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BOOK PSpice Examples

BOOK PSpice Examples

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Sections

  • EXAMPLE 2
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • EXAMPLE 4
  • EXAMPLE 5
  • EXAMPLE 6
  • EXAMPLE 7
  • EXAMPLE 8
  • EXAMPLE 9
  • EXAMPLE 10
  • EXAMPLE 11
  • EXAMPLE 12
  • EXAMPLE 13
  • EXAMPLE 14
  • EXAMPLE 15
  • EXAMPLE 16
  • EXAMPLE 17
  • EXAMPLE 18
  • EXAMPLE 19
  • EXAMPLE 20
  • EXAMPLE 21
  • EXAMPLE 22
  • EXAMPLE 23
  • EXAMPLE 24
  • EXAMPLE 25
  • EXAMPLE 26
  • EXAMPLE 27

PSpice™ based Examples

[Copyright © 2003, Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.mnpere.com]

TOC-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section 1 Line-Frequency Diode Rectifiers 1. 2. 1-phase Diode Bridge Rectifiers (DBRECT1) 3-phase Diode Bridge Rectifiers (DBRECT3) Section 2 Line-Frequency Phase-Controlled Converters 3. 4. 5. 6. 1-phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge (THYRECT1) 1-phase Thyristor Inverters (THYINV1) 3-phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge (THYRECT3) 3-phase Thyristor Inverter (THYINV3) Section 3 DC-to-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Step-down (Buck) dc-dc Converter (BUCKCONV) Step-up (Boost) dc-dc Converter (BOOST) Step-down/up (Buck-Boost) dc-dc Converter (BUCK-BOOST) Full-bridge, bipolar-voltage-switching dc-dc Converter (FBBSDCDC) Full-bridge, unipolar-voltage-switching dc-dc Converter (FBUSDCDC) Section 4 Switch-Mode DC-to-Sinusoidal Inverters 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. PWM, bipolar-voltage-switching, 1-phase (1PHBSINV) PWM, unipolar-voltage-switching, 1-phase (1PHUSINV) Square-Wave, 1-phase (1PHSQINV) Voltage-Cancellation Control, 1-phase (1PHVCINV) PWM Inverter, 3-phase (PWMINV3) Square-Wave Inverter, 3-phase (SQINV3) Section 5 Soft-Switching Converters: Zero Voltage/Current Switching 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Series-Loaded Resonant dc-dc Converters Operating Above the Resonant frequency (SLRCM2) Parallel-Loaded Resonant dc-dc Converter Operating Above the Resonant Frequency (PLRCM2) Current-Source, Parallel-Resonant Inverters for Induction Heating (CSINV) Zero-Current Switching, Quasi-Resonant Buck Converter (ZCSCONV) Zero-Voltage Switching, Clamped-Voltage (Resonant Transition) Converter (ZVSCV) Section 6 Switch-Mode DC Power Supplies with Isolation 23. 24. 25. Flyback Converters (FLYBACK) Forward Converters (FORWARD) Forward Converter: Voltage-Mode Controlled (FOR_CNTL) Section 7 DC-Motor Drives 26. Ripple in the Armature Current (DC_MOTOR) Section 8 Semiconductor Devices 27. Power MOSFET switching characteristics (MOSFET)

1-1 Example 1 1-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier i Ld d + i load

Ls
+ -

1 Rs is

3

v s

C d 4 2

v d

R load

Nominal Values: Vs(rms) = 120V at 60 Hz Ls = 1 mH Rs = 10 mΩ Ld = 1µH Cd = 1,000 µF Rload = 20 Ω

Problems 1. 2. Execute DBRECT1 to obtain vs, is and vd waveforms. From the results of the Fourier analysis contained in the output file DBRECT1.OUT, calculate the input power factor and the displacement power factor. Make use of the Fourier analysis in DBRECT1.OUT to plot is, i 1, is3 and i 5. s s Superimpose the distortion current component idistortion = is - is1 on the above plot. Calculate Icap (the rms current though the filter capacitor) as a ratio of the average load current Iload. Plot the current and voltage associated with one of the diodes, for example, d1, and obtain the average and the rms values of the current as a ratio of the average load current.

3.

4.

5.

