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Kh trng nc cp

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Ha cht kh trung nc cp: clo v cc hp cht ca chng Thit b nh lng clo vo nc Cc s c thng gp thit b nh lng clo kh ha lng nh ngha v nng clo d trong nc Biu clo ha nc Thng s k thut kh trng nc c hiu qu cao nh lng clo vo nc Cc phn ng ha hc khi clo ha nc Cc phng php o clo d trong nc
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Mt s khi nim c bn v kh trng nc

1. Mt s khi nim c bn v kh trng nc Kh trng nc l loi khi nc cc loi vi sinh vt c th gy bnh cho ngi v sc vt khi s dng n c. Tit trng nc l dit tt c cc lai vi sinh vt c trong nc Vi sinh vt l cc c th sng m chng ta khng th nhn thy chng bng mt thng, mun nghin cu chng v quan st chng phi dng knh hin vi in t hoc knh hin vi quang hc. Cc vi sinh vt c k n: vi khun, vivus, ng vt nguyn sinh, to, nm...Nhng loi vi sinh vt gy bnh trong mi trng nc ch yu l vi 2 khun, vius v ngvt nguyn sinh

2. Cc phng php kh trng nc

Cc phng php kh trng nc Phng php vt l Phng php ha hc


Dng kim loi nn g Dng it Dng thu c tm Dng clo v cc hp cht ca chng

un Chiu Ph si gia tia UV ng nhit php lc ch m

Dng sng siu m

Dng zn

Trong tt c cc phng php nu trn, phng php kh trng nc bng clo v cc hp cht ca chng l c p dng trit trong ngnh nc cp. Qu tht, cch thc kh trng nc cp bng clo v cc hp cht ca chng c nhng tnh u vit m khng c ph ng php no c c.

3. Cc tiu chun la chn cht kh trng

Mt cht kh trng v mt phng php kh trng tt c nng gii hn ca cht kh trng phi tha mn: 1.Khng c i vi ngi v sc vt. 2. c vi vi sinh vt nng thp. 3.Phi ha tan trong nc. 4. To vi nc thnh mt dung dch ng nht. 5. C hiu qu i vi nc nhit thng (0-35 C) 6. n nh v d dng duy tr mt nng d no trong mt thi gian di. 7. Khng tc dng vi cht hu c khc v cc cht hu c ca vi sinh vt. 8. Khng ph hy kim loi cng nh khng hng qun o khi git. 9. Kh cc mi. 10. C s lng ln trn th trng v c bn vi gi tip cn c. 11. D dng vn hnh v khng nguy him i vi ngi vn hnh. 12. Cho php d dng o nng v do d dng kim tra chnh xc nng ca chng. Kt lun Nc cp thng dng c kh trng bng zn v clo. Nhng thit b pht ra kh zn t, hiu sut lm vic ca my rt thp, v iu quan trong nht zon khng c tn d trong nc, nn nu kh trng nc cp bng 4 zn vn phi kt hp vi phng php dng cht kh trng bng clo.

Tnh cht ha hc in hnh ca clo v cc hp cht ca chng

Tnh cht ha hc in hinh ca clo v cc hp cht ca chng Cht kh trng tt Cht ty mu, ty mi tt

(Clo tim vo nc sau khi c lm trong v tr kh trng )

Cht xi ha mnh

(Clo tim vo nc v tr tin ha )

(Clo tim vo nc v tr tin ha )

Kh trng nc bng clo v cc hp cht ca chng

clo v hp cht ca chng thng dng trong x l nc cp

Dng rn Hypoclorit can xi

Dng dung dch Nc Javel

Dng clo kh ha lng

Clo v cc hp cht ca chng c dng nhiu cho kh trng n c cp. Trong ph bin nht l: Dung dch Javel: khi trm x l nc c cng sut nh Clo kh ha lng : khi trm x l nc c cng sut ln

clo v hp cht ca chng thng dng trong x l nc cp


1. Dng rn 1.1. Clorua vi a. Cng thc Ca(ClO)2 b. Tnh cht vt l -Tn ti trng thi rn, mu trng c, l cht xi ha mnh, ty mu ty mi, kh trng rt tt, mi hc, c. -Hm lng clo hot tnh (c tc dng kh trng nc)t 20-25% -Ht m, v nng clo hot tnh gim theo thi gian, v khi nh sng chiu vo. -gy n mn kim loi trong mi tr ng nc v khng kh xung quanh. 1.2. Canxi hypoclorit a. Cng thc Ca(ClO)2 b. Tnh cht vt l -Tn ti trng thi rn, mu trng c, l cht xi ha mnh, ty mu ty rt tt, mi hc, c. -Hm lng clo hot tnh (c tc dng kh trng nc)t 30-55%, ngi ta sn xut bng cch sc kh clo bo ha vo trong Canxiclorua vi -Khng ht m, v nng clo hot tnh khng gim gim theo thi gian nu bo qun ng cch: Bao b kn, trong kho kh ro v trnh nh sng chui vo. -gy n mn kim loi trong mi trng nc 7 v khng kh xung quanh.

Hp cht kh trng dng dung dch -Nc Ja vel

1.1.Cng thc NaClO+NaCl 1.2. Tnh cht vt l: -Tn ti dng lng, v l hn hp ca hai mui NaClO+NaCl, dung dch c mu vng chanh, ty mu, ty mi v kh trng tt, mi hc, c. C th sn xut ti ch bng cch in phn mui n khng mng ngn vi in cc l than ch. Hm lng clo hot tnh (thnh phn c tc dng kh trng nc)t 6-8g/ l -Nng clo hot tnh gim theo thi gian, v khi nh sng chiu vo. -Gy n mn kim loi trong mi trng nc v khng kh xung quanh.
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Clo kh trng dng kh ha lng

Cng thc: Cl2 Tnh cht vt l; - trng thi thng tn ti trng thi kh, c mu vng lc, rt hc, rt c, nmg hn khng kh vi t khi d=1,47kg/l. -Clo l nguyn t rt hot ng v in hnh. Trong h thng tun hon c s th t 17, chu k III phn nhm chnh 7a. -l cht xi ha mnh, ty mu ty mi rt tt. -Dit trng tt -Kh clo kh khng gy n mn kim loi, n ch n mn kim loi khi c m, c phn ng to thnh a xt mnh, tan, bay hi v c: Cl2 +H2O =HClO +HCl -Khi tn tr v vn chuyn, clo tn ti trng thi kh ha lng bng cch nn kh clo trong cc bnh thp chu lc 9 p sut 6-8atn

Cc vn an ton khi s dng clo v cc hp cht ca n

1.3. An ton lao ng -Khi vn hnh ngi lao ng phi mang y bo h lao ng: M, qun o bo h, gng tay, knh v mt l phng c. -Khi b ha cht tip xc vi da hoc bn vo mt, ngay lp tc ra tht nhiu vi nc sch. Trng hp b nng phi chuyn ti y t.. Cc b cha ha cht phi kn l ti mu. Khu vc cha ha cht phi thng thong, kh ro v c bin cnh bo nguy him. Phng chng n mn kim loi cho bm, ng ng dn ha cht v cc b cha. Khi ha cht r r c x l bng dung dch sulfit natri 25%, hoc thiosulphat natri hoc thsn hat tnh bt: Na2SO3 + Cl2 +H2O = Na2SO4 + 2HCl Na2S2 O3 + 2Cl2 +5H2O = 2NaCl+ 6HCl +2H2SO4
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Thit b nh lng clo kh hoa lngvo nc Thit b nh lng clo vo nc Clorator Clorator chn khng to ra chn khng v y kh clo vo nc vi p sut P nh hn p sut kh quyn-Loi ny an ton v c s dng rng ri

Bnh cha clo kh ha lng

Bnh ng dng cho trm x l c cng sut nh <2kg/h

Bnh nm ngang dng cho trm x l c cng sut va v ln >8kg/h

Clorator p lc -y kh clo vo nc vi p sut P ln hn p sut kh quynLoi ny nguy him thng c hin tng r r cko

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Bnh clo kh ha v clorator chn khng

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clorator chn khng c lu lng khng i

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Nguyn l hot ng clorator chn khng c lu lng khng i

Nguyn l hot ng : Dng nc p lc t bm p lc n, i qua Ejector (3), to ra chn khng trong clorator(2). Nh chnh p trc v sau van chn khng lm cho mng nm trn rnh chn khng khng di chuyn c, nn l so m van an ton ca vo. Kh clo t bnh cha (1)i qua van an ton v gim p lc, c b lc gi li nc cn kh clo cho i vo rnh chn khng, c nh lng bi ratomet, i tip vo rnh chn khng ri c ht vo Ejector, theo ng ng dn nc p lc n ni ha trn vi nc. Khi Ejector khng lm vic, trong clorator(2) khng cn chn khng, chnh p bng khng, mng gin ra, l so khng b nn, van an ton ca vo ng li. Ton h thng ngng lm vic. Nng sut bc hi ca clo ph thuc vo nhit v b mt ca bnh ng. Khi nng sut bc hi ca clo mt bnh khng th phi cho lm vic song song nhiu bnh ng thi.
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S cu to v lp rp clorator chn khng c lu lng khng i

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S dy truyn chm clo kh ha lng vo nc

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Vn hnh clorator nh lng kh clo ha lng vo nc

Vn hnh clorator
Bt bm nc sao cho dng nc chy qua Ejector M kha van bnh kh clo ha lng Vn nt xoay ca clorator t t sao cho mt trn ca vin bi Ratomet ti v tr theo yu cu (g/h). Nu tng dng nh lng th xoay v pha tay phi v ngc li. Lu :

Ngng vn hnh clorator ng kha van bnh kh clo ha lng Tt bm nc sao cho dng nc ngng chy qua Ejector

ng ong ca thit b nh lng clo kh ha lng vo nc c phn chia 20 C


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Bo dng thit b clorator kh ha lng

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Pht hin hng hc cho my chm clo kh ha lng

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Mt s s c thng gp v bin php khc phc ca clorator

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Trm clorator

Cc b phn ca Trm clorator


Clorator l b phn chnh nh lng chnh xc clo vo nc vi nng clo d theo yu cu

B phn cnh bo clo r r -Ci -n chp

B phn x l clo r r Gin phun ma B dch trung ha Bnh hp th kh clo r r

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V tr ca khu clo tin ha v clo kh trng trong x l nc cp S dy truyn cng ngh x l nc b mt


Clo tin ha kh mu xanh ca nc
Cht keo t Mng li tiuth Cht kim ha Clo kh trng

Trm bm cp I B phn ng Trm bm cp II

B trn

B lng

B lc

B cha

L do tin ha nc bng clo v cc hp cht ca chng: Nc c mu xanh l s hin din ca rong ru to Khu keo t khng c hiu qu khi nc c to Clo l cht ty mu tt nn kh mu xanh ca to rt tt Khng th clo ha nc bng clo khi nc giu hp cht hu c
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V tr ca khu clo tin ha v clo kh trng trong x l nc cp


S dy truyn cng ngh x l nc ngm
Clo tin ha xi ha st v mangan Cht keo t v Cht kim ha Clo kh trng

Trm bm gin g

Cng trnh B lm trn thon Mngg tiuth li

B ln g Khu keo t
Lm trong nc

B phn ng

B lc

B cha

Trm b m cp II

L do tin ha nc bng clo v cc hp cht ca chng: hm lng st v mang gan trong ngun nc ln Khu keo t hoc mt trong cc cng on ca khu keo t c th c hoc khng c trong dy truyn x l Clo l cht xi ha v kh mi rt tt Khng clo ha nc bng clo khi nc giu hp cht hu c
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Nguyn l chung ca s kh trng nc

