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Hukum Coulomb adalah hukum yang menjelaskan hubungan antara gaya yang timbul antara
dua titik muatan, yang terpisahkan jarak tertentu, dengan nilai muatan dan jarak pisah keduanya.

Hukum ini menyatakan apabila terdapat dua buah titik muatan maka akan timbul gaya di antara
keduanya, yang besarnya sebanding dengan perkalian nilai kedua muatan dan berbanding
terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antar keduanya [1]. Interaksi antara benda-benda bermuatan (tidak
hanya titik muatan) terjadi melalui gaya tak-kontak yang bekerja melampaui jarak separasi [2].
Adapun hal lain yang perlu diperhatikan adalah bahwa arah gaya pada masing-masing muatan
terletak selalu sepanjang garis yang menghubungkan kedua muatan tersebut [3]. Gaya yang timbul
dapat membuat kedua titik muatan saling tarik-menarik atau saling tolak-menolak, tergantung
nilai dari masing-masing muatan. Muatan sejenis (bertanda sama) akan saling tolak-menolak,
sedangkan muatan berbeda jenis akan saling tarik-menarik [4].

[sunting] Notasi vektor


Dalam notasi vektor, hukum Coloumb dapat dituliskan sebagai

yang dibaca sebagai gaya yang dialami oleh muatan q1 akibat adanya muatan q2. Untuk gaya
yang dialami oleh muatan q2 akibat adanya muatan q1 dituliskan dengan menukarkan indeks
, atau melalui hukum ketiga Newton dapat dituliskan
hukum Coulomb ditemukan oleh Charles Coulomb seorang ilmuan
Perancis (1736-1806). Pada tahun 1785, C. Coulomb menyelidiki hubungan antar besar
muatan dan jarak antara muatan dengan besar gaya listrik yang dihasilkan

[sunting] Catatan
1. ^ Andrew Duffy, Electric charge and Coulomb's law, Physics lecture

demonstrations at Boston University, PY106/Charge.html, 7-6-99, 13:49:00


28.06.1999.
2. ^ Tom Henderson, Lesson 3: Electric Force, The Physics Classroom,

estatics/u8l3b.html, 20:11:49 18.11.2004.


3. ^ Para pengajar FI-112, Gaya Elektrostatik, Departemen Fisika FMIPA ITB,

courses/fi112/Diktat/Gaya_Elektrostatik, 08:18:14 23.01.2005.


4. ^ R. Nave, Coulomb's Law: Like charges repel, unlike charges attract,

HyperPhysics, electric/elefor.html, 23:10:07 28.06.2005.


Diperoleh dari "http://id.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hukum_Coulomb&oldid=4813888"
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Halaman ini terakhir diubah pada 16.06, 8 Oktober 2011.

Teks tersedia di bawah Lisensi Atribusi/Berbagi Serupa Creative Commons; ketentuan


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Hukum Coulomb
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0002701ffff030000000000
Pada waktu SMP, Anda telah melakukan beberapa percobaan sederhana untuk menunjukkan
listrik statis. Salah satu percobaan yang mudah dilakukan adalah percobaan dengan sisir plastik.
Mula-mula sisir plastik tidak dapat menarik sobekan-sobekan kertas. Setelah sisir Anda
gosokkan pada rambut kering, kira-kira 20 kali, sisir sekarang dapat menarik sobekan-sobekan
kertas.

Gambar 4.1.1 Sisir plastik menarik sobekan kertas


Mengapa sisir yang semula tidak dapat menarik kertas lalu dapat menarik kertas setelah
sebelumnya digosok-gosokkan pada rambut? Sebelum sisir digosok-gosokan pada rambut, sisir
adalah netral (tidak bermuatan listrik) sehingga tidak dapat menarik sobekan-sobekan kertas.
Setelah sisir digosok-gosokan pada rambut, sisir menjadi bermuatan listrik, sehingga dapat
menarik sobekan-sobekan kertas.
Prosesnya sisir yang bermuatan listrik dapat menarik sobekan-sobekan kertas dapat dijelaskan
sebagai berikut. Dalam kebanyakan atom atau molekul netral, pusat muatan positif berimpit
dengan pusat muatan negatif. Ketika isolator itu (misalnya,sobekan-sobekan kertas) didekati oleh
benda bermuatan listrik (misalnya, sisir yang bermuatan listrik positif), pusat muatan negatif
ditarik mendekati benda bermuatan positif. Hal ini akan menghasilkan muatan positif. Dengan
demikian, akan dihasilkan muatan lebih negatif pada sisi yang berdekatan dengan benda pemberi
muatan. Ini menghasilkan muatan lebih negatif pada sisi yang berdekatan dengan benda pemberi
muatan. Muatan yang berbeda jenis ini menghasilkan gaya tarik menarik sehingga isolator dapat
menempel pada benda bermuatan listrik.
Muatan listrik merupakan entitas dasar dan menjadi primadona dalam elektrostatika. Muatan
listrik dapat dipindah dari suatu benda ke benda lainnya dengan cara menggosok atau cara
lainnya, akan tetapi muatan tidak dapat diciptakan atau dimusnahkan. Ada dua jenis muatan
yaitu positif dan negatif. Muatan yang sejenis bersifat tolak-menolak, dan muatan yang tak
sejenis akan tarik-menarik.

Muatan listrik itu tersimpan dalam benda-benda yang berada di sekeliling kita, seperti misalnya
pada plastik yang digosok dengan wool, gelas yang digosok dengan sutera pada kilat, dan masih
banyak yang lainnya lagi.
Benda-benda yang bermuatan akan mengerjakan gaya terhadap benda bermuatan lainnya. Gaya
ini dinamakan gaya elektrostatik. Gaya ini bergantung pada besarnya muatan masing-masing
benda dan bergantung pada jarak ke dua benda. Perhatikan Gambar 4.1.2.

Gambar 4.1.2. Interaksi dua muatan positif


Hukum gaya elektrostatik ini pertama kali ditemukan secara eksperimen oleh Coulomb dalam
tahun 1784, sehingga hukum ini dinamakan hukum Coulomb, dan bentuk persamaannya adalah :

F= k

.................................................(4.1.1)

Harga konstanta elektrostatik k adalah : k =

= 9,0109 N.m2/C2.

Besaran o ini disebut konstanta permitivitas ruang hampa yang harganya 8,8510-12 C2/N.m2.
Dalam bentuk vektor hukum Coulomb dapat dinyatakan dalam bentuk :
=k

(4.1.2)

Misalkan dua muatan q1 dan q2 berada pada jarak r seperti pada Gambar 4.1.5. Vektor satuan
digunakan untuk menyatakan arah

dan

Gambar 4.1.5. Interaksi antara dua muatan

pada muatan tersebut.

Gaya pada muatan q2 adalah

= k

Gaya pada muatan q1 adalah

=-k

Jika dua muatan mengerjakan gaya secara serentak pada muatan ketiga, maka gaya total yang
dialami oleh muatan ketiga itu di dapat dengan cara penjumlahan vektor.

Contoh Soal Hukum Coulomb (1)


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0002701ffff030000000000
Dua muatan titik masing-masing sebesar 0,05 C dipisahkan pada jarak 10
cm. Tentukan (a) besarnya gaya yang dilakukan oleh satu muatan pada
muatan lainnya dan (b) Jumlah satuan muatan dasar pada masing-masing
muatan.

Penyelesaian:
Kedua muatan dan gambar gaya yang bekerja seperti berikut.

Gambar 4.1.3

(a)

F=k

(b)

q = Ne

N=

= 9 109

= 2,2510-3 N.

= 3,12 1011

Contoh Soal Hukum Coulomb (2)


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Tiga muatan titik terletak pada sumbu x; q1 = 25 nC terletak pada titik asal, q2 = -10 nC berada
pada x=2m, dan qo = 20 nC berada pada x = 3,5 m. Tentukan gaya total pada qo akibat q1 dan q2.
Penyelesaian:
Ketiga muatan tersebut dapat digambarkan sebagai berikut.

Gambar 4.1.4

F10 = k

= 9109

F20 = k

= 9109

= 0,367 N

= - 0,799 N

Ftotal = F10 + F20 = 0,367 N - 0,799 N = - 0,432 N

Contoh Soal Hukum Coulomb (3)


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Misalkan muatan positif total dan muatan negatif total di dalam sebuah uang tembaga dipisahkan
sampai sebuah jarak sehingga gaya tarik diantara muatan-muatan tersbut adalah 4,5 N.
Berapakah seharusnya jarak diantara muatan-muatan tersebut ?
Penyelesaian :
Berdasarkan persamaan 4.1.1, maka dengan mengambil q1q2 = q2 diperoleh :

Fl = k

=k

r= q

= 5,8 x 109 m

Contoh Soal Hukum Coulomb (4)


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Contoh 4 :
Tiga buah muatan q1, q2, dan q3 diletakkan pada titik seperti Gambar 4.1.6. Jika q1 = -1,0 10-6
C, q2 = +3,0 10-6 C, dan q3 = -2,0 10-6 C, r12 = 15 cm, r13 =10 cm, dan q = 30, tentukanlah
gaya yang bekerja pada q1!

Gambar 4.1.6

Berdasarkan persamaan 4.1.1 dengan mengabaikan tanda-tanda muatan, karena kita hanya
menghitung besarnya gaya-gaya tersebut.

F12 = k

= 1,2 N

dan

F13 = k

= 1,8 N

Komponen-komponen gaya resultan F1 yang bekerja pada q1 adalah :

F1x = F12x + F13x = F12x + F13 sin = 2,1 N


dan

F1y = F12y + F13y = F12y - F13 cos = 0 (1,8N) cos 30 = -1,6 N.