1-2 6. Vary L as a parameter to investigate its influence on the input displacement power s factor, the input power factor, %THD, and the peak-peak ripple in the dc voltage vd. Vary the filter capacitor Cd to investigate its influence on the percentage ripple in vd, input displacement power factor and %THD. Plot the percentage ∆Vd (peak-topeak)/Vd(average) as a function of Cd. Vary the load power to investigate its influence on the average dc voltage. In the nominal circuit input file, remove the limit on the maximum time step during the simulation and observe its influence on the circuit waveforms. Obtain the vs, is and vd waveforms during the startup transient when the filter capacitor is initially not charged. Obtain the peak inrush current as a ratio of the peak current in steady state. Vary the switching instant by simply varying the phase angle θ of the source vs. Replace the dc side of the diode bridge by a current source Id = 10 A, corresponding to a very large Ld. Make Ls almost equal to zero. Obtain Vd(average). Make Ls = 3 mH in Problem 10 and obtain Vd(average), displacement power factor, power factor, %THD, and the current commutation interval.

7.

8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

Reference: Section 5-3-4, pages 95 - 99. PSpice Schematic: DBRECT1 [Copyright © 2003, Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.mnpere.com]

the input power factor and the average dc voltage Vd. (a) (b) Obtain vab. 4. Investigate the influence of Ld on the input displacement power factor. Compare the results with that in Example 1. Obtain va and ia waveforms 2. %THD in the input current. vd and id waveforms.1 mH Rs = 1 mΩ Ld = 0. Calculate Ia. calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Ia1.2-1 EXAMPLE 2 3-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier i Ld d R d i load + Ls 1 Rs ia 3 5 C d 4 6 2 v d R load Nominal Values: VLL (rms) = 208 V at 60 Hz Ls = 0. By means of Fourier analysis of ia. input displacement power factor and the input power factor. How do the results compare with the 1-phase diode-bridge rectifier of Example 1. 5.5 mH Rd = 5 mΩ Cd = 500 µF Rload = 16.1 mH to 10 mH.5 Ω Problems 1. . Ia1. Calculate Icap (the rms current through the filter capacitor) as a ratio of the average load current Iload. Idis. Suggested range of Ld: 0. 3.

Reference: Section 5-6. 8. Investigate the influence of Cd on the percent ripple in vd.com] .2-2 6. PSpice Schematic: Dbrect3 [Copyright © 2003.000 µF. 7. Suggested range of Cd: 100 µF and 2. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. pages 103 112. Plot the percentage ∆Vd (peak-to-peak)/Vd(average) as a function of Cd. Suggested range of Rload: 50 Ω to 8 Ω.000 µF. Investigate the influence of Cd on the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. Plot the average dc voltage as a function of load. Suggested range of Cd: 100 µF to 2.mnpere.

obtain the following from the voltage vm waveform: (a) Line-notch depth ρ(%) 3. vd and id waveforms. 5. calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Is1.0 mH Ld = 20 mH Rload = 5 Ω delay angle α = 45° Problems 1. obtain the commutation interval u and the dc-side current at the start of the commutation. From the plots.2 mH Ls2 = 1. 2. %THD in the input current. By means of Fourier analysis of is. Calculate Is. Obtain vm and is waveforms. Obtain vs and is waveforms. At the point of common coupling.3-1 EXAMPLE 3 1-Phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge i d + Ls1 + v s + - Ld Ls2 is 1 3 vm _ v d R load 4 2 Nominal values: Vs(rms) = 120 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0. 4. (a) (b) (c) Obtain vs. . the input displacement power factor and the input power factor.

mnpere.3-2 (b) (c) 6. Reference: Section 6-3. PSpice Schematic: Thyrect1 [Copyright © 2003. voltage %THD.134. Verify that 2ωLs Vd = 0. π where first use the average value of i for Id and then its value at the start of the d commutation interval as calculated in Problem 2. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Line-notch area and.com] . pages 126 .9 Vs cosα Id. Obtain the average dc voltage Vd.

vd and id waveforms. 2. Reference: Section 6-3-4. %THD in the input current.2 mH Ls2 = 1. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. Repeat the above procedure by reducing α slowly to its nominal value of 135°. Plot the average dc current Id versus α. Increase the delay angle to a value close to 180° (for example. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. PSpice Schematic: Thyinv1 [Copyright © 2003. pages 135 . Obtain vs and is waveforms.mnpere.com] . 150°) and look at the vs. Study the startup of inverter operation.138. (a) (b) Obtain vs.0 mH Ld = 20 mH E = 88 V (dc) delay angle α = 135° Problems 1. Calculate Is. vd and id waveforms using Thyinv1. 3.4-1 EXAMPLE 4 1-Phase Thyristor Inverter i d + Ls1 + v s + - Ld Ls2 is 1 3 vm _ v d + E 4 2 Nominal Values: Vs(rms) = 120 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0.

