Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture

A Publication of ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • By Steve Diver NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart, NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Aquaponics is a bio-integrated system that links recirculating aquaculture with hydroponic vegetable, flower, and/or herb production. Recent advances by researchers and growers alike have turned aquaponics into a working model of sustainable food production. This publication provides an introduction to aquaponics with brief profiles of working units around the country. An extensive list of resources points the reader to print and Web-based educational materials for further technical assistance.

Introduction ..................... 1 Aquaponics: Key Elements and Considerations ............... 2 Aquaponic Systems ...... 3 Organic Aquaculture .................. 11 Evaluating an Aquaponic Enterprise ........................ 12 References ...................... 13 Resources ....................... 13 Appendix I: Bibliography on Aquaponics ............. 20 Appendix II: Dissertations ................. 25


quaponics, also known as the integration of hydroponics with aquaculture, is gaining increased attention as a bio-integrated food production system. Aquaponics serves as a model of sustainable food production by fol low ing certain principles: • The waste products of one biological system serve as nutrients for a second biological system. • The integration of fish and plants results in a polyculture that increases diversity and yields multiple products. • Water is re-used through biological filtration and recirculation. • Local food production provides access to healthy foods and enhances the local economy. In aquaponics, nutrient-rich effluent from fish tanks is used to fertigate hydroponic production beds. Th is is good for the fish because plant roots and rhizobacteria remove nutrients from the water. These nutrients – generated from fish manure, algae, and decomposing fish feed – are contaminants that would otherwise build up to toxic levels in the fish tanks, but instead serve as liquid fertilizer to hydroponically grown plants. In turn, the hydroponic beds function as a biofilter – stripping off ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, and phosphorus – so the freshly cleansed water can then be recirculated back
Aquaponic vegetable bed in Australia. Photo by Joel Malcolm, Backyard Aquaponics.

into the fish tanks. The nitrifying bacteria living in the gravel and in association with the plant roots play a critical role in nutrient cycling; without these microorganisms the whole system would stop functioning. Greenhouse growers and farmers are taking note of aquaponics for several reasons: • Hydroponic growers view fishmanured irrigation water as a source of organic fertilizer that enables plants to grow well. • Fish farmers view hydroponics as a biofi ltration method to facilitate intensive recirculating aquaculture. • Greenhouse growers view aquaponics as a way to introduce organic hydroponic produce into the marketplace, since the only fertility input is fish feed and all of the nutrients pass through a biological process.

ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service ( is managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) and is funded under a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture’s Rural BusinessCooperative Service. Visit the NCAT website ( sarc_current.php) for more information on our sustainable agriculture projects.

Related ATTRA Publications
Aquaculture Enterprises: Considerations and Strategies Agricultural Business Planning Templates and Resources

• Food-producing greenhouses – yielding two products from one production unit – are naturally appealing for niche marketing and green labeling. • Aquaponics can enable the production of fresh vegetables and fish protein in arid regions and on waterlimited farms, since it is a water re-use system. • Aquaponics is a working model of sustainable food production wherein plant and animal agriculture are integrated and recycling of nutrients and water filtration are linked. • In addition to commercial application, aquaponics has become a popular training aid on integrated bio-systems with vocational agriculture programs and high school biology classes. The technology associated with aquaponics is complex. It requires the ability to simultaneously manage the production and marketing of two different agricultural products. Until the 1980s, most attempts at integrated hydroponics and aquaculture had limited success. However, innovations since the 1980s have transformed aquaponics technology into a viable system of food production. Modern aquaponic systems can be highly successful, but they require intensive management and they have special considerations. This publication provides an introduction to aquaponics, it profi les successful aquaponic greenhouses, and it provides extensive resources. It does not attempt to describe production methods in comprehensive technical detail, but it does provide a summary of key elements and considerations.

all of the nutrients supplied to the crop are dissolved in water. Liquid hydroponic systems employ the nutrient film technique (NFT), f loating rafts, and noncirculating water culture. Aggregate hydroponic systems employ inert, organic, and mixed media contained in bag, trough, trench, pipe, or bench setups. Aggregate media used in these systems include perlite, vermiculite, gravel, sand, expanded clay, peat, and sawdust. Normally, hydroponic plants are fertigated (soluble fertilizers injected into irrigation water) on a periodical cycle to maintain moist roots and provide a constant supply of nutrients. These hydroponic nutrients are usually derived from synthetic commercial fertilizers, such as calcium nitrate, that are highly soluble in water. However, hydroorganics – based on soluble organic fertilizers such as fish hydrosylate – is an emerging practice. Hydroponic recipes are based on chemical formulations that deliver precise concentrations of mineral elements. The controlled delivery of nutrients, water, and environmental modifications under greenhouse conditions is a major reason why hydroponics is so successful. Nutrients in Aquaculture Effluent: Greenhouse growers normally control the delivery of precise quantities of mineral elements to hydroponic plants. However, in aquaponics, nutrients are delivered via aquacultural effluent. Fish effluent contains sufficient levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, potassium, and other secondary and micronutrients to produce hydroponic plants. Naturally, some plant species are better adapted to this system than others. The technical literature on aquaponics provides greater detail on hydroponic nutrient delivery; especially see papers cited in the Bibliography by James Rakocy, Ph.D. Plants Adapted to Aquaponics: The selection of plant species adapted to hydroponic culture in aquaponic greenhouses is related to stocking density of fish tanks and subsequent nutrient concentration of aquacultural effluent. Lettuce, herbs, and specialty greens (spinach, chives, basil, and watercress) have low to medium nutritional requirements and are well adapted to aquaponic systems.

Aquaponics: Key Elements and Considerations
A successful aquaponics enterprise requires special training, skills, and management. The following items point to key elements and considerations to help prospective growers evaluate the integration of hydroponics with aquaculture. Hydroponics: Hydroponics is the production of plants in a soilless medium whereby
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Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture

plant species. perch. etc. ilapia is a warm-water species that grows well in a recirculating tank culture. and to facilitate conversion of ammonia and other waste products to forms more available to plants prior to delivery to hydroponic vegetable beds. for in-depth descriptions and technical details. Thus. and the Bibliography. bell peppers. and bass. and related environmental fluctuations can elicit rapid changes in water quality. and dissolved solids.” removing dissolved solids and providing habitat for www. chlorine. one greenhouse may contain a multiple number of fish tanks and associated growing beds. nitrifying bacteria involved in nutrient conversions. carbon dioxide. Early aquaponics systems were based on a ratio of 1:1. Water quality testing kits from aquacultural supply companies are fundamental. including tilapia. Fish Species: Several warm-water and coldwater fish species are adapted to recirculating aquaculture systems. pH. The design manuals and technical documentation available in the Resources section can help growers decide which system is most appropriate. Some aquaponic systems are designed with intermediate filters and cartridges to collect suspended solids in fish effluent.ncat. design manuals. Furthermore. Other systems deliver fish effluent directly to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds. The literature on tilapia contains extensive technical documentation and cultural procedures. and other characteristics. fish species. Please refer to articles in the Resources section. raft). constant and vigilant water quality monitoring is essential. fish density. Component Ratio: Matching the volume of fish tank water to volume of hydroponic media is known as component ratio. Arctic char. Depending on the system design. high humidity conditions in greenhouses than field varieties. Tilapia is a warm-water species that grows well in a recirculating tank culture. well established aquaponic system. growth rate of fish. Critical water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen. the Speraneo system described below is designed for one cubic foot of water to two cubic feet of grow bed media (pea gravel). each arranged in a separate node. Biofiltration and Suspended Solids: Aquaculture effluent contains nutrients. The North Carolina State University System Water consumption in an integrated aquavegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. and on-site tours. Most of these operations are featured in magazine articles and conference proceedings. trout. In the 1980s Mark McMurtry (former graduate student) ATTRA Page 3 . tilapia is tolerant of fluctuating water conditions such as pH. oxygen. but 1:2 is now common and tank: bed ratios as high as 1:4 are employed. Some operations offer technical assistance through short courses. and cucumbers) have a higher nutritional demand and perform better in a heavily stocked. when shallow bed systems only three inches in depth are employed for the production of specialty greens such as lettuce and basil. dissolved solids.attra. Greenhouse varieties of tomatoes are better adapted to low light. the component ratio can favor greater outputs of either hydroponic produce or fish protein. most commercial aquaponic systems in North America are based on tilapia.Plants yielding fruit (tomatoes. feeding rate. feeding rate and volume. The stocking density of fish. nitrate. nitrite. The variation in range depends on type of hydroponic system (gravel vs. Tilapia produces a whitefleshed meat suitable to local and wholesale markets. The gravel functions as a “fluidized bed bioreactor. Barramundi and Murray cod fish species are raised in recirculating aquaponic systems in Australia. temperature. A “node” is a configuration that links one fish tank to a certain number of hydroponic beds. the square footage of grow space will increase four times. Further. ammonia. T Aquaponic Systems Profiles of several aquaponic greenhouses are highlighted below as models of commercially viable systems. For example. Water Quality Characteristics: Fish raised in recirculating tank culture require good water quality conditions. and waste byproducts.

and improved aeration from atmospheric exchange during each dewatering with benefits to both nitrifying bacteria and plant roots. • Reciprocating biofilters provide uniform distribution of nutrientladen water within the filtration medium during the flood cycle. • Such low-water-use symbiotic systems are applicable to the needs of arid or semi-arid regions where fish and fresh vegetables are in high demand. and leucine as effectively as inorganic nitrogen sources. Fish stocking density and feeding rates are adjusted to optimize water quality as influenced by plant growth rate. • Dissolved and suspended organic materials accumulate rapidly in aquaculture systems and must be removed for efficient fish production. • Previous integrated fish-vegetable systems removed suspended solids from the water by sedimentation in clarifiers prior to plant application. histidine. Some f i nd ing s a nd h ig h l ig ht s of McMurtry’s research: B iofilters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately flooded and drained with nutrient-laden fish tank water are called reciprocating biofilters. See the Bibliography on Aquaponics in the appendix for a of list articles that resulted from the North Carolina research. Soil Science. conservation of water resources and plant nutrients 2. Effluent from the fish tanks was trickle-irrigated onto sand-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds located at ground level. the water recirculated back into the fish tanks. 70: 187-203) found that tomatoes utilize alanine. After draining from the beds.and the late Doug Sanders (professor) at North Carolina State University developed an aqua-vegeculture system based on tilapia fish tanks sunk below the greenhouse floor. • Water consumption in an integrated aqua-vegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. • Research to determine the optimum ratio of fish tank to biofilter volume on fish growth rate and water quality found that stocking density of fish and plants can vary depending on desired goal. The nutrients in the irrigation water fed tomato and cucumber crops. Vol. In 1950 Gosh and Burris (Utilization of Nitrogenous Compounds by Plants. reduced operating costs relative to either system in isolation. and the sand beds and plant roots functioned as a biofi lter. • Aqueous nitrate concentrations in recirculating aquaculture can be adequately regulated when fish and vegetable production are linked via reciprocating biofilters. • Benefits of integrating aquaculture and vegetable production are: 1. • Biofilters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately flooded and drained with nutrient-laden fish tank water are called reciprocating biofilters. particularly during winter months in urban areas. Aqua-vegeculture research at NCSU has been discontinued because the technology had evolved to the point where it is ready Page 4 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . The component ratios of the system may be manipulated to favor fish or vegetable production according to local market trends or dietary needs. • Organic vine-ripened. The only fertility input to the system was fish feed (32 percent protein). pesticide-free produce and “fresh-daily” fish can bring premium prices. • Tomatoes may have also assimilated nitrogen in organic amino acid forms. acceptable fruit yields had previously only been achieved with substantial supplementation of plant nutrients. intensive production of fish protein 3. Removal of the solid wastes resulted in insufficient residual nutrients for good plant growth. glutamic acid.

Missouri – modified the North Carolina State method by raising tilapia in a 500-gallon tank. so they dropped the St. they expanded to a full-size commercial greenhouse. Sadly. an impressive yield. Tilapia in the Speraneo system are raised for 7 to 12 months. while others are modified. Response from growers to a practical design manual such as this was tremendous. Tom and Paula were raising and selling basil for $12 a pound to gourmet restaurants about four hours away in St. The Speraneo system was practical. Tilapia are raised in fish tanks.for grower application. Purina® fish chow at 40 percent protein was the primary fertility input. selling locally at a farmers market combined with direct sales out of their greenhouse. methods were designed by Tom and Paula to match their system. including school children. It contains six 1. researchers. The resource packet includes a 10-minute video and a list of . the Speraneos compiled a resource packet and design manual with technical specifications to establish an S & S Aqua Farm-style aquaponic system.” This way. Louis. However. The reciprocating water cycle. Each tank is linked to six one-foot-deep hydroponic beds filled with river gravel. PVC piping. Tom started adding small amounts of Planters 2® rock dust on top of the gravel as a trace element supplement. farmers. but the tanks are more conveniently located above ground and tilapia hybrids adapted to cooler water temperatures are grown.000 visitors to the small farm in Missouri. and return-flow water pumping www. For years.attra. productive. and an assortment of vegetable.200 gallon fish tanks. and ornamental bedding plants in the aquaponic greenhouse. Tom referred to each tank-plus-hydroponic bed setup as a “ 12-month time period required to raise fish to harvest. Later. Tom was a true pioneer in aquaponics. Interest in the Speraneo system resulted in more than 10. cucumbers. Tom and Paula Speraneo – owners of S & S Aqua Farm near West Plains. Paula explained this figure takes into account the cumulative yields of multiple vegetable crops raised during the 7. The Speraneo system is now in use worldwide. Following passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Tom once calculated the farm produces 45 to 70 pounds of produce for every pound of tilapia. mixed salad greens. S & S Aqua Farm now grows a diverse variety of vegetable and herbs.ncat. Missouri. herb. Some aspects of the Speraneo system were modeled after the aquaponics research at North Carolina State University.” but they use pea-grade river gravel instead of sand. The resource packet is available through: ATTRA Page 5 The Speraneo System In the early 1990s. and wildly successful. and he was unfailingly generous and helpful to others. then harvested at one to one-and-ahalf pounds in size. Paula Speraneo and her family continue to run the greenhouse and actively participate in aquaponics technology transfer. The commercial-scale solar greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farm is 50 feet by 80 feet. however. tomatoes. It became the model for dozens of commercial aquaponic greenhouses and high school biology programs. and government officials. To handle requests for assistance. oriented East-West to create a south-facing slope. Louis market. each node can operate independently of one another. S & S Aqua Farm has grown fresh basil. Mexican imports of basil resulted in a market crash to $4 per pound. Tom Speraneo died in February 2004. The Department of Horticulture and the Cooperative Extension Service at NCSU provide technical assistance to aquaponic greenhouse growers in North Carolina. The following notes describe the Speraneo system and available resources. The Speraneos employ hydroponic vegetable beds as “fluidized bed reactors. In the early 1990s. The component ratio favors vegetables over fish yields in the Speraneo system. supplemented with tank-cultured algae. with fish effluent linked to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds inside an attached solar greenhouse. Later.