Carilah besarnya F1 dan sudut yang dibuat F1 dengan sumbu x.

Contoh Soal Hukum Coulomb (5)


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Carilah resultan gaya pada muatan 20mC dalam soal Gambar 4.1.7 berikut:
Penyelesaian:

Gambar 4.1.7

F23 = 9109

=2N

F13 = 9109

= 1,8 N

F13x = (1,8) cos 37o = 1,4 N


F13y = (1,8) sin 37o = 1,1 N

Fx = 1,4 N dan Fy = 2 N+ 1,1 N


F=

= 3,4 N

dan = arctan(3,1/1,4) = 66o.

Medan Listrik
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Interaksi listrik antara partikel bermuatan dapat dirumuskan dengan menggunakan konsep medan
listrik. Untuk menjelaskan pengertian medan listrik, perlu kiranya difahami dahulu arti medan itu
sendiri. Medan adalah suatu besaran yang mempunyai harga pada tiap titik dalam ruang. Suatu
muatan listrik menghasilkan medan listrik di daerah sekeliling muatan tersebut. Selanjutnya
medan ini mengerjakan gaya pada setiap muatan lainnya yang berada pada daerah tersebut.
Dengan demikian, medan listrik atau medan gaya listrik dapat diartikan sebagai besaran yang
memiliki harga gaya listrik pada tiap titik dalam ruang tersebut.

Gambar 4.1.8 Ilustrasi Medan Listrik


Misalkan benda A bermuatan q menghasilkan medan listrik di titik P. Bila di titik P diletakkan

benda B bermuatan qo, maka medan listrik ini mengerjakan gaya F pada muatan B. Jika besar
muatan benda B adalah qo, maka didefinisikan medan listrik (E) itu sebagai gaya (F) yang
dialami oleh benda B per satuan muatan qo.

E = F/qo =k

=k

...........................................................(4.1.3)

Jadi, medan lisrik itu adalah gaya per satuan muatan, dan medan listrik merupakan besaran
vektor.
Medan listrik dapat digambarkan dengan garis-garis gaya listrik yang menjauh (keluar) dari
muatan positif dan masuk muatan negatif. Garis-garis digambar simetris, meninggalkan atau
masuk ke muatan. Jumlah garis yang masuk/meninggalkan muatan sebanding dgn besar muatan.
Kerapatan garis-garis pada sebuah titik sebanding dengan besar medan listrik di titik itu. Garigaris gaya itu, tidak ada yang berpotongan. Garis-garis medan listrik di dekat tiap muatan hampir
radial. Garis-garis medan listrik yang sangat rapat di dekat setiap muatan menunjukkan medan
listrik yang kuat di sekitar daerah ini. Perhatikan Gambar 4.1.10.

Gambar 4.1.10. Garis-garis gaya

Jika medan listrik di suatu titik itu disebabkan oleh banyak muatan, maka kuat medan listrik E
adalah merupakan jumlah vektor medan oleh masing-masing muatan itu.
E =E1 + E2 + E3 + . . . = Ei

E=

+...

E=

Contoh Soal Medan Listrik (1)

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Hitung kuat medan listrik pada jarak 1 cm dari sebuah muatan positif 10-6 coulomb.

Penyelesaian:

Gambar 4.1.9
Arah kuat medan listrik E adalah menjauhi muatan sumber q. Besar kuat medan listrik dihitung
dengan :

E=k

= (9 109)

= 9 107 NC-1

Contoh Soal Medan Listrik (2)


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Dua buah muatan titik q1 = +12 nC, dan q2 = -12 nC ditempatkan pada jarak 10 cm. Hitung
medan listrik yang ditimbulkan oleh kedua muatan ini pada titik a, b, dan c seperti pada Gambar.

Gambar 4.1.11.

Penyelesaian :
Medan pada titik a disebabkan oleh muatan q1 dan q2 dinyatakan dengan Ea1dan Ea2.

Ea1 = (9,0 109 Nm2 /C2)


= 3,0 104 N/C dengan arah menjauhi q1 (arah ke kanan)

Ea2 = (9,0 109 Nm2 /C2)


= -6,75 104 N/C dengan arah menuju q2 (arah ke kanan)
Jadi, arah Ea1 dan Ea2 adalah sama-sama ke kanan, oleh karena itu resultan :
Ea = Ea1+ Ea2 = 3,0 104 N/C + 6,75 104 N/C = 9,75 104 N/C (arah ke kanan)

Medan pada titik b disebabkan oleh muatan q1 dan q2 dinyatakan dengan Eb1dan Eb2.

