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2000

......
1:
1.1:

1.1:
:



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F . F .


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, 1999

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1-1


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. 1.1

,
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,

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1600 !
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- -
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. 1.2 -
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.
. 17
,
Boyle, Charles Gay-Lussac. A ( 19
) .

, (..
) , ,
.

1-2

H
, .
( - - )
.
,
.

.

Boyle (, 1627-1691)

.
:

p V = .

T = .

. 1.1 ) To
.

.

. )

1 2
2 > 1.

Charles (, 1746-1823)


.
:

p
= . V = .
T

1.2 )
.
.
)

,

V1 V2 V1<V2.

.
1.2.
.

.
().
.
elvin ,
, 273.
=273 + .
Kelvin 273 C
.
.

Gay Lussac (-, 1778-1850)


,
, .
:

.=p

10

.=

V
T

1.3 )

.

. )



,
p1 p2
p1 < p2.



.

.
, .

, .

.
,
.
p-T (. 1.2) V-T (. 1.3)
:
,
.

1-3

pV = nRT

(1.1)

(1.1) .
R
p, V, T. SI, /m2
m3,
R :

R = 8,314 J / mol K

11

(atm), (L)
R :

R = 0,082 L atm / mol K

O mol m
.

n=

m
M

(1.2)

(1.1) (1.2)

pV=

m
RT
M

(1.3)

m
V

, (1.1) :

p=

RT


:

, .
,

.

1-1
7 C.
27 C.
3atm, ;
.
:
, p T = .
p1, T1 p2, T2 ,

p1 p 2
=
T1 T2

p 2 =

T2
300 K
p1 =
3atm = 3,2atm
T1
280 K

12

1-2
27C.
1atm ( 1 atm = 1,013 10 5 N / m 2 )
29 10 3 kg / mol .
:
:

p=

RT =

pM
RT

SI

1,013 10 5 N / m 2 29 10 3 kg / mol
= 1,18 kg / m 3
8,314 J /( mol K ) 300 K

1-3
0,2 mol H2 1=300 2 atm
( ).
2=400 ( ).
1,5 atm ( ) 1=300
( ). , .
, , ,
P-V, P-T, V-T.
R = 0,082 L atm / mol K
:
1.

A.
, pA=2 atm =300 .
.

p AV A = nRT A

nRT A 0,2 mol 0,082 L atm (mol K ) 300 K


,
=
pA
2 atm
V A = 2,46 L .

VA =

.
, pB=pA=2 atm =400 .

V A VB
=
T A TB

TB
400 K
VA =
2,46 L ,
TA
300 K
V B = 3,28 L .
VB =

.
= 400 p = 1,5 atm. O

p B V B = p V

p
2 atm
3,28 L ,
V =
1,5 atm
p
V = 4,37 L .

V =

13

.
=300 V = V = 4,37 L.

p p
=
T T

T
300 K
1,5 atm
p =
400 K
T
p = 1,125 atm .
p =

2.

p (atm)
2
2
1,5
1,125

V (L)
2,46
3,28
4,37
4,37

T (K)
300
400
400
300

. 1.4

1-4

,
, , , mol
o
.

, 19 ,
.
. ,
,

, ,
,
.


() .

, .

14

, ,

,
:
1. ,
, .

.
2.
. ,
, ,
.
3. .

1-5

(p) () .

,
,
, .

. 1.5
F
(. 1.5).
.

p=

F
A

'


(. 1.6).

,
(p) .

p=

m
V

1 N m 2
3 V

(1.4)

,
,
o


.
(1.4) .

15

. 1.6
.


.

, , (1.4)
m ,
V
, :

p=

1
2
3

(1.4)
2
.

p=

2 N 1
2
m
3 V 2

(1.5)

(1.5)

pV =

2 1

N m 2
3 2

(1.6)

pV = nRT =

N
RT
NA

mol ( Avogadro).

R
.
NA

,
k.

k=

Boltzmann

()

R
= 1,381 10 23 J /( K )
NA

pV = NkT

(1.7)

(1.6) (1.7)

T=

2 11
2
m
3 k2


.
,

1
3
m 2 = kT
2
2

(1.8)

2
. (1.8)

3kT
m

= 2 =

16

(1.9)

p =

1 N m 2
3 V

3
d. (. 1.7). V = d
2
A = d .
, m ,
. ,
.
, .
.
( ) .

Newton F =

, ,
t
. 1.7
1
(. ) d.
.
, p,

p =

.
A

( : P p .)
1.
( 1x , 1y , 1z ) (. 1.8).
1x .
.
1y 1z 1x .

P1x = m1x m1x = 2 m1x

t =

2d

1x

. 1.8
(
.
2d
2
P1x
1x
m1x
)
= 2 m1x
=
t
2d
d
2
P1x
m1x
F1x =
=

t
d
2
m1x
F1x =
d

1 x

(Fx)
.
Fx
2
A = d .
(p) p =
A
2
2
2
m1x m 2 x
m Nx

+
+ ..... +
d
m 2 + 2 + ..... + 2
d
d
. 1.9

=
Nx
1x
2x
p =
xy.
2
3
d
d

17

( )
2
2
2
Nm 1x + 2 x + ..... + Nx
p=
3
Nd
2
2
2
1x + 2 x + ..... + Nx
x

N

x2

Nm x

(1.10)
p=
3
d
,
,
2

x2 = y2 = z2

.1.3

, ,

.

2
2
2
= x + y + z

2 = x2 + y2 + z2

x2 = y2 = z2

2 = 3 x2

d =V
3

2
x

x2 =

2
3

(1.10)

p=

1 N m 2
3 V

1-4
27C.
2 10 3 kg / mol .
:

3kT
m

Avogadro ()

=
k =

3kN AT
N Am

(1.11)

R
kN A = R N A m = M (: )
NA

(1.11)

3RT
M

SI

3 (8,314 J / mol K ) (273 + 27) K


= 1,93 10 3 m / s
2 10 3 kg / mol

, 6900 km/h.

18

1-6


Zartman ()

,
, .
.

.
dN +d.
1920
.
Zartman .
.
(.1.10).

, ,
.

,
d
.
u t

d = ut
d
t = 2r /


u =r

r .

d = ut = r

2r

2r 2

= 2 r 2 / d . ,
d .
,

.

.

.1.10 To

Zartman.

19

1-5
Zartman,
.
(m/s)
(m/s)
()
/ (/m/s)

:
:

/ :

100
0,4
200
500

200
0,25
240
960

300
0,2
400
2000

400
0,1
220
2200

500
0,2
360
1800

600
0,2
240
1200

700
0,4
200
500

800
0,5
200
400

900
0,8
160
200

1000
1,2
120
100

1100
5
250
50



,
.
.
200 99,8 m/s 100,2 m/s.
.

= f ( ) ,

. 1.11

Maxwell Boltzmann ( - )
Maxwell Boltzmann 1860,
,
.
1.12 dN/d=f()
Maxwell Boltzmann =105 300
900 .

20

. 1.12

. dN/d
0 .
.

.

. 1, 2, ..

1 + 2 + 3 + ....
N

12 + 22 + 32 + ....
N

, ,
. Maxwell-Boltzmann
, ,
( ).

( 32).
< < .

- d : d dN/d = dN dN
+d.

.

.

,
,
( ),
.

21

. 1.4 Ludwig Boltzmann (18441906) .


.

1-7


. , ,
.

.
,
.

. ,
( ),
.
. -

. .
, .



, . ,

.
, , .

. ,
MaxwellBoltzmann .
,
. 1.13
.
.
.

.
.

. ( ).
.
. (

,
(. ), ).

.
, , .
.
,

.

22

,
.

1
3
m 2 = kT
2
2

, , ,
, .
,
, ,


. .

.
,
, .
,
,
. 1.14 ( ).


.


, ,
,
.
'
.
,
,
;
.
.
,
.

(
),

.
.


.


.
.
, ,
, .

.

.

23

p V = .

T = .

p
= . V = .
T
.

V
= . p = .
T
, .

pV =nRT

, .
,
.
.

.
,

p=

1 Nm 2
3 V

T=

2 1 1

m 2

3 k 2

1
3
m 2 = kT
2
2

= 2 =

3kT
3RT
=
m
M

.
Maxwell - Boltzmann.
Maxwell -Boltzmann ,
, .

24


1.

Boyle .


.
(.1.15). .
.
;
;
.
.
;

pV = .
1,013 105 /m2
104 /m3
: V1 = l1 S

V2 = l 2 S , S . H
, h ( :
h ). ,

. 1.15

(p),
p1 = p h

(. 1.15) p1 = p + h
(. 1.15)

2.


. .
.
,
.
( )

V
l
= . (
= .
T
T

;)
: , .
.
.

25

. 1.16


1.1

1) ,
2) ;

. 1.17

. 1.18

1.2


(.1.18) :
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

1.3


.
1)

2)

3)

)
)

1.4

p
= .
V
p
= .
T
V
= .
T
pV = .

.
)
.
)
.
)
.
;

26

1.5

p-V 1.19 (1) (2)



.
)
Boyle.
)
mol.
)
.
.

1.6

;
)

.
)

.

1.7

pV
T

.
.

pV

;

. 1.20

1.8

n1 n2
.
; (n1 > n2).

. 1.21

27

. 1.19


1.9

) ) ;

1.10

;
)

.
)

.
)

,
.
)

, .

1.11

.
, .
:
)
.
)
.
)

.
)

.
.

1.12


)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

1.13

.

)
.
)
.
)
.
)

.
.

1.14


Maxwell Boltzmann ;
)

()

.
)
Maxwell Boltzmann

.
)

.

28

)
1.15

-
1.16

27 C
1atm.
60 C. ;
[ : 1,2atm]

1.17

.
,
. 27 C
0,20 m3. -3 C.
;
[ : 0,18 m3]

1.18

4m 4m 3m .
27 C 1atm. mol
. :
1 atm = 1,013 10 5 N / m 2 , R = 8,314 J / mol K .
[ : 1950 mol ]

1.19


. 1atm
.
1/3
. .
[ : 3atm ]

1.20

2 10 5 mol V=0,25m3

1.21

27 C. . :
R = 8,314 J / mol K , 1 atm = 1,013 10 5 N / m 2 .
[ : 0,2 /m2]

.
.
0,4m3, 300 1atm.
0,1m3
600 .
.
[ : 8 atm ]

29

1.22


( ), 13 10 15 atm .
1L
(300). R = 0,082 L atm / mol K ,

N A = 6,023 10 23 / mol .
[ : 3,18 10 8 ]
1.23


185C 1atm ( 1 atm = 1,013 10 5 N / m 2 ).

44 10 3 kg / mol R = 8,314 J / mol K .
[ : 1,1 7 kg/m3]

1.24

.
=f(),
.

1.25

=27 C p=103N/m2
8 10 4 kg/m3.
. R = 8,314 J / mol K .
[ : 2 10 3 kg / mol ]

1.26

mol s.t.p.

.
, , .
[ : 2 atm, 33,6 L, 819 K]


1.27

() He
27C. O
4 10 3 kg / mol 18 10 3 kg / mol .
R = 8,314 J / mol K .
[ : 1368 m/s, 644,8 m/s ]

1.28

3, 5, 8, 8, 8, 12, 12, 16, 20.


m/s. :
)
.
)
.
[ : 10,2 m/s 11,4 m/s ]

1.29


5800.
1 10 3 kg / mol
R = 8,314 J / mol K .
[ : 12028m/s ]

30


1.30

3 L
12 L;
120 atm, 1,2 atm.
.
[ : 400]

1.31

1.22
, h=27 cm,
=27 C.
=127 oC ;
.
[ : 9cm]

1.32

, ,
=0,02m2
w=374 .
0,01m3 27C. H
p=1atm.
)
;
)
,
207 C; (1atm = 1,013 10 5 N / m 2 )
[ : ) 1,2 105 /m2
) 0,006 m3 ]

1.33

V, ,
.
. p=1atm.
, ,
410 K.
, .
.
=273 .
[ : 0,66 atm ]

1.34

1.23 ,
. 1 2 mg H2
2 8 mg 2 . l1 / l 2
;
.
2 2 2 10 3 kg / mol 32 10 3 kg / mol ,
.
[ : 4 ]

1.35

V1=0,3 L V2=0,2 L
.
=300 (. 1.24).
100 50.
1atm .
[ : 1,26 atm]

31

. 1.22

. 1.23

. 1.24

1.36

1.25
, .
(.1.25)
h=40 cm.
(. 1.25) h=60 cm.
.
p = 1,013 10 5 N / m 2

A = 10 cm 2 . .
[ : 20,26 ]
. 1.25


( )
i , i = 1, 2, .....N

1 + 2 + .... N
N

12 + 22 + ... + N2

1
N

i =1

1
N

i =1

2
i

A=

1
N

(
N

i =1

1
N
1
A=
N
A=

(
N

i =1
N

2
i

2 i +

2
i

A = 2 2

1
N

i =1

1
N

2 + N
i

i =1

i =1
2

( )

A 0

i =1

2
1
N
N

A = 2 2 + = 2

2
2

2 0

> 0 > 0



,
.

dN
= f ( ) Maxwell-Boltzmann ,
d
,

2 RT
M

32

8 RT
M

3RT
M




,
.
,
3-13 .


(. 1.26).
11,2 km/s.
. 600 km,
10,8 km/s (. 1.27).
1500 .
, =

3RT

M

. 1.26

.

1,1 km/s
4,4 km/s.

.
Maxwell- Boltzmann, (. 1.28) ,
,
.
,
.
.
. 1.27
, .




,
.

. 1.28

4 10 9
, ,
, - .
: -
2,37 km/s -
(
4,97km/s) .

33

35

2-1


.
, ,
100 ..,


.

.

.

,
,
, , .

2-2


. ,

.
.
,
, ..
, , , ...
.
,
, , ,
.
. 2.1
(, .
100 ..).
.



.

2-3


,
.



.


. ,

, .
.

36

,
.

.


.

,
.
.
,

- - (p), ()
()
.
. 2.1. ()
. ()

. ,
.
()



.


.
.

.
.

2-4


.


.

37

. 2.2
2.1
,
,
.

.

- .

, ;

.

.

2.2

.

, .
, .
.
. , VA
pA.
VB pB TB.

:


. ,

.
,
.

. 2.3

.
.

.

38


. .
.
.

.
, ,
, ...

.


.
.
,


. ,
, .

. 2.4

.


.


.

,

- .


.
.

.
.

39

2-5

.
, ,

.

. 2.5 . F
x. .
F
x,
W.
:
W = F x
(2.1)
p,

p=
(2.1)

F
A

F = pA

W = p A x
A x = V

(2.2)

W = p V

(2.3)

V .

. 2.6

V1
V1+V

.

(2.3)
( ) .
: .
(2.3) .


(.2.6). (V) 2.6
, .
, = V p = W ,
, V1 V1+V.



(. 2.7).

. 2.7



.



V, p-V.

40

2-6

1
2 (1 > 2), ,
1 2 (1 > > 2).
.
.
H
Q.
H , , SI Joule.
(cal calorie).
1 cal = 4,186 J .
: .

.

2-7

,
.
( U),
(..

).
,
.
, ,
(, ) .
. ,
, .
,
,

.
.


,
.

.

.

41


1-5

1
3
m 2 = kT .
2
2

U=N

1
3
m 2 = N kT
2
2

(2.4)

N = nN A n mol .

U = nN A

3
kT , NA k=R,
2
3
U = nRT
2

(2.5)

(2.5)
.

. ,
. (2.5)

.

.
. 2.8 () ()
, ,
. ()
.

.

.

2-8

.
Q
W.

. ,
.
. 2.9 .
,


.

Q = U + W
(2.6)

42

(2.6) .
(Q)


.

.

.

, Q (2.6)
, .

.
.

2-9

. 2.10
,
.

.

,


.

)

, V , ,
V.
. 2.11
.

. ,
,
.2.11


.

V
W = nRT ln
V
, UA=UB
U=0, , ,

Q =W

Q = nRT ln

V
V

43

)
,
.
. 2.12
.
.
.

. 2.12

.

Q = U

.

)
,
V , , V . 2.13
.
.
. 2.13

.

W = p(V V )

W = nR(T Ta )

Q = U + p (V V )



.

)


.

(p, V) (p, V)
(. 2.14).

. 2.14

( ).

.
.


.

pV = .

[ Poisson ()]

44

, ,

. .

Q=0

0 = U + W

W = U

(2.7)


.
,
(2.7) ,
.
2.15
. ,

.

W=

p V p Va
1

( )
, . 2.15
. . .
.

)

.
2.16
.
.
:

,
. , ,

.
,
.

45

. 2.16 .



.

'

,
.



.
(. ).


,
p-V.
,
.
, .
,

.
,
U = 0 .

Q =W

2-10


m,
Q = m c T
(2.8)
c .
.

mol, m = n M , ,
(2.8)

Q = n M c T

(2.9)
c
C. c C (2.9)

Q = n C T
C, SI, J/(mol K)
1 mol
.

,
.

,
, ,
.

46


2.17
.
QV CV

QV = nCV T
(2.10)
.

QV = U
(2.11)
. 2.17
(2.11), (2.10),
.

U = n CV T

(2.12)



(2.12)
,
.


(. 2.18)
.
Qp Cp
,

Q p = n C p T
W = p V .
p V = n R T ,

W = n R T

(2.13)

Q = U + W ,
(2.12) (2.13),

n C p T = n CV T + n R T

C p = CV + R

(2.14)

2.14 Cp CV
R.

47

. 2.18
.

Cp CV
U =

3
nRT.
2

U =

3
n R T . (2.12)
2

n CV T =

3
n R T
2

3
R =12,47 J/mol K
2
3
C p = CV + R = R + R
2

CV =
Cp :

Cp =

(2.15)

5
R =20,78 J/mol K
2

(2.16)

Cp
CV


(2.15) (2.16) = 5 3 .

Cp
Cv


.

.

He
A

CV
(J/molK)
12,47
12,47

Cp
(J/molK)
20,78
20,78

Cp-CV
(J/molK)
8,31
8,31

2
2
2
CO

20,42
20,76
20,85
20,85

28,74
29,07
29,17
29,16

8,32
8,31
8,31
8,31

1,41
1,4
1,4
1,4

CO2
SO2
H2S

28,46
31,39
34,6

36,94
40,37
34,6

8,48
8,98
8,65

1,3
1,29
1,33

48

= Cp/CV
1,67
1,67

CV Cp
,
,
.

.
, ,


. , 2 2

.
,
, (
), .
. ,
() .
, ,
( ) Cp-CV ,
, 2.14.

2-11

.
1712
Thomas Newcomen ( )
. Newcomen

. 1769 Watt,
Newcomen
.


.
.
Newcomen Watt
.
,
, , ,


.
.
2.19 .
, -
( ) - ,
. ,

49

. 2.3 Watt.

.
, ( ),
.
.
.

. 2.19
.


. 2.4
. (1) .
. .

, .(2)
.

(3)




(4)
.


.


.

, ,
,
.
.

.
,
. 2.20
.
-

Qh
, W
Qc
.


1. (Qh)
Th.
2. .
3. (Qc)
c.

50

.

.
,
,
,
, .
- ,
, .
O (e)


.

Qh
.

e=

W
Qh

(2.17)

Q


, Qh Qc .

. 2.5 .


W = Qh Qc .
(2.17)

e=

Q h Qc
Qh

e =1

Qc
Qh

(2.18)

18%,
, ,
40%. 20%,
35% 40%.
2.1
5000 J
3500 J. .
:
(2.18)

e = 1

51

Qc
Qh

= 1

3500 J
= 0,3
5000 J

30%

. 2.7
... 900 W
2100 W. To
.

. 2.6
.

2.2
25%, 2000 J.
.
:
(2.17)

e=

W
Qh

Qh =

W 2000 J
=
= 8000 J
e
0,25

8000 J .
2.3
Diesel
.
0,25.
15 . 150
.
;
[1 = 1 /h = 1852 m/h. 1 kg
39800 kJ].
:
P = 12 220 kW = 2 640 kW

(P) . 2.8 Diesel Wartsila
(Ph) 12 V.
: 200 mm.
.

e=

P
Ph

Ph =

P
= 10560 kW
e

: 240 mm.
: 7,54 L .
: 220 kW 15 .

52

, t = 1 h

Qh = Ph t = 10.560 kW 3.600 s = 38 .016 .000 kJ


m=

38 .016 .000 kJ
955 kg
39.800 kJ / kg

15 . . / h 1852 m / .. 1 h = 27780 m = 27,78 km


955 kg 27,78 km 150

27,78 km

150000 kg
4363 km
955 kg

2.4
K Otto ()

2.21 .
: V1.
: .
: V2.
: .
.
. 2.21

Q AB = nCV (TB T A )
TB > T A

Q AB > 0

Q = 0

Q < 0

Q = 0

( )

Q = nCV (T T )
T < T

( )

Qh = Q = nCV (TB T A )

Qc = Q = nCV (T T )

53

Qc = nCV (T T ) = nCV (T T )

e=

Qc
nC (T )
W Q h Qc
=
=1
=1 V
Qh
Qh
Qh
nCV (TB T A )

e =1

T
TB T A

(2.19)

Poisson

p BV1 = p V2

pB =

nRTB
V1

(2.20)

p =

nRT
V2

(2.20) p B p

TBV1 1 = V2 1

(2.21)

T AV1 1 = V2 1

(2.22)

V1 1 (TB T A ) = V2 1 (T T )

(2.22) (2.21)

(2.19)

T V1 1
=
TB T A V2 1

V
e = 1 1
V2

. 2.9 ,
.

54

2-12
19
,
. (2.18),
.

, .

.


.
,
Kelvin Planck ( ):
. 2.10 (
) (1825-1907). .
.
, , ,
.
.

. , ,
, .
.
.

Clausious ():


.

, .
.

. , ,
.
100% .
,
,
.

2-13 H MHXANH TOY CARNOT


,
100%.
, h

55



. 22


.
,
, (
- ) (

).

19 ,

c, ;
1824 Carnot ().
Carnot ,
Carnot,

. , ,
Carnot
. Carnot:

Carnot
.
Carnot ,
. 2.11 (1796-1832). . Carnot
. . , .
Ecole
Polytechnique
.

1. ,
Th,
Qh.
2. ,

c.
3. ,
c
c, Qc.
4. ,

.

. 2.22
Carnot.
.

56

e = 1

Qc

(2.23)

Qh

Carnot

Qc Tc
=
Qh Th

(2.24)
. 2.23

p-V

(2.24) (2.23) Carnot.


W, ,
Carnot

eCarnot = 1

Qh-Qc,
.

Tc
Th

(2.25)

,
Carnot .

.
,
300 ,
"" .
.
100% c=0, .

2.5
Carnot Th=500 K c=300 K.
W=2000J.
.
:
(2.25)

eCarnot = 1

Tc 2
= = 0,4
Th 5

(2.17)

e=

W
Qh

57

Qh =

W 2000 J
=
= 5000 J
0,4
e

2-14
,
, .
2
, ( S).
Clausius,
(S)
,
, Q
.

S =

Q
T

(2.26)

SI 1 J/K.

Q , .
. 2.12 Q .
(1822-1888). .
- : (2.26)
.
.

,

(. 2.24),
.

S B S A = S1 + S 2 + S v =

Qv
Q1 Q2
+
+
(2.27)
T1
T2
Tv



. 2.24 - , .

,



.

. 2.25 ()
()


.
()


. , .


, .

58

.
,
.
(. 2.26). >,
. .

Q ,
.
S A =

Q
TA

, S B =

Q
TB

S = S A + S B =
TA > TB

Q
TB

>

Q
TA

Q
TA

. 2.26

. .

Q
TB

S > 0 .

,
.
.
:

.

.
.



. .

.

.2.13


.
()
,

. () ,

.

()

()
59


1870 Boltzmann ,
,
. Boltzmann
.

.
(
), .

.
, ,
.
. .

. ,


.

. 2.27 ()

.
()

.
.
, ,
.

,
(. 2.27)
(. 2.27).

, .

.
, .
.

,
.

60

. 2.14 ,
,
.
,
.
.
.


,
.

2-15


, (pA, VA,
TA), (pB, VB, TB).
2.28.
,
SAB,
,
.

S AB

. 2.28
.

Qv
Q1 Q2
=
+
+
T1
T2
Tv


, o
,

S AB = 0

.

61



.
2.29 .

.

S AB =
. 2.29
.
.

Qv Q1 + Q2 + + Q
Q1 Q2
+
+
=
T
T
T
T

Q
. , :

S AB =

Q
T

(2.28)


Q = nRT ln

S AB = nR ln

VB

VA

VB
VA

(2.29)


- -
,
.

S = 0

. 2.30

,
dS, ,
.

,
,
, :

S =

Q
Q1 Q2
+
+ ........ +
T1
T2
T

Q1 , Q2 , ...., Q


.

Q
Q1 Q2
+
+ ........ +
=0
T1
T2
T

62


.
O .

(.. 2.31).

. .
,
, (2.26), S=0. (2.26)
.

.
, (. 2.32).

, ,
.
( Q = U + W )
U = 0 .
, ,
. = =
() (),
(. 2.32).

. 2.31
.


,


.

. 2.32

.


.

,


.



.
.

S AB = S
= nR ln
AB

VB
VA

, V B > V A , ( S > 0 ).
, (
)

.

63


,
.
, ,
, .
.

. .

.
.
.
.
W = pV .
.
V, p-V.

.
,

. .
U =

3
nRT .
2


.
:

. Q = U + W .
W = nRT ln

W = 0.

V
.
V

W = p (V V ) .

. pV = .
W =

p V p V
.
1

, ,
.

, p-V.

64


Q = n C T .

C p = CV + R .
Cp CV .

Cp
CV

U = nCV T .

1) (Qh) Th 2)
3) (Qc) c.

Qh

e =

e = 1

Qc
Qh

:

.
Carnot , Carnot,
.
Carnot : 1) 2)
3) 4) .
Carnot eCarnot = 1

Tc
.
Th

S =

Q
.
T

.

, .

.
.
.

S = 0
S =
S = 0
S = nR ln

65

VB
.
VA

S = nR ln

VB
.
VA


1.

(
) .
.
.
. ;
. 2.33

2.


. ,
, .
.
.
: .

. 2.34

3.

.

,
(. 2.35).

. 2.35 ()
. ()
.
.
() ,
. ()
.

,
.
(. 2.35).
.

(. 2.35).
.
,
.

66



2.1

,
.

2.2

..
.( ).

2.3


;
)

.
)
,
.
)
, ,
p-V.
)
p-V

.

2.4

.
.

. , ;
.


2.5

;
)
.
)
,
(>)
()
.


.
)

.
)

.
)

.

2.6

.
)

.
)

.

67


.

.

.

2.7

.
:
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

2.8


. ;
)
.
)

.
)

.
)

.


2.9

,

1) .
2) .
. ( ).

2.10

:
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

2.11

.
)

W = nRT ln

V
V

p a + p
V
2
W = pV
W =

1)

2)
3)

)
)

W =0

4)

W =

5)



p=f(V)

68

p V p V
1

2.12

:
.

. .

.

2.13

2.36
.
; .

2.14

, ,
,
, 2.37.
1.

:
) ;
) ; ) ;
2.

:
) ;
) ; ) ;
3.

:
) ;
) ; ) ;
.

2.15

.
)

.
)
,
.
)
,
.
)

.

2.16

, p ,VA ,
V .
p-V
VB.
o
;

2.17


, . )
) .
2.38 1 2.
:
)
1;
)
;
)
2;
;
.

69

. 2.36

2.37

2.38

2.18

.

(.2.39).
) , )
, )
.

2.19

;
)
.
)

.
)

.
)

.
)

p-V.

. 2.39


2.20

:

mol
,

..
.
.

2.21

;
)
,
.

.
)
Cp/CV,
.
)
Cp-CV =
)
U = n CV T ,
, .

2.22

.
:
)
;
)
;
)
;
)
;
.

2.23

70

2.24


Cp CV
;

-
2.25

,
)
;
)
;
)
;
)
;
.

2.26

2.27

;
)

.
)



.
)

.
)

70 80%.

2.28


. ;
)

.
)

.
)
,
.
.
)

.
.
)

1.
)

.
)

.
.

2.29



().
; .

71

2.30

.
;
( ).

2.31

Carnot
;
)
Carnot
.
)
Carnot
.
)
Carnot
.
)
Carnot

.
)

,
Carnot, .

2.32


Carnot
. Carnot
( ).

2.33

;
)
)
)
)

2.34

S =

Q
,
T

.


.
( )
.

.


.
(SB > SA ).
, , .
.

)
.
)
.
)
.
.

)

,
)
,
)
.

72


)
,
)
,
)
.

2.35

.
)
.
)

.
.
)
- .
)

.
;

2.36

, .
()

. .

; .

2.37

2.40
. ,
. ,
) ; ) ; ) ;
.

2.38



1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

2.39

W
S
U
p
V

)
)
)
)
)

J
m3
N
N/m2
J/K

Carnot
(S-T).

73

2.40



2.40

0,004 m3 p=1,2 atm


0,006 m3.
. 1atm= 1,013 10 5 N/m2.
[ : 243,1 J]

2.41

mol 27C 127C.


.
. R=8,314 J/(mol K).
[ : 1663 J]

2.42

mol 27C.

. .
R=8,314 J/(mol K), ln2=0,6931.
[ : -3458 J]

2.43

To (. 2.41)
.
.
[ : 4600 J ]

2.44

10 L 1 atm.
.
.
1L=10-3 m3, 1atm= 1,013 10 5 N/m2, ln2=0,6931.
[ : Q=702,1 J]

2.45

.
V1=0,008 m3, 1=300
p1= 1,013 10 5 N/m2.
, 2=375 .
)
.
)

Q=709,1 J
.
[ : W=202,6 J, U=506,5 J ]

2.46

0,2 mol =27C,


.
.
R=8,314 J/(mol K), ln2=0,6931.
[ : -345,8J]

2.47

2.42.
.
[ : 1500J]

. 2.41

. 2.42

74


2.48

0,004 m3.
1,013 10 5 /m2

3,213 10 5 /m2.
. CV=3/2 R.
[ : 1320J]
2.49

1,013 10 5 /m2,
0,005 m3 0,007 m3.
. CV=3/2 R.
[ : 506,5 J]

2.50



Q=10cal. = 1.41.
1cal=4,18J.
[ : 29,64 J ]

- Carnot
2.51

,
.
900 MW 300 MW
, .

.
[A : 33,3 % ]

2.52


200 J. 25%.
,
.
[ : 800 J, 600 J]

2.53


.

. H
20%.
2100 C.
23C,
. (
).
[ : 87%]

2.54

Carnot 5 mol
. 500
300 .
VA= 3 10 2 m3 VB= 6 10 2 m3. :

75

)
.
)
.
R=8,314 J/(mol K), ln2=0,693.
[ : 0,4, 5762 J ]

2.55

4L, 2atm,
400 .
0,8 atm
10 L.
)
p-V.
)
.
)
.
1L = 10-3 m3 1atm = 1,013 10 5 N/m2 , ln2,5=0,9163.
[ : 400 , S=1,86 J/K ]

2.56

n=0,2 mol
2.43, , ,
.
, .
R=8,314 J/(mol K), ln3=1,0986.
[ : SAB = 1,83 J/ K, SB = -1,83 J/ K, S=0 ]

. 2.43

. 2.44

2.57


V. .

.
)
p-V

.
)
: i)
; ii) To
;

2.58

2.44 p=f(V),
p, V mol .
p=f()
V=f(T), ,
.
o 1atm= 1,013 10 5 N/m2, 1 L =10-3 m3.
[ : 2269 J ]

2.59

,
, w ,
V.
, , .

76

.
p.

[ : W = V p +
2.60

A 273 +



. V1=1m3 ,
1=27C p1 = 125 10 5 N/m2.
p 2 = 10 5 N/m2 (
). :
)

.
)
.
=3/2.
[ : ) 25m3, =60, ) W = 2 10 7 J ]

2.61

=27C.
= 1,5 10 24 ,
=127C
i) ii) .
:
)
.
)
.
)
.
: R=8,314 J/(mol K), NA= 6,023 10 23 /mol.
[ : i) 3106,2 J, 0, 3106,2 J ii) 3106,2 J, 2070,8 J, 5177 J ]

2.62

H Carnot
1=127C 2=27C.
)
.
)
=10

t=1h. 1=745,7W.
[ : 0,25, 29,828 kWh]

2.63


2.45.
)
V-T
p-V.
)

.
)
.
: n=0,975mol, CV=3R/2,
R=8,314J/(mol K)=0,082 L atm/(mol K), ln2,5=0,9163.
[ : ) 2228,3J, ) 0,275 ]

77

. 2.45

2.64


, , ,
. pA=6atm, VA=22,4L, TA=546K, VB=3VA,
T = 273.
)
p-V,
p-T, V-T.
)

.
ln3=1,1 1L atm = 101J.
[ : 10407 J]

2.65

mol (po, Vo)


(2po, 2Vo) :
)
.
)
.
Q W . po, Vo,
ln2=0,6931, CV=3R/2.
[ : ) 6,8p0V0, 2,3 p0V0 ) 5,2p0V0, 0,7p0V0 ]

2.66

H
: )
. )
, ) ,
) .
. =5/3.
[ : 2/9]

2.67

mol , s.t.p

. :
)
.
)
.
)
.
: R=8,314 J/(mol K), ln2=0,693, 1Latm=101,4 J.
[ : ) 2271 J ) 2271 J ) 5,76 J/K ]

2.68

mol , s.t.p.
8atm
4 atm.
:
)
, .
)
.
: R=8,314 J/(mol K) ln2=0,6931.
=3/2 CV =16,628 J/(mol K).
[ : ) 4539,5 J, -4539,5 J, 0, ) 0, -11,52 J/K, -11,52 J/K ]

2.69

VA=0,04m3, pA= 3 10 5 N/m2


=600.
VB=0,16m3,

. :

78


,
.
)

)
.
: R=8,314 J/(mol K), =5/3, ln4=1,386 (0,25)=0,0992.
[ : 18000J, 18000J, 7200J, 5832J, 27,72J/K, 0, -27,72J/K ]

2.70

, ,
,
A=10cm2 m=10 kg.

pat= 1,013 10 5 /m2. R
.
Q=50J :
)
.
)
.
: g=10m/s2, CV=3R/2.
[ : 0,1m, 30 J ]

2.71

H
,
,
p = 600 + 400V (SI).
.
V A = 2m 3 V = 1m 3 , ,
)
.
)
.
)

.
CV / R = 3 / 2 .
[ : 200 J, 0,051 ]

2.72

n = 2 / R mol
,

2
p = 10 8 V + 6 10 5 (SI), , ,
3
, .

V A = 6 10 3 m 3 V B = 3 10 3 m 3 , .
:
)
.
)
.
: CV = 3R / 2 , S = 2,3 J/K ln 2 = 0,7 .
[ : 0,1 , -1,4 J/K, -0,9 J/K]

79


. ,


.
,
.

.

. 2.46 .


(. 2.46).
,
,
,
.
, ,
.
.

.

.

, .
.
1 km
10 C. ,
, 30 C, 3 km,
.2.15 - ,

0 C.
.
.

80

81

3-1


Michael Faraday (),
.
()
.
( ),
( )
( ).

.

.

.
, .


,
.
Gauss,
,
,
() , , , .

. 3.1

q .
q
,
q .

3-2



q (), , .

E=

F
q


.
Q
Q r q
Coulomb F = K c

Qq
r2

E = Kc
. 3.2
Q
.

Q
r2


() .
,
.

82

3-3

,
(. 3.3).

.

EA .
E .
, (.3.4),


.

. 3.3
,
.

. 3.4


.

3.4 A = A .

,
.
A = A EA = EA

E = EA

, , (.
3.4).
, ,
.
E ,
,
,

E = EA

(3.1)


.
SI m2/C.

83


,
,
,
A,

.
E = E A


. 3.5

.

E = Ei Ai i
Ei , i E Ai .


.
(. 3.6) .
,
.
,
, , .
, .
1 ,
1 90,
. 3.6 1
. . ,
2

>90
,

2
2<0.
.

,
, . 3.6
,
.

3-4

O GAUSS ()


.
q.
r, 3.7,
.
.

. 3.7 q
r.

E = Kc

q
1 q
=
2
4 o r 2
r

(3.2)

.
,
.

84

q

.

E = Ei Ai i = EA = E A
(3.3)

4r 2 . (3.3) (3.2)

E =

q
q
4r 2 =
2
4 o r
o
1

()
r . ,
. 3.8 H
.
. .
, q, (. 3.8)
. ,
q ,

E =


, .

Q/ Q
.
Gauss .

, . 3.9 q
.
.

(3.4)


Gauss Gauss.
Gauss
. Q (3.4)
Gauss,

.
Gauss
.
Coulomb. Gauss Coulomb
,
.



.

.

.3.1

Karl Friedrich Gauss.

Gauss (1777-1855). ,

.
.

85

Gauss
, Gauss

.
( Gauss)
.
3-1

(.3.10) Q,
.
.
:

,

.
. 3.10
Gauss , .

.

Gauss r
, r .
.
, .
, , (. 3.11)

= E A 0 = E A
Gauss.

= E A = E A = E 4r 2
(3.5)

. 3.11 H Gauss


.

Gauss

(3.6)

(3.5) (3.6)

E 4r 2 =

E=

Q
4 o r 2

Q,
r. , ,
.

86

Gauss
r < . , ,
,

(3.7)
E = E A = E A = E 4r 2

Gauss

Q = 0 = 0

(3.8)

(3.7) (3.8) =0
.

. 3.12
Gauss

.
,
.
.

.

.1
.

.

. 3.13


.


( ).

.

3.2
( ) .
( ),
.
:
,
.
.
, Gauss
, L r.
H
.
1

87

. 3.14 Gauss .

,
. ,
.
:

E = + =

= = = 2 r L

E = 2r L

(3.9)

L . Gauss

E =

L
0

(3.9)

2r L =

2 r

3.3
, .
( ).
.
:
, ,

.
Gauss
, , .

88

. 3.15 Gauss .
.


.
.
.

= + = = 2 EA

(3.10)

. Gauss

(3.11)

E=

(3.12)

(3.11) (3.10)

2 EA =


.

.

89

3-5

(.3.16).
.
q,
F=Eq. q
, , ,
q . H
, , .

q,
, , (
. 3.16 ).
- , W/q,
.
,
F .
.

, . :
o

q, q
, .

VA =

WA
q

(3.13)

To . SI
1 Volt (V), 1 J/C.

.
, VA-VB


q q.

V A VB =

WAB
q

(3.14)

q
,

WAB = (V A VB ) q

( e = 1,6 10 19 C )
1V,
W = 1V 1,6 10 19 C = 1,6 10 19 J .
1 eV.

1 eV = 1,6 10 19 J

90

,
, .
,
.


.

(VA-VB) ,
.
(0=0)

. ,
.



Q, r,

V = Kc

Q
r

(3.15)

1.
2.

(3.15) .
, .

. 3.17 Q .


Q1, Q2, Q3 , (VA),
Q
. V A = K c .
r


Q1 , Q2 ,

V A = V1 + V2 + V3 +


,
, ,
- -
.

91

3.4
,
Q 2Q, .
:
)
.
)
, .
)

.

. 3.18

:
)

Q , V1 A = K c
, -2Q V2A = K c

2Q

V A = V1A + V2A = K c
)

V1M = K c

Q
Q
= 2K c ,
/2

V2M = K c

VM = V1M + V2M = 2 K c
)

(3.16)

VA VM =

2Q
Q
= 4 K c
/2

(3.17)

WA M
WA M = (V A V M )( e)
e

(3.16) (3.17)

W A M = K c

Qe

3.5
, =400 m/s,
. .
: e = 1,6 10-19C, mP = 1,6 10-27 kg,
: 6, Coulomb c = 9 109 m2 /C2 .
.
:
Q=6e.
, ,
.
- ,
.

W A = K A K

1
W A = 0 m p 2
2
92

(3.18)

W A = WA = VA e

(3.19)

V A .
r

VA = K c

6e
Q
= Kc
r
r

(3.20)

(3.19) (3.20) (3.18)

Kc

3-6

6e 2
1
= m p 2
2
r

r=

12 K c e 2
m p 2

r = 10,8 10-6 m

, q1,
q2 q3 (. 3.19). , ,
, , 3.19.

.3.19
.
. - .

. 3.20. q1 (a), q2 (b)


q3 ( c).

q1
. , q2 . q2,
q1.
.

W B = WB = V B q 2 = K c

q1 q 2

(3.21)

q3.

q1 q2 .
W = W = V q3
(3.22)
q1 q2

V = K c

q1

93

+ Kc

q2

(3.22)

W = K c

q1 q3

+ Kc

q 2 q3

(3.23)

,
, (3.21) (3.23)

W = Kc

q1 q 2

+ Kc

q1 q3

+ Kc

q 2 q3

(3.24)

U = Kc

q1 q 2

+ Kc

q1 q3

+ Kc

q 2 q3

(3.25)


.
.
q1 q2
r
. 3.21

r
.

U = Kc

q1 q 2
r

(3.26)

(3.26)
.
.
r
. ,
r .
.