%THD in the input current. Calculate Is. calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Is1. (vab)pcc and ia waveforms.5-1 EXAMPLE 5 3-Phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge i + 1 L a s1 b c L s2 d 3 5 Ld ia v d R load 4 point of common coupling 6 2 VLL(rms) = 208 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0. 2. By means of Fourier analysis of is. Obtain (va)pcc. From the plots. 4. Obtain va and ia waveforms. 3. (a) (b) (c) Obtain va. . obtain the commutation interval u and id at the start of the commutation.2 mH Ls2 = 1. use the average value of id or its value at the start of the commutation. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. For Id. Verify the following commutation equation: cos(α+u) = cos α 2ωLs Id 2 VLL where Ls = Ls1 + Ls2. vd and id waveforms using Thyrect3.0 mH Ld = 16 mH Rload = 8 Ω delay angle = 45° Nominal Values: Problems 1.

148. Verify that Vd = 1. Verify the following equation: Displacement power factor ~ cos(α + 6.com] . Reference: Section 6-4. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Obtain the average dc voltage Vd. PSpice Schematic: Thyrect3 [Copyright © 2003. obtain the following from the voltage vpcc waveform: (a) (b) (c) Line-notch depth ρ(%) Line-notch area and. u cosα + cos(α+u) ) ~ 2 2 At the point of common coupling.mnpere. use the average value of id or its value at the start of the commutation.35 VLL cos α 3ωLs Id.5-2 5. π For Id. voltage THD% 7. pages 138 .

the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. Repeat the above procedure by reducing α slowly to its nominal value of 160°. vd and id waveforms. Reference: Section 6-4-4. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Increase the delay angle to a value close to 180° and look at the va. %THD in the input current. PSpice Schematic Thyinv3 [Copyright © 2003.com] . vd and id waveforms using Thyinv3. Plot the average dc current Id versus α. Obtain va and ia waveforms 2.6-1 EXAMPLE 6 3-Phase Thyristor Inverter i + 1 a b c Ls d 3 5 Ld ia v d + E 4 6 2 - Nominal Values: VLL(rms) = 480 V at 60 Hz Ls = 1.0 mH Ld = 16 mH. Rd = 1 ohm E = 630 V delay angle α = 160° Problems: 1.150. 3. (a) (b) Obtain va. Study the startup of the inverter operation.mnpere. pages 148 . Calculate Is.

5 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Vo. Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use V(0) = 5. In steady state.8V and IL(0) = 0]. where Vd ILB.75 Problems 1. iL and ic waveforms Obtain voi waveform and by means of Fourier analysis.max = .max    2.7-1 EXAMPLE 7 Step-down (BUCK) dc-dc Converter + i V d + voi _ L v _ ic C L + v o _ R load io + L _ Nominal Values: Vd = 8 V (dc) L = 5 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 100 µF Rload = 0. Increase the load resistance to 10 Ω. Check if the results agree with the following equation: Vo = Vd D2 Io 1  D2 +  4  ILB. 3. obtain the following waveforms using Buckconv: (a) vL and iL waveforms. (b) vo. 8Lfs .

168. Plot the ripple across C. ESR and the total ripple in vo. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Reference: Section 7-3. Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with the analytical calculations. 5.mnpere.7-2 4. 6. Calculate the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage in the presence of the output capacitor Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) [Suggested ESR = 100 mΩ]. PSpice Schematic: Buckconv [Copyright © 2003. Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io.com] . pages 164 .

PSpice Schematic: Boost [Copyright © 2003. pages 172 . Increase the load resistance to 50 Ω. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. iL and vo waveforms as they reach their new steady state values. In steady state obtain the following waveforms using Boost: (a) vL and iL waveforms (b) vo. Obtain vL. iD and ic waveforms 2. 4. 3. Check if the results agree with the analytical calculations. Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with the analytical calculations. change the load resistance as a step from its nominal value of 5 Ω to 50 Ω.8-1 EXAMPLE 8 Step-Up (Boost) dc-dc Converter i i L v L + + V d _ + _ ic C L D io v o _ R load Nominal Values: Vd = 9 V L = 10 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 50 µF Rload = 5 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. 6. 5.178. After 10 ms.com] .mnpere. obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Io. Reference: Section 7-4. Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use Vo(0) = 28 V and IL(0) = 0].625 Problems 1. Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io. Obtain iD waveform and by means of Fourier analysis.

75 Problems 1.5 V L = 10 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 100 µF Rload = 8 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. iL and vo waveforms as they reach their new steady state values. In steady state. Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use V(o) = 28 V and IL(0) = 0]. Obtain iD waveform and by means of Fourier analysis. obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Io. 4. obtain the following waveforms using Buck-Boost: (a) vL and iL (b) vo. Check if the results agree with the analytical calculations. change the load resistance as a step from its nominal value of 8 Ω to 80 Ω. After 10 ms. 2. io and ic. Obtain vL.9-1 EXAMPLE 9 Step-down/Up dc-dc (Buck-Boost) Converter + i V d v _ D _ + L i L L i C c vo + io R load _ Nominal Values: Vd = 8. Increase the load resistance to 80 Ω. . 5. Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with analytical calculations. 3.

Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.9-2 6.com] . Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io.184.mnpere. PSpice Schematic: Buck-Boost [Copyright © 2003. Reference: Section 7-5. pages 178 .

5 mH Io(avg) = 10 A fs = 20 kHz duty-ratio D1 of TA1 and TB2 = 0. .37 Ω La = 1. calculate the average value of id and the rms value of the ripple. By means of Fourier analysis. By means of Fourier analysis. io and po(t) = voio (b) vo and id Calculate peak-to-peak ripple in io. Obtain the following waveforms using FBBSDCDC: (a) vo. 4. Obtain the rms value of the ripple in vo and check it with the analytical calculations.708 ^ (∴ vcontrol = 0.416 V with V tri = 1. 3.0 V) B2 B1 La + vo _ Ra io + V EMF Problems 1. Bipolar-Switching dc-dc Converter id + A1 A V d B A2 _ Nominal Values: N Vd = 200 V VEMF = 79. calculate the average value and the harmonic components in vo. 2.5 V Ra = 0.10-1 EXAMPLE 10 Full-Bridge.

37x10 = 75.67 A].mnpere.5 .379. 6.192.8 Vcontrol = x 1. and that in o Problem 2. Let VEMF= 79. Ia(avg) = 10A in the reverse direction.67A]: (a) vo. Calculate the following [Hint: use Io(0) = -1. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Compare it with its analytical value. label the intervals during which various devices are conducting. (c) In part (a). PSpice Schematic: FBBSDCDC [Copyright © 2003.com] .0.8V. io and po(t) waveforms. In the regenerative mode. Therefore. Vo(avg) = 0 V. Reference: Section 7-7-1.5V. With VEMF = 0 and Ia(avg) = 0. 200 Calculate parts (a) through (c) of Problem 5 [Hint: use Io(0) = -11. (b) peak-to-peak ripple in i . the power flows from the load to the dc-bus at Vd. Vcontrol = 0.10-2 5.0 = 0. and Vo(avg) = 79. 75. Therefore. pages 190 .

Check it with its analytical value and compare it with Problem 3 of Example 10.com] . PSpice Schematic: FBUSDCDC [Copyright © 2003. 2. vB and vo using FBUSDCDC. 3. Obtain the plot of vo and io Obtain the peak-peak ripple in io. Check it with its analytical value and compare it with Problem 2 of Example 10. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.mnpere. Obtain the rms value of the ripple in vo. Unipolar Switching dc-dc Converter i + A1 A V d B A2 _ N B2 d B1 L + vo _ a i Ra o + V EMF Nominal Values: Same as that in Example 10 except for unipolar-voltage switchings. Problems 1.194. 4. Reference: Section 7-7-2. pages 192 . Obtain the plot of vA.11-1 EXAMPLE 11 Full-Bridge.

Io1(rms) = 10 A at a 0. RTH = 2Ω. Vo1.5 sin (2πx40xt .8 sin (2πx40t). Bipolar-Voltage Switching Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Frequency f1 = 40 Hz. Frequency modulation ratio mf = 1000 / 40 = 25. LTH = 10 mH. vcontrol = 0.33 V. Therefore. Vd = Vo1.39o).8V.39o V and vTH = 175.866 pf (lagging).5. Vo1(rms) = 153. . Amplitude modulation ratio ma = 0.peak / ma = 271 V and.1 /-5. Phasor Diagram: R TH jX TH I o1 + Vo1 (at f ) 1 + _ V TH _ Therefore. VTH (rms) = 124.12-1 EXAMPLE 12 1-Phase.8. Inverter and Controller for Sinusoidal PWM: Switching frequency fs = 1 kHz .peak = 216.

Using the results of Problem 6. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.30o A. obtain the high frequency ripple component id.215. Compare i 1 with its 0 o 0 precalculated nominal value. Calculate its rms value.12-2 Problems 1. io and po. [Copyright © 2003. Obtain i 1 by means of Fourier analysis of the i waveform. pages 212 . obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current. (b) vo and id. 4.ripple in the input dc current. 5.mnpere. Compare v01 with its precalculated nominal value. Reference: Section 8-3-2-1. 6. Obtain v01 by means of Fourier analysis of the vo waveform.com] . Obtain the following waveforms using 1Phbsinv: (a) vo and io. Compare them with their precalculated nominal d values. Using the results of Problem 2. 3. Obtain Id(avg) and id2 (the component at the 2nd harmonic frequency) by means of the Fourier analysis of the i waveform. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A. 7. Using the results of Problem 4. 2. obtain the ripple component v ripple waveform in the output voltage. (c) vo. PSpice Schematic: 1Phbsinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.

Compare the peak-to-peak ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter. Compare i 1 with its 0 o 0 precalculated nominal value. 2. Obtain the following waveforms using 1Phusinv: (a) vo and io. . Unipolar-voltage Switching Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Problems 1. Obtain v01 by means of Fourier analysis of the vo waveform. Compare v01 with its precalculated nominal value. (c) vo. Compare the peak-to-peak ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter.13-1 EXAMPLE 13 1-Phase. io and po. obtain the ripple component v ripple waveform in the output voltage. obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current. Similar to Example 12. 4. 5. Compare them with their precalculated nominal d values. 3. Using the results of Problem 2. 6. Obtain i 1 by means of Fourier analysis of the i waveform. Obtain Id(avg) and id2 (the component at the 2nd harmonic frequency) by means of the Fourier analysis of the i waveform. (b) vo and id. Using the results of Problem 4.

13-2 7. PSpice Schematic: 1Phusinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.vcontrol). whereas the switches in the converter-leg B depend on (.30o A.com] . The difference is that the switches in the converter-leg A depend on the control voltage vcontrol. Compare the rms value of the dc-side current ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter. pages 215 .mnpere.218. as in Example 12 is used.ripple in the input dc current. Using the results of Problem 6. [Copyright © 2003. Calculate its rms value. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. obtain the high frequency ripple component id. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A. Reference: Section 8-3-2-2. Controller: The same controller PWM_TRI.

the initial value Io(o) = -7 A. Also. A2) form two switch pairs. Controller: Switches (A1. [[Copyright © 2003.27 V 4 4 Problems Similar to Example 12 but compare the results with both Examples 12 and 13. Reference: Section 8-3-2-3. Square -Wave Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Same as in Example 12 except.mnpere.14-1 EXAMPLE 14 1-Phase. PSpice Schematic: 1Phsqinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.8 = 170. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.peak = 216.com] . page 218. B2) and (B1. each of which is gated on for alternate half periods. π π Vd = V01.30o A. obtain the lower order harmonics in vo as a ratio of Vo1.

8V. . at h = 1 216.219. ^ For Vd = 271 V and V 01 = 216. pages 218 . the initial value Io(o) = -7 A.9° and α = 180−2β = 102. PSpice Schematic: 1Phvcinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.2° α =51.15-1 EXAMPLE 15 1-Phase.8 = 4 271 sin β π ∴ β = 38. Voltage-Cancellation Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal values: Same as in Example 14. Reference: Section 8-3-2-4.30o A. See the definitions of α and β.10 2 Problems Same as in Example 14.

mnpere. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.15-2 Controller: A1 0 0 180 o A2 360 o B2 0 0 180 o B1 360 o [Copyright © 2003.com] .

619 VLL = x 230 = 182.866 = 10 /-30° A. 3-phase motor is operating at a frequency f1 = 47. rms VLL ^ 1 ∴ Vd = = 313. 60 1 rms VLL rms 1 VAn = = 105.16-1 EXAMPLE 16 Three-Phase PWM Inverter i + d B1 C1 L TH R TH iA B C C1 N n V . With V tri = 1.39/0°. 1 3 rms IA = 10 A at a lagging power factor of 0.97 V.0 V 0. 60 Hz.619 Hz.36° V (rms) Inverter and Sinusoidal PWM Controller: Switching frequency fs = 1 kHz. Therefore.95 .612 ma .76 /-12. A 1 _ ∴ (VTH. Phasor Diagram: R TH jX TH IA 1 Rs = + V An1 (at f1) + _ V TH . Ls = 10 mH. 1 2Ω . Amplitude modulation ratio ma = 0.619x10x10-3 = 3Ω. rms 47. ∴ Xs = 2πx47.54 V.A)1 = 74.39 V = 105.A TH A1 A V d A2 _ B2 Nominal Values: Load: A 230 V.

one for each phase.com] . Using the results of Problem 4. Problems 1. Controller: Three sinusoidal control voltages.30o A. 7.07 A. 3. [Copyright © 2003.90°) V.236. 6. (c) vAN and id. Reference: Section 8-4. 2. pages 225 . the initial value IA1(o) = -7. Obtain Id(avg) by means of Fourier analysis and obtain the high frequency ripple id. Obtain the following waveforms using : (a) vAN and iA. 5. Obtain iA1 by means of Fourier analysis of iA waveform. Obtain vAn1 by means of Fourier analysis of the vAn waveform. Obtain the load neutral voltage with respect to the mid-point of the dc input voltage. Compare iA1 with its precalculated nominal value.mnpere.95 cos (2πf1t .ripple = id . (b) van and iA. obtain the ripple component vripple waveform in the output voltage.Id(avg) in the input current. obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current.16-2 vcontrol.A = 0. are compared with a switching-frequency triangular waveform in PWM_Tri_3PH_Subcircuit. Compare vAn1 with its precalculated nominal value. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. 4. PSpice Schematic: PWMINV3 Based on IA1(rms) = 10 /. Using the results of Problem 2.