NCAT. Missouri. West Plains. Page 6 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . Photos by Steve Diver.Aquaponic greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farms.

or 154 fish per cubic meter for red tilapia and cultured for 24 weeks.attra. The aquaponic method would result in $515 per cubic meter per year or $110. the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed a commercial-scale aquaponic system that has run continuously for more than five years. while yields of aquaponic okra were 18 times greater than field-grown. The Growing Edge. 8820 West Plains. MO 65775 417-256-5124 Especially see: Maturing Marvel (PDF/282K) by Vern Modeland. the UVI research team offers a week-long short course on aquaponics each year at the UVI agricultural experiment station. J ames Rakocy. Ph. sump.16 metric tons for Nile tilapia and 4. et al. Ph. and other crops have been raised successfully. a recirculating aquaculture system.D. May-June 1998. field production systems. The only other supplemental nutrient required is iron. php3?AID=50240 Bioponics – Revolution in Food Growing: Missouri Aquafarmer Discovers Huge Benefits in Trace Elements by David Yarrow Remineralize the Earth. floating fish pellet at 32 percent protein.245 (Rakocy. and associates at The University of the Virgin Islands System James Rakocy. Like McMurtry.S & S A qua F arm [Contact: Paula Speraneo] 8386 County Rd. The system components include: Four fish rearing tanks at 7.D. The production schedule is staggered so that one tank is harvested every six weeks. filter and degassing tanks. researcher Rakocy sees integrated water reuse systems as a viable solution to sustainable food production in developing countries and arid regions – such as the Caribbean Islands – where fresh water is scarce. Tilapia are stocked at a rate of 77 fish per cubic meter for Nile tilapia. Winter 1993-94. www. Th is compares to field-produced basil at $172 per cubic meter per year or $36.growingedge. which buffers the aquatic system and supplements calcium and potassium ions at the same time.808 per year for the same production area. base addition tank. After harvest. Nile and red tilapia are raised in fish rearing ATTRA Page 7 . pipes and pumps. clarifiers. researchers calculated gross income potential. Basil and okra were raised in raft hydroponics. Based on a market price in the U. and associates at the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed a commercial-scale aquaponic system that has run continuously for more than five years. which is added in a chelated form once every three weeks. In addition to aquaponics.. Projected annual fish production is 4.78 metric tons for red tilapia. the aquaponic system yields $134.S. 2004). www.5 by alternately adding calcium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide to the base addition tank. and the aquacultural effluent is linked to floating raft hydroponics. ft.400 sq. com/magazine/back_issues/view_article. To provide in-depth technical issues/view_article. The UVI short course is the premier educational training program available to farmers in the world. air diffusers. the fish tank is immediately restocked. Basil. In one notable experiment the UVI researchers compared the yields of a leafy herb (basil) and a fruiting vegetable (okra) grown in aquaponic vs. okra. www.210 per system per year. with outstanding quality and yields. December 1997. The pH is monitored daily and maintained at 7. The Growing Edge. and six 400-square foot hydroponic troughs totaling 2. UVI specializes in greenwater tank culture.0 to 7. When fish sales are included.growingedge. The fish are fed three times daily with a complete.php3?AID=90535> The Genius of Simplicity (PDF/30K) by John Wesley Smith. Rakocy has published extensive research reports and several Extension Service bulletins on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. Yields of aquaponic basil were three times greater than field-grown..800 liters each. lettuce. Virgin Islands of $22 per kg for fresh basil with stems.

Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Trials at the institute’s greenhouses showed that nitrogen. 69 slides. Philippines. details on greenhouse layout and aquaponic production. To provide technical assistance to farmers and high school biology teachers. and further informational ista6web/pdf/676. protection of spring water quality as it relates to aquaculture effluent is viewed as a vital component of this technology.usda. phosphorus. 2004 in Manila.htm The Freshwater Institute System The Freshwater Institute in Shepherdstown. West Virginia – a program of The Conservation Fund. Rakocy. In the mid-1990s. hightech recirculating tank method and (b) an outdoor. the institute has specialized in cold-water recirculating aquaculture systems raising trout and arctic char. The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System – Design Manual is a 37page manual published by the institute in 1997. Page 676690. R. The institute helps Appalachian farmers set up two types of aquaculture systems: (a) an indoor. Contact: James Rakocy. it has made some of their publications on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics available online. PDF Presentation: 49 pages (PDF/1. Fresh spring water is an abundant resource in the Appalachian region. Treatment of aquaculture effluent prior to its return to the natural stream flow led to collaborative research with USDA-ARS scientists in Kearneysville. Please note the institute no longer provides direct technical assistance to farmers on aquaponics. edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/presentation/ p676.uvi.See the Bibliography in the appendix for citations to articles and papers by AES-Aquaculture-Home. For years. estimated operating expense. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in session%202d/02-rakocy_j-2D%202nd_files/ frame. aspx?s=RE Especially see: Update on Tilapia and Vegetable Production in the UVI Aquaponic System James E.000 Kingshill.pdf Aquaponics: Integrated Technology for Fish and Vegetable Production in Recirculating Systems. Donald S. Croix U. University of the Virgin Islands Agriculture Experiment Station RR 1. Hydroponic crops include basil. St. Contact The Freshwater Institute for information on obtaining design manuals and other publications not available as Web downloads. lettuce. and wetland plants. University of the Virgin Islands USDA Ministerial Conference and Expo on Agricultural Science and Technology. James Rakocy. Included are diagrams and photos. parts list with suppliers and cost. PowerPoint Presentation. held September 12-16. on integrated hydroponic-fish culture systems. low-tech recirculating tank method.aspx?s=RE rials at the Freshwater Institute’s greenhouses showed that nitrogen. an environmental non-profit Page 8 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture .edu Aquaculture Program www. Box 10. West AES-Aquaculture-Aquaponic_Systems. organization – specializes in aquaculture research and education. Ph.S. the institute published a series of publications on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics.arizona.pdf. Instead.fas. T Aquaponics www.47 MB) http://ag. Thoman. www. Bailey.D.arizona. and other nutrients in aquaculture effluent can be effectively removed by plants grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed wetland systems. and other nutrients in aquaculture effluent can be effectively removed by plants grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed wetland systems. Virgin Islands 00850-9781 340-692-4031 (340) 692-4035 FAX jrakocy@uvi. phosphorus. Tilapia is raised as a warm-water fish species. Proceedings paper: 15 pages (PDF/254 K) http://ag. the institute implemented an aquaponic demonstration program based on a Speraneo-style gravel-cultured system. However.

www. I The Cabbage Hill Farm System Cabbage Hill Farm is a non-profit organization located about 30 miles north of New York City. The website has a section featuring for-sale articles on aquaculture and bioshelters (integrated systems). though basil and watercress are also grown in smaller quantities. 1977. Hatchville. May-June 1986. Tilapia fish and leaf lettuce are the main products of the Cabbage Hill Farm Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institute Publications Online n warm climates. The Green Center. is again making these publications available for sale. New Alchemy publications on greenhouse production and aquaponics provide historical insight to the emerging bioshelter (ecosystem greenhouses) concept and are still a valuable resource for technical information. Journal of The New www. Massachusetts. The foundation is dedicated to the preservation of rare breeds of farm Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institute Publications Online Summary of Fish Culture Techniques in Solar Aquatic Ponds (PDF/815K) by John Wolfe and Ron Zweig. Cabbage Hill Farm promotes education on aquaponics and hosts greenhouse interns. formed by a group of former New Alchemists. Cabbage Hill Farm 115 Crow Hill Road Mount Kisco. WV 25443-4228 Phone (304) 876-2815 www. Contact: The Green Center 28 Common Way. hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. As an example.thegreencenter. hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. water passes through a constructed reed bed outside the greenhouse for additional nutrient removal. www. The effluent simply needs to be delivered to hydroponic vegetable beds. fish production can be located in outdoor tanks or adjacent buildings.thegreencenter. Although the institute closed in 1991. (b) water hyacinth – an aquatic plant ATTRA Page 9 .The Freshwater Institute 1098 Turner Road Shepherdstown.Pomona implemented an outdoor integrated bio-system that links: (a) a pond containing treated sewage wastewater stocked with tilapia and carp. the Center for Regenerative Studies at California State Polytechnic University Especially see: An Integrated Fish Culture Hydroponic Vegetable Production System (PDF/6. A selection of past articles is available online.cabbagehillfarm. sustainable agriculture and local food systems. Tours are available. Cabbage Hill Farm designed and continues to operate a simple recirculating aquaponic system. In addition to hydroponics. and aquaponic greenhouse production.57 MB) by Ronald D. MA 02536 www. Aquaculture Magazine. In warm climates. NY 10549 914-241-2658 914-241-8264 FAX www. conducted research on integrated aquaculture systems during the 1970s and Selected Publications from The Freshwater Institute: • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Integrated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System – Design Manual • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installation Guide • Linking Hydroponics to a 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System • Operators Manua l for 880 – Recycle System The New Alchemy Institute The New Alchemy Institute in East Miscellaneous Systems Instead of locating the fish and vegetable components in separate containers inside a greenhouse. Zweig.ncat.freshwaterinstitute.thegreencenter.

com Page 10 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture .Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia. (with permission) www. Photos by Joel Malcolm.backyard aquaponics. Backyard Aquaponics.

attra. made popular by John Todd at Ocean Arks International. reports.S. It states that accredited organic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRD C5062436&acct=nopgeninfo. In Australia. The NOP is an organic certification and marketing program that ensures foods and food products labeled as “organic” meet universal standards and guidelines for organic production. In 2003. The stocking densities for these fish species is higher than tilapia. accessible at www. Models include the Rakocy . but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. tilapia. but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. A farm plan. the National Agricultural Library published an 80-page bibliography. comprised of 80 aquaculture professionals and related stakeholders – formed to provide further guidance and clarification to the NOSB. the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) established an Aquatic Animals Task Force in June 2000.html) an aquaponic greenhouse in Illinois. fish and plants can be placed in the same container to function as a polyculture. (for more information see The IFOAM Norms for Organic Production and Processing. Organic Aquaculture.aquaranch. set a precedent for the aquaponics industry by obtaining organic certification for its hydroponic produce through Indiana Certified Organic. AquaRanch (www. through the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. or Living Machines. AquaRanch markets its greenhouse-raised tilapia as “naturally grown. and the solar-aquatic ponds. Version 2005 and updated in 2009 at www. and abroad under a private label. a second group – The National Organic Aquaculture Working Group (NOAWG). The ATTRA publication Aquaculture Enterprises: Considerations and Strategies contains a section on organic aquaculture. For example. (c) nearby vegetable gardens irrigated with nutrient-laden pond water. barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) fish species have been adapted to recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics systems.” To address the issue of organic aquaculture. and organic production standards surrounding the issue of organic aquaculture. and farm inspection are required to obtain “certified organic” status. ATTRA Page 11 rganic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations. Meanwhile. com/index. The interim final report published by NOAWG in January 2006 provides proposed recommendations on organic aquaculture to NOSB. In addition to locating the fish and vegetable components in separate containers. To provide access to the large volume of documents. Several references are provided on these fish species and aquaponic systems in the Resources and Bibliography sections. In fact. norm_documents_library/Norms_ENG_V4_ 20090113.ams. O Organic Aquaculture Organic production of crops and livestock in the United States is regulated by the Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program. plants sit on top of floating polystyrene panels with their roots hanging down into the water that fish swim around in. the plant biomass generated by water hyacinth is used as feedstock for compost heaps. This process allows farm products to be labeled and sold as organic. gov/AMSv1. which in turn results in greater hydroponic surface under production. salmon and other fish species are raised in Europe. documentation of inputs and production methods. solar-algae ponds (see literature by Zweig and Kleinholz). ifoam.very efficient at sucking up nutrients – covering 50 percent of the water surface area. Production inputs used in organic production – such as feed and fertilizers – must be of natural origin and free of synthetic materials.pdf ). and Israel using production standards developed by international organic certification agencies www. Organic trout. However.usda. or NOP. organic aquaculture was not clearly defined in the NOP and the lack of organic aquaculture guidelines has hampered the growth of a domestic organic aquaculture industry in the United States. Quality Certification Services in Florida has certified three organic aquaculture operations in the U.

Aquaponics is one method of hydroponics. No date) in Wisconsin. has a list of training courses on their website accessible at www. Due to the highly technical nature of aquaponics and the expense associated with greenhouse production. The Bibliography in the appendix provides access to in-depth research and technical data. This includes labor to harvest vegetables. The Web Resources listed below provide quick access to reading material. Consider lowercost and simpler alternatives. depending on the system design and choice of components. prospective growers are advised to thoroughly investigate production methods and market potential. and investigate local and regional markets and related point of sales. Bill Thomas. and market prices for fresh fish and hydroponic vegetables. obtain typical yields and market prices for hydroponic vegetables and fish. Inc. see the ATTRA resource list Greenhouse and Hydroponic Vegetable Production Resources on the Internet. www. USDA. Read technical and popular literature on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics to become familiar with production methods. 6. You may quickly find that your biggest challenge is weekly marketing of fresh produce rather than successful production of vegetables. post-harvest handling methods to maintain superior quality. (University of the Virgin Islands. A quaponics is one method of hydroponics. Bag culture of greenhouse vegetables – raising plants in polyethylene grow bags fi lled Page 12 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . and hydroponics is one method of greenhouse production.000. Keep in mind that aquaponic growers are busy people with a considerable investment in time and resources to establish their businesses. the Desktop Aquaponics afnotes5.usda. No date). and related details. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. There are three prominent aquaponic short courses in North America.Organic Aquaculture: AFSIC Notes #5 by Stephanie Boehmer.htm Evaluating an Aquaponic Enterprise Due to the highly technical nature of aquaponics and the expense associated with greenhouse production. Aquaponic greenhouses yield two food products. but this will depend on your location. 2. grading and packing with brand name labels.htm. Attend a short course. and Ann Young. Retail sales directly out of your greenhouse or roadside stand might be an ideal situation. A sequence of considerations and learning opportunities geared to evaluating an aquaponic greenhouse enterprise are listed below. 5. National Agricultural Library. Mary Gold. Cornell University cohosts a recirculating aquaculture short course in association with The Freshwater Institute (Cornell University. infoCourses.000 to $30. Take lots of pictures to document the system components and how they relate to one another. Nelson and Pade. The book Aquaponic Food Production: raising fish and plants for food and profit. 1. Obtain one or two aquaponic training manuals to acquire detailed technical specifications. offered by University of the Virgin Islands. Visit an aquaponic greenhouse to gain firsthand observations. diagrams and images. No date) in North Carolina. Stephanie Hauser. and Growing Power (Growing Power. and quick delivery of perishable produce to established markets. 4. In addition. Building and equipping a commercial-sized aquaponic greenhouse can cost $10.nal. yields.aquaponics. and hydroponics is one method of greenhouse production. prospective growers are advised to thoroughly investigate production methods and market potential. with compost-based potting mixes – is a simple and productive way to get started in greenhouse vegetable production. For general information and supplies associated with greenhouse vegetable production. No date) Aquaculture International (Aquaculture International. Complementary ATTRA publications include Organic Greenhouse Vegetable Production and Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops. To evaluate greenhouse profitability.

i55mall. aquaculture. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. 2004. 9. The archives are publicly accessible. Pick one of the existing models and duplicate it insofar as possible. fi sh species. This is where practitioners. supplies. E-mail discussion lists have become the modern town square.backyardaquaponics. University of the Virgin Islands – International Aquaponics and Tilapia Aquaculture www. illustrations. S&S Aqua Farm – Design Manual www. R. and business people all share resources. The e-mail list is hosted by Paula Speraneo with S&S Aqua Farms.growingpower.” can be aptly applied to aquaponic start-up greenhouses. A few consultants with expertise in aquaponics are listed in the Agriculture Consultants section below. edu/sites/uvi/Pages/AES-AquacultureInternational_Aquaponics. James E. and resources. com/snsaqua 7. based on years of research and experience.aspx?s=RE 3. Successful aquaponic greenhouse operators have already figured out the system components and methods of production. and serve as a treasure trove of technical information and farmer-to-farmer exchange. 2004 in outreach/aquaculture/short-course/index. Cornell University – Short Course on Recirculating Aquaculture www. 676-690. Hire an agricultural consultant to acquire expert advice and consultation. and parts lists (S&S Aqua Farm. Aquaculture International – Short Course on Aquaponics www. go to: Aquaponics List – Before 2002 www. References 1.bee. scientists. Inc. and production methods. Rakocy. www. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture.ncat. avoid the “inventor’s urge” to reinvent the wheel. Thoman. send an email request to: snsaquasys@townsqr. Joel Malcolm – Backyard Aquaponics Design Manual Western Australia joel@backyardaquaponics.Aquaculture Aquaponic E-Mail List Paula Speraneo of S & S Aqua Farm in Missouri hosts the Aquaponics E-Mail list on the Internet. specialists. then adjust the carburetor. To ATTRA Page 13 . Update on tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI aquaponic system. When you are ready to explore a commercial system. Th e Aquaponics List is a prominent source of technology transfer and resource sharing on all aspects of aquaponics: hydroponics. “Get the engine running 4.cornell. 7. Philippines. Lastly. Growing Power – Short Course on Aquaponics www. practical solutions. The e-mail archives are a key source of information. the design manuals from S&S Aqua Farm in Missouri and Joel Malcolm’s Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia contain in-depth technical specifications. Held September 12-16. The old saying. and to shorten the time and risk involved getting started.cfm Resources E-mail Discussion Lists for Aquaponics .and the Introduction to Aquaponics DVD from Nelson and Pade. 5.Hydroponics . The Web Resources section lists additional training manuals and technical To view Web e-mail archives. Participate on the Aquaponics E-mail Discussion Group. no dates). 2. Donald S. 8. are good starting points. Bailey.attra. www. Joel Malcolm.

