are running earlier operating systems cannot be introduced into the forest. static mappings must be configured on the network address translator. Microsoft doesn’t recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address translation (NAT) traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN servers and that are located behind network address translators. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory partition hosts a replica of that partition. These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NAT-T traffic that is sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to the Windows Server 2003-based computer How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage? An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controllers. Windows server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim ( Only available when upgrades directly from Windows NT 4. unintended side effects may occur because of the way that network address translators translate network traffic If you put a server behind a network address translator. For example. To reach servers that are located behind network address translators from the Internet.After the forest functional level is raised. and the server uses IPSec NAT-T. Raising domain and forest functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from Windows NT 4. domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4. you may experience connection problems because clients that connect to the server over the Internet require a public IP address. For example. Windows 2000 Native mode. Only domain controllers .0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode. configure the network address translator with the following static network address translator mappings: • Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500. to reach a Windows Server 2003-based computer that is behind a network address translator from the Internet. • Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500. Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels.0 to Windows 2003) Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003. When a server is behind a network address translator. if you raise forest functional levels to Windows Server 2003.0 or Windows 2000 Server cannot be added to the forest.

Security Settings. Folder Redirection. Application directory partitions can contain any type of object. The next time that user attempts to log on. By default. who is managing these policies. For testing and troubleshooting purposes. members of the Enterprise Admins group can manually create or manage application directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool. TAPI is an example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition. Between forests we can create explicit trust Two-way trust One-way: incoming One-way: Outgoing What is universal group membership cache in windows 2003? Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time. the authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obtain the universal group membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog. the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain controller will be refreshed every 8 hours. RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator. except security principals. The domain controller obtains the universal group membership for that user from a global catalog. What are the settings enabled in each policy. GPMC will display all the above information. Once the universal group membership information is obtained. Who are the users effecting by these polices. Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and replicate data. Scripts. Internet Explorer Maintenance. on which OU’s the policies applied. it is cached on the domain controller for that site indefinitely and is periodically refreshed. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003? GPMC is tool which will be used for managing group policies and will display information like how many policies applied.running Windows Server 2003 can host a replica of an application directory partition. including Administrative Templates. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relationship in windows 2003? Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. . Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store applicationspecific data. and Group Policy Software Installation.

you can run the Recovery Console from your Windows 2000 Setup disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you can start your computer from your CD-ROM drive). RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and their precedence (the order in which policies are applied). enableing remote users to access corporate . In addition. and organizational unit). site. As an alternative. you must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console. If it is applied on user it will apply where ever he logs on to the domain. You can then select the Recovery Console option from the list of available operating systems PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003? Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual private networks (VPN). format drives. With Publish option you can apply only on users. read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS).msi package for that application With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. Once user click the shortcut or open any document having that extension then the application install into the local machine. the results can conflict. you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case you are unable to restart Windows 2000. There are two ways to start the Recovery Console: If you are unable to start your computer. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive. you can start and stop services.When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example. Using the Recovery Console. Because the Recovery Console is quite powerful. DFS in windows 2003? Refer Question 17 on level 2 How to use recovery console? The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start from the Windows 2000 Setup program. or if you need to reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. If any application program files missing it will automatically repair. If it is applied to computer then the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer. It will not install automatically when any application program files are corrupted or deleted. It will be appear in Start menu —Programs. it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000. Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how? Through Group policy you can Assign and Publish the applications by creating . and perform many other administrative tasks. domain controller. domain.

Windows® 95. and Windows 98 operating systems and other point-to-point protocol (PPP)-enabled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect securely to their corporate network through the Internet Netdom.networks securely across the Microsoft Windows NT® Workstation.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller .