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18351704 Unix Lab Manual

18351704 Unix Lab Manual

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INDEX

S.No
1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 Lab Objective

Contents

Page No.
2 3 5 7 10 20 22 35 55

Introduction About Lab Guidelines to Students List of Syllabus Programs (JNTU) Description about UNIX commands Discription about shells Solutions for Programs Viva Questions and Answers References

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LAB OBJECTIVE
Upon successful completion of this Lab the student will be able to: 1. 2. 3. Demonstrate how to use the following Bourne Shell commands: cat, grep, ls, more, ps, chmod, finger, ftp, etc. Use the following Bourne Shell constructs: test, if then, if then else, if then elif, for, while, until, and case. Learn tracing mechanisms (for debugging), user variables, BourneShell variables, read-only variables, positional parameters, reading input to a BourneShell script, command substitution, comments, and exporting variables. In addition, test on numeric values, test on file type, and test on character strings are covered.
Copy, move, and delete files and directories

4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Write moderately complex Shell scripts. Make a Shell script executable. Create a ".profile" script to customize the user environment. Use advanced features of File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Compile source code into object and executable modules. Execute programs written in c under UNIX environment

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INTRODUCTION ABOUT LAB

There are 66 systems ( Compaq Presario ) installed in this Lab. Their configurations are as follows : Processor RAM Hard Disk Mouse : : : AMD Athelon ™ 1.67 GHz

256 MB : 40 GB

Optical Mouse : Present

Network Interface card

Software  All systems are configured in DUAL BOOT mode i.e, Students can boot from Windows XP or Linux as per their lab requirement. This is very useful for students because they are familiar with different Operating Systems so that they can execute their programs in different programming environments.  Each student has a separate login for database access Oracle 9i client version is installed in all systems. On the server, account for each student has been created. This is very useful because students can save their work ( scenarios’, pl/sql programs, data related projects ,etc) in their own accounts. Each student work is safe and secure from other students.  Latest Technologies like DOT NET and J2EE are installed in some systems. Before submitting their final project, they can start doing mini project from 2nd year onwards.

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 MASM ( Macro Assembler ) is installed in all the systems Students can execute their assembly language programs using MASM. MASM is very useful students because when they execute their programs they can see contents of Processor Registers and how each instruction is being executed in the CPU.  Rational Rose Software is installed in some systems Using this software, students can depict UML diagrams of their projects.  Softwares installed : C, C++, JDK1.5, MASM, OFFICE-XP, J2EE and DOT NET, Rational Rose.

 Systems are provided for students in the 1:1 ratio.

 Systems are assigned numbers and same system is allotted for students when they do the lab.

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Guidelines to Students
How to Run Shell Scripts There are two ways you can execute your shell scripts. Once you have created a script file: Method 1 Pass the file as an argument to the shell that you want to interpret your script. Step 1 : create the script using vi, ex or ed For example, the script file show has the following lines echo Here is the date and time date Step 2 : To run the script, pass the filename as an argument to the sh (shell ) $ sh show Here is the date and time Sat jun 03 13:40:15 PST 2006

Method 2: Make your script executable using the chmod command. When we create a file, by default it is created with read and write permission turned on and execute permission turned off. A file can be made executable using chmod. Step 1 : create the script using vi, ex or ed For example, the script file show has the following lines echo Here is the date and time date Step 2 : Make the file executable

ex. For example.6 $ chmod u+x script_file $ chmod u+x show Step 3 : To run the script.out Step 3 : To run the program. type a. The name of the file containing the program should end in . just type the filename $ show Here is the date and time Sat jun 03 13:40:15 PST 2006 How to run C programs Step 1 : Use an editor.c contains the following lines : main() { printf(“ welcome to GNEC “).c. or ed to write the program. the compiled version is placed in a file called a.c If the program is okay.out $ a. } Step 2 : Submit the file to CC ( the C Compiler ) $ cc show. the file show.out Welcome to GNEC . such as vi.

3. Call it mutable use tabs to separate the fields 1425 ravi 15. Correct typing errors during creation Save the file Logout of the file Session 2 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Log into the system Open the file created in session 1 Add some text Change some text delete some text Save the changes Logout of the system WEEK2 a) log into the system b) Use the cat command to create a file containing the following data.txt which contain some text. 5.27 6830 sita 36. Log in to the system Use Vi editor to create a file called myfile.7 List of Lab Exercises Syllabus Programs ( JNTU ) WEEK1 Session 1 1. 2.65 4320 ramu 26. my table d) use the vi command to correct any errors in the file. my table i) logout of the system .15 1450 raju 21. Call the sorted file my table(same name) f) print the file my table g) use the cut & paste commands to swap fields 2 and 3 my table.86 c) use the cat command to display the file. 4. Call it mytable(same name) h) print the new file. my table e) use the sort command to sort the file my table according to the first field.

8 WEEK3 a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) log in the system use the appropriate commands to determine ur login shell use the /etc/passwd file to verify the result of step b.a file. b) Develop an interactive grep script that asks for a word and a file name and then tells how many lines contain that word c) Repeat d) Part using awk WEEK5 a) Write A shell script that takes a command –line argument and reports on whether it is directry . write a sed command that deletes the first character in each line in a file write a sed command that deletes the character before the last character in each line in a file.Use the more command to see the contents of myfile1. use the who command redirect the result to a file called myfile1.Use the more command to check the contents of myfile2.provided they exits in the current directory c) Write a shell script that determines the period for which a specified user is working on the system WEEK6 a) write a shell script that accepts a file name starting and ending line numbers as arguments and displays all the lines between the given line numbers b) write a shell script that deletes all lines containing a specified word I one or more files supplied as arguments to it. WEEK7 a) Write a shell script that computes the gross salary of a employee according to the following 1) if basic salary is <1500 then HRA 10% of the basic and DA =90% of the basic . Use the date and who commands in sequence ?(in one line) such that the output of date will display on the screen and the output of who will be redirected to a file called my file2.or something else b) Write a shell script that accepts one or more file name as a arguments and converts all of thenm to uppercase. Write a sed command that swaps the files and second words in each line in a file WEEK4 a) pipe ur /etc/passwd file to awk and print out the home directory of each user.