Eb1 = (9,0 109 Nm2 /C2)


= 6,75 104 N/C dengan arah menjauhi q1 (arah ke kiri)

Eb2 = (9,0 109 Nm2 /C2)

= -0,55 104 N/C dengan arah menuju q2 (arah ke kanan)


Resultan meda di titik b yaitu :
Eb = Eb1+ Eb2
= 6,75 104 N/C - 0,55 104 N/C = 6, 20 104 N/C (arah ke kiri)

Contoh Soal Medan Listrik (3)


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Sebuah muatan positif q1=+8nC berada pada titik asal dan muatan kedua positif q2=+12nC
berada pada sumbu x = 4m dari titik asal. Carilah medan lisriknya di sumbu x untuk:
(a) P1 yang berjarak x=7m dari titik asal., (b) P2 yang berjarak x=3m dari titik asal.

Penyelesaian:

(a)

(b)

Gambar 4.1.12

a) Di titik P1, E = k

+k

= (9,0 109 Nm2 /C2)

+ (9,0 109 Nm2 /C2)

= 13,5 N/C (arah ke kanan)


b)

Di titik P2, E = k + k

= (9,0 109 Nm2 /C2)

- (9,0 109 Nm2 /C2)

= -100 N/C (arah ke kiri)

Contoh Soal Medan Listrik (4)


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Dua buah muatan titik q1 = +1,5 C, dan q2 = +2,3 C berada pada jarak r =13 cm.
Tentukanlah letak titik yang medan listriknya nol.
Penyelesaian :
Misalkan titik P terletak pada jarak x dari q1 (lihat gambar).

Gambar 4.1.13
Medan listrik di titik P oleh q1 dan q2 masing-masing adalah E1 dan E2. Karena medan di P

adalah nol, maka E1 = E2. Dengan memasukkan persamaan

, maka diperoleh :

=
x =

(r x)

x=
Dengan memasukkan kuantitas yang diketahui, diperoleh x = 5,8 cm.

Contoh Soal Medan Listrik (5)


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Dua bola kecil masing-masing bermassa 1kg digantungkan pada dua utas tali yang diletakkan
berdampingan. Bola ini kemudian dimuati dengan jumlah muatan yang sama besar dan sama
tandanya. Setelah keadaan seimbang kedua muatan masing-masing membentuk sudut 30o dengan
sumbu vertikal. Hitung besar muatan masing-masing membentuk bola tersebut! Panjang tali 1 m,
g=9,8 m/s2.

Penyelesaian:
Karena muatan kedua bola sejenis, maka kedua bola akan saling tolak, sehingga jarak kedua bola
makin lama makin jauh. Namun, gaya grafitasi bumi akan menarik bola ke arah bawah sehingga
bola tidak akan terus naik. Setelah keadaan seimbang berlaku tan q = Fg/Flistrik.

Gambar 4.1.14
Diketahui:
m1=m2 = 1 kg
q1 = q2 = q
l=1m
= 30o
R = 2l sin =(2)(1) sin 30o = 1m
Ditanya: q=......?
Jawab:

tan =

q= 2,5 10-5 C.

Medan Listrik oleh Sebuah Dipol Listrik


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Dua buah muatan yang besarnya sama dan berlawanan tandanya, q, terpisah pada jarak a, akan
membentuk sebuah dipol listrik. Momen dipol listrik p mempunyai besar aq dan menunjuk dari
muatan negatif ke muatan positif.

Gambar 4.1.15
Berapakah medan E yang ditimbulkan oleh muatan-muatan ini pada titik P sejarak r sepanjang
garis pembagi tegak lurus dari garis yang menghubungkan muatan-muatan tersebut ? Anggaplah
r >> a.

Dengan menggunakan persamaan 4.1.4, maka diperoleh :


E = E1 + E2
Dengan E1 = E2 =
Jumlah vektor dari E1 dan E2 mengarah secara vertikal ke bawah dan mempunyai besar :
E = 2E1cos

Gerak Partikel Bermuatan di dalam Medan


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Misalkan sebuah partikel bermuatan bergerak di dalam sebuah medan E, bergerak dengan laju vo
dalam arah yang tegak lurus medan seperti pada Gambar 1.4.

Gambar 4.1.16.

Medan listrik E arahnya vertikal ke bawah. Jika partikel bermuatan q memasuki medan listrik E,
maka pada partikel bekerja gaya F = qE dalam arah medan (vertikal). Partikel tersebut akan
mendapat percepatan ay, dengan :
ay = F/m = qE/m
y = voyt + ayt2 = ayt2 =

t2

Dalam arah horizontal partikel tidak mengalami percepatan berarti gerakannya berupa GLB.
x = vox t = vot t = x /vo
Dengan demikian akan diperoleh :
y=

x2

Persamaan di atas adalah persamaan parabola, dan ini berarti lintasannya adalah berbentuk
parabola.
Bila elektron tersebut muncul keluar dari pelat-pelat di dalam gambar di atas, maka elektron
tersebut menempuh sebuah garis lurus (dengan mengabaikan gravitasi) yang menyinggung
parabola pada titik keluar.