3.6
m1 = 22 10 5 kg q1 = 11 10 7 C

0 = 30 m / s m 2 = 2m1 q 2 = 2q1
d = 2 m . ,
L . K c = 9 10 9 N m 2 / C 2 .
:
.
m1 m2 .
m1 m2
.
m1
m2 (
). T

. 3.22
1 = 2 = .
.
m1

K + U = K + U

94

q1 q 2 1
qq
1
= m112 + m2 22 + K c 1 2
d
2
2
L
2
2
2q1 3
2q
= m1 2 + K c 1
2
d
L

1
m1 02 + K c
2
1
m1 02 + K c
2

(3.27)

, .

P = P
m1 .
m1 0 = m11 + m2 2
m1 0 = 3m1

0
3

(3.27) L

6dK c q12
L=
= 0,28 m
dm1 02 + 6 K c q12

:
. , ,

.

3-7


. , , .


.
.
3.23.
q, F=q

. ,
x. F

W = F x = Eq x
(3.28)
W = (V A VB )q
, (3.28)

Eq x = (V A VB )q

E=

V A VB
x

E=

V
x

(3.29),

V .

95

. 3.23
q .
.


(. 3.24).
q,

W = F () = F ()
W = (V A VB )q
(3.29)
. 3.24



.

= F ( ) = Eqx

(3.29)


x, .

3-8

,
, .

F=Eq =

Eq

(. 3.25)
.
F = Ee (E : e : )

,
. 3.25 a = F / m
e
.

a = F / me = Ee / me

= at
x=

1 2
at
2

:
1. ;
d d =
t1 =

2d
.
a

96

1 2
t1
2

2. ;
= t

1 = 2ad .

.

V = 1 kV d = 5 mm
=2 105 N/C,
F=3,2 10-14 N (e=1,6 10-19 C),
=3,5 1016 m/s2 (me=9,1 10-31 kg),
t1 = 5,3 10-10 s 1 =1,9 107 m/s.
(
)
,
.

3.26
+q -q, L,
d V.
0
.
F.

. 3.26 To
.

.


.

.
.

V,
E =

V
(
d

).
x
, 0 .
y
, F = Ee

E=

Ve
V
, F=
.
d
d

ay =

F Ee Ve
=
=
me me dme

97

(3.30)

. 3.2

, x :

y :

x = 0
x = 0t

(3.32)

y = a yt

(3.33)

y=

(3.31)

1
ayt 2
2

(3.34)

:
1.
, x
L. (3.32) x L
t :

t1 =

(3.35)

2.
(3.34) t
y
, .

1 Ve
y1 =
2 dme

1
y1 = a y t12
2

(3.36)

3.
. 3.27
y1


1y.

,
x 1x = 0 y 1 y = a y t1

1 y =

(3.30) (3.35)

Ve L
dme 0

H
2

1 = +
2
1x

2
1y

1 y
1x

VeL

1 = +
dme 0
VeL
=
(3.37)
dme 02
2
0

4.

x y.
(3.32) t (3.34)
(3.30). y = f ( x )

98

1 Ve x 2
Ve
y=
x2
2
2
2 dme 0
2dme 0
2
y = ax ,
y=

1
a yt 2
2

y=

.

.
F.
we = 8,9 10-30 N

V=1 kV
d=5mm F=3,2 10-14 , 36 1014
. To ,
,
-, , -
.

3.7
V0.
( )
. V
d. To L.
.
D .
.
. e
me .

. 3.28

99

:
V0
- .

1
me 02 = eV0
2

0 =

2eV0
me

(3.38)

,
.

y1. H (3.36)

1 Ve L

y1 =
2 dme 0

(3.39)

VeL
dme 02

(3.40)


1. (. 3.29)
D y 2 .

y2
D

y 2 = D

. 3.29

(3.40)

y2 =

DVeL
dme 02

(3.41)

y1+y2 .
(3.38), (3,39) (3.41) :

y1 + y 2 =

VL
L
D +
2V0 d
2

100


, (. 3.30), ""
. H
.

, .
.
.

.
,
, .
, ,
.
.

. 3.30

3.30
.
().

.


. 3.3 .
().
.
.

.
kV. ,
107 m/s.
,

.

( 10-7 atm).
.

101


( ).

.

. (3.39), (3.41)
.

.


.


.
.
, ,
.

. 3.4 .

. 3.31 .

.


.

().
:
)
.
.
)
.
)

.
)

.

, y=V t
( ) (. 3.31)
-
y.
(50 )
.
.

. 3.32 .

x

( . 3.32)
,

102

.
.

x .
.

V
.
(. 3.33).
V.


y=Vt ( )
(. 3.31).
(. 3.33).
V (
).
2V.
. 3.33 () V
, d

V.
()
,

.

x ( ),
y ()
.
(. 3.5) y.

,
.
,


.

103

. 3.5

.

3-9


.
, ,
. 3.34 .
.
. 3.34
. +Q Q.


(),
. +Q -Q.

, , V,
.
,
.
,
.
.
C
(Q) (V).

C=

Q
V

Farad,
F. 1F=1 C/V.
.3.6

. 3.35

Michael Faraday,
, . 1Farad
.
, (1F=10-6F),
, (1nF=10-9F) , (1pF=10-12F).

, .
. 3.6
.
.
.
,
, , d
.

d
.

C = o

104

A
d


( , ,
)
( ) .

.
.

.
,
.

. 3.7



.


.

3.8
=4cm2 d=2mm.
:
)
.
)
V=12V.
=8,85 10-12 C2 / (N m2)
:
:

C = o

A
,
d

, , :

C = (8,85 10 12

C2
4 10 -4 m 2
= 17,7 10 13 F = 1,77 pF
)
N m 2 2 10 3 m

To , , :

Q = CV = 1,77 pF 12V = 21,24 pC = 21,24 10 12 C


3.9
10F V=100V.
, ,
. :
)

)
.
:

CO = O

105

A
d

(3.42)

C = O

A
2d

(3.43)

(3.43) (3.42) :

C=

CO
= 5F
2

To .

. ,
, .
V

C=

Q
V

(3.44)

, :

CO =

Q
V

(3.45)

(3.45) (3.44) :

CO V
CO
V
=
V =
C
C
V

V = 200 V

3-10


U,
.
U .

U=

1
CV 2
2

(3.46)


.

. .

.

106



, :
+dq
.
, . qo, Vo
.
dq
. +dq
, dq
+dq. A . ,
dq (), dF=Edq .
dF dF .
,
dq. dF
. 3.36
dF .

dq
V, .
dq,

dW = V dq .

C=

q
V

V =

1
q
C

( )

V = f q
qo,
(. 3.37).
- dq
- V. dq
dq. To
q,

W =

1
qoVo
2

W=

1
CVo2
2

1
U = CVo2
2

107

. 3.37

V=q/C

.

3.10
C1=4F, , V=20V, Q.

C2=12F 3.39 :
)
V
.
)
.
)

. ;
;

. 3.38

:
C1,

Q = C1 V = 80 C

,
Q C2 . C1 C2 Q1
Q2, ( ) V.
)

Q = Q1 + Q2

(3.47)

Q1 = C1 V

Q2 = C2 V

(3.48)

(3.48) (3.47) :

Q = C1V + C 2V
)

Q = (C1 + C 2 )V

V =

Q
= 5V
C1 + C 2

. 3.39

V (3.48)
:
Q1 = 20C Q2 = 60C
""
.

1
1
1
U = U U = C1V 2 + C 2V 2 C1V 2 = 6 10 4 J
2
2
2
.

.

108

3-11
, ,
..,
.
.
, ,
. (.
3.40)
.

. )

( ,
). )

,
.
.
. )
.

. 3.40 .


.

.


. Vo.
-, , -
V .
Vo.

. 3.41


.


, .
C
C0 , o

K=

C
Co

(3.49)

.
H ,
.

109

C = K CO

C = K O

A
d


.
C = Q / V

K ,
( K ).
E = V / d .
K
K .
.
,
. .

(. 3.42).
. 3.42
()


.


.
()

. ()
,
,
,
.


(.
3.43).

. 3.43 ()

.
()


.
,
.

110




, (. 3.44).
.

. 3.44

.


.

K
1
1,00059
5,6
3,4
3,7
2,5


(V/m)

3 106
14 106
14 106
16 106
15 106

.3.8
Manhattan.




.

, ,
.
1020 .

111

3.11
C, Vo.

.
.
:

Q o = C oV o

(3.50)
. 3.45

, ,
,
C = KC o
(3.51)
V

V=

Qo
C

(3.50) (3.51) V =

C oV o V o
=
KC o
K

.
3.12
C=5F, V=10V.
,
, =5, .
, .
:
, , :

Q = C V = 50C

C:

C = K C = 25F

,
, V .
, , :

. 3.46

Q = C V = 250C
:

Q Q = 200C

112

3-12
( ),
m1 m2 r ,

m1 m2
r2
G , G = 6,673 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 .
F =G

, Coulomb,
1.

m1 m2 . r

.

. 3.47
r


.

, ,
.
. .
, .

.

.

.3.9 .


.


.

113


.
(g)
(F) (m)
,
g=

F
m

(3.52)

H .
1N/kg
1m/s2,
.
. 3.48

m
. H
.

F
m

(3.52) g = ,

:
,

.
To , ,
.
. :
(V) , ,
,
m ,
.

VA =

W A
m

1J/kg


, m
, .

V A VB =

W A B
m

114



.

r , m.
H m

Mm
r2

F =G

(3.53)

g=

F
m

(3.54)

(3.53) (3.54)

g =G

M
r2

. 3.49

.

(3.55)


, r ,

V A = G

M
r

(3.56)

m1,
m2, r,

U = G

m1m2
r

(3.57)

(. 3.50)
3-5.
:

U = G

m1 m2

m1 m3

.3.10 -

m 2 m3

1.
.

3.50
R, .
.

(r R).
.
2. (3.57)
r
.

115

3.13
m1 m2
.
.
,
l .
G.
. 3.51

:
,
.

l :
P = P
,

0 = m2 2 m11
m
1 = 2 2
m1

(3.58)

U + K = U + K

m1 m2 1
1
+ m112 + m2 22
2
2
l

0 = G

1 (3.58)

0 = G

m1 m2 1 m22 2 1
2 + m2 22
+
2 m1
2
l

2 = m1

2G
l (m1 + m2 )

(3.58)

1 = m2

2G
l (m1 + m2 )

116

3-13

,
R = 6,38 10 6 m

M = 5,98 10 24 kg . ,
(3.55) (3.56)
.

,
r R + h h
. . 3.52 To
- h,
.
-

g =G

( R + h )

(3.59)

V = G

M
R + h

(3.60)

. 3.53


,

.

(3.59) h = 0

go = G

M
R2

117

g 0 = 9,8 m s 2 .

.3.11

.
(180 kg),

.

.

3-14
m,
;

,
.

( ) .

K1 + U 1 = K 2 + U 2
(3.61)
.3.12

Pioneer
.
1973

.


(
U 2 = 0 ).


, 2=0
(3.61)

K1 + U 1 = 0 + 0

M m
1
m 2 + G = 0
R
2

2GM
= 11,2 km s = 40 320 km h
R


.
h

2GM
R + h


.
2,37 km/s, 4,97 km/s, 59,1
km/s 618 km/s.
.

R


.

118


c = 3 10 8 m s .

2GM

R
2GM
= c R RS =
.
c2

Schwarzschild.
,
, .

.
.



.
Schwarzschild
.


.


3 km ,
6,96 10 5 km .
9 mm .
.
. 3.13
.


.



.




.

119

3.14
, h=R
(R ), =16 103 m/s.
.
. : R=6400 km
go=10 m/s2.
:

H , h, =

2GM
.
R + h

2GM
GM
=
2 R
R

(3.62)

go =

GM

R2

(3.63) (3.62)

GM = g o R2

(3.63)

= g o R = 8 10 3 m / s

> .
)
.
.

W = K K A

V = 0

VA =

GM
2 R

(V A V )m =

1
1
m 2 m 2
2
2

(3.63) V A =

(3.64)

g 0 R
2

(3.64)

g o R = 2 02

= 2 g o R = 8 3 10 3 m / s

3-15

Coulomb
(
), ,
.

.
.
-

.

.

,
.

120


.

q .

E=

F
q


. q

E = KC

Q
r2

, ,
, E = EA ,
.
m2/C.

, .
( Gauss)

( VA), ,
q q
, .

VA =

WA
q

To SI 1V=1 J/C.
, VA-VB,

, q.

V A VB =

W AB
q

Q
Q r,

V = KC

Q
r

.
q1 q2

U = KC

q1 q 2
r


x,
.

E=

121

V
x

()
. O . +Q Q.
C .

C=

Q
V

Farad (F). 1F=1 C/V.


C = o

A
d

( ,
, ) (
) .

U=

1
CV 2
2

.
() ,
, .
,
.

C
Co

K=

( )
m1 m2 r ,

m1 m2
r2
G , G = 6,673 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 .
F =G

.
.
(g) (F)
(m) ,

g=

F
m

1N/kg 1m/s2.
(V) ,
m , .

VA =

W A
m

1J/kg

m ,
.

V A VB =

W A B
m

122

gA = G

M
r2

V A = G

M
r

m1, m2, r

U = G

m1m2
r


h ,
.

2GM
R + h

1.


,

, Fundy,
. ,
.
.

. 3.14 Fundy .

123


- Gauss
3.1

:
)
.
)
.
)
,
.
)

.
.

3.2


.
;

3.3

3.54 1, 2,
3, 4 +Q, -Q +3Q. 1, 2, 3 4
.
.
-Q/
1
2Q/
2
3Q/
3
0
4
4Q/
-Q

3.4

+Q -Q.
;
)
.
)

.
)

.
)


.

3.5

.
:
)

.
)
.
)
, .
.

3.6


;
)

.
)
.

. 3.54

124

)
)

3.7


.
,

.


R,
x , x < R x > R.

3.8

q, ,
. :
)

.
)
.
)

.
)
.
.

3.9

.
q ,
,
. .
q .
..
. , ,

3.10

(eV)
)
;
)
;
)
;
)
;

3.11


r
-200V. 2r
) -100V; ) -50V; ) -200V;
) -400V;
.

3.12

+Q Q
.
;
)

.
)

.

125

)
)

.

.

3.13

)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

3.14

, .
:
)
.
)
.
)
.
)

.
.

3.15

:
.

3.16

R,
Q, x
, x < R x > R.


3.17

H ,

)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

3.18


,
. :
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

3.19


.
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
;

126

3.20



)
.
)

.
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

3.21

He (He: , 2,
4)

.
;
)

.
)


)

.
)
.

3.22

, ,

.
:
1)
:
) ; ) ; ) ;
2)
:
) ; ) ; ) ;
.

3.23


;
;
;


3.24

:
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
;

3.25

1)
; 2)
; 3)
;

127

3.26

0,2J.
:
)
.
)
0,4J.
)
0,8J.
)
1,6J.
.

3.27

C
.
,
1)
;
2)
;
3)
;
:
) ) ) .

3.28

Co V
q. ,
,
,
1)
;
2)
;
3)
;
:
) ) ) .

3.29


.
. ;
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.

3.30

3.31

:


.

128

. ..
.
3.32

3.33

3.34


.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A)
B)
)
)

F
V/m
eV
V


3.35

:
, ,
.. .., m
, .
.
..

3.36

;
)


.
)

.
)
.
)

.
)


.

3.37

:

,
. ..
. , ,
...
.


m

3.38

, ,
.
, , .

129

,
;
)
;
)
;
)
;
)
;
.
3.39

;
)

.
)

.
)

.
)

.

3.40

:
)

.
)
.
)

.
)

(, ).
)
.
;

3.41

,
, h ,
(R),
(go) h .

3.42

.
;
.

- Gauss
3.43

r = 0,2m
=500/C.
, :
)

.
)
.
)

60.
[: ) 62,8 m2/C, ) 0, ) 31,4 m2/C ]

130

3.44

10C.
;
: 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2/(Nm2).
[: 1,13 106 m2/C ]

3.45


=2m2/C. .
: 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2/(Nm2).
[: 17,7 10-12 C ]

3.46



(. 3.55).
.
R .
[ : -ER2 ]

3.47

, .
. ,
, =100/C,
, (
) , .
R = 6400 km 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2/(Nm2).
[: -455.295 C ]

3.48

R=20cm
Q=24C, .

)
r1 = 40 cm,
)
r2 = 10 cm.
: 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2/(Nm2).
[: ) 1,35 106 /C ) ]

3.49

R=1m, ,
Q=12C, .

, ,
) 20 cm ) 60 cm ) 80 cm ) 1,2m ) 2m;
r V =

4 3
r .
3

: 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2/(Nm2).
[ : ) 10,8 103 Nm2/C ) 29,2 10 4 m2/C ) 69,4 10 4 Nm2/C
) 135 10 4 m2/C, ) 135 10 4 m2/C]
3.50

4C
.
) 10 cm ) 20 cm .
: 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2/(Nm2).
[ : 720 10 3 N/C , 360 10 3 N/C]

131

. 3.55

- .
3.51

Q = 2 10 7 C
V=300V.
. K c = 9 10 9 m2 /C2.
[ : 6m ]

3.52

q = 2 10 8 C
, 3m 2m
( ). VA-VB.
[ : -90V ]
K c = 9 10 9 m2 /C2.

3.53

Q
=60 N/C V=180 V.
Q.
K c = 9 10 9 m2 /C2.
[ : 6 10 8 C, 3m]

3.54

Q = 2 10 6 C, .

q=10-8C ,
r1=()=1cm Q, ,
r2=()=4cm Q. : K c = 9 10 9 m2 /C2.
[ A : 13,5 10 3 J ]

3.55

$ =90,
, , A
Q1=4 10-8 C Q2= 5 10 8 C. =3cm
=4cm, :
)
, .
)

2 10 10 C .
: K c = 9 10 9 m2 /C2.
[ : 23250V,

3.56

32400V,

183 10 8 J ]

, =30cm,
q=2C.
. : K c = 9 10 9 m2 /C2.
[ : 36 10 2 J ]

3.57

Q=100C, .
m=10g q=20nC ,
r1=30 cm .
,
, . :
)
r2=60cm .
)
.
: K c = 9 10 9 m2 /C2 .
[ : )

6 m/s, ) 2 3 m/s ]

132

.
3.58

, ,
, , , . VA-V=5V
= x = x,
- -;
[ :10V, 5V]

3.59

,
3 10 6 V/m (
).
0,5mm.
,
;
.
[ : 1500 V ]

3.60


+Q Q, ()
m=10-3kg q = 5 10 7 C.
l=2cm,
. g=10m/s2.
[ : 400V ]

3.61

,
+Q -Q,
,
6 o.
d=10cm V=200V. H
m=2mg. N
. o g=10m/s2, 6=0,1.
[ : 10-9 C ]

3.62

=2 104m/s
=91V/m.
)

.
)

.
) )
.
me = 9,1 10 31 Kg
e = 1,6 10 19 C .
[ : 1,456 10 17 N , 16 1012 m / s 2 ]

3.63

0
.
,
. .
me e.
[ : m0/E.e, 2 m0/E.e , -0 ]

133

3.64



.

.
, l ,
, me e.
[ :

y=

Eel 2
E 2e 2l 2
Eel
2

,
, =
]
=
+
0
2
2 2
2me 0
me 0
me 02

-
3.65

6pF,
12V. .
[: 72pC ]

3.66

4cm
1mm.
V=10V; : 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2 / (N m2).
[ : 444,6 pC ]

3.67

=72cm2
d=1,2mm.
V=12V. :
)
.
)
.
)
.
: 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2 / (N m2).
[ : 104 V/m, 53,1 pF, 637,2 pC]

3.68

C=10F
V=100V.
.
:
)
.
)

.
[ : 5F, 1000C, 500C ]

3.69

C=20F V=500V.
;.
[ : 2,5 J]

3.70

C1=20F V1=80V.

C2=5F. :
)
.
)
.
)

.
[ : ) 64V, ) 1280C, 320C ) 12,8 10-3 J ]

134


3.71

C=12F
5.
.
[ : 60F]

3.72

, , 240V.

, .
40V.
.
[ : 6 ]

3.73

C=5F, ,
V=10V.
, .
Q=150C.
.
[ : 4 ]

3.74


C=44nF V=2000V.
,
E = 24 10 6 V/m =5.
.
: 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2 / (N m2).
[ : 0,083m2 ]

3.75

=3cm2.
,
=4.
. o : 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2 / (N m2)
E = 16 10 6 V/m.
[ : 169,9 nC]


3.76


h=R .
R = 6400 km
go=10 m/s2.
[ : 2,5 m/s2 , -32 106 J/kg ]

3.77

m
0=103 m/s.
. R = 6400 km
go=10m/s2.
.
[ : 50 km ]

135

3.78

81
11/3.
)

g0=10/kg
.
)
700 .
;
[ : 1,66 N/kg , 116,2 N ]

3.79

h

.
.
. R
g0.
[ : =

3.80

2 g 0 R2
]
R + h


m=M/8 .
=11,2 km/s. H
.
V =

4 3
R .
3

[ :

5,6 km/s]

3.81



.

=65.000km/h.
.

,
, . R=6400 km, g0=10 m/s2.
[ : 14 10 3 m / s ]

3.82

m1 = m m2 = 2m
l .


.
G.
[ :

3.83

x = l 2 1 m1,

Gm
2 2 +3 ]
l

,, , ,
m1, m2, m3.
. G.
[ :

m1 m 2

+G

m1 m3

+G

136

m 2 m3


3.84

R ,
.
.

.
r .
r V =
[: r p R E =

3.85

R3
]
3 r 2

r
R2
, r R E =
]
2 r
2

) 0

) 45 10 2 /C ]


.
+ . O

-
.
.
[ : E =

3.88

E=

R=10cm
Q=20nC.
r1=2cm, r2=8cm r3=20cm
. : 0 = 8,85 10 12 C2/(Nm2).
[: ) 0

3.87

r R

, , R
.
.
. o

.
[ : r p R E =

3.86

r
,
3

4 3
r
3

2 r

0 ]


, 3.56.
+,
-.
) )
) .
[ : ) 0, ) E = / ) 0 ]

137

. 3.56

3.89

,
,
l=1,5cm

= 4 10 7 m/s,
. . :
e = 1,6 10 19 C, me = 9 10 31 kg.
[ : 3 10 5 /C ]

3.90

To ()
, .
:
)
.
)
.
)
.
)

(
).
: e,
r C.

1
1
1
e2
e2
e2
e2
[ : )
, ) K c
, ) K c
, ) K c
]
Kc
2
r
r
2
r
2
r
3.91

, ,
.

0 = 5 10 5 m/s, .
,
;
: e = 1,6 10 19 C
m p = 1,6 10 27 kg.
[ : 1250V ]

3.92

m = 0,5 g q = 10 8 C

0 = 85 cm s ,
.
V = 4 k V
d = 4 cm ,
.

; g = 10 m s 2 .
[ : 1 cm ]

3.93

0 = 2 10 7 m s

. 80V,

138

d = 2 cm l = 12 cm .


.

e
= 1,75 1011 C kg .
me
[ : 12,6 mm, 50,4 V ]
3.94

1
3

R=10cm Q = 10 9 C.

.
)

r=30cm .
)

.
: : e = 1,6 10 19 C, me = 9 10 31 kg , Kc= 9 10 9 Nm2/C2
[: 2,66 10 6 m/s, 3,26 10 6 m/s ]

3.95

3.96

Q = 2 10 7 C
. m=1mg
q = 3 10 8 C.
d .

. .
l=3m, d=1m, =30.
: g = 10 m/s2 Kc = 9 10 9 Nm2/C2.
[ : 9,6 m/s ]
R=10cm Q = 2 10 7 C,
, . d=30cm
,
, m = 0,5 10 6 kg

q = 4 10 9 C, .
.
. Kc = 9 10 9 Nm2/C2.
[ : 14,4 ms ]
3.97

q m
2m ,
l .


.

2l.
[ :

2q

Kc
Kc
, q
]
6lm
6lm

139

. 3.57

3.98

Q=7 10-6C
h=3,6m . h/2
m = 10 3 kg ,
( ) =8m/s.
)
;
)

q.
: Kc = 9 10 9 Nm2/C2, g = 10 m/s2.
[ : 0,8 10 6 C ]

3.99


Q1 = Q2 = 5 10 6 C .

m = 5mg q = 2 10 10 C .

. : l = 60cm ,
h = 40cm , g = 10m / s 2 , K c = 9 10 9 Nm 2 / C 2 .

. 3.58

[ :
3.100

4,2 m / s ]


Q = 4 10 6 C . r = 40cm Q
m = 4 10 4 kg

q = 2 10 8 C (. 3.59).
, :
)
Q
.
)
.
: g = 10m / s 2 , = 30 , K c = 9 10 9 Nm 2 / C 2 .

. 3.59

[ :

0,9 m, 1 m / s ]

3.101

.
, VA=50V VB = -50V,
.
)
;
)
,
;
)
,
;
[ : ) 100 V, ) , ) 100 V, 0 ]

3.102

,
, 2C.

; = 3 10 6 V/m
= 14 10 6 V/m. =5.
[: 46,7C ]

140

3.103

C1 = C 2 = 4 F .
V = 30V (. 3.60)
.
C1
K = 5 .
)

.
)


.
V = 10V ,
[: )
q1 = q 2 = 120 C ,
)

q1 = 200C , q 2 = 40C ]

3.104

m=8000 kg .
h=R

3
=8 10 m/s.
)


.
)
,
h , ,
F,

.
R = 6400 km
go=10m/s2.
.
[ :

3.105

8 2 10 3 m / s, 8 10 4 N ]


,
r1= 7 10 6 m r2= 9 10 6 m, .
r1 () 1=8 103m/s,
:
)
r2 ()
)

, m=140 kg,
, .

.
R = 6400 km
go=10m/s2.
: )
. )

.
[ : 6,16 10 3 m / s , 3,7 10 9 J ]

141

. 3.60

3.106


=32 m/s2.


.
.
R=6400 km
go=10m/s2.
[ : 1,6 106 m]

3.107

m=200 kg.

, .
.
F=4000 N
0,6 R .


.
R = 6400 km
go=10m/s2.
[ : 3,2 106 m, 5,06 103 m/s]

3.108

M
= 81
M

d = 60 R .

. R .

.
[ : x = 54 R ]
3.109


.
, ,
.
h = R .
: R = 6400km , g o = 10m / s 2 .
[ :

3.110

8 10 3 m / s ]

m = 100 kg ,

R . ,

. 3.15


, ,
7 R / 9 .
)

.
)

A = 0,2 N ,

142


.
: R = 6400 km , g o = 10m / s 2 .
[:
3.111

2 108 J ,

10 9 m ]

M = 8ton
m = 1,5ton ,
h = R / 20 ( R : ).


.


.
)

.
)

.
:
g o = 1,6m / s 2 R = 1680 km .
, .
[ : 1900 m / s, 192 10 6 J ]

3.112

m
.
, , m1 ,

, m2 ,
.
m1 m2 .
[:

3.113

2m 2 1 ,

m 3 2 2 ]

, R1 = 1334 103 m
m1 = 1209 1019 kg m2 = 4m1 .
,

.
l = 40R1 .
G = 6,673 10 11 Nm 2 / kg 2 .
. 3.16 ,
.
)
.
)


.
:
.
[ : 42,69 10 6 m, 10,67 10 6 m, 1025,8 m / s ]

143

TO TOY MILLIKAN
1909-1913, o Robert Millikan (),

, e
-
, e.

