P()IR1JA L[NG·' '-.

Bentle~ Layton.

Caver 1I11u~tro[i;on, F.m'M.l Standard Sahidk: Wherary m.unlSCr~p[, 7th o:r' Sri} cenuuy {no For Q,¢s'cIITwpd.on, 5:~ I:1guru foUlowi,~.g rib! L': 1.. Coune"sy B~j.neck~Ra.~ Book ;!:tfiI.d. Mamj~f~p'l ]Jbtary" Yale Un iv(;~i.ry.

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",'WW.b::trr~~awit~.dl;fv"Crlag [SSN 0554-7342 [SB 1'73 "447 ··04833"6

Copyr'ghted material

CONTENTS

For Iffile; Baste Sentence of .Ex~s1emcemdJ Indlcaliun Fonned w.~lli OYH.....Mid.
'E: Ic~,

see

cbapt:e:.r 21
233.

'141 ]JheDunl"i,vt'l Sentence

15.

Non·dwmtive Conjugadon

2:1.~ .
.N1,'U'Jl'OY~'QI

• 6. The .I,mperal'i.ve ~

291
COil!lJiu.gat8(i1 Vet,90;'d

n.
J Ii

TIThe SUFfixal])!

297

Eredkatioo»f
Ol'iT£.~

Blsil-e;fismm;'Saxe"
(i1 ,.fAY)

3m
3 m 2:

305
of Pmse.s,fdon

Other Expn.!ssimrs

For the hnper:sonaJ Predica,t.e(l.Nl.f'KH etc .. ., see c;hap~f\r22 )

Pan.3 Comp~ex.Clause:PtIU,eming
~19. The O:mveIfSJOnS 312 335 Relatlve Con'!ief:s:i,oii 324 Cirmmstantial Conversion
Lrfftl~ril'

C0I!'}:eui'0I1 34'7 F ()('(I,li:Zi1.ig, C01jvers,ion 352:
1

~O.

The Ckfi Sern~en:@

367

21.

Sentences
£IC::;~

of Ex.istence amd. Irndic:ationFormed
3.8]

with OlIN ~ and

22.
23,

The Entity Statement as Subject Expansion
The Ad 'fCTbiia~,C~auSO,CO!ils.tmc~iQffil·

391

Adyerbj.a] (I mISe:>mID

mn fi fl,iIi!e
420

Pb[ases: 24.

39,7

Reported Speechmd

C'ogI11iwon: Directarnd .hldiroc( Dtsc'OuiI'Se

Pan 4. Time Reference25. The CoptiC Tense System 443 465 Sub~:ec~ Index 4.69 Select Coptk llldex 50 I 433

Index of 'Passages C~~ed .52m

Copyrighlad materia

W1d 1~64"7from the: New). old one of .. These include 1. It remains fur meto thank.Fthis grammar went out of prinr. 878 passages from ~IileBible (231 from. -which would replace. the ptib~i. Cltatiens are the ibackbone ofaAyre~erelThce grammar.ti. expanded the documentetion ferafew. In this tMk I have benefited frem suggestions made by several c.o:llo. full- scategramroar (thefilllbJec~ indexand select Copdc index havealso been revised accordingly).fet.J (DOSve. I ha. which is reprinted below. and Ewould like In renew my thanks for tbeirgreat gene:ro~hy.ectrlQnic textwescomposed by the author in WordPerfect 5.!!'. end. and corrected very maJlIY 'Of the wnb~g!u.graph numbering has Anen:lirely newsection J1iO~ been changed . and 12.2000. more 'dJan once ([bus 81. HarrassO'witz Verlag and ~he~rprintern (Drukkerij Peeters) for meticulous care in pubW~shi!!1~ both edltlons of this w'Orilt.8 refereneesare made. and the new .ve improved the decSlcrlpti.ges from Slilenoute).g house usingthelr proprietary software on . tile Q~d Testamens .ber of grammarieal pa~.siasHca~~ileJf:amre.tilde.ited.a/'ia n.ll. inevitable a ill the.c(}nrsistingof a index loeerum of rheexamplescited in the eourse of the grammar.a Macintosh computer.700 paSSfigesare indexed ihere.from OthC4 'eccJe. and substaatiany augmented-. ~hre-e~hou8alld citaaons of c~assical Copdc.. are almost. More than 2.of whom Ade:l Sblsha-Halevyand Stephea Emmel must be especially ttilanikecL Pror. Tbe original para. he 'OrigT inal e~. 726 from Shenoute. of this second edition. it also contains moo.2): 42~59' hasbeen particubdy helpful. some of these passages axe c.shet kindlyagreed to theil}Toposa~. Copyriphted materia' .tiolils ho supported this pmjec~ilJre aeknowledged w atthe end g:f ~he Preifa:ce ~:o First Edition. nrstversiofl of 31. the.s. ill nQW give readers immediate access to a w grammatical discussion ofabo~n. fun has also been added.oHeagues. "71 (200. AlthQugh the QVieraU shape of the workend mmd of its ternrinologyremain intact!n fhisnew edition. .ofl of qu~tea :num.3.it. tome 72:6 passn. OUler scholars and ~:n:stim.yi..~es nd! errors that. Shisha-Halevy's revlew in Or.nte:re~ti~2 proposals for future research an the structure of Ooprk.terns.of a new edition-rev~sed~ correcred.F~ slon) and then reformened for typesetting byme prindn. at the.Preface AS THB first edi.

--.~".te·s walks does not yet e:xlst I dte. Chr¥!f.ige mmed Suhidic into' a nationw ide medium. CalCgQ.draw ... in .yl:ist:in..I.-.wurksor.. 4 :so lEm.gh a unified.11.~g 18ro. noW regamed as a.D.. ~99J). !IL. which beam Uttle stmcJtural.(jisc:he Grl1mma#k (Leip ..'The V:listc~l.~. .mj' even 'noun~ and 'verb'.! Gmmmmik {BeTl!!!!1894~ 2<1ed. .Preface to First Edition of Coptl. of eommuaication £OF onbodoaecclesiastieal and monastic OJuistianity In eady Coptic "'1'1P~lik·]·"1ilg' .i:'!i"(R~..erary texts of the feurth to dgJhth cenmdes AD. as 'Wr:~~11 ttlGVlliuabl._~:.II. iWI!. fundamcn'la~ reference tool descrjbingand 3.'. Sheneute IS Ut:erary co..I't:.E~r~..tlg grammatical forms.prestlg:iou8 associ.gO). as. dissertation. 350-46-5)..gy.~:I.'11'''''' "" .. '·I""t1" of most 0'a1:1·"'''· :""..D. -~r~ _. >t' . :hamly available in Stern 's day (lG. in the more recent handgr._.. with the.~".. [911)4)." .lveJy from me writings of Apa.wig Stem. : 1 In thG PMa :s£Iie:s.·.._. '~lwpresel'llvohjJme replacc!! Georg Stl!!cimdorif's br~f Ifopr.:so ~"'1~'-. 1 alsocaHartilentiorn to the se~ect Coptic index. of Ungu1s~tcs.sWintia. j Both h~s "Cirtlilm. Sahidk" found in Ht.t"_'_ __ .Iit~'.h also bad a...bigwo~s or pU!zzH.I'l'..tem.c'. in E1'l:Ypl..isflrst discussed in (he book~G! spec~"t1cal~ ~yas applying ~()Coptic.C studies begiFlS. AS A NEW CENTUR...lit. .:ilBut: within the last few years Shenoute's langaagehas been.Sinouthios or ShaniJdab.famn& ~:ar:1:ndo-811lrol"ll". nor ismuch of it found. one Qiflhe secondary aims of this grammarIs 10 make Shenouts's Coptic more accessible .1 Sentence" illildlilc... xi Copyriphted materia' . ThIs book does no:(presuppose: a re:chwca] !k_!Ilowledgc._..f Ariel Shis:ha~Hale.--. :SigllllmSh (more: than 800 such citations will be fO~fld below).. '~.-t the subject index. where: . .. ·r. richly documented and presemtcd ~o linguists tbro~gb the efforts o." . wh!kihcanhelp' readers toidenrjfy many ." .~h~sgrmnmar is meant documenting the elassical dialect. 'The powerful eembination of convenieneeand pres~. Yale UnivCfsity.i.isdl. undefined linguistic j!arrgon ~8 carefuUy avoided.nna:rion.t()tmfhy.rtceJ. the onhodex Christian establishment..Y to prolVh:h~..!isof Sheaoutean evidence W3.('.ation with.. I have exphli~ned each gramm.j. resemblance to~e.""" id llUl~·~~ .::~d_uIOUgu .vy. --._.repri:11ll. Osnabrtlci!: ~971).ex~p~~~ ell!t~relyfn)Q1 ~h~~(l!li~.". critical edition of Shenou. Shenoote (alilll.Of all ~he Coplic dialects. :source of bisrorical Utfb.an .Sahidicandao important.a:tica~ier.".conveniently shared the greatest number of features w~lth ethers.· .lltajo:[ s~.rpl!lS has: at last been put. 3 and. A Few of I L S..am.IIL.- UnJiJ::'e"my predecessor Lud.nt. Ko!.p.mcl. ."...11 "VI.ammars.u31C!.. "S~cilQiM(i'~ Ut~ntry C'otpi:. in order by Stephen Emmel~4[ihou. ~ J have: drawn exte:nrS. A. ~I.Im'i'!. Sahidic .o''''' C:o·.. _ocad.. ca.Ut. .csof.II~..lginally known under ShenOtlie's authorship..Itis the . Definitions can als ..

l~e.. tbj~ iPJn.. a fg. fatoor.-·..l co.l.UO occur as aur. :l"'e5trii.Ctm y 'H. K.!'!. (. (g) an~ e:f1ti~y ~.lJ-38"A good iU'!d w~~eand Imly rcligi(1I13.·-·I-i.dit~onLS 119(b) ~e"g.t. 'N..l. ·of tile noo..IH'l'IHC ·ti··~.)'w ij-cO\II<~.lh'li!o!!!~ng p~ru~ifil!l)d. 84 Copyriphted materia' . {e)< other types of N HI:.Layt. ion !". Man '~B.0lf'rWN P:s 24(:t5):8"GOI.l. (/')' 1m in~~modm¢:r IS2 bd~ Qw. ean m.NIIE6w .x~-i!J!deif een~ifi 2 :36 (Margan M:569} "A altdbutfll"·e clll.¢ prom~u:O'llS Of wlilo is defiled": O"O::p·HCTOC l.parl:lil~ or lame".:ytll eY""2:0!p'.y.lhI"'H"El. s"..oc e8oA. " _ .l ro.nstl1lc.gadv-erbI0l1.tlvl..w.3~.·6~€-~ 'i!"~X:"lr~ ~e. or Wi.in .ql.oma:nr. and (:.J!lo8€ Heb 13:9 "Strange nd d.\Yw 'ii-·t1.utive GenderlessNo.l: Hnkilge 145. 194:22 "Am: amS.2u-tiS ShIV Wik3 "'TWfl . "The IUgl.g..'IJse 404t 408.y.m'h..-s:s:um. iI'Ilt!06 C NJ:¥ 11.yc~ ~ n S.a J~w~sh falS!!!: rm)ph..H~'iI'ne Shill.:2.tlSlruC~Or:l. mod~f:ier~95(iiO (. oya.~t.er fielllame leaders" or "Twa olilile:r leadWng women".rJ. us to keep silent?".ctlNl:..U H~H.e w1it(:11sin.¢fm~!l Unk:"g¢..ru::l!uding l~Ose of differetukhw.A. NIII.lluHI.26 "Thelaat C ~ny" N"'li'r)r..:~T.)()I.w:n ffOH'lH INiIM. I) (S·imilarlywitb the .nea .r!!illt!~'1.~eNco4-oc 5~!Alnell 76: 12 "'ill~!i rn Pattern 3.21 .xAct$ 13:6 "A oen.mi!'! K.q ShWes<s911 &...P(uM'G "EveryvUepersotl'" 'CY~I:::I M~neT~H •. I r€ql~ '9.Jc. Ac~~ 8~7 "And miil_ny wbo . '9:41 "Ofujlh~ ~~ss aarl. forever"~ "Sht.""'\I] !~. ex:pii1inSiOfl. jev.xli~' _. "The ~o!ld de<t!h". ..es _ uen ~." ~¢ ~g.. 'WL-..'.u"'t "I~II'!~ 1 Tim 5~5 c'on.8. .t-Oy~"-$J-oy Phill: 4: l"Mybc~Q"'oo bre.l~1n!magiocian.at.O..~iokcYOlll'·...11 E::':.1hren whomlloRg fbr".:lTII..tt.hUf 224:19 "Is Nllime ~or ..S enC __ C" d ___ A.l1I1!lwotion. -~·I1(·.~6\.eanMS C.{.. Ooy UTil rW"'TIN IN'" rWl'!iE swn 6 117: 5 ".40"SQ.mn:gici:an. H~nlr(I. the )'a----". 11i~l.~ wl.!):XiPm'I~iQn) oft~ i..yiit . fo!ftt'l: _ .€INCBWiH .i..g.oHe luke. .hUf&¢~{!g~inst h~m"~ 0YllloIPNIOC ii ~q~C(ll()q Heb ]2: 116 '·So~.l:~.g.!> Ad!> 2$:7"Ortat und se:noos i. m:.:ppcsiUon ~~44.c..\. person ... ~'I..eN€~ H ~mcToceorr'~6o.). (It ..w ·€ql-(. '!lrm6 N" cg~eReiv 13d"Orea( unetaaces": n:M62-CNJ.M.[.IOYJI.Ii'OC g. TE.. lG: "Etel'm1lL ~ife. uke L elaesal expansien 146 ~e.pervesse genera.. 'O'itin~!"SO~~".ll !'Il" S01'11. ef .ruc:li(l-fi (e..e!flc~itlc 'WHItt!: ZeN "OYI John the Archlmandrite~ Exegesis [Cooan]II[Vielll11laK:9028r .. 22_:23.a.idow'·).. E::20YIN E:po .'Xl and Upri8bf'.~:It1IN06iH-l.e.(. wi]~ prevail (lv¢r ~~(l~ ~i ing..yw 6. "A dm.." ) a: 28~b..~.£6UOWlll.Uvmg.ibudve term ~.l:ntityru:rtrl CQ.tlon 9'2(11)1 has I:bcl fo~~ low.J-q Lute II.. oyn I~O~Hl'JC propl:te~css.nlbes:".\~€ )"yw ~T"~ ~CWQ:y ShA~!:'I~] II 419: 14=420: 1 "These ~jb~'M~~.!~e~nH-C~!IMI~ fPOI~:sihw.2.·1 oo.}l:$epropllco.peq -r-"oyoe IN Sh.re:re. oyt-:lUlt'9tlA€ and Q" €y-CtIO ""yw .eJ from 'hell!"~ eni". 8:5] ."11ll'ltwo great lighu/':.rig 3-05 (Ot~af!d~:ro. 0Ylli{l.HElIr I"Ii' :a..Anna'·}.. w T .oYfl'aw'f" ii"'~lr~ooc .rlb. Qy~~e e·-~~()Q-·q N).:aflttf the '~nti~y~ {)()fl$.MIIM~.iverse te8drillgS". (d) a lfoJlowiins by. 18" S.c~").e N'li'6~'rnNOIlle 6M-'60H €.IN1i'E ·H-..rl$l) "').odify the £lanle ¢!'Itil!Y w:rm wid .ing fO:mls~ '(0)<10 Muilru."""'~ q¥ ""22H -n!l..Noy. i- Gendered Common Nmm poc "II MN. [... i.Zpl.34 "W:I5e l'.e.E ii~ KO.113 MOD[FICA1"~nN OF TIlE ENTITY TERM CONSntUCTlON Mooifh::iltiiM (~scrlpti'~'I:l. %~(b) a .31)1... (!. Noy~ql (Shltossi U 3 75b:..IH "Ii'IH Miln .rrEl'I. unsecmllytlt(lue" ~ tH. .1\.:yce:BHc ~~H'€: ShCha.. __"__ the foUowln~ g... "LUN EN 6._ -ctltem.A fewtrivi~l giOod) dei~ds.').".qiMMO xyw eY-.1£ II'''' " E-r. (O)YIPWH£ ti.e .HloyRev ~20.l" fA person who was 3...g. Se'Yem[ fnOOlfie:rs.aUy .T6)'C co .m~thrng to S:a:yI!O yo~"~ llQyQEi!I<y ill e-:v"r€·H-IU-pW-H ~eHIe:~ Mad.

aJre exceptions 117}.aoc Li.atea gende. Nouns in thhs class l1a.~~agd deed.~•. They ecear as both entio [y terms 141.veao assoc~ated (inherent) gramn..atk:~dgeJId!er 46.N fW€ Tu. .'f.li"..-jectlvejl. Gender Is mod valued.'d Joseph.j "j' .e ~€ E-!I!eqrl. and fern.The anger'.r!IM).. and gendered carcUnal number'S who'..·.NDER.etc. His birth. who had not eonsented to d:t~lr p1!lrpl).)'WIl1G)'~W'J!: e-ys flO.40 _. _y ~__ .~ t4~.i!kc 2-3:50-52 "'A ui.nl. seleetion IS motivated ltv· it wlthj~n!"!.2€ NI.~.. A neua's gender is expressed not by Irs form (r. constructions of the They-can occur as ~arge[ ofm.IGENDERED COMMON NOUNS TT€ r~Ii'WM£ Q"{pwl. .: . ···R······ _.·/'..~.' Truth.endered CQ"J1J:!on nouns' are 11 very Isrge class of nouns.reAOC . ftnm ~heJewish to~rn of Arimalhca.lk. Stones.j'" .e~1!..6 n:\!r-:OIJli{[~ N €y M <\ 0[1' lI!'€iiiii Iil'€TT "The sp~dt. fl'OYO€i r:. ne ii~l.. a..common noun {Iiilomen action is) " denoting either 0) It type ofact~on" event. ( nl.ssQ(. Greek neuters are snasc. wlla wnsl(i!(l:fdog for 1he ~dr!§d!om. or (if) the result or obj.a~I!~ Tm:!0)'!C t4-TH'HIT-erQH'-rmROYTe rll.). who WIIS a membc:r'Qfl~i"tCOOl!!.. iSe ~ ~ ." h· l1-fro ~__ al ii~~pIWH€ "Human (adJec~~ve).") The i~ftnit£ve as octorless 'verbal m:llmLs mascnllne." n 1M "The mse e one ··UAT1.A.l'"(Ei. . GrtN!.O¥~l.ve constraetion 99) ~.i "The Hghitt/''f'M ~ I..i\€yTH:(: t. the gendeeed noun has the semantic: ~€U[lC1IOn C __ ·..11 lJOCI'UJ K e -IN-~I-ql 1.g.t.only in the medlased .." 2£ tHO Nt.rJ.YC __ . d" " ·_.l~: 'J'fTQJI. I C "The ci ty"." 0"( pW Me "A person.. "B .0"'~HI'T~'C Q. or proce:ss neq xno Luke 1:: l4 ..l." QyHI ~T~ ro"Aki!!'lgd(l'ITl .£h (Rev 19: It) v&~ r andaur~butive terms (. Offspdn.~ ~ IN:-WN€ .• A.~one~a-. 8: . -) of dei])()uuk'!~ '93. for those denoting an entity with binlogical sex.-ffeY'I90x.~~... genderceincideswith sex. . only when.. ··0.l)..u:. . -N .jOYEII..t.j_ng_I. "'~n po¢! H'iI'HC "L Propbets.1a.16~IN€q~6w~"6:o. E. but nnhier by the articles (nt-if)" pro. ~n Greco~Cop.:iiiT€. 'ji'th~chhave the semantic fUl])ciWolJ1:s f denctatienaad descrip~ion93.IN HIH .RoProv 23:~.oomc-atjo~ in noun 96.' y N~oyoeu.liicil.r.'..!If God" ( (:N-)....of masc..ml :n<llrn.g.(!!ct action. b o.r:I'1'l. gender have these samegenders ~n GrecoCoptic.. personal morphs (q/c}.I-J.:lt$ e~ylilo1(.an attributive GENDER os ('0)' .ED COMMON NOUNS 104'Q. .60 can occur as a masc . GRAMMAnCAL I " . PotentlaHy.E.aUrH'lUl1. TransH:~ve or Copyriphted materia' ..aH intf1nhives 1.o:..5'(o". 49·.K nouns . good and righteoosman.~S (. 0:[ fecm.".. j'j 1((.nouns (Oy.• hetexucf . e~~heF 11.Jr.. i) 'n:6~.IN ~J.

otU!{lIle both mase.ati ved by (he megatof 'ifiti.\H"'C2_IIMI€ Acts 2: 18 ·'My menservsrus and my l!D? Special Ji.f.. 4.N~'I1!Kr~rr'H· ~11~'iI''''()KH£KPhi~ 2: ~4 "WHhul!Jt grumbli!n~ or quesuoniog.u. whi~:e de:no~iil"lg.y~~M~OY€MI~~. e~0yM~ce~~H pH Rom 14. ~.al.r The lexical cont:eI1l(.~1 (The.)..tnot to eatmeator drink wine. distingui.d ~~'IH rS!c. 105 (Charne.: nTH 't~06IDN'TA€ ..~ll'!n€ "-'C2~H€ (M.()Ili!l".mn.siliO-.~qOYA€ "Not ro think hjghmy of oneself'.icalsex. bllli Ilhe Oree...sh the blolog:ical ~xes:Kl.25=.a) Collee. (l:l~ilI!lt.. nun. (a) Fern .h.: .C.)~.ng. nouns (fewer than twenty) s.. ii"':l0oYir '\laJnll!>.:NIs. 10fi'(i~). "TH~('.}.-'..g~ b i ..e~). 'sman dog'.rk.itN-.!j't €-N.filt\:g. bln:y:i.i\..g.. Such 1ll0Ulli1Sa:re ills.tive ..c:!"tld..i.t Pro"'" adS "Abtl'!l!d. nell ~IIIO~M-m1IH".lJ]." l!oo Ammwl.'YC~fcm.. oommon . 25:. mlgzy.m'~ -K .iCl\l:riSI!Cli oflhe g(l[Jd.allc:rdt~o!1!'or dQubliTI!g.:OGIC '(mO!~.) 'h. .}..lste:i'.o !lio:mla~ly nUI!ikedfor gende:1' by 'f~~rrlie': Slu. they-are non-deradve 3. INl.:c~~: _.~y" 2'r'91 r'€.(m".. I(./f'cI11l. Qyll.d b)!i fi. •.enters jOloaf(ide phrases WiIJD " .(!M:2J.. l!ll~c(lfut. 1c.ed by .'not' 1:15:1.:2J "Itls riiSh...~lgfor gender. The (~Qimibi~ation 1l'H-' Infini.J.lforth 'OFIsme] f~om Egypt".NOl~NS i:nfilli. zero article I(art.xn€-'(!J.e.) 'goat' .'.r.H "bliru~ maWllwo:ma:n·.lunml. Some other :spec~!~st'lrnnes. N-SrS.26.·..OOllll.lion of (ij'-)200YT' 'n~~~' Lc\i IDild (:N")C2IME OYI!l..m~": :&.uup]es: nE"l'iNt Man 6: m "'YOIU d.oun 99: 0YIi1::"'yr.···'·1 n .: oH.. fern.. Z 298:7) Nll. '" .u.. for:m:dly diiltijj!&i!lis~~ ~l1t m8i~c and ~Ii!c fGma~~. ·.giJ!lal ~ars fJ!'C:!l..Cur in. lIisr "liD I)o~in.X..h. ernti... > Formmiml. .M!ii1-'. :2M-K.trilblitl¥e COn'S._ A·· -:. 'W'bjcb {Ire eenstructed .g ¥1)1~'el: 1I. Dep.i!l€ . A smallinrumber of nouas C<l!~I. nC'~Ii1I!IQCG:i~5:S"Thi$ pe~I:l~~ slen" (IulitlitlV.e!1!:de.:.. NUMBER lOS.) 'YOIl!Wlg man. (lnlil~:.)'_an!'l¢rv. A few forma.'OlJllllg woman' ii.l~W 14}: I "The ~:oin!.l:i.~dr!gui~n. 'jipo!'rrw 'king.q S!hm :50:5 "'.lilrhy":. of the infinidve asverbal I1:Qun can 00 .3!1.€/lJ.les.28. zoqJ:.U .:'brothtl:r._c air .:~..rille uouns are these wbich can occur iaa si.alnJt pussesskms (A!oqui. ".e 1fI~¥e tlt~ cl:!ilf.OQC"'!i' MaR 26: 12 "My b'l:!ri. and fe:m".llIg'-Mc)"'~ 2.ty termconstruction to denote a eollection of indlvlduals (ifJIHIHIii 'Ye"The Icrowd")and can recejve 86 Copyriphted materia' .ot mali.shiD!g male and female blio~(}g.'1 cJhA·~mCL~ 231 13.8 "J.. .N/C{JJ'U t. rs l." t:cm.as: 'balIhlimtH'.f(jxlI. of' aiidnmJs.llyre] ated genderpairs o. 1) '''Hc·g()i.mal Io:n.o-rgan M566 4"..\!.~O"povrJ}~oy. of an ~fiuillnru''\i'O'w~J: itN 0YWI'H' N o(o)T€'mruel:r~mal~ doorl..~per·. b:'2:3=2A'j Sf ".. Cf. l)(JiUug."-.(:HZ"'''.. (b)..S. ()(. II.lrdl.alelfen:mle:fllien.er .O'OYT.IHIHE:'iPs l...l. .:(.". CC).~POp~. 'Y 8: Ii rl'd9 RE!'~IP~'m.::n •.fe:m di.ti:vaJ nouns occur in all three 'states and abo with ingressive meaning. "N".y66 'soa. (. ~aid~eHant' • .AumO'y (nllllie. nt:.·hP.....HO.€:t. maid!ser·· MN .tmclion of thli n. Ex.J:le oorpcnf. f~lll.Lrtg h'· .. daughter'.~A.rein.my-oy Matt 7: rn1'~G()!)d g... and with [he.:' .r! of ~na!'lY tbings)". m g." The ]l1fi~it]\!e CaFlI oeeur rul!ian.ol plagse" (cf... !!lame .sped~s.al ma. .2 .:!J.disliil1gulshcd by flnal e . and :fefd.. queen'. hlJ m!derlo duS!t~ngui.HOY.. 101. .i1oc:ompm~i. ~ire·g..::qw 'mlllc.t..

. desc~ibe~idendfy ~ name.8·...ion ..(the son of Zebedee) has the same syntacticstau. that clauses) are.. HlI '.' .1. b!(:~ of p def. d1C:Stli three" "Onc.u. th~: K j~~l".·D . apeI'8Dnofk:!i!.ncrnl Ic]a:lr~:)[t..10".rXQC QoYli"~IMG.Gl"'.OPHIH ill. .\11 . ~l.'Gjfl~.ai. deternninaW)tl.: fmtiJ~y ~e.s J. 00111 bad ::md g.ut» .. ~ryl~g~GYP~tlfl~..lo.a:y H'-tn:::.of Itli:le same referentand thus are eqm..\y..:.'. ..WrON oyrmyll HH-OYhI8.!.':"".lH('U.t ..Qw.y. another Oil' several others by beit1!g: placed after it.~l !i'I~. Tn! C'f'IIC €I e.:i t:4'T.O nl. 129.mkililcenseilill:d myrn-h".t("""''''''b"j''·''' -.imple def. F4A.E-:.isf'.EN'TU"Y TERMS AND ENTITY S. 'and..iUlIjc~e NTl. number..table.: IT!1Irl. 1. more or ~e.ther IkIlQws".J.r Isaac".lxc"Jcs~s Matt 6.Appositiensl items need I notegree in sender.Mau :22."'l-·"ll-'. ~. I oc 6 H He saw James the son oj A termin .QA I~C..h~p of apposil.a. gold and fr.:s :l: ()lhefW~se 14'7(b) APirmrtt"!ilance ~S.....l!.PQf if OI'nYQfle sees you.n. .pCOOy"N '2'ii- ~-E~' MIQOYT Galf r l "God.rc' '~'l"'"!.." etc. 3 1:'1 til bl!lJi]l it.A x Rem 9d. K."...d".'11.i!I'_."lllle: as appUlflei. 'entity term ("the') Pu. oq.' '.. or person.a..or ciHl'!ensbip' '99.ssei~sive :f!rt~(:le~ti...d~ ..Ads W~22 "Comellus. ..11 .L T~e.upright man". nelill..Qnenables one entity term toampUfy...00VCi.3. '~'!-l'.l!nlroc ~11~~~r~ao{. eX:plic. . . re]arlons. t1R"~QYW."WT lot ~ o'~ClIliTTT¥r ro'c ET"· H M.'QO)"N ¢K... ·1I.."Ii.Ahjloo.!i.~ANCifi (}c.Ame Tw 15 ShCha:s. _ '.i'~ .amrples: n Noy"1'e 'filNOy1l'€ Flr.. "T. ti~I~]e": ".:"UIi&if.s..KQ> B O'(:Ji!I(9 '" Zebedee" (Mark I: 19) r€: ... ni'lm¢~ly that lower".~j .q TQ¥ ~9C.TAl'EMENTS TABLE rn~ . ll.1l .I.!Ii- .ttribut]YlC censtrection {lflhc Mil!:! SpeCI..oe .aJ e:NT'-Ol..!)8hnmed~ale:ly.. _ .t..'jltlQn. who raised Him from ~be.JjI _~.appCI'S.phras • 'J' .~ ~~'~.hip .it.led~.TA'IEMENT (SYNTA. rn...c." . Reslric !i ng a s.""!Ii'~'b ... type •.i!s as the one tha!tit ampHfie...b!.NT 0 .: "D.:: E.i.S"F\or God! yQ:\l~ fQ~f. the Fa1her.·~I'. in differ~ I ent ways..I.IQC ..jJ!U "'"' ~'_" " '·'i'··I'.y S~dill2-1. Matt 2i~ l .\H!I(:. For proper nouns in appn...l. I Celt 8. ~8-19 ·'l1_jey'camebeck. Q:YON IPcUM ••• ' glITlo.J.oy Q ~ :. ' THE EN'nTY TER. (l~r Cbr..CTK HQUIVAt..A!ilk '" ~ JJ..1·~J.ue.:..~~.\. sl!!lbs:tantiveetauses.1<l1lCl.".~. 10·11 ·'J(ll1'.. cf.."''''0'.'ll'e '_~i~.("). tems in apposition speak.lllil.T:a r:anHlliT€:€ ~I'!.constnterions --~- 1~<..].MARKS OF GEN:ERAL REiILATIQN'S!UPAI'ID OF A!Pf'Ul{l'r:. neWH€IIill'T me:" eHUT iCl.J'l: (J(unc:s.Y e-U .rnl 149 APPOSItiOl.I0MINT 1 Cor 13: 13 "'F.II""U . Tiff!] BN1TfY 5.e.. esin lieu ef an emily term. ii-4!"'.Il.-q~I!j.Jtas ~boughrepl~aciFlg. t'I"\:1 "-iI~.oY2:£ K"~ T'ONI"fl. 114 .M) ._. a OOllitJlilrlrun.. Oiy~ Similar m~~ing i~¢llpru~scd by ~hemed"l!Icd a. €r'9¥NI-Q¥~ r~? I~~)' II?rQ~K J1~€T\6~O¥H'iI'1-ql MH. 'C' .'-~e: IS. horpe.~.h.-*)cl'~~ zeH""'.

. Many e:niti:ty statements can occur as subject or predicate in nom inal sentence patterns n~i1 .!{s shall live by fa~ni. choose e-"'cwTiIl to choose (verbal actor not expressed). apposition to ft.~mtl~ elBOh 2iii ."!"~-oy~"'I!.ss-referencejbolh retrospective (aaaphora) and prospective '~cataphorn) 27t1t. n THCT'IC "T}kll' "he r.ress action.F. a. in certain constnscflens . or reported discourse.:rHY ag.~"'...r ns .o. as reponed d~SCOlIDrSie-~n chapte-r 24.p..X€-l.. n€ M05t .e.H n tif- "But siUing an My .our l1olyfathef' Apa Haron~namely theJac! that he WQ.Ga] 3.T6:21 HIh(}w (Of 2 seen. the..ightao.J~C. demonsirafive pronoun or article phease ~1.()IW~ capable ofreeelving cro.~e them ihar He hasarisen from mile that) om the road he had €. The eAti~y s~..q-11'IDOYN for you. lnwing.BO~ 2i-N.r(Q N ~e-cq- ~OYHI.botu the rep!:!!la.QI~-'[J~~€lIWT HN-Te:K!Hll. that it is an f)_ffering ..!"-z. the Lord C(J!}T'H T!f! C P~HA' Hear.-6T~-IMIQOY'F dead 6€ iT-....ate:me:nt~ s~~§.x..gh~or on My left is no~ MLE~e bestow" to (Mark.. ' "'T !heard. isevident (It is evident thar~the r~ghteous etc..%12] ~oyoN2 eao}!" .l. a e:-0ZHQQC"'\'El BTJ.i. some can 00 suffixed ~IO a..S ·C(}lJ~ of duc.) <.Me €"'~F'€"'I""C~C~"'NE:I'U.y € .. content of a proposirion.aeJ30YI)MMO·-lf H-rrw~ ). 115 Copyriphted materia' .:((1tf2!~IC: N·.j·TN:-CZ.&W'pO'N tf€"'Corba!ll....n..meaI1!8 ihe IU)rB~N €'li£.\.mil ~<!I refer back ~iO€'~~2MIOOC.eY·~iMloY"E! €po""<lI .x.-CWTH oe.that theconstructien has in some way the syntax of an entity term.~nl..e:pe .~:~on.I) e-TfCQt6~T' IMI-RE:Ht61 W'T' fcl- ~I. 0 Israel' socih..ng hls career ill ill plaoe called Peia" (Paphnou~e Cephalas.q-Nl.A..ENTITY STATEMENT that e}..: "For Moses said~Honor your . Monks of the Desert [BMis 472:24-26]) lilio""Y'iJ"eye:2" To a "lery Iimitedeatem..e-eTf.€.Q Hca.l¢-Jrt. 110::40) [me ".NI)'MMMo-iI1 ~I c.... . I..c:. (Mark 7: l.~:S heralds and anticipates the . t least.whkh. AII KJ.faltherand your mothe. en wri.xc~ c:IDause486:] MIDyCHIC ra..l.lause]~ c r' Must CM st~fld in.tf.AI-COY .e-neu.l''' I{Mark 7: 10) I[-c: heralds and antieitetes thexs ..ect expansion of a crn~mse Is surveyed in chapter 22.: 11) [q. t:rans·~~ive.ll!_re. ..E~Oy'. Stories of drrue. verb or prepesi- tion as~ts object. as an entity and/of target of cross-reference e-"'Tre"!l-CW'Ii'lif for him to.e one m~()tl!er"(RJom 1: 12) "And this me'ansjorll$ 10 e..x.p dq-XOO-..A)..l.A.).IOC "J.

e "~Tili'(l""'T~ MIOl ·ql.l!!UI!!l:" Ir.a. (C.TCQ ·GA..:-Ktuk)l..or th.q "" persona~ Sli~fjlX -<ll- :=pe:fSO!ilii]ir:ll!(:~{ldia~~ SCO(l(l.. .""p~n:Q~alintern:Jedlaile.. wine" ~OI'lf.g~velru::l'!'I (-(.q.st th.E [C) ~ &HtyT:enm '~No..2.pen!1~~]m<lte pe..~L Kg<l:llli'>22.lycr'bl"co ' . 1~l(_"iIi'CO .dc l!ho oppona.: I!{.micl:lon. '.e) to dri!J:dC" ~Jr.mt.:reduced prepersQnal 8hl!l:C c :.l. Ml.A~.lo:~a~ Slate . Dellt 8d"He fed '!!hC'~ nl.q-1"'ire-uF~2~11o!t ~reMIIit'l' H~b 7. little waltlr to drink".(i.(l~on + Thing ~ prepersonal srate tedl.(ii..in taMe ] 2. H1. ~2:58 "t. 'T:6-q-) 9El ~-·nw. WIlS madeto dclJilk.: TCO P. > (1) 'FiCOii-nrWH€:ii-oYMOQy!!! TCE: ~C~i!T (2) p W H.Y_T'c¢-r-Qy~.ustrau:d.Tl"€-<!.~(ff-~:-r:!l·ql' ii'. L~k:e (k30" DQ m:u eause the QOC: wl'!Ol:akl::lio ""way YQUt gQOd.-) back ~Of li1!lepil:f:SOn who ~absaway yO~1:r ~tOllod::..l.WOlWli ofamk1tiQu" ..oll ilsk:ihem~.i\.!il(l(.el hliln prrovi.NINJ.e.7).\<.e-q-'1110Q'ii ~-eA."C forfc::i(l '~Nr"'TM""TE"" C"'I'iI'ETq I N"" Ni'ET6NOyK H:E. 20...rso[la~ obJec~: morph 82 (4) TC. IN "'0 A I +1 (:.¢ H-n€Y'i:iwT N~OYHr'i:T Veil ~9:.X-q. 1ged:."OY'~ "..lng tile.ola.I) .q~) to drink :i~(.Hi: Ps 68019n]"~1i' malk liII~.lUi(U11 (2) .t'· PersOOil.•CiiU8C ... iI1-nlsl1pO$HT·HC ..••• ~o driii!k ..l'..TI~ rcsilUi.iJS:li ••• 1'0 DRlN'K.Q~q~cij~ "C<lUS¢' fl) C)')'J1:'o oy"J TCG-q -QYMI ooyf TC 0 - "IN - I Personal MQrpb "Cause hIm to drink some wat!:.t: dr:int vilii.::.()u gi'l"eln water 11:0~he thirsty (IN-i1l-r".epropilet and.mil)' to scn:re wWI!hyoo'~INlij-'fIO-:K-CG to) ('10: ~4 L~garde) "Alld lornu]m:lw~e win mak:e yinl g:ive !!hem ~.llI.({.~)'MI • pe H HT Heb 7:...6 "He mm:ill:: Abii.!him tOI1lk.A.J3"SQ Ilh~ymade lIl~ir f~t~~r drink... Mows}".N-eT!tll-IHQY-!c tie) t~ .Thing TOO "" absolute srate :s~me Tee:".'ENC1W l!liIk~1.ng p. ptre:nomimd I l1ing + Person .14 "RQh I~IO o~e by \'iQ~l!llXli" (Do not cause milly [0 glll.~ Hnr-T€-.-T-q.c'iIi'€ Sir 134 Copyr'ghtcd rneleria' . •.6 ~'Mute AbrM::lJln gI Yie t~.wH€ ii-OYMOOyb "Cause the manto drink :so~ '~C~I1!l!6ehe man t it (-c-)" drjnk wQ!ter" ~S~MOOY(: '\rC€~RrW "C!UJ"s~ themante drink wal~.e.~y '!lQC€Luk~ :3 ...cq) Person + Thing 'FI(. Tho!il1p:&1_)Q 3 "Gii~'ilmE'l :I..d -cq=pergcmlil >'\Iwffi:ll 88 .-T(:-! -'QYL..DIREC"r OIlJ~CT IPATl1ERNS.. us.ihaJu gi"'~ tith(..".0.~"}.O' ~ pmpersonal state 'V(.. -xe-q ) 2.O!. back)" '~"".. NOT~~ TIu.BS 11H~dialedlb~ a pre:posi:lio.~:yw !.egHir''. do Il.]0 "T.tPer"~onal Morph) Tc€-np.!flt!(i ShU] W6~ 1I~. TABtE12 DOtJl1itlE ._]9"8n tlMl be WillS mado Obe:y made ~hn}1O eat breedof ~. in combiilli."oHIH'toU.h~.l(1ed prepe.EHrnEK-"'!cE-NeT08€H~OYMIOOl' lob 2:2:7 "j'N'e:ilner ha. 'Fee -..l!he.g.a!tI:c:msare ~rn!. iipJ..r"1 him {.: u~idl'Ortl'r di~( Obj~lt~ i~ rt:Nrn:iC:d.H::€-Tc. I!1lxlc.·_'I'Mooy JUdll 4.1Y-.€.q~THIMO-'" M-nH.VER.y· 'bc<ll him {~aused.J. BP<!.

N~e~-B.!q ...oo in 01.HTI:t'. .:r.I'i.I. fliIOY:2: jiU {bcco.!tl~itivc.ijflilmed~al(.)1 The: a:ffirmatl'v!(! impe<:alrullGlis H.tionuryp.ase1 ii-/WHI{)jlI ii-/NI~'" Co.ir 21'}: tS (20: 14 .""J:t·T'(}I!1Maik . vii...clly :l:uf:rix.' ~c nexc ~)'-To6-'(ji €IElIOA €q-c.eDI) liO the!l!l".'1'1:te poor lra\~egood news lJ.l.e.i'~INJ.l:I!t.~H dead..iv..mefull). M 01(2: Man 22: 1Iff " 11 .d". tc:~tll!.i. NJi.q of the ~Ilf!~itlv. mi:d:libclisboth oftbe.16 "And when Jesus hdi'1S{)tlflll baptized. d:lik'l8. He went up il!m!l1edl<lJ~e]y tn:nn the W.I7·4Th. for ilca~ be ~I~detlitood tmn:.. ~i1oth~~ ~t d:~octobj~~t~Qri~'~m\.rc... ).-IITwri Malt ]5.NIJ.I!tJ~lfIg. (C[~un.) DYNAMIC PASSfVB:'IS BernNG BUILl" 175 Dynon. g.nlesc· twointcfP. "Jesus Christ wa.{." Efymologh:.rnns]t~ve infiaiti ve..'2PJ.ve>lll~ ilY'. can express me-proot~s ofemering lmoa state (incipient .illc. when constreeted without diroct object.'... 30(31). ".·73 TIle d.j]:v.l~ al:way~.9 OMpop(u '·'1 am (he.~tLoo.~'{)'ic1!r(become iIie!OlOO) 1"" a.3:I·I·m'laoi:l~ XPH:r:t~..~) 'g]ve . only espressed lily 3d pl.-·C-} LlJjke11~29 "They srram~ not give her 5i:gns (No sligo shaUbe gi.. was opened)' (Re.TRA NSI1T¥ITY:. HT€·ir'Eql"'" B~ n1i'lle . ~~pr.. mCl&riTIling oc(:'ms f~ilI:~f!t[y.r.'JIIi!~1 c h~m to me. .tNlc.baptized. Thas iL~me <libSC!:lcc: of \ii~rbs: of (~ tf. n1:wx.au ..Q!Iit!cr.r.lg some action) IS.£.liH'ONil.12.a.mefi~U".acUo:n).. IDI.are~bui..~ ItU.t.etc .l"·~ ~lHI"¢ c:G'-G:y). (v.~. ·ot N". mis is the ~ingressive' meaning or Ute transltlve infinHive.:€ get .q ~ They-buils-it =.l. tronsitive verb + direct object: They~.ells:if!g pefW~al f'e(li:p. The fiu~ object 15 al.e MEANING OF THE INGRESSIVE TRANSITIVE INFINr'nVE .et iN Ml.1]~y thi!iM(:':Jb ~8 i1i ~usion ~gj\l'e'i'lnd In_e iJ)ft:pe:!'Sona.s peb- Hely portr.~rn1'lz. .rcta:tions are disli nlS!l. wIrnJUv'i!....NIi{.il:L\lif".igliOli!S.y . Of!eaiC:f :a1ml..rrG"""II~¢ u. q-.Nl.itlQ!1 IN¥'""u~!O' Ifill .wmr.reii~i.ayed a'.ouMe-Qbjctcl hlfinith'>e.q .~ ]8 "And tlite).in. will rr!.l:Sc~ .l! bapHu.·..l(--e6 H"fiOOY S..Pllcpos..J.:ooYYf:l·i~p'vlm '. '1'iiiNlb.\!e..]di:Dg""jt.i. eq-oywN2 Nl.y-:tNa-'(..I~) iIn' V""'I~]V ":lXop~e m who.se meaaings :intl'.ECT OBJECT SYNTAX DOUBlE-·OBJECT t~ IHI~r:i lW1!to' IlakesfWO 1. conjugation ofa.!iI! 1he~demons at(t sl~hiecl 1·0 Ut.M" lITH00)" Matt 3.T€: 2: 8:am 20:2 ~ . 13".il1g)f'rlJcffied't.~"~·E:-ril""'I()()YT 1 Cor· 15: 29' 01 I3ann~.-Y €!O. Ps.6.(lrnlsiltiJ. ar.t was built (dyntlrufc).11 wi~] fN!:conu! up.'. 36€l.ini.:-~Mlae~NI ~rei)(!~:uaJ Var.eac/ted to Ihem" O:llm.U.. Utlng .l.lWtll.c.mmed":.d Oil bcllalf ·ohhe ce~ZyIiltOT:l.g.R..tU.-IY} LTtil(im~ is 1l!:!:'I!UCostW.w<l:Ys a ]}C'rno:.g.1rPQ~·tiPolfl'!b:autJ.." 18 e 6.o.Ii~hed on]y by eentext.i<:.o~.ON oltolrauO"G'PClit ~ljJii'lii Lull:: 10: 17 xui to ocnil0\tiU "Eve.e abselute state of a f.q-OYillNii6'I-nerne H-"~~QYTe "God'stemple opened (ibecaflle : open. T..g~vell.ruali!~i~<l:ltib.'" 11:19) ExamiPks: J.nsIDS!lingof three S¢pll:rnle: gJI'Oi1PIl. t. ~~ 'obje.q-tu.l<..wTHHo-. ~.plil. E.· . iI1! II €.]j. (ge.g (allenciry undergoil.)'Al.being bu:ilt..6~Ulvmbn:i.€:~l. IH~.ij C€.CCE.ga:rde) "Tooay ~ wHloo9toW tllem upon Y0I:I. aywN become .rby Giil~. iIIl.af:llJScri.:ke: 7:22.a. Ac~s t:3 "Appear:hw (Bec:OI:ning appar. mos~m:.llgJ (JjJ1ic~ed".. Coptic D.$~!:Igle1U!~it Ht is ~YIl{UlJym01lSW~~ the mUlch mere usual p'h~.eiiO ~"'II c M'fEY Noy l.. 1I is ..open.·f (h:is an a eil~e:rai'laJJlil1greMli"'e (it as an objeell.wT MlM()"'ql 135 Copyriphted materia' .nal ir:ncnnodi..arr .I'ic passive mean.~ti~Ii'e 16!l. ce-K..A..ptl:a~.".