Hukum Gauss
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Pada pembahasan sebelumnya, Anda mengetahui cara menentukan kuat medan listrik akibat

adanya partikel-partikel bermuatan. Bagaimanakah menentukan kuat medan listrik yang tersebar
dalam suatu benda, misalnya bola? Untuk menentukan kuat medan listrik akibat distribusi
muatan tertentu dipergunakan hukum Gauss.
Gauss menurunkan hukumnya berdasarkan pada konsep-konsep garis-garis medan listrik. Kita
bahas terlebih dulu konsep fluks listrik. Fluks listrik didefinisikan sebagai jumlah garis-garis
medan listrik yang menembus tegak lurus suatu bidang. Perhatikan medan listrik serba sama
yang arahnya seperti ditunjukkan pada Gambar 4.1.17a. Garis-garis medan menembus tegaklurus
suatu bidang segiempat seluas A. Jumlah garis-garis medan per satuan luas sebanding dengan
kuat medan listrik, sehingga jumlah garis medan listrik yang menembus
bidang seluas A sebanding dengan EA. Hasil kali antara kuat nedan listrik
tersebut dinamakan fluks listrik .
= E A

(4.1.5)

Satuan untuk E adalah N/C, sehingga satuan untuk fluks listrik (dalam SI) adalah (N/C)(m2)
yang dinamakan weber (Wb). 1 weber = 1 NC-1m2
Untuk medan listrik menembus bidang tidak tegak lurus, perhatikan Gambar 4.1.17b.
= EA
Dengan A = A cos , sehingga:
= EA cos ............................................................(4.1.6)
Dengan adalah sudut antara arah E dan arah normal bidang n. Arah normal bidang
adalah arah yang tegaklurus terhadap bidang (lihat gambar 4.1.17c).

(a)

(b)

(c)

Gambar 4.1.17. (a) Garis-garis medan medan antara listrik menembus


bidang, (b) Garis-garis medan listrik menembus bidang dengan sudut ,
(c) adalah sudut antara arah medan listrik dan arah normal bidang n.
Berdasarkan konsep fluks listrik ini, muncullah hukum Gauss, sebagai berikut:
Jumlah garis-garis medan listrik (fluks listrik) yang menembus suatu permukaan tertutup sama
dengan jumlah muatan listrik yang dilingkupi oleh permukaan tertutup itu dibagi dengan

permitivitas udara.

= EA cos =

............................................................(4.1.7)

dengan A=luas permukaan tertutup, =sudut antara E dan arah normal n, dan q =
muatan total yang dilingkupi oleh permukaan tertutup.

Kuat Medan Listrik untuk distribusi muatan


kontinu
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Hukum Gauss dapat digunakan untuk menghitung kuat medan listrik dari suatu sistem muatan
yang muatannya terdistribusi seragam. Pada pembahasan ini dibatasi pada konduktor dua keping
sejajar, dan konduktor bola berongga.
Untuk konduktor dua keping sejajar, misalkan, luas tiap keping A dan masing-masing keping
diberi muatan sama tetapi berlawanan jenis +q dan q.

Jumlah garis medan yang menembus keping adalah:

= EA cos =

Oleh karena medan listrik E menembus keping secara tegak lurus (Gambar
4.1.18), maka = 0, dan cos 0 =1, sehingga persamaan menjadi:
EA =

E=

.................................................(4.1.8)

dengan = rapat muatan listrik, sebagai muatan per satuan luas:

Gambar 4.1.18. Konduktor dua keping sejajar

Contoh Kuat Medan Listrik (1)


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Sebuah konduktor dua keping sejajar yang tiap kepingnya berbentuk persegi
panjang (panjang=5 cm, lebar = 4cm) diberi muatan 1,77C yang
berlawanan jenis. Hitung :

(a) rapat muatan listrik masing-masing keping


(b) besar kuat medan listrik dalam ruang diantara kedua keping
Penyelesaian:
Luas keping A = 20-4 m2, muatan keping q=1,77C= 1,7710-6 C, = 8,8510-12 (dalam
SI).
(a)
=

Rapat muatan dihitung dengan :


=8,85 10-4 cm-2

(b) Besar kuat medan E di antara kedua keping, yaitu:

E=

= 1,0 108 N/m

Kuat Medan Listrik untuk Konduktor Bola


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Jika konduktor bola berongga diberi muatan, maka muatan itu tersebar merata di permukaan bola
(di dalam bola itu sendiri tak ada muatan). Untuk menentukan kuat medan listrik di dalam bola,
pada kulit bola, dan di luar bola, kita dapat gunakan hukum Gauss.

Untuk menentukan medan listrik di dalam bola dengan menggunakan hukum Gauss, pertamatama kita buat permukaan Gauss di dalam bola (r<R). Muatan yang dilingkupi oleh permukaan
sama dengan nol sebab di dalam bola tidak ada muatan (q=0).