Let it offer the user the choice of copying . have the program ask the user for necessary information.removing . b) Write a shell script that takes a login name as command –line argument and reports when that person logs in c) Write a shell script which receives two files names as arguments. Once the use has made a choice. such as the file name . 1) To extract a sub string from a given string 2) To find the length of a given string WEEK 10 Write a C program that takes one or more file or directory names as command line input and reports the following information on the file. WEEK 9 a) Write a shell script that displays a list of all files in the current directory to which the user has read write and execute permissions b) Develop an interactive script that asks for a word and file name and then tells how many times that word occurred in the file. c) Write a shell script to perform the following string operations.9 2) if basic salary is >1500 then HRA 500 and DA =98% of the basic The basic salary is entered interactively through the key board b) Write a shell script that accepts two integers as its arguments and computes the value of first number raised to the power of the second number WEEK 8 a) Write an interactive file handling shell program. 1) file type 2) number of links 3) read. write and execute permissions 4) time of last access (Note: use /fstat system calls) WEEK 11 Write C program that simulate the following unix commands a) mv b) cp . It should check whether the two file contents are same or not. If they are same then second file should be deleted.new name and so on.renaming or linking files.

It is simply used to report your current working . cat /etc/profile This command displays the "/etc/profile" file on your screen. This command is used to create. cat /etc/passwd This command displays the "/etc/passwd" file on your screen. view and concatenate files. pwd There are no options (or arguments) with the "pwd" command. cat file1 file2 file3 > file4 This command combines the contents of the first three files into the fourth file. Command Syntax pwd pwd Description Examples "pwd" stands for print working directory. Notice that some of the contents of this file may scroll off of your screen.10 WEEK 12 Write a c program that simulates ls command (Use system calls /directory API) Basic Unix commands Command Syntax Description Examples CAT cat [argument] [specific file] “cat" is short for concatenate. It displays your current position in the UNIX filesystem.

and all sub-directories of /usr. ls -alR /usr | more This command lists long information about all files in the "/usr" directory. This is probably the most used version of the ls command. The -R option . It provides a very basic listing of the files in your current working directory. The long listing will provide important information about file permissions. Filenames beginning with a decimal are considered hidden files. and they are not shown. file size. ls This is the basic "ls" command. user and group ownership. including hidden files. It combines the functionality of the -a and -l options. with no options. ls -al /usr This command lists long information about all files in the "/usr" directory.11 Command Syntax directory. ls -al This command provides a long listing of information about all files in the current directory. ls -a The -a option tells the ls command to report information about all files. It is used to list information about files and directories. ls -l The -l option tells the "ls" command to provide a long listing of information about the files and directories it reports. ls ls [options] [names] Description Examples "ls" stands for list. and creation date.

you'll be asked whether to overwrite the file The "mv" command is used to move and rename files. mv Chapter1 Chapter1. This is very useful when you want to check the permissions of the directory. (Notice that if "garbage" is a directory. "Chapter1" would be moved into that directory). this example renames the directory tmp to the new name tmp.bad". mv Chapter1 /tmp This command moves the file "Chapter1" into the directory named "/tmp". rm Description Examples Command . Command Syntax Options mv mv [options] sources target -b backup files that are about to be overwritten or removed -i interactive mode. mv tmp tmp.bad This command renames the file "Chapter1" to the new name "Chapter1.12 tells the ls command to provide a recursive listing of all files and sub-directories. this command lists information about the /usr directory itself (without generating a listing of the contents of /usr).old Assuming in this case that tmp is a directory. if dest exists. ls -ld /usr Rather than list the files contained in the /usr directory.old. and not the files the directory contains. mv Chapter1 garbage This command renames the file "Chapter1" to the new name "garbage".

html". rm -i Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command prompts you before deleting any of the three files specified. --interactive prompt before any removal -r.be very careful when removing files and directories!) rm Chapter1. --force ignore nonexistent files. --verbose explain what is being done Description Examples The "rm" command is used to remove files and directories.bad This command deletes the file named "Chapter1. -R. This can be a safer way to delete files. The -i option stands for inquire. --recursive remove the contents of directories recursively -v. .bad" (assuming you have permission to delete this file). rm Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command deletes the files named "Chapter1". and "Chapter3". (Warning .html This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename ends with the characters ". rm *. --directory unlink FILE. "Chapter2". never prompt -i. You must answer y (for yes) for each file you really want to delete.13 Syntax Options rm [options] files -d. even if it is a non-empty directory (super-user only) -f.

you'll be asked whether to overwrite the file -p preserves the original file's ownership. This example assumes that you have write permission in the current .14 rm index* This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename begins with the characters "index". permissions.profile. Note that when using the cp command.profile. cp /usr/fred/Chapter1 . This command copies the file named "Chapter1" in the "/usr/fred" directory to the current directory. Description Examples cp .bak". This directory.profile" to a file named ".bak This command copies your ". if dest exists. Command Syntax cp cp [options] file1 file2 cp [options] files directory Options -b backup files that are about to be overwritten or removed -i interactive mode. including any sub-directories and files. group. are erased from the disk. and timestamp The "cp" command is used to copy files and directories. you must always specify both the source and destination of the file(s) to be copied. and all of its' contents.profile . rm -r new-novel This command deletes the directory named "new-novel".

