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Gold Seal

Gold Seal

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Sections

  • Botany and Ecology
  • Uses
  • Medicinal
  • Clinical Studies
  • Other Uses
  • Market Trends
  • Cultivation
  • Conservation Issues
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Literature Cited
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Research Literature
  • Popular Press
  • Other Information Sources
  • Commercial Vendors
  • Author Index
  • Subject Index
  • Disclaimers

Goldenseal

Hydrastis canadensis

An Annotated Bibliography
Mary L. Predny and James L. Chamberlain

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)
is a medicinal forest herb with antibiotic attributes.

THE AUTHORS: Mary L. Predny, Research Associate, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Wood Science and Forest Products Department, Blacksburg, VA 24061. James L. Chamberlain, Research Scientist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Blacksburg, VA 24060.

Cover photograph by Thomas G. Barnes

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis): An Annotated Bibliography
Mary L. Predny and James L. Chamberlain

Statements made by authors cited in this document concerning medicinal uses and properties may not have been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration, and are included for educational purposes only. Discussion of medical uses is not intended for diagnoses, treatment, cure, nor prevention of disease. Goldenseal should not be used during pregnancy. Information in this publication about medicinal uses is intended for educational purposes only and is not a substitute for the advice of qualified healthcare professionals. Material presented in this document is for reader information only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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..................................................................................................... 8 Cultivation .......................................................................... 7 Other Uses ................................................................................. 13 Acknowledgments ............................................... 1 Uses ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Botany and Ecology ..................................................................................................................................................... 8 Market Trends ....................................................................................... 14 Annotated Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................ 20 Research Literature .................................... 5 Clinical Studies ..................................... 39 Commercial Vendors ..................... 5 Medicinal .............. 36 Other Information Sources ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Popular Press ............................................................................. 67 iii ............ 61 Author Index ....... 63 Subject Index ................................................................................................................................ 11 Discussion ...................................................................................................... 13 Literature Cited ........................ 65 Disclaimers ...................... 10 Conservation Issues ...

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medicinal herbs. which. Predny and James L. Botany and Ecology Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) is an herbaceous perennial found in rich hardwood forests throughout the Northeastern United States and Canada (Small and Catling 1999). Originally used by Native Americans as both a medicine and a dye. Department of Agriculture 2001). the herb was eventually adopted by the settlers and eclectic physicians1 in the 19th century. goldenseal. Although the range extends north into Ontario and Minnesota and south into Georgia and Missouri. a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).S. Harding 1936). Demand for cultivated roots has increased as wild populations become scarce.Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis): An Annotated Bibliography Mary L. has greatly reduced wild populations. The alkaloids in goldenseal have been found to have antibiotic. The herb’s range encompasses the Ohio River Valley with Cincinnati serving as an important trade center (Grieve 1931) (fig. motivating research into propagation and cultivation techniques. Kentucky. Hydrastis. Scientists and physicians continue to expand on the knowledge of the clinical applications and disease-fighting potential of the plant. poaching. and tonic effects. Keywords: Conservation. 1 . is an herbaceous perennial found in rich hardwood forests throughout the Northeastern United States and Canada. nontimber forest products. U. 1 Eclectic physicians were doctors who treated patients with herbal medicines between the late 1800s and early 1900s. Chamberlain Abstract Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). and Virginia (Grieve 1931. West Virginia. combined with a continual loss of habitat. Goldenseal has been listed under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II protection since 1997. overharvest and habitat loss have greatly reduced wild populations in most of these areas (NatureServe Explorer 2002. Most wild-harvested goldenseal comes from the few surrounding States: Ohio. Growing awareness of possible medicinal benefits has increased worldwide consumption. 1). anti-inflammatory. Indiana. More attention should be focused on: educating consumers about the appropriate uses of the herb in order to reduce overconsumption. working with growers to increase the profitability of cultivation and reduce pressures on wild plants. antispasmodic. and identifying and tracking wild populations to determine the most effective management and conservation practices.

Department of Agriculture. Plyler 2001–02). and have serrate margins (Grieve 1931). 2 . The stem is a bright yellow color below ground and purplish above.S. prominently veined. cylindrical stem that reaches 12 inches tall (Grieve 1931. Both leaves are dark green. Sievers 1949). 2). with two terminal five. Sievers 1930) (fig. leaves range from 3 to 12 inches wide and 3 to 8 inches long (Harding 1936. with several small scales at the base (Cech 2002. Each stem is forked. Natural Resources Conservation Service 2001). One leaf is usually larger than the other.Figure 1—Goldenseal range and distribution (adapted from NatureServe Explorer Database 2002 and U. Mature goldenseal plants emerge in early spring with a pubescent.to seven-lobed palmate leaves (Foster and Duke 2000). Miller 1988). Immature or weak plants form a stem with one leaf and no flower (Miller 1988.

which are dispersed by birds and other animals (Bowers 1891. Each berry contains 10 to 20 small. Flowers are hermaphroditic (including both male and female organs) and greenish-white in color with white stamens in clusters (Fern 1997–2000. Harding 1936). Small and Catling 1999). Eichenberger and Parker 1976. shiny black seeds. Harding 1936). Flowers appear in April and May when the leaves are only partially developed and typically last only 5 or 6 days (Foster and Duke 2000. The root system consists of horizontal rhizomes. 1/2. turns red and ripens in July and August (Grieve 1931. with three small petal-like sepals that fall away as the bud expands (Grieve 1931. The fruit. 3 . which resembles a large raspberry (hence the common name “ground raspberry”). Sievers 1930). hard. The name “goldenseal” comes from the bright yellow color of the roots and from the circular scars from previous years’ stems that resemble waxed seal imprints (Cech 2002. Harding 1936. Harding 1936). Grieve 1931. Roots reach maturity after 4 to 5 years. Foster and Duke 2000).to 3/4-inch thick. then begin to die back at one end as quickly as they grow at the other (Davis and McCoy 2000). Cech 2002. with numerous fibrous rootlets (Davis 1999. Harding 1936).Figure 2—Goldenseal plant (Britton and Brown 1913). Individual blooms are only a half-inch in diameter.

the bare. Asarum canadense (wild ginger). The fibrous rootlets become brittle and break off while drying. and Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F nigra (green and black ash). Goldenseal is found on a variety of sites: in open woods. Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh). During the second year. Miller 1988). Miller 1988. Sievers 1930. Several growing points form on the rhizome. Overstory species include Acer saccharum (sugar maple).0. a shady tree canopy. Wild populations of goldenseal primarily reproduce asexually. and along streams and rivers where there is good drainage. Fagus grandifolia (American beech). Tilia americana (American basswood). on hillsides. In the first year of growth. ridges and bluffs.Bowers (1891) thoroughly describes the various stages of the goldenseal life cycle. Penskar and others (2001) identified the plant species often associated with goldenseal in Michigan. Celtis occidentalis (hackberry). associated with goldenseal include Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-the-pulpit). therefore. Mueller (2001) describes two populations of goldenseal growing on very different geological substrates. Small and Catling 1999). Harvesting roots before the fruit ripens also prevents the maturation and dispersal of seeds and. Uvularia perfoliata (wild 4 . Juglans nigra (black walnut). Claytonia virginica (spring beauty). palmate leaf. One population was found on calcareous. Plants reach maturity in their third or fourth year. Juglans cinerea (butternut). Betula allegraniensis (yellow birch). Natural populations tend to grow in dense clonal clumps. and plenty of leaf mold (Fern 1997–2000. Carex plantaginea (plantain-leaved sedge). Common herbs that are . Geranium maculatum (wild geranium). which eventually develop into independent plants (Cech 2002). sending up a forked stem with two leaves and a flower. Seeds sown naturally after the fruit ripens in August germinate the following spring. Lloyd and Lloyd (1884–1887) reported substantially more weight loss when drying roots that were harvested while still succulent and growing as opposed to roots harvested after the fruit ripened. and knotlike buds develop on the fibrous roots. with less reproductive effort put into seed production (Gagnon 1999).4 to 8. is not recommended (Miller 1988). Acer saccharinum (silver maple). dolomitic limestone soils with a pH of 4. whereas the other was growing in a granitic terrain with a pH range of 5. Quercus rubra (red oak). Carex hirtifolia (sedge). Erythronium americanum (trout-lily). plants send up a stem with a single. Lloyd and Lloyd 1884–1887. Roots are typically harvested in the fall. knotted rhizome is the part used in commercial trade (Harding 1936.0.5 to 6. two cotyledons and a small radicle are produced.

Grieve 1931. hepatic congestion. Petersen 1905. pneumonia. Other associated herbs include valuable medicinals such as American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). scarlatina. Lloyd and Lloyd 1884–1887. stomachache. Miller 1988. The Iroquois used the root to treat whooping cough. Goldenseal is recognized as a member of the Ranunculaceae family. flatulence. and false unicorn root (Chamaelirium luteum) (Bannerman 1997). and heart trouble (Foster 2000. liver disease. mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). acne. Moerman 1999). tuberculosis. Felter and Lloyd 1898. Lloyd and Lloyd 1884–1887. Felter 1922. sore throat. though several studies have suggested that the genus Hydrastis belongs in its own family (Hoot 1991. and a treatment for mucus membrane inflammation (Foster 2000. muscular debility. among many others. a bitter tonic. ear diseases. carbuncles. fever. 5 . pitting caused by smallpox. lupus. Tobe and Keating 1985). and Hepatica acutiloba (hepatica). diarrhea. bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis). and more (Bergner 1997. breast cancer. The most common historical medicinal uses for goldenseal include an eye wash (hence the common names eye root and eye balm). Cook 1869. Moerman 1999). dysmenorrhea. and general debility (Foster 2000. gonorrhea. cancer. tonsillitis. Trillium grandiflorum (common trillium). Foster 2000. The Cherokee used it as a wash for inflammations and as a treatment for dyspepsia. earaches. The Micmac used goldenseal to treat chapped and cut lips (McCaleb 1994). black cohosh (Actaea racemosa). passive hemorrhage. intestinal catarrh. scrofula. including treatments for nasal catarrh. diphtheria. a digestive aid and appetite stimulant. skin disorders. Moerman 1999). Native Americans had numerous uses for goldenseal and taught its various properties to European settlers (Bergner 1997. Uses Medicinal The genus name Hydrastis is derived from two Greek words meaning “water” and “to accomplish. Potter 1902). gastritis. boils. vaginal and uterine leucorrhea. constipation. ulcers.” referring to the plant’s effects on the mucus membranes (Nutriflip 1998).oats). nervous prostration. poor appetite. Eclectic physicians experimented with various additional uses for the root. Sievers 1930). night sweats. blood stasis.

It is also misleading to think that goldenseal can prevent colds. ears. therefore. the reputation of the herb as a heal-all is misleading and has contributed to excessive collection. not viral infections. is a myth started by John Uri Lloyd in his 1900 novel “Stringtown on the Pike” (Foster 1989). and vagina (Bergner 1997. Foster (1989) suggests that goldenseal can aid in the elimination of toxins from the kidney. stomach. anticonvulsant. and blood. immunostimulatory.” covers the appropriate use and dosage of goldenseal to treat colds and flu symptoms. Goldenseal has been shown to have antibiotic properties against numerous bacteria. Taking the herb too early or in excessive doses can cause more harm than good. but the myth persists. fungi. Physiologically it increases blood supply to the spleen. and parasites in laboratory tests and can prevent the overgrowth of yeast that often results from antibiotic use.d. Foster and Duke 2000. and sedative. Mikkelsen and Ash 1988). and stimulates secretion of bile and bilirubin (Anon. Hoffman. Scientific research has disproved this belief (Combie and others 1982. McCaleb 1994. Foster and Duke 2000. it has been used particularly to treat infections of the eyes. n. Foster and Duke 2000). 2000). Bergner 1997). Goldenseal is considered to be a synergistic or carrier herb (one that increases the effectiveness of other herbs) and is often used in combinations. NatureServe Explorer 2002). In the intestines. goldenseal has been used as an antibiotic. however. Current studies are looking at the ability of goldenseal to fight tumor cells (Bradshaw 1997. According to Bergner. Bradshaw 1997. many people take goldenseal thinking that it will treat any type of cold. Until the 1980s. it inhibits the adhesion of bacteria to host tissue and. inhibit the healthy inflammatory reaction. goldenseal is only effective in fighting bacterial infections. particularly with Echinacea species. as its active ingredients can dry out mucus membranes. goldenseal was a constituent in many eye washes due to its antiseptic effects and ability to constrict capillaries and reduce bloodshot eyes. Although goldenseal is reported to be an incredibly useful plant. throat. particularly morphine. activates macrophages and white blood cells. 6 . in his article “Goldenseal and the Common Cold: the Antibiotic Myth. prevents infections. nose. intestines.. tonic. uterus.In modern medicine. and weaken the digestive system (Bergner 1996–97. The belief that goldenseal can mask illicit drugs in urine tests. Fern 1997– 2000. Bergner. liver. Goldenseal shows particular promise as a treatment for infectious tuberculosis (Gentry and others 1998).

Fern 1997– 2000. chlorogenic acid. Khin-Maung and others 1985). Other research has looked at the usefulness of goldenseal and/or berberine to treat specific diseases and disorders such as: recurrent otitis media in children (Aldous 2001). Goldenseal should not be used during pregnancy as it stimulates the uterus and can cause abortion or premature labor (Bradshaw 1997. which is also found in Coptis or goldenthread (Coptis chinensis). Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium). lignin. Bergner 1997. barberry (Berberis vulgaris). Bhide and others 1969. It is therefore recommended that treatment be limited to 3 months. diarrhea. nervousness. recent studies have identified the potential use of 7 . Other constituents include berberastine. tuberculosis (Gentry and others 1998). In addition. Birdsall and Kelly 1997. and hydrastine (Foster and Duke 2000). particularly AIDS-related diarrhea (Anon. Scazzocchio and others 2001. Bradshaw 1997). Sun and others 1988). diarrhea (Bradshaw 1997. resulting in nausea. 2000. vomiting. Rehmann and others 1999. and a small quantity of volatile oil that contributes to the odor of the root (Bradshaw 1997). the effectiveness is greatly reduced (Foster and Duke 2000). 1996). causing adverse effects on the mucus membranes and digestive system (Bergner 1997). Clinical Studies The active constituents in goldenseal rhizomes are alkaloids. intestinal tract infections caused by Escherichia coli (Bradshaw 1997). albumin. and symptoms of streptozotocin diabetes (Swanston-Flatt and others 1989). phytosterins. increasing the secretion of bile. and tree turmeric (Berberis aristata) (Anon. It is believed that the other alkaloids act together synergistically to reduce muscle spasms. Many of these studies have focused on the main alkaloid berberine. Cometa and others 1996. starch. and depression (Russell 1997). Most of the scientific research on goldenseal has focused on identifying the medicinal alkaloids and understanding their mechanisms of action (AbdelHaq and others 2000. Berberine contains the main antibacterial and anticonvulsive properties. Periera da Silva and others 2000. and lowering blood pressure (Foster and Duke 2000). fatty matter. If any one of the main alkaloids is removed.Goldenseal can cause mild toxicity if ingested in large doses. trachoma and eye disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Babbar and others 1982. sugar. Khin-Maung and others 1987). particularly berberine. Messana 1980. cholera (Bradshaw 1997. chlorine-resistant malaria (Sheng and others 1997). Lau and others 2001). McCaleb 1994). The alkaloids are excreted slowly and can accumulate in the body. canadine. Schmeller and others 1997. resins. meconin. Ckless and others 1995. Palmery and others 1993.