Director WAS Home Office 143 J.oregonstate. Oregon State University. The Growing Edge Magazine New Moon Publishing P. Inc. research and The Growing Edge is a bi-monthly trade magazine on high-tech gardening systems like hydroponics. Salt Creek Lane. MSN. Bellerive Tasmania. Level 2. USA phone 608-297-8708 Toll-free Fax: 866-815-9734 info@aquaponics. and industry editor@aquafeed. and supplies for the aquaponics industry. It also reports on new Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses is a bimonthly magazine dedicated to soilless culture and greenhouse http://aquafeed. Australia 701803 6245 0064 Aquanews Archives http://pdacrsp. and organic Aquaponics Journal is the quarterly journal from Nelson and Pade. IL 60186 Tel: (630) 231-3675 Toll Free (888) 888-0013 Fax: (630) 231-5254 email: and ecologically based pest management. http://pdacrsp.oregonstate. bioponics. It has become a prominent source for www. Parker Coliseum Louisiana State University Baton Rouge.ballpublishing. Back issues are a valuable resource. Box 225 Narrabeen.gpnmag. reports. Box 1027 Corvallis. www.greenhousegrower. Carol Mendoza.growingedge. aquaponics. WI LA 70803 (USA) 1-225-578-3137 FAX: 1-225-578-3493 Austasia Aquaculture Inc.Hydroponics and Aquaculture E-Mail List A number of e-mail lists on hydroponics and aquaculture are scattered among the Internet hosting sites like YahooGroups. available in print or as Inc. 3030 W.aquaponicsjournal. Back issues are a valuable resource. Suite 201 Arlington Scranton Gillette Communications. The awardwinning magazine is now online as an exact digital copy of the print edition. M. using DjVu technology.austasiaaquaculture. PO Box 761 www. Articles profile soilless culture and greenhouse enterprises from around the world. Permaculture Activist #52 (magazine). Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture ATTRA . 541-757-8477 541-757-0028 Fax Unit 2.O. bioponics. Past articles are an important source of technical information on aquaponics.hydroponics. Illinois 60005-5025 USA 847-391-1000 847-390-0408 World Aquaculture www. 31 Cambridge Greenhouse Grower Page 14 Ball Publishing 622 Town Road P.O. Aquaculture and Aquaponic Trade Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. and Topica. and Journals Aquaponics Journal Nelson and Pade. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses P. NSW 2101 Australia Phone: +61 (02) 9905 9933 Fax: +61 (02) 9905 9030 Greenhouse Product News NOAA Aquaculture Program http://aquaculture. Grower Talks Bellerive Quay. Summer 2004. OR 97339-1027 800-888-6785. Box 1660 West Chicago.html Aquaculture articles. Mark R.ecotao. PO Box 761 Montello. Hampshire. publisher of Aquaponics Journal. and aquaculture.htm Hutchinson. Rebecca L. www. S&S Aqua Farms [Contact: Paula Speraneo] ATTRA Page 15 Aquaponic Books and Videos Nelson and Pade. 2000. Box 658 Flanagan.Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) www. East Lincoln St. videos.attra. www.html Agricultural Consultants for Integrated Hydroponics and Aquaculture AquaRanch Industries. PO Box 761 Nelson and Pade. MD 21001 443-243-8840 410-734-7473 FAX y1187e/y1187e00. Inc.allenpress.htm American Fisheries Society Online Journals http://afs. Scientific Journals on Aquaculture (Elsevier journal) www. See their Web page for .com/book. [Contact: Bill Manci] 506 Wabash Street Fort Collins.htm Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer. Wa 98295 USA Phone: (407) 421-9816 www. Inc. Steven Gordon Creaser 4886-115 Garfield Street Sumas. McMurtry PMB 267 1627 W. Small Scale Aquaculture: A hobbyist’s guide to growing fish in greenhouses. FAO/ IIRR/WorldFish Center Aquaculture International (Springer journal) 59245f287cad843d6809276&pi=107 Aquaculture Research (Blackwell journal) www. CO 80522-3245 970-225-0150 Ecological-Aquaculture-Sustainable-LaurenceHutchinson/dp/1856230325 Van Fisheries Technology Associates. and educational curricula on aquaponics.sciencedirect. www. PA: Alternative Aquaculture Association. 505 Aldino Stepney Rd. DVDs. P. England: Permanent Publications. Wisconsin 53949 USA 608-297-8708 866-815-9734 FAX Pinfo@aquaponics. Nelson and John S. Aquaponic Food Production: raising fish and plants for food and profit. recirculating systems. LLC [Contact: Myles Harston] 404 D. 2005. MT 59715-4011 (406) 585-8000 Aquacultural Engineering (Elsevier journal) www.aquaponics. IL 61740 815-796-2978 (815)796-4485 FAX kat@aquaranch.asp?ref=1355-557X The Aquaponics Guidebook http://accesstoaquaponics.aquaponics. offers booklets.gordoncreaser. Global Aquatics USA.growfish. Inc. cages.sciencedirect. Contact: Nelson and Ecotao’s Aquaculture Links www. Laurence. and flowing water. Ecological Aquaculture: A Sustainable Solution.aquanic.ncat. Wisconsin 53949 USA 608-297-8708 866-815-9734 FAX kat@aquaponics. Main St. www. hydroponics.springerlink. Inc.

Aquaculture Resources http://afsic.000 records that can be searched by authorkeyword or browsed by topic. MD 20705-2351 301-504-6559 301-504-6927 Fax afsic@nal. The Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library is a topic-oriented portal to American Tilapia Association Especially see the extensive resource listing on recirculating aquaculture systems. and the complete listing of publications from the Regional Aquaculture Centers. a program of USDA-ARS. USDA-ARS 10301 Baltimore organized by subject category. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems – Index.407 Pennsylvania Ave West www.php?tax_ level=1&info_center=2 Other Aquaculture Resources Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) 454 (PDF/314K) http://srac. is an important new publication from AFSIC that addresses the potential of organic aquacultural products. Organic Aquaculture (AFSIC Notes No.htm Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library National Sea Grant Library http://nsgd.html The Alternative Aquaculture Association Miami Aqua-culture. Aquaculture Directories and Resource Collections National Agricultural Library – Alternative Farming Systems Information Center The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) at the National Agricultural Library.pdf Regional Aquaculture Center Publications – Index.texasaquaculture.. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://afsic.pdf?CFI D=504545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c 91b4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture Organic Aquaculture • Aquaculture-Related Internet Sites and Documents • Directory of Aquaculture Related Associations and Trade Organizations • Directory of State Aquaculture Coordinators and Contacts • Automated Searches on General Aquaculture Topics Page 16 ATTRA . 5) Aquaculture Associations Aquacultural Engineering Society www. it also contains a section on recirculating aquaculture. MO 65775 417-256-5124 snsaquasys@townsqr.htm Texas Aquaculture Association AquaNIC is the gateway to the world’s electronic resources for aquaculture information. The NSGL maintains a bibliographical database containing over 36. Selected items include proceedings from recirculating aquaculture conferences and related documents. Inc.nal.php?info_ center=2&tax_level=2&tax_subject=295&level3_ id=0&level4_id=0&level5_id=0&topic_ id=1410&&placement_default=0 Aquaponic Resources on the Web Selected Publications from Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture SRAC Publication No. published in January 2005.usda.usda. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic. Directory of Aquaculture Associations Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic. Room 132 Beltsville.gso.aesweb.html The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) contains a complete collection of Sea Grant funded AFSIC. provides extensive aquaculture resource

se/mailgroup/index. fish feed. Wardlow and D. greenhouses.M.uark. originally published in Journal of Agricultural Mechanization (1997).jaggartech. 282 (PDF/49K) A 10-page booklet with directions on establishing a small aquaponic system.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Integrated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System . Free Articles on Hydroponics. maintenance. including a materials list with approximate cost of materials to set up a 350-gallon aquaponic Hughey plants. It describes a low cost (less than $600) recirculating aquaculturehydroponic system suitable for use in laboratory Design manual with specifications Backyard Aquaponics http://www. 451 (PDF/142K) http://srac. Th e HTML version contains additional photos that illustrate system components and greenhouse production.html The Essence of Aquaponics website of Pekka Nygard and Stefan Goës in Sweden provides an index to key topics (aquaponics.htm www.09MB) by Travis W.rainbowfish.pdf A 10-page reprint article.aces.freshwaterinstitute.htm Enhancing Student Interests in the Agricultural Sciences through Aquaponics (PDF/725K) by G. Aquaponics Library http://aquaponicslibrary.tamu.uark. economics.backyardaquaponics.php?f=3 Aquaponics Proves Profitable in Australia.rainbowfish.20megsfree. including a parts list. 452 (PDF/115K) http://srac. Practical Hydroponics and Greenhouses http://hydroponics.attra. 453 (PDF/378K) http://srac. Department of Agricultural and Extension Education. Johnson University of Arkansas. biofilters.rainbowfish. barrel-ponics.aquaponicsjournal.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Tank Culture of Tilapia SRAC Publication www. Aquaponics Journal.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Management of Recirculating Systems SRAC Publication No. Barrel-Ponic (aka Aquaponics in a Barrel) (PDF/3.Design Manual • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installation Guide • Linking Hydroponics to an 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System • Operators Manual for 880 .edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart2. fish. plant nutrition.tamu. First Quarter. www.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Component Options SRAC Publication No.Recycle System Aquaculture on Cat Beach www. Department of Agricultural and Extension Education AgriScience Project www. literature) posted on the Aquaponics Mail Group (see e-mail resources above). West Virginia www. links.pdf Selected Aquaponic Training Materials and Design Manuals S&S Aqua Farm www.W.ncat.Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: An Overview of Critical Considerations SRAC Publication General Aquaponic Resources on the Web The Essence of Aquaponics – Index to Aquaponics Mail Group Topics Design manual with specifications A Prototype Recirculating AquacultureHydroponic System (PDF/94K) By Donald Johnson and George Wardlow University of Arkansas.tamu. The Freshwater Institute Publications Index.htm ATTRA Page 17 .