Command Syntax grep grep [options] regular expression [files] Options match -i -n -v -w case-insensitive search show the line# along with the matched line invert match. find all lines that do NOT match entire words.and also "alfred". but also requires that the "f" in the name "fred" be in the first column of each record (that's what the caret character tells grep). cp /usr/fred/Chapter1 /usr/mary This command copies the "Chapter1" file in "/usr/fred" to the directory named "/usr/mary". This example assumes that you have write permission in the "/usr/mary" directory. grep '^fred' /etc/passwd This command searches for all occurrences of the text string 'fred' within the "/etc/passwd" file. e. because the letter "a" will be in the first column. It will find and print (on the screen) all of the lines in this file that contain the text string 'fred'. It is used to search for text strings within one or more files. a user named "alfred" would not be matched. Using this moreadvanced search. grep 'joe' * This command searches for all occurrences of the text string . grep 'fred' /etc/passwd This command searches for all occurrences of the text string 'fred' within the "/etc/passwd" file. rather than substrings Description Examples Think of the "grep" command as a "search" command (most people wish it was named "search"). including lines that contain usernames like "fred" .15 directory.g.

16 'joe' within all files of the current directory. mkdir /usr/fred/tmp This command creates a new directory named "tmp" in the directory "/usr/fred". (This example assumes that you have the proper permissions to create a new sub-directory in your current working directory. and e-mail) in the current directory. (Warning . letters.be very careful when removing .) mkdir -p /home/joe/customer/acme This command creates a new directory named /home/joe/customer/acme.) mkdir memos letters e-mail This command creates three new sub-directories (memos. (This example assumes that you have the proper permissions to create a new directory in /usr/fred. mkdir tmp This command creates a new directory named "tmp" in your current directory. and creates any intermediate directories that are needed. and the directory "acme" is created inside of customer. Command Syntax Description rmdir rmdir [options] directories The "rm" command is used to remove files and directories. "tmp" is now a sub-directory of "/usr/fred". then the directory "customer" is created. If only /home/joe existed to begin with. Command Syntax Description Examples mkdir mkdir [options] directory name The "mkdir" command is used to create new directories (sub-directories).

including any sub-directories and files. rm *.html This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename ends with the characters ". The -i option stands for inquire. chdir cd [name of directory you want to move to] Description Examples "cd" stands for change directory. This directory. You must answer y (for yes) for each file you really want to delete. rm index* This command deletes all files in the current directory whose filename begins with the characters "index". "Chapter2". rm Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command deletes the files named "Chapter1". rm -i Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 This command prompts you before deleting any of the three files specified.bad" (assuming you have permission to delete this file).17 files and directories!) rm Chapter1.bad This command deletes the file named "Chapter1. are erased from the disk. and all of its' contents.html". and "Chapter3". cd /usr . This can be a safer way to delete files. It is the primary command for moving around the filesystem. rm -r new-novel This command deletes the directory named "new-novel". Examples Command Syntax cd.

To find the process ID of a certain job use ps. Command Syntax Description kill kill [options] IDs kill ends one or more process IDs. cd Issuing the "cd" command without any arguments moves you to your home directory. and keep moving back-and-forth between two directories. In order to do this you must own the process or be designated a privileged user. Examples Command Syntax Description ps ps [options] The "ps" command (process statistics) lets you check the status of processes that are running on your Unix . This is very useful when you're in the middle of a project. this command moves you back to your previous working directory. cd /u*/f* Moves you to the "/usr/fred" directory . "/usr" becomes your current working directory. cd /usr/fred Moves you to the "/usr/fred" directory.18 This command moves you to the "/usr" directory. cd Using the Korn shell.if this is the only directory matching this wildcard pattern.

this command will not show information about other processes running on the system. ps -ef | more Because the output normally scrolls off the screen. ps -fu fred This command shows full information about the processes currently being run by the user named fred (the -u option lets you specify a username). This is probably the most often-used form of the ps command. the output of the ps -ef command is often piped into the more command. ps displays full information about the processes you are running. ps -e The -e argument tells the ps command to show every process running on the system. In this example. ps The ps command by itself shows minimal information about the processes you are running.19 system. ps -f The -f argument tells ps to supply full information about the processes it displays. Examples . ps -ef The -e and -f arguments are normally combined like this to show full information about every process running on the system. The more command lets you view one screenful of information at a time. Without any arguments.

as long as they have been written to a common standard. Not forgetting the ease with which other scripters can read the code and understand what is happening. Where these differences are known to cause difficulties I have made special notes within the text to highlight this fact. All script languages though have at their heart a common core which if used correctly will guarantee portability. most likely because the are a simple way to string together a bunch of UNIX commands for execution at any time without the need for prior compilation. leading most users to believe that it is twice as good. This is a shame because there are several compromises within the C Shell which . The Shell History: The basic shells come in three main language forms. The different dialects are due. Bourne Shell: Historically the sh language was the first to be created and goes under the name of The Bourne Shell. to the different UNIX flavours in use on some platforms.20 Why Use Shells? Well. It has been around for so long that is it virtually bug free. The UNIX man pages contain almost twice as much information for the C Shell as the pages for the Bourne shell. It has a very compact syntax which makes it obtuse for novice users but very efficient when used by experts. These are (in order of creation) sh. Also because its generally fast to get a script going. On UNIX systems. It also contains some powerful constructs built in. Lastly. I have adopted the Bourne shell syntax as the defacto standard within this book. csh and ksh. most of the scripts used to start and configure the operating system are written in the Bourne shell. they are generally completely portable across the whole UNIX world. Be aware that there are several dialects of these script languages which tend to make them all slightly platform specific. C Shell: Next up was The C Shell (csh). in the main. so called because of the similar syntactical structures to the C language.

21 makes using the language for serious work difficult (check the list of bugs at the end of the man pages!). There are rumours however. and history lists. that C Shell is destined to be phased out. The features that guarantee its continued use in this arena are aliases. there are so many functions available within the C Shell that if one should fail another could be found. with future UNIX releases only supporting sh and ksh. The real reason why the C Shell is so popular is that it is usually selected as the default login shell for most users. . Differences between csh and sh syntax will be highlighted where appropriate. True. The point is do you really want to spend your time finding all the alternative ways of doing the same thing just to keep yourself out of trouble.

because not all platforms are yet supporting the Korne shell it is not fully portable as a scripting language at the time of writing. The extensions over and above the Bourne shell exceed even the level of functionality available within the C Shell (but without any of the compromises!). it will pay off eventually. Persevere. Korne Shell does contain aliases and history lists aplenty but C Shell users are often put off by its dissimilar syntax. making it the obvious language of choice for real scripters. This may change however by the time this book is published. The Korne shell can be thought of as a superset of the Bourne shell as it contains the whole of the Bourne shell world within its own syntax rules. However. Any sh syntax element will work in the ksh without change.22 Korne Shell: Lastly we come to The Korne Shell (ksh) made famous by IBM's AIX flavour of UNIX. .

7. Correct typing errors during creation Save the file Logout of the file . Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password: ****** $ vi myfile ~ Unix is Case Sensitive ~ Never leave the Computer without logging out when you are working in a time sharing or network environments.23 SOLUTIONS: WEEK1 Session 1 1.txt which contain some text. 2. 5. ~ Shell Programming : wq Log into the system Open the file created in session 1 Add some text Change some text delete some text Save the changes Logout of the system Log in to the system Use Vi editor to create a file called myfile. Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password: ****** $ vi ~ Unix is Case Sensitive ~ Never leave the Computer without logging out when you are working in a time sharing or network environments. 4. 2. 6. Type <Esc> : wq myfile $ Session 2 1. 3. 3. 5. 4.

my table use the vi command to correct any errors in the file. f.15 <tab> 21. my table logout of the system .86 <tab> ravi ramu sita raju 15.24 WEEK2 Log into the system Use the cat command to create a file containing the following data. e.65 26.27 <tab> 36.65 <tab> 26. Call it mutable use tabs to separate the fields 1425 4320 6830 1450 a. Call the sorted file my table(same name) print the file my table use the cut & paste commands to swap fields 2 and 3 my table.15 21.27 36. Call it mytable(same name) print the new file.86 use the cat command to display the file. c. d. b. Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password:****** $ cat –c1-14 1425 <tab> ravi <tab> 4320 <tab> ramu <tab> 6830 <tab> sita <tab> 1450 <tab> raju <tab> $ cat myfile $who|more $ sort +0 -1 mytable 15. my table use the sort command to sort the file my table according to the first field. g.

h. Write a sed command that swaps the files and second words in each line in a file f. write a sed command that deletes the first character in each line in a file write a sed command that deletes the character before the last character in each line in a file. c. use the who command redirect the result to a file called myfile1. Use the date and who commands in sequence ?(in one line) such that the output of date will display on the screen and the output of who will be redirected to a file called my file2.Use the more command to see the contents of myfile1. e.Use the more command to check the contents of myfile2. b. Sol: $ login: <user name> $ password:****** $ echo $SHELL csh $ who >| myfile1 $ more myfile1 $ date|who >myfile2 $ more myfile2 . d.25 WEEK3 a. g. log in the system use the appropriate commands to determine ur login shell use the /etc/passwd file to verify the result of step b.

dat I/P: 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 O/P: 2 Computers 1232 Clothing Computers Textbooks Clothing Computers Supplies Text books 3141 9161 21312 3252 1232 2242 15462 . Develop an interactive grep script that asks for a word and a file name and then tells how many lines contain that word Repeat Part using awk (d) Sol: $ awk ‘$2 ==”Computers” && $3 >10000 {print}’Sales.26 WEEK4 pipe ur /etc/passwd file to awk and print out the home directory of each user.

or something else b) Write a shell script that accepts one or more file name as a arguments and converts all of thenm to uppercase.provided they exits in the current directory c) Write a shell script that determines the period for which a specified user is working on the system (a) Sol: echo "Enter a file name:" read f if [ -f $f ] then echo "File" elif [ -d $f ] then echo "Directory" else echo "Not" fi Output: Directory .27 WEEK5 a) Write A shell script that takes a command –line argument and reports on whether it is directry .a file.

28 WEEK6 (a) Write a shell script that accepts a file name starting and ending line numbers as arguments and displays all the lines between the given line numbers (b) Write a shell script that deletes all lines containing a specified word I one or more files supplied as arguments to it. (a) Sol: $ awk ‘NR<2 || NR> 4 {print $0}’ 5 lines.dat I/P: line1 line2 line3 line4 line5 line1 line5 O/P: (b) Sol: i=1 while [ $i -le $# ] do grep -v Unix $i > $i done .

29 WEEK7 a) Write a shell script that computes the gross salary of a employee according to the following 1) if basic salary is <1500 then HRA 10% of the basic and DA =90% of the basic 2) if basic salary is >1500 then HRA 500 and DA =98% of the basic The basic salary is entered interactively through the key board (b)Write a shell script that accepts two integers as its arguments and computes the value of first number raised to the power of the second number echo " Enter the Salary " read sal if [ $sal<1500] then da=`expr $sal*90/100` hra=`expr $sal*10/100` gsal=’expr $sal +$hra+$da echo “$gsal” elif [$sal>1500] hra=500 da=’expr $sal*98/100’ gsal=’expr $sal+$hra+$da gross=`expr $sa + $da + $hra` fi fi (b) a=$1 b=$2 c=pow($a.$b) echo”$c” .

such as the file name .removing . Let it offer the user the choice of copying .new name and so on. Once the use has made a choice. (b) Write a shell script that takes a login name as command –line argument and reports when that person logs in (c) Write a shell script which receives two files names as arguments. It should check whether the two file contents are same or not. If they are same then second file should be deleted. have the program ask the user for necessary information.renaming or linking files. PROGRAM echo "Enter I File Name:" read f1 echo "Enter II File Name:" read f2 d=`cmp $f1 $f2` d1="" if [ $d -eq $d2 ] then echo "Two Files are similar and $f2 is deleted" rm $f2 else echo "Two Files differ each other" fi .30 WEEK 8 (a) Write an interactive file handling shell program.

1) To extract a sub string from a given string 2) To find the length of a given string (a) PROGRAM # File Name : list.then printf " Write" fi if [ -x $dn/$fn ].31 WEEK 9 (a) Write a shell script that displays a list of all files in the current directory to which the user has read write and execute permissions (b) Develop an interactive script that asks for a word and file name and then tells how many times that word occurred in the file. then printf "<$fn> Directory " elif [ -f $dn/$fn ] then printf "$fn File " fi if [ -r $dn/$fn ].then printf " Execute" fi printf "\n" done else printf "\n$dn not exists or not a directory" fi .sh #!/bin/bash read -p "Enter a directory name : " dn if [ -d $dn ]. then printf " Read" fi if [ -w $dn/$fn ]. then printf "\nFiles in the directory $dn are :\n" for fn in `ls $dn` do if [ -d $dn/$fn ]. (c) Write a shell script to perform the following string operations.

32 (b) PROGRAM # File Name : wcount. of Characters: `wc -c $fn`" else echo "$fn is not exists or not a file" fi (c) PROGRAM Print “Enter the String:\c” read strIn strlen=${# strIn} print the string length is : $strlen $ strlen. of Line : `wc -l $fn`" echo "No. of Words : `wc -w $fn`" echo "No.scr O/P: Enter the String: Now is the time The String length : 15 .sh #!/bin/bash read -p "Enter a file name : " fn if test -f $fn then echo "The contents of the file $fn is :" cat $fn echo "No.

} } if(fclose(stream))==EOF) { fprintf(stderr. stream=fopen(“test”.”r”). 4. } return().33 WEEK 10 Write a C program that takes one or more file or directory names as command line input and reports the following information on the file.h> main() { FILE *stream. fclose(stream). int buffer_character.”Error closing stream. 1. 2. exit(1). write and execute permissions time of last access (Note: use /fstat system calls) PROGRAM #include<stdio. file type number of links read. 3.(printed to standard error)\n). } . if(stream==(FILE*)0) { fprintf(stderr.”Error opening file(printed to standard error)\n”). exit(1).

34 WEEK 11 Write C program that simulate the following unix commands (a) mv (b) cp /* File Name : bspace1. printf("\n"). fp=fopen(argv[1].h> #include<stdio. if(ch==' ') sc++. else { while(!feof(fp)) { ch=fgetc(fp).h> main(int argc. } } . if(fp==NULL) printf("unable to open a file".sc). char ch. } printf("no of spaces %d".h> #include<unistd. int sc=0.argv[1]). fclose(fp).char *argv[]) { FILE *fp.c */ #include<fcntl."r").

ch[0]). while(read(fd. close(fd).1)>0) printf("%c".h> main(int argc.argv[1]). if (argc<2) { printf("Usage: mycat filename\n").h> #include<stdlib.O_RDONLY).argv[1]).35 WEEK 12 Write a c program that simulates ls command (Use system calls /directory API) PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> #include<fcntl. } fd=open(argv[1].i. char ch[1].ch. exit(0). } .char *argv[]) { int fd. else { printf("Contents of the file %s is : \n". if(fd==-1) printf("%s is not exist".

What scheme does the Kernel in Unix System V follow while choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices? Kernel follows Round Robin scheme choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices in Unix System V. and a 5 digit random numbers if you are from the Korn shell. It will return a undefined variable if you are from the C-Shell. just a return prompt if you are from the Bourne shell. it’s responsible for controlling the computer’s resources and scheduling user jobs so that each one gets its fair share of resources.36 Viva Questions & Answers What is a Make file? Make file is a utility in Unix to help compile large programs.e. How can you tell what shell you are running on UNIX system? You can do the Echo $RANDOM. It helps by only compiling the portion of the program that has been changed Could you tell something about the Unix System Kernel? The kernel is the heart of the UNIX operating system. i. List the system calls used for process management: System calls fork() exec() wait() […] Description To create a new process To execute a new program in a process . This is local to the Process. each process is allocated a u-area. You could also do a ps -l and look for the shell with […] What do you mean by u-area (user area) or u-block? This contains the private data that is manipulated only by the Kernel.

we use chmod(filename. What are the layers? What does it mean to say they are layers? A UNIX system has essentially three main layers: . Syntax : grep Example : grep 99mx mcafile What difference between cmp and diff commands? cmp . It searches for the pattern. specified in the command line with appropriate option. w-write. x-execute To change the access mode. Example: To change mode of myfile to ‘rw-rw-r–’ (ie. read.tells the changes to be made to make the files identical What is the significance of the “tee” command? . The user-level programs The kernel hides the system’s hardware underneath an abstract. It is responsible for implementing many of the facilities that users and user-level programs take for granted. in a file(s). high-level programming interface.[…] Explain the layered aspect of a UNIX system. The hardware .r w x’ (user permission-group permission-others permission) r-read. write permission for user .37 How do you change File Access Permissions? Every file has following attributes: owner’s user ID ( 16 bit integer ) owner’s group ID ( 16 bit integer ) File access mode word ‘r w x -r w x.Compares two files byte by byte and displays the first mismatch diff . The kernel assembles all of the following UNIX concepts from lower-level […] What is the use of ‘grep’ command? ‘grep’ is a pattern search command. The operating system kernel .mode).

.38 It reads the standard input and sends it to the standard output while redirecting a copy of what it has read to the file specified by the user. what is its use? Yes. How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? With the help of kill command we can terminate the process. With the help of this command you can find the disk capacity and free space of the disk. Is ‘du’ a command? If so. Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 .kills all processes in your system except the login shell. it stands for ‘disk usage’.

and the system would allow you to send signals to it. meanwhile sort opens the file […] What are shell variables? Shell variables are special variables. In the above command the output from who becomes the std input to sort . ‘kill()’ returns -1. or […] What does the command “ $who | sort –logfile > newfile” do? The input from a pipe can be combined with the input from a file . This implies that a process exists with the given PID. ‘errno == ESRCH’ either no process exists with the given PID. PS1 (Primary Prompt). the Kernel allocates new page and copies the content to the new page and the other processes retain their references to the old page. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges. a name-value pair created and maintained by the shell. Example: PATH. It is system-dependent whether the process could be a zombie. where the copy on write bit of a page is set and that page is shared by more than one process. After copying the Kernel updates the page […] Difference between the fork() and vfork() system call? . when the bit is set? In situations like. There are four possible results from this call: ‘kill()’ returns 0. How the Kernel handles the copy on write bit of a page. Is it possible to create new a file system in UNIX? Use ‘su’ command. PS2 (Secondary Prompt). The trick is to use the special symbol “-“ (a hyphen) for those commands that recognize the hyphen as std input.39 Explain kill() and its possible return values. HOME. MAIL and TERM How many prompts are available in a UNIX system? Two prompts.

Then the address translation mapping is adjusted for the new virtual address space but the physical memory is not allocated. if not found then it will look for the ready-to-run process for swapping. Firstly it will look for any sleeping process.40 During the fork() system call the Kernel makes a copy of the parent process’s address space and attaches it to the child process. while swapping. And for swapping […] What is Expansion swap? At the time when any process requires more memory than it is currently allocated. manipulates the region tables. so it is faster than the fork() system call. The child process as a result of the vfork() […] How the Kernel handles the fork() system call in traditional Unix and in the System V Unix. When the parent process calls fork() system call. But the major requirement for the swapper to work the ready-to-run process must be core-resident for at least 2 seconds before swapping out. […] What are the entities that are swapped out of the main memory while swapping the process out of the main memory? . To do this Kernel reserves enough space in the swap device. while swapping? Kernel in traditional Unix. page table. and return to the user state without swapping the parent process. the Kernel performs Expansion swap.But the vfork() system call do not makes any copy of the parent’s address space. and pfdata table entries. makes the duplicate copy of the parent’s address space and attaches it to the child’s process. the child process is created and if there is short of memory then the child process is sent to the read-to-run state in the swap device. At last Kernel swaps the […] What is Fork swap? fork() is a system call to create a child process. What are the requirements for a swapper to work? The swapper works on the highest scheduling priority. by incrementing the reference count of the region table of shared regions. Kernel in System V Unix.

Practically. The regions (text.41 All memory space occupied by the process. whereas the Unix System V uses Demand Paging – only the part of the process is moved to the main memory. Historic Unix uses one Swap Device and Unix System V allow multiple Swap Devices What is an advantage of executing a process in background? The most common reason to put a process in the background is to allow you to do something else interactively without waiting for the process to complete. If the reference count becomes zero. Kernel allocates the space for the swapping process in the swap device. and Kernel stack are swapped out. Process before swapping is residing in the primary memory in its original form. Kernel locks the other swapping process while […] What is major difference between the Historic Unix and the new BSD release of Unix System V in terms of Memory Management? Historic Unix uses Swapping – entire process is transferred to the main memory from the swap device. swaps the region out of the main memory. data and stack) may not be occupied fully by the process. &. there may be few empty slots in any of the regions and while swapping Kernel do not bother about the empty slots while swapping the process outAfter swapping […] What are the events done by the Kernel after a process is being swapped out from the main memory? When Kernel swaps the process out of the primary memory. if the process’s u-area contains the Address Translation Tables for the process then Kernel implementations do not swap the u-area. theoretically. it performs the following: Kernel decrements the Reference Count of each region of the process. At the end of the command you add the special background symbol. Is the Process before and after the swap are the same? Give reason. process’s u-area. This symbol tells your shell .

Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system.* […] What Happens when you execute a program? When you execute a program on your UNIX system. the system creates a special environment for that program. Each process has process context.42 to execute the given command in the background. Example: cp *. Zombie : The […] . usually by receiving a signal. Unix processes have the following states: Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run . which is everything that is unique about the state of […] What are the process states in Unix? As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances. Stopped : The process has been stopped.

message queues. . Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()’. and the existing process is called the parent. the parent calls `wait()‘. but […] What are various IDs associated with a process? Unix identifies each process with a unique integer called ProcessID. the parent may need to check the child’s exit status. shared memory). To be able to get this information. sockets. the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it . In the […] How can a parent and child process communicate? A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes. The identification for the user is […] Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up.for example. We can tell which is which by checking the return value from `fork()’. The new process is called the child process. One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the […] How can you get/set an environment variable from a program? Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()’. Every process is associated with a particular user called the ‘owner’ who has privileges over the process. The `fork()’ used to create a new process from an existing process. but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. The parent gets the child’s pid returned to him. The process that executes the request for creation of a process is called the ‘parent process’ whose PID is ‘Parent Process ID’.43 What is a zombie? When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent. Explain fork() system call.

Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation.44 While booting.vhand and dbflush with IDs 1. […] .2 and 3 respectively. This is done by executing the file /etc/init. The swapper inturn creates 3 children: the process dispatcher. special process called the ’swapper’ or ’scheduler’ is created with Process-ID 0.

directory or special file. 3. The shell converts them to system calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. . The first 10 are direct block addresses of the first 10 data blocks in the file. For example: If the device is a disk. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe. The 12th address points to a two-level (double in-direction) index block. This provides a very large maximum […] Discuss the mount and unmount system calls The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system. The 11th address points to a one-level index block. but cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or link filenames on different computers. you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. The 13th address points to a three-level(triple in-direction)index block. The first argument to […] How do you create special files like named pipes and device files? The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence. Links can be used to assign more than one name to a file. the unmount system call detaches a file system. System call results and other information from the OS […] How does the inode map to data block of a file? Inode has 13 block addresses. 2. If it is a device file. 1. it makes the other entries like major. kernel assigns new inode. major […] What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system? A link is a second name (not a file) for a file. When you mount another file system on to your directory. minor device numbers.45 What is a shell? A shell is an interactive user interface to an operating system services that allows an user to enter commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface.

open file creat(pathname.arg) .for example.bytes) . the system creates a special environment for that program.mode) . This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system.write data to an open file lseek(filedes.bytes) . the parent calls `wait()‘. the parent may need to check the child’s exit status. Unix processes have the following states: Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run .request.change properties of an open file ioctl(filedes.duplicate to a desired file descriptor fcntl(filedes.Operation […] What are the Unix system calls for I/O? open(pathname.buffer. usually by receiving a signal. the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it .46 Symbolic link ‘is’ a file that only contains the name of another file.close an open file read(filedes. which is everything that is unique about the state of […] What are the process states in Unix? As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances. Stopped : The process has been stopped. Zombie : The […] What is a zombie? When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent.change the behaviour […] What Happens when you execute a program? When you execute a program on your UNIX system.duplicate an existing file descriptor dup2(oldfd.position an open file dup(filedes) .from) .cmd. To be able to get this information.offset. Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource.read data from an open file write(filedes.newfd) .flag. In the […] How can a parent and child process communicate? . Each process has process context.buffer.mode) .arg) .create file close(filedes) .

2 and 3 respectively. message queues. sockets. This is done by executing the file /etc/init. Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()’. While booting. The identification for the user is […] Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up. shared memory). […] What is a shell? . One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the […] How can you get/set an environment variable from a program? Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()’. but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. Explain fork() system call. and the existing process is called the parent. but […] What are various IDs associated with a process? Unix identifies each process with a unique integer called ProcessID. The process that executes the request for creation of a process is called the ‘parent process’ whose PID is ‘Parent Process ID’. The new process is called the child process. Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. The parent gets the child’s pid returned to him. The `fork()’ used to create a new process from an existing process. special process called the ’swapper’ or ’scheduler’ is created with Process-ID 0.vhand and dbflush with IDs 1. Every process is associated with a particular user called the ‘owner’ who has privileges over the process. We can tell which is which by checking the return value from `fork()’.47 A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes. The swapper inturn creates 3 children: the process dispatcher. The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation.

It is used in interprocess communication where a process writes to one end of […] . data can be read only in the order written. 1. The 11th address points to a one-level index block. The first 10 are direct block addresses of the first 10 data blocks in the file. Also. it cannot be read again. When you mount another file system on to your directory. 3. minor device numbers. For example: If the device is a disk. The first argument to […] How do you create special files like named pipes and device files? The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence. The 12th address points to a two-level (double in-direction) index block. 2. you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. If it is a device file.48 A shell is an interactive user interface to an operating system services that allows an user to enter commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface. directory or special file. This provides a very large maximum […] Discuss the mount and unmount system calls The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system. major […] What is a FIFO? FIFO are otherwise called as ‘named pipes’. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe. Once data is read from named pipe. System call results and other information from the OS […] How does the inode map to data block of a file? Inode has 13 block addresses. kernel assigns new inode. the unmount system call detaches a file system. The shell converts them to system calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. it makes the other entries like major. The 13th address points to a three-level(triple in-direction)index block. FIFO (first-in-firstout) is a special file which is said to be data transient.

change properties of an open file ioctl(filedes. When new directories are created.read data from an open file write(filedes.Operation […] What are the Unix system calls for I/O? open(pathname.mode) .change the behaviour […] Brief about the directory representation in UNIX s a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes. but cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or link filenames on different computers.bytes) .request. Only kernel modifies directories.flag.close an open file read(filedes. The inode contains info about the file-size.duplicate an existing file descriptor dup2(oldfd. its location.bytes) .mode) .arg) .newfd) .position an open file dup(filedes) .write data to an open file lseek(filedes.from) .buffer. time of last access. In addition to descriptions about the file. Symbolic link ‘is’ a file that only contains the name of another file.arg) . Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode.cmd.buffer.duplicate to a desired file descriptor fcntl(filedes. time of last modification. A directory is a special file that the kernel maintains.49 What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system? A link is a second name (not a file) for a file.open file creat(pathname. kernel makes two entries […] What is ‘inode’? All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called ‘inode’.create file close(filedes) . permission and so on. but processes can read directories.offset. the inode contains pointers […] . The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs. Links can be used to assign more than one name to a file.

In addition to descriptions about the file. time of last modification. Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode. Incase if the file does not exist in the directory the commond will create a newfile in file system. A ‘block special file’ represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk (data transfer […] How is the command “$cat file2 “ different from “$cat >file2 Answer The Commond $cat file in unix is used to display the content of the file and where as commond $cat >> file is to append the text to the end of the file without overwritting the information of the file. but processes can read directories. The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs. A ‘regular file’ is just an ordinary data file in the disk.50 How are devices represented in UNIX? All devices are represented by files called special files that are located in/dev directory. device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way. time of last access. permission and so on. . A ‘block special file’ represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk (data transfer […] Brief about the directory representation in UNIX A Unix directory is a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes. Thus. A ‘regular file’ is just an ordinary data file in the disk. When new directories are created. device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way. kernel makes two entries […] What is ‘inode’? All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called ‘inode’. A directory is a special file that the kernel maintains. Thus. the inode contains pointers […] How are devices represented in UNIX? All devices are represented by files called special files that are located in/dev directory. Only kernel modifies directories. The inode contains info about the file-size. its location.

And then the displays out put to the user. That utility will execute the command with help of kernel and the output is given to shell.ravi Date: 7/13/2007 cat > file it means creating file for file cat file it means used to display the file content Explain the steps that a shell follows while processing a command. When processing a command the searchs for the utility for the command in the directories specified in the PATH varible and it in invokes that utility.51 $cat >file means to create a new file $cat file means to open an existing file. Answer Explain the steps that a shell follows while processing a command. Answered By: selva. And then the displays out put to the user. Answer Which command is used to delete all files in the current directory and all its subdirectories? #rm -fr <Directory name> # rm -rf * Answer Answered By: Amit Shiknis Date: 12/25/2007 rm -r * . When processing a command the searchs for the utility for the command in the directories specified in the PATH varible and it in invokes that utility. That utility will execute the command with help of kernel and the output is given to shell.

SHELL.character device file How to switch to a super user status to gain privileges? Answer Use ‘su’ command. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges. It stands for listing the files Chapter with suffix 1 to 5 but it will display the files in columns as with-x option.52 What is the use of the command "ls -x chapter[1-5]" Answer Yes you are correct. What are shell variables? Answer Shell variables are system environment variables.They include TERM. How does the kernel differentiate device files and ordinary files? Device filles are of 2 types --.charcater device file and block device file type field in the file's inode structure Answer b--.block device file c--. MAIL the output of the shell variable we can see by typing the command .

Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 .kills all processes in your system except the login shell.can be redirected i. What is redirection? Redirection is a feature in Unix where the data from the standard out put or a file. Syntax: kill pid Kill 0 .53 $>echo $TERM ansi at the prompt.out put redirection >> -.so on. Answer > -. How to sfind free space in unix/linux .input redirection How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? Answer With the help of kill command we can terminate the process.e divert to a file or a program and vice versa.out put redirectin(appending at the last) < -. How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0? Answer With the help of kill command we can terminate the process.kills all processes in your system except the login shell.

ls -l command shows all links with second column value 1 and the link points to original file. . df -h or df -Humanreadable gives human readable format of free space. Links have actual file contents 4.the link becomes "dangling" link which points to nonexistant file. but doesn't affect other links.ls -l command shows all the links with the link column(Second) shows No. All Links have same inode number. 3.54 Answer Df and du commands are used for checking free space on disk . 3. 4.Links have different inode numbers.cat str1 str2 Explain the UNIX Kernel. 2. Answer Ex:.Removing soft link doesn't affect anything but removing original file . What is the difference between soft link and hard link in unix operating system ? Hard Links : 1. of links. to concatenate (attach) two strings? For concatenating two string we use cat command. Link has the path for original file and not the contents.just reduces the link count . Answer Soft Links(Symbolic Links) : 1. 2.Removing any link .

It handles allocation of devices. Sumitabha Das. PS4 Answer #.$.G. PS2. cpu. TMH.55 Answer UNIX Kernel is heart of the operating system. UNIX kernal is loaded first when UNIX system is booted. Fourth Edition. Pearson Education. PS3. M. How many prompts are available in a UNIX system? Unix/ Linux Supports four Prompts PS1. . Venkatesh Murthy.% are 4 prompts REFERENCES: Books: 1)Introduction to UNIX & SHELL programming. 2)Unix concepts and applications. memory from that ponint on.@.

4)Unix and shell Programming –A text book. Foster – Johnson & other. Ables. E. Wile Y. Thomson. 3rd edition.A.India. 5)Beginning shell scripting.F. . Giberg. pearson education. B.56 3)Unix for programmers and users. Forouzan & R. Gaham Glass & K.

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