Govindan and Govindan 2000. Hall and Camper 2002). Several common names for the species denote this use of the roots. Sievers 1930). cleanliness. Nishino and others 1986). Laboratory research has explored methods for identifying and quantifying the constituents of pharmaceutical goldenseal preparations (Abourashed and Khan 2001. such as yellow root. The authors suggest avoiding exposure to ultraviolet light when using goldenseal externally. and 8 . McCaleb 1994. McCaleb 1994. and yellow eye (Lloyd and Lloyd 1884–1887. The Cherokee also mixed goldenseal root with bear grease to make an insect repellent (Fern 1997–2000. showing a general increase over time with several periods of low prices (Lloyd and Lloyd 1884–1887. orange root. Decreasing supplies increased prices to 58 cents per pound in 1890. Sturm and Stuppner 1998). wild curcuma. yellow paint. Harding 1936. Li and Fitzloff 2002. Indian paint. These studies suggest that goldenseal can cause apoptosis (preprogrammed early death) of abnormal cells and suppress the tumorpromoting activity of cancer cells. before 1880 the price for goldenseal averaged 8 to 12 cents per pound. Datta and others 1971. however. they also assert that the interaction between the alkaloid and ultraviolet light may actually contribute to the drug’s efficacy. Tice (1997) provides a thorough review of the literature on the toxic potential of both berberine and hydrastine. Moerman 1999). Miller 1988. jaundice root. yellow puccoon. Market Trends According to Sievers (1949). Current prices for goldenseal roots range between $30 and $50 per pound (Davis 1999). Inbaraj and others (2001) investigated the phototoxicity of berberine and concluded that the alkaloid does have toxic potential. Sievers 1949).goldenseal to fight tumor cells (Kuo and others 1995. Small and Catling 1999). A few studies have examined the safety and/or toxicity of goldenseal and its constituents. golden root. particularly when applied topically. Prices fluctuated in the following decades. Grieve 1931. Indian dye. Other Uses Native Americans commonly used goldenseal to stain their faces and dye clothing (Fern 1997–2000. Variations in price depend on the quality. El-Masry and others 1980. and developing micropropagation techniques (Bedir and others 2003.

It takes approximately 200 to 250 rhizomes to make 1 pound dry weight (NatureServe Explorer 2002). n. Switzerland.d.000 to 300.. The current annual consumption is estimated at more than 250. France.000 pounds.d.30/mL fluid leaf extract (Elixir Farm Botanicals.40/mL of liquid extract. $12 for 30 capsules.d.).. Germany.d. Richters Herbs. Garden Medicinals. and other phyto-therapeutic products. For cultivation purposes. Herb Trader. and the United Kingdom. Germany.80/g of cut whole roots. n.50 to $12 per ounce or $. In 2002.. n. with one-tenth of that amount exported and the rest used domestically. Lloyd and Lloyd (1884–1887) estimate the total annual consumption of goldenseal roots in the late 1800s at 140.alkaloid content of the roots. and $11 per seed packet (number of seeds not given) (Elixir Farm Botanicals.. $3 per ounce of cut and sifted farm-grown leaf.. though the European market was considered at the time to be “spasmodic. 9 .90/g of powdered root (with the higher prices for certified organic roots or wild harvested roots).. $11 per ounce or $. which dropped as low as $8 to $11 per pound in the early 1990s (Foster 2000).d.000 to 150. n. and Italy and is a component in homeopathic remedies produced in Australia. n. n. extracts.50 to $11 per ounce or $. and Italy to make tinctures. Gardens of the Blue Ridge. n.d. Viable Herbal Solutions. n. According to a market report by Bannerman (1997). n. n.d. Decreasing supplies of wild roots have increased prices.50 for a plant in a quart pot. Most of the exported goldenseal goes to France. Pacific Botanicals.” Fifty years later. goldenseal is available at the following prices: $5 to $8 for a bare-root plant. $9.000 pounds of dried roots (Foster 2000).000 pounds. The herb is listed in the official pharmacopoeias of Britain. Spain. Grieve (1931) estimated the market for goldenseal roots to be 200. The Tonnage Survey of North American Wild-Harvested Plants by the American Herbal Products Association (2003) shows a decrease in goldenseal consumption over the last 4 years with an increase in the amount of cultivated root supplying the market..d. and $6. Germany.). Select Oils.000 pounds of roots was exported to Europe in 1883.50 to $3 per live rootlet. dilutions.d. the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) lists goldenseal as one of the best selling herbs internationally. $1. A total of 15. and $.. Richters Herbs. Wholesale prices of $100 per pound have been reported (Foster 2000). Many of these finished products are then exported back to the United States.d. retail prices from various goldenseal vendors ranged from $5. France.

Although information on cultivation is readily available. each containing a bud and rootlets. Leaves are occasionally used medicinally. Fern 1997–2000). goldenseal must be grown for 3 to 5 years when propagated from rhizomes. and stories of growers’ experiences. Regardless. the rhizomes begin to become overcrowded and deteriorate after reaching maturity. Harding (1936) wrote extensively about propagating and cultivating goldenseal. Lloyd and Lloyd 1884–1887). however. so there is a small market for fresh or dried leaves (Davis 1999). Older articles on goldenseal cultivation (Harding 1936. Numerous articles and books have been published detailing current research on goldenseal propagation and cultivation (Beyfuss 1998. His book “Ginseng and Other Medicinal Herbs” included methods of goldenseal propagation. Haage and Ballard 1989. Van Fleet 1914) are often referenced in current literature. conservation. cultivation itself is not a fast or easy undertaking. Better results can be obtained by growers who collect their own seeds and sow them immediately. The rhizomes are planted in the fall or early spring in the southern part of the plant’s range (Cech 2002. Sievers 1949).” A more reliable method of propagation involves dividing healthy rhizomes into 1/2-inch thick or larger pieces. Davis and McCoy 2000. Seeds must be planted as soon as possible or by late autumn (Fern 1997–2000). or 5 to 7 years when propagated from seed (Davis and McCoy 2000.Cultivation In the late 1800s. 10 . Davis 1999. Davis 1999. Sinclair and Catling 2001). Henkel and Klugh 1908. Davis (1999) states that “propagation of goldenseal from seed can be difficult and unpredictable. eclectic physicians began expressing concern about the sustainability of goldenseal. Konsler 1987. many of the cultivation and propagation methods have not changed significantly in the last century. Lloyd 1912. markets. The National Center for the Preservation of Medicinal Herbs (1999) is conducting research on the various methods of propagating rhizomes and successive growth rates at various sites. observing that overharvest and loss of habitat were quickly reducing the abundance of wild goldenseal (Harding 1936. Before the crop can be harvested. Germination rates for purchased seeds range from 10 to 90 percent (Davis 1999). Plants can be grown for an additional year if market conditions are not optimal.

000 pounds have also been reported (Davis 1999). which can eat the entire crown of the plant. they estimated an annual harvest of 35. they can be transplanted to woods or cultivated beds.Once goldenseal plants are established. and roads. wild goldenseal populations have substantially decreased and are more difficult to find than in the past. several pest and disease problems are known to occur in large cultivation operations. The optimum sites for goldenseal are wooded areas that support several of the other plant species associated with the herb (Cech 2002). Plants grown in cultivated beds must be mulched to retain moisture. Rhizoctonia. projecting a future total of 82. Other diseases known to infect cultivated goldenseal include Alternaria. Some of the problems most often encountered by goldenseal growers include slugs. Goldenseal is particularly sensitive to soil disturbance and does not grow on land that has been cleared or plowed (Lloyd 1912). Sievers 1949). An estimated average yield per acre is 1.000 pounds by the fall of 2000 (McGuffin 1999). Cultivated goldenseal requires a shade structure that provides 60 to 75 percent shade (Davis 1999. Sievers 1949). goldenseal has relatively few pest problems when grown in natural wooded settings. and increased fragmentation of remaining forested lands from timber harvest and recreational use. which reduce plant growth. Accurate yield estimates for goldenseal are not available due to variations in cultivation practices. though lows of 800 pounds and highs of 3. and protect roots during cold weather (Davis 1999. which can be controlled by removing the affected foliage in mild infestations or by replacing mulch during the over-wintering period in more severe cases. moles and voles.000 pounds of dried roots per year. however. Wooded areas should be cleared of undergrowth that will compete with roots for nutrients (Davis 1999). root knot nematodes. Grieve 1931.000 pounds dry root. A national survey of goldenseal harvest conducted by the American Herbal Products Association reported a total of only 140 acres of goldenseal in cultivation in 1998.000 to 2. Many factors contribute to this decline: unsustainable collection of roots. At that time. agricultural lands. According to Davis (1999). loss of habitat due to the expansion of urban areas. 11 . and Botrytis leaf spot. Conservation Issues Like many other valuable medicinal herbs in the Appalachian region. and Fusarium. reduce weeds.

and N2. teas. U..e. and is reported but unprotected in Arkansas. In addition. Virginia. these documents must be reviewed by the USFWS to ensure that the roots were legally collected and that the wild harvest of goldenseal was not detrimental to the species (Robbins 2000.. Ohio. Minnesota. Since 1997.It is estimated that there are 1. confectionery.e. and “of special concern” in Wisconsin. International Affairs.d. or “imperiled” in Canada (NatureServe Explorer 2002). Fish and Wildlife Service. Goldenseal is on the United Plant Savers “At-Risk List. U. U.S. amount of harvest. the plant is on the “rare plants” list in Alabama. Kentucky. whole and sliced roots.” The national heritage status rank is N4. North Carolina. Before a dealer can actually export goldenseal roots. and parts of roots—excluding manufactured parts or derivatives (i. The global heritage status rank for goldenseal is G4. Illinois. All dealers must keep documentation of their goldenseal transactions. etc.) (Robbins 2000. Office of Management Authority 1999). so the accuracy of these estimates is unknown. U. and New York. with complete verifiable information from the point of harvest to sale (i. Department of the Interior 1999. etc. “threatened” in Maryland. U. Goldenseal is listed as “endangered” by the States of Connecticut. each with approximately 70 to 500 individuals (NatureServe Explorer 2002). or “apparently secure. Fish and Wildlife Service. populations are not tracked or monitored. Office of Management Authority 1998. Office of Management Authority 1998.” which includes native plant species widely used in commerce that have significantly declined throughout their range (United Plant Savers.S.S. tonics. Office of Management Authority 1999).S. Mississippi. goldenseal has been listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). NatureServe Explorer 2002. The export of goldenseal requires an individual dealer to apply for an export permit. “fairly rare” in Oklahoma and Michigan. Department of the Interior 1999. Tennessee.S. “historic” in New Jersey. and Indiana. harvest permits. n. pills.). Fish and Wildlife Service. however.S. U. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for implementing CITES within the United States. Department of Agriculture 2001). International Affairs.). The U. the “to watch” list in Delaware.000 to 5. area and date of harvest. individual contact information.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. powders. extracts.S. or “apparently secure” in the United States. Fish and Wildlife Service. “vulnerable” in Pennsylvania. Massachusetts. which monitors international trade in live plants.000 populations of goldenseal globally. landowner permission. and West Virginia (Bannerman 1997. 12 . Georgia. U. Fish and Wildlife Service. Iowa. and Vermont.

so that accurate sustainability levels can be determined. Southern Research Station. This research was supported by funds provided by the U.e. VA 22835). Cultivation can reduce pressure on wild populations. such as listing goldenseal in Appendix II of CITES. cold prevention and drug masking) can reduce unnecessary overconsumption of goldenseal products. However. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Fish and Wildlife Service. educating consumers about the inappropriate uses of goldenseal (i.S. U. there is little information on the rate of regeneration and sustainable harvest amounts. 13 . an effort that helped to ensure its quality of coverage.. research into optimal production strategies is a key component in conservation. Department of Agriculture Forest Service) for their diligence and hard work in reviewing this document. The authors express their sincere appreciation to Pat Ford (Botanist. and the National Park Service (Shenandoah National Park. under Cooperative Agreement SRS-01-CA11330142-522. VA 24060).Discussion Sustainability of goldenseal has been a concern since the times of the first eclectic physicians who reported dwindling occurrences of wild populations as early as the 1800s. Blacksburg.S. conservation strategies have been implemented. Luray. therefore. NC.S. Furthermore. which regulates export and ensures that harvest of roots stays within sustainable limits. under Cooperative Agreement 02-IA-11330142-283. Cheatham Hall. Asheville. Acknowledgments This publication was produced in cooperation with Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (College of Natural Resources. In the last few decades. particularly the number of occurrences of wild populations and the rate of regeneration after root harvest. Division of Scientific Authority) and Wayne Owen (National Botany and Rare Plant Program Leader. U. Future efforts should focus on collecting data. goldenseal is not monitored or tracked in the States where it occurs. and there is insufficient information available on the abundance and distribution of the species. Finally.

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2001. Aldous. clinical studies. Definite conclusions were not reached. HPLC is a valid method for determining product quality. M. 2000. medicinal uses. National Library of Medicine Identifier NCT00010465.gov/ct/gui/ c/w2b/screen/ResultScreen/action/GetStudy?order=1&xml_file_id= xmlfiles%2FNCT00010465. goldenseal is listed as one of the herbs to be included in the study. Khan. 2004]. though several hypotheses are suggested based on the results. Examines a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to detect and quantify hydrastine and berberine in several products containing both goldenseal and echinacea. product quality. berberine.F. content uniformity varies widely among products. Alkaloid levels varied widely among the samples. and its major alkaloids on guinea pig isolated trachea. Keywords: Alkaloids..Abdel-Haq.. Study ID Numbers: 1 P50 AT0000801P1. medicinal uses. Because of this. Investigates the individual contribution of several of the major alkaloids in goldenseal to the overall relaxant effect on guinea pig trachea and attempts to determine the exact mechanism of action. M. It is believed that the alkaloids interact with adrenergetic and adenosinic receptors. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act does not require alkaloid content to be included on a product label. [Date accessed: April 26. 90(7): 817-822. M.xml% 40csdb&JServSessionIdzone_ ct=06q3djbel1.A. Relaxant effects of Hydrastis canadensis L. Outlines ongoing research to evaluate treatment for recurrent otitis media in children.. I.A. Keywords: Alkaloids. Cometa. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of hydrastine and berberine in dietary supplements containing goldenseal. A randomized controlled trial of the use of craniosacral osteopathic manipulative treatment and of botanical treatment in recurrent otitis media in children. 21 . [and others]. http://clinicaltrials. E. Abourashed. Pharmacology and Toxicology. Keywords: Clinical studies. H. 1 P50 AT00008-01. [Location of publisher unknown]: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2001. Palmery. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 87(5): 218-222.