Millikan. .
.

.
,
.
.

. 3.61 Millikan

m
q, .
,
: mg ,
F , .
(F)
. ,
, ,

F = C = 6 r
(:
), r
.
mg ,
. ,
. 3.17 Robert Millikan (1868- . ,
1953). .
.
mg = F mg = 6r
(3.65)

144

m = V ,

V .

4 3
r ( ).
3

(3.65)

4 3
r g = 6r
3

4 2
r g = 6
3

(3.66)



, (3.66) .
,
.
,
Eq . q ,
.

, , .

. 3.62
.

, F,
.
,

F = 0

4
qE r 3 g 6r = 0
3

,
(3.66) q.
Millikan
e.
, , ,
. .
Millikan 1923 .

145

()

. ()
.

147

4-1

. 4.1 Hans Christian Oersted


(1777-1851).
,

, .



. , ,
.
,
, Hans Christian Oersted (),
,
:
.

. Oersted
. ,
Ampre, ,
.
,
1905, .


.
.
,
( ).
,
.

, ,
.
.

4-2

BIOT SAVART

Oersted
, Biot Savart ( ),
,
.
,
, l,
r l B
. 4.1 B
l
,


.
.

B =

I l

4 r 2

(4.1)

l
r. H 0 .
B l r
.

148

A
l ,
,
, , .
l ,
.
, SI, Tesla (T).
= 4 10 7 Tm / A .
Biot Savart,
.
,

()
.

B = B1 + B 2 + B 3 + ...
Biot Savart
Coulomb
.

4-3


SAVART

To

. 4.2 Jean Baptiste Biot (17741862). .


cole Polythechnique
Colge de
France.
.
Savart
.

,




.

4.2, L
.
, ,
.
l r .

B =

I l

4 r 2

B o . . 4.2

,
, l . .

. :

B=


( 1 2 )
4

(4.2)

(
) 1 2 0 ,
(4.2) :

B=

2
4

149

(4.3)

. 4.3
1 2 (4.2).


, ,
.
.
4.4
.

. ,

.
.
. 4.4




.

. 4.3

.

.
4.5 r
.
,
. l1, Biot Savart,

B1 =

I l1
I l
90 o = 2 1
2
4 r
4 r

B1
. 4.5



.

. , l 2

B2 =
B1

I l 2
4 r 2



, ,

B = B1 + B2 + B3 + ... =

150

I (l1 + l 2 + ..)
4
r2

(4.4)

l1 + l 2 + ..
2r (4.4)

B=

2I
4 r

, O,
.

. 4.4

.

4-4

AMPERE ()

Ampre
.

. 4.5 Andre Marie Ampre
4.6,

B=

2
4

l
B l
. l .
,
.

B l = B l

(1775-1836). .
cole Polythechnique.


.

B l = B l

2 I
2 = I
4 a


.

. 4.6 . l
- (=0)
- (
) I .

151


B l I , I ,

. (N Ampre).

B l = I

.
,
. 4.7 To l - , .


I.


( )
.

. 4.8 To l


.

1-2-3+4.

Ampre
.
Gauss
,
Ampre
.
4-1
,
. (T
Biot Savart).
:

. ,
, .

.
( 4.9).
Ampre ,
.
l.

152

B l
. l

.
B l = B l


Ampere :

B l = B l = B 2
B l = I = I

B 2 = I

B=

B=

2 I
4

(4.3).

. 4.9

Ampere

4-2
, ,
.
:
4.10
. ()

.
, .
,
.
Ampre
l , 4.10 .
. 4.10
Ampre .

B l Bl .
, ,
. = 90 o = 0 . ,
(=0).

B l = Bl

Ampere
. I
, NI .

B l = I

= NI

Bl = NI

B = I

N
l

(4.5)

/l n , n ,
(4.5) :
B = 0 In
(4.6)
(4.6) ,
.
, .

153

4-5


.

.

m = BA

. 1Wb ().
. 4.11


.


,

,
.
.

.

4-6

. 4.12


.

GAUSS

3-3
.
, ,
( ),
, .

,
.

.

.
( Gauss )

m = 0

(4.7)


,
. Coulomb,

.
, . mpre

( ), .
.
.
(4.7)
.

154

4-7


. ,
.

. 4.6

.



4.6
.


, ,
.
.

. , ,
.

. 4.13 ()
.
()

.

.

155


,
.
.
.
:

[ Lorentz ()]

F = B q

(4.8)


.


.

. 4.14
, .

:
, .

.
().
(.4.7).
. 4.7
.

,
.
.
-

.
,
,
.

156

4-8


.

.


, (4.8) 0 180.
, (4.8)
.
.



1 (.4.15).

F = B q
(4.9)
(4.8), 90 o = 1

.
4.15


,

,
,
.

,
, 4.15
.

.

,
, .
F ,

F =m

(4.10)

R
. (4.9) (4.10)

B q = m

R=

m
Bq

2
R
(4.11)

4.8
.

. .

.
,
.

, .

157

2
R . , (4.11)
T
2m
(4.12)
T=
Bq

,

( ). ,

,
(.4.16).
)
. 4.16


.
.
.



0<<90 .
( ) ( ) .

( ).

( ).
m
(. 4.17), R =
Bq
2m
.
T =
Bq

x = T =

||

. 4.17


.

2m
.
|| B q


.
)



.
4.18
(
), ,
.
.

.
, ,

158

.
.

. 4.18 .


.

(
106 ).


.
, ,
. ,


.
.
,
,
.
.
1958,
Explorer 1
.
Van Allen ( )
3.000 km, ,
15.000 km, .

,
. ,


.
Cerenkov ().
,
4.9,
. , ,
.

159

. 4.9

4-9


m q

, .
(. 4.19).

, . q ,
q E ,
. 4.19
,

,

.

B q .

, .
( B q = E q ),

E
B

(4.13)

.
,
=
.4.20

=/
.

(. 4.20).


.
HOMSON () e/m
Faraday
,
(1897), J. J. Thomson
, . Thomson
Cavendish Cambridge,
4.21.

. 4.21

160

, ,
,
V
. -

1
m 2 = Ve
2

2eV
m

(4.14)

e .
,
, ,
, .

.
= E

(4.14)

e
E2
E
2eV
=

=
B
m
m 2VB 2
E , V B
e .
m
Thomson ,

. ,
, . ,
Thomson .

= 1,75881962 1011 C / kg

Thomson
m e, .
Millikan
. e Thomson
.
me = 9,1093897 10 31 kg .
Thomson .


.
, 1919
Francis Aston (), homson. 4.22
,
Bainbridge ()

161

. 4.10 J.J.Thomson (18561940). . .




.
(1906).

. 4.22 O
Bainbridge

.
B,

.

S1 S2
.
,

E
B

(4.15)

,
B, .
, R,
.
.

R=
(4.15) (4.16)

m
Bq

m RBB
=
q
E

(4.16)

(4.17)

R
E , B B .

(. 4.22).

,
20g/mol 22g/mol .
.
( )
,
( ), .
.
35 ( 75% ) 37
( 25%), 12 14 ...
, (4.17),
. ,
, .

162

4-10 LAPLACE ()
,
.

.
.
.
,

. , ,
.
.

,
4.11
. .
,
.

. 4.11


.

.

,
Laplace.

F = BIl

(4.18)


, l .


:
. 4.23 Laplace

(, , ) .
,
(.4.12).




.

.

(4.18)
( = 0 = 180 )
, ( = 90 )
F = BIl .
,
, l, . 4.12

. Laplace.
.

163

F = BIl
Bq

. n
,
),
H

nA l .

A l ( A :

F = nAl Bq



. 4.24

.


. H
.

nAq

(4.19)

. ,

= x t

nAq = nAq

x
.
t

Ax x ,
qnAx
Q x
x Q
nAq = nAq
=
=I
(4.20)
t
t
(4.19)
F = BIl

nAx


(4.18)
. = 90 o = 1

B=

F
Il

1 () 1T = 1

N
Am

4.3
4.25
.
.

.
,
.
.
10cm 2
0,1. ;
. 4.25

F = BIl
0,1 N
F
B=
=
= 0,5T
Il 2 A 0,1m

164

4-11


.

. ,
, .
4.26 ,
I1 2
. 1, ,
2, 1. 1
, 4.27
.4.26

2 I 1
4 a

B1 =

(4.21)

Laplace,
, l,
1,

F2 = B1 I 2l

, (4.21),

F2 =

I1 I 2
l
2 a

(4.22)

F2 I1 I 2
=
l
2 a

, F2
.
F1 l .
F2.
.
.

,
.
(4.22)

ampere, :
1
1m ,
2 10 7 .

165

1,


1. 1

Laplace F.

4.4
,
, 1=8, 2 3=2, 4.27.
d=10cm,
.
:
x .
, l,

F1 =

I 1 I 2
l
2 x

F3 =

I 2 I 3
l
2 (d x)

F1 = F3

x = 8cm

I 1 I 2
I I
l= 2 3 l .
2 x
2 (d x)
I
I1
= 3
4d = 5 x
x dx
. 4.27

Biot Savart. l
r B,

B =

0 I l

4 r 2

l r. To B
l r .
Ampre. B l
,
.
B l = I

Gauss .
.
m = 0
.
q ,
.
F = B q ,

166

.
.
Lorentz.
F , ,
, .

. R =

m
2m
T =
Bq
Bq

.
l,
,

F = BIl

Laplace,
.
Laplace
F = BIl . . 1T = 1 N / Am .
,
.

F I1 I 2
=
l 2 a


.

1m ,
2 10 7 /m, , , 1.

1.


, .
.

.
4,5V.
.
.
;
.

;

167

. 4.13

2.

Laplace.


4,5V.
, .
.
.
;
.

. 4. 28

3.


( ).
.
(.. )
. .
.
4.

. 4. 29


(. 4.29). . d
.
l=20cm.

.
. d

.
4.5V
(. 4.30).
.
[ ]

. 4.30

168


Biot Savart
4.1

:
Biot Savart
.. . .
.
,

.

4.2

B l
, r
l
)
r.
)
.
)
r.
)
r2.
.

4.3

Biot Savart, :
)

)
.
)
.
)
.
.

4.4

Ampre
4.5

:
Ampre
B l
Ampre

4.6

;
)
Ampre
.
)
Ampre

.
)
Ampre
.
)
Ampre
.

169

4.7


Ampre ,
)
,
)
.
)
.
)

.
)

.
)
,
)

.
)

.
)

.
)

.
.

4.8

4.31
.
.

4.9

. 4.31

4.10

1.

2.

3.

N
l
2 I
.
4 r
2I
.
4 r
I
.
4 2r



)
.
)
.
)
.
)

.
;

170

4.11


:
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

4.12

.
.

;

4.13

, Gauss ,
;

.
4.14


)
;
)
;
.

4.15



)

.
)
.
)

=

F
Bq


.
.

4.16


, :
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
q / m .
.

4.17


.
;

4.18

.4.32
.
;

4.19


. ,

171

. 4. 32

, )
, )
.
4.20

(

) ' .
;

4.21

4.22

4.33

. Lorentz
;

. 4. 33

4.23

. 4.34

,
1 2 1
;
.

) R1>R2 ) R1 < R2.
.

) f1 < f2 .
) f1>f2

,
> 2.
) R1 = R2
)

f1 = f2

4.24

4.34

.
)

;
)
;

4.25


.
;
)
.
)
.
)

.
)
.

172

4.26

4.27



, . 4.35,
t1.
.
;
.
1
;
.

2 .
i. t2
) t1 = t2; ) t1 > t2; ) t1<t2;
ii. R2
) R1 = R2; ) R1 > R2; ) R1 < R2;
.
4.36
.
1 2 (
) .
,
.
)
;
)
;
)
;
)

;

. 4.36

4.28



; .

4.29

.

.. .
..

4.30

173

. 4.35

4.31

,

; .

Laplace
4.32

4.33


.

;

4.34

:
, ,
.

4.35

:

.. , ..
.. l
.
l

Biot Savart
4.36

. 4.37

O 4.37
=10. B
l, l=0,2cm ( l
) . = 4 10 7 Tm / A .
[ : 0,22 10 5 T, 0,048 10 5 T ]

4.37

. 4.38

4.38
, R.

, , .
[ :

4.38

. 4.39

0 I
4R

4.39
,
,
.
.

[ :

174

0 I ( )
]
4

Ampre - - Gauss
4.39

=10
4.40

,
.
B dl S1, S2, S3
, .
: 0 = 4 10 7 Tm / A .
[ : 0, 4 10 6 Tm , 0 ]
. 4.40

4.40

=400 l=10cm.
=2cm.
=10.
. = 4 10 7 Tm / A .
[ : 16 2 10 7 Wb ]

4.41

=104 m/s,
=2 10-2.
.
e=1,6 10-19C
me=9,1 10-31kg.
[ : 2,84 10 6 m , 17,86 10 10 s ]

4.42

R=20cm,
=2.
2 1,6 10-19C
.
[: 1,28 10-19kg m/s ]

4.43

,
=107m/s
,
. mp=1,6 10-27kg e=1,6 10-19C
R=6400km.
[: 15,6 10-9 ]

4.44

( 24 He )
,
.
Rp=10cm
.

.
[ : R = 10 cm ]

175

4.45

=2 102 m/s

.

. =0,02
.
[ : 4 V/m ]

4.46



.

. D (. 4.41).

. :
me e.
[: B =

. 4.41

2me K
]
e2 D2

4.47

=20eV
(1eV=1,6 10-19J)
=5 10-4.
=60 ,
.
me=9,1 10-31kg e=1,6 10-19C.
[: 9,4 cm ]

4.48

V=2000V
.

. =2 10-2,
e=1,6 10-19C mp=1,6 10-27kg.
[ : 0,316 m ]

Laplace

. 4.42

4.49

l=40cm =8,

=1,2.
,
)
,
)
30,
.
[ : ) 3,84 , ) 1,92 ]

4.50

(. 4.42) 40g l=0,5m,



.
,
10.
,
.