54 Vd = = 234.A TH A1 A V d A2 _ B2 Nominal values: N The same as in Example 16. Reference: Section 8-4-2. Square -Wave Inverter i + d B1 C1 L TH R TH iA B C C1 n V .78 rms where VLL = 182. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.54 V.03 V 0. 1 Problems Same as in Example 16.230. except 182.17-1 EXAMPLE 17 Three-Phase.mnpere. PSpice Schematic: SQINV3 Controller: A1 0 0o B2 0 -60o C1 0 60 o 120 o C2 240 o 180 o B1 300 o C1 A2 360 o B2 [Copyright © 2003.com] . pages 229 .

iD2. 3.32. . obtain and plot vAB1 and iL1.9 nF ∴ fo = 132 kHz. C2 = Large. 2. plot the currents ics1 and ics2 through the snubber capacitors.5 µH. Check for zero voltage/current switchings.18-1 EXAMPLE 18 Series-Loaded Resonant (SLR) dc-dc Converter Operating Above the Resonant Frequency id + Vd _ 2 io D1 CS1 + C SW1 + Lr A 1 Cr iL + _ vc C out v o V d V _d 2 _ B + C SW2 D2 + vAB _ CS2 R Load _ _ 2 _ Nominal Values: Vd = 155 V. Obtain vAB and iL waveforms. isw2 and the gate signals to switches 1 and 2 (all on the same plot).8µs. In a time range of 4.1 nF Vo(0) = 69. RLoad = 50 Ω. Snubber Capacitors Cs1 = Cs2 = 0. fs = 100 kHz. Obtain the voltage across and the current through the lower switch. fs /fo = 1.8µs to 5. iL. Cr = 96. By Fourier analysis. 4. Note that the current lags in phase with respect to the voltage. Lr = 45. C1. Cout = 50 µF.75 V Problems 1.

8 µs to 5. Remove both the snubber capacitors and reexamine the switching interval between 4. change the switching frequency to fs = 80 kHz. PSpice Schematic: SLRCM2 [Copyright © 2003. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Obtain the voltage vc and the current iL waveforms. References: Section 9-4-1-3. Without changing the circuit parameters.mnpere. 7.18-2 5.8 µs in Problems 3 and 4. 6. Normalize the results by Vbase = Vd and Ibase = Vd / zo. Obtain Io(avg) and compare the normalized vc and iL / Io(avg) with those in Problem 3. pages 261 .262. respectively.com] . Hint: Estimate the output voltage and use it as initial condition in the simulation.

pages 266 . iD1. 5. 4. Problems 1. Obtain vAB and iL waveforms.97 nF ∴ fo = 272.1 . Plot the fundamental frequency components of the inverter voltage vAB and the current iL. Io = 0. isw1 and the gate signals to switches 1 and 2 (all on the same plot). fs / fo = 1.19-1 EXAMPLE 19 Parallel-Loaded Resonant (PLR) dc-dc Converter Above the Resonant Frequency id + Vd _ 2 io D1 CS1 + C 1 SW1 + Lr A V d V _d 2 _ B + C SW2 D2 + vAB _ CS2 iL Cr + vc _ v o C out R Load _ _ 2 _ Nominal Values: Vd = 155 V. Obtain vc and iL waveforms. 2. Cr = 8. by how many degrees and why? In a time range of 6. iL. . 3. Does the current lag the voltage? If so. plot the currents ics1 and ics2 through the snubber capacitors.267. Reference: Section 9-4-2-3.5 µs. Obtain the voltage across and the current through the bottom switch. fs = 300 kHz Lr = 37.74 kHz.5 µs to 7. Check for zero voltage/current switchings.96 µH. .9926 A.

com] .19-2 PSpice Schematic: PLRCM2 [Copyright © 2003.mnpere. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.