North Carolina. a North American endangered species.. Planta Medica.K. Prices fluctuate. clinical studies. O. R.Babbar.. Site preparation can range from simply raking back leaves and broadcasting seeds to removing small trees and other understory plants. J. poachers. shady forest environment with other herbs such as maidenhair fern (Adiantum pedatum). Lata. Ray. E.S. Chatwal. Summarizes the ecological growing conditions for potential growers to reproduce for successful wild-simulated cultivation.. Micropropagation of Hydrastis canadensis: goldenseal. 2003. When drying. A brief history of goldenseal collection and markets is provided.B.L.. Phytophthora. and Botrytis. Hagerstown. MD: University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Service: 148-155. Massachusetts. I.000 pounds. 1982. Reports observations of sites containing wild populations of goldenseal and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in New York. Beyfuss. Bedir.P. Schaneberg. Roots start to die off if they are left for longer periods of time.. making it difficult to predict the costs and returns of cultivation.000 to 2. Cleaned roots are dried on screens in the shade or in air driers. jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum). It is noted that Native Americans used goldenseal more than American ginseng in their remedies. 69(1): 86-88. Plants are harvested 3 to 4 years after planting. [and others]. Keywords: Micropropagation. Growing ginseng and goldenseal in your forest. medicinal uses. and Tennessee.. 76: 83-88. Indian Journal of Medical Research. Natural resources income opportunities on private lands conference: proceedings and invited papers.K. The worst problems encountered in cultivating goldenseal include slugs. Mehra. and arranging raised beds. V. H. [No abstract]. Effect of berberine chloride eye drops on clinically positive trachoma patients. 22 . roots lose approximately 70 percent of their weight. Goldenseal grows in a rich. Provides a detailed investigation into techniques and successful results for an in vitro propagation protocol for goldenseal. and blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides). M. tilling soil. In: Kays. research. Some details are provided on planting and fertilization. Alternaria. Total yields per acre are estimated at 1. ed. B. Keywords: Berberine. 1998. moist.

Berberine: therapeutic potential of an alkaloid found in several medicinal plants.C. Berberine has antimicrobial properties that make it an effective treatment for cholera and Escherichia coli infections. coli and Streptomyces pyogenes to epithelial cells. Keyword: Berberine. In normal clinical doses. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. S. Examines the metabolism of several herbal extracts to determine areas of potential drug interactions within the body. Dutta.K. distribution. Berberine was absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. Bhide. Trichomonas vaginalis. medicinal uses. 2(2): 94-103. 1969. inhibits growth of Giardia lamblia. J. Native American uses. habitat. Chavan. Phytomedicine.W. 1997. Alternative Medicine Review.B. drying..S. inhibits intestinal secretion caused by enterotoxins. dyspnea. and liver. though high doses can cause low blood pressure.R. intestinal parasites. pancreas.. reduces inflammation. heart damage. Arnason.C. Keywords: Berberine. and ventricular tacharrhythmias. S. and Chlamydia trachomatis. 7(4): 273-282. and was excreted through stools and urine. Kelly. cultivation. The most common clinical applications are for bacterial diarrhea.. and inhibits metabolic functions and toxin formation in certain organisms.T.. T. Summarizes the actions and uses of berberine. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 57: 2128-2131. N. Vandenhoek. Absorption.Keywords: Associated herbs. ocular trachoma. Budzinski. prevents the adhesion of E. B. and excretion of berberine. Berberine causes uterine contractions and should not be used by pregnant women. site preparation. Berberine is directly antibacterial to Vibrio cholerae. berberine is nontoxic. yield estimates. 2000. G. gastrointestinal problems. Foster. Describes the actions of the alkaloid berberine in healthy and choleric infant rabbits. M. describing numerous clinical studies that support medicinal claims. pests and diseases.. was found in high levels in the heart. Entamoeba histolytica. Birdsall. 23 . and stimulates increased production of bile and bilirubin. The alkaloid prevents smooth muscle contraction. J. toxicity. and flu-like symptoms..

No proliferative effects were observed. Inability of goldenseal to interfere with the detection of morphine in urine. Schlottfeldt. K. Identifies the chemical structures of berberine. Carlquist. 1): S56-S58. Phytotherapy Research. 1995. on guinea pig ileum: structure-activity relationships. Tobin. Biochemical effects of berberine. J. Creasy. research.. Biochemical Pharmacology.E. 1982. canadine. Keywords: Alkaloids. research. Results showed that goldenseal was not able to mask the presence of the drug in urine samples. Galeffi. research. the four major alkaloids isolated from rhizomes and roots of goldenseal. J. Pasqual. Ckless.. 28: 1081-1084. The different chemical structures are connected with varying contractile potencies on guinea pig ileum. W. 14(2): 65-84. 10(suppl. M. research. Nugent. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. C. [No abstract].Keywords: Drug interactions.A. Aliso.F. ß-hydrastine. Keyword: Drug masking. berberine. 2: 16-21. it is speculated that the anti-inflammatory action of goldenseal is partly due to its inhibition of DNA synthesis in activated lymphocytes. Acute effect of alkaloids from Hydrastis canadensis L.L. 1979. M. The mechanism of action is described. Palmery. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.. Combie. Evaluates the ability of goldenseal to interfere with detection of morphine in urine tests of racing horses. Keywords: Ranunculaceae family.. Cometa. Keywords: Berberine. Inhibition of in vitro lymphocyte transformation by the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine. T. 47(12A): 1029-1031. S. 1996. Wood and bark anatomy of Ranunculaceae (including Hydrastis) and Glaucidiaceae. T. 1995. Evaluates berberine’s interaction with lymphocytes. [and others]. and canadaline. 24 .. M..

The seasonal life cycle is described. 69(5): 597-598. 76(5): 204-210.. S. and both above. Keyword: Alkaloids. Describes the use of an acid-dye technique to determine and attempt to extract the alkaloids hydrastine. Tetrahedron. Eichenberger. Ghosh. phenology. Korany.F. Describes the growth of several individual clumps of goldenseal found in a nature preserve in Indiana.D..A. product quality. The greatest concentration of plants was found in the northeast sections of the preserve. E.) distribution. [No abstract]. Keyword: Berberine. and biomass in an oak hickory forest. Keywords: Alkaloids. Dyke. Planta Medica. 19(3): 258-263. Keywords: Alkaloids. research. 31: 561-568. [No abstract]. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 1971. canadine. and berberine from goldenseal roots.D... Bose. berberine. M. life cycle.P. Tiley.C.. P. Ohio Journal of Science.H. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L. 1975. S. 1976. 1980.. M. El-Masry. D. Thin layer chromatography and U. spectrophotometry of alcoholic extracts of Hydrastis canadensis.[No abstract]. D. 25 . A. Datta. Keywords: Habitat. Abou-Donia. Colorimetric and spectrophotometric determinations of Hydrastis alkaloids in pharmaceutical preparations. The synthesis of berberastine. G.and below-ground biomass are calculated and compared throughout the growing season. product quality.V. Parker.R.

D. E. 61(10): 1187-1193. medicinal uses. M.. Planta Medica. 26 . 71(3): 232-235. hycandinic acid esters-1 and -2. Keywords: Berberine. chemical constituents. 2000. L. 63: 194. and their chemical structures are identified. H. Evaluates the chemical compounds in goldenseal and their medicinal uses. Two methods of thinlayer chromatography were used to determine the quality and possible adulteration of 10 goldenseal products.J. four contained berberine. Investigates methods to evaluate goldenseal products. canadine. Galeffi. Berberine is the active constituent in goldenseal roots that is effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Several new inactive compounds are isolated from goldenseal roots. C. http://www. 1998. beta-hydrastine. 1999. A. Fitoterapia. Keyword: Alkaloids. Canadinic acid: an alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis. Journal of Natural Products.Gagnon. Fish and Wildlife Service. Cometa. Final report to the Office of Scientific Authority of the U.nps. A convenient method for the determination of the quality of goldenseal. Five samples contained hydrastine and berberine. [and others]. 1997.B..S. Nicoletti. and one did not contain either alkaloid. G. Describes the chemical structure and known properties of an alkaloid found in the roots of goldenseal. Results were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.htm [Date accessed: April 26.F. Isolation of inactive 8oxotetrahydrothalifendine. Provides a detailed protocol for field-monitoring studies of goldenseal populations with a brief literature review on the botany and ecology of the species. M. Keywords: Conservation.gov/plants/medicinal/pubs/goldenseal. and protocols for monitoring its populations. Govindan.. Govindan. Antitubercular natural products: berberine from the roots of commercial Hydrastis canadensis powder.. Gentry. monitoring.. Tomassini. Jampani. research. and two new quinic acid esters. M. Keshavarz-Shokri.. A review of the ecology and population biology of goldenseal. 2004].

Hall. 16: 741-755. Systemic Botany. Chemical Research in Toxicology. Academy of Emergency Medicine. Tissue culture of goldenseal. and discussion. Keywords: Micropropagation. Describes a survey of emergency room patients. Keywords: Berberine. J. showing that a significant number use herbal preparations. [and others]. Hung. 1997. Photochemistry and photocytotoxicity of alkaloids from goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L. P.. 2001. Analyzes epidermal microcharacters such as type of trichome and stomatal length to assess phylogeny in the family Ranunculaceae. The photochemistry of berberine is examined in several solvents. K. Includes description of materials. therefore. Shih.J. 1991.M. Journal of the Tissue Culture Association.K. Berberine. Keyword: Toxicity. Ranunculaceae family.D. research. The alkaloid berberine may have phototoxic effects when exposed to light..Keywords: Alkaloids.C. the authors also speculate that exposure to sun possibly enhances the antiseptic effects of goldenseal. The phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae based on epidermal microcharacters and macromorphology... product quality.) 1. Physicians should be aware of the potential for drug interactions or possible herbal-induced toxicity. 27 . Chiang. Kukielczak.. Hoot. 38(3): 293-295. toxicity. methods. Hydrastidaceae. 14(11): 1529-1534. Bilski. 2002. However. phototoxicity. B. Inbaraj.L. R.B. Evaluates the toxic potential of berberine.D. Keywords: Classification. 4(3): 209-213. O. persons using topical preparations of berberine should avoid exposure to light. Camper. [and others]. N. Herbal preparation use among urban emergency department patients. The results of this study suggest that Hydrastis belongs in a separate family. Results show that berberine can cause cell damage in the presence of ultraviolet light. tissue culture. W. Examines methods of tissue culture on various media to determine the most efficient method for in vitro propagation for goldenseal. S. results.

Keywords: Berberine.W. 291: 1601-1604. [No abstract].L. Keywords: Berberine. Although berberine interacts with DNA in vitro. Chou. clinical studies. Myo-Khin. Kuo. Berberine complexes with DNA in the berberine-induced apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells. wild-crafted vs. the herb. 19(3): 234-244.. Discusses the cancer-fighting potential of berberine. British Medical Journal. cultivated). particularly in cells at a certain stage of growth. the results of this study suggest that cellular processes other than DNA-interaction may be the cause of berberine-induced apoptosis of leukemia cells. Summarizes trends in goldenseal markets such as changes in demand for. medicinal uses. Berberine has demonstrated the ability to cause apoptosis (preprogrammed early cell death) in leukemia cells. Clinical trial of high-dose berberine and tetracycline in cholera. Myo-Khin. Khin-Maung U. Keywords: Berberine.S. Cardiovascular Drug Review. Keyword: Market demand.. 2001. College of Phytotherapy. B. C. Chen. Lau. 1985. Journal of Diarrheal Diseases Research. (i. 28 .M.Johannesen. C. 2001. clinical studies. medicinal uses.. Nyunt-Nyunt-Wai [and others]. [Place of publication unknown]: University of Wales. Yao. Nyunt-Nyunt-Wai [and others]. Khin-Maung U.. Bachelor of Science dissertation. Cancer Letters..C. S. [Not paged]. 5(3): 184-187.Y. Cardiovascular actions of berberine. and supply sources of. Z.J. An assessment of the threat to survival of six medicinal plants native to the U. Effectiveness was determined for berberine treatment in cells in various phases by attempting to isolate berberine DNA-complexes. Clinical trial of berberine in acute watery diarrhea. clinical studies. [No abstract].Q... medicinal uses. cancer. 1987. X.Y. Yungk.A. 93(2): 193-200. 1995. [and others].e. C. The process between DNA binding and early cell death by apoptosis is not yet understood.

[Date accessed: April 26. Various studies supporting these observations are presented. Two new alkaloids: hydrastidine and isohydrastidine. Clinical Chemistry. Describes the development of a fast and simple high performance liquid chromatographic method to analyze the active constituents in commercial goldenseal products. A validated high performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of goldenseal.O. Adulterants causing false negatives in illicit drug testing.F. and turbidity of the urine were examined to detect the presence of these adulterants. is an antimicrobial agent used to treat dysentery and infectious diarrhea. Forests of the Central Appalachians project. 29 . Gazetta Chimica Italiana.spies. clinical studies. 1980. J. 2004].F. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.L. The alkaloids of Hydrastis canadensis. 34(11): 2333-2336. 1988. medicinal uses. product quality. http://www. Hydrastis canadensis L. Mueller. Mikkelsen.htm. research. Keywords: Chemical constituents. 110(9/10): 539-543. Fitzloff. research. R. Relative density.Describes the cardiovascular effects of berberine and two of its derivatives. 54(3): 435-439.com/~gus/ forests/hydrastis. Berberine.. Li. W.. color.: two Appalachian occurrences. pH. Keywords: Drug masking. which is often used in Chinese medicine. I. 2002. Keywords: Berberine. Messana. S. Keyword: Alkaloids. Some of these effects are due to the ability of these alkaloids to block potassium channels and stimulate cation exchange. The beneficial cardiovascular actions of berberine suggest usefulness in treating arrhythmias or heart failure. Tests eight additives commonly used to provide false negative results on enzyme immunoassay drug assays. Ash. K. 2001. Describes the chemistry and characteristics of two new alkaloids and eight previously identified alkaloids isolated from goldenseal roots.