176


;
)

=2m/s2.
g=10m/s2.
[: ) 8 10-2 ) 6,4 10-2 ]
4.51

4.43 m=10gr,
l=1m .
=0,2.


(
). g=10m/s2.
[ : 0,5 ]

. 4.43


4.52

,
1=10 2=30.
d=8cm.
3=10 ,
.
1
2, ,
, .
= 4 10 7 Tm / A .
[ : 10-3 /m ]

4.53


=10
=0,5 10-4 ,
(. 4.44). 1
2 .
r
2 . = 4 10 7 Tm / A .
[ : 4cm ]

4.54

. 4.44

, ,
=50
=30cm. 4.45
.

.
.
= 4 10 7 Tm / A .
[ : 166,7 10 5 N / m ]
. 4.45

177


4.55

R=4cm
=10.
,
.
)
r1=2cm
r2=10cm
)


.
= 4 10 7 Tm / A .
[ : ) 2,5 10 5 T , 2 10 5 T ]

4.56

. 4.46


b.
(. 4.46).
. (
).
1 2 .
r
) ( < r < b ) )
( r > b ). I1=I2.
.
[ : ) B =

4.57

. 4.47

4.58.

. 4.48

0 I1 I 2
0 I1
, ) B =
]
2r
2r

(. 4.47) r=3cm
=10.

,
d=4cm . = 4 10 7 Tm / A .
: .
,
.
.
[ : 0,452 10 4 T ]
4.48 .

V,
, . ,
,
. ,
V, x,
,
. V=95V, B=0,08T q=1,6 10-19C
x 0,5m .
[: 3,368 10-25 kg ]

178

4.59

=1
=107m/s. To
=60 .

x=1m
. : me=9,1 10-31kg e=1,6 10-19C.
[: 5600 ]

4.60

,
, .

. .

4.61

To .
m1=37 1,673 10-27 kg m2=35 1,673 10-27kg.
V=7 kV.
=0,5
.
.
e=1,6 10-19C.
[: 8 10-3 m ]

4.62

m=60gr l=20cm,
,
=30
.
, =1 (. 4.49)

. g=10m/s2.
[ :

4.63

3A ]


1 (. 4.50).
, 2,

.
. , 1, 2, , , .
[ :

4.64

. 4.49

F=

0 I 1 I 2
]
2 ( + )

. 4.50



.
1=4 10-2 =2000V/m.


.
,
2=0,1 .

179


d=2cm.
)

)

.
)
.
)
;
: e=1,6 10-19C
mn=1,6 10-27kg.
[ : 2 ]

TO HALL ()
To 1879 o Edwin Hall
, ,
.
, all
,
.
all

.
.

x. y
.
, (. 4.51)
x d ( ).
F ,

.
.



q, . H
q
F.

. 4.51

180



.
all (V).
, (
) (. 4.51)

. all
, .
all .
all
F = Bq d
Eq

Bq d = Eq

B d = E
(4.23)
V
d, E = H (4.23)
d
V
(4.24)
B d = H VH = Bd d
d
(4.24) Hall d,
.

n ,
(4.20)

I = nqA d

d =

I
,
nqA

(4.25)

. (4.24)
(4.25)

VH =

IBd
nqA


.
,
,
.
To Hall
, .
.
.

Hall .
Hall
(4.25)
.

.

181

183

5-1


. 1831 Michael Faraday
()
.
.
,
, .
, Faraday,
Joseph Henry (). ,
, .
.

, Faraday : ,
.
. 5.1 Michael Faraday (17911867). . O
. .

. Michael
,
. ,
Davy

.
.
.


, .

Faraday

.

. 5.2 .
.

5-2


.
.
.
.
,
. ,
.
, .

184


, .

. 5.1

.

.

, .
,
,
.
.
.

. (
),
.
.
.

.

. 5.3


.

. 5.2
,

.



, .

.

, . ,
, - . .

.

. , ,
(. 5.3).
,

, .
,
Faraday :

185

. 5.3


,

. + -
.

E =

B
t

E = N

(5.1)

1.

(5.1)
t.
, , t t
.

E = N

d B
dt

2.


t.

3.

,
.
.
(5.1)
,
.
,
R,
R .

. 5.4

186

5.1

.
1=0,1 2=0,5 t=0,2s.
=100. =4 10-2 m2. R=20.
:
)
.
)
.
)

.
:
)

,
.
:

t
= ( BA) = A B = A( B2 B1 )
E = N

(5.1)

(5.1.) E = 8V
)

E
R
I = 0,4 A

I=

)

(5.2)

Q = I t

(5.3),

t .
(5.3)
(5.2) (5.3)

Q =

E
t .
R

(5.1)

Q = N

(5.4)


Q = 0,08C

.

187

5-3

Faraday
.
.
L
(. 5.5).
, ,
.

Lorentz F = Bq .

.
, .
. 5.5 -
.
.
F = qE . Lorentz
, ,
. ,
,
(5.5)
Eq = Bq E = B

.
V
(5.5) E =

V

L

V = BL .
V ,

( ).

. 5.6

xx.


.
,

.


.
xx (. 5.6). , ,
,
. .
,
.
.
, , ,
, BL .
,
, ,
,

E = BL

188

Faraday.

xx.


. Faraday,

E E =

(BA) B BLx
=
=
=
= BL
t
t
t
t


(. 5.5),


Faraday,
t

,

.
(. 5.8).

. 5.8 ,

.

189

. 5.7
,
,

.

5.2
l=0,4m =5m/s, ,
x x, .
R=5. .
=0,5
. .
:
,

E = B l = 1V


.
, , .

.

. 5.9

, (. 5.9)

I=

E
= 0,2 A
R

.
, Laplace.

FL = BIl = 0,04 N

.
F
FL.

F = FL = 0,04 N

,
5.10,

E = E1 + E 2

I=

E E1 + E2
=
R
R


5.10

E = E1 E 2

190

I=

E E1 E2
=
R
R

. 5.10

5.3

l=1m (. 5.11).
=1.

, .
=12V.
, .
.
:

. 5.11

(. 5.12) , .
().
I =

E
, 5.12.
R

, Laplace

FL = BIl
F
a= L
m

(. 5.12).
t (. 5.12), . ,
E E = Bl

.


I=

E E E E Bl
=
R
R


FL .

E Bl = 0

. 5.12

191

E
= 12m / s
Bl

5-4

LENZ

Lenz ()
.

.
Lenz,
, ,
(5.1) :

E = N

Lenz
.
Lenz
.

. 5.13 O
.
Lenz,




.

. 5.14
x
x.
Lenz
,
,

Laplace,
.

5.13
. ,

. ,
.
Lenz,
, .

.

, .
,
.

.
, ,
,
.
,
B, ,
x Zx (. 5.14).
, ,
. Laplace.
Lenz
,
. Laplace
.

192

,
F, Laplace. M
.
,
.


R. ,

.



.

B,
x Zx (. 5.15).
.

E = BL .
R

I=

E BL
.
=
R
R

t , , Joule,

B 2 2 L2
Q = I Rt =
t .
R
2


F , Laplace .

F = FL = BIL = B

E
B 2L2
.
L=
R
R

t x = t
F

WF = Fx =

B 2L2
B 2 2 L2
t =
t .
R
R

5-5

193

. 5.15

. 5.16
,
,
.

.

, L,
.
.

Lorentz
. .



( = r , r ).
5-3
Faraday,

.
:

B
t
B = BA
BA
E =
t
E =

(5.6)

L.

A

t

A L2
=
t

(5.7)

L2
.

(5.8)

(5.7) (5.6),

E =
. 5.17


.

.

.

1
BL2
2


r,
.

.

,
E =

1
Br 2
2


() 5.17.

194


.

. Faraday.

5-6

. 5.18

.

t = 0
t
= t
B = BA t .

. Faraday :

E =

d B
= BA t 1
dt

B = NBA t

E = NBA t .
,

= V t ,
V = NBA ,
(. 5.19)
(ac) ,
.

195

. 5.19

V ,
Volts .
t ,
rad .


.

rad
.
s

, ,
=

2
.

s .

= 2f f

f =

1
. Hertz (Hz ) , , s 1 .
T


. ,
, , V = 220 2 V
f = 50 Hz .

5-7

= V t .

V t
R
R
i = I t
i=

. 5.20
R
.
().

()

I=

V
R

196

, ,
. 5.21
.
i
.

.
5.21


.

t
.

.
( ).

,
.
.
, , Joule.
5-4
R=20, .
V = 220 2 V 50z.
.
:
I =

V
= 11 2 A
R

= 2f = 100

i = I t = 11 2 100t

5-8


,
. ,
, ,
.

197

R (. 5.22)
i. . Q
t. (.
5.22). t Q.
Q=Q,
.
I
. 5.22 Q

Q

, =
= V =V


,
, .
I

I =

I
2

V ,
, ( R ),


.
V V

V =

V
2

220 V,
220 V, 16 , .

.

5-9

JOULE () -



.
Joule

Q = I 2 Rt
(
)

p = i
p = i2R

198

,
.
.
.
, .
. :
P

P=

W
T

P = V I

P = I 2 R

5-5
R=8 V=16V. N
t=10min.
:

I =

V
= 2A
R

Joule

Q = I 2 Rt = 19 200 J

5-10

(5-6)

. ,
.
(. 5.23)
. , ,
.

199

. 5.23
().


.
.

.
(. 5.24)

. 5.4

. 5.5 ().

. 5.24


.

(). .


(. 5.25).
, ,
, ..

. 5.6
. 5.7



.

200

. 5.25

5.26
( ) . , ,
,
.
.

(. 5.26).
. 5.8


.

. 5.26 .

5-11

. ,
- - .

,
.
.

.




. 5.27

. 5.27
.

.

201


().
(5.28)
,
. .
. 5.28



.



, 1,

2.


.

.
,

. , ,
.

.
. R C .
, (V),
. -
.
.
.

. 5.29 ,
.

5-12

.
.


. 5.30

.

Laplace
.


. V,
.
Laplace, 5.30.
.

.

202


.
, .
(. 5.31).
. ,
.
, .
, ,
.
V, .

. 5.31

( ).

, ,
( )
( ).
.
,
,
, .
. .

, ,
, .
.. .
.
50%, , 90%
. . ,
, , . 5.9

().
.

5-13

203

Faraday

.

.
.

. 5.32
.
,




.

,
,
.

E = N

. 5.10 .

.


- .

E = M

.

i
t

1 (Henry), 1 = 1

(5.9)

V s
.
A

(5.9),


,
.

.

,
.



, 5.33.

204

, , 1 2 ,
1 2. 1 i1 .

1 - 2- :

B = 0 n1i1
0 n1

.
. 5.33 .

2 :

B 2 = BA = 0 n1 Ai1

2

E 2 = N 2

N2

d B
di
= N 2 0 n1 1
dt
dt

N 2 0 n1 A

M 21

.

( B )

M 21 = N 2 0 n1 A

i2 2 1
di
E 1 = M 12 2
dt
M 21 M 12
. , M 21 M 12
M .

5-14
5.34 ,
, , .
.

, ,
.

,
.
.

, -
.

( )

205

. 5.34


.

.
,
.
.

,
.

().
,
Lenz,
. ,
.

.
5.35


.


.

.
.
. .
.
5.36 , ,
. ,
, ,
.

. 5.36

.

5.37
. ,
. .
,
.

206

. 5.37






.



. E = N

E = L

i
t

t
(5.10)

L
. (-) Lenz.
(5.10), ,



.
(5.10)
.
t .

E = L

di
dt

(5.10)
,
, 1A / s .
Henry (H).


.



, , , .

207

,
.
I

U=

1 2
LI
2

B = 0n i

n=

N
l

.
:

B = BA = 0 nAi
.

E = N

d B
di
N 2 di
= N 0 n = 0

dt
dt
l
dt

N2
0
A
l

.

:

L = 0

208

N2
A
l

5-6

..
)
)

.

.

,
i=2A.

. 5.38

,
;
: L=0,1H,
=20V, r =0 R=4. (
).
:
)


.
. Ohm

I=
)

E
= 5A
R

, ,

. Ohm
i=2A,

i=

E AYT
R

E AYT = iR = 8V

E = L

di

dt

E
di
= AYT = 80 A / s
dt
L

.
)

(Q)
(U) .
B
(U) .
(Q).

Q =U =

209

1 2
LI = 1,25 J
2


,
.

E = N

L ( L)
, ,

E E = BL

L ,
, ,

E =

1
BL2
2

.
Lenz .
, ,

.
= V t , V = NBA

.

I =

I
2

V =

V
2

.
.
.

E1 = M

di2
dt

E 2 = M

di1
dt

.

.

E = L

di
dt

L .

210

1.



- .
- ( )
.
- .
- .
- .

.

.

, ,
.
. .
:
1)
Faraday.
2)
.
.
.

2.

.
: , 2m
(
), 4,5V,
.
,
2 2 (cm2), .
(. 5.39).
.

V, .
.
(. 5.39).

. 5.39

211

. 5.40

5.1

)
,
)
.

5.2

:
,
,
.

5.3


.

.

5.4


,
) ; ) ;
)
;

5.5

E E = f (t ) 5.40
.

;

5.6

,
,
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
.

5.7

5.41
. (
)
.
,
;

212

. 5.41

5.8


.
,
)
.
)

.
)
.
;

.
5.9

5.10

h,
. ,
,
.
; (
).

. 5.42

5.11


.
(. 5.43).
5.44

, ;

. 5.44

5.12

213

. 5.43

)
)
)
)

5.13

. 5.45


.

.

.
,

.

5.45 , ,
x x
. R.
.

.
)
.
)
.
)

().
)
.
.

Lenz
5.14

:
Lenz
, . ..
Lenz,

.

5.15

.