org/BuildingGrounds/aqua/TOC. Technical Services Division. 2002. from pond and cage construction to species and disease to marketing and promotion. www. Spring Aquaculture Resources on the Web Greenhouse Tilapia Production in Louisiana Louisiana State University Masser%20Aquaponics.pdf download from their National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Aquaculture Program Aquaponics.htm Aquaponics Combine Fish. http://srac.agecon. Agdex 716 (A15).php Alberta Agriculture.Teacher’s Resource Website.northernaquafarms. and Ingenuity University of Illinois Extension NRAC is a principal public forum for the advancement and dissemination of science and technology needed by Northeastern aquacultural producers and support industries.aces.htm Aquaponics Pty Ltd www.htm Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -.nsf/all/ agdex4595 USDA.Integrated Systems of Agriculture and Aquaculture Aquaculture in the Classroom. Auburn University aquaponics. Chapter 12.pdf Hydroponics Integration with Aquaculture (powerpoint) Mississippi State University Aquaculture Publications http://msucares. National Engineering Handbook . Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www. Auburn University Marine Extension & Research Center. The Southern Regional Aquaculture Center has an online library of very helpful publications on all aspects of aquaculture. Engineering Field Handbook. ALabama Education in aquatic Florida Division of Aquaculture West Virginia University Extension Service Aquaculture www. Water Engineering Bocek. University of Arizona http://ag. Springs Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture Aquaculture Budgets Aquaculture Enterprise Budget Spreadsheets. http:// www1.$Department/ publications/ National Ag Law Center – Aquaculture Auburn University: International Center for Aquaculture and Aquatic www.aquaponics. Publications are located here recirculatingaquaculture.html NorthernAquaFarms.html Aquaculture Publications Southern Regional Aquaculture Center University of Arkansas Aquaculture/Fisheries Center Publications publications/Publications+Catalog/Environment/ Aquaculture++Fisheries/Greenhouse+Tilapia+Production +in+Louisiana.php The Extension specialists at Auburn have developed four Excel spreadsheets and are available as a free Page 18 ATTRA .webofcreation.nrac.lsuagcenter. The budgets include • Channel catfish pond farm • Hybrid striped bass pond farm • Rainbow trout raceway farm • Water recirculating fish farm Aquaculture Budgets. Recreational fisheries and Natural resource conservation (ALEARN) 1984. Water Harvesting and Aquaculture for Rural Development.arizona. Universities of Illinois and Indiana Sea Grant www.nrac.php The Urban Aquaculture Manual by Jonathan Woods www.Part 650.

org Integrated Bio-Systems on the Web Integrated Biosystems.catchapieceofmaine. http://directives. Our entire system is contained in a large solar-heated greenhouse called a Bioshelter. To learn more about our greenhouse system please follow the link Bioshelters is a recirculating aquaponics facility located in Amherst.egov.PDF Regional Aquaculture Centers sponsored by the Extension Service Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www. Solar structures create the least expensive and best natural environment for plants.wba Aquaculture and Aquaponic Farms Sweet Water Organics.washington. e.portclydefreshcatch. Project Green veggie residues.aquanic. Sweet Water’s sustainable aquaculture system harvests urban waste Sweet Water Organics will be the first major commercial upgrading of MacArthur genius Will Allen’s aquaculture North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (NCRAC) www. coffee grounds. www. This soil in hundreds of potted plants on the simulated wetland tiers is key to the transformation of fish wastes into natural nitrate for plant growth and water filtration.umd.html Photographic tour of a Growing Power aquaponic Catch a Piece of Organic Aquaponics. The University of Adelaide www. Bioshelters. animals and people.adelaide.growseed. http:// NC Carteret www. aquaponic.pdf World Fish Center Aquacultural and Maricultural Business Development Aquacopia www. Eli Because the Ecological engineering has been defined as the design of ecosystems for the mutual benefit of humans and nature. i.and Wells. yielding the richest possible soil. along vermiculture lines. wood chips.aspx?content=17550. Paul Harris.nrac. a Durham-based community-supported Aquaculture Investment: Lowering the Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture www.ctsa.uncg. Massachusetts. ATTRA Page 19 . whereby customers receive a certain amount of product per week (a share) for a yearly share price.worldfishcenter.attra.ncrac.html Information for fishermen and Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) www.aquacopia. Backyard Aquafarms http://backyardaquafarms. Lobster Community Supported Fishery Sweet Water will be the anchor project in the transformation of a massive industrial building in an “ industrial slum” into a showcase of the potential of living technologies and high-value added urban agriculture. bio-intensive fish-vegetable garden. no pesticides can be used on our produce.uncg. cardboard. Carteret County.e. http://sweetwater-organic. Four innovative projects are listed below: Port Clyde Fresh Catch CSF www.g. and brewers a Western Regional Aquaculture Center (WRAC) Community Supported Fisheries Much like community supported agriculture.ncat. Western Regional Aquaculture Center http://aqua.aspx Ecological Engineering (Elsevier journal) www. community supported fisheries are cooperatives of family fishermen who market their catch directly to customers usually through a subscription mechanism. plant and human systems are linked. Duke University’s student chapter of the American Fishery Society Aquaculture Network Information Center www.