Bn cht ca qu trnh kh trng nc bng clo v cc hp cht ca chng:


Clo l mt cht xi ha mnh, d bt c dng no n cht hay hp cht khi tc dng vi nc u cho phn t a xt hypoclorit HClO c tc dng kh trng rt mnh. Qu trnh dit vi sinh vt tri qua hai giai on: -Giao on u: Cht kh trng khuych tn v xuyn qua mang vi sinh vt -Giai on sau: cht k trng tc dng vi men bn trong t bo cht v ph hy qu trnh trao i cht dn toii t bo vi sinh vt b dit vong.

Cc yu t nh hng ti hiu qu kh trng nc bng clo v cc hp cht ca chng


Hiu qu kh trng nc dit cc loi vi sinh vt trong nc ph thuc vo cc yu t: mnh ca cht kh trng: Cht kh trng c hot ng cng mnh, th hiu qu kh trng cng cao Nng cht kh trng, nng cng tng th hiu qu kh trng cng ln. Thi gian tip xc gia clo v nc: thi gian cng tng thh hiu qu kh trng cng ln. S lng vi sinh vt cn loi b . Chng loi vi sinh vt, i vi khun bo t th vic kh trung nc bng clo gp hn ch. pH ca nc, v pH thch hp cho kh trng l pH=6,5-8. Nhit ca nc thch hp 15-350C th hiu qu kh trng cao nht. 24 Nng cc cht hu c v cc cht l

Cc phn ng ha hc xy ra khi clo ha nc


Cc phn ng ha hc xy ra khi cho clo vo nc khi nc khng co amonic Khi ha tan clo kh trng dng rn vo nc Ca(ClO)2 +H2O =2HClO+Ca(OH)2 Bng1: Mc phn ly ca a xt Khi ha tan clo kh trng dng lng vo HClO ph thuc vo cc gi tr pH khc nc nhau ca nc 200C + NaClO H + ClO Khi ha tan clo kh trng dng kh vo pH 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 nc 75 97 99,5 99,9 ClO-% 0,05 0,5 2,5 21 Cl2 +H2O = HClO +HCl Gia HClO v ClO- c m i quan h HClO H+ + ClO25 3 0,5 0,1 HClO %99,95 99,5 97,5 79 Phn t a xt HClO khng bn, cng b phn hy t t gii phng ra xi nguyn t HClO =HCl +O Chnh xi nguyn t l cht: kh trng v cht ty mu rt tt, cht xi ha mnh. Kh nng dit trng ca clo phj thuc vo s tn ti ca phn t a xt hypoclorit HClO Quan h gia [HClO] v [ClO-]ph thuc vo gi tr pH cu nc c th hin qua bng bn 25 Nh vy mun tng hiu qu kh trng nc bng clo ta nn kh trng nc pH thp

Clo ha nc c amonic
Cc phn ng ha hc xy ra khi cho clo vo nc khi nc c amonic Nc c amonic hay mui amoni hoc hp cht hu c c nhm amin khi clo ha nc th c cc phn ng gia clo v amonic trc to thnh cc hp cht cloramin: HClO +NH3 = NH2Cl +H2O phn ng to monocloramin khi t s HClO:NH3 <1:1 HClO + NH2Cl =NHCl2 +H2Ophn ng to dicloramin khi t s HClO:NH3 >1:1 HClO +NCl2 =NCl3 +H2Ophn ng to tricloramin Ba phn ng ny ph thuc vo nhit ca nc, pH , thi gian tip xc v t l gia clo v amonic to ra cc sn phm Monocloramin, monocloramin v tricloramin c gi chung l Hp cht cloramin hay cn gi l clo kt hp. Tnh cht ca hp cht cloramin: l cht kh trng km, nhng l ch kim ch vi khun rt tt. 26 Kh nng dit trng ca monocloramin so vi dicloraminkm t 3-5