Berberine sulfate inhibits tumor-promoting activity of teleocidin in two-stage carcinogenesis on mouse skin. Variables that were investigated included the use of mushroom compost. Developmental toxicity evaluation for goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) root powder administered in the feed to Swiss (CD-1¨) mice on gestational days 6-17. Compost warmed the soil and provided for earlier growth. performance. Provides a summary of a field trial for goldenseal cultivation. Summary of goldenseal research projects for 1998 and 1999.niehs. research. 1999. Rootlets alone had very poor growth rates. http:// home.. though plants in uncomposted soil eventually reached the same size. 1986. medicinal uses. research. cancer. 2004]. Iwashima.html. Keywords: Cultivation. NTP Study: TER99004. clinical studies. Kitagawa. [Date accessed: May 12. http://ntp-server. Fujiki. Berberine sulfate suppressed the tumor-promoting ability of teleocidin on skin tumor formation in mice.html [Date accessed: April 26. Results showed that larger roots initially showed the best growth.frognet. woods grown. Weeds were more prolific in composted soil. prepared beds vs. topography. National Toxicology Program. toxicity. A. and rootstock quality vs. Oncology. 43(2): 131-134. [N. Keywords: Ecology. microclimate. Plants cultivated in beds were more vigorous. water requirements. Geology.nih. though smaller roots did eventually reach comparable size. National Center for the Preservation of Medicinal Herbs. and associated plant species are identified.]. and various sizes of root propagules. habitat. K. wildlife damage. 2004].d. soil characteristics and pH. Investigates the cancer-fighting actions of berberine.net/~rural8/frames2.gov/htdocs/TT-studies/ TER99004. 30 . Determines toxicity levels and potential side effects for gestational mice ingesting goldenseal. Keywords: Berberine. Additional studies in progress include solar direction of plantings. Keywords: Research.Describes the ecological preferences of goldenseal in two locations with different soil conditions. Nishino.. H.. Berberine inhibits the effects of the tumor-promoting chemicals of cancer cells. H.

O’Hara, M.A.; Keifer, D.; Farrell, K.; Kemper, K. 1998. A review of 12 commonly used medicinal herbs. Archives of Family Medicine. 7: 523-536. Reviews 12 of the most commonly used herbs in the United States, focusing on guidelines for appropriate use, drug interactions, and possible side effects. Goldenseal is mainly used as an antidiarrheal and antiseptic. Large doses can lead to gastrointestinal tract and mucus membrane irritation, uterine and cardiac contractions, vasoconstriction, and stimulation of the central nervous system. Goldenseal should not be taken by pregnant women, lactating women, neonates, cardiovascular patients, or epileptics. Keywords: Medicinal uses, toxicity. Palmery, M.; Leone, M.G.; Pimpinella, G.; Romanelli, L. 1993. Effects of Hydrastis canadensis L. and the two major alkaloids, berberine and hydrastine, on rabbit aorta. Pharmacology Research. 27(suppl.1): 73-74. Describes the medicinal actions of goldenseal. Alcohol extracts produce both a vasoconstrictive effect and an inhibitory action on the contraction of rabbit aorta induced by adrenaline, serotonin, and histamine. Berberine and hydrastine tested alone did not produce the same results as the combined alcohol extract. The authors concluded that several other constituents besides berberine and hydrastine contribute to this effect. Keywords: Berberine, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, research. Periera da Silva, A.; Rocha, R.; Silva, C.M. [and others]. 2000. Antioxidants in medicinal plant extracts. A research study of the antioxidant capacity of Crataegus, Hamamelis, and Hydrastis. Phytotherapy Research. 14(8): 612-616. Evaluates and quantifies the antioxidant capacity of Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, and Hydrastis canadensis extracts. Keywords: Medicinal uses, research. Rehman, J.; Dillow, J.M.; Carter, S.M. [and others]. 1999. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunology Letters. 68(2-3): 391-395. Investigates the effects of goldenseal and echinacea (Echinacea spp.) on the immune system. Groups of rats treated with either echinacea or goldenseal
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were observed for 6 weeks to determine the effectiveness of each herb on antigen-specific immunity. Results showed that both echinacea and goldenseal enhance the immune system’s ability to fight infections by increasing antigen-specific immunoglobulin production. Keywords: Medicinal uses, research. Robbins, C. 1999. Medicine from U.S. wildlands: an assessment of native plant species harvested in the United States for medicinal use and trade and evaluation of the conservation and management implications. Prepared by TRAFFIC North America for the Nature Conservancy. http:// www.nps.gov/plants/medicinal/pubs/traffic.htm. [Date accessed: April 26, 2004]. Discusses the trade and use of selected medicinal herbs with implications for conservation. In 1995, 254 permits were sold for goldenseal collection in the Hoosier National Forest in Indiana. In 1996, 505 permits were sold in Hoosier, 274 in the Wayne National Forest in Ohio, and 2 in the Daniel Boone National Forest in Kentucky. In 1997, 317 permits were sold in the Hoosier, 193 in the Wayne, and 2 in the Daniel Boone. The Hoosier National Forest no longer sells permits for goldenseal collection. Keywords: Conservation, permits. Robbins, C.S. 2000. Comparative analysis of management regimes and medicinal plant trade monitoring mechanisms for American ginseng and goldenseal. Conservation Biology. 14(5): 1422-1434. Outlines, compares, and critiques the management programs for American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and goldenseal. Trade in both American ginseng and goldenseal is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The goldenseal management program relies on assistance from the industry. Both dealers and growers of goldenseal keep records of their transactions with the place of harvest, date, and name of the harvester to verify legal acquisition. This system relies on accurate and truthful reporting from the dealers. Documentation of the place and amount of harvest supplements U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service field studies on ecology and biology to track populations and determine sustainable harvest levels. Limited knowledge of the life cycle and habitat of goldenseal is an obstacle to ensuring proper management strategies. The amount of goldenseal in cultivation is small but increasing. Keywords: CITES, dealers, regulations.
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Sack, R.B.; Froehlich, J.L. 1982. Berberine inhibits intestinal secretory response of Vibrio cholerae toxins and E. coli enterotoxins. Infection and Immunology. 35: 471-475. Investigates the clinical usefulness of the alkaloid berberine in treating acute diarrheal disease. Keywords: Berberine, clinical research, medicinal uses. Scazzocchio, F.; Cometa, M.F.; Tomassini, L.; Palmery, M. 2001. Antibacterial activity of Hydrastis canadensis extract and its major isolated alkaloids. Planta Medica. 67(6): 561-564. Evaluates the antibacterial actions of the major alkaloids of goldenseal for the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sanguis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The “killing time” recorded for each organism validated the use of goldenseal as an antibiotic. Keywords: Alkaloids, medicinal uses, research. Schmeller, T.; Latz-Bruning, B.; Wink, M. 1997. Biochemical activities of berberine, palmatine, and sanguinarine mediating chemical defense against microorganisms and herbivores. Phytochemistry. 44(2): 257-266. Analyzes the biochemical properties of berberine, palmatine, and sanguinarine to determine the mechanisms for their toxicity to insects, vertebrates, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. For each alkaloid, various actions are identified that mediate goldenseal’s chemical defense against microorganisms and herbivores. Most of these actions include interference with DNA, protein synthesis, and neuron receptors; enzyme inhibition; and increased membrane permeability. Keywords: Berberine, chemical defenses, research, toxicity. Sheng, W.D.; Jiddawi, M.S.; Hong, X.Q.; Abdulla, S.M. 1997. Treatment of chlorine-resistant malaria using pyrimethanine in combination with berberine, tetracycline, or cotrimoxazole. East African Medical Journal. 74(5): 283-284. Describes a study where patients with chloroquine-resistant malaria were treated with pyrimethamine and berberine, pyrimethamine and tetracycline, or pyrimethamine and cotrimoxazole. The group taking the berberine mixture had a 74.4-percent clearance rate after treatment; the tetracycline group had 67.2 percent; and the cotrimoxazole group had 47.8 percent.
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associated species. 1988. current research.. berberine. 18(102): 3-19. research. P. 1998. Sun. 1950. Interviews goldenseal growers and provides a summary of cultivation knowledge and experience. Reviews clinical studies on the effects of the alkaloids hydrastine. Describes the use of capillary electrophoresis mass-spectrometry to identify the isoquinoline alkaloids contained in crude methanolic extracts of medicinal herbs. including goldenseal.. Keyword: Cultivation.. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture. fibronectin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.S. A. medicinal uses. and canadine. Beachey.H. S. Cultivating the increasingly popular medicinal plant. A review of the pharmacology and therapeutics of Hydrastis and its alkaloids hydrastine. 34 . Keywords: Alkaloids. Electrophoresis. Keywords: Alkaloids. and hexadecane. prices and market trends.M. 16(3): 131-140.These results show that berberine is more effective in treating the parasite than both tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Sinclair. D. Keywords: Berberine. 32(9): 1370-1374. medicinal uses. propagation methods. H. and environmental conditions needed for healthy crops. product quality. Summarizes the state of knowledge of goldenseal in 1950. H.. Berberine sulfate blocks adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to epithelial cells. Courtney.E. Catling. F. berberine. clinical studies. research. Includes a botanical description. Keywords: Berberine. Sturm. Shideman. and canadine. 2001. Bulletin of the National Formulary Committee [United Kingdom]. Analysis of isoquinoline alkaloids in medicinal plants by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. history. E. Describes the mechanisms by which berberine sulfate prevents infections by streptococci. 19(16-17): 3026-3032. Stuppner. goldenseal: review and update.

C. chemical constituents. B. 2003. goldenseal. [Date accessed: April 26. Tice.E. medicinal uses. The American Midland Naturalist. R. M. Van Der Voort.. 1997. and other safety issues of the constituents and various compounds in varying dosages and exposures. Botany Magazine (Tokyo). 1985. C.. Samuel. toxicity.K. Keating. and thorough review of technical and clinical literature on the toxicity. H.Swanston-Flatt. C.. Goldenseal was one of the herbs that significantly reduced hyperphagia and polydipsia. Bailey. J. D. Acta Diabetol.. mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemesia dracunculus) significantly reduced symptoms of streptozotocin diabetes but did not affect glycemic control.. The morphology and anatomy of Hydrastis (Ranunculales): systematic re-evaluation of the genus.pdf.)) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius (L. Lat. P. Includes the chemical structure. S. Keywords: Berberine. Keywords: Classification.nih. Research Triangle Park.. Suggests that the genus Hydrastis should be moved from Ranunculaceae to its own family.niehs.) and two of its constituent alkaloids: berberine and hydrastine. actions. Review of toxicological literature. 149 (2): 282–292. 1989. properties. 2004]. 35 . side effects. based on differing plant characteristics. Examines the two major chemical constituents of goldenseal and the literature on their toxicology. 26(1): 51-55. Of the herbs studied. Research Triangle Park. Day. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L. NC: Integrated Laboratory Systems. NC.)) following human harvest. Flatt. Bailey.J. R. Prepared for the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.gov/htdocs/ Chem_Background/ExSumPdf/GoldenSeal. 98: 291-316.R. Recovery of populations of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis (L. Tobe. bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi). Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice. Ranunculaceae family. research. McGraw.. http://ntp-server. Keywords: Clinical studies. Studies seven herbs used to treat diabetes in mice with streptozotocin diabetes.

and seed heads. Keywords: Conservation. H. Popular Press The following articles and websites have not been peer reviewed. leaf petioles. http://attra. Adam. Ginseng. Phytopathology. G. Goldenseal showed only selective or minimal interference. E.H. harvest. 8: 73-76. flowers. CEDIA for screening drugs of abuse in urine and the effect of adulterants.. though it is usually observed only in the wet season.ncat. Reliable data on yields are not available. Describes the most common disease of cultivated goldenseal.html. though most of the current methods are similar to those described in publications written at the turn of the century. but are included to indicate popular views and perceptions. disease. Keywords: Cultivation. Forte. goldenseal. Wu. Hort. research. 1995.org/attra-pub/ginsgold. black cohosh (Actaea racemosa). Studies several adulterants for potential ability to alter the results of urinalysis for the screening of various drugs.Describes observations on the recovery of wild populations of goldenseal and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) after natural and simulated harvest. 2002. and blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides). Journal of Forensic Science. The Botrytis blight of golden seal.L. Whetzel. goldenseal. Botrytis can affect seedlings. Provides a well-documented overview for American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). research. A. [and others]. Note. Keywords: Drug masking. 2004]. pests. The disease is present in most gardens. Tech. 40(4): 614-618. leaves. 12 p. K. 1918. regulations. and production. Casella. Spraying crops with Bordeaux mixture can reduce damage.. covers cultivation. and other native roots. Research is being conducted on propagation and cultivation methods to alleviate the demand on wild resources. [Date accessed: April 26. Fayetteville.H. Goldenseal has a similar range and habitat requirement to ginseng. AR: Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas. but estimates 36 .

range from 1. S. where goldenseal dealers.000 to 2. appropriate uses of the herb.asp?PageType= article&ID=1906. Reports on the March 12. Industry and organizations form partnership for goldenseal conservation. Health World Online. 1996/1997. Issues included the paperwork tracking system from collection to final sale of roots. The chemical constituents and their associated action on the body are discussed. and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) listing regulating export of the roots. and combinations with other herbs are presented. 8(4): 1-6. Taking excessive doses of goldenseal can do more harm than good.. Liebmann. and representatives from government and nongovernment organizations discussed goldenseal conservation issues. http://www. Keywords: Cultivation. leaving the system too weak to react when infection does set in. yield estimates. 2004]. Spring: 1-3. it has no effect on viral infections. Keywords: Dosage. D.]. Although goldenseal can treat bacterial infections. P. meeting in Anaheim. manufacturers. [N. CA. Discusses the increasing use of goldenseal to prevent or treat colds with an emphasis on the inappropriate vs.HTM. Using goldenseal to prevent colds before infection has started can also interfere with the natural defenses of the body. medicinal uses. [Date accessed: April 26.L. R. [and others]. [Date accessed: April 26..d.medherb. Preparations. Cech. public education about proper uses and misuses of the herb. 2004]. R. Goldenseal and the common cold: the antibiotic myth.net/asp/templates/article. Bergner. Hoffman. propagation.500 pounds per acre after 3 to 5 years of growth from seed. Provides a short summary of the medicinal actions and benefits of goldenseal.healthy. 1998. Herbal Materia Medica. Keywords: Chemical constituents.com/ 84. medicinal uses. dosages. http://www. 37 . 10. United Plant Savers Newsletter. progress and research in cultivation. 1998. Medical Herbalism. Goodman. Goldenseal. drying out mucus membranes and killing beneficial flora in the intestines.

dye uses. hydrastine. and douche for vaginal infections. and canadine. Medicinal use by Native Americans and early settlers is discussed. 1994.com/nutriflip/Naturopathy/. Provides a general overview of goldenseal with nomenclature. [Date accessed: April 26. 1999. mouthwash. R.) for cold and flu remedies. conservation. 56(9): 58. Keywords: Cultivation. Goldenseal was used in pharmaceutical preparations to relieve eye irritations until the 1970s. antiseptic. Nutriflip. Goldenseal is commonly combined with echinacea (Echinacea spp. Summarizes the results of a survey designed to quantify the harvests of goldenseal from both wild and cultivated sources for the year 1998. Keywords: Alkaloids. The bright yellow color of the roots has also made it a useful dye. medicinal uses. McGuffin. Survey respondents reported a total of 265. distribution. http://www.Keywords: CITES. digestive. HerbalGram. M. Unearthing the health care of goldenseal. history. or digestive aid. Keyword: Medicinal uses. regulations. medicinal uses. Nutrition for a living planet . AHPA goldenseal survey measures increased agricultural production. wound healing. market demand. The specific action for each of these alkaloids is discussed. hemorrhoid treatment. conservation. preparations. and safety. Better Nutrition for Today’s Living. goldenseal has similar uses as a tonic. 2004]. The amount of goldenseal in cultivation is expected to increase over the next few years. 1998. The medicinal properties of goldenseal come from the alkaloids berberine. An additional 62. geocities. 46: 66-67. Reviews goldenseal history. harvest. uses.000 pounds of dried root harvested in the year 1998. In modern medicine. Naturopathy: herbs and other plant products. The survey was sponsored by the Botanical Raw Materials Committee of the American Herbal Products Association. mucus membrane stimulant. nutrition. ecological parameters. Cultivated roots are supplied from a total of 140 acres.000 pounds were harvested for use as planting stock. and toxicity. and health. conservation. 38 . laxative. diet.food. or used alone for sore throats. McCaleb.