Gambar 4.1.19. Konduktor bola berongga

Dengan menggunakan persamaan:

EA =

E=
Jadi, di dalam bola kuat medan listrik sama dengan nol.
Sekarang, kita buat permukaan II Gauss di luar bola (r > R). Muatan yang dilingkupi oleh
permukaan II ini sama dengan muatan bola q, seperti ditunjukkan pada Gambar 4.1.19. Kuat
medan listrik di luar bola, yaitu:

EA =
E=

...................................................(4.1.9)

Contoh Soal Kuat Medan Listrik (2)


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Sebuah konduktor bola berongga diberi muatan -50mC. Bola ini memiliki diameter 12 cm.
Hitung kuat medan listrik pada jarak (a) 3cm dari pusat bola, (b) 6 cm dari pusat bola, dan (c) 9
cm dari pusat bola.

Gambar 4.1.20. Konduktor bola berongga

Penyelesaian:
q=-50mC = -5010-6 C, d = 12 cm, r= 12/2 cmm=6 cm = 610-2 m

(a)

EA = 0 ( di dalam bola)

(b) EB =

= -1,25108 N/m

Tanda negatif menyatakan bahwa arah kuat medan listrik adalah radial ke dalam.

(c)

EC =

= -5,6 107 N/m

Energi Potensial Listrik


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Energi Potensial Listrik dan Potensial Listrik
Gaya Coulomb dan medan litrik merupakan besaran vektor, sedangkan energi potensial listrik
dan potensial listrik merupakan besaran skalar.
1) Energi Potensial Listrik
Energi potensial listrik akan timnul bila sebuah muatan uji qo didekatkan pada sebuah muatan q.
Besarnya energi potensial yang timbul pada muatan qo sebanding dengan usaha yang diperlukan

untuk melawan gaya Coulomb FC. Perhatikan Gambar 4.18. Perubahan energi potensial dari
keadaan (1) ke keadaan (2) sebagai berikut:
EP = -FC cos (s)= W12 ...............................................(4.1.10)
dengan :
FC = gaya Coulomb
s = perpindahan muatan
Tanda minus pada persamaan di atas berarti beda energi potensial sebanding dengan usaha untuk
melawan gaya Coulomb Fc. Jadi, dibutuhkan gaya sebesar F untuk melawan gaya Coulomb, F=FC. Pada Gambar 4.18 terlihat bahwa arah gaya F sama dengan arah perpindahan Ds sehingga
cos 0= 1, maka EP = Fs. Untuk s sangat kecil, r1- r2 =0. Gaya F pada selang EP dapat
dianggap sebagai gaya rata-rata dari F1 dan F2 dengan:

Perubahan potensialnya :
EP = W12 = Fs

EP =

(r1-r2) = kqoq

............................................................(4.1.11)

dengan :
EP = perubahan energi potensial listrik antara kedudukan akhir dan kedudukan akhir
W12 = usaha yang dilakukan untuk memindahan muatan qo.
qo = muatan, uji, q = muatan sumber.
r2 = jarak antara muatan uji dan muatan sumber pada kedudukan akhir yaitu titik 2.
r1 = jarak antara muatan uji dan muatan sumber pada kedudukan awal yaitu titik 1.

Contoh Soal Energi Potensial Listrik (1)


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Sebuah bola kecil dimuati -3,0010-6 C. Bola lain yang bermuatan +6,00 10-8 C digerakkan di
antara kedudukan awal yang jauhnya 0,200 m dan kedudukan akhirnya jauhnya 0,800 m. Berapa
perubahan energi potensial yang terjadi diantara kedua kedudukan ini?
Penyelesaian:
Perubahan energi potensial EP bila muatan uji qo = +6,0010-8C digerakkan diantara kedua
titik:

EP = kqoq

=(9109) (-3,0010-6 )(+6,0010-8 )

EP = 6,06 10-3 J.

Contoh Soal Energi Potensial Listrik (2)


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Sebuah proton (muatan proton = +e = +1,610-19C) digerakkan menuju sebuah inti atom yang
bermuatan q. Jarak pisah awal kedua partikel tersebut 2,510-11m dan jarak pisah akhirnya
2,010-11m. Apabila usaha yang diperlukan dalam proses terebut 1,4410-17J, tentukan muatan
inti atom tersebut!
Penyelesaian:

W12 = kqoq

1,4410-17J =(9109 Nm2C-2) (1,610-19C)(q)


q = 10-18 coulomb.

Potensial Listrik
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Potensial listrik didefinisikan sebagai energi potensial listrik per satuan muatan sehingga beda
potensial listrik antara dua titik 1 dan 2 adalah:

V12 =

kq

...........................................(4.1.12)

dengan V12 menyatakan beda potensial oleh sebuah muatan q antara jarak r1 dan r1.
Untuk menentukan besarnya potensial listrik yang ditimbulkan oleh muatan q di titik (1) dan (2)
adalah:

V12 = V2 V1 = kq

Dengan V1 menyatan potensial mutlak di titik (1) dan V2 menyatakan potensial mutlak di titik (2).

Secara umum, potensial sebuah titik berjarak r dari muatan q adalah:

V=

......................................................................(4.1.13)

Potensial listrik di suatu titik pada medan listrik adalah besarnya usaha yang diperlukan untuk
memindahkan satu satuan muatan listrik dari tak hingga ke titik tersebut.
Potensial listrik adalah besaran skalar. Potensial yang ditimbulkan oleh beberapa muatan sumber
cukup dihitung dengan penjumlahan aljabar biasa.

V=

V=

.........................(4.1.14)

Dengan n adalah banyak muatan sumber.

Contoh Soal Potensial Listrik


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Hitung potensial listrik di titik B yang ditimbulkan oleh ketiga muatan sumber yang ada di dekat
titik ini, seperti ditunjukkan pada Gambar 4.1.21.

Gambar 4.1.21.
Penyelesaian:
q1 = 5 10-8 C,

q2 = -4 10-8 C,

q3 = 8 10-8 C

r1 = 10 cm =10-1 m,

r2 = 20 cm = 210-1 m,

r3 = 10 cm =10-1 m

V=

= -63102 volt =-6300 V.

Hukum Kekekalan Energi Mekanik dalam


Medan Listrik
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Jika suatu partikel bermuatan, seperti proton atau elektron diletakkan pada suatu tempat yang
dipengaruhi oleh medan listrik, maka berlaku hukum kekekalan energi mekanik. Misalkan, dua
posisi partikel bermuatan, yaitu posisi 1 dan posisi 2, maka dapat dinyatakan sebagai:
EP1 + Ek1 = EP2 + Ek2
Energi potensial listrik Ep = qV dan energi kinetik Ek = mv2, sehingga diperoleh:
qV1 + mv12 = qV2 + mv22 ......................................(4.1.15)
dengan q dan m adalah muatan massa partikel, V1 dan V2 adalah potensial listrik pada kedudukan
1 dan 2.

Contoh Soal Hk Kekekalan Energi (1)


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Beda potensial di antara dua keping sejajar adalah 200 volt. Sebuah proton mula-mula terletak di

keping B. Jika medium di antara dua keping vakum, hitung kecepatan proton sebelum
menumbuk keing A.

Penyelesaian:

Gambar 4.1.22
Dengan menggunakan hukum kekekalan energi mekanik:
EpB + Ek1 = EpA + EkA
qVB + mvB2 = qVA + mvA2
m(vA2 - vB2) = q(VB - VA )

vA2 - vB2 =

(VB - VA )

vA2 - 0 =
vA2 = 400108
vA = 2,0105 m/s

Jadi, kecepatan proton sebelum menumbuk keping A adalah 2,0105 m/s.

Contoh Soal Hk Kekekalan Energi (2)


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Sebuah konduktor bola berongga dengan jari-jari 4 cm diberi muatan 0,2 mC. Titik A, B, dan C
berturut-turut jaraknya 2 cm, 4 cm, dan 6 cm dari pusat bola (lihat Gambar). Tentukan potensial
di A, B, dan C

Penyelesaian:
R= 4 cm = 4 10-2 m, q = 0,2 mC = 0,210-6C
rA = 2 cm = 2 10-2 m, rB = 4 cm = 4 10-2 m,
rC =6 cm = 6 10-2 m

VA = VB =

VC =

= 4,5104 V = 35 000V

= 3104 V = 30 000V

Seorang fisikawan Perancis, Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736 1806) melakukan


eksperimen fisika pada tahun 1784. Hasil temuan Charles Coulomb sekarang ini dikenal dengan
nama hukum Coulomb.
Experimen dilakukan dengan menggunakan neraca puntir. Alat ini mirip seperti yang digunakan
Cavendish ketika mengkaji gaya gravitasi. Kalau Cevendish menggunakan bola bermassa,
sedangkan Charles Coulomb menggunakan bola konduktor bermuatan listrik. Ukuran bola
konduktor yang digunakan bermuatan sangat kecil sehingga bisa dianggap sebagai muatan titik.
Bola konduktor yang digunakan bermuatan listrik dan untuk memvariasikan besarnya
muatanCharles Coulomb melakukannya dengan cara induksi.
Cara memvariasikan besarnya muatan listrik pada bola konduktor dialkukan misalnya dengan
cara seperti ini, mula-mula terdapat sebuah bola konduktor yang bermuatan listrik. Agar muatan
pada bola konduktor tersebut menjadi setengah dari muatannya maka bola konduktor tersebut
disentuhkan dengan bola konduktor lainnya dengan dimensi sama. sehingga Ketika disentuhkan
muatan akan terbagi merata pada kedua bola tersebut, maka muatan dibola pertama akan
berkurang setengahnya.
Awalnya Charles Coulomb meneliti pengaruh besarnya muatan listrik yang dimiliki oleh bola
konduktor yang bermuatan listrik terhadap besarnya gaya tarik atau gaya tolak antara dua bola
konduktor bermuatan listrik. Charles Coulomb menemukan bahwa besarnya gaya tarik atau gaya