cede: od1iCiil: elements.. YOll of lhe:m" :c~ i'toys..- durative in llNIOy'fE: am thre-e states) and statives.stim. ef 1~ly.'9) God and! His Theymodifyeither (iJ the trern1ence as such. even . (Iv) Therhetorical parallelism of linked . ing) -". Flln:he~ (lama !:rea].. _ _.i:::in~ C'r ic2:Uess ~.i1ngasserted (i. eC!.. - VERBAL PREiEXTENSIONS 1.. andq.Unstancet degree.in (espedally Pg}'iii'TiI~) theverbal Iexeme as such. orthat cooperate with ~he ve. fi~r!ller.PITKEl-X I ~ ~rjfj' Cor 4:7 "If indeed.. .. bU1 also prepO:!'dUon~ a a] phrases ru:. c __ the sentience structure and expresslng the mllthQr~s free rheto:ri. (iI) Mod. ction or process is accomplished). (tddi.~at..pans~on elements 1:S not r. (im Encllitic morphs sil. (I) Direct and ~..wfhl POOl" person who is also sorrowfulj". "i1f--t-li-"c.on. bye.mltr:e.. cgr first.!n.e~ also.s p (duFat:iv'e and AOn.w lcX:cme to .ot. tend ro occur dose 1iO one an01her. rll()r-eover.l. ii6<I-'t€.¢-. I"CC(ltVOOir": ~11 i-o"l:'~ H Kfl: eq Ke~ HCiKl~ Ps 68(69). and aU:irude.YQUii fa~lhls ._ OJ \C~L lce.pres5~ng a sense in whidl the sentence is be'....!K. the ord!eii of ex.2 "Eir{w 10 .tend to precede nen-enclttice.g e_..eXJnYl!pl~i.u-h-o-.!.idl.el.I.l. These abstract principles: often conflict with one anether.:!chas).'VER. In . ~:nor p-b'rilSln. reflec~~ngsmall semanticaHyretated groups w~fuin overall ~exma1 ananc-e:rrnnl E.e~ that are affixed to both ~nf]J}it~ve. befare are moo~fy~~~re:fix. nucleusaad cX!p:an8~.pcy 0' rnN -...-oyoNl!:f 6soA'~The..fact. maneer.e.l:"If!$:l. (vars.x.ation ismade).timwUy.. Cllr(.x€i-1.:3•. for' . tv) 'Deliberate rbetorleal effects can beexpressed by unusual woro o.pniN~) hal1d~pr1!~i()ltcsly rr2. ir1.actua~ texts it varies quiie a.cal choices and c.x..o'o-y ..da~:ses ersemences C~1il accountfcr items out of baSIC order.4 "''J:ih¢y OIJIiie utlefiy damned ": OyJU~B it iUt ¢~~-Ilitl 0').! or Ot"ll 'again'.~nwhich the predk. .stare abtuul'a/ltly v~sible" (Sh./t if we speaktfrus" pzotye.E. 29"~' am p(~r atj"j s(Jrr(l.:.n (Heb 6.'e 6e l.ifier and modified. grow. the: ower ~f these expsnsion elemeetsean be unders~ooo by ~nvoklngseverel principles.. and ta. . 0.T6 '9'rii-I'Ii"~rQ-'C G a~. __ p.grcatly.. and theprepesincn N.d adverbstbat 'exp:r¢s.ve.yw TI€qx~ Cltlri.1The three 'verhtll preextensions: rfilK. c-"'rn~..ndired objects ~end to pre .y c .~ r 'B pn.g ~a.l}tore..express a verbal idea Generally.38:9-12) H'f'ee1le "E.. fQ!J'pnN.146 Copyr'ghted materia' .l(e-"J"N-r'IITKe-wa.c.0Yoe"" (var . place.:!i'to.pb 5d. 3: 17 "A oovenantll1ll:l G~ ..j n a predlctaele order when they occur together ..y determieed.. In.roer.fuass 1.ig. or (..ing abw'{laru~'y" ::ce~ Irzoy()~·ctoyQ rTf ShtTJ 41 ._..8::.NE. among rhe...alii._.'F'loYQ"') more....g .. eve.m arethe folLowin. ~'W..(~If'o·--. occur .BS person for whom . U also have p~ayeda p-art.

. the -.~:md semanticaltyeompleeed..can X ff 11 .ledge ·of God ~c Father" ~ 194~l-~"The Pree-xltension and verbcombine into a single syntactle.l.€·.g.~(iI "Ev~n IUQre £0. semantic.-MI. lr~oy€:· .·-~C~B.e.IUbine: 't'-:-i\l-Irn K.mori.on Hi3(c) (.. sranve is not affec(·ed by the presence of a preex tens ion.ring from. '9-..aWl( Nl. except whenexpaadlng clall note (c).. '9-' be able to" not get near Him ~~ I(Mark 2.lOy~ fTW2.el"€rS-r4IA)'IHWNI :pwr'IitN-e!re MIHC)--O¥ SlruJV d'oods wl':Jiiclrh.lg) OyE<y. the veifba~. Several preexrensions ~NI-.able ta.f an inilnitilve.For example. }47 Copyriphted materia' ..6 q ShChass ..Most of these are identieal with prenom~!!1a~ infirritives. e.-2' .Ob.:st .(do) 'il'l.. (bft) g.. ..:2JO. V.tllilxHhuic's are...l.qNI6si-fUi). S:yom.ctically the :. .:y-~lrm1-C'OYWNI-q l.hil. have WI> mU'.•Acc-ortling to 'Uic!Qre. succeed l~'I'(doing)'. ". t.ow.lth the preestension subsumed blytbe verb: thus the syntax o.~)l . jn.~'I' state m.VBIUSA I. ef.~omet.. w.OS:3-6 "We also make Him.. the fOllndaliUH of the: wCiild"~ K~".-'.'YE..again (do something).xo.Jo~ 0Y(lH:Y. 1 Pe~: .i!i1JtiF""Jj]!SitiVi~ ve:i1h with :~tativ!E!of oni.:4) UW The. .l8 to. av:ance -'" t -wrrr-. o:yw'Z'iH'.JiIXUI\'i in theinfiniti!iie~ e. W INT N l.. g.o~i!i~.-q €i20Y~ "Theycould are-directly fonowed. group. ql-r~QyG:-nwTlww-. the malaverb In the._. l. ora.-" -d' --.2 . They are l(J~~e to "'~~ future auxiliary 311.HC VERBAL AUXIL.xw-. demons dld before"'..kn. bound.ratified"."fIOI~ ShAmill I 276..~vm n:z.~n'9'rn~ coY.:: -...dy an.t.yl ~.pr-eextel1lsi.. 1'i'l-J. AUXILIARn~S previ(JuJ. the soldier wmgenerillll.. .~'l :ME:lr€- .ali.otl$m83. thus diffe..c. M€:.- conjugation p'aUern..tliHN." C-or.<evct.. The placement of Q9'~ reqaires speNl.. )-~3 '2'-'..9 H ~-Tj(..!r. bya non-durative inflniUve (such as ~ .o-y Matt 24:25"1 bav~ to1d you before haed" l-lOv. · ~.-.·~"''9rm-.~·eatly({fo .li the futere auxiliary.:u'.. 'T""g.HIH -IT"": 0 elMoc 1 P..N€...'<H!lvi:ng beeir:il destilnedl (m~terallY' hey t bav~ng jOft'hqwr:Jj Hi!!!!) befbr.(do)1lor ante.»lalU to 0YEZM'.B W K in the preceding example).Elg.~' nee.. N€IBo2HIY€ .extrenu.gry wlrh our impious acts" (also greatly give anger to Him). -11 N'O"(TE n.. can CO.II:O"'.ll.w·.Tl.MO-C.'.be.eqllentfy. regulation (If direct objects of the: mutable i~fiilit~ve: according tothe SternJemstedt rule 171 Is the saline w~dl cOli' w~tho!l<lmaverbalpreexteesion .~.g . eJght'verbal iJnOY-{J).lARH3S aUJ[iUaries ". ·xn'€·. tllftcr a verbal prooj{'~imi 3fi... N e ~1...

. Hn"...~ym 'Z·. E.. ...'gJ- is :sy.9WJT€: John 3:9 "How can this.. (I) Constmcted with a conjugation base. (Jyii~~6oMI e..3..p'dG~Who can (or wHl bealbl]e to) forgive sins but God ~i!one? .yrQC E'i~T"-~ ~M~-I<. K...i. .(d)..e~~c: q"'N)'~ g 'NqlOrn Mad: 9: 11 'H. . ~- comes before a non-persenal subjec~1but attera personal one... e.~rrE 11.lc:I: tlilc.:..) OCCiIl!l"S only fume semantic context of a ~utl!Jre.hl..~ be able to. .)'. ~OL"I:en Ito aJr.'1'e eH~. •• whQ bas h:.N .. Nn:q~()'ir'le~~. l3-14 "let no perso\EIill our commenity or yours go ~o theassem.oy6. g ..9-BWK €20YIN E:-nHei M-n.Te Dent 2:8:43 "The strang.yw .sUngui.. NOyT.. ii~.~.lp. be?"..:. 'E-'IiT'(.g.. 1.....~.. .VER..qIU1l.ng auxiHarYN)'~ or in noris!t clIlnjugation. .. waf is one of four pre:d~c:ate lype.~ can..!:!!.e..:and."'.fCcadiy ~tllm.l. elt4 ii1MO-q E!-NI-q-e'Q)- ShChass 87.2"'J'l.!)O¢i"t.~ 2:7 t(SMv(lt(r:t dfIPH~VUiU . (b) 0Y'.N-rW1MI.1 M!. (CJ'g}"""(Va:r.u.iI E:-TIT€ Li.11) is going 10.~e:-K1'() El8~.M1Y '!I.... H).-ilWiK (:-Tlo..-~UH5 Hfc .: 2~''if'IIi~N HN'€-q. even lift up.uf1e NA-.7J.whbout di. hi~ eyes to heavcl1I"...-} frequendy (Tr'..A:n!l1hooy84 (Garlue..:2:3-24) "Maevc...av.. 10 y.e1tber expandj.lIPW'-'rN John 16:7 "'Iwm seAd rn Nl.elo.xwlml?'~ Mark 3:27 "No one can entera strong man's house").. be .." examples: TIA Ii !II IN ql-IMElIP.s tnal. (vae.€ . and oyiii-.HI~ ·q iii.'q)e-)Ul!:m1ll1way Hls wrnth".alsosupp~y the objectless eonstraetloa of "'9(:e..lIZI.l.~3:1j "Wben o:nc'c the hMz" hiiJlde:rhEiuisen up": 'lI-N)'-T.... Iet ~h~.e-6w~! e -"''1''00).{11MOO~.~~(N) ThepT'esent tellseis mostly expressed in combination with. On R~~~u. lc.f has .ed ad fal~erl."!'. i!ilK-OYf):'!J-Tf'El:tI.g~s ut b cannot walk".TiN OOY''''q 'g.i).11"Whe~e w~Uy(J~ have 1!!sgo?"...:l. €P'€~'.m. e2p'.. ""<:9 J48 Copyr·ghted rneleria' .. fU~. which .t:laiP~ef14)....:.shirng present and funsre: tU H ne". cr..lY rr.- Him..g..IP€:-OYO.1s lndude ty-6M-il6oM €.A.E.. from Me").But tlle saint iii 6 !-nne T-OY l.ijah must {will have to} eome": ne:u~po €T\q:t. T!fe:nlrQC~.'5 .q-N~-lr-ZIJ(m-K €tu.RomB:8 "They cannot € ..l. q.o\y . cf...Ul}OY:Z ShIV 60.. pe:.UlU:VOO ivro).al..J .ywcy 'I'i'''' and has the same dlis[Jribut!cm.itk 14.g.1iH~Tit!iyiJ"H 6WK.:OS (aJ (t!h.l:j'II.. 11I'HAlhanaslml. Ne€: 4'6 . 312 .x(llC)'~ T"'''' Man 26.J...u:x.. itis c I(d)x.:H €r&"'HI~qOY€rl1T€ . b~y".N 1"' .nonymous with o..mt]ve sentence (c. e (9..3e:r €AOE:\\t:rnPWit'Ov~'First E~.ef~mre auxiliary 3.IN~n~ii~ITWQl'N HI6'~-irT:a:o.:1Z-29 "Ljke a lame person .mc¢ (SHorn..alOr).~ 8 liked above . t.l1I1a:in0l1l rae lm()urllain.o~n:.fohn Ot!trisoslonl I(Ji. .peql-6E'fUiI Hqi~T(lii)OY.ql~INE.i' .l'-~.s :up pass. FQr non~dllU1l!. .y .E.. n please God .i t.Fulrll:l~r iIll. 16H-tt6uM '6..!()y~~-q Ma.~'.~-Ti!N'QY'Te H)..U.ise!":.Te A. 22:...fi I.II.: 39 H If it be posslble I[SInce~ possible].).AS r·. call.l..1Ji.interchWige inihe du. . iiiN€..j:j-:netj6wt1T Ps 77P8)~3& "He will {H. 9~:5-6) ". XilTe:.!i El-394.·~ t:u.).fonawed by anoither verbal au:dUary (e..nll-6' Pambu of Sce~~s~ ife of Apa Cyrus (BMar 13S:3~) "'Everyone must (has eo) L C'Ji08S that d ver. '9 . 1 xne-fi€pl.t\li~C"'l. Or' IElgJ- €'9..I~¢ lSd3 "Hf'i would !'IQ~.elc Luke .-'.. " (iii) SynonY!l.eI' that is with thee shan come to be over thee very greatly (dvupn:O'&i1.!q-.Qyii "''Y60 M M:l.~ ii-'2€.tive connterparts.NQIB~ ~8Qi\ ~ Fic..rn~E":1'~~ql~n1!.IiO<-'1' .ofSt ..9~NI:l.~E: Ul.aU to re. &qq)l..

.(::t.l\. ..c~.VERBS nHI'ft f!iuJ''Y QyWH run ti.Hlyt {T. NEdNIOy6"..! 0' T~..):.~()s) 'fQy.lJ fe~d (OYWIH ((at) 17'1. Tli.xmi'.no . to mr:n (toW1i6 (1(1'0 (orrTIC"ItI)) turn~) Ti~Q T..aUve v.1:10 (or TrgITQI (~(I.. 6·(1' '(TGl.x..J.s(!(t::n- ()yw~ unT ..<iSIV. .Xl.. repfoach {N€ti.:l.Vowe. (CKrKr- {cici- cKiKWr"'J C}. -" oy~(!i:!)' open t.. 6e~ inform (€u .lThn."~ ~QK'''} ..".T .mNi .u"..grr(.1'- nOOI"'6~) 'IiiIO'OINE.oy· ..~)e...oke.Cill. • • ..tlln1l ~HI"t 'lID"" 'lWIT -X/WK ~'!jp.O TJ..".'S!.1'880.K~ IKi'Ool) K''rHY'~' make ..... TMM Oj01) 'TMIMHyt TC ....:l.:l8 I Tel.) qO'l'1I!!) 2Qn.QiuH l"llcei"I-''t! '9on".1K.. CA:CWA r ..x. wi~i!i'} ' make whole whole) (oY..K~HYTt Tl.O '1'1. Class V.Q ~TMM'I.erb).Wr' or CK. ' . nm.y. . HY(1')t.lo'esof Cllt~s V verbs ~filh)nilmwy tLk. make £tnmg (wrx co~firm..Iift fW:1I.~re.t... No6'NIEO CKOIPKr COA.~IQI") T . .Hyt •••• ". .JIEJ..T I(To..m/Ort dir.e (he prefix ~U. .:(t..~r'li:'. TOV.lHO-) T~KHyt.' ...T).i.:·CO·i\Tf.e ud..('.) T8l1-1Wli' ff'..iIlOIf'Tt ~'Tr"'!(IlIP~ ) ~"olf''Fr' {~T'rT'rFinu!lladdcd T of ~jltl..TO ~"'T6~ 101 o . ...~ .CW'A:r or ·c.e appftH..C 8t11tilvc~ im Class lV semetimes ..."..ke W'..) CKijiK.e(T..xC) .e.WINE: TWW"tO: T(il..!.ng '[he di!\{inct'ive vow.G)" coxcx: Ch. 156 Copyriphted materia' .KO:Tl.A¢! 6:. beers I.l.neanin:g 'cause .rlf!lyl'.PE:. 1 Q with basic I.Tt g)TFrWpt "'011' c(J.36'7.xHly1 ..ldr.coA.AY\.).ISO:s)'71:.HUHI& ~ roWT {netHil(lie BE(~e:..2 HIN'I 2.. .e.) J(li1o""J . ..l.xPQ . OYHZt put .:mG ('omft l.'" "x.x:e::!tJ- hide camp...T . VoweJ lfil w..uwb sl:IperIinear su·.:(PIHYT1 becom« I(T·:).ale in size) dest ..eT~KO"') TA1\JO.· . Reduplicaied pair .l:......- 'r'" MJQ TOY.or·C:7I:cni\.Hyl Tl. e.::tO T~..fc:rkl/ll (T."".K.A. make P'U/'C (oyon bec-omt: p/~re)' honQr (~~~..".. 1iTOOH€T'.!Jwn qW'T€ (QJen(q€'T- on.) . ~... H Y1'~ mfl. non~cal1i:!s.r:H!(c."00 ~T'iii~6.iwidc (me'Y'" ITO'9") ITHH!il' QyUNt (oyii(o).HI. he firm) .· ..) 1'..of consonMts~ Vowd 101 o..8 H'Y~. and final to . ....l TJ...g....e136)~ Il(!l)W'N€.• "" •.. t(moscly cones:ponding to another. ('2.dsl) AJfimnltiive i:liIl~l!ui. Transitives ill intdal .:. for TWO] (~€ gv) al~-qi~ire [:(. . T(. ..fOM~ 1[. tum relu~y Cla.lcU! Class III Glotl~alstop as the second of three consonan~s(no:tated by doub~i.t TOO .

tNT.ere~GClory" Ac:ts8:341 ~'About himselfor about seme one else" Iii . "leHlIHo(iN~~Otl1i'E:..1..ii~ and 2~-land~also p~ayan j:mportanlrole in endty Jenn Hnta. earth".nOl.x."( S:hJU 206: ]-3·'· As rw :u::~of hmdhe:u1......ered )'00 from th~ml... s1ri!li"e.'TOC.(i. or large branches or large pieces of ii.UiU. repro ach. c(.UILn:E €JIl.~M-6K Hr:rr-NO.J. (EUVFCS 31::24-25) "TOo ~e.hjp Qfthe linked items" The prepositions . Acts 16:17 uPaul and us~~14S Li:W::ed entity terms also OCC~llI!'~l[!jled ill s:eque:11lOe wirhol... 1-2!~ From th~s time on.I ""'~2QJ~21 "" H Qdt!e:621 . HN~0)' aN ~ QyWT . element toaaether: they a~Sio expreEs a.." iv.N2[t:JT2: I..'2 Luke Hi:.'NU1iectingentity terms NH-1(np. 61 ~12r~i H 80 h:!06(al) ShIrl 200~ 17 "Come U![p from or out of".N-~e ShIV 73: IS-161 ·'(Not) any large bushes. .:zynde~t).By de'nnit~on.Matl 18:20 "Two or til_roe"I'. promi.ng irifjniti""e lexemes..x~Kii. cQlme(.:t2§IY:W 6.edl1es.oTk~w.-~NO'i{'iI'@ modifiers (exnemely eommoa): € .scuity.) 'i'M~n'K.t12. c(Jrmec. nel H"~ .e H THe UJesus and His disciples" (Mau9: 1CO 2.I 77::~7 "Grief.~1r-oyill.s.. I ama monk no Ionger. in a fhe-tork:nl figu:recalJed ~:r"'coov" 11. (aRd) gre<lilimpi.C:MOC "As .or~llcll..-H..H''r-q .H-Nll(.eQl::a.iotbe wor]:d~I am tihe light of the world" (John 9: 5)< Linkage occurs at units of text: an levets of snucture-rangingfrem lexemes as such.WI'WH N:ZIH'iI" :as"IH H'iI'~.€~K... T'1.iStl. to large i.1.ar~ ~~cularcirciumstance orre·]adons...·n€ "W/Je.J III! ShUI 25.. rusmIllSllonment!'.i:mik and get 6blite"raled l' Iii.l. p.Q2l.1"'"01"1" IA. sighing.long (IS I am . " XI HIM"".AH SP"9~N-Oy)'. 2:7':17) Ie .. single one tif:Jat did not s.~iconjunc#on:s" arc morphscha!t: signal 'linkage' (conneetion O!I"dlsc.CON J UN C 1'10 N!) C ONJU'NC nONS 231 FU/Jcti:on. foo~i5lIl1!l:s.. SbWes:s9 :870:30-'33 "There is nota. a.:.rABB)'C .ll(..:ff<S ~yllil C IIN :O:'¥tH. "tH"f'~ 0.noyo.tillgadverbJal e~nM. BJ.t someone invites you" do not sit d!O'WA..n:~41:5'. J.OT.()nnection) of one.:1:X. xij"'[!l:i'rIP.A!Q. :(!. nar priest" 25~.. JN""'K~ Al. ia the darkness".d.O 1.G€IIU~IC.NiHo6 M""MIH'Ii'-1..hAmel.l.!l: S.Nrc.QYWhC : .xii-Ie "Barabbas or Jesus" [(Matt. the ii~QyQJIM 2.''if'IIUt. assemibly or to lh.e ShChass~6&.(. WO(XP' Q"¥1'i6dhto6.-.. I'BOt.eIN M-nkO. ncwoY2 i Pachomi~~h Praecepta £00 (Lefon..ge 145.c()6 teN H "'iI'~ NIT-S e 60.'S.:1.e-iiriq .n "Heaven of an kiods {ex~remely (:ommQ:n)! C!H~y H[ TN€: and.O¥'FE NOc(j..ely-God deUv.: '''In-rrpe..3~33'·Le~l us not sleep and be iI!!to:dcaled and remain.g.c()!Ut-tclingno'Un lexemtts :nIQ~' 1(211 2[Q ~ tife: ShIH 205 :2~24 "Bread and dotl!dng".YhQC NHHl.. ina.M 0 N.W[MC4¥Wc .-xyniH21 .(l. paLo.u conjr~cfi(!ln. :2~INH~'!JIEl2€. place of honor" (Luke 14::8)' £H~O'CQINt~~M~TlkOCMO<C l.¥ill N '&'11MIl.

.e#or.ivc QO~Jllprlon3U:~ 335.unit: Itt .As.. Conjlmet. H E:N . .~yCJj. .. oyA.e} e'l!J. were: lIlot " •. to whom.u~~T~'~'Tee~ so 501.31 ::5) "NciitihC-ir to bathe lIar' tQwa'5. € 1I01tc. . •• .ent~ty terms (i-iiI) are Hl!Jikedby ..cUl sometimes:.'l15.l:..mQn)~ ~'Ni ~T~lQY~~'fIe: ~q ~ '90 onii (ill -fii ':9~€ :Ni 0\...-4!€lI<\A-q€II!O.. adverbialmodifiers Ov) byJ.ulilctlon lhilk- iog eli.l.l:a.~ .'Mi H (l. (either) ..:).. he wiU 00 forgiven them'" neXC €iIi E... N).WK. eIT'E'.+imfil1lilt]¥c 34:1...e in Coptic::: l.CONJUNCTIONS AND [NITIAL ATTITUDE .1'5~12t 4 433t.~jU1.• 0YiMO'NON: . H Cl.35) 34St347~ 412.. 4431 458:. tennil:'lalmorph . Fr8!g.. E.1.onsare e']ther simple mcompound. H..¥ttll__H-r . . lil..3. d. 0''( • .2 (11'eg. QYT6 G-"'.f prepolS.1.28(ib)~. N2Hl'-QY Kj.\..x. signal that two or more elements fuaction...e. Ilor ••• ..A ubeeause. ..£1 MtfI'I'l unless. 145. Some .!1a.bJe:MtH~cw~c after'" waros"N-'iIi'IOal:?.)1.ERS.. i.£... (iii} bound :t]:.%37.AIN EVJ. has come the Christ".-ll(.. OY"ir& . •• but! CWitbM~.lctions...~:~q €..n~39'1. ~iii-. 28 (KllIihn 92..IC.tcnded".) ~ fi'ormtllitm..and sO 503." • butrether . l "In the. . either ...!only . QYT'~:tiTQIKQYT~ (i.s:t'quential c:i1i.211~ and..audanOither day •...UJ prefixal .twm:: 6g-e-2e:HKE:UQQfk CE!-Nl..l 'I' fema:t!e".. ahscmoc of ' co~jlunct~on .:'¥ill____m..i or. • ..HIM"Ii'~C~q. . i.l~~tyenns\.ted In EmgHsh). . oyA.ns in correl(Jtl~IC pair'S ana e. but also or "I'. • OF • '.if. P. '·~s expressed by 23..'El.K. 2€INCOill'. v.Q-en£lll. beginning was the Word.:ywand. oY.. as a singh~.. Il:z:O (lY .I4....cl.. conneetieg ekmses .icos of d tliU!:5e rnifl_k:~ge wilmut cO!ljll!1Clioll lr!c]Uik:: asyndetQn.'N01 but m/....\Al'll..elatJve co.. . mcompl.• (with negatived.C:te OOund~ro'l!!p 27~ nnaJ:l"z.e-N'oy~oy ego}. . ~ 0YT€: . .n."NOf' else. narmlyzabl.ICOUlp + bound :!f!!!(). EltT€: •• ...g-'W'DOU H Hlill.l11J€:.(b)cM~polmdlorm"'li{J.her . 5 "My bretheen . 11'1• . moeph + ooundgmll:p. ...prc'.ition/'Conj. .tolCOn.11 ~scC'..8IH>. '2..• :.3S2. u 20WcTe .(l.(bound}:6q:).~e: .•• oyC:01iT times .oX*" ~ if .. clauses) {nei... also converted clauses accompanied by their cenverters (ex~remely c(}m..lte..conjuuctio.. . ur reca!U!lle. and the Word wa:s with God.O!l['else.. utdesJ.. N€neWT£ .. ••• first: of an . 345" 347" ~Y9..i..a.cllmstlll'ltial .xpre~o.• .). ...siace • .'~Gon .. one day.". too... •• or EX.oft E:. whether .oo:<:~a~~~ ('II)mplete 1..•. 506. ""~N e"9. lI~orn H€N ••• . . "some:t~mes ••• at other . belongthe ancestors and.\.• ()if .l.. •• ).• oycon •. t...~~y N.' . • . <:life ~cI~ <1ccoro[!l!g to' ty~of d!lIlS-O LexemesaAd. (v) round mOl1PliI +.ther): .•• .2ri-DtiIQiYT€ John 1..... 1 .iriTG"'" (lQ!'Ijllu..€II(UC {"WI. Me~" .X:€.5 "Even ifhe hascomm~ued.racccpm 92 (Lcf~n CEuv:rcs .~vf:ln.e.. a. accordlng to flesh.l.. ~ N€I'E..-X.les:£IT€ ~-eoo'Y'" €~'I'e "'C211"£ SlillU116: l3"No matler wbelheil:' mnle or &:.because...~lfi Rom 9:3.so.. ) or OyTE> ••• Ii .. mo.~ ~dl um:ramda. ••.4) "NeiLher yOillno~a!lyo'iI¢ else".wrrE even OC. .A""-3.l(l.~ Copyriphted materia' . . SITE.'..oy .xe~ . (var . oYT6)rmr~ neither/nor.353~357 ~J. . OUi 'Of wbom..o'!" K<l. €:~TS .e €UH!''r! (ii) two separate OOIllM grou:ps 27: if. 443. ~e:Hllcon m . in paratlel.s ceordinatlon or disjunction.at.. sins.x.M. e. -x'€..~..g.. thus..f\O\ ••• (Por the selection u.:"T1pe.. .e: .. bur.234..im!j •• .~€~bcc3usC\. bad way" ~ ~con.(N.eith..-i!'c.WC Pacbomiucs. (IV ) bound. iUN 233 Corr. . 'Ilt().ARK. ..:lJTE ee .Jas 5: 1.:lI:np.tph. ..oy~G ('iorar. 341. (with first element negativoo) flQt .b oncseJfi:nJ a.. :. fa)sif1lplc·farmaIio'l.CNI'HY . They tll. (. n'!) -X. HI or~ . .Yw.MN~.justas . hOlmdi mo:rph: €T8E-. ~con . 4l9... soalso .):.

Ii . Then Jesus said to him.y "-Ci2. T H IP-..HlLHliEi: '6.Q.he n I shan ne Ionger speak to you in figures' (JoreJn . :\yw IH1.\!"!'ijT~ Qy.4. Tl6nN~ M€W fr'cwy.¥ man aJmong them sllilaUbe permitted to meet with any womlan.\~q~e-NI._"~ but rather. Linked clauses.¢ iiitiid i{jitC tliic other..d Hls :iJc.T.Il ive g Ymlj.accomJing to the which conjlunction Is selected: exsensien and :adverbial mod~ [ficaUorn.n· (subordiaation) '€'!}-".. TQT£... (b)~A. Satan~! '! EXJensiQA is signalled by conjuactiens ihat express eoordinationrdisjunctinn.lI. rrlllt: the flesh IS we$"'.tel.:!J.'.Eoy~ . !l!?b.CON HJN CTIONS N-VT[O]O H"'MltH~'l ~(:Qn HMT-.l.I~W·~~]. "The hom iscoming w.u~Z 'h.q Nl.«uw n¢AE: De lIS...:tiIH(.S!cour.g.sQm..I<w ~c IP'Cill. occur in two kinds of syntaetie function. (a) E}{.o..and lfie.. :2W(.l.4'OC €~~~112 .$ci!1 da~:lkal (lrcc'..'Ii'')''N. ) mmlijicar/.. will fall down and worship me .ti.A ~IIM ]U.. your whole OOdy will he full of darkness" (Malu 6 ~ 23) 1 QY N-'OYOY N OJ{ NIl'lY2on:. 'PrOIH~1 i~r1deedis w~Ui~S.3~.if You. U main ~e:nse:isbeingex~ifeS8:ed..re.q~Me. 3idve~rbiarn. H "Som.se expressed In the preceding clause.€ ). w. 179 Copyr'ghted rneleria' .except v.pi A€. IH"eliTE: or.q~(" NJII(. An.-q ~-oy~ "Iq'.~6:25) .41 "The spl.N-n·~2T". i4ifill~-IT6qC"".~"'€ «But JfYOlJJf eye is n()~ sound. . T~J TEas likewise 507..~:.KJO .iI. and SQ'5.\. whi\::h <'IImX::<1rbe.-(:!.E (i.ii: Thls is ihe role .C Mau 4:9'-10 "He said to Him." b 234 Linkage of ctauses.6:24 "Pm' eitber he win h!il~the. N ~16-O()yO!. will be devoted ~o (he (in~ ~d de~pi5e the other".eonuptinl1l" in o)'. "=£1"'!N)' .iictij~c and then..r.\.._:@. 0YA€ nor.-11I TOTe:_jl"lte:x~ql T!1Ir-oY t-N3.X~. x:e:N.li. O'fAe t:i'I1!'QY~K.Ceu. M!I 'tiMI!>!1 HTN 2.'Y'QU ~lire du::ir mJitsidle.~rit Unlik-e :uts GTGTN~oiiee 'I'1'IE:'lI'Cl.-oy.-T·~"o\-Y N~-K. ur he..Hq-6.. '!'T£~~~q N:.i.· bCiing full of dead PCQP~.g ..! t1 i:tl.20Y HM.. TIG MilU 26. ner dl. g!l. XIS. C"li'~INe:(.Slm:Ji all uncleanness.l.T~.l.'c:'s ones .XN"" .E>XWPIIC-e:Y""BlHll.. is descrlptive expansion or circum- stantial qudifki3iUOn of anothe1' clause.~I' wlr-oywg)i tU.O~I 111C.<!b"!l~900~~ liadcs.Man .""~-~ 'li:j-:. or else.' M.! 6-:A. daily" at othar lllnl££ si~.with lh~i[ inside i=ii-"!i!i(l:Y!!Q1I. '1l"Cl.Acts :2::U '~H~ W!L'l' rlQ~ . IMI.d.k.hsee .e!i:rne!'> !ie\leJ:neenar1:OIbes..C HENI orlc:n hiilS no ~I~~ oUI"Ii{~~arl:c.i N. AU these 1..'hen they are there aU tagether' (ShIV 108:7--:S) I\:l ¥ .x. e.K N~q "611~iC X€~iBmK en1. (vans.lnlip~er 23).~Hmes mere". N~UT-'Oy MJhl~N£¥£l1.· ii-m:.n~HTJi.K. l. '0 I" again..E..of adverbial elause (more fully s:urve)i ecl!in . Q¥"!!TQ tut racme 'rr e KC'(!IJM. r~r ql·-"I~-M€C:l'e~oy).c w:h~. Greee-Coptic U~IHITJ.dverbial :ami!butt.1'siol1 continues the line of d~..U•.m..l~d tornbs.\Y 6~iIi'ITJ.E. clause can precede or foUow themedified clause.~~'Q'y 21-"'~~~~ NI-:l 0'1(" ii..'!ee:~~[taboe'!l" .l.lll:iftd (HeIN) on fl:1P'(l..MaU 23: 27 '.U::S 1~~Ir]T'OB '!'Icon ~tll~oyo Sbm 10~5-'7 H.)...EK~p.l.. the extension expresses a new step in ihe narraHve O!rexpesltlon. Begone. e.o. ."No 2'?tJ u* va Q.

.i..-).l!H-!ind INH"U.i!. oyE:~Q!'lfcu .N ShOlla.. mMC:.NU N1'.LU!ke 1::8 "For t [or my p~rt.'&.:lK-()..iiiIt' I H-"IP>€ql'-f!. the IliIOrph £ r'" OCDl!llfSas an affirmative plur ten~'ftcoull~eqmlillo bare e..T.:t.aE w'Of:M".·YOIl are. wi~tbill!ul~i1ur.' s..s OlJlll ..r irrufi.2:.any 3d Apu.~M-nIHoIMo·C Act"! e. 'I.. ETij-. 10 "nc..>oon :2. am a manset tinder <llJithQriry".·~:I-·.g.C: ..lIUE' (:::: : NT'.M~r!iT ENT ..(l1rph: ih...Irr-. ).chmtood ti} 00 Ih~resumpHv~m.Corresponding ne... 'S't--c" c ~.\Ies areboth 4:l'f'\l•••..+ CONVf1lTER T £he has a dlll. b~ind" (Y. 43'9: Il~12) "The monik who had spoken wirth us. i!'"nWUE:eINT~:l"'-q)wn.·te.22)"'Thepe(li?~e r~ wh~ }'Quhav(l fI1.u... iT'(l1( ne. .1i10-.Ti'l{. reSu!fin:Pt~V~ morph can OC-CUlf ~Ii! a CJilllilifiC!:illlmr~ d.fem .. ·ShA.~ Shill 30.rFat!her whQ is in theheavens" (Ma.~ who had dunned a mat (as Ids gamaenIU".II!:'.oYPwiME::eI:q. TIilQ .M! Il:m. 3:2 "YO!1!IlIre a te..vc·.TE. Amibi:gu... personal morph expresses resumption + :subject fiunc...e 2·:15 ~·This...When a.'N..~I.'(ID El"'~ poe IC 11 .rn·~ isI whoOim the lli. W~e -..U~5 n NIO)'iTr'€ ¢NiI'-..-'f theL.w:. a:!i. Goo".. iirQy. ~aY~fl!glhll!t ih:n:s ('..€ Jehn 9: 1'9 "Your son.eH'T-. ~...uction.i~d").!I~_ .q-. cf: 320 . tapass".ressi..1.WHII1"€ n.. 28 (Kulil1!.elildve oOllve'rsiQI1l. yO:lJ.: II (= '1.egoo wJtiom me mwfu.r..iln.IitIc:.tcllercorne from...on'iC. and rheentecedent is resumed as subject. Th~s s..:.. I. 0). My beToved 1111 ih.-N-q ..y '~ily {The ci..r c~amp.gnificanl absence {zero morph~ 0} in place of a..~·6w'.expre~se!l.eJ1e was avery aseette senior mURk il~ CeUi.w rrpUH1e (lYON "I!M t. ~ 4Q5.1:m :12:·461"~.e~. 'l:t-.i"'!('pUU.idie texts..o:m w 1 hav(l been !p1".x. E. who you say was bam.."".4J Ii"(.. J. ~der!l.. .. si!iilg:. n K. (1i121)i.h'l Mhe 'Wiblel~l.g.. ~N/€·'T'E .__ [l[lCS O__ I"""~ €_.pc:maplilliulde.. !1.!'u:u!Jp~ur.1 N_V'" .rlg r~..II) N-'(F'rII'TMH perliil)l~:litl~ject!'esumptio!'! Q1f ~he..ctJuncJ. of lother diillecl]!i: of M:idd1eE..')'-q means ootb"ThIll god who made ]lli~IiI" luul "'Th.5 "'Th¢ hol. ~ The nQrn:!~~ SUhidic '~quivak!lt ~s~ NI'r~'4""..""' .jmJl:ti'l-'f.x:e-~H-.)!.. .1R(:'IQ:l 2:. the: bafe convener £IP..."'Tlf eI!iOA2:IN"'TrrJ~ S:b.16e ~'TI!I·'. £q-o iN . in tile .'\.....ali.sfmple atlribmh~e conslr.lK.jI.w~ BeSll.pbPalf 53 (~i~u:.!C e:.IIN1i-~q- ° 328 Copyriphted materia' . . Lllk.rTOp7 Ii' q.:'\'.. dJu_mtive sentence (q-2N~MfiiHly€ "He is: in the: heavens") occurs in conversion.P .. N e:-oyiii'. Elt"..Nl".our ~fi + OOJ'i!\.e.• .u. ~:Ie whQ shx:p !l$!ddu not ~eep wat'Ch! OJ.'EltTfB + you sa. 'iiiTK-OYC0l2 €'-~Js. Mi:l!u4.uywut j~ ~U:. antecedeets occur 'w~th€T&. wrath thai is go:ill8 loappelU' Ol.Ao €j'_q..N()K . who ju:dge <'_!lcrther". rre noyoell.3:~ ¢n~::lt..-iI GBQIl·2!TH-nNII).HI'iI'::=K Luke 3:22"11 j!!O YOll w:bo are My SWl.u..i~ymig.I'i!). flo" Q_ I. PaJnt. -. "' 1M' .. eyw~ H2. nothing to'l is suffixed to the (onverleren (G:iI'''..lT.IMnHyE: Z eT'!l~ii-MnHIY€ ··You.IC'~.NT ..G- l.1 "'"0 fe:l]ow." !:n...tt S: 16) (YO... PersQ~~!1 re~tI~p~iv¢ e:Je ... ~NI. ~ytQ!iI!I!.y-rE: Johm..numt ~~f/{gc!l1d~r} might..llyr'.e.o. JPra..~4-!i) ·'Qnce!b.....ion..UfFaiher + €'Ii' +' in the heavens) '* Sing . fJGTiii '!II HI li"1e: lST1i1'J. _ ~~ . llke e.T -.rp.xw 'Mi tliiO c::: iii ... l. 1'OrrrH·e-rr'&. ..HI and £.QYZMO('.l:i . $OIPfJ.oC 1:53 "YO!) who hav~ feceived 'beLa:~'''. tl:ien" who were with her ill ll:ie Ihi01iISe" 406. Iii! a very few SM.lghl~r)..ce:·-.."We g:a:ve ibi!i1h 1QI him b!.gyp1. wih(lF ..x.. by rd:a:tivee:'iJ'1I £'[''''... tot 011::Jo.lH 1MeT·~2 H-TElIl..of yOIl nea\i\':n". H rWHI~ .a~ed'~..gb~ wililo fla"i come lrltO file K:a.." 405 Bare.pZ!I(:€: (i: p.OIilC El.8.ilbutilvechm8C. ~2.nrphs OCCllrilrtl all three ~persoI'lS':l.wo Oli IlKu'clnorphs that "'lcidenttcal ~n.. ITtlq.. f (BM~s.u:erlcc.31i "The Jews..e.J.tu. H~ .g.N()K.IW.. ¢p..Ul 17d6"The.ubj'c.~c:'obn Hj4~51-54 "'0 mi PWI" a £T"I'!=NI I(G19'"1ic. 9. H'€TNoe IWT q..• Funbc.in3ted ~olhc: !r. ..N/ €:1i'·e-ii~·.ilde incident in ~he chu:rch'i'....··oyu.

(And the place.V e:lro~q 2.re. dso430.ymnH~ .cway II thil~ you shaH pr-ay) and thus set off asa topic of thought.ZUH. o~ ~'I'~. ":.rfufAstan.1U (Juslas.GO"'.mbe. H "This.rc&JtHH1ieIT ii.Vlc.15 "So a!oo OIH ~!4JVcd ~mb¢r Pll.graphs.o..'· So" :possibly" ~NOK em"..ay" for HIs part.r!{gcndclf)" The dependent morph wIthirn tfuerela.use.but~ve clausecan be separased from one another by modifiers or other autonomous elements: Nee t6!e. ElTe-HIi"H-.very exists. also he.).t~ty ~ern1... Amecedent (except R-) aill!dattri.crna. Ex:tr3!po~dt~. e. He g:a:\/e to 11iI.'\' iii~'Y.dalas ..E:·t4:rAAnriill €T£D:il.. An'd.H!' C"01u'tructicm tree iI1ig}HN e'li'-lh.1l)~ both conversions WIU h~""e 10 be mentioned in these para. n.MHO'~·C.Q_cc~.rcd) (Mark 3 :3) H!'..y'. "" a€.'I'l.IS~OO.:l~:r. "The star Ihm thll}' hml seen A In the Bust" {Mau 2: 9) n:rw MBe 'ire re-T'El q6IX. IIIEt~IJ<II~~ BID K.allJernanlU.cts ~~: ROLES Of TH.. I that He is In the light) Fie.1IlH:N-:-T-·AHC1I'IflICQJooli ShCha8:S: 39':.led modifiers thilliligrce ~hc." sentence 404The'simpicaUribI~:ti t'e daU. y~ Nl. ~h.o) @:T~2M-'noYO€III~ where I am He Is in tile lighr" (1 John ]:1) (In the.1il!p(jJ)M~)' is it:s'ali'tl!ccdellt'.e: N:J:.l. wid]!!n clc:mc.~~W!'"{llete :Yl.-.()n dependent merph and agreein (person)!nu.-IH. )I.S how I YOIiiI shall pray" (Mau 16:9) (So ~hisis..r Paul Wool+..ION 403 The simple aUr.N~MM. Tense ~n tihe oo[}vert~ ed elause expresses relative time 529.QQ I "As Tl.q~t Ii~ .\! ~ H-'Tii Z Pet :3. Tile good i tree" 0YWIi1IN €.~NO :K.(40:4. E: ro~'q" And theplace go~n:g (John 8: 2.C-lo.Jve ctause' modlsles (de. S~nc'Cfc:~atIve:md c~fCUmStai[lu:ial 41.ibuUve: relaltlve arid . ni.inncc.~e£ 2Will~.3 alternate 1mth!reea~.A.lW had the withere.i"HIOY -ql 0) "..M oOYT"The man (whusc hand was wHhc.'l 6e 'T€a..g. for My paul I which I am g.ci.A.. l) . Also oo('urrilng In this pos:lt~:on<Ire.trilrl'l.nt wrnthin! 17 "As.: 10 yo:u. He .¥&.t~ve clause s!hows how tbeextraposited term reletes to the claus-e...'.d band" 'I~e" modified ~erm (TTCI!O)!.408" 4.~ H'fr'~)...a.outbeleved brolitlc.~.1\ tr-ee that isgood. ~.for your part.l.!NOy -'II "The (iii) ~h:3its good.urilJul'. A good tree" (~i) 326 Copyriphted materia' .~f~iPtlve]y expands) a preceding non-per- sonal el1l.gave 10 us: ~I)(l' Ou~t !l:>" !.E RElATIVE CONVERS.y eNT . w.b:eill.!p •..oiag t.njve construeHorns .ati. d.30-32 "For just as [10 lbi-!.

q OII.-MI:ay (in :EIMl.-AQ~el :Nl.t..-'r(€J .RO.. (0) ·'A.RIM whQ had <I.1) H N.• }.r defjnite antecedents (n.:li "11M].I!Ii1O\l:IOr POO:llO:J!U1S (~l.raJ..1.. "if. Aots 2:22 "A man wino was :BtJl'ested" (A man + roWo!BR:Ti!li1l.em IH) tliere). + it 11J!s c. relative elause.ilJ1:I~ at leassscme determ. dd. ~. lndoorl.r!(gender}.and .. MMQ.y 'th~Uu.com~ LO pass" rThi.l 1:0moo~fy all these types of alflilooedetit l~V iI!Pe: medifled b)' either fern3t~\'e . + he sowed seed): MW"\\'CHC iiT-). e: r. t:IIT(i eJy (lINT-.Anl.Pc!I'ronal mmp!hs arc: modified only by the appnsjt~"'"eauri.:x€: 'EHIT~.ull1sjr:mt.!IM6 E.' ResJ'~mptlive m'Orph' oeeurrlng as part of Ibe.?or circ~mt. bOl!h (But after definite anteeedents eJ(_pre~ssirng ormanner time atlveandcircumstaruial occur indifferently 407.•.m}.ai:1d(:.y 'thenc:e~)expre5sing place. II'\I! andQ'YQI~ H!IM..m€I1!C~. ~:i.t:!vestrributillfC clauses 4OS..~q -''Ii'~CC'''N ).~()y~€ere H~U.rn~~ (n. 40"1. Ac:.fUJ1uiaJ).bul~V-t. followed by (he rest of the eonverted clause (€T . Te.etc .t13.. pro.:r\ .·Hible wHharlY kind of au"i.Convener (relativ'l.runc: LO pass).. He the and invariabl. cf.~ not eomp:.:u .ete..efternon-deflnises {oy-..q) 'q.b~live C]3.-=-(lL~.) rel- . fiS(iv) .ir:r.ctud.SION contains three essential dements: ~.c~rcwnstanti:a. a .'l'u)~ O¥E'WH.scd .+ CO:NiVERlE!R.) by the· ciIiCU!llslandail:: afte. 'there' .Artidc [pmases b~ih on .H c).'"c j~'iinotc:xpres.rtly. fa) rv) (a) "run·tEl OypWMIe: e:'f€P€·- l'e:. A:fte.(XlNVI~RTER + they :rc.y the apposi.(unte(. variaMe fie.a:fteif bare spedt1H er.tiv~ auriw.r . dClGmiI. ~nrelaUve conversicn.and eso)\ t1Ma. Under certain limited conditions described below.:on 'Who sewed seed" (Aper:son -+ CONVEIl:UHI. 379.nt the nucleus 'Of the consnuetion j (111(.. the appo:s.NOy. +TbeYElttest'ed ltl. oy{J!. (O)YIf'wIHe ~:-~<lI=JGO N-oy6ro6 Ma:I. daughter" {A woman Copyriphted materia' .ciativ'e and c. Ful1hc:'r examples: n'eT~l.convened clause.t~vc en81Mes both rel!ali.~YUT~..[J.:¥:. Mark: '7:2:5 "A y 'WOI... CO:NVE.Noy .t.t.M ooyr e:P€-'TE:<)IO!-xcyoywO'l' (Mark 3! 3.~~ 'h35 "Mose~\Io'hQm the:yreCliIsed" (Mo~"s.40. Ui.lve morpb For:2NI~~. withtbe anreceeem in numlt!e.489. +. Nil M ..1l. and refers to it Resumptive morphsUldude: an personal morphs (~n.lm are~ oef. the resumpr.t1st':.~ng persenalelemera in the [possessive article)."9Wf1li£ Ltll:e..~. . HE:'''9''9~.elil€ ~11 the nominal se.Udi:1. e·-Ir."li'ER + he djf«~t~d th.are modifiedb·y tbe ·t:iOC'll.melcede.or .g. 60'. man who hada wrHlered "hliWhk:h'. QJQJ€:.ilrlicle !pi1.~ ..lJiiilSUH1!1I~1 c orb.rsQml~1rnity tem~· 1Ui~ nOI:l-dcf~tln~ .). 2: IS "Th~s saying ~b:llit[has .::i Malt 28: t 6 "The mountain ~hali He dWrecled ~OOmto" (The rnoirn.. y (m9HIt4~'l''''N~t.ibutive elasse) "The man who hadthewithered hand~'. ) the attributive role is fined by a. 0Y02..Y-~F"l.erede.!i say..Dtifinire .e:-) .g ...eaemJ hand" (aur. AJternatir)'11 . a morphtha:tagr.n..ees.. Ptl!.loy~!t. d. to.oj r.:~sood ~QU!i!S 138. An other [I(lrl-'pc.. Uii.pe:r nouns (Mwifc:. texma~var (Man 12: 10) .fused ~.inators (such as.·Nl.g-~Y-"Il'0<i9...t).l ~ndifferern.. 488.1I1.lES OF R~LATIVE CONVER.:.24 "A pm..v(! and ciretlm~'Hm. .5.in.

~aY~fl!glhll!t ih:n:s ('.eJ1e was avery aseette senior mURk il~ CeUi..I'i!).WHII1"€ n.. who you say was bam.NT ..Ul 17d6"The..w:.N ShOlla..:lK-()...lT. ~N/€·'T'E . ). tapass"..iiiIt' I H-"IP>€ql'-f!. 'l:t-.!C e:...'N..C: .pbPalf 53 (~i~u:.1 "'"0 fe:l]ow.J.• .rp.y '~ily {The ci.g. . ~.Ao €j'_q.IMnHyE: Z eT'!l~ii-MnHIY€ ··You. and rheentecedent is resumed as subject. mMC:.s OlJlll .5 "'Th¢ hol.....Corresponding ne..jmJl:ti'l-'f.NU N1'.fem ." !:n.2:. H'€TNoe IWT q.4J Ii"(.rlg r~.on'iC.u.T...22)"'Thepe(li?~e r~ wh~ }'Quhav(l fI1.HI and £..1i10-.iln.llyr'.. E.II) N-'(F'rII'TMH perliil)l~:litl~ject!'esumptio!'! Q1f ~he. l.€ Jehn 9: 1'9 "Your son.uywut j~ ~U:..aE w'Of:M". flo" Q_ I. tl:ien" who were with her ill ll:ie Ihi01iISe" 406.wo Oli IlKu'clnorphs that "'lcidenttcal ~n."'Tlf eI!iOA2:IN"'TrrJ~ S:b.. Amibi:gu. wi~tbill!ul~i1ur.ion. iirQy.·~:I-·..."".ressi. PersQ~~!1 re~tI~p~iv¢ e:Je . a:!i.r irrufi. ~2... reSu!fin:Pt~V~ morph can OC-CUlf ~Ii! a CJilllilifiC!:illlmr~ d. Elt". yO:lJ. Lllk.elildve oOllve'rsiQI1l.in3ted ~olhc: !r.. W~e -. J..31i "The Jews.i. 28 (Kulil1!. eyw~ H2.. ITtlq. antecedeets occur 'w~th€T&. cf: 320 ...ce:·-.lghl~r).....'EltTfB + you sa..q-. b~ind" (Y.. ¢p. 9....··oyu.. ~:Ie whQ shx:p !l$!ddu not ~eep wat'Ch! OJ.. oyE:~Q!'lfcu . TIilQ ...')'-q means ootb"ThIll god who made ]lli~IiI" luul "'Th.r c~amp."We g:a:ve ibi!i1h 1QI him b!.i~ymig.M~r!iT ENT .. f (BM~s.rn·~ isI whoOim the lli.tu...... N e:-oyiii'.x.rFat!her whQ is in theheavens" (Ma. I. -.!'u:u!Jp~ur.When a..'&.gnificanl absence {zero morph~ 0} in place of a. Mi:l!u4...: II (= '1.... who ju:dge <'_!lcrther".ubj'c. tot 011::Jo.expre~se!l..-).h'l Mhe 'Wiblel~l.~I.N()K ..g. n K.. H~ .w~ BeSll.IC'~.1:m :12:·461"~.e.N()K.. personal morph expresses resumption + :subject fiunc.. am a manset tinder <llJithQriry". 0).lIUE' (:::: : NT'. i!'"nWUE:eINT~:l"'-q)wn..g.. ~NI.TE..e~.N/ €:1i'·e-ii~·. ~ytQ!iI!I!. wih(lF .egoo wJtiom me mwfu.-N-q .""' .l!H-!ind INH"U.pc:maplilliulde.P ..x.. 1'OrrrH·e-rr'&.i~d").. PaJnt. ETij-.LU!ke 1::8 "For t [or my p~rt.M! Il:m.pZ!I(:€: (i: p. H rWHI~ .eH'T-.-iI GBQIl·2!TH-nNII).xw 'Mi tliiO c::: iii ... nothing to'l is suffixed to the (onverleren (G:iI'''.~M-nIHoIMo·C Act"! e.IitIc:.gyp1.:'\'. $OIPfJ.idie texts.U~5 n NIO)'iTr'€ ¢NiI'-.• Funbc.+ CONVf1lTER T £he has a dlll.jI..16e ~'TI!I·'..e.. JPra..3:~ ¢n~::lt. . Goo". My beToved 1111 ih.vc·. 3:2 "YO!1!IlIre a te.nrphs OCCllrilrtl all three ~persoI'lS':l.\Ies areboth 4:l'f'\l•••.HI'iI'::=K Luke 3:22"11 j!!O YOll w:bo are My SWl. wrath thai is go:ill8 loappelU' Ol.>oon :2..u:erlcc. ..numt ~~f/{gc!l1d~r} might. Iii! a very few SM.Nl". si!iilg:..:t.ilbutilvechm8C.any 3d Apu...-'f theL. "' 1M' .uction. by rd:a:tivee:'iJ'1I £'[''''.lK..l:i .gb~ wililo fla"i come lrltO file K:a.' s.ali..rTOp7 Ii' q. ~der!l.IW...8. 10 "nc.e. £q-o iN .our ~fi + OOJ'i!\.Irr-.sfmple atlribmh~e conslr. fJGTiii '!II HI li"1e: lST1i1'J. dJu_mtive sentence (q-2N~MfiiHly€ "He is: in the: heavens") occurs in conversion... the IliIOrph £ r'" OCDl!llfSas an affirmative plur ten~'ftcoull~eqmlillo bare e. ~ The nQrn:!~~ SUhidic '~quivak!lt ~s~ NI'r~'4"". of lother diillecl]!i: of M:idd1eE. ..i"'!('pUU." 405 Bare.1 N_V'" .ilde incident in ~he chu:rch'i'...G- l.~ Shill 30..lH 1MeT·~2 H-TElIl.QYZMO('...:..(l1rph: ih..ctJuncJ.. llke e. ~ 4Q5. ·ShA. iT'(l1( ne.of yOIl nea\i\':n"..chmtood ti} 00 Ih~resumpHv~m.)!.OIilC El..Ti'l{.o.1R(:'IQ:l 2:...y-rE: Johm..a~ed'~. .oYPwiME::eI:q.IIN1i-~q- ° 328 Copyriphted materia' .·YOIl are.i!. rre noyoell.u. (1i121)i.o:m w 1 hav(l been !p1"...'(ID El"'~ poe IC 11 . !1. 'I.UfFaiher + €'Ii' +' in the heavens) '* Sing ...T -.w rrpUH1e (lYON "I!M t.~4-!i) ·'Qnce!b. .~ who had dunned a mat (as Ids gamaenIU". 'S't--c" c ~.x:e-~H-. the: bafe convener £IP.'\.tt S: 16) (YO.tcllercorne from.~·6w'.__ [l[lCS O__ I"""~ €_. _ ~~ .. 43'9: Il~12) "The monik who had spoken wirth us. Th~s s.II!:'.r.u..e 2·:15 ~·This.·te.!I~_ ..1.~c:'obn Hj4~51-54 "'0 mi PWI" a £T"I'!=NI I(G19'"1ic. in tile .oC 1:53 "YO!) who hav~ feceived 'beLa:~'''.. 'iiiTK-OYC0l2 €'-~Js.

'fl. (TIm formal antecedear ill has gra!mI1liiti:COlI...-C. alii . Itol!cxical.'ed('l1l: -+ r:clarive.HRom l6(3"-"4 (aJ'. ~11:lJj. jWll'lolaJd n""EHT~l.w ii'f..cvo.llU~ such w~€:"'~-N~IC~~HIQQ<9'~ .. C€~ 10'1[0OC!) € 1..".fh ~9' "Bener {lot to leave 3.c'h no one has ever yet sat.IN N W-..ef1~£I1!" ~+ dr- 'Z" fi.(. i!-..y-C1HoY'l!)-q H~HI'iI' ij LliIke4::]6"Nazare~b.." .Clnlial.~..11.nMI" (li~e'lii!li~ll.mticamfrctu:fe'J~' 'islJ:le.:0Y.li1Ie Tni).€. Tbereis .tkantecederns: are de.nH(J"y€ 60}l. tO.. wlli~h i~ iill En.tre/.+.gliHeol:ls persons. lISUIII~]lylcJt UTI!tlaMI.. '£. nU ~HI-N~-.. ..eh Thou bast prepa]'ed'."26" .l't. ~H-OyWT ~:l". 'WJr.2 ~A.He w h<'!d a:r~8en". place"): ~~PET RM. buHder wdmru::.cy-6H-6oM ~-~~I~[K. N t'Ei" €~ Rom :I: 25" He whQ e:re<!!lro. ()\DYJOllti meaf'lingfu..ll. .CON\tERSIONS ...ranoes:t~ 0 nor we havebeen atb]e 10008!f".lr~~stis.. non-definite.:\ ro" q ACl'!> 15: 10 "A yoke" which ~ei. i~ tize )'Iou . attributive COI1!s~~ction 403. whi...gland. " He whose win:mJ~'.U f):r~ .1edenlis ex.J!'oq) who will b1li. semaetlcaetecedents are restricted to dennile or personal. ()fthem(~ oy).finite.m!~e(... c:iT(J!)T-q nf'ICl(a. wllilo~ antecedent is a~waysnen-personal.I..€ e.·~sTS r~~nE: q~~ ~Tsq61!.: Ir:..4"111 •rs.X':"6II IiU] down their necb 'Olil! oohallif of'my $(Jl!I~".I~d. .ins fork is l..rQII.e ad eireumstamial in COllsul!c-Hon (.tion ..N' Rom g.:' -+ relath.:RELATIVE the s:em:.e)\Qc"J.HOI'" Luke 15." Non. mE'i-}i.preSisedas.I ~il.OT£ OYA€ ..tbe "fiJrIJW[ .. TIi1IOhlC it H.Any wise person.. HCWM brolil:ght up" Nu~upa 00 '~'" t:6{1pa~'!J.Y (.~E:TEl-ii-ce1MQ()~e . ·aI'u.~lukic 19: 3:0 "Ao CO~l..c'.o~.wlU.Ii1"') loiumd:. 1.Jo~ll~ilds IT He ~rE: lHlt:U'O'tl:n. ··'Lo!1{l:oo.o MI-Iil"...t4~IiIT .f Gy-..lan:l. Thisfunction cannot be exercised by (he simple..l. W~Q w:aJk llGt a..neYMa. !IUX elii'ir'A:"'Y-K!tD ji:t". Qrperi5oml..Ct~".~N€.y"The. 'Fl'.-'id..Ol..1.l::.·...~~t)~Sdiff¢~(:ei!1 mc.J.N j(.K. single ~iia..liJ¢u..0 or M". \!.('cedenl.. "' iIil)'~' €.T€-Ii1IE'iC:'I'€XIN Mlii-llEC.~'fai''lfx.n His ba'nd''':.x.1\. U€1i!.amecetlenf' (n. "Prise . . "l"'tl0Y-C: ~IN e)''9~ ". Mn€ . x Ll.ecetleiliU~.c constfilu::l}on:may be compared to the E~lis~ nOlli·restndive :relslive.~1 '~WhQdo not walk!"----*o modify a personal morph: tbu:S. ~.. . OYNl. 4 "In us.i·ln'lcY/. who if rerrniued CQuld .. less Further e::xa"lllp]l]s ofconsU12l..-y NI-060 HI HIMo-oy G-~'a.. w~. MINi~lKYAa.iN_1. In construction (oj fonmed with De '.~j ~17" ~. bef(lli~ WI/...' e. " • nJ.ir(:um:stUlltiaJ'. .~ C. Luke 2:3{hl~"Thy :sahalt~on. W God...r ~s.. INe:yO):'HltIIB ••• "I.J~UJ·oc N~l ~T~-'i-C~-PtlXf'IJ..:Toc~tlrs t:I!!~der~he ~econd~lions d(lscrnb$d in 405.M.on of :lng~~s.p· .q ldtl.~l.{r.!lgrecing ~n nUJI:fIlbcrf(geoolCf).K . who I(~~) is ble!!~edrOre've:r"~ '!1ilffG"Uoy-'I{!(..> ~p:positktflIO h.1 €Tr€ .g ~1W()~~ ~d..u~y).l.'i~) eTE-l' iiiT- ~I: "Th.j#rh...L'rtfJ/llj:al.g. (o)yornr.(iH~1l6'1) H€-. . who denos walk. c.:._fT €lBO'.\... ."::.ll.a~c.. 'l'?T'er£~ne:xc . whose..€-~q-'T"WO¥"1 LIlIke: 2.J. lit! (li"..l. ~he fmrnal. wbo call deeide": (o}ycIiiI6.. Example's of personal amce{"cd(J'Il't: + rdative.. ". ~~r.wl.T~~"IlC.(* d!l"~llm~~da~ OC-CWi'S· frequenUy.m...m.o need no rep(m:~. wh~re .e.'itha >Gamma..e ci. lll!1d Aqclllila . ij'T()'l rr€:~-!IiI~.'iffl 1c1 ~hew~liiO:~e ~:at.x. ho said..!y which bas fOl!llmfudoms..atedL Th. " e:-'l'I~w." Bare E.\."C".NT-a. '") VW1l~n lhtt ~rn~~IUc antecedent is a place iIlame.:min. But in construction (b) formed with rr-«.':wrcl~ng'H) Lh.CNT€ "'Th~wrpri1~s~s ....\P~ Rom fI :.D~tam'IH.:.q "" CU"INT' 11' l.IH H lOY r roc ne One ve:ry ~mportamf~nction of construction (a) is to enable an attributive C~. and il)'n:~ytherelative occurs .. onwhii.1o.i TH p.T ~~c H"'. ffiClIll!ililg and so in EIugl]~h is.rIN~ I O~t 6~!i "'.reila:tive and circumstantial vary freely as the aiU:riibutive clause .~q I 2..ne1lf<n]ne ri.tlM.~l.~. N:2H'lIi'~ij Ct~]3: rn "Tbe th~I'ii~$ that are abo!o'e.()~qe:IN e.~I'le..."" .'-BJ"IT'F'IZe HIHWTN ...~o(lib.MlIt.~.Nii.:7 "The.I£-1:~i..r 330 Copyriphted rnmeria' I . nl.NT"l... TItH')'I'~e lid)] c.it~'''ir·-·oy t-I-(liyrwH'G.lolI:' n.k23 ·<Avisi.l!ke3 ..!cl.ii~HTc~ii tU.wll:tt. .M~JiTr !Ell? Jer JIJ (30 K<l!.·Y P-P'WIM£l. A~~y ii-~o4>Q(..

fying adverb or adverbial clause.~q t:jIM.lwcrred come!'! ql. impm'o'e: hi! virtue' ·n:.._ HE 1'-~IH· 1 H neb 8:2 "The true tent•.S "1~111~I'i1'OOili'~O¥ 61?'E:""'fil6NIB~O'C "'U.~lfW.XI'T'-(j ]011:" 114:: ..~y M-nc:oa¥N ~ Cor 8:10' r~r 409' Unconverted durihntive ckmse after ft). (.x.i!1 yuurp~nec. €T!€""nlJ rre T€K. namely Goer' (Luke· 18:: 19') Hlo!! (b) ne:qc(UNl. il!ttdlbt..¥t4 €.lctkm T.d.JI3:) in yo!'] when I rut! notin Ji'Q1l!rpresence. .~" .w 0 rt':~." Wil.whi!~hU:!~Lord ~l up". to be cempatible with . .3 "'OUJ brother Timothy .. Ie: J(.A.17-"Ute Sp./Ne) either agrees in iIlumbe:r/(gender} with the antecedent or ~rs.: 1" fb): df!j umeredenf T6e 11':. ~~Q.m:il.S~ON C(llt~n"!. iEli1"':~ ¢-n~~ .~-n. 1-wul (~Qrn¢u.ire wit~I~.pe.lh. "His body... P bl. ne/nU DE:252(c} These eonstruetions seem. .OC .\q -'~l'r1!IO H I ~ ~ 6~nec.'~ cl}..xO'EIC mllHCCeHMO~C n-e-q.l.~p.l.tmWialUf'aaem 'TrH-NJ.M MN'.i:flO'i-:Z~"J'1e:-"IIflY1i'iii IMIO.12:2 "~e's~s" wliL(I lnste.. the f<)Uowill:g .iril..e "u')rpll IJ.:Jy".KA"CU.Io.. ~Ilc' wDrld (.l..l:n224:2~2.. M.u.il wihu am...ued (I~ eross". .2.Kpl NI. H-HTON N-G!1'i1i'-~':(-'!:iI"ICT€:y(l el:l!l:er His pJace ofrest"..OHIH-.Which is 10 s. of ~mlh.ve often occurs ln unconvened ~bas1c) form .d or the joy dmt wasserbefore H~lm el1(~~.The resumpave morph (1i1€IT€. have bchc¥cd" "". NiZ. "YWLI.91..~HO'" eE:lt~THK . '" .INt-eisl HY At!.~Nay e-rtxoerc whk:h no one W'~Hsee the Lord" (Heb '~2:14) fu:rUt!?1'examples.H €JiI. rrar n€/":~J1'€/NA.'ho judge.(1: poij:fM_H! or lkl~~f~w~~dg.ni. wiithw:h:onl.e'e.:j -n~r.ffH t~HI1IY I"'MMI".. wiham..• rrar ~'1~a"~~llH~o'¥(iii.:ilmpT(.rt(~d Ctause.g.0: t ~'taul. who ~m hl!H'll hI!}(rm~T "' .'oc Heb .fJ1KOCIMO(. .lal1atory r.~").U Antecedent mri + Tu.. H . I1. name.• '!.'I~t ciause: H6I.8T'K.' }'{)1l.-tui€:tijIMI). U. rre namely.~e Tl1~yi\.Hbib 41:3 "'FQr·\1r"C..J + .. (His body....IiT H'Hm~T'N'E:~N~t~<:~Te~l'HYTH l.t. . ..a) oy~ "One.t-Ti:!l: IHIY) wh~n [ ~. 2..if! erO~l(n~e:Te~0YN1'.amml :recci:vc": .I '2J. e:TE:-n HO'f'li"€ n€ e.qJ.N :2: Cor 1.:}..anltece:dents of any determination status.T + Adw!r/)iai Pfe..-qllil'21". ..ROLES fl!l:I'th~r eJ:. Wheu is iml'nediately follewed by a prcmodi.1f/T·~]IN.W .. without restlmpli~l.wwe..erbial premod'{fit:r.elati~le clause' (a) (b) £1:'£"" €:'TI€ .(HI 'IF'IIMO@€QC . " or ~henominal s...~ll'{)difi. rr~""C. with "Holiness..' . T~p£l'H S~I. the.. throl!lg)h wbicl~ om I.aJ'" ..O I nali a~.M~ n-EiT~ .:-ncxC Man 'l7~17 '''JC8~'8 whoi~ called Clul}~l". e. 331 Copyriphted materia' . E!:-~.~¥-HI0"fl'Eelro-q npw.. N~Hll'~i'HYTH atf:ritmt..(!r + Vu.. you v.iT~:qNii~0i\<\ay Na.!.em~e[1J!ce . co:rlfidem {eEW-THK ..U:njt~ve. mase.l1 .~f he .q qJ'~'iIi'W'-Tij nllib W:3. expre:ssed as: invarlaible sing. ff. which is the following: the church) (Co] [:24) church" relatesta theansecedem more like apposslon than aur..f..BWK..l'9 fi: ~T'!l_ leU N. wbo.'''.. ITElfllHJ.1 "These words.'iNof OflitELATIVE CONVRR. ii~'i1i'.a:l is..~.g Rom..

foxmed wHh! !if-.H~.:X 6TH-naT 11€n6w tit M.• eTE:~'I'e .. .pl.I are..HIl. '" .g NI.. /.YA.weel:l rei at!'lie aad d. nan. Gl.~ .• the' one .. 9 1 .&& ET·e:~rrl. Moses wrote abo.lT'€-I(I~r~'?"(I~c:"e l~ii-(.rtber exa. wh.miP~e.-iNJ.RelmivelCircumsrantial ciaus«.l.y ..tQYIi!'H-llJ~:tc ll:2:3.$1 "SaJlLll.e man.ro~(.ffifl:t Ci)~5tfli. .T Tre ayn'Ol(. .rrec "'0'1 Acls 1: ru '·~AIreI!OOIlil\1!..!~tjOfl is (Q) Fu..OIPg.! ne Max}.16 "TIling:.. 111Ie h)'POCl:i:sy.T €NT'"'"'l.. " "that' whi:c!:l' .ateyer .i liT€: .. 2~~'(:~ t.WIME CNJ.-q·"What David did.m1~ NI-O¥W1' E~~H...y'l:!. The construelion is also (rarely) formed by n. fbJ n6'0<\11 e"'6~·u. article n.e'~CIDTM Luke 8~14 "Those who hear!'!')./N::"iJ .A.on) .who had beef) bli:rnd" Oha~:-who was blind) (Jalm 9: 17) Nl.oli' rhePharlsees"..hle" (Those which W~ sec: and those which we db n~ see)..e~~Th. 7:34 "EftJ~aJ~ha.iC~ means thal it ~san offe.:u. mhQ "the O'lW who "'• whOll'~e."!i1'-ltth~.enS"'..""M(Jj¥CHIC CZ~J e:T8H H. ~5:42 "Pdday (ilic day of Prepamti..Y •• " :s~:z. K.. !It:H rutd n)'.ocii:le ACIIS ~J.. with resu.. 12-13 ·'That 'l"CQ' P~i!cc:.p~a. E'J'1E :n~Jl11e:!l.'i ~T'~~!'t~U 1...the thing that ...C.'e clause constructions' ta) n . sgl..\l1E:. ~h8~. Fkld ofBlrOOd".n-el"e-N-q-"HH"-T~" ~.the person who " • nej.s..:Swrote" E i ((tK:~~ltQm.eav... eTE:~H~'1i'.I. whkh means Be opened". .i~h Copyriphted rnmeria' . E!Iil·... 332' one who ii!$ DOlw.)' eT'e'TH'HT-PIPO H-Hn:HYG rle S'hAmcl.OC ."T1fii2HM"Ii1Cl.. which i:s: dle . HI-Tl1€TE ShrV 129:7-:8" A sin. [omling an entity term: .e:l. ~<1!m.). eTre""'n~Jrnle l!be fQnow~n. day) k:fore tbe sabbatb":.e. :rore. 1\1~..eyH .(the..il ..e-tHs. . By ecn- far th¢ mQ..r...> v~sib:lellild il~\I.l~ly !he JefUl>..i5.slielrhe).Wem o:f:h.cwTM€ fbJ' u..he:re.q-oi-'s:i\".. ...~1lIl(EAA1.expanded by either a relative or a cirlcl!!lmsta:nt~:aLBare€'tG_ occurs underthe same conditions as described Jn 4DS '~e. J 227.YEIP'O-QY ~"'I C'-oJ .rcnmsl:an1illl s.I1IWYCHI'C. . .I"H ..obvi.. .r.. who i~~ Ca'iso ~a~[!ed)Pa:lilr·..'-/IN-' (or rarely.lrIC'C~JIO'C Luke 12:: ~ .B~ B~TeHI Mari:. NIT~.Ilat .that is.xarnples: fa) 0YHUY oN~OYW'TETE~ei"HH . j "Him of whom Mose.'l'l:ns" ! 7~n The 'articulated atl:ribuU".€ n "Those wllo heard the werd" (Leke 8: 15) €-~.6:3:) usua:Uy consists of the def. illH!T H/N H) lexpooded by a relanve clause.....u/Tl.: '·K~fm. c'iroumstantla~ ~s very rare.I).OiilS dlif:fcrontc in meamilllg be:l.kin:gdom of the Ih. .Y"'(HJ.~N €'n.lI'" A~ 1:3::I "Somei teachers..eily.isi..mptive morph i.CK. .. I)Y~WlrQr. oy 'W'E: John "A.:a:. SYIiJleOIl":. what.FIilr1..T.tructiolTIl (b).Barnabas.t) Oo~n 1:45) if)'H .Iy Ht.g: OyWN MinI. (halls. "Thf..€.a. Tfill. itimc .u.q-.~~f~'l. wh.1iI There is nO ..gIG moiher. (Lulkic" . sing. "niun~~y MO$e1i!!md i mijalfl ..y.m.. Luke 9:30 "'TwQ' men" . 'The: leaven.. (b}iI1iail . .cl:'l"'~ oyo)'l~oy .:Y .cty ~ow'·~. nam.ICIC H~IH6+a.-mT)... .~~. the prol])m. .\. H~e'il'i~'HI:"'Y e.... .

[7 "AU ~he: g~orious things titl:al he.YW €-.S G~~q~r-n(!:Mn<9~' ii-~E:"'cu<. luke 12:48 "BllIt he who did not know'.yID ii'i11' .11Ig that has come topa:ss (owd) wlilid.. INU E.• . who :.xe N .~ G.:.."iNOY"OY HeNEIOTE ~.." in yourprese£loe.~sno( quended.woo!le' eyes: are ~ike a fiery Floune Il!nd whose feel flUI: n~eT£re~H'£qlllJr. ee: e..\.i (l:"iIl'lE: . Paurn. .eLQmhOL~ revcal.C T Erll e"".r-IT!.y'~. .3-~·5 "My flr. MMo-c~y-rrA:lI"'~ e €80}l.e-"f"'YTNJ.•• lc. ·....y-CWiTM€ro-q H~:b $:5-.:I. gliue..J. (blows)"'.q '€IPo"f.: n~e't'e-" 8 A.lJr1j'lmt..Y"'TA~"Y Ge:FIlm~!5 •...~iMm:rij~r"'6 .w :~(!I'i!iE.I'! l.. lW~ i:II!IHI €:~~"'I1'. ) exceed ~e ~trn:i:land might mbhlis bmther.l.was doing" (Thi.. " it H I.'tl..4"The or t!T""Z...E .A..Ne~o olY" "'Teq c)... .d!othem".1HT S. . .'(!.410 does not w~[k bot rather ~~ts...137: ~9-2@ ··E..:pi...2~32 "Ohe plaoe.c" ..C o N V IHt S10 N S -R E 'LATrV E TSYS Rdalltlf.1. .yw .: ...x:~INJ. ~9 "Tha t!l1.tot oy "'y-TOY" oc.'OUff ~re~ence...dwha. wfu:i('~ some eraveaad so bave w!l.\ q -i?-~H Ir~Mto N~.gNT-~-q-cy~ne ~HI'i!"-1. • f!i.wa." - - -- fe:remblebrol1~e ::dloy".TI(ll-"nq-p-~"O:fI¢ QyTC HnOY-2~ c .'CVJ1j!l~n·!fml.. "€'CM NT" N. Y Wl..A... 1"1.O!use + t C~ause) .11"1.".x:w'2" Epll.oy ii-rr.~ gla!!'klll... 11~e'J'1lj.Y IM-[HgT~€:C ij2H''f~tJ! ShlF2 p.-.l.. burl who am confident «(:E:I-''Il''IJI'" ¢) In yOU! ~ wbe:n 1 am .fl'il' HH'W-Ti :2 C()rHiI.~ e:~-n I cRom 4::5 .e Thcbil~.:orljum. MI-ll'Q. n:· H H Q"C HI w:ay that ]1.'}'~!:I!~Y""'O(. • . am hlJjm'blc (n...e_ 1'0.er ciomprli!ision"': "z'eatH)C .N"'NI~Y' EfQ-oy Jiyml... nexc 61 €lflO)" ii~H'Ii''''Oy IK~T.l:.&eii(1.. ).!T-q€:-M"-~:." Withol!!l.:c!_H e"f'i!~oyu8 1 CQr W::2 "Who'3re elool a:llldho~y.xe..U.T(.. .Oncwb. .achpoe~1 whQ fli'Itght (ItU.T'€..mI-durnlive cI<1!1l8e!> OCClU. oo:J['Ii:¢fl(l!f is ¢xp:. iMnoy . any refreshmeet..~N-'TfilIIICTU: 1 T~m ISdO "Lnve of money.Ui! in N2HIT-'1i:H'[j'Tii e'GI-TMIK.7 "Christ .Q (rr.U)"" .. • who (n ..~ 'Mar..q J. has cume the: Chri~I"~ oOl:'-OH 11'0lil1'1 £.<.a~qe6' ..u:'ii:.HY €-"-t-~. Ii.Q ~~l. Ad ian.i..e W{II!I!I«~of dle swrud <rnd.llukie 2::~5 'This lIayl..k: '9:48 "Wh~~ ~h~lr worm.witl!oU'. 429').....~26 .N-CO'irIM-UY Ac. JHtl...~fandi] that he isooin. . afld d~..W:RO lived". ·of mine and does nol .l.~ aLnd served a""'tlgll:ihLI~:! (Uri' AlexlImir:i:a" ~lItej(c ..:1.W'il-C·(j}TH ~. U.. (11..'Ve sec.b.. who ~id mot wish to hum1 334 Copyriphted materia' .lII. not room}".l."'O''1I' A.'IH¥1'HMEn t.CrtllW ...tkewisil.pw."') heard" ~ ).) where theee is no water.HOY .e-J.q . " who did nOI..l.yw c~·NI.M-'!1. ad tl1en is: not 111..c.21~22 "The . •.~ nNQ"{T!€: 0' Nae N-O¥W"~ N-KW~T ep'e-tHllq:OY('lrHTC e!H6 M ~Oy~()). 2 Christ .. oyeqJ""HoIK.cQtJji'm. nJ.e!1:~.-.01.-T.t'lflCI:IMo"~" witll {. "H.. oc E'" f'l.f'I t~TiIBHlly) whefl11l.. rnisedbecau:se of h.-9 HI ~ Ie l.1yrOYCTl."1.l.gyqH'I' IN..TE.. ewe ..}nd g<)v::ell!len~]¥es u~U)ponl!Uoo" ~T H'iiT-<M~~_il~(Ht iN"II'nJ E'i1i'ep€-201iNE> .~. coojt!llCfi. ~Yil/~ .Qr~...m:de~ !by rWI) or more cIQJu~$.n and hearu"~lIIe:x..i 2M_..Re-'!!'2: 18 "God.c'Mi.HOC rr"'StilT"'. 01:1 14 WhOlll~ is d'l.:ti(.yw ·e..• No. H\lre OHC f~lli..H ~YW'itill:Y(:~Tft tI"C-ltu . witlo.tT~ 8.n&~ tl!i:at.ikew...rt"-~HIQQY E-....Mutt 7r26!'E'v~rY OIle whOlmitrs ~hc:[iiI!! ' 'WOfd~.HHo~oy vlJ'le 13:. 4..! .': .. -~ HT-J.ts 4:20 "Whal we hll.. .. eTe: pe:"''iI'enA H rH "-l'eM q "'<I W aJ. thereis no breoo..c..!:f.lle.10 whm:rrllbe~olilg (INl..!rtdered a.).Iim! (ct.ll EiTEl-HOY-OY 41l8)lihe ancestors <'!!iNJ!oU[ of w!'lurn" according ~o flesh. d:oos not d~~ arn.Qn..q" 4(9) in the days ef h~sl].i\_.xlC€."rN-~'O€. S~IC!Ja&s .:Conventr + (CI. . fl." J.'lmMtamial .".offeriiClg •• " and WiH (J.sJ: N-€~ .Cr'l!'ed i!\!!hegcmO:I1i l'h.l'ttpoq 'lNI-"I'ciCYITl.p:i .lvitllOut conjm1c/ion: liI~TC"lI}~.xO€II(: OYON'l .I.t desesved a rea!l:ing." l..~(.Cl:iillss ~94: 5=8: "She who died! and was.:iI1rOI ~ Pl:':t . ble them!lebie~. rre9HploH n·.J..~ 08: 2J.Te:"'f.y (rom l!he: fair1ru. made .l. ~ ..q~W"2: Re~' n~ "Tbebeast.l'I1l. neqcoN ShUI .OA.~ ~g us". sin ilt!di!l11 whose moutl!! deceit was. 72 b..N itM 0.)11 Hie G...iFil'OY€:Tq~ire.J Cin.u~ B _p:-f. oOY()(lIIH ShIV 11: ~. aiRI.etfurell" " .-:q-r-~~ru Rom 9.. QyQ N I'II'H 6.crion: IN"'6N'iI"-~. .wj:th a ¢C"Ip' .d ~heirfire..• .-TT:.lI..TS orsMne5"~ UAU.N-ij -@I pc HMO-OY ~ ..11 .'· l...

.m.Tq-.-)... *rrms6 (4) n. huppen W u.E CONVERSION CONVE.~-Hlifyli:lfil.ii H I tH .yw 'fell:oyc!~ eVil €-"'!p'-!lJ~"~fin S:h.::'u:liaJi!d anrihu.'Istas s:oI1le have frunted or becemeseerehed fronI the anger or the eutseoF God" -n" THE CIRCUMSTANT:lA:l 'IHE.J I(lr.1.. sayi~g the following.oorr Rc!.€:.ONS- C[RCUMSTANTIAL H~re one relad'!l'le converte:r 1S expda! by ..x:W who..·VH-rrIH. '~fe:~.~-QJ.e: CT&:€-!i.~-·'Cl..€ql~.e..• md tlt:lq.W'#h ~YW.-TH~:X:C . ~ q~CillWn: 1.. e ..ywIlltM.HQu: IN-ET":·.. th~t Il..N~.(Jj'e. n". IrYNT.. :md doe-s not say wiha:1 they f. whose ne!llmg (. .:x.~n.q.-ome.A.ywn'~·6~~ ..B~AM~.ns. Nl.q. Th~ ou~ .1.s.g.y! Nlq~<. €: pe-.lnlfh1l!iJi .. €:I!-I1l'-)... M HI NT~<l..CONVERSI. Two or moroarti. .'\..ecanve. I II1:II.9wnE @1'!. control. 'iIi'ENI6o.w iM-·ilu. N2HIT-O)' SlrulV 24:19 HH1i. ep6~TMNi''-fMIM1() <:!Joan €TII.J..\i~ .o't e:po-oy 5...Ul.e.. ]..l."e. ..~nOWIN'f' IHIIfifC~2:Qiy 1M ' 0Yi"€ ShIV 43 :26-28 "Jl..ofthe convener '16-. God . K.....€=-: Mutabl.e~rre. .~km.e~NT"'l.... was and is to come". e~Mn~'I'q-. rr-..IH320 b~ Ii. c . whlle it ~s from . Hae el"e re~2:oe! IiiE:COWt-l H .El! N (i." Wi'Ouwt ~yw:"-~~~.).Re:hnliveCilla.o. Examples ()/ simpUjic:o.""'M'J.P'6..5 WDt.vc e~ltensio:n(s:): Conlve:rter + (Clau!'.e 335 .PiN'T'-.lule and ~sfaitlI~uJinit. 414 Sim_pliji.i.3SJ..Oil."'.Relative Cla:u~e (~yw). E>IP.2Ii1"M -fil N oYTe M~ Y)'l.pI>eserUed .ffi ~€ .tia1E.ti.I(i~):.5-6 '''Wboe\!lerl~:3!s ch.~ 02:] 9--29"'fihe Clye is llili1e:re: SieelQgand ~he.Ch~~s ..q}(tII'lZ <:.'II ShIV n I. cf~460•..e + C.. .e.e.ighty...Ml1f\IDIKF...Ei-"Na.EZ-EZ pE-}rn eyTl.M'ge 'ohlo'er)..nc:.:~"eq'""'~OOTf (I". 417' Immutablesentenee converter.la~·e dene. N .Him..-q ShUI aLI.. or ii E.I1-'SH2.on of the distinction between circumstantial and focaUzing eonverslon.. the: Almi~.ear far hearfor jng...sfrom.S~ON UF ClRCUiM:S.~yolld alone".rler .For neuuai!I:mti.:--(Le.lI €: plE.'yw) .c.h bas descended'!" ~Dthe flesh.' 1:8"Thc~ one who is..46~52-S7 "Pray "iii it not froln lsesel tha:l Christ de£ccndedacoom~Qg dnue.h1V 113. e-€J-).)fill Iif. we3il'~ exists for acts of mercy. second.glrH. by eq-. .ty €.al. . IIllde-M'rrq-arere.IPl...NI~_I:ZJ.~y" 'The: 1nfi(li~i'yea!t suc:~ . 'Hn~.." "Th~ . :npr€'" i:. !f@r<ifoingjuMioe".. w.ti..o:rljunct~\'e E'Xten~iool[All)" Cf. q S~Ch. r w weifh or wirhout conjunc" n:-G~·'YQOI1 ....:8 "The ""'e"!i'c.c:E:-MOYOYTH-n:!'Il(lIB€.~.: N-eTI6-~~yMOyOyr M-n()WM).TANTIAL 413 Forms . ii'ili''''l. c runT :l.l.Te~ N6q~ cgOOIiif ."'.. mortify 'I:he bOOyand mort~fy the s:in wjtirin them".R.xm-Nnl. e . and alJ!t~or· ity.1am.)1[(1)] ..Y BOA."Wr rr.. aq-. NATlfR.£ eao".'l Ei-2.ere.vc clauses 4U iuappositi(m. ti·t. by which . tll:rl.l!_fY andtertiary cQn\i'.' nn~IN'1i'W HHyRev 4. Ji...m:I.tl: lcrn1itise:lindi~s cOr:lju.a. t € .calli rbe extend!ed by ().-r .~yw Nq ""'TM". who is and. ]-2.a.~)T€ KKJ..CU1TH €]-{i. IC:~I.".e 23. e M.cafi:ol1 (omis. and ~sto come.f 416... "'Whoevers:ims •. oftiell liIot 'wmnen bdo:re h~i.li. n..'Y E:TBIS-"Nl.q -). 0 q)o 6 on :3 ~: 21~:l3 "''Fhing.:l:...

.J(€ .."Odi. .: l) €TII N'WOq I ..~:.£~oy TTet~oyeq.S()rIIf1 e. ."'While He WM still speaking .::7"I~ )"'Ouhad known wbal'rnwan~ merey ~IilOrc[nan a :~mcfifioc' !t\Jl c:(lnd~cmnth~~~ whQ ~ "..e!O~"~e-"e-NT~"'.nrr'o¢l HTl:lC .)1U6 €Y""'"~'2i1"€ g H-Ttl:CSru 'Pil-INIII:{OJ!r.q~e"'i:f..l.~ u_c t.e..inma:ny places aad various ways .iilll!se~~e.under wlf-L -h theeredica.. degree.4cG HH zi-Nt.~61IM€ E-T!€.I God spoke of old m our fathers by ~hep.• .liIg ~he.d~hQl.the sentence..dw:rbial /JremtJdifier ...."I 'ir€ '9€ ~W'W'''K . An adverb or prepos.e:":YNT~K"(!:1...t\..1.am.WY'!"€ g"l.'~ OylN..that is.g.tl. w.~tionarnphrase (chapier 9) preceding me converted sentence pattern lays down a circumstance errelationship of time" place.4'7 .Irn _ ulCu ..clalJ!!:se C.. ii-CMO'!" I 6-:3..'traposition...~ •. a.e . .CONVEJ:RS[ONS - CIRCU~MSTANTIA~. e C:O[l.some who hold Ilitle leach.y~MOiy"E: £r'o'~ql .r1U!JiJi/ic. manne:r. . viO~!l!rlre w01!l1~ datlm. (Hebl.·tnrp(.!!!) ele:!i!!!~~t wi[l~ilJl the (~ircL!mt>I.lmS:~D!I:uilal. " 418. e-I\.i~~ .x.sonVnumber!(gender). ..1ial d.~yw' ne!'U. .l.nlicd by il.'T.2. J.n '2:ii-2l.• . Term ill e. morph agree in (per. A.}:l....-Il':~·--. Pr.-TTr.y~u: w(l.·.r: c:. atenn placed at il:tin..I'iIf'HC Rev 2. .' 41'9 ..'·· 420...-re_-". TJ.iii-2.mong His awn at all t~rnes. how the extrapeslted term relates to.• .~m be~"'C'mJ!lJ.thinthe c~:rcl.l..l\'(:M -:H€rOC ..~.U C:13use JS !...: 15 "So you also ~lt<l! .es1.~.siljon and personal....a..ii2:oYQ' ero-o"ll' E-yay.-T6...rII CO'tn~erie:dS emenae Pattern 2.gooe widl.s~ti{JIn..o'pkof thaughL EXI:rdpo. A persona] morp:b w~.~· 'tlt!!)!> ere~ . front of the sentence pauern ('e..T~I...bepJre thcconl'erted ..2.xlmposl[ed") before tile convener Cwwened SenM!nce .~ mitke the w!)rldinto..!'.iUlI be anticipeted by a term ill! ex~rnpo.1k ~!It.'.T'€.-·.:'.. or artitnde :'-.t~Qnis made)."'9IHUIN"'OYPIDME I € . U!n_ .:·H)T~· iiQJQ[-. 241: 3-4 "U (lad did not aot~¥alte Jmlli..mg a~~e:I~eL..!1 TI£iN~~ ~'€TE:~.5: 16) 'li'A.Pauern (c:onta~n:sa personel morph agreeing w~th the extrspcsition] I Resumption Topicunder discussion I Commeet Anrieipation !I €cyWfifeoyruCTI'I E.. woman has (a relative who is)..J.Hr~'~lfl(€l'9UJiI1i€ .lan~. .}I..··. e or the NiclOlail<1Ul'> ..(1opille:(s.£!i.ii ~ N~t~'Q'I!li'~ rrK.:po-c'·If apetsou's last will and ~. asserted (i....'iJilliW.. E).I. "After.l... 0'1("" HH ':9£ J.. ·Wllf-·j.ld Man 12..e.v-.1.!e~ lQY..1~:ilfi!ed~~ 3: 15) has (Gal and tbus set effas a ~...rrapQsltcds#hject (. (Mark 5:35) 3J'7 Copyriphted rnmeria' .l.!t ~~!:l.. Y . widow" (1 Tim . 'i!"a.. rare.:t..)csiwd cO!'reri.x..:gWfiJ€ €-OyNT-c-oyx.l. 111~q-MQQ@e:1':w'l1'-oy Luk~ 2..eq-g.m. '(>''''). crowd i.€-) any believ- ing.remem:epauetn..1.ith the on~ cl~lI¢d JUdi'l8.•• plt(. AI~ occLIHi~g in mis po~il~(Jn<lirt: i!l~l~(:led m(lldU"ie~ tlJatil.I.ce.~n~e~oIBJ. The agreeing persona!! morph shows.!Q l.elii'lt: been :r.

Aper~p·hras:U.::-"E. suffixa.. til) enlarge the range of tenses..t ~:h.'!II. " HC'iIi'€l'E: Man '0: IS "'iJ1IiIallyou may [lot be seen I/O jut fa$t~).. of tbelf law" (Acts.d:Ult~:!'y).NOy-IC E:lrEl~ ~Jt is a good thing that .2a:20---24 "'How good it WQy[d!!Je ffwe weM llmlaz:f {how.Te MMkI:4 "Joli!riIlli13!p]X'olled [obr.I€N2.f' (W'e~fbUlld~i~.i\. a lf:ing-.~bc h-belmg- bound) in ihe heavens" (Matt 16~1.HTH Ha.and!it is .wQul(i!..l.at cause l'it&5cworn. q .• ' E'.e..ss9 t59. agreement ~ ~.ce~ y01J." n . 342 Copyr·ghtcd rneleria' .IOH~2~I~M.iS "-T~.!)wne .. 'find out (hat ..a.. in sentence panerns whose basic predlcate is restricted to preseaa andpreterit (i.eq"'HHlr 2N-iiiilllH)'1S: · "It wIn be bound (h-wm.eI!'Q-Q Il.1 'e/w'ry.~ .<huw good it wOl!lld be: jf .. 6iiT-C IS ..11-12 (ShW!!'.ci!Xu.nk:.e. aad o.!g·· (s.udng:l1im} about qt!lC.nJial in periphtasric cottiugatlon ta) Tenses. ':51...~H~I("OyltJIN2~ .:Uy~ f.ood-.r .Jmp:les: It.l.'-t S~!R.389).tmstai'!ti.ng \....fll:ing l .!CY~3.~ elQmp~e. NA-.r-"'NO€lt K € rO'..~.q~.~ripllr:as.IA) "JI.c -aM'" n eq:2~IT Man 5: 2B"He' hils a.. "'I-O¥W Elq .f:-m~ng}. . H!!.llJielldy ('ommined atlldrery {he~h1!s~filllShed lle'·l~ommiu~ng·!!l.•.o..lH .r..WIfiI€ . M.. 'Wi~h Iile<r~n hils heart": J.J1IiTIC.1i!~p]~lolng) 111the wllderness" ~.OImples.I~'l as w. prepoaiticn.'find! thar .. . ~.Y-hO €Y"M("'.:~J~fI£NM·'f\O'" J.27 Completi\~ecircm:nSUl.:x I: ul.ltirWH€ £ k..ym N1l. Na.g.p· N'ETl"Tr".K.lt. going-about) with Him": .pc. The: .ca~. th\-] 312...ve. .!E: e Ir·o~c~.~·do~:liIg·80)"'.at.ii. fern.6'iiiT-C: NT€'" 1if€iY N0 MOC "'I: fbund that he l~tlS accused O-fGund!~i. 'woe to .Ell:. Krl~N € ShAme:~.:3! g'O(l(illlilling ...:li'l'69{34: l-<2) "Ftn i. n..A - q €T 8: &-2€lNl..e I IN..ioo HIo-tO~Oy E~mtlOy -"I( W!)l~f!ol·~ing~lazi} it.i.te$eoastruetsons ·of <gtiH1E and fill.x:~UC.0"1' 1YW ·eq.morpbcm the expressions.' re zeero .U q John .t!heinvadable sing. 23:29) the cempletive circumstantial expands the rQu()w. 4...e'y~ccll.f.&l'1oT €re:. .1. '486 li .'trdy •."! 10pll!t~Jl!dgem~n~ upon !!!s.6:66 ·'Thc.conJl!!iIgalion '~conjiugallo:n thalt is based on an added auxiliary verb).yccasedg..oing aoow (c¢i'lsed liey.that they iii) so (H"is"good lme.9') 'This consnuctloa is.yol ii.~ t-~l..AS ·i6!-Tro~'......'!J.tu"I1IC Eq_.£J]!\.a. "g_.~i!'Ig~nvariable morphs.II o-cry 'TtI 11'.e ~olllind Nmr he was wk.NIOY"'C E)...bap· ti'!ing (johnb¢Cal1i!'C luc".SdOIlS e.JH~:..aI'lIY6 IrJ.'l:1'n. U 543..~If (.lis: om'deed\! tb.t"'~II.{lc."'IJ.IN~ii~<!UNI INIIM ShMfng g..kTl. and does not conrain a resumptive mo:rph ~ngrammat~.: ~P'E-..AHO~ ON '€:~~lr:.aBO)!. '2. nominalsemenee 2SS~ durarive sentence [5~.Uy IQonjlugaied verboid 377.y.).(. 528expres!ied. ' 244.cjius:sJve(H4r.\i'e_~g:e:<l!rn:e-c) Ilpon themall awd nm· he-t denll1l"t them ~Q d'catlil".e~~ is also formed.. ' 516 ( Nl.

H.(Jction' (su bJect beg~nning 1'0 act.HT6 '·'BuiwhenPl3!uil.ROLES OF CJR. 12~]3 ·".\o ii. ef . ii-ltrMiN~:lIHT lU11l!:.I1-J:2 "We.tQ (Ip¢:n) bis mO'"~nlr!".m!pti"'~ mor:pb. ~!I.below.W 1'0" €~ii-rM~6yc IJ.7::3>8 .Y-T!()rl ii-:ilIe:st.or.lk" .ginningto partidpme .cr. out q-Ul.. 174)1is expressed by pedpJuaslic conjugatiun based on '!I'Q]TJ£ "become' .! 3n.t'lh~"&Qil~~g.-~wTIt. .ldn-hims. ll"y·(ll. (He~came he- Furthef' eCO::a!mp~es:•..ywl1ieql~ll eso.ey~be. E:x. ~~.frel'~. Lefurt 76:21-21) "The thi!IAg ~liIal was dllfficl!Illlbefo:l'e.$ic sentence is: a nemiaal sentence (llnlilsuaW): ..C'i'I"r lOIN Man e H to.ecome ll'Iol!l!"necd:lng)mi.q-Ho'r'HiN-.. be such that great cendemnetiensare upen us (we shall be tlJe!re~be~llIg~greatcOllde'.W-H €60). 5..l:lUS.y".S €~I e<:l"'Nl."'~-ZQI'iJ'Ip:~e:ql "He W:UJ~ !l:.in a precess. .! H -TIC IU. (.ce. ~~lIt re-m.-t-"n! E!:.t. c[ 369. 'Eq .. (ilS c(l!it!~ng ~halll be ~t.~C)pW'TI€ 6'6 (b) '1ndpienl .-iOeing-the".:~bte w!beon Ihe: b<l.r!M~.. 343 Copyr'ghtcd rneleria' . . Ikl:l«ouCt 8 "And ~he sea sha]) be its terminatlon t.r .~p:hms.0YoEIP. eq-H~-WWlifeE.l.R maLI be wodlitl :f(tt them (shill..1)1. It typically oceursie narrative.tic expressions of tense cQnta~nl..CUMSTA NTI. "Luke Ck2'3 "YOlJf rewa'ro w..mlril:i:!!tii.iUoo gre.-Q)wrr~: ·t.!Ie).528. I e 1(.~ {!I)l!ltw:e auxiliary). past eense ~~. 'Ire Josh 17:'9 KUl ·~mut ~i.• ii.A.n:d~:ngthe.:I.Ne. be..'.ns~bTe".~4 to open (cafl1.iipwHe Athatl:l-.decrmen. wiU...o.X.'"'OYW NN'" pm--q Acts 1S: .. ycm·g....tng"tempef..AL CONVERSION II"U'lr€q-~wne . se.lilg acircumstanclat .lITHONI(lYTs: ShlU 1:58.r.to~..wne: ln order toenlarge therange of 'is going to . acqulnnga qJuaHty. Amper.po.. toIIOK2NWOpnl.sea).oc .]! have rome.r q)wue.2) Furpe-riphrastic Imperanve.!Je:!.~n)'. ). i.umc. NO' !l'Csu.~''9~Iii!I~ e-N~@~~q ~_N-TnI~.~Tree~CCl. seri~oliJs.0 enlarge the range of N~.l!-kissing) 11iis.(I eZP·l.em.be '~empeJ"lte (the'y~be tliI. almost always exte.elause.a.e-oy.:2 "(B~dJ)line .recameeasy e~ ( I(the thing became ll-'beJing-easy) for people" 428 As a seq uent~al·clause> the circumstaanal expresses an event.ls in sequel to or~s M aspect Qf that which is being asserted in the preveding clause.(.t>I~"TJ"A.-y MHAy SbiV 4.it~. N4~ FUrther e:~am!P'!e~ ..anl kis~~ng (s!te-ibccOiime ml.qloYE:P HT¢ L1I!~e.:2.:'1 fii....OflS ~IPOI1lus) from Goo"..23 ··:So If YOIl rue ~Il[ aWlar'" e!uy~tI ..yw Iil~ e-QyQ I ro.WIJ'E Heb :5.elf) (Acts 16:27) .lit {h-w:~n- "'€ Peripn1ustic G~ occurs instead of <g.5d. enres fes~ L 11:(lj1~'i !pa~l.She k~.OOlitto kill himself" go~ng . Ito need (yoil.!'be h"be:i[l£~woe untolhem) thefe.q-~wn€ " €.iiT2w II e . 'W:N~·M~~~Wn:e e~(lyIN~'zeNHo6 til-lK.:(.l"have"lJ.'l'tOiJ. c e-I~~.oiQg·w·Ufl·lllp) your g:i!ftI onto the W. Uft up Of you corne.T6TN-@OOn€ e:Tre:1i'H-r~~Xrl.!ie based on Q}IDne: ~belbecome' except that eJ occurs lnst:ead o. or stalle llia~.!iJ.·~%~~o.A 1ITE~"Let it be one ~h~!Il:g" {Let-it-be it-being one) (Si.aJ~.. m-~Tt::i'IB € bs jt·king·~at) in heav.a:mp1~s: ).ering a sta~e.ql-ltli ~"ll.

y a!b<I_ndgfleahin~.39 "The..-y cl~.eONVE.kOw- "Ht )..Y~IUJ. preteri~443(b).. .e' a.I"'B.lg wiill.€ i\i-CTI€~A. .'it'fi. and r~memhel" t<l. l "And all became :\C~I!le:red.~stingu]~.. {i) "..433(a).ItSlONS- C.-11:H OyTt< ~l.£-nl.lT-~..ng 1M an . HIM[~e:YEl ib" - H~-NnetH~liII..J. €-.• Qnd I r..).r:mher it beJ... aringil.J.3.q~t cQ1J..f2.l. n (e..-"'rX11iJ.:plrul:l~ng a pru1lb~e)"'lbese ih..Y-KO'1i'-'O).(j. circumstantial .I..d Sa!:!! ~eftrnmc::(1 fF(liT! J¢f1I.hed..it.ii-&Ii'l." mTfOC.9~y-nl~". " <l.."r'€q .. T £K~ta leuer) '. hAnd B0"2.-qN.-J.as thepreeeding relative clause and. ..iI<.ibutive dircumstanti.i ShIll IJ:: 1...q-EI~r€H--!il!.l.he converted' Dot plal1e as .IHh 8ihlW 2"7.$ H Acts 8:: 35 .J.~tg wilt~!~n i!1lo Ulei~' Sla)ifn!l..r 1•• N~2€:Ng..!q. < 1t>!-C~IW'rc" t.¥.lnttatll Jcmsalc~n" a.De.ntl.\ M-fJ~eTQY'"'H(JYK2 'j:.:36 "·Wh.:>i.w' ~.~q clause does not express relative time.pn. .mu M~.ense in t.l rpl.e~<1.ol..'l €-l..f ~n yQll:r prayers" N:E.1!~pacfO~e" ~.vOUlt men buried S~ephen and (nexf] simultaneously'l] made greatlarnentetion over him.y-.el'lit'nf Hl. a~kedme " • " ami T ~qJd lb..gsUJ the same nl~n(Jlr'Ve Examples... 'leASe in me e~rcum~scantial extension belongs to ihe SaJIiJl0 narram~vep]urne.:l"~Y'~ nlli'o.x..\l~I:~m.y-KWruC .C~G .rii. preoed~l1Jige.x.26-27 '''Goo saw ~ht:::i~l!i:$tre~s.e fQllawil1g ~hing to him": iHTEr~I-'9~.r!~lm.il. r-~~'OT!Ei E. hear:ls.ntHy term..:5-16 (the eonefuskm blessed be.ngtlishe.essrng un (tlt)'enr in a dijJer~m w'(]).Ho\.the preceding clause (main tense 52!).u.'on.~IQy-tj."1'.mOC'iTi'OJl.'!'" afil. 8. Hl.cri~tlJr· ii-rw-q '€. OyWN Pbiilip opelittld ]lis mOlJ:!th and begal1 from tltth...AI OO!ilil1l~.q-OYWtY5 . 2H-ZIPJ.(. dJocs:UQ! express relative time.Q.(u-OY €-J. John"..'1.i " • .q-:::!.t\6 ii.-.lf.~RCu"MSTANTlAL Seq~el and simultaneityere fonmaHy d.'\ " " " q)l.u.y~\~ I NHNIJ.gJ. Q)'QM .''!(l. wwams E!lypt"~ eN ~..PQ~tk~:...e-ff£YHliU..ec:xpands. iii-oywo(i 'N-f:.s the sequential circumstantial from the adverbial circumstantial .cpUtd to l1!i~ '" ".. descriptIvely .-Oy-~I"QYINE:.loved F'all~r.b. bNJ Bprt!..:iMlAY fii-f.g .~.sscd~ by 'eN'-.~yN~Tw:2J. :(ii) Ree:I'[J!'..:. certil[npersoll " . Jr.(a). parr oj .. .KWI5 £150.I~. dr:cums1:a[l~~almodifies" i..a]S!oextendany of lhe eonversloas.Y .I-nrHIH-IlIiilM'G lh.Inti lhl~Y 4:29 The seqll.E~1A. AI@....rehnive 4.a..I.:·-"QYQt.G rN-oy. In [his extremely common 344 Copyriphted rnmeria' .::.>/j~!'Jig a ~. .~oy 1(0 M€C ShChasil> 54::52-58 ".9' luke.24"He: :1ve. nr. and b.e HMN.l~Qyw'\!!o1'-~IM:A-QI. 430 Th.C. i~mr~j.H ocii'6~-Z€H if'WM€ ii. "And B~r.<lch.'\.lO.yw.tl'r. 121HH ••• ''''-l.an e·~!'''lltB~pUJ.~andfoca~izing4S8(bJ. •• .HIt-:l1 ACl:l.iEznE: ezrAI e.• ' ft~ma.A~ 1?6 1M-JiJ& H~.OCHl. .. them..j(w-q Acts 8~2 ".lve rIQ 1:001.'!~!l.M1 sJx~kew·jtb a.m~q €~l.H H He Alct~ 12:25.i't'c.e.l.up~ I~ 811)..y~Ci..l:~·c!"!~· g{j'n:1' Jfic\~bch~l~drenby R.nged! tlae one w~o was Es~plian". e.(U..lil-l and pe 11'II-1~..u!. Le.:If...w.elie~!'~fQra w]lJJe/"j.$$ H)4:n .'Oep( ollly 'Ibe £~:li.\.I{ HIH e Atcl:" 7 :.42. berepUed •.l.alclause As an 3nrlbutlve clause (descrJbedin403') the..-llY-61 re.i ." fl¥~ H'T Ac~tsl.'Ti-IN. This: d~sd. (tlit:ltPI}~tltJti) 8.(::~y).PareweU..~s.11 e:U-QJ.cl".ne .e 'opp:rc. or state in the na:l1i!Uive ]i. a ShCh.alcircumstanriel (optionaUy linked by aconjanctien such as .....X.)can.e.speet or simultaneous aye -a.

tbisgiIfL" h €-~-YCl!IM€ .). end If It contains aresumptivemorph 404. "'N~¥ ~N-O)'H e H-Tuwyre u 11"6 6Y-K. onec]rolll:m$~.'tmjunc. :'6()JI. .es ~w~f1g il with anQ1he..g of marri<l:_g:e lIud lnot dc. bUll hO'lv~ng bccolit!c/beC:liI a ]ruViC in the :i1Jli~if~. . .{thow c.03::19-20 "Not scCiing Him and not hcarnrug atl.. .~¥W fiql-C()O¥MI .lTo Act s 2:33 "Having become e"xalted stthe right hand of God.Cti'()n..~w e: tH H 8MV 39.-Il<g Sh~V 39':23-25 "ColTlside<r those wk{)h~ve truly pleased God bry pMtakin.x:ne...' IJiI tbis censtruedon...iN!g eecelvedihe promh.t no one had ever oee-TI pill ~n".1 ·'Lea .n: (O)yOl..-'T~t¥'!iii' .e-x$eoded(carried en) bry ru'lother clause.UQ<l..26-21 "Whether marrying a . COIl¥eililer ~IWT-THYT" + (C'laJuse '\I.: t.tilf- ~ COr' 9:21.g €-I~-e"T'-<\y-e.::(E"'"MN"'~N" ~''9Hlrt.lI'~.o £Iro"'c j:ii"'!11 !I(I' P(I6 ~c(llIfe.:18 "Having died in l'hefkSlilJ.(M'tJUllcNan..'(G e .nowtng . Wit..e-N~Tii~. began .uli~:ial convener is e.::·~(I¥"'lli'J.14.. Iii (11.""l " " EI"'r-~.it. e-.H""N~Y . d.r-·""..~~ ~. €:~··oy J.jIES-JiY-TNN'OOY-'1 SliD". ~hh:oligh pns:~e~&iJflgrnamlY all» !having begoueu mJJI!!Y":.).C~!RtlSe).B ). ..~pi!~il~gthe begeui:rniS of dllild~. OyK:!..f.does a~SQ.[!!g it wi:lili1.' '6·-Yf!lro4lIiilTHI(.e"'H""T.oc IMI~-~~I e I'f'G cY-.q . We have !!'lQ cihildrerl.. O)fCtW'l6 N-OYW1"N"':~K..nwzT H-n€~'r:.u had been Iltug OlU ('"'tid} tha.. the extension clause.WB N2HI1""C IIcofr 6~gJ1.xo e po"'. . <1!_lUunl!.T!IilTi\i'-IKJi...' I:OWi.!PHY !3.e-'"". Ao~!! 2. seeir.8 Of g:lfl!lht:fjng or ~!iIanything.~jullctiQI'j (liI:nile:cl ~o the past ~(lllse. el~'fe ." W.E..:T&TN-t M thiU you h<l/'lfC put {Iff the ol{l!person wilth its praences and fta've :pUl 011 the new one".en". n e and hid in lhree ftI~caslnesofrnlou:r". OOIDJll]imEl5 SOW!..'l :liUlUll: W\1S John.30 "lB~.3.y voice from Him.x.ru2:~.·rr). "Not b!:·ing without la:". e ey .x-ij '€..~C21!H€EI'iIi'€ £Y"'211-10. Lmkage by cm1!junction ~s opt~onat W'tdl (.ded by two.wI!.'ill"iI!'\-'ij en¢l ul!like 23~53 '<A lmilmlb th.lNlr"o¥l..'!9lo.~ne:nIN~ .c H"'IT! k.z ShOr rn53:J0=35 "!Poopl'" who ~l{. ·oxI ii"l1€IP HT M.<!!!J '" e:y-c H oye-n N0YT6. Copyriphted materia' . :Z€INr'WIM e €y .(:-~..mi:siElS: God". ~-ne..(!I.rofh~t and I!.oy 1...andhHv.. Holy Spj.ion: 'Hn:r:~."." Wiflwllt eo~Vlm.ird (Joo.£':1'.".elroq~!N oYAe NI""'''~ ~"C(11'fM Af-ll e~il2:rooy 1N't'<\:~q ShU] 2..j~S..NMi-nrw)'T6 ~).x..-a.qp~HI 1f€ r. but lratheli be..W .-AU)' "~. " ~zUYM- npWIM ~ ii-~(: IN.N!-!IIerr NI~ 1 P.~s99:4'}"'52 "A s.-q dmta womanlro]. th~ I laoorin. 'H'-I1BrrC Col 3:f/-lO".!..)\~ €-·l.2..53. wuruan or I:Ilarry'~l:'Iga man or 1OQwin.Do not he-~oone another.HNIHC 1lIohn ~.»(IMlit'fij-~! IN-Mo.(c)Port~e conjlunctlve within acircumstantial clause..ing under ~liIela.~e 19: 31 "1ih. .-.O II" 0 NIE'j....Y-KEl'l.-T!TAH0'::: ".l.... o""c . Ci~"6.e mU]li. .. 426.!()ErJE E2Pd :2N""Toyru..lc....e o~ the.IH·~-ql -Tti''. andsome- tim.W'of Chrlst": E!ITrE €y-. t..€.a P..~O!¥ e~~.x~I_.x.....~ I?~:.li'1.nN oyn:J..cjoldng (<llliId) p.MIM! .JTe''''Z<l.\q.1IOy MI€IN l NI-T(.eseOO .e( J.1T LI!!~e 13.)'8~q .~!".".. (or mare) clauses. l.IG.KWl-<r €-M:JiT0'Y-K. oypa.(I.H~ ~1HOy'ili'E.of l<i!!li:! . :2.q-..:'(WGe M-ne. .OQNVRRSH)NS - CIRCUMSTANTIAL 43JA circumstantial conversion can be . poured OUI~..~.r..tHlMOC 0VENiNO'MOCiM-1T6XC ~.J1IHIIitI HI'~€ • • . e hm. e .il. .x:prul.N e:q2~ HllEl ).Y~2a:2 ~ylIjlE"l. (col~aJted) ShCh'a.X.)ttl'2 -b.mJ." ~n:".ing therefore. Y W ..lludc: .xw it.6 "A man who had! been sel~t by GOO {lInd)1 wlliOSi.~q.:XI'f.o.

