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Experiment no. – 10
Planck’s constant ‘h’ solar cell Object: Determination of Planck’s constant ‘h’ by measuring radiation in a fixed spectral range. Apparatus used: The complete experimental arrangement as shown in figure (1) consists of filament bulb, its power supply (012 V d.c.) , A solar cell fitted on mini optical bench, one Ammeter ( 0 2 A) and one voltmeter (010 V) to read filament current and voltage, one digital D.C. Microammeter (0200 μA.).
Filament Bulb
Solar Cell
Figure 1(a)
Filament Current A Power Supply Current Control Filament Voltage Filament
V
Figure 1(b) Theory: For a black body at temperature ‘T’ the total radiations as well as the spectral distribution for this radiation are functions of temperature T alone. The spectral distribution involves Planck’s constant ‘h’.
E λ dλ = 8πhc hc 5 exp( λkT ) −1 dλ λ
−1
………………….1
hc >>1. λkT
Working with visible light and temperature upto 2500 oK , we have, Hence equation (1) simplifies to,
E λ dλ = 8πhc hc exp( − ) dλ 5 λkT λ
………………….2
2If the radiation is received through a filter on a photocell and galvanometer response θ is measured, we get: Bλ hc ) dλ ………………….3 θ = 8πhcA ∫ 5 exp( − λkT λ Where A is a factor depending on geometry of the arrangement and sensitivity of the galvanometer and Bλ is a function of λ which includes (i) transmission characteristics of the filter and (ii) wavelength wise response of the photocell. The integral has to cover all range of λ for which Bλ is non zero. If we have filter, which has, transmission characteristics schematically represented by figure 2 (a) and a photovoltaic cell with response schematically represented in figure 2 (b) then the Bλ function is given by products of ordinates T and R plotted against respective values figure 2 (c).
R
T
5000
6000 7000 λ (Α˚)
5000 6000 7000 λ (Α˚)
Bλ
5000 6000 λ (Α˚)
(a)
(b) Figure 2
(c)
However, if the filter has a narrow transmission band, one may reduce equation (3) to ,
θ = 8πhcAC λ exp( −
0
hc ) Λλ0 λkT
………………….4
Where λ0 is some effective mean wavelength , Δ λ0 is the effective band width and C λ0 is a constant depending on λ0. At two different temperatures , we get
hc 1 θ2 1 = exp ( − ) θ1 λ0 k T1 T2
………………….5
3Where the constant A, B λ and Δ λ0 all cancel out due to the simplifying assumptions made to go from (3) to (4) We note that unless the transmission band is narrow, the theory would not hold, further effective λ0 is not just the center of transmission band of the filter, but it will be seriously effected by response curve of the photocell. In the photo voltaic cell the shift usually will be towards longer wavelength. Even more seriously the term exp( − rapidly with increasing λ. For T = 2000 0K, as we pass from λ = 5000 0A to λ = 7000 0A. This exponential term increases from exp(3) to exp.(2). This fact will also place effective λ0 on the higher side of the mean transmission wavelength of the filter. With in these limitation equation (5) gives 2.303 log 10 θ = − λ k T 0
hc 1
hc ) increases λkT
………………….6
Thus log θ vs 1/T graph should be a straight line from whose slope we may deduce h.
2.303 λ0 k Λ(log 10 θ ) . 1 c Λ( ) T ………………….7 The experimental task reduces to measure θ for different temperatures of the filament keeping the geometry and λ0 constant. METHOD:(a) To determine the value of Rg and Rt/Rg with the VI characteristics of Bulb. h=−
1. To find Rg the resistance of the filament bulb when it just starts glowing: Connect the setup with the mains and switched it ON. Apply filament current by the power supply control knob marked CONTROL on the panel such that the filament just starts glowing. Note the corresponding filament current and voltage and record these readings in tableI as shown below. Take at least three readings to the get the better value of Rg. Refer fig. 3 TABLE:  I For Rg, the resistance of the filament when it just starts glowing. S.No. 1. 2. 3. 2. To find Rt/Rg from the VI characteristics of bulb: Further increase the filament current in steps of 0.1 amp. and note the corresponding values of filament voltage for each value of filament current. Record all these readings in tableII as shown below. Filament Current I Amp. Filament Voltage V Volt Rg Ohm Average Rg
4
3. Calculate Rt and Rt/ Rg for each value of filament current and voltage. TABLE:  II For VI Characteristics of the Filament bulb S.No Filament Filament Rt Ohm . Current Voltag I Amp. e V Volt 1. 2. 3. 4. Rt / Rg
(b) Observations of θ and to determine the value of Planck’s constant ‘h’ 4. Adjust the filament bulb at some distance ‘d’ from the solar cell on mini optical bench. 5. Increase the filament current to such extend that the digital microammeter reads some photocurrent say mini 2 µA to 3 µA. Note this value of filament current and photocurrent and record it in table II as shown below. 6. Increase the filament current in steps of 0.1 amp. As in previous case and note the corresponding photocurrent for each value of filament current. Record these readings in table III. 7. Note the value of Rt/ Rg for each value of filament current from tableII and record these readings in table III. 8. Note the corresponding temperatures for each value of Rt/ Rg from graph no I or tableIV for Rt/ Rg Vs Temp T oK for tungsten. 9. Calculate logθ and 1/T oK. 10. Plot graph between logθ Vs 1/ToK and find the slope of the curve. 11. Repeat the experiment at different value of ‘d’ between the bulb and solar cell.
5TableIII For θ For distance between the filament bulb and solar cell d = cm Wavelength λ = 6000 A0 1 S.No. Filament Filament CorresPhotoToK logθ x10 −4 o Current voltage ponding current from T K I Amp. V volt Rt/ Rg from µA graph table or Rt/ Rg Vs graph. ToK 1. 2. 3. 4.
Calculations: From equation (7)
h = 2.303
λ0 K log θ x o x10 −4 c T K
Where λ o= 6000 A0 mean wavelength of light k= 1.38 x 1016 erg/deg. Boltzmann’s constant c= 3x10 10 meter/sec. velocity of light
log θ 1 T
= Slope of the curve.
Results:
1. 2. The experimentally observed values of Planck’s constant ’ h ‘= …………erg/sec. The standard value of Planck’s constant ‘ h’ =
The experimentally observed value of h is always with in 10 to 15% of the standard value.
6Table –IV Relation between Rt/Rg and Temperature K for Tungsten Filament. S. No. 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Temperature (K) 0273 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 Rt/R 0.25 0.29 0.43 0.55 0.71 0.85 0.99 1.15 1.29 1.45 1.61 1.79 1.95 2.11 2.30 2.46 2.65 2.85 3.05 3.26 3.46 3.66 3.85
PLANCK’S CONSTANT SETUP Model PL01 Fig. 3
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