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CuesLlon and answers on laLenL heaL

1. How much heat energy is needed to change 2.0 kg of ice at 0C to water at 0C?

2. How much heat energy is needed to change 0.50 kg of water at 100C to steam at 100C?

3. How much heat does a refrigerator need to remove from 1.5 kg of water at 20.0 C to make ice at 0C?
[Hint: find heat removed for water at 20.0C to water at 0C, then find latent heat for water at 0C to ice at 0C, and add the two values.]

The above example can also be done by combining latent heat and heat with temperature change into 1 long
equation.



Latent Heat AppIications
ater has one of the highest latent heat of fusion values of all substances and therefore has several applications.
1. Picnic CooIers
The specific latent heat of fusion for water is 3.3 x 10
5
J/kg. That is, 3.3 x 10
5
J of heat are needed or absorbed to
melt 1 kg of ice. The heat required to melt the ice comes from the food or drinks in the cooler. Since heat Ieaves the
food, it gets cold.
2. Preventing Frost Damage
hen 1 kg of water freezes it releases 3.3 x 10
5
J of heat energy. Farmers use this principle to prevent frost damage
to their orchards and other crops. hen a frost is predicted, farmers will turn on the water sprinklers. As the water
falls on the plants and starts to freeze, heat is released to the surroundings and plants. The heat helps the plants stay
warm enough to prevent damage. This only works when the temperature does not drop much below freezing.
3. CooIing Off When Wet
You can cool off your body by just coming out of a shower or swimming pool if you do not dry off with a towel. t takes
2.3 x 10
6
J of heat to vaporize 1 kg of water. hen you are wet, heat from your body is used to vaporize the water.
Because heat Ieaves your body, you feel cool. f you don't want to cool off, just dry yourself well with a towel.
4. Avoid Steam Burns
hen steam condenses it releases heat to the surroundings. hen just 1 mL of steam water condenses it releases
2.3 x 10
3
J of heat. Then the condensed water cools from 100C to 37C (body temperature), so even more heat is
released and absorbed by the skin. That's why a steam burn is much worse than a burn from boiling water