r.1 ..l1Icreased.it~on.conver .a. "And! the. The preterit signals a tem347 Copyriphted materia' . HI 6.<gl\. N 16 F6-.m.e:.· c cu}'.020T€.FUNcnONS OF PRItTER. i~.ing grea~~y in Jerusalem" (Acts.U.h:m "'!JUG A€ H- the werd of' God l." J. by I" prov.i'TifOy~._~. i-'MMI~eHTHc n HoYTeJ. JNI. 11(Jl if You had been here.round information. : Jmmurable sentence convel1er.rdy woe w....€:-M.N e:-l.q.. say any thin.~32) .:.QR~.!.i .e ~l'Ip.oman -"'I:i" ~I" lor.y~ r~'&20"€ r~r'~And.whem he rea]ized· .·~I'-l) a~ " .-!tHSi:'" '" ..18) Despite Us Latin name ('already past'.ooc:kg.g .\_:u.ter-!tus) the.""1 ~Qy4 Q.IT CON'VERSION 435 The ·pre.pos. p-.7~iER...uOWt...:.MS OF 'THE CONV. oc~li2ing cGll\i\erniorl45l W"'6f'€ .or by slow. p.y I H€.. ~"._. Mutable converter C:{" 'lars.FUHCTIONS AND SYNTAX OF !PRETERIT GONVI!RS.. and the nUHilbe:r of disciples was n...e:rn.yw ·~q""i.idin. or by e.ii1:'€r€:ql-eu-:l€ .:l!y from~he f:l..itipiy.._ thathe li.en~'9ue: ..or dlalIo.cre Que of the.illg ~clenti.ing the pace oj.¢trl!..gue.•. NO. W:'SI a 'R" c.w:s" be.othelicafity or wish (CQin:l:rary~t~f:acO~ fullS shined~w.m P' (ShIV If haM€ 9'2:.q-O\YiU. special: rdatio[}:sh~p 10 the ordinary 1:ra. my brother would (!~IM Q! INoe~. either slmahaneous . . d.NVERSrON 434 FO. ofam..crim lime. . ~IN. isambigu.. K- MTf..x.oteS8en.d' un. NIe.. For they were ()Jrait1t~ Kg.~ ~.~ 6:8) . 4Pg.g'eFi HJ.cal with the neg.Qooevf mj8ev sln:av' e(J)oIPobVi:o "f. N€. trlbsne was a:frnid.:liHty of the m<li~n iscourse. Ie 1.. 398~ 1i'S:!:I.Ujfili\e.. On uiple .M0' (Acts 22:29) n.e".xe-oY2P'WMAIIOG De: p-q TiJE. "XI}\.g to :any ene.. __ _.:' .pe.T€ zR-el!hHM ••And 6:7) Hi. 'd'i.U1.!. :rUU"11lit~on~ of ex.R.y A.rE:"'/HE!•. .seCOl1l:darycorrve~er 5IUU.rtle.ing remote hyp.tiaWly a mark. H6 III l. died'" (Johin l~. NIE.ER. d 1i1I-X:06 ~C6III€.'\( ).E .'""'1 o~oy ..terit tonV'e.HJN THE PRETERIT CD.x:p:ress.sio1l' signals thatthe converted sentence has 3.n~co N !NI~ .ey did not. th.'!~FXOC E801\..." .me. f TH.. pe-. takcn in i8!i)La:U.i~.Jiii'th "'l"HI"e e. ". .yWN 16 c-a.nal'rat. ..•. HFlie"Lord.x€l~ .ap (Mart . ne" 438 Ne~a~lv~ 'M~. Copticprete:r1l conversion is: n. au.

C'~ i!UI~$uuio!i!c$.(Ii) expressing 6iii ." sq ":2:" ""12: IH Q ii""1'i6q 1M~~ Y 1''''' Luke 1: 15··H~ will 00 ..illH~O e~a. ..h! h~:i ~O' :foenlilizi"g ennT \!ie~ilil)!l~ i~ di~tlcUy s:uffixedi H) t!l~'S.e! ". . eT"" 01"( .h.. (it} H='fr .9n'IiiIIP'6 'Te· E:Tle .!'.. You promised us tifurones" !EX."' (::~T'me"I(jI!I"Iiii~..yh.. wnw not fm:d OI.the focali1:ing eonvctsto!l. :l:. NTM Jsa 1:3 "My people has nen rknorwn wlm Lam". e!!o""~.II.-'··IMHay .x€M .6oIHCShUI~34. and (d)'...If): NI€.c :MJow. C~ause+"l..amp:le. ' .1miP]CS : ~y ..!'.J..ertcd (mIT!..: "I~IW "'''2'.~.Lilil with ..e dUrI.. . thill I spoke ra .l.""Ii"-~IN-·g...~y"~MrH-r-':2oYQ Ei-HliiT-cNQoycii-:2."~~~Qy Mark 14:68 "1 do 1I0~ IlImde... €N-NJ.PJ.X(JIJt:iHO~C ."2.v¢.e (:.oQ¥ . the placelirom wih:ic.-. Rumples: El. accuset had been C~i:liS~ fWln~.•• w1h:m·.:tIU'Idare ~ffimlatiiy.xOQ-Y NiIH-TN.x.Ac:1:s 24~!~ Itis !lot imot.b~ng~l 4 (MliUel 14.." (In th. (1 !h.NT-21.~ N€ N~'wO\..vangeJi:. by Hi!'>re.what die)!' mlighl do) 10 Him. ~N) whm...£-n€l'ZHT Bxtension ~yw 6q-To\.(l''o\!:QrShip''..'~-8 "YOu see ~.IINT~.s ~b~:>.I.!ll~m t.yw Focalizing 61f'.. 'tiT-).. ..Ii.!O Goo".Ci.HT-l. €-HT-'\'tI-(:!:! 1I!. HIRI N'I'-J. .~A(}yC ShChilSS ..edaU ~he'l:iea'\i'einr.l:YW l1~U.0' . Mich..q!l.Oe. lin:li::agebyco:njun.l (..1lhey did not say to .WKe.ner negative oonjugi!iltion of the infin~tive (d. 6~'C"". ..a:.OTK ::l.Him.!o .of tihllt manthat we aee going ~ndeed...9:48 ·'They d:id not find mn "".O'w He. ~Hf .ami~ted inim':t". "lio.y "il"Hr-Qy' ShMi~g ·2.their !leans (. iiK). helll1)llire I being undone a..n I'itI 6-~O'1"'W'<:9"i1' .i.l least in (b).. .!'!ti.xM-QIK.ohrru E.) h.S eOlua:h~ a$! i. Vat. e·TI!le-uO\! ·tIl.!lreffQgali._Il! SalnM Pcwr <li!ild Palll (Rmil 93·~ 18-1'91'~1l isa won- der lih.i-.ea.I<.s. 61 NIE"'([101) fll].our .\sln~o~q' Mark.OHU a G N~ N 1(!. . til~t:lT'-q oy 0l'.II~/..HNIN'Clr.••.x(l()·--c N).. because be abused us" E~:.N .! N'-el-qJoon "HiMH~I'!l'ii luk'C 24:44 "These aroliny wmd:.g·· riCIM'OC ~yw Eh~.q~e. O'T€: r)" r .e~O\q~':'.lmost I.F THE .1~n....HY e.q·e"Tco"'li:I ~e~~c ii.!]. Book (:If the In\'iestin:l~Qf St.".~~ Arc.1tr1 Q.50 "How m!li!di.onl~g :a:md surpassed themal:!".~) :45"".-.il[d"e 1.cli·on ~sopt~o:na].1-8) ·'Afic.~OY"IP i~()yo611~.:olive r .1I.i!ke sf~de[' webs!".x.-e'.cl tun d·HH •••.ish..."'~ :i~C~ ezr·~~ ~fie.'Sit.l. Look.-BWIC ."'ININ ""2:e"H~'po 1'>11(1(: SC!fcria of Gabala.q-r-:2li..IN-€lre'alr'l!ody ...xl~ t/..J..I'9'~ -2.O'C Hn€q .1-II!I.).' ShAm6~1 rnHi: 1-2""1'). q -x:-e .N~-e. e....)'(lUi".n ~o do (.'I'T~NI H:.d on) by a. .ings have '~Q:!i!!rifn!ed in thi~ W.a:thecr"s womb".q-IIlIliIA E.. teJeave...I1-fI'H'\.! .x!" ..:1/17q l NOYHP 'EBO"" GX6H crushed and are ruined. "J."i!1iIH)y"iI"t. ('i.516(iiiO~ (iii) as an en~h:y eeOA lNI--1'l1€ statement extpruldjng [he subjec~ of a clause 48..m. ..c·NlT"'~q -c NT-Ij:tnlitye 'ft~ r-oYt4l.. ha:veleft..g": N~q~N~~d'IN~ c.p'e:~.f the...q:~"a~ql.~€itMO-g. you ase s.MIHiNsaoA NT!6I~lE 2 Pe~3:4 "For eve!!'sinte .:.a."Heq[!l.u.].l.w II HI'.K. ..'en"..:.ith ~!he Hoi:y Spirit when fie: ls w. whic.U (. 1..:.c nominal ~f!l~JJ.nl we fla\le come.~EP H ~T N::!.-" 363 Copyriphted materia' . ~tle.i.N'I'-~y .C :~H ftc:q. 6ii:N'" reported d~ooQ~rnea.~.e~taib. 1~l9"h IS beeause ." q .nm~c:rclause.ithilTh his m.II N"I:'-. I~·my:. .. 9.J....:6G'}\...l!!l(1QIlV.C'eSt.J\ aN t.l:.H11ioy-6NN-CYN~""'P"'Oy tn.l'Hrolro'c €211'loT J.WK.~gb.11'1 ~"IHOIY:2M~n6i11·ih. {or xu.a.l!Hv.2] "Aboi!!ll (O\~ 68) how lQJlg ha..lISland ~6iN~ . I(C).zaJ 6-. (iii) o)'<..qBU)I( (. 111& er:n::'CI1.Y. &oo:mjl.a..U as1eep" 1I~1~ l11I. e !1(:2~H 'f6 .. PO C A LIl-ING CONY E RSION 458 The€ocaHzing conversion canbeextended (a) Focalizing (cll:rr~e.'iI' .)'"OIJ 'w~He I W'!ffi s.tI.~ not :spent mom (ban) ~w~II\!~days sin(:~ I w·~n( up to ~~ro&.e6ii·~~.g..ors fe.6111..l.aillread!y fined w.. Hiloy~.ENS] ONS O. ~N) how ~e mlgJlt liu up hi's eyes.

..NTIAL le-.r Nq-WWIi1£~l..ru.t.)'.€ ~!'IIHe"':~ N~~I"W' ~tI tI~'l. q ~ q""cooy" AJ.• 364 Copyriphted materia' . e~~c.w.eq-t t46:IP!iT'-q li'J...-. NIH'.-..HOy ...ltrh:''''CWTM €lpo"..lx!!a.-2€lNt.~" 'I ]1 .] 6 "For it was min that we: fdHo.e-n 41 .'l'f--q N -(J''1{ .!K..P·~. i.. Groll:1go up !} tht:. who ..•.. u~!lHn~J..wo(0:1" more "looses): Canive:rter + {Cla.lc. 'S-:Nl.e'H>yeu.. 0".'9--10 "rn~:n..t it) .!!i)macle l!f!OiWf! to you th!.IN-C)Y~2. . Inor 5li1ou~dcungrnlt.no:rn~.c~dcd ~:Y' mad\.-opt.~k '9:J.ShOxford CI.~£ €~w .!M ~"'~.-" r)..'" q G 80)".l."I "l-n-g~-:I!(~g.IM e·-<pI:l.e:"'9.xe .For he knows to th atit does In..Hr>€~ M•• .rmd sHooLh¢m.K.i e~ NJ.e<lirl~eiltllllild i ~H(-e them and p:r~(.q~N e q-~.il .e ". ..iilpr~S.ve.l.3.ul.mQl'~2 21"1'~i!Hi!HIT-E Shill 188..gl1ilthe<JI[them and do thenl ?'. .!I(.~-Y huo heaven and lbimg down his rules. demcm aad '(:orning ~o be under theallthori~y of a ~:IlI)Slile]:s. single 3..~ €:-~Y-'I'jTrW a-o.-22 "He who :speaks LO you is 11101.I.N~q-'911 HE: a. . d.~n.)"rEl2~·-'~'\!i'IH -!11. .b.'re· bhn bUl ralher keeiPs watoll and p:re.~f...g. in (I) firag· ffietI!lS :rndpiecesT':..e:. ! \ .Pr. e. (l .~Al. Qne f(lCl!JU~ing converser is expanded by ~.1\1 occurs.l. us worthy for .iri. INllo.~~ NC. in ibis clrua.\..!1 H.]ed ..' m 16 "FOiii (:UJlgroltu[at~orn... IIIC Jiyw OyIlH .1 ••• ·Q·)'1iE c:Ml.TION CD. E..~f (a good spiro.. amoOg you.!lnS h~m from bowin£ OO~ e '!I-IPOE.467HI:2&--b.olll.yw...:lt . he.ar.tf~ chOO:.C N IiY "It is/or that reason that He is not ashamed to' 'can tbem My brethren" e:'1"Ia.n~lfiUC.J!~ngdeath rather ~han me" ()::rc.POyC!~ 2 Pet ~.oymf.rE:-IiI~:Z-QY .NI ""r~o6€..~" . so thL'lt we tnl.l.Hl.O "'brru't ~l W~ thm ~1Yi!l tear (hem .. ~no6€ I. ""'~.eOUid 5h'ip (ho~. [N-. ....r''':~~U.ql)e::ql'Yl...n ~oVies it very :intlob and rnjoic~s over ~(.M ShAmern 1108.'noll:ho..v'c :i~ibc~:f C<l!11 br.sd cleV'C!r]ydevised myths and ~thl.ShIn 73::5-6 "Por the tmd ~ spekaand When focarnI:dng conversion withnegatived optionaUy a. .H e-0HIOYTE: 'e Ii' O-QY oX...9'~I...e.~ng flo !p:t:!~SQ:]die!"«.NVERSION EXPRESSED BY THE CFRCUMSTA..:l.lll..U!s..use: "'" (._.ot oppo.€.. 1\C1!.yw tH':1"'Ii'J..la1!l:Sc).~()eIC r:A1i" QO'~C .N'"0y." ~I!lI!I:O ff!ilgmen... .oy rnN"'I.gg.oI.t!O!l +if!fifl~~i\l~ 23U~D·." 459 FOCALlZA.U [ i I •.:po~r 3m:lGomi!1Jg or our Lol'd ji~SlJ" Chrij.l~oy IH ~:Ali'e"oc2"oy .'T--ny N-IN-eToY"Ii(J...~t.i'i'e 339~) "~-y ~~r~T"ql (e) 'ne inmnii.2!(J.!}UE: -oyw"~ lliiH-Triii @. fO'r his: pa.!!IN2. Iii! fA1. Exa...).cy~q ' .l~. !OH l..ld:. oy...wH2 M'TO. {c) F:OcaUz~ngC~ause 4' (AYW) Uneonverted Extensien Clause ln ~l1js 'co!'!:>ttuctiOll. ~'no6e ShAffiiI!i~ l108.BO':\' iii-'iJ'6 OM H-nt: NoX:Oel ci'C JT€XC MH-T€~liI.s should mM be {lff:c~d I!tl(ll1l\:whc)ins. ..'iIi!oo·q l1"l. 1._rg.·t ll:rulel~<l!1 y.... iiT-J.i.:IJppean:: him.()S'!":.).y aN mamp]es: (.e.e"'I .yw to a.. "Did Pl.iM MH focalization neXIlI8 is extended.oyo l..p .':(.uucts . nl-o)'mu. C1Qflj~!!i.t·'~~r~-n-. !I\!.rO! lciq"K:wi\.·~l..(jj>Tn i1-ITMQ'Y N'lO:YO e.xe} ShUI 40: I I-IS ·'.l]S(I!l23 ShU[ 120:7 .\1.:!]...llioJtsoo offered w these wb(larei.\li..'~-t)r '.a:.I I! cy~r(:-(N~..

.K EI8... eq-cw'TfiI ~MI..IIM <> H'I 0..e.li.1\..-q" etc.q-CWTfiI."" .t'H3:X.CiI. that the topic element of main-eleese sentences in this form.35:*1 46) ep'iI!J~~I-1'BA<.1I!te ~o say.nH thatsucba d]:s.II€~t\luJ.r~q~ ClDnl.l1 M.t:ks .:: 35-42) net when ceuldjust as well tJe~ to contain a ci!rcU!ms~a.\.A.zilt{JICircum. such as i.CONVEltSIONS NEUTRAlJZ.0 :t\lIO IN elgo.-n...$)'Of l.!22) 21ITN~O-Y .AiPXW N (ShChass 1. others?" :tt::t:. i..~y €:'~IN€:Y€:rHy "How are some greater than.f!)Kl. is neither d~stinc~. assigned. as focal- iz~ng ecnversioas.. ~othe main8a~d claase foccaHzing panern eonsisting of I .'flami{d provided that it 1:S a complete main-clause sentence.0. ~€p€-nMay~ 'lTrre"h.~z:ingnor dlsfinctlyeircurnstaniial. above aDdelsewhere in this book.dverbial .€-g.But ~tis even more: aOCUf.ited. do not by [he..ATION OF FOCALIZING VERSUS CIRCUMSTANTIAL CONVERSION 46·ij Beeauseseme coneersien fersns such as €. some of the examples c.U .Iy focal. + Circumslafiliul CI'au. from the viewpoim of deciphermeet.nti3!land. thata lion is afraid" {ShChass :3:8. 3. not: maimained: . I'll I e.~r appearance express a d~stin:cdon between eireumstannal ver:sus fDca~izing.rl)cai Point + Nl~t.n'allzedfi'octlli..f.is a tox ba.l... e-YIN.Adverbial Focal Point.iii.~nction ishere neutralized.1i"l.'u! I 4S9. Ctause 366 Copyr"ghted rneleria' . "l~is by the pri'ncc of demons that Recasts out demons n (Mark. il.0.

e Him alone" 36! Copyriphted materia' .3.iR.l'et 1.KfUCTIC're:NT-A.e:.(jJ0YiP.IP nG~'1"-~y-n~ iit.trapos it ion Cleft Sentence 411 4'3 Sentence '" '1.lt-:I lJi'l.~'r a.\XUl'Ii'e:~ 470 PaUe:m 3.a." (l]'jm 2~ 1:3) and Basic (durativeJm litre chapU!r j 14J:' q ••You shall K~ t.\ooAE.: h ~l. the ddt senrenee IS a gr~iIillIIWlalk.C- 46.cti.A.~~ql i!li"€eq~.cc€ r4r N-4Ji.LLz'ING FUNcn.4 Advedli.:l- se:rv. which ls formed upon some of themaln-elause terns) described in pan 2. Term.:y-n.on of the cien Seetenee Prose.J.ke tlte conversions.ai Quest~on~Forilnulated at.J. in Ex. a.o nEl.5)..'~In~c..' Patterns Cont~ti. -"!it:i~ eli.ON 0.!K.\.1 464 463 tU:21"1-r€K Pattern hi 0YPWiM€ t:i-pt:il'u.:ne'lurill.:mative Cleft Sentences: 'There Is .20 The cten Sentence 461 The FocaUzingFur1.' NqJO:r'iiT "Adam was funned firsr" ls . a C~dt Sentence 415 THIE FOC.WH'f) :rn~€..ql-KWTri-OiY-f'Onoc 47~.~rhe beginning of epistles 466 Extension of PaUem I 46·' P~Ucm 2M1i"'OK.t sentence (.bask:' sentence patrems (nexus p3im~ Baste (twn-Uur(tlill.Adam who was l.1'"THE clEPT SENTKNCE 461 li.IH Clef. e ti''J"~ ~.e [>{Uil.. - 'II MlliY). .Q)'()~ r 468 PaUem s Fermed w i. 465 Pattem ] a.i.'j.al superstreeture.llf)eJ'. uilt upon the basic jonnJ. Forexample. N1cga:tive . chap.tlhn E::aJmda C ircumsrara ial Clause: 469 Panem 3 ME:~N1iOq MA)'J.t:>I.i'\.ulf''(!.a1 Premodlfier and Postponed S~bjecl lit!f:~US Nominal.1'!l-·'I'Nm'9pij'"f'orit formed tireSl.l:IDiin\g a Relative Clanse Pattern I Te.NT-4q-TuHlo!:: H-OYM~ N-.

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