2000. There is a high demand for cultivated roots. goldenseal is often rotated with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). as the two plants require similar conditions. this herb is in demand! AgVentures. 19 p. Commercial production of goldenseal: with wild populations endangered in some areas. 2003. 41: 51-52. and other miscellaneous information. market demand. history. S. Obtaining rhizomes for propagation can be difficult and costly. Yields ranging from 800 to 3. American Herbal Products Association.E. DC: American Herbal Products Association. Provides information on cultivating goldenseal. NY: Walden House. Goldenseal is endangered. herbal manuals. Bannerman. Other Information Sources The following are general materials that provide background and reference information. 29. medicinal uses. historical documents. Goldenseal in world trade: pressures and potentials. 22 p. J. Prices fluctuate. market trends. market. Ahluwalia. with a botanical description. 1977. Results of the survey show a decrease in goldenseal consumption over the last 4 years with an increase in the proportion of cultivated root supplying the market. 3(6): 24-27. Washington. propagation. fact sheets. Summarizes research on cultivation methods. Summarizes recent market trends for several medicinal herbs. 39 . wild harvest is illegal in North Carolina.Silva.000 pounds per acre have been reported. and a list of suppliers. Tonnage survey of North American wild-harvested plants. and limitations on supply have increased prices. Keyword: Cultivation. making profits difficult to predict. Included are encyclopedias. planting guides. When cultivated. Keywords: Cultivation. 1997. and markets for goldenseal roots.S. Goldenseal – American gold. HerbalGram. Keywords: Annual consumption. production considerations for farmers. Bronx. B.

Because of concern over the conservation of resources. CA: Prima. A detailed history of goldenseal’s medicinal use is provided. Keywords: Associated herbs. and increased urbanization have contributed to the decreasing numbers of wild populations. medicinal uses. agriculture expansion. and other products. and Minnesota. which is found in several other plants. but. extracts. Illinois. Modern medicinal applications and dosage are discussed in detail with a thorough discussion on the appropriate and inappropriate indications for the herb. dilutions. Trade is regulated in 7 of the 26 States where goldenseal is found. growing in moist shady hardwood forests with other herbs such as American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius).Discusses various factors that influence conservation—markets. Mississippi. Provides a synopsis of the medicinal applications of goldenseal and echinacea (Echinacea spp. and “of special concern” in Wisconsin. 1997. export. Vermont. Georgia. and other immune system herbs. Connecticut. CITES. Ohio. bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis). The Network of National Heritage Programs has assigned goldenseal a “fragile” ranking. colonial. black cohosh (Actaea racemosa). Kentucky. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization lists goldenseal as one of the top selling herbs worldwide. It is listed in the official pharmacopoeias of France. and West Virginia. Germany. goldenseal. in Arkansas. A large proportion of the goldenseal exported to Italy and France is used to make tinctures.). conservation. “threatened” in Maryland. Goldenseal is reported. road expansion. Various factors such as overharvest. and Italy. harvest. and New York. Iowa. the “watch” list in Delaware. Tennessee. 40 . Bergner. cultivation. “fairly rare” in Oklahoma and Michigan. Most clinical research related to the chemical constituents of goldenseal and their medicinal properties has focused on the alkaloid berberine. Massachusetts. and more. including Native American. Goldenseal is only found in North America. habitat. Research into cultivation methods and practices has increased in an effort to reduce the demand on wild plants. “vulnerable” in Pennsylvania. P. and false unicorn root (Chamaelirium luteum). Virginia. Britain. regulations. and Indiana. The healing power of Echinacea. 322 p. ecology. but unprotected. the impact on the species is unknown. timber harvesting. “historic” in New Jersey. goldenseal was included in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II in 1997. Export amounts imply an enormous harvest of roots. and homeopathic remedies. wild harvest is prohibited in North Carolina. Rocklin. without knowledge about sustainable harvest levels. It is on the “rare plant” list in Alabama. mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum).

comp. Conclusions from these studies show that berberine is effective for treating intestinal infections caused by E. meconin. C. 1891. and resin. the smaller upper leaf supports a peduncle with the flower. sedative. having a stem 15 to 30 centimeters tall with two alternate palmate leaves. Describes the various stages of the goldenseal life cycle.geocities. Keywords: Berberine. It is effective in inhibiting numerous bacteria. The first year of growth produces two cotyledons and a small radicle. and that berberine is useful . life cycle.com/chadrx/goldenseal. chlorogenic acid. 41 . for treating trachoma. [Date accessed: April 26. including the effectiveness of using berberine in treating watery diarrhea associated with cholera. with reviews of several clinical studies. hydrastine. Several clinical trials are outlined.. the plant sends up a single.Keywords: Alkaloids. Bowers. The plant reaches maturity in the third or fourth year. canadine. Plants can propagate by adventitious buds on the rhizomes and rootlets. 2004]. Goldenseal: Hydrastis canadensis. coli but not V cholerae. immuno-stimulatory. and protozoans. Illustrations and detailed descriptions are provided for all stages of growth and all plant parts. fungi. medicinal actions. H. 16: 73-82. Seeds naturally sown after the fruit ripens in August will germinate the following spring. Other constituents include berberastine. A contribution to the life history of Hydrastis canadensis. The lower leaf is larger and has a petiole. Botanical Gazette. research reviews.html. 1997. using high-dose berberine in treating cholera. In the second year of growth. chemical constituents. Provides an overview of chemical composition and constituents. The main active alkaloid in goldenseal roots is berberine. and using berberine chloride eye drops to treat trachoma. phytosterins. Berberine is antibiotic. http://www. In: Complimentary and alternative medicine: a scientific reference for health care professionals. palmately-lobed leaf. medicinal uses. medicinal uses. Keywords: Botanical description. using berberine sulfate to treat diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli or Vibrio cholerae. and potentially anticancer. history. chemical constituents. Dosage and toxicity information is included. Bradshaw. Berberine’s effect is tied to either inhibiting growth or preventing the adhesion of pathogens to host cells. anticonvulsant.

Details are provided on the range and hardiness. Williams. 2001. and the British Possessions. Goldenseal acts upon the whole physical system but mainly benefits the mucus membranes. LA 70874-4490 U. The herb has been shown to stimulate the involuntary muscles but does not increase the pulse. The physiomedical dispensatory. Baton Rouge.usda. Plants reproduce asexually through knot-like buds that form on the roots and from various growing points that form along the main rhizome. 1998 (Spring): 12. Natural Resources Conservation Service. N.ibiblio. and uterus. A.A. conservation. [Date accessed: April 26. 1869. In: U. Cech.. life cycle. 2004]. Provides a thorough discussion of goldenseal botany. Recovery – an Endangered Species Newsletter (Canadian Wildlife Service). A.. Department of Agriculture. and cultivation. and pharmaceutical preparations. The history of the golden seal. R. harvest.htm [Date accessed: April 26. Goldenseal is a long-lived perennial. 2001. OR: Horizon Herbs. storage. with a detailed botanical description. National Plant Data Center.L. 323 p.M. Scanned version by Journal of Medical Herbalism. digestive tract. Keywords: Conservation. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 2002. cultivation. optimal growing conditions. Available at: http://plants. Provides historical information on goldenseal. Canada. An illustrated flora of the Northern United States. 1913. Brown. and conservation status. W. P. Provides a botanical illustration of goldenseal. seed collection.org/herbmed/ eclectic/cook/HYDRASTIS_CANADENSIS. Growing at-risk medicinal herbs: cultivation. 2. and ecology. medicinal properties and uses.1. Keyword: Botanical description. ecology. Sinclair.S. The PLANTS database. Keyword: Conservation. 42 .gov. 2004].Britton. Version 3. Vol. http://www. Summarizes conservation concerns for goldenseal in Canada. 1998. Catling. growing in communal patches on northern or northeastern hillsides of hardwood forests. Cook.S. cultivation from seed and rhizome.

propagation. Davis. Goldenseal. Methods of storing and planting seeds are evaluated. phosphorus. H. J. Keywords: History.M. Department of Agriculture. 1998. Agroforestry Note 16. Snell. shady sites under mixed hardwoods. Ontario. Guidelines are provided for preparing soil and removing roots. cleaning. Keywords: Cultivation. NE: U. and hydrastin are included.M. Prevention and treatment methods for pests and disease are discussed. fluid extracts. Goodwood. cultivation. Discusses factors that affect plant growth rates such as soil pH. drying. 1999. Richter.S. and shade. eds. J. preparations. Propagation is most commonly done by dividing rhizomes.. Overharvesting has led to declines in native populations. and other plants. medicinal uses. Forest Farming . Forest production of goldenseal. Summarizes results of goldenseal cultivation research in North Carolina. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 6 p. mulch. Keywords: Botanical description. [Date accessed: April 26. In: Berzins. nitrogen.5. increasing the need to meet consumer demand for the herb with cultivated sources. C. 43 . Provides details for cultivating goldenseal. 2004].unl. The plant is an herbaceous perennial with a stem reaching up to 14 inches tall that ends in a fork with two 3. Lincoln. weeds.to 7-lobed leaves. Details are given for soil amendments and fertilizers.S.edu/ nac/afnotes/ff-5/index. Richters second commercial herb growing conference – transcripts. Davis. National Agroforestry Center. http://www. and packaging roots. Canada: Richters: 133-143. The plants spread naturally by means of the bright yellow horizontal rhizomes and fibrous roots. 5. Instructions for the pharmaceutical preparation of extracts. Propagation by seed is unpredictable and can be difficult.html.. planting times. Goldenseal grows best in moist. habitat. Department of Agriculture. Forest Service.. R. and the U. More details on seed collection.Descriptions of internal and external therapeutic actions are provided. site preparation. In cooperation with the U.to 12-inch wide. research. Information is provided for harvesting. and planting methods are provided. Department of Agriculture.S. well-drained. tinctures.

Instructions are given for preparing and amending the soil.M. Leafl. Sources of goldenseal seeds. poplar (Populus spp.ncsu.M. or black cohosh (Actaea racemosa). Good overstory trees include oak (Quercus spp. Keywords: Cultivation. Raleigh. understory plants that indicate good habitat for planting include mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). 123. Ohio. North Carolina State University Horticulture Inf. North Carolina State University Horticulture Inf.ces. pests and diseases. and more. walnut (Juglans nigra). permits. Roots should be harvested before they get overcrowded and die back. In woodlands.). habitat. Contact information is included for individuals to obtain the necessary permits. Although the native range for the plant extends from Vermont and Wisconsin south to Georgia and west to Kansas. McCoy. drying. sun requirements. 2004].edu/ depts/hort/hil/hil-131. Details are provided on propagation procedures. and storing roots. http://www. Instructions are given for cleaning. harvest. bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis). Leafl. cultivation.). with propagation methods. vendors. and is an endangered species in North Carolina. [Date accessed: April 26. or roots. plants. site selection and preparation. Research is being conducted on ideal shade conditions. Offers comprehensive information on cultivation. Commercial goldenseal cultivation. 2000. NC: North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.html. [Date accessed: April 26. plants.ncsu. J. Raleigh. regulations. harvest. 131. trillium (Trillium spp. and plant spacing. 44 . preliminary results indicate that a range of 63. and growing stock.). http://www. Goldenseal is protected under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II. NC: North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Most of the remaining patches are found in hardwood forests of Illinois. 2004]. Davis. 2000. soil preparation. Indiana.to 80-percent shade is optimal. J.edu/ hil/hil-123..html. and western Kentucky. Success with goldenseal cultivation depends on the grower’s ability to reproduce the native habitat. Methods to prevent and treat disease and pest problems are presented. Keywords: Associated herbs. overstory species. seed stratification. J. Provides a list of sources of goldenseal seed.Davis. overcollection has reduced native populations. and basswood (Tilia americana).ces. CITES.

is more susceptible to loss of habitat. Lloyd. 1919. Keywords: History. http:// www. but safe for humans in moderate doses.ibiblio. and canadine. The eclectic Materia Medica. and skin diseases.. Reviews the botany. Medicinal actions are discussed in detail. gonorrhea. conservation.org/ herbmed/eclectic/kings/hydrastis. Scanned version by H. Provides a historical account of goldenseal. 18th ed. 1922. therefore. roots. 3rd rev. and extractions are discussed for berberine. 2004]. medicinal uses. specific indications. Goldenseal is poisonous to some animals. hydrastine. [Date accessed: April 26. 45 . therapeutics and pharmacognosy. throat and mouth problems.W. Various preparations and dosages are given. H. with descriptions of various preparations and doses. dysentery. chemical composition. Felter. 1898.html. Includes a thorough description of the herb’s botany.org/herbmed/eclectic/ellingwood/hydrastis. The alkaloids are more effective in combination than in isolated extracts. http:// www. muscle soreness. 2000-2001.html.Ellingwood. chemical constituents. preparations. Keywords: Alkaloids. 2001-2002. King’s American dispensatory. J. gas. hemorrhage. and nomenclature. including principal constituents. Scanned version by M. 2004].ibiblio. Covers historical knowledge of goldenseal. irritations of the mucus membranes.html. and therapy. F.ibiblio. pharmacology and therapeutics. medicinal uses. Moore. Keywords: History.W.. along with descriptions of pharmaceutical preparations and dosages. http://www. [Date accessed: April 26. Kress. physiological actions. and medicinal uses of goldenseal in the late 1800s. H. and medicinal uses. Scanned version by M. [Date accessed: April 26. medicinal actions. 2001-2002. Both the internal and external therapeutic actions of goldenseal are described in detail. diarrhea. ulcers. Felter.U. growth habit.org/herbmed/eclectic/felter/hydrastis. actions. Conservation issues are presented with the comment that goldenseal does not grow well in disturbed soil and. Indications for use are catarrh. 2004]. Moore. The American Materia Medica. The chemistry.