D. Mark Richard. http://aquanic. Journal of Plant Nutrition. stream and river restoration. and can provide photocopies of articles for a small fee.hydroponics. ecosystem rehabilitation. they are relatively new and less widely distributed in university libraries. p. Vol. Vol. 34. M. McMurtry. and R. non-renewable resource conservation. Collectively. 78 p. However. p.. Sanders. Deni. Wade O. p. Nelson. 1–A. June-July. McMurtry. No.V. wetland restoration and construction. Modeland. Vol..Specific topics covered in the journal include: ecotechnology. Aas. 428–432. 115. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. Thomas M. et al. Vol.G. 1988... Cure.Olericulture System as Influenced by Component Ratio. 3. The Ozarks’ S&S aqua farm. UMI. p. 3. Low-tech polycultural yields. 1990. R. 7. Ann Harbor. and Challenges. June. Doug. 23–25. Maturing marvel: S&S Aqua Farm. Reviews in Fisheries Science. high profit.growingedge. p. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture North Carolina State University McMurtry. and Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses are the most relevant trade magazines for aquaponics. The Speraneo System Durham. 407–409. Rich. (Fall). North Carolina State University.. reclamation ecology. Fish increase greenhouse profits. and Mark McMurtry. Losordo. hydroponics.. Vol.C. No. 1993. Sand culture of vegetables using recirculating aquacultural effluents. p. 1998. D. Integrated Aquaculture. recirculating aquaculture. restoration ecology. 32–33.C. 1992. and P. p. 1998.R. Vern. University libraries carry scientific journals (e. Hodson. BackHome. American Vegetable Grower. Modeland.aquaponicsjournal. 35–38.June). Applied Agricultural Research. Efficiency of water use of an integrated fish/vegetable co-culture system. MI. 1993. 1998. No. and P. Doug.C. Modeland. 33–51. The Ozarks Mountaineer. Aquafarming on a budget. 28. The High Plains Journal. Aquaculture International. August 24. Greenhouse Management and Production). these articles provide an instant library on aquaponics. M.R. For a complete list of articles and back issues available through these trade magazines. M. Aquaponics Journal. 1997. Haning. M. see the publisher’s websites: The Growing Edge www. p. habitat reconstruction.htm Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses www. 1993. June 1999. PhD. 16. Dissertation. (July-September). Effects of biofilter/culture tank volume ratios on productivity of a recirculating fish/vegetable co-culture system. Sanders. p. Sanders. Mineral nutrient concentration and uptake by tomato irrigated with recirculating aquaculture water as influenced by quantity of fish waste products supplied. Kevin Fitzsimmons. synthetic ecology. McMurtry. 4. J. 280–284. 420–428. ecosystem conservation.g. The Growing Edge. No. Journal of Production Agriculture. 4th International Conference on Ecological Engineering for Wastewater Treatment. bioengineering. Vern. including farmer profiles. 4. 6.hortikultur. p. B.. 2002. Hodson. and related topics. Page 20 ATTRA . Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. M.html Aquaponics Journal www. Vol. No. Trends. and Fred Hanley. 1992. 5. sustainable agroecology. 1997. 28–31. Tilapia Production Systems in the Americas: Technological Advances.C. and they offer on-site photocopying services to library visitors.pdf Watanabe. McMurtry. Small Farm Today. Please note The Growing Edge. Yield of tomato irrigated with recirculating aquacultural water.D. Wastewater-fed Aquaculture in Temperate Climates Nutrient recycling with Daphnia and Fish (PDF/97K). 42–44.R. et al. Sanders. Aquacultural Engineering) and trade magazines (Aquaculture. No. 4. p. Amand. Summer. No. 10(3&4): 465–498. Inter-Library Loan is a service available through most local libraries. Norway www.pdf Appendix I: Bibliography on Aquaponics The following bibliography contains selected literature citations on aquaponics and integrated hydroponicsaquaculture published in trade magazines and scientific journals. 9.S. Closed system opens markets.C. 5 ( They are provided here as an important time saver to those seeking technical and popular information on this topic.

and A.E. American Society for Agricultural Engineers.gso. The status of aquaponics. July-August. 1997. Shultz and W. J.. 1998.. Cole. Thompson. 2004. Hargreaves. James E. 30 p. Virgin Islands. Integration of vegetable hydroponics with fish culture: A review. Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture. 83-88. 258 p. MI.3 Rakocy. The Growing Rakocy. and D. No. James.A. 1. Hargreaves. E. and Michael P.A. Fish + plants = food. September. tropical areas. Thoman and R.A. 5. Proceedings Aquacultural Engineering Conference. September 20-22. J. Donald vsgcpc98001index.A. Rakocy.) Tilapia Aquaculture in the Americas.E. Yarrow. J. Philippines. Shultz. World Aquaculture Society. Vol. (Winter/ Spring 1987).K.. Martin and R. 357-372. Eric. www. 2004. Intensive tank culture of tilapia with a suspended.actahort. Vol.S.S. Baton Rouge. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. p. p. p. Bailey. p. Nutrient accumulation in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with hydroponic vegetable gardening. No.M. World Aquaculture. Missouri Conservationist.Smith. David. Rakocy. Orlando. St.S. Held July 16-19. Rakocy. D. D. treatment process. 2004. Bailey. A recirculating system for tilapia culture and vegetable hydroponics in the Caribbean. FL. James E. Masser. 42-47.htm#bm7. 1. R. 63–69. Bailey. . 1984. Rakocy. 40–44. 12-13.. 584–596. In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Bailey. Thomas M..htm Rakocy.arizona. James. Rakocy (eds. J. St. J. Integrating tilapia culture with vegetable hydroponics in recirculating systems. p. Proceedings Aquacultural Engineering Conference. http://nsgd. Bailey. Thoman. 1997. p. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Rakocy. Rakocy.) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture. Manila. p. (PDF/ 251K). September-October. p. http://ag.uri.A.. 1999. 2. J.) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture. bacterial-based. 38–43. James E.. Joseph. Aquaculture Magazine. Joseph. J. American Society for Agricultural Engineers. The status of aquaponics.E. Aquaculture Magazine. 163-184. Rakocy. 1. 6p.arizona. Bailey. 19-23. Auburn University. August. R. Wang (ed. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. J. 454. FAO Fisheries Report No. Part II. Aquaponic production of tilapia and basil: comparing a batch and staggered cropping system. Vol. Integrating fish culture and vegetable hydroponics: Problems and prospects. LA. Vol. (PDF/368K). 1993.. 148-158. (Fall). Donald S.ncat. In: Report of the Subregional Workshop to Promote Sustainable Aquaculture Development in the Small Island Developing States of the Lesser Antilles. 112-136. S. 1992. p. W.. Acta Horticulturae. Integrating hydroponic plant production with recirculating system aquaculture: Some factors to consider. Mississippi State University.E.C. Virgin Islands Perspectives. p. 648.fao. 1997. In: J.S. 70. p. www. 1993.pdf Rakocy. James E.attra. Presented at the Auburn Fisheries and Aquaculture Symposium.E. Shultz.S. Spring-Fall. Croix. p. Update on tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI aquaponic system. Rakocy. Vegetable hydroponics and fish culture: A productive interface.E. Charlie Shultz. Economic analysis of a commercial-scale aquaponic ATTRA Page 21 The Rakocy System and Related Papers Rakocy.M. 392-394. Roanoke. VA.html Rakocy. John Wesley. 1999. 1993. and Thoman. Remineralize the Earth. Evaluation of a commercial-scale aquaponic unit for the production of tilapia and lettuce. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Losordo. Rakocy. Shultz. 1998. No.C.E. p. SRAC Publication No.K. Nair. D. Alabama. In B. 64-70. Bailey. James E. In: J. The genius of simplicity. University of the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station.S. 704 www. Wang (ed.S. and J. J.M. 1993. Costa Pierce and J. J. 676–690. Southern Region Aquaculture Center. Nina. Part I. James E. Rakocy. K. Tilapia production systems for the Lesser Antilles and other resource-limited. A food production revolution: Missouri aquafarmers discover huge benefits in trace elements integrated with hydroponics. 28. 1987. p. St.E. p. MI. Cole and K. D.

3. No. 1996. No. No. Robert H.. Ecological Engineering.M. Watkins. 44.R. 10. HortIdeas. Inc. Bailey.M.. Glenn. and Pat Williams (ed. 993–999. 10–15. 1993. Brown. Adler. Robert. and S. The Freshwater Institute/USDA-ARS Adler. Takeda.M.R. 56-59.. E. Summerfelt. 439. Glenn. 15–18. 130. March.actahort. and John A. 373-384. 1. R. and S. Paