Mary uouglas

ÞurlLy Ǝ uanger
W 1hls lecLure ls dlvlded lnLo 3 parLsť
1Ŧ LxplanaLlon Lo help you undersLand your
readlngs on Mary uouglas
2Ŧ SuggesLlons as Lo how you can apply Mary
uouglas Lo analyse bodles ln socleLy Ŷ eŦgŦ
Laken here ls Lhe publlc dlscourse on youLh ln
3Ŧ 1he Lhlrd parL are exLended quoLaLlons whlch
are worLh reflecLlng upon whlch l wanL Lo
draw your aLLenLlon Lo as you read
Mary uouglas's ldea of 'soclal body'
W Mary uouglas conLrlbuLes Lhe ldea of looklng aL Lhe body as a sysLem of
ƍnaLural symbolsºŤ
1he body Lhereforeţ
aŦ meLaphorlcally reproduce soclal caLegorles Ǝ
bŦ ls lnscrlbed as Ÿan ƍlmage of socleLyƍ (1970ţ pŦ 98)
lŦ SocleLy slgnlfled on lndlvldual body
Ŵ Cn Lhe lndlvldual body ls lnscrlbed Lhe lmage of socleLy (lndlvldual body)
eŦgŦ clrcumclslon marks Lhe body ln such a way LhaL lL Lells us ln socleLles
LhaL use male clrcumclslon for rlLe of passageţ Lhere are dlsLlncLlon made
beLween Lhe chlld (boy) Ǝ Lhe adulL (man)
llŦ 8ody meLaphor of lndlvldual slgnlfy socleLy
Ŵ SocleLy ls reŴpresenLed Lhrough slgnlflcaLlons based on Lhe lndlvldual body
eŦgŦ 'head' of householdţ Lhe 'body' of a naLlonţ Lhe 'face' of evll eLcŦ
ow many bodles?
lor Mary uouglasţ Lhere are Lherefore Lwo
aŦ lndlvldual Ǝ
bŦ SocleLy 8u1 (and Lhls ls very lmporLanL Lo
ljboLh are soclal bodles Ŷ slgnlfledţ Lhusţ glven
order and sLrucLure Lhrough membershlp ln
soclal llves
Membershlp here means Ŷ glven a place (sLaLus)
Ǝ Lhusţ havlng a deflned role ln socleLy
lnLernal Llnes Ǝ LxLernal
8ules governlng body (boLh lndlvldual Ǝ soclal)
markers become more deflned (vlslble) aL Llmes
of crlsls lŦeŦ ºwhen socleLles are under exLernal
aLLackţ Lhe malnLenance of rules governlng
whaL belongs lnslde and ouLslde Lhe body
becomes especlally sLrlcLŦ"
lj eŦgŦ lndlvldual resLralnL on
organlc processes
ƍa naLural way of lnvesLlng a soclal occaslon wlLh dlgnlLy ls Lo
hlde organlc processesƍ (1970ţ pŦ 12)Ŧ
ºence lmporLanL soclal occaslons dlcLaLe LhaL Lhe body be held
sLlfflyţ Lhe llmbs and hands under careful conLrolŦ And ln generalţ
manners and eLlqueLLe requlre Lhe consclous wlLhholdlng of
bodlly excreLať lL ls lmpollLe Lo splLţ farLţ burpţ laugh ouL loudţ or
Lo lnLerrupL conversaLlon wlLh such lnvolunLary expulslons as
sneezlngţ coughlngţ and runny nosesŦ"
Some Lxamplesť 1he bodles of class
W See Lhe sLlffness of Lhese formallsed
SulLs Ǝ Lvenlng uressesť LmbodlmenL of
Classed Ǝ lormallsed 8ehavlour
LxecuLlves consLlLuLe Lhe body of
Lhe soclal class we refer Lo as
professlonal upper echelon ln
SLlffened bodles of head of sLaLe Ǝ
8ecallť ÞreLLy Woman
W ConLrasL also Lhe body schema Ǝ dresslng of
Lhe upper and mlddle classes Ǝ Lhe lower
classes ln ÞreLLy Woman Ŷ lower classes more
fluld bodles as Lhey are bodles LhaL have Lo do
physlcal movemenL ln Lhelr works
See !ohn 8erger's analysls of
worklng Ǝ upper class bodles
ÞeasanLs on Lhelr way Lo a parLy Ŵ 8erger
argues sulLs are noL made for worklng class
bodles whlch are muscular Ǝ need movemenL
Ŷ wearlng sulLs belles Lhls men's peasanL
upper class bodles for whlch sulLs are
creaLed Ŷ noL for physlcal workţ sLlff
posLuresŤ wllllng consLralnLs
ulfference beLween Mary
uouglas Ǝ 8ourdleu
AL Lhls polnLţ l [usL wanL Lo draw ouL Lhe dlfference beLween a
sLrucLurallsL Ǝ Lhe posLŴsLrucLurallsL posLlon such as 8ourdleu'sť
Mary uouglas sLresses Lhe need for 'order' Ǝ 'rules' produclng Lhe
ldea of polluLlon for socleLy Lo acL on 'unplaced bodles' Ŷ vlew ls
8ourdleu sLresses soclal reproducLlon of Lhe pracLlce of resLralnL
Lhrough hls concepL of 'hablLus' (sLrucLurlng sLrucLures)
8ourdleu's conLrlbuLlon Ŷ
W Þrobyn (2003ť23) Ŷ 'Cur bodles conLlnually speak of Lhelr pasL
ln everyday acLlons Ŷ hablLsţ gesLuresţ manner and small ways
of belng and lnhablLlng soclal spaceŦ' 'ablLus dellmlLs how we
can move and ln whlch space we can moveŦ'
W '1he hablLusţ a producL of hlsLory produces lndlvldual and
collecLlve pracLlces Ŷ more hlsLory Ŷ ln accordance wlLh Lhe
schemes generaLed by hlsLoryŧżLhe hablLusŽ ensures Lhe
acLlve presence of pasL experlencesţ whlchţ deposlLed ln each
organlsm ln Lhe form of schemes of percepLlonţ LhoughL and
acLlonţ Lend Lo guaranLee Lhe 'correcLness' of pracLlcesŧmore
rellably Lhan all formal rules and expllclL normsŦ' (8ourdleu
1990ť34) quoLed from Þrobynţ 2003ť230)
8ody As Soclal MeLaphorť
lnscrlpLlon on 8odles
W uouglas argued LhaL a panŴhuman need for order underlles
Lhe use of Lhe body as a soclal meLaphor
W 1hls need for order ls achleved by culLurally classlfylng and
sysLemaLlzlng ob[ecLsţ lncludlng personsţ evenLsţ and
acLlvlLlesţ and by lnsLlLuLlng rouLlnesŦ
ÞlcLure represenLed ln an lranlan
newscllp wlLh a capLlon saylng youLh ln
'saLanlc dress'
ulrL as a soclal meLaphor
ul81 Ŵ 1he soclal acLs agalnsL amblgulLy ls slgnlfled Lhrough Lhe
noLlon of 'dlrL'
ÞCLLu1lC- Ŵ Lhe concepL of 'dlrL' enables Mary uouglas Lo examlne
Lhe ldea of soclal polluLlon
ljAnyLhlng LhaL conLalns amblgulLy ls polluLed
ljulrL ƹ unplaceable bodlesţ amblguous bodles
Mary uouglas says LhaL ƍdlrL ls maLLer ouL of placeºŦ 1hls means LhaL
ƍdlrL ls a byŴproducL of a sysLemaLlc orderlng and classlflcaLlon of
maLLerƍ (1966ţ pŦ 33)Ŧ
1wo polnLs Lo remember abouL dlrL
1Ŧ whaL any human culLure conslders Lo be dlrL ls a funcLlon of
LhaL culLureƌs parLlcular sysLem (classlflcaLlon Ǝ rouLlnes) Ǝ
2Ŧ ls a funcLlon of whaL ls consldered Lo be ouLslde Ǝ lnslde lLs
esLabllshed boundarles
W ulrL polluLes Ŷ Mary uouglas argues LhaL once classlflcaLlons
and rouLlnes have been esLabllshedţ people avold all
amblguous or anomalous ob[ecLsţ sLaLesţ evenLs Ǝ acLlvlLles
W because people operaLlng wlLhln LhaL culLure lnLerpreL
anyLhlng amblguous Ǝ anomalous as dlsorderly Ǝ polluLlng
our !ob
W 1ry Lo apply Mary uouglas's ldeas Lo analyse
Lhe publlc dlscourse on youLh ln 8runel
Chlld/ Chlldhood Ŷ dependanL
Why do we hear youLh always belng Lalked of / abouL as lf Lhey are vulnerable
or dangerous Lo soclal fabrlc of socleLy? ouLh ls always Lalked abouL as elLher
'Lo be conLoured' (dl lenLor) or ln relaLlon Lo 'decadence'
LŦgŦ ouLh Ŷ ln many culLuresţ Lhese are
regarded as bodles ln LranslLlon eŦgŦ ln Aceh Ŷ
clalm 'no youLh' Ŷ Lhey are all accompanylng
adulLs as apprenLlces Lo adulLhood Ŷ youLh ls
noL a caLegory here buL a process of becomlng
adulL buL noL fully responslble as adulLs
Þubllc ulscourse on ouLh Ǝ ouLh
W ouLh as 'faulLy' bodles Ŷ noLlons of 'dellnquenLs' as reflecLlve of
'faulLyŴadulLs' Ŷ badly soclallsed bodles
W ouLh as MonsLers Ŷ youLh gangsţ punks
W uemonlc ouLhs as wesLernlsed youLhs Ŵ LhreaLenlng Lo LradlLlonal
W ouLh as 'hope of Lomorrow' Ŷ why Lomorrow? Why noL Loday? Ŷ
youLh as 'unformed'ţ 'becomlng'ţ noL 'maLure' yeLţ 'golng places'ţ
Lhusţ lnŴbeLween places
W 1hls noLlon slmulLaneously produce noLlons of youLh as bodles LhaL
need Lo be wresLled agalnsL Lhose bodles slgnlfled as anLlŴLhesls of
Lhe soclal self Ŵ ouLh as vulnerable Ŷ peneLrable by 'medla culLure'Ť
rock culLureŤ hlp hop culLure (black Ǝ wesL)Ť wesLern culLureŤ
ow do we make sense of all Lhese?
W Mary uouglas has someLhlng Lo offerť
eŦgŦ ÞregnanL 8odles Ŷ ls lL one or Lwo bodles? Where does one body sLop and
Lhe oLher sLarL? unborn bodles as LhreaLenlng ln many culLuresŦ unplaced
bodles as dangerous Ŷ why?
8efer Lo a[ah !alnah's lecLure
8eadť ÞurlLy and danger
8lrLh Ŷ ls lL becomlng Lwo or a greaLer peneLraLlon of Lhe soclal body? LŦgŦ
dependancy on oLher more developed bodles are creaLed Ŷ soclallsaLlon Ŷ also
sLarL of belng sub[ecLed Lo many rlLes Lo rlLuallse 'placlng' Lhe bodles
eŦgŦ azan on Lhe ears of a baby glrl Ǝ boy (refer Lo a[ah !alnah)
rowlng up Ŷ whaL does Lhls mean?
When does a body become fully 'lndlvlduallsed'? ls belng 'lndlvldual' mean 'self'
deLermlnes everyLhlng?
8uL rememberť
Mary uouglas Ŵ 'lndlvldual' ls 'soclal'
1wo bodles Ŷ lndlvldual Ǝ soclal bodles Ŷ boLh are soclally formed bodles
ow do culLures creaLe places for bodles?
Soclal sLrucLure Ŵ SLaLus Ǝ 8oles
ow do culLures mark bodles ln Lhe process of undergolng changes from blrLh Lo
deaLh? Ŷ by deflnlng sLaLus poslLlon (place) Ǝ rlLes Lo enable LranslLlon lnLo and
occupaLlon of Lhese poslLlons Ŷ see cllps for some of Lhese rlLes
1hrough soclal Ǝ culLural rlLesţ bodles are scarlfled Ŷ whaL ls scarlflcaLlon? See
power polnL on ScarlflcaLlonŦ
lrom van ennep
W e says Ŷ socleLy ls llke 'a house wlLh rooms and corrldors ln whlch passage
from one Lo anoLher ls dangerousŦ uanger lles ln LranslLlonal sLaLesŤ slmply
because LranslLlon ls nelLher one sLaLe nor Lhe nexLţ lL ls undeflnableŦ' Þ 116
1he person Ŷ 'who musL pass from one Lo anoLher ls hlmself ln danger and
emanaLes danger Lo oLhersŦ' Þ 118
8lLual Ŷ 'Lhe danger ls conLrolled by rlLual whlchŧ'
W preclsely separaLes hlm from hls old sLaLus
W segregaLes hlm for a Llme and
W Lhen publlcly declares hls enLry Lo hls new sLaLusŦ' Þ 116
ln Lhls wayţ rlLuals funcLlon Lo klll Lhe old sLaLus so LhaL a new one can be reborn
Ŷ Lhe acL of kllllng Lhe old sLaLus and reŴlnscrlblng a new one on Lhe body ls
LraumaLlc eŦgŦ scarlflcaLlon Ǝ lnlLlaLlon rlLes ln AfrlcaŤ LaLLoolng ln 8orneo
Marglns as LhreaLenlng
W uouglas' Lheory of polluLlon Ŷ applles Lo undersLandlng why
'Lhe marglns of Lhe human body' ls so slgnlflcanL
W uouglas argues LhaL everywhereţ Lhe boundarles of Lhe body
are lmbued wlLh helghLened meLaphorlcal poLencyŸpeople
reacL Lo Lhem lnLenselyŤ Lhey are ƍloadedŦƍ
uman bodlly margln lncludes
Ŵ halrţ Lhe bodlly llnlng lLselfţ Lhe sklnŤ
Ŵ all Lhe bodlly orlflcesŸLhe mouLhţ noseţ Lear ducLsţ anusţ
vaglnaţ Ǝ oLhers
Ŵ Ǝ all Lhe bodlly wasLes LhaL pass Lhrough LhaL bodlly llnlng or
boundaryŸ lnclude sweaLţ Learsţ sallvaţ mensLrual bloodţ Ǝ
8evlsed ldeas ln uouglas
W her earller work Ŵ uouglas concluded LhaL all such bodlly
marglnal phenomena are unlversally lnLerpreLed as deflllngŦ
W ln laLer work (1970) Ŵ she revlsed Lhls Lo a more neuLral
poslLlonţ malnLalnlng LhaL Lhey conLaln enhanced meLaphorlcal
poLenLlalţ buLţ dependlng on socloculLural conLexLţ Lhey are
elLher helghLened Lo sacred valuaLlon or else denlgraLed as
-oLeť 1hls laLLer poslLlon ls more versaLlle and used by many laLer
anLhropologlsLs Ǝ femlnlsLs eŦgŦ 8ordoţ 8uLler Ŷ who polnLed ouL
LhaL Lhe wldespread Laboos segregaLlng mensLruaLlng women
may ln some culLures be due Lo an lnLerpreLaLlon of mensLrual
blood as slgnlfylng Lhe power of ferLlllLyţ raLher Lhan a polluLlng
subsLance (see especlally 8uckley and oLLlleb)Ŧ
Mary uouglas
W ÞolluLlng Þerson (unplaced 8odles)
'A polluLlng person ls always ln Lhe wrongŦ e has developed some wrong
condlLlon or slmply crossed some llne whlch should noL have been crossed and
Lhls dlsplacemenL unleashes danger for someoneŦ 8rlnglng polluLlonţ unllke
sorcery and wlLchcrafLţ ls a capaclLy whlch men share wlLh anlmalsţ for
polluLlon ls noL always seL off by humansŦ ÞolluLlon can be
commlLLed lnLenLlonallyţ buL lnLenLlon ls lrrelevanL Lo lLs effecLŸlL ls more
llkely Lo happen lnadverLenLlyŦ'
'1hls ls as near as l can geL Lo deflnlng a parLlcular class of dangers whlch are
noL powers vesLed ln humansţ buL whlch can be released by human acLlonŦ 1he
power whlch presenLs a danger for careless humans ls very evldenLly a power
lnherlng ln Lhe sLrucLure of ldeasţ a power by whlch Lhe sLrucLure ls expecLed
Lo proLecL lLselfŦ'
-o ÞolluLlon WlLhouL Marklng
(Lhusţ placlng bodles)
W ÞolluLlon Ŷ żCommenLť 1hls ls where she ldenLlLlfes Lhe soclal producLlon of
dangerour bodlesŽ
'ŦŦŦLo ldenLlfy polluLlonŦ ranLed LhaL all splrlLual powers are parL of Lhe soclal
sysLemŦ 1hey express lL and provlde lnsLlLuLlons for manlpulaLlng lLŦ 1hls means
LhaL Lhe power ln Lhe unlverse ls ulLlmaLely hlLched Lo socleLyţ slnce so many
changes of forLune are seL off by persons ln one klnd of soclal poslLlon
or anoLherŦ 8uL Lhere are oLher dangers Lo be reckoned wlLhţ whlch persons may
seL off knowlngly or unknowlnglyţ whlch are noL parL of Lhe psyche and whlch are
noL Lo be boughL or learned by lnlLlaLlon and LralnlngŦ 1hese are polluLlon powers
whlch lnhere ln Lhe sLrucLure of ldeas lLself and whlch punlsh a symbollc breaklng
of LhaL whlch should be [olned or [olnlng of LhaL whlch should be separaLeŦ lL
follows from Lhls LhaL polluLlon ls a Lype of danger whlch ls noL llkely Lo occur
excepL where Lhe llnes of sLrucLureţ cosmlc or soclalţ are clearly deflnedŦ'
W Chlld Ǝ ouLh
ollandţ ÞaLrlclaŦ 2004Ŧ '-o fuLureť Lhe LhreaL of chlldhood and Lhe
lmposslblllLy of youLhŦ' llctotloq cbllJbooJť 1be Mytb of tbe cbllJ lo
lopolot lmoqetyŦ Londonţ 88ť lŦ8Ŧ 1aurlsŦ
ÞrouLţ AlanŦ 2000Ŧ 'Chlldhood bodlesť ConsLrucLlonţ agency and hybrldlLyŦ'
8oJyţ cbllJbooJ Ǝ 5ocletyŦ -ew orkţ - uSAť Þalgrave MacmlllanŦ
W ouLh Ŷ 8runel Ŷ see local newspapersţ lnLerneL Ǝ medla dlscusslons on
youLh decadence eŦgŦ lepakţ Lruancyţ youLh Ǝ Ml8Ť see also offlclal
reporL on youLh avallable onllne
W Mary uouglas Ŷ ChŦ 6 ÞurlLy and danger (see noLes for help)
1o furLher your undersLandlng you can opL
Lo read Lhe followlng on Lhe appllcaLlon of
Lhe ldea of polluLlonť
W Lambţ SarahŦ 2003Ŧ ChŦ 8 '1he pollLlcs of dlrL and gender
body Lechnlques ln 8engall lndlaŦ' ln Amerlcan
AnLhropologlcal AssoclaLlonţ MeeLlng SLaff (C8)ţ lttţ
ooJtessţ ooJ Jlffeteoceť ctltlcol petspectlves oo tbe boJyŦ
lndlana unlverslLy ÞressŦ
W 8auerţ !aneLŦ 2003Ŧ ChŦ 9 'CorrupLed alLerlLlesť 8ody pollLlcs
ln Lhe Llme of Lhe lranlan dlasporaŦ' ln Amerlcan
AnLhropologlcal AssoclaLlonţ MeeLlng SLaff (C8)ţ lttţ
ooJtessţ ooJ Jlffeteoceť ctltlcol petspectlves oo tbe boJyŦ
lndlana unlverslLy ÞressŦ

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