tolak antara dua bola konduktor bermuatan, sebanding dengan muatan pada masing-masing bola
konduktor tersebut. Dalam hal ini, jika muatan pada sebuah bola konduktor ditambahkan
menjadi 2 kali lipat maka besarnya gaya tarik atau gaya tolak juga bertambah menjadi dua kali
lipat. Jika muatan pada kedua bola konduktor ditambahkan menjadi dua kali lipat maka besarnya
gaya tarik atau gaya tolak bertambah menjadi empat kali lipat.
Dari hasil experimen tersebut Coulomb menyimpulkan bahwa besarnya gaya tarik atau gaya
tolak antara dua bola konduktor bermuatan (dua muatan titik) sebanding dengan hasil kali antara
besarnya muatan pada bola konduktor pertama dengan besarnya muatan pada bola konduktor
kedua. Secara matematis ditulis seperti ini :
F x q1q2
Maka lahirlah Hukum Coulomb
Sumber: http://id.shvoong.com/internet-and-technologies/universities-researchinstitutions/2174602-mengenal-hukum-coulomb/#ixzz1bk4IGI87

HUKUM COULOMB
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb yang lahir tahun 1736 adalah seorang ilmuwan Perancis yang
diabadikan namanya untuk satuan listrik untuk menghormati penelitian penting yang telah
dilakukan oleh ilmuwan ini. Coulomb berasal dari keluarga bangsawan yang berpengaruh hingga
pendidikannya terjamin. Ia berbakat besar dalam bidang matematika dan belajar teknik untuk
menjadi Korps Ahli Teknik Kerajaan. Setelah bertugas di Martinique selama beberapa tahun, ia
kembali ke Paris dan di tahun 1779 terpilih menjadi anggota Akademi Ilmiah di tahun 1781. Dia
meninggal tahun 1806.

Pada waktu Revolusi Perancis pecah, ia terpaksa meninggalkan Paris tinggal di Blois dengan
sahabatnya yang juga ilmuwan, Jean-Charles de Borda (1733-1799). Ia meneruskan berbagai
percobaannya dan akhirnya diangkat menjadi inspektur pendidikan di tahun 1802. Percobaan
awal Coulomb meliputi tekanan yang bisa memecahkan suatu benda (1773) dan ini adalah awal
ilmu modern tentang kekuatan benda-benda. Karyanya di bidang listrik dan magnet yang
membuatnya begitu terkenal, baru diterbitkan dalam serangkaian makalah antara tahun 1785 dan
1789.
Melakukan percobaan dengan magnet kompas, ia langsung melihat bahwa gesekan pada sumbu
jarum menyebabkan kesalahan. Ia membuat kompas dengan jarum tergantung pada benang
lembut. Dan ia menarik kesimpulan; besarnya puntiran pada benang haruslah sama dengan
kekuatan yang mengenai jarum dari medan magnetik bumi. Ini mengawali penemuan Timbangan

Puntir, untuk menimbang benda-benda yang sangat ringan. Timbangan puntir tadi membawa
Coulomb ke penemuannya yang paling penting. Dengan menggerakkan dua bulatan bermuatan
listrik di dekat timbangan puntir, ia menunjukkan bahwa kekuatan di antara kedua benda itu
berbeda-beda jika kedua benda itu saling menjauh.
Ia mempelajari akibat gesekan pada mesin-mesin dan menampilkan teori tentang pelumasan.
Semua ini, bersama pandangannya tentang magnet, diterbitkan di Teori tentang Mesin Sederhana
pada tahun 1779. Dari tahun 1784 sampai 1789, saat bekerja di berbagai departemen pemerintah,
ia terus meneliti elektrostatika dan magnet. Tahun 1785 keluarlah hukum Coulomb; daya tarik
dan daya tolak kelistrikan antara dua benda yang bermuatan listrik adalah perkalian muatannya
dengan kuadrat terbalik dari jaraknya. Rumus ini sangat mirip dengan hukum gravitasi Newton.
Di Blois, Coulomb meneliti sifat muatan listrik pada benda dan diketemukannya bahwa muatan
tersebut hanya ada pada permukaan benda. Didapatkannya pula bahwa daya magnet juga
mengikuti hukum kuadrat terbalik seperti daya listrik statis. Beberapa karyanya ditemukan juga
oleh Henry Cavendish tetapi karya Cavendish baru terbit tahun pada tahun 1879. Penemuan
Coulomb yang memastikan adanya hubungan antara kelistrikan dan magnetisme kelak
dibuktikan oleh Hans Christian rsted serta Simon Poisson. Dan ini menjadi dasar penelitian
elektrodinamika oleh Andre-Marie Ampere. Semua karyanya menunjukkan orisinalitas dan
penelitian yang teliti serta tekun.