Cloramin-clo kt hp

Cc dng clo kt hp

Dng v c Clo tc dng vi NH3 Sinh monocloramin V dicloramin

Dng hu c Clo tc dng vi cht hu c cha nhm amin in hnh nht: Cloramin B v cloramin T

Cloramin l cht c ch tt m bo kh trng nc tt khi Nng clo d1mg/l Thi gian tip xc60 pht

c <1NTU pH trung tnh

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Biu Clo ha nc

Min A- Clo tc dng vi cc (1) Clo ha nc ct cht hot ng c trong nc (st, mangan, sulfua...) (2) Clo ha nc c tp cht v amonic Min B-Clo tc dng vi A B (1) amonic to monocloramin Min C- Clo phn hy C monocloramin to dicloramin Monova dicloramin phn hy mono dicloramin im P l im ti hn, sau im clo thm vo nc to clo t do D (2) Kh trng nc cp ch c hiu qu khi tin hnh min D Clo thm ha qua im ti hn P khi Clo 0,5 vo m thi nc (mg/l) 0,3
Clo d tng (mg/l)

450

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Mt s nh ngha v nng clo trong nc


1. Clo t do: clo cn li trong nc cui giai on tip xc c th tc dng v mt ha hc v sinh vt nh a xt hypoclorrit v in hypoclorit HClO, ClO-. 2. Clo d kt hp: Phn tng clo d trong nc cui giai on tip xc c th tc dng v mt ha hc v sinh vt nh cloramin. 3. Cloramin:sn phm do s kt hp ca clo v amonic c ngun gc hu c v v c. l cht kim ch vi khun rt tt v c s dng nh cht kh trng nc trong trng hp nc c vt phenol, v n khng sinh ra clophenol. 4. Clo d tng: l tng clo d dng clo t do v clo kt hp cn li sau thi gian phn ng bnh thng trong nc x l clo. 6. Nhu cu clo: lng clo m nc tiu th kh trng v ph hy cc cht hu c . i vi mt loi nc xc nh, nhu cu thay i theo lng clo cho vo, thi gian tip xc v nhit . 7. Clo ha im ngc lnhay clo ha im ti han: cho clo vo nc n lkc nhu cu clo c tha mn. Tt c s thm clo tip sau lm cho hm lng clo d t l trc tip vi nng clo cho vo. 8. Clo ha ln nht: sau mt thi gian tip xc bt buc, mt lng clo d no khng tun theo cc qui lut kh trng . 9. Clo ha qu mc: Clo ha trn im ti hn, thc hin vi liu cao sinh ra clo d cao dng kt hp. Lng clo d kt hp ny cn phi loi b. 29 10. Kh clo: Gim mt phn hoc ton b clo d ca nc bng phng php

Cc thng s k thut kh trng nc bng clo c hiu qu

Thng s k thut H thng mng li tuyn ng phn phi nc cp: u trm Cui trm [Cl2]t do-d=0,3-0,5mg/l *c kh trng [Cl2]t do-d =0,5- 0,1mg/l pH trung tnh trc khi a vo s dng Nc khng c mi kh chu c <1NTU *Khi chiu di qu ln Thi gian tip xc pH` trung tnh m bo nng clo theo yu cu gia clo v nc 30 c <1NTU th tng cng clo ha nc Dit tt c vius v vi khun gy bnh trn mng li tuyn ng l iu cn thit

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Cc b phn ca trm clorator

Cc b phn ca Trm clorator Clorator l b phn chnh nh lng chnh xc clo vo nc vi nng clo d theo yu cu

B phn cnh bo clo r r -Ci -n chp

B phn x l clo r r Gin phun ma B dch trung ha Bnh hp th kh clo r r

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o nng clo d trong nc

Cc phng php o nng clo d Phng php chun It- thiosulphat dng ch th mu l h tinh bt S dng khi nng clo d ln o nng clo d tng L phng php chun ha cho phng php DPD Phng php so mu dng ch th mu octo tolidine. Hin nay rt t s dng gi tr pH thay i ph thuc lng thuc th cho vo, Nn nng clo d khng chnh xc

Phng php o quang dng ch th mu DPD Cho kt qu nhanh o nng clo t do Thch hp cho i hin trng

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o nng clo d trong nc

Cc phng php o nng clo d Phng php chun It- thiosulphat dng ch th mu l h tinh bt S dng khi nng clo d ln o nng clo d tng L phng php chun ha cho phng php DPD Phng php so mu dng ch th mu octo tolidine. Hin nay rt t s dng gi tr pH thay i ph thuc lng thuc th cho vo, Nn nng clo d khng chnh xc

Phng php o quang dng ch th mu DPD Cho kt qu nhanh o nng clo t do Thch hp cho i hin trng

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Thuc th v thit b o clo d bng phng php DDP

Thuc th DDP Trong thuc th bao gm: 1.Cht m pH=6,5-7 2. Cht to phc mu hng DDP Vin DDP1 o clo t do trong nc Vin DDP2 o clo tng trong nc
Qui trnh o clo d trong nc

Dng c o clo d trong nc: S dng mt trong hai dng c sau 1. a so mu chun clo t do trong nc 2. My o quangSpectrophotometer

1. Ly mu nc cn o vo 02 cuvet, mi cuvet 10ml 2. 01 cuvet dng lm mu trng i vi a so mu, v dng iu chnh kt qu o bao u v gi tr 0. 3. Cho thuc th DDP1 vo cuvet th 2, nu o clo t do phi c kt qu ngay, v nu c clo t do dung dch c mu hng, so mu vi a mu tiu chun v c kt qu o trn a, hoc trc tip trn my o quang . 4. Tip tc cho thuc th DDP2 vo cuvet th 2 o clo tng. Ch 05 pht ri c kt qu.

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pH v o gi tr pH
Khi nim v pH Nc l mt cht in li yu, phng trnh in li H2O H+ +OH Hng s in ha ca nc ph thuc vo nhit KH2O = [ H+] [ OH-] iu kin tiu chun 250C : KH2O = [ H+] [ OH-]= 10-14 ing/l Khi nim v gi tr pH nh ngha nh sau: pH = lg [ H+] Mi trng trung tnh [ H+]= [ OH-]=10-7 ing/l vy pH =7 Mi trng a xt [ H+]= [ OH-] [ H+]> 10-7 ing/l vy pH <7 Mi trng Kim [ H+]< [ OH-] [ H+]< 10-7 ing/l vy pH >7 ngha c vic xc nh gi tr pH trong x l nc X l nc c dng khu keo tu, lng v lc: +nu pH trung tnh ta c th bit c mt s kim loi c tch ra khi nc, v d nhm, st +nu pH a xt ta c th bit c mt s kim loi khng c tch ra khi nc, v d nhm, st +nu pH kim ta c th bit c mt s kim loi lng tnh khng c tch ra khi nc v d nhm Do vy pH l thng s rt quan trong v c xc nh u tin trong vic nh gi cht l ng nc.
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Cc phng php o pH

Dng ch th mu: +v d phenolphtanein, metyl da cam, m khong i mu ca chng l ~8,3 v 4,3 +Giy o pH : Nhng giy o pH vo nc,vi mi mt gi tr pH giy o pH s i mu khc nhau, ta so snh vi bng mu chun s bit gi tr pH . My o pH +L dng c o nhanh, c kt qu trc tip trn mn hnh, o chnh xc ti 0,1 pH. +Mi mt my o pH c hng dn s dng khc nhau theo nh sn xut. +Khi mua my o pH thng thng c cc dung dch chun i km. Khi pH c s sai lch ta dng ducng dch chun hiu chnh my. o pH ca nc bng giy o pH v my o pH

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