Rload = 20 Ω.6 kHz. Compare with the average power input (Vd Id) calculated in Problem 3. Compare this value with the phase angle of the impedance (at the switching frequency) seen from the output of the converter. fo id ~ Id = 25 A Problems 1. 2. fs fo = 3. = 1. Obtain vo and io waveforms. Obtain the voltage across the load and the average power supplied to the load. Obtain the waveform of the voltage across the dc input to the inverter. Calculate its average value Vd and the average power input VdId. Obtain the fundamental frequency components of the output voltage vo and the output current io.20-1 EXAMPLE 20 Current-Source. 3. . Calculate the angle by which the current leads the voltage. Parallel-Resonant Inverter for Induction Heating i Ld d + 1 3 + Lc io C r L r R Load v d v o _ 4 Nominal values: fs = 4 kHz Lr = 78 µH.11 . 4. Lc = 20 µH 2 Cr = 25 µF.

Plot the voltage across one of the thyristors and calculate the reverse recovery time (= γ/ωs) in µs available to the thyristors.270.20-2 5. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. pages 269 . PSpice Schematic: CSINV [Copyright © 2003.mnpere. Reference: Section 9-4-4.com] .

Obtain Vo/Vd and the corresponding Rload/Zo.5 A. Compare the results and comment on how the switching frequency should be changed to bring Vo back to its nominal value.59 µH. Look at the first switching frequency cycle and discuss the need for turning off a finite amount of current by the switch rather than the zero-current switching obtained earlier. Obtain the average value of the voltage across the switch to check if Vo equals 10 V as the specified nominal value.624 µs Problems: 1. Vo = 10 V. isw and idiode waveforms. 3. Obtain vc.0 A. 2.614 MHz ∴ Ts = 1. .9 nF fs = 0.21-1 EXAMPLE 21 Zero-Current-Switching. Plot the voltage across and the current through the switch. 5. Cr = 15. Quasi-Resonant Buck Converter Lr i sw V d + v L f io Cr Dr C f + vo _ R + - c _ Load Nominal Values: Vd = 15 V. Check for zero voltage/current switchings. 4. Change Io in the PSpice circuit to 0. 1 fo = = 1 MHz 2π LrCr Lr = 10 Ω Cr Zo = ∴ Lr = 1. io = Io = 1 A. Change Io in the PSpice circuit to 2.

Obtain the voltage vc and the inductor current iL by putting a diode in anti-parallel with the switch.mnpere. Reference: Section 9-5-1. Obtain Vo/Vd. PSpice Schematic ZCSconv: Controller: At the beginning of each cycle. [Copyright © 2003. pages 274 .05 µs is produced. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.278.com] . The switch is turned off when the current through it tries to reverse direction.21-2 6. a short pulse of 0.

Problems: 1. pages 280 . Obtain the voltage across and the current through one of the switches. 3.5 nF. obtain the currents through one of the switches and through its associated diode and the snubber capacitors. 2. Around the blanking time. Reference: Section 9-6-1.283. Lf = 20 µH Cs1 = Cs2 = 5 nF Cf = 1000 µF. Obtain vA and iL waveforms. Repeat Problems 1 through 4. Rload = 10 Ω. How much lower is it compared to the nominal value of 10 V for Vo? Calculate the peak-to-peak ripple in the inductor current as a ratio of the average inductor current. Clamped-Voltage dc-dc Converter id + SW1 D1 CS1 Lf V d A + CS2 A io iL C f + vo _ R Load v SW2 D2 _ Nominal Values: _ Vd = 21 V. 6. 5. 4. Obtain the average value of vA. What should its value be to provide zero voltage switching? Change Cs1 and Cs2 to be 2. Vo = 10 V fs = 100 kHz. .22-1 EXAMPLE 22 Zero-Voltage-Switching. Comment on the zero voltage/current switchings.

5 us vgate2 0 0 0.mnpere.5 us 5 us 10.5 us 10 us 15.com] .22-2 PSpice Schematic: ZVSCV Controller: vgate1 0 0 5. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.5 us 15 us [Copyright © 2003.

2. and iD during a switching transition. isw. fs = 200 kHz. Vo ~ 4 V switch duty-ratio D = 0. Calculate the average values of id and iD in Problem 1 and verify that Id Vo = . . Obtain the waveform for the switch voltage vsw. Magnetizing inductance Lm = 30 µH. Obtain waveforms for v1. Io Vd 4. Problems: 1. 3.23-1 EXAMPLE 23 Flyback dc-dc Converter id + + v1 N1 _ N2 C iD = i o + vo _ R Load V d _ Nominal Values: Vd = 32 V. C = 100 µF. and iD. 1-D 5. Plot v1. Verify the results with the following equation: Vd vsw = . Neglect the leakage inductances.4. id. Change the load resistance to 50 Ω and repeat Problems 1 and 2 after a steady state is reached. Rload = 1 Ω Transformer: N1/N 2 = 4.