, . 5.46.
;

5.16

.
(. 5.47).

.

5.17

2
1 (.5.48).

. 5.46

. 5.47

214

. 5.48

5.18

5.49
.
.
,
.
;


5.19

5.20



;
)
;
)
;
)
;
.

5.21

;
)
.
)


(
).
)

.
)

,
.
)

.

5.22


220 V 50 Hz.
.
;

5.23

215

. 5.49

,

) . ) . ) .
) .
.
5.24



)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.

5.25

:
.
. ,
..

5.26


.

.


5.27


2.

)

.
)

.
)
.
)
.
;

5.28


)

.
)
.
)

)

().
.

5.29


2J. A
,
)
1J;
)
2J;
)
4J;
)
8J;
l=4m

. :

5.30

216

)
)
)
5.31

5.32

,
;
,
;

;

5.50
, .

)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
.
5.51,
.
. ,
,
5.51.
)

t1 t2;
)

t1 t2;

. 5.51

5.33

) rad/s
1.
) Wb
2.
3.
) H
4.
) V
5. L
) J

217

. 5.50


5.34

A = 10 1 m 2

B = 0,2 T .
, t = 10 2 s
)
,
)
,
)

)
90
.
[ : 2 V , 2 V , 4 V , 2 V ]

5.35

r = 10 / cm R=2.

/t=0,2T/s.

.
[ :10-3 , 2 10 6 W ]

5.36


R=10 ,
5.52. ,
, :
)

.
)
.

5.37

r = 2 cm =100
R = 25 .

,
.
. (

.)
R = 45 .

183,4 C .
.
[ : 10,22 10 2 T ]

5.38

200 /cm
=4. 100
d=2cm.
.
t = 0,02s.
.

. 5.52

218

0 = 4 10 7 T m / A , 2 = 10 .
[: 0,16V ]


5.39

, l=1m R1=5, ,
=10m/s,
x x, .
,
R=5.
.
=2 .
:
)
.
)
.
)
R t=5min.
[ : ) 2 , ) 10 V, ) 6 10 3 J ]

5.40

,
= 20 cm ,
B = 2 T
.
.
= 1,2 m s .
R = 0,8 .
[ : 0,24 N ]

5.41

5.54 .
.

. , ,
= 12 m / s
. = 20 cm

. 5.53

B = 2 T V = 20 cm .
[ : 1,6 V ]
5.42

h = 10 m ,
l = 1 m .
R = 1 .

m = 0,04 kg
.
B = 0,2 T ,
.
,
. :
)
H o ( ) .
)

219

. 5.54


.

.
g = 10 m / s 2
[ : 10 m / s, 2 J ]

5.43

. 5.55

l=40cm
=30 .
10g
.
R=1,6.
.
=1. :
)

.
)
Laplace .
g=10m/s2
[ : 0,667 m / s , 0,058 ]


5.44

l = 1 m
= 10 rad / s
.

B = 1 T .
AO = 0,4 m .
.
[ : 1 V ]

5.45

10 cm
1500 /min.
.

0,628 V .
.
[ : 0,8 ]

-
5.46


A = 500 cm 2

220

N = 80

= 48 rad / s


B = 1,62 T . R = 10
R1 = 100

.
[ : 220 V , 2 2 A ]
5.47

100 ,
50cm 20cm,
=0,02, 900 /min,
.
.
[: 18,84 V ]

5.48

V = 100 V R

2 R .

.
[A : 200 V ]

5.49

V = 100 2 100t ,
R = 50 .
t = 1 min .
[ : 1,2 10 4 J ]

5.50

R
i = I 314t 100W.
)

t1=5 10-3s
)
=0,4
t2=2,5 10-3s;
[: 200W, 250 V ]

5.51

R=40
V = 80 2 100t .
.
[ : 160 W]


5.52

=0,2.
di/dt=50A/s.
;
[ : 10V]

221

5.53

1 n=1000 /m.
-3
A=10 m2. 2 =200
. ,
1 10/s. :
)
2.
)
.
: 0 = 4 10 7 Vs / A m
[ :

8 10 4 V , 0,8 10 4 H ]

5.54

l=10cm, =100 , A=10-3m2


.

150/s. 0 = 4 10 7 Vs / A m
[ : 6 10-3 V ]

5.55

=400 . =5,
m=10-3Wb.
.
[ : 0,08 ]

5.56

L=6 10-3
R=4. =12V.

;
[: 0,027 J ]

5.57

5.56
=24V .
R=10 .
L=0,02 H.
)

.
.
)
.
, i=1A.

.
)
,

.
[: ) 2,4
) 10V , -500/s
) 0,058J ]

. 5.56

5.58

r = 8 cm N
s = 0,1cm 2 .
B = 2 10 5 T

222

.
180 o , .
i .
= 1,6 10 6 cm .
[ : 10-3 C]
5.59


l=10cm
R*=0,01/cm.
.
.

=5 10-2
. .

,
)

.
)

t=2s.
)

.
[: )

5.60

2,5 10 3
A
t

) 1,25 mA ]

, , ,

R1 = 0,1 .

m = 0,1 kg , L = 1 m R2 = 0,5
, ,
, .
B = 0,2 T
.
)
, ,
F = 1 N
.
.
)
F
.

1.



.

2.

.
[: ) 0,5V, ) -5m/s2 , -3,75W , 11,25J ]

223

5.61

, d=10m
l=1m,
=30.
R1=0,1. m=1kg
,
.
=0,5 .
, R2=0,1,
F=15N, -
. t=0
. :
)

.
)

.
)
,
.
g=10m/s2.
[: ) 8m/s ) 2V ) 68J ]

5.62

x x'
l=1m
R=5. ,
m=0,5kg, ,
x
x .
=0,5 .
. t=0
F,
,
=2m/s2.
)
F=f(t)
)
F
t=0 t=6s 50,4J

.
)

t=6s.
[ : ) 14,4 J, ) 12 J/s ]

l=1m
(.5.57).
=1.
,

.

=12V
. 5.57
.

5.63

224

.
[ : 12m/s ]
5.64

5.65

5.66

x y ,
, l=1m
=24V
r=0 (.5.58). O , m=0,1kg R=20,
x y,
.
=1
.
.
() . g=10m/s2.
[ : 4m/s ]
5.59
.
R=3, l=1m, m=0,2kg

.
=1 ,
, .
=12V r=1.

, h=0,8m
.
)
(, ),
.
)
;
.
)
(, )
, .
g=10m/s2.
[A: ) 10m/s2 ) 9V ) 4m/s
]
,
l=0,5m,
L=25 10-3H. ,
m=150g R=5 10-2,
.

B = 0,1 T . F,
,

I = 2t + 3 (SI).
)

225

. 5.58

. 5.59

)
)
)
[:
5.67

l=0,25 m
R*=1/m.
=0,05m/s
=0,4 d=40cm (. 5.60)
.

.
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
.
)
Laplace .

5.68

5.61
=40V r=2,
L=0,5
R=8.
.
:
)
.
)


di/dt = 6A/s.
)

.
)

.
[ A : ) 4 , ) 3 V, ) 3,7 3,42 J ) 11,1 W ]

. 5.60

. 5.61


.

.
/ t
.

F, t=4s.
10,2 J/s ]
) 0,05V ) = 2t + 4 (SI) ) 2m/s2 )

226

5.69

=12V, r=0, R1=3, R2=6,


L=0,2H.
.
)
. 1)

2) ,
.
)
,
. 1)

. 2)


.
[ : ) 1) 2 A, 0 2) 2 , 4 , ) 1,6 J ]

227

. 5.62

MAXWELL ()
19
.
1820 Oersted
.
1831 Faraday Henry, ,

.
1865 James Clerk Maxwell
(Coulomb, Ampere, Faraday.)
, Maxwell
.

Newton .
Maxwell ,
,
,
.

. 5.11 James Clerk Maxwell
(1831-1879). 19 .



.

.
.


.
,
,
.

Gauss

.
Gauss

m = 0
,
.
Faraday

E = N

B
t

, ,
.
Ampre,
Maxwell.
O Ampere ,
. Maxwell

228

Bdl =

+ 00

d E
dt

,
B dl .
Maxwell

.

.
, Maxwell,
.


. ,
.
Maxwell . 5.12 einrich Rudolph Hertz
, . (1857-1894).
, c .
Hertz ()
Maxwell ,
, .
, Maxwell,
, ,
Einstein.
, Maxwell
.


:
: ,
: , , ,
, , , ,
.

, 12 V
150 250 .

.

.
()
.
)
.

229

.

.
.
Helmholtz
.


Maxwell .
,
" ",
Helmholtz .

. 5.63

,
0,5 mm 0,7 mm,
, 10.000 V.

.
() .
() 20.000 .
( )
.

10.000 V 30.000 V.
.



.
. 100 300
. 20
.

.

.
.
. 5.64



,
.



diesel

230

1-2 kW
2-3 kW
250 W
100 W
80 W
20-40 W
260 W
221 W
15-20 W
3W

( )

Planck

Boltzmann

Avogadro

NA
R
me

3 10 8 m / s
1,6 10 19 C
6,67 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2
6,626 10 34 J s
1,38 10 23 J / K
6,022 10 23 /mol
8,314 J / mol K

mn
mp

Coulomb

KC

9,1 10 31 kg
1,675 10 27 kg
1,673 10 27 kg
8,85 10 12 C 2 / N m 2
9 10 9 Nm 2 / C 2
4 10 7 Wb / A m

1 atm
0K
1 eV


(s.t.p.)

mc 2
Vmol

231

4,186 J / cal
1,013 10 5 Pa
273 oC
1,6 10 19 J
0,511 MeV
22,4 L / mol

(N / m )
2

: .
: .
Schwarzschild: .
Cerenkov: .
:
.
: .
:
.
: Kelvin. .
: . 273C.
: . ,
.
: .

: .
:
.
: .

: .
: q l .

:
.
( ) :
m .
( ) :
q .
:
.
():
.
: , .
: .
Laplace: .
Lorentz: .
:
.
:
m .
:
q .
: .

232


(Cp):
1mol , , 1 C.
(CV): 1
mol , 1 C.
:
1C.
: 1g
1C.
: ,
.
: .
: .
( ):
.
( ):
.
: .
: m .
: q .
.
: l,
I, l.
:
.
: .
: .
: y=f(x) .
:
.
:
.
: .

: .
Gauss: Gauss
: q .
:
,
. .

Van Allen: .

:
.
: .
: ,
.
:
1V. (1eV=1,6.10-19Joule).

233


: .
.
: .
:
.
: .
: .
: .

: , , .
,
.
: .
: .
(): -
, .
: .

: .
.
:
: .
Carnot : ,
, .

:
.
: .
.
: .
:
( , , .).
: -

( ) :
.
: .
Carnot:
12.
: .

:
: .
( ): ,
.
: .
: .

234


: .

: - .
: .
: .
Boltzmann: .
: .
:
.
:
.
:
.
:

: .

:
.

: m/q .
:
.

:
.

235


,
Schwarzschild
Cerenkov



9
11, 15
119
159
204
201
10
23
49, 50
205

117
50
23

201



- Laplace
- Lorentz



90
109, 111
109
109
110
113
163
156
165
114
90



(Cp)
- (CV)

,

46
47, 48
47, 48
63
158
199
93, 94, 115
41
197
197





GAUSS

16
114, 115
82
58
60
22
22
11
202
184
204
85
40

Van Allen

159

202
184
90
101

36
36
10
41
14

37
162
198
198


Lenz

101
192
23

Carnot

56

236

Otto

53


Carnot
Ampere ()
Tesla ()

113
118
8
8
198
37
44, 61
37
45, 62
11, 44
9, 43, 62
10, 44
49
55
165
164

mpre
- Boyle
- Biot Savart
- Charles
- Gauss
- Gauss
- Gay- Lussac
- Faraday
1
2
Joule
Poisson

151
9
148
10
154
84
10
186
42
55, 59
198
44


-
-
-
-
-

-
Thomson
Zartman

102
113
117
82
82
148
149

196
83
154
200




Boltzmann

102
159
23
16
200
204
201
204
51
207
36
36

195
21
33, 118
16
21
160
20
98

Hall

150
160
19
106
104
104
104

237

180
161
159


1.

Hugh D. Young

2.

Physics for scientists & engineers Serway

3.

Halliday Resnick .

4.

Halliday Resnick Walker Fundamentals of Physics Extended (fifth edition)

5.

F.J.Keller W.E.Gettys M.J.Skove Physics (second edition)

6.

OHANIAN Physics - E - . .

7.

dward M. Purcell . - Berkeley.


...

8.

.. .. - .

9.

Paul G. Hewitt - .

10.

David J. Griffiths - .

11.

kenneth W. Ford - .

12.

H Einstein , Infeld - .

13.

Jayant Narlikar - ..

14.

Robert March - .

15.

Emilio Segre - .

238

EIEXOMENA


..
..
.
..
..
.....


...
...
..

.
.
. .

8
9
11
14
15
19
22
24
25
26
29
31
32
33

.


.

..

..
.
.
...

..
.

...
...
.

. .

36
36
36
37
40
41
41
42
43
46
49
55
58
61
64
66
67
74
76
80


..
..
.
Gauss ..
.




..
..
.
.
..
.

82
82
83
84
90
93
95
96
101
102
104
106
109
113
117

239


..

..

.

Millikan
4


.
Biot Savart ...
Biot Savart .
mpre ..
M .
Gauss
.

..
..
Thomson e/m..
.
Laplace ..
...

..
...
.
.
. To Hall ...

118
120
121
123
124
130
137
144
148
148
149
151
154
154
155
157
160
160
161
163
165
166
167
169
174
178
181


.
.
...
Lenz
.
...
.
...

Joule. ..
..

..
..


...
...
.

. Maxwell ...

192
194
195
196
197
198
199
201
202
204
205
210
211
212
218
223
228

..
..

..

231
232
236
238

240

184
184
188

241