sedative. Flora of North America north of Mexico. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1989. Keyword: Drug masking. Discusses the myth that goldenseal can mask drugs in urine tests. http://www. medicinal uses. includes illustrations. Medicinal actions are antibacterial. [Date accessed: April 26. and methods of cultivation. shaded areas. [Date accessed: April 26. medicinal actions. Plants for a future: the species database.Fern. Plants can be propagated by seed or by division of rhizomes.stevenfoster. 1997-2000. astringent. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Provides details on the various uses of goldenseal. Goldenseal masking of drug tests: from fiction to fallacy. stomach. 21: 7. S. ed. diuretic. and nomenclature of goldenseal. in fact. http:// www. Because it destroys beneficial organisms along with pathogens.html. the environment in which the plant is found. Keywords: Habitat.com/education/monograph/ goldenseal. and vagina. Scientific research has proven that goldenseal is. K. Steven Foster group herb monographs. ecology.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Hydrastis+canadensis. 2004]. throat.” a novel written by John Uri Lloyd in 1900. intestines. other uses. HerbalGram. 2000. Vol. nose. Summarizes the botany. Foster. antiperiodic. stomachic. antispasmodic. 46 . Keywords: Botanical description. Goldenseal grows in various soil types but prefers moist. The idea that goldenseal can mask drugs in urinalysis is a myth that originated from “Stringtown on the Pike. eyes. Eclectic physicians recommended goldenseal combined with cayenne to cleanse the liver in alcoholic patients. cholagogue. The roots are also used as an insect repellent and dye. 2004]. laxative.ibiblio. 3. 1997. Hydrastis. New York: Oxford University Press: 87-88.A. incapable of masking various drugs in urine tests of humans or racehorses. Goldenseal is particularly valuable for treating disorders of the mucus membranes and digestion and is also used to treat irritations and other problems with the ears. B. Ford. and tonic. Foster. antiseptic. S. goldenseal should only be used for short durations.

inflammation of the mucus membranes. which lowers blood pressure.S. and international trade is monitored and regulated by the U. digestive tract. flatulence. Duke. 411 p. 1995-2002. S.com.com/botanical/mgmh/g/golsea27. Keywords: Alkaloids. and upwards of $100 per pound in 2000. or uterus. http://www. A field guide to medicinal plants and herbs of Eastern and Central North America. history. and indigestion. U. [Date accessed: April 26. Prices continue to fluctuate with variations in supply or demand. throat. ecology. then rose to $30 per pound. 2nd ed. heart trouble. A modern herbal. It was used by early European settlers to relieve skin and eye irritations.A. Studies have shown that the alkaloids in goldenseal act synergistically and are more effective in combination than when used alone. and conservation. With wild resources decreasing due to over-harvest and habitat loss. 2000. bronchitis. poor appetite. inflammation. Goldenseal has been included in books on medicinal plants since the late 1700s. Provides details on the botany. and cancer. 47 . Native Americans used the herb to treat general debility. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. Goldenseal is included in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II. and reduces convulsions. and gonorrhea and was an ingredient in commercial eyewash formulas until the 1980s. National Audubon Society. Plants are found from Vermont to Georgia. Each plant consists of a forked stem with two double-toothed leaves. cultivation is encouraged. National Wildlife Federation. medicinal uses.. whooping cough.000 pounds of root sold every year. market prices. Foster. dyspepsia. Native American uses. botanical description. Fish and Wildlife Service. The main medicinal uses of the herb are for inflammation of the mucus membranes in the mouth. medicinal use. and medicinal uses of goldenseal. and the Roger Tory Peterson Institute. pharyngitis. The main active alkaloid is berberine. conservation. Goldenseal is one of the most popular herbs on the market with an estimated 250. range. the berry resembles a raspberry. liver disease. pneumonia. fever.botanical. west to Arkansas and Minnesota. M. Grieve. 1931. Prices in the early 1990s ranged from $8 to $11 per pound. medicinal uses. berberine. Single flowers with numerous stamens appear in April and May. stomach problems. diarrhea.S.html. J. Keywords: CITES. Hypertext version by Botanical. Goldenseal has also been used to treat jaundice. Fish and Wildlife Service. increases bile secretion. 2004].Provides general information on goldenseal history.

hemorrhoids. ground raspberry. J.L. Hardacre. Keyword: Cultivation. wrinkled. and have scales at the base. range. turmeric root.B. a treatment for sore eyes and ulcers. bright yellow 1/4. Indian dye. G.J. The wildcrafters goldenseal manual. 1990.. A grower’s guide to goldenseal. Native American uses. and warnera. medicinal uses. [Not paged]. jaundice root. IA: Nature’s Cathedral. eye root. Native Americans used the roots as a tonic. ecology. Herbal medicine: goldenseal. Other common names for goldenseal include yellow root. Hamon. [No abstract]. J. flowers. wild curcuma. 1962. Ballard. Norway.Summarizes information on goldenseal botany. medicinal uses. 1989. The medicinal properties of the root are discussed along with the chemical constituents. or lotion. and irregularly toothed margins. cultivation. solid extract. L. tincture. Goldenseal is most commonly used to treat digestive disorders. preparations. Summarizes goldenseal’s botanical characteristics.. Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal. 48 . The rhizome is covered with numerous rootlets and marks left by stems from previous years. Keyword: Medicinal uses. Stems are 6 to 12 inches tall. Collins.V. [Not paged]. Indian paint. and veined leaves. habitat. phytopharmacology. and as a yellow dye. Henderson. yellow puccoon. N. and phytotoxicity. orange root.to 3/4-inch-thick rhizome. F. Flowers have only three small greenish-white sepals that fall away soon after opening. history. and constipation. Goldenseal is found in rich soils in shady forests throughout the Eastern United States and is primarily collected in the Ohio Valley and sold from Cincinnati.. Characteristics of dried roots are provided. leaving no petals and numerous stamens. knotted. common names. rounded with small hairs. IN: Wildcrafters Publications. eye balm. Goldenseal is a perennial herb with a horizontal.W. Each stem has two dark green. medicinal uses. nausea. appetite loss. 123: 508-510. phytochemistry. catarrh. [and others]. palmately arranged with five to seven lobes. Rockville. infusion. The herb can be used in powdered form or as a fluid extract. and preparations. Haage. Keywords: Botanical description.

collection and preparation. soil requirements. “Golden Seal History. Roots are collected in autumn after the seeds mature. The scars resemble waxed seals. and bright yellow internally.ibiblio. dull brown externally. Harding. 2004]. and trade. Department of Agriculture. and West Virginia. and profits. hence the common name goldenseal. Much of the information contained in this chapter is similar to recent publications based on current scientific research. Etc. 1936. Scarcity of native plants from overcollection and habitat loss has increased the need for cultivated resources. drying. habitat description. Kentucky. Fred Flume of the U. leaving the rhizome almost bare. wrinkled. 1/8 to 1/3 inch in diameter.org/herbmed/eclectic/harding/ main. but continue to expand as the plant matures. harvest. The rhizomes are bright yellow and contain raised cuplike scars left by the previous years’ stems. with propagation methods for seeds and root division. [Date accessed: April 26. most of the commercial supply was collected in Ohio. Another chapter.” is included. fruit. http://www. Moore. history. harvest. other concerns. A. A chapter entitled “Golden Seal Cultivation. 49 .” written by Alice Henkel and G. planting. diseases. root description. common names. includes an additional detailed botanical description. cultivation. risks.S.. Provides a historical perspective on the plant description and cultivation. and contains 10 to 20 hard black seeds. root classifications and prices. is shaped like a raspberry. but only last 5 or 6 days. Cultivation is done in areas that are similar to the native habitat with moist. growing to a foot in height. rich soil and shade. Ginseng and other medicinal plants.html. Concerns are raised about the diminishing numbers of plants in the wild due to overcollection and habitat loss. The fruit appears in July or August. 2002. site selection.[No abstract]. shade requirements. Leaves are wrinkled and only partially developed at the time of flowering. flowers. Scanned version by M. Dried roots are crooked. Rootlets break off easily. rhizomes. Keyword: Harvest. and consisting of a single stem with two leaves. Flowers open in April and May. seeds. Keywords: Botanical description. Indiana.R. A list of other common names is included. and knotty. In the 1930s. Goldenseal is a perennial.

2001.Haughton. dosages. and as a wash for eye and ear problems. Jackson. Keywords: Cultivation. fatty oil. Provides a general overview of goldenseal. a botanical description. Henkel.com/gallery/goldenseal. propagation methods. essential oil. medicinal uses. D. C. medicinal uses. astringent.. soil and shade requirements.htm. and sugar. liver disorders. goldenseal is often used for digestive disorders. DC: U. and anti-inflammatory. http://www. and canadine). [Date accessed: April 26. Provides an overview of the history of goldenseal usage in the United States. Department of Agriculture. The tonic and astringent properties of the herb make it useful for uterine and menstrual disorders. Summarizes early information on cultivating goldenseal. Rhizomes are harvested from 3year-old plants in autumn after the seeds ripen. The roots are 5 percent isoquinoline alkaloids (hydrastine. history. and market conditions. ringworm. 2004]. 6. Keyword: History. 19 p. Purple sage herb profiles. Alternative nature online herbal.S. including constituents. A. Useful combinations with other medicinal herbs are listed. the remaining 95 percent consists of chlorogenic acid. 1908. berberine.Circ. Because goldenseal stimulates involuntary muscles. The cultivation and handling of goldenseal. therapies. Hobbs. Includes habitat and range. starch. Some of the medicinal actions listed are tonic. stimulant. Klugh. Washington. crop maintenance. Because of its strong effects on the mucus membranes. C. The indications for use are included.org. 2004]. Keywords: Alkaloids. [Date accessed: April 26.F. eczema. and other medicinal matters. K.purplesage. Goldenseal in early American medical botany. 50 . http://altnature. root harvest. uk/profiles/goldenseal. laxative. 1997-2001. harvest. antimicrobial. G. resin. 1990. Shelton.. it should be avoided during pregnancy. A list of other common names is included with a brief botanical description. 32(2): 79-82.htm. Bureau of Plant Industry . Goldenseal also has strong antibacterial properties. Pharmacy in History. and catarrh.

antispasmodic. Includes common and scientific names. Native American uses. and medicinal preparations. Woodland production of ginseng and goldenseal. 1: 5-12. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. ©2001-2003. as an antiseptic. Lloyd. Keyword: Cultivation. Keywords: Conservation. In: Proceedings of the First National Herb Growing and Marketing Conference. for short durations of 3 months or less.R. IN: Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station: 175-178. J. The common name goldenseal comes from the raised scars on the rhizomes. 1884-1887. 5th ed. Conservation issues are discussed. [No abstract]. antibacterial. 1987.G. Scanned version by H Kress. horses. Keywords: Dye uses. medicinal herb and root collectors. A short botanical description is included. Keyword: Harvest. laxative. J. T. 1912. Stn. methods and seasons for harvesting plants. propagation. and weapons.U. history of commerce. 1977. medicinal uses. cultivation. Native Americans used goldenseal medicinally and as a dye to paint their faces. Presents information on cultivating goldenseal.org/herbmed/eclectic/dmna/hydrastis-cana. which resemble a waxed seal. Herb collector’s manual and marketing guide: ginseng growers and collectors handbook: a valuable guide for growers of ginseng and golden seal. West Lafayette. Kelly. cultivation. Bull. The cultivation of Hydrastis..ibiblio.U. and propagation methods. [Date accessed: April 26. WV: Wildcrafters. containing old tyme herbe recipes and outdoor money-making ideas. Provides essays and summaries on various aspects of wildcrafting such as plant identification. 51 . Drugs and medicines of North America. and astringent. Looneyville. drying and storage. Lloyd. 97 p. Lloyd. Roots are used medicinally.Provides photographs and general information about medicinal uses. 2004]. J. Konsler. http:// www. a root description. C.html. plant distribution.

specifically the fluctuations in supply and demand that cause variations in price. chemistry. Keywords: Conservation. 1988. and properties of each of the main alkaloids are discussed. including the Crow. Seminole. and botanical references. preparations. Goldenseal was used by various Native American tribes. The medicinal uses and actions are described. and conservation. 52 . and skin treatment or to restore normal function to the mucus membranes. It should not be used in large doses or over long periods of time as it can damage the circulatory and digestive systems. market. R. insect repellent uses. The yellow juice of the roots was used as a dye or mixed with bear grease for an insect repellent. sorting. menorrhagia. goldenseal has also been ingested to treat dyspepsia. export. anorexia.Offers a comprehensive review of medicinal efficacies of goldenseal. Native plants of commercial importance. This text includes thorough. history. Keywords: Dye uses. The chemistry of goldenseal roots is presented. Substances used to adulterate supplies are presented. and Blackfeet. Goldenseal is popular worldwide and exported to European pharmaceutical companies. Cherokee. The commercial history covers Native American uses through the modern trade center in Cincinnati. OR: OAK. The plant nomenclature includes the history of various common names. 343 p. supported with specific case studies and method of administration. and storing roots. Meskwaki. topical cleanser. Miller. Inc. Leaves can also be used medicinally. nutritive system. The market is evaluated. medicinal uses. The roots were used medicinally as an eyewash. history. gastritis. Native American uses. extraction. or dysmenorrhea. A thorough botanical description is included. detailed knowledge of all aspects of goldenseal from the eclectic physicians in 1887 and is referenced in numerous other articles presented in this bibliography. particularly in teas. The discovery. markets. drying. Grants Pass. Concerns are raised over the loss of native habitat and overcollection that are causing the plant to become more and more scarce. Details are provided for harvesting.A. medicinal uses. A thorough botanical description of all plant structures and geographical range distribution with maps are included. Iroquois. medicinal uses. or circulatory system. Although it is mainly used externally. a history of trade. Provides general information on goldenseal ecology.

mobot. conservation status. Details Native American uses for goldenseal. landscape uses. It is believed that goldenseal populations are declining. Overstory species and associated understory herbs are listed. and fibers of native North American peoples. NatureServe Explorer. Keywords: Medicinal uses. Keywords: Conservation. a national heritage status rank of N4 (apparently secure) in the United States. drugs. stomachache. Populations are not tracked or monitored throughout the range.asp?code=K570. [Date accessed: April 26. A brief botanical description is provided. Plant finder. market demand. diarrhea. and logging. mostly due to overharvest.6.umich. http://ridgwaydb. market. dyspepsia. D. Plants within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park have been diagnosed with leaf blight. Keywords: Cultivation. 2004]. 53 . org/kemperweb/plantfinder/Plant. An online encyclopedia of life [web application].natureserve. Arlington. http://herb. Version 1. The Iroquois Indians used goldenseal for whooping cough. liver trouble. The Cherokee Indians used goldenseal to treat cancer. earaches. Moerman. Goldenseal has a global heritage status rank of G4.Missouri Botanical Garden. and distribution. Native American ethnobotany database: foods. [Date accessed: April 26. general debility. so most information is based on estimates. and as an emetic for biliousness. 2004]. and as a wash for local inflammation. VA: NatureServe http:// www. Summarizes goldenseal cultivation information useful to the gardener. poor appetite. Cultivated plants in the landscape have no serious pest or disease problems and are useful in woodland gardens and other shaded naturalized or wild gardens.umd.org/explorer. gas. national heritage status rank. [Date accessed: April 26. 2004]. 2002. and a national heritage status rank of N2 (imperiled) in Canada. development. The University of Michigan-Dearborn.edu/. Native American uses. 2002. dyes. State heritage status ranks are provided for all States reporting goldenseal. Provides details on goldenseal ecology. global heritage status rank. fever. 1999.

C. [Date accessed: April 26. Goldenseal was used by Native Americans as an antiseptic. alterative. It stimulates the nervous system. mouth sores. http://www. yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). butternut (Juglans cinerea). blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides). 2004]. and digestive problems. and references are provided. research needs are outlined. Early settlers used the roots as an eyewash and treatment for sore throat. tonic. and laxative. 1905. Plyler. http:// www. Conservation issues are discussed. medicinal uses.html. and treatment for snakebite.J. by the late 54 .com/Goldenseal. The root is tonic. and digestive problems. plantain-leaved sedge (Carex plantaginea). and mucus membranes and is particularly useful in stomach disorders. F. MI: Michigan Natural Features Inventory. 2001. Scanned version by M. spring beauty (Claytonia virginica). Overstory species include sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Choberka. silver maple (Acer saccharinum). A detailed botanical description with seasonal identifying characteristics is included. red oak (Quercus rubra). black walnut (Juglans nigra). the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum). P. Petersen. Keywords: Associated herbs. Lansing. Commercial demand for the plant began around 1860. A botanical description is included. wild geranium (Geranium maculatum). Moore. Indian spring herbal encyclopedia.org/herbmed/eclectic/ petersen/hydrastis. and hepatica (Hepatica acutiloba).. Summarizes historical medicinal uses of goldenseal. Materia Medica and clinical therapeutics. and cancers. whooping cough.R.ibiblio. 2004]. M. bellwort (Uvularia perfoliata). 2002. common trillium (Trillium grandiflorum). circulatory system. Special plant abstract for Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal). overstory species. and green and black ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F nigra). among many others. Associated understory herbs include jack-in.G. trout-lily (Erythronium americanum). catarrh. American basswood (Tilia americana). hackberry (Celtis occidentalis). 2001-2002. sedge (Carex hirtifolia).Penskar. [Date accessed: April 26.. 3 p.htm. Higman. digestive disorders. Provides general information on goldenseal cultivation and medicinal uses. Keywords: History. wild ginger (Asarum canadense). Provides information on goldenseal specific to Michigan. S. pneumonia. E. American beech (Fagus grandifolia).indianspringherbs.

[Date accessed: April 26. The main modern medicinal application of the herb is in treatments for bacterial and fungal infections. Provides general ecological descriptions with accompanying photos and sketches.ibiblio. 1999-2002. but three small inconspicuous sepals are present. [Date accessed: April 26. Russell. 1902. 1997.O. http:// www. Reed. Keywords: Cultivation.ncsu. 55 . coarse-textured leaves. flowers. particularly in cases with diarrhea and cholera.1800s. syphilis. one smaller basal leaf is present on a stem almost as tall as the main plant. Potter. rectal fissure and hemorrhage. particularly in afflictions of catarrh.ces. At times. Various preparations and dosages are described. Keywords: Botanical description. Plants prefer well-drained rich woods and are found throughout the Southeastern United States. constipation.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Hydraca. antiperiodic. ulcers and sores. Native American uses. Goldenseal was used by Native Americans as a dye and medicine. Medicinal actions reported for goldenseal include antiseptic. http:// 2bnthewild. with five lobes and deep clefts. D. habitat. Wildflowers of the Southeastern United States. Goldenseal roots also help to boost the immune system by increasing white blood cell counts. and tonic. medicinal uses. antibacterial. 2004].L. S. North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science. 2004]. Concerns are raised about the sustainability of wild harvest. Poisonous plants of North Carolina. therapeutics. astringent. medicinal actions. Kress.html. 2000-2002. Specifics are given for cultivation and propagation with instructions for collecting and stratifying seeds.com. Keywords: History.htm. each toothed. The fruit is a red berry. http:// www. diuretic. Goldenseal is mainly used as a stomach tonic. Covers the historical uses and preparations. market demand. A compend of Materia Medica. Flowers are white and have no petals. 2004]. It is an herbaceous perennial with two alternate.org/herbmed/eclectic/potter-comp/hydrastis. [Date accessed: April 26. and malaria. and antiseptic. Scanned version by H. medicinal uses. stomatitis. fruit. astringent. and prescription writing.B. laxative. A. Goldenseal is also known as yellowroot or orangeroot. serious declines in native populations were reported.

and roots are harvested in autumn after the fruit is ripe.purdue. DC: U. habitat and range. Washington. maintenance. [Date accessed: April 26. orange root. which are mildly poisonous. Leaves are harvested in late summer. pests and disease. propagation by seed and rhizomes. yellow puccoon. eye root. soil preparation. jaundice root. Hypertext version April 8. tumeric root. Other common names for goldenseal include yellowroot. Misc. eye balm. history. turning to a fleshy red berry with 10 to 20 small seeds in autumn. diarrhea. 613. history. flowers. A. Includes a botanical and ecological description from 1930. The top of the stem branches in two. Department of Agriculture. 2004]. Keywords: Alkaloids. Summarizes all aspects of goldenseal cultivation. Publ. 56 . The cultivation techniques discussed in this bulletin are similar to recommendations found in current literature on goldenseal. 1998. with many fibrous rootlets that break off when dried. Sievers.edu/newcrop/herbhunters/goldenseal. http://www. Plants arise from a yellow rhizome with a stem reaching about a foot in height. Washington. Roots are bright yellow.S. 1949. vomiting. and costs. commercial history. one branch with a large leaf and the other branch with a smaller leaf and flower. Department of Agriculture. yellow Indian paint. Farmer’s Bull. and can cause nausea. Department of Agriculture document published in 1914 by Van Fleet (Van Fleet 1914). Though the plant is now becoming scarce throughout its range. All parts of the plant contain the isoquinoline alkaloids.F. This bulletin is a revision of the original U.hort. range. common names.html. harvest. ground raspberry.S. habitat.S. DC: U.Summarizes the potential toxicity of goldenseal. Ohio curcuma. 1930. Goldenseal under cultivation. Keywords: Botanical description. harvest. Sievers. shade requirements. 14 p. 77. Includes a botanical description of the plant. it grows from western New England to western Ontario. Keywords: Cultivation. and Indian dye. A. Small. toxicity. yellow eye. Plants are found in rich woods and cultivated in medicinal plant gardens and in small-scale commercial operations. The herb hunters guide.F. Indian tumeric. and south to Georgia and Missouri. yield. and depression if ingested in large doses. inconspicuous flowers appear in April and May. mulch. nervousness.

Canadian medicinal crops. Catling. S. Keywords: Harvest. range. turn-of-thecentury medicines. V. 206 p. market. disputes of the herb’s effectiveness. 4th ed.E.. morphology. and historical and modern medicinal applications. The scientific literature on selected herbs. Tyler. Forest Service. 1993. Washington. U. chemical constituents. Craker. Income opportunities in special forest products: self-help suggestions for rural enterprises.Simon. Binghamton. ecology. NY: Haworth Press: 159-161. Provides a brief summary of the historical uses of goldenseal with accompanying references. and folklore. Summarizes information on goldenseal nomenclature. Presents a general overview of current goldenseal knowledge. Discusses Native American uses.. 1984. Also covers modern pharmacology. In: The honest herbal. medicinal uses. L. 1971-1980. Products are listed with information on gathering plants. 57 . nonmedicinal uses. Herbs: an indexed bibliography. Hamden. drying and storage.S. and folk uses. and conservation considerations. A. 1999. and aromatic and medicinal plants of the temperate zone. CT: Archon Books. including common names. P. equipment needs and costs. Chadwick. E. medicinal uses.M. Inf. toxicity. medicinal uses. plant distribution. Goldenseal. DC: U. habitat. harvesting. Canada: NRC Press. a botanical description.. Keywords: Botanical description.E. Department of Agriculture. and a discussion of the erroneous belief that goldenseal can mask drugs in urinalysis. chemistry. Keywords: Botanical description.F. selling to buyers. J. Keywords: History. Bull. Provides an overview of forest botanicals used medicinally. medicinal uses. cultivation and propagation. 240 p. agriculture. Forest Service. 666. Agric. Small. 770 p. Department of Agriculture. 1999. classification.

Goldenseal is found in 27 States and 1 Canadian province. Federal Register. The natural range includes Alabama. 2001. Michigan. but due to overharvest in the late 19th century. 2004]. Public meeting. tonics.S. Department of Agriculture. Announces a public meeting to discuss the listing of goldenseal under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II protection. Ohio. Illinois.S. Pennsylvania. permits. April 26. regulations. Virginia. Manufactured products such as powders. is considered vulnerable in Pennsylvania. Under the CITES protection. Kentucky. New Jersey. [Date accessed: January 29. Minnesota. 1999: 64(79). Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provides photos of species and information on ecology. be exported through ports designated by the U. The PLANTS database. or root parts. and of special concern in North Carolina and Tennessee. Tennessee.gov/library/ 99fr20320. 1999. Missouri.gov. conservation. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. the endangered list in Connecticut.U. distribution and range.usda. Kansas.fws.S. Vermont. North Carolina. Version 3. Goldenseal is on the threatened plant list in Maryland. http://plants. Department of Agriculture.html. and New York. LA: Plant Data Center. Maryland. Keywords: CITES. Current management plans for goldenseal are not well developed.1. the plant is considered to be “very threatened” by the Nature Conservancy throughout its range. Georgia. whole and sliced roots. Baton Rouge. and conservation. Delaware. Division of Plant Protection and Quarantine inspector. [Date accessed: April 26. http://policy. West Virginia. which covers international trade in live plants. New York. extracts. Mississippi. and be inspected by a U. range. New Jersey. U. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): listing of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) in Appendix II and its implementation by the United States. Fish and Wildlife Service. Michigan. and Vermont. Massachusetts. Arkansas. and teas are not included. Department of the Interior. pills. 2004]. Ranunculaceae family. Indiana. Minnesota. Georgia. Connecticut. Keywords: Conservation. 58 . and Wisconsin. all goldenseal must have an export permit.S. Iowa. Goldenseal is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. and knowledge of plant ecology and sustainable harvest levels is lacking. Massachusetts.

Keywords: CITES. [Date accessed: April 26.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. regulations. Office of Management Authority. or parts of roots. 2004]. 2004]. Keywords: CITES.org/. U. export. cultivators. [N. 1999.fws. the name and address of the collector. the name and address of the cultivator and the purchase invoice are required. and collectors take part in a voluntary record-keeping system.]. export. Dealers.plantsavers. Goldenseal was included in CITES Appendix II on September 18. International Affairs. U.gov/pdf/go. Provides basic guidelines for exporting goldenseal under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) regulations. At risk plants.S. or landowner permission. Specific instructions and contact information are provided. Specific information for obtaining a permit is included. Ecological field studies by the U.S.gov/ pdf/export. Although goldenseal is not presently threatened with extinction. Arlington. permits. http://international. To export goldenseal. Exporting goldenseal. Individual exporters provide this information with each export. 59 . roots. http:// international.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. and copies of collection permits. conservation. [Date accessed: April 26.U.d. Discusses the export policies and regulations for goldenseal under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).fws. Information is required to show that the roots were legally collected or cultivated. a permit is required stating that the roots were legally acquired and that their export will not be detrimental to the survival of the species. 1998. Office of Management Authority. Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Management Authority for a small fee. United Plant Savers. http://www. Fish and Wildlife Service provide information on species survival and sustainable harvest. A permit is required to export goldenseal plants. [Date accessed: April 26. high demand for the herb and decreases in wild populations make it susceptible to overuse. Proof of legal collection for wild harvested roots requires the specific date and location of collection.S. licenses.pdf. For cultivated goldenseal. VA. 1997. whereas the individual exporting the roots provides proof of the legal collection or cultivation.pdf. 2004]. 2 p. Fish and Wildlife Service. Export of goldenseal. Permits can be obtained from the U.

Plants on this list are considered to be significantly declining in number due to overharvest. and cultivation. side effects. 193 p. harvest. identification. Upton. thorough overview of goldenseal. W.: a pharmacognosy of wild herbs. history. Veninga. Keywords: Cultivation.. medicinal uses. Keywords: Chemical constituents. combinations. [Place of publication unknown]: U. Preparations and formulas are provided. Department of Agriculture. preparations and dosage. and eclectic physicians with references to several early medical and botanical books. 1976. 1914. macroscopic and microscopic identification. United Plant Savers. 613. medicinal uses. contraindications. research reviews. Indications and contraindications are discussed in detail with supporting case studies described. Goldenseal under cultivation. L. physiological actions. Van Fleet. Goldenseal should not be taken for extended periods of time as the 60 . quality control. early pioneers. 2001. B. side effects. chemical constituents. harvest. chemical analysis methods. Santa Cruz.Provides information on efforts to conserve goldenseal. toxicity.. [Number of pages unknown]. CA: Ruka Publications. botany. dosage. and therapeutics. Revised 1949. range and distribution. [No abstract]. Goldenseal root: standards of analysis. CA: American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. wildcrafting. precautions. history. Goldenseal is on the “At Risk Plants” list. or innate sensitivity and rareness. preparations. Provides details on goldenseal botany. Provides a detailed. cultivation. Farmer’s Bull. A historical background offers information on the medicinal uses of goldenseal by Native Americans. medicinal uses. Keywords: Conservation. Goldenseal/etc. Santa Cruz. toxicity. Large quantities of goldenseal can overstimulate the nervous system and cause tremors. and regulatory status. R. Goldenseal grows in rich coves and on north-facing slopes in hardwood forests from the Ozarks and Appalachian Mountains to southern Ontario. Zaricor. loss of habitat. Naturalized populations of goldenseal from previous cultivation can occasionally be found in Oregon and Washington. physiological actions. 36 p.S. Includes nomenclature. clinical research reviews. history. ed.

http://www.com/. [N. toxicity. Elixir Farm Botanicals.com/. 2004]. Keywords: Cultivation. Gardens of the Blue Ridge. http:// www. 2004]. 1996. 2004]. [N. 2004]. Goldenseal product. Ginseng and goldenseal.d.alkaloids in the plant are excreted slowly and may accumulate in the body. The chemical constituents and medicinal actions of the main alkaloids are discussed.com/. history. http:// www. Vendor of goldenseal bare-root stock and potted plants for cultivation. vendors.]. Hints and tips for wildcrafting are included. Keyword: Cultivation. Herb Trader.]. elixirfarm. vendors.]. medicinal uses. Goldenseal product. [N. Vendor of bulk goldenseal root. Goldenseal product.gardensoftheblueridge. http://www. Keywords: Cultivation.d. Keywords: Cultivation. Commercial Vendors Note: The following list of vendors is included to provide access to current information about availability and prices. Keywords: Cultivation. [Date accessed: April 26. [N. vendors. Countryside & Small Stock Journal. Garden Medicinals.herbtrader. Vendor of goldenseal seed and roots for propagation. [Date accessed: April 26. Vendor of goldenseal seed for propagation.com/. whole or powder. 61 . harvest. Wright. [Date accessed: April 26. for medicinal use.d. Provides general information about cultivating goldenseal.]. The authors do not intend to recommend these vendors over any others not listed. [Date accessed: April 26.gardenmedicinals. 80(2): 28-29. Goldenseal product. R.d.

].pacificbotanicals.d.com/index.) and bulk processed materials for propagation and medicinal uses. vendors. Goldenseal product.ncgoldenseal. Vendor of goldenseal growing stock (seed. Pacific Botanicals.]. etc.Keywords: Medicinal uses. 2004].com/.viableherbal. Keywords: Cultivation. Vendor of dried goldenseal root powder for medicinal uses. [N. http://www. Keywords: Medicinal uses. [N. Keywords: Medicinal uses. propagation. Goldenseal product.d. Keywords: Medicinal uses.].com/. [Date accessed: April 26. http://www. Vendor of certified organic goldenseal rhizomes (whole. http://www.html. http:// www. http://www.com. [Date accessed: April 26. 62 . vendors. Vendor of goldenseal growing stock for propagation. Goldenseal product. Keywords: Medicinal uses. Vendor of goldenseal capsules for medicinal uses. [N. vendors. roots. 2004]. vendors. North Carolina Ginseng & Goldenseal Company.].com/. [N. 2004]. [Date accessed: April 26. 2004]. Viable Herbal Solutions. vendors. [Date accessed: April 26. 2004].d. cut. Goldenseal product. vendors. Select Oils. or powdered) for medicinal uses. Richters Herbs.selectoils. [N. [Date accessed: April 26.richters.d. Goldenseal product.].d.

R. E. 54 Periera da Silva. 29 Miller. C. I. W.M. O. R. S.M. D. R. 53 Mueller.Author Index Abdel-Haq.C.L. 24 Combie. 25 El-Masry.L. 45 Fern. H. 51 Kuo.D. 37 Lloyd. W. 39 Aldous. C. M. 28 Konsler.L. C. A. 48 Hardacre. 28 Lau. J. 22 Bhide. 22 Bergner. 41 Bradshaw.W.W. 22 Bannerman. 25 Davis. 21 Abourashed. E.A. J. M. 47 Haage. S. D. T. 26 Garden Medicinals 61 Gardens of the Blue Ridge 61 Gentry. 52 Missouri Botanical Garden 53 Moerman. 29 Liebmann.E. S. A. 21 Adam. 28 Kelly.L. 26 Grieve. 42 Cech. 44 Dyke. 31 Penskar. 38 Messana. D. 30 North Carolina Ginseng & Goldenseal Company 62 Nutriflip 38 O’Hara. 42 Budzinski.D. R. 24 Catling. 50 Henkel. 51 McCaleb. 39 Bedir. 27 Inbaraj. M. 43. 23 Carlquist. M. M. 36 Ahluwalia. 42 Ckless.J. 55 Rehman. K. N. F. J. D. M. 28 Li.O.B. 25 Eichenberger.R. 54 Plyler. 27 Jackson.W. 47 Gagnon. 50 Hoffman. R.S. M. J. 50 Johannesen.J. O. J. 46 Ford.B. R. N.L. S.U. 40 Beyfuss. 26 Galeffi. S.F. 42 Creasy. H. E. 37 Hoot.A. H. 50 Herb Trader 61 Hobbs. 37. H. R. P. J. 41 Britton. J. 38 McGuffin. 29 National Center for the Preservation of Medicinal Herbs 30 National Toxicology Program 30 NatureServe Explorer 53 Nishino. 23 Bowers. K. 31 Petersen. 48 Hall. P. 46. S. 31 Pacific Botanicals 62 Palmery. D. W. C. 23 Birdsall. J. T.L.F. 24 Cometa.A. 49 Haughton. C. 55 Reed. L.P. C. S. 45 Felter. S.J. 24 Cook. K. 27 Hung. 27 Hamon.R. 31 Richters Herbs 62 63 . F.C. 26 Govindan. K.L. 54 Potter.C. 25 Elixir Farm Botanicals 61 Ellingwood.A. 48 Harding.F. M. B. J. 21 American Herbal Products Association 39 Anon 20 Anon 20 Babbar. D. A.V. S.J. S. 24 Datta.L. M. M. 51 Khin-Maung U.W.A. 46 Foster. 29 Mikkelsen.

A. 55 Sack. E. L. A. 35 Tice. W. M. 34 Small. Fish and Wildlife Service. S. Office of Management Authority 59 United Plant Savers 57 Upton.B.F. 57 Sinclair. 35 Van Fleet. 33 Schmeller. F. B. 61 Wu. H.H.Robbins. V. 32 Robbins. 34 Sievers. H. 57 U. 36 Wright.S. Department of the Interior 58 U.E. 33 Shideman. 60 Van Der Voort. R. R. C. Office of Management Authority 59 U. Department of Agriculture. Department of Agriculture. 56 Silva.S.B. S. J. 35 Tobe.S. Forest Service 58 U. T. 57 Sturm. W. 39 Simon. 33 Select Oils 62 Sheng. 33 Scazzocchio. 34 Sun. 32 Russell. 36 64 . Fish and Wildlife Service. 34 Swanston-Flatt. A. 60 Veninga.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service 58 U. 35 Tyler. R. A.E. International Affairs. D.S.H. 60 Viable Herbal Solutions 62 Whetzel.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. C.D. F. R.K.

55. 39. 55 65 . 55. 39. 32. 47. 55. 34. 51. 12. 52. 55. 46. 45. 24. 49. 22. 47. 41. 19. 41. 45. 10. 61. 61 medicinal uses 5. 51. 54. 20. 39. 59. 55. 57. 55. 46. 41. 36. 23. 52. 10. 9. 43. 12. 61 See also chemical constituents. 44. 54 permits 12. 28. 39. 28. 41. 61 history 5. 47. 31 drug masking 6. 23. 36. 40. 24. 56. 48. 11. 48. 49. 53. 26. 47. 57. 40. 30. 29. 21. 46 drying 4. 34. 62 pests and disease 23. 25. 35. 56 global heritage status rank 12. 51. 35. 44. 56. 23. 55. 54. 23. 40. 60 cultivation 1. 39 associated herbs 5. 23. 36. 37. 49. 16. 44. 14. 20. 45. 23. 47. 45. 40. 15. 57. 14. 25. 43. 41. 54. 50. 60. 50. 37. 43. 32. 37. 43. 53 habitat 1. 53. 47. 37. 20. 27 rhizomes 3. 54. 48. 30. 42. 45. 39. 13. 35. 21. 26. 55. 27 preparations 8. 56. 37. 26. 42. 34. 46. 50. 20. 58 demand 1. 2. 38. 52. 30. 32. 8. 34. 51. 16. 29. 57 cancer 5. 52. 14. 43. 10. 22. 27. 22. 38. 41. 61 insect repellent uses 8. 57 conservation 1. 46. 8. 36. 44. 47. 60 product quality 21. 40. 23. 48. 27. 42. 32. 44. 36. 15. 20. 61. 55. 39. 42. 50. 37. 57. 44. 43. 27. 22. 29. 38. 60 drug interactions 23. 17. 21. 60. 30. 15. 47. 29. 31. 34. 28. 19. 52. 50. 25. 32. 49. 45. 19. 56 shade structures 11 site preparation 22. 46. 25. 32 National heritage status rank 12. 59. 41. 34. 32. 25. 30. 57. 26. 15. 41. 49. 60. 52 ecology 1. 9. 35. 38. 33. 42. 52. 28. 43. 61. 53. 50. 53. 37 dealers 12. 34. 41. 54 berberine 7. 34. 60 dosage 6. 57 nomenclature 5. 53. 49. 13. 47. 58. 59 prices 8. 53. 33. 52. 4. 13. 60. 50. 58 dye uses 8. 15. 43. 48. 27. 23. 47. 48. 41. 28. 43. 60. 25. 27. 51. 41 common names 3. 15. 27. 4. 52. 28. 51. 8. 52. 48. 17. 31. 18. 50. 50. 43. 58. 20. 37. 39. 48. 59 phototoxicity 8. 13. 9. 49. 30. 40. 17. 13. 14. 8. 32. 19. 50. 23. 40. 38. 45. 10. 18. 38. 58. 56. See also berberine annual consumption 9. 22. 46. 60 flowers 3. 52. 58. 31. 37. 18. 31. 45. 15. 16. 53. 59. 53. 10. 52 landscape uses 53 life cycle 4. 62 micropropagation 8. 47. See Native American uses export 9. 11. 39. 53 Native American uses 5. 42. 35. 47. 56. 39. 48. 26. 38. 13. 52. 44. 38. 55. 38. 51. 57 harvest 1. 57. 60 cold hardiness. 25. 46 overstory species 4. 57. 17. 59 ethnobotany. 18. 10. 51. 60 other uses 8. 9. 35. 40. 37. 43 yield estimates 11. 38. 14. 37. 55. 36. 57. 48. 52. 56 fruit 3. 37. 48. 47. 10. 35. 50. 45. 36. 39. 45. 44. 4 . 59. 58. 52. 27.41. 59. 29. 21. 61 chemical defenses 33 CITES 1. 46. 50. 57. 49. 32. 54. 26. 61 medicinal actions 5. 12. 49. 19. 31. 42 market 8. 32. 34 propagation 1. 51. 19. See hardiness range clinical studies 7. 43. 10. 41. 22. 52. 47. 11. 20. 37. 34. 40. 52. 40. 24. 4. 50 See also alkaloids botanical description 1. 46. 13. 26. 55. 4. 29. 43. 60 distribution 1. 38. 52. 52. 22. 23. 24. 33. 40. 44. 38. 49. 54. 53. 56. 56. 53. 39. 38. 30. 48. 35. 14. 56 seeds 4.Subject Index alkaloids 7. 60 classification 5. 53. 49. 32. 3. 40. 30. 47. 22. 22. 22. 40. 49. 42. 44. 40. 29. 51. 39. 50. 5. 11. 36. 49. 53 54 chemical constituents 7. 55. 22.57 clinical research 33. 51. 23. 43. 56. 22. 17. 62 monitoring 16. 55. 51. 55. 51. 47. 41. 34.

60. 46. 10. 56. 60 rhizomes 3. 22. 12. 36. 54. 57. 37. 8. 62 seeds 3. 10. 9. 62 66 . 59 United Plant Savers 12. 20. 27 toxicity 7. 50. 26. 48. 34. 48. 37. 38. 23. 13. 56. 20. 28. 41. 56. 28. Fish and Wildlife Service 12. 50. 35. 21. 9. 47. 9. 4. 32. 35. 23. 59. 30. 21. 60 clinical studies 7. 33. 44. 8. 44. 49. 20. 43. 42. 22. 19. 27. 22. 44. 19. 47. 41. 43. 60 Ranunculaceae family 5. 46. 49. 39. 24. 7. 56 soil requirements 4 sun requirements 4. 34. 30. 44. 32. 61 U. 61. 41.S. 16. 39. 27. 55. 59. 37. 22.range 1. 40. 17. 43. 31. 57. 18. 29. 57 vendors 9. 2. 58 regulations 32. 36. 41. 27. 52. 31. 44. 15. 35. 24. 24. 33. 50. 4. 8. 7. 51. 29. 41. 58. 41 reviews 31. 23. 6. 44. 25. 26. 58. 35. 34. 14. 38. 10. 44 tissue culture 16. 40. 36. 45. 53. 49. 30. 13. 60 research 1. 10.

Bibliographic references are organized into sections—Research Literature.S. Southern Research Station at http://www. The references included were identified through a detailed search of academic library-based databases. The use of trade or firm names in this publication is for reader information and does not imply endorsement by the U. but Web addresses may change or disappear over time. horticultural lists. while the references in Popular Press are not scientifically reviewed.edu/.sfp. regional literature.forprod.vt. Other Information Sources— to indicate their origins. but not exhaustive. Popular Press. review of the literature on goldenseal.Disclaimers This annotated bibliography represents a comprehensive. 67 . Department of Agriculture. Internet databases. The date accessed indicates the last time the Web sites were checked. Forest Service. Web sites listed in the bibliography were active at the time this document was prepared. Research Literature includes references to peer reviewed articles published in scientific journals. but are included to indicate popular knowledge and perceptions. historical documents.S. This document is available from the Non-Timber Forest Products Web site of the U. and Web sites. Department of Agriculture of any product or service. Other Information Sources include technical bulletins. government documents. as well as commercial Internet sites.

More attention should be focused on: educating consumers about the appropriate uses of the herb in order to reduce overconsumption. nontimber forest products. is an herbaceous perennial found in rich hardwood forests throughout the Northeastern United States and Canada. James L. Originally used by Native Americans as both a medicine and a dye. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis): an annotated bibliography. Forest Service.S. Goldenseal has been listed under Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II protection since 1997. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). medicinal herbs. The alkaloids in goldenseal have been found to have antibiotic. SRS-88. antispasmodic. 67 p. Rep. Gen. a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). and identifying and tracking wild populations to determine the most effective management and conservation practices. the herb was eventually adopted by the settlers and eclectic physicians in the 19th century. Mary L. 2005. Hydrastis. Keywords: Conservation. working with growers to increase the profitability of cultivation and reduce pressures on wild plants. Demand for cultivated roots has increased as wild populations become scarce. Growing awareness of possible medicinal benefits has increased worldwide consumption. Department of Agriculture. which. NC: U. and tonic effects. 68 . Chamberlain. Asheville. anti-inflammatory. combined with a continual loss of habitat. motivating research into propagation and cultivation techniques. Southern Research Station. poaching. Scientists and physicians continue to expand on the knowledge of the clinical applications and disease-fighting potential of the plant. has greatly reduced wild populations.Predny. goldenseal.. Tech.

forage. wildlife. is dedicated to the principle of multiple use management of the Nation’s forest resources for sustained yields of wood. national origin.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille. it strives—as directed by Congress—to provide increasingly greater service to a growing Nation. age.The Forest Service. cooperation with the States and private forest owners. Room 326-W. Office of Civil Rights. Director. Through forestry research. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). religion. large print. The USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race. and management of the National Forests and National Grasslands. audiotape. Whitten Building. etc. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. write USDA. political beliefs. or marital or family status. water. Washington. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.C. 1400 Independence Avenue. and recreation. . SW. disability.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). sex. color. sexual orientation. D. To file a complaint of discrimination. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD).

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Southern Research Station General Technical Report SRS–88 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service .

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