A 1 MEG resistor is connected to ground at the output to satisfy connectivity requirements.23-2 Reference: Section 10-4-2.875 µH. L1 = 30 µH. The transformer of the Flyback converter is represented by a component XFRM_Linear in the Analog library. PSpice Schematic Flyback NOTE: 1. [Copyright © 2003.com] . 3. the coefficient of coupling (k) is assumed to be nearly 1. and L2 = L1 / (N 1/N 2)2 = 1. pages 308 . Therefore.mnpere. Since the leakage inductances are ignored. An R-C snubber is included across the switch. 2.310. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.

pages 311 . Obtain the waveforms for iL and the voltage input to the output stage (i.e. isw and i3 waveforms. 3. Obtain v1.4 . RLoad = 1 Ω. show that the average value of v1 equals zero. the voltage across diode D2). and Ts is the switching time period. Vo ~ 4.314. =1 N2 N3 fs = 200 kHz. Lm = 100 µH.5 V. verify that tm N3 = Ts N1 D 2. = 4. Lf = 7. Problems: 1. PSpice Schematic: Forward . Switch duty-ratio D = 0.5 µH Cf = 100 µF.. where tm is the time interval during which i3 flows.24-1 EXAMPLE 24 Forward dc-dc Converter id + + v1 N1 _ D3 i3 i D1 N3 N2 D1 D2 + Lf vL iL _ + vo _ R Load V d _ Cf Nominal Values: N1 N1 Vd = 50 V. In problem 2. From the results of Problem 2. 4. Reference: Section 10-4-3.

[Copyright © 2003.com] .24-2 Notes: 1. L2 and L3 with almost perfect magnetic coupling. The 1-MEG resistor is for satisfying the connectivity requirement. It is represented by a component XFRM_3W. The 3-winding transformer is represented by three inductors L1. 2.mnpere. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.

Repeat Problem 1 by applying a step increase of 1 V in the nominal value of the input voltage Vd. Observe the system response.com] . Problems: 1. Lf = 5 µH. PWM Modulator: Tm (s) = 0. Using the switching model in For_Cntl. RLoad = 200 mΩ.336. rL = 10 mΩ (ignore).34 ( -9.37 dB ) Voltage-Mode Controller: Designed with crossover frequency ω c =105 rad/s and phase margin φ pm = 45o . 3. Repeat Problem 1 by applying an additional load resistance of 800 mΩ in parallel with the nominal load resistance. pages 322 . PSpice Schematic: For_Cntl [Copyright © 2003. Vd = 24 V. N1 / N2 = 3.mnpere. 2. Reference: Section 10-5. Cf = 2.000 µF. 5. fs = 200 kHz. Vo = 4 V. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.05 V in the nominal value of the output voltage Vo equal to 4 V at 200 µs.25-1 EXAMPLE 25 Forward Converter: Voltage-Mode Controlled i + N 1 V d _ N 2 d D1 D2 rc rL Lf + vo _ R Load Cf Nominal Values: rc = 10 mΩ. Repeat Problems 1 through 4 with a Type-3 controller which provides a phase boost of 60 o with the same crossover frequency as before. apply a step increase of 0.

Unipolar Voltage Switching KE = KT = 0. Reference: Section 13-6-3.708 ^ (vcontrol = 0. PSpice Schematic: DC_Motor [Copyright © 2003. Problems: 1.5 ms and observe the system response. B2 B1 La + vo _ Ra io + V EMF 4.389.416 V with V tri = 1. Compare the results with the unipolar-voltage switching scheme here. pages 388 .6V at 0. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 using a Bi-polar-voltage switching scheme.75 duty-ratio D1 of TA1 and TB2 = 0. Apply a step increase in the control voltage to 0.com] .37 Ω La = 1. 2.5 mH fs = 10 kHz.26-1 EXAMPLE 26 Ripple in the DC Motor Armature Current id + A1 A V d B A2 _ N Nominal Values: Vd = 200 V Ra = 0. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Obtain the armature current waveform.0 V) The motor-load is as represented in the schematic DC_Motor.mnpere. 3. Calculate peak-to-peak ripple in ia.

PSpice Schematic: MOSFET [Copyright © 2003.com] . A pulse voltage is applied to the gate of the MOSFET where the rise and fall times are specified as 100 ns. the MOSFET is represented by IRF150 MOSFET in EVAL library of PSpice. 3. Vary Lstray in a range of 20 nH to 200 nH and observe its effect on the switching waveforms. The stray inductance is represented by Lstray. Look at the MOSFET switching waveforms. The diode model within PSpice is used (where all its parameters have default values and rs = 1mΩ). 2. Vary Rgate in a range of 10 Ω to 200 Ω and observe its effect on the switching waveforms.mnpere.27-1 EXAMPLE 27 MOSFET Switching Characteristics In the schematic of MOSFET. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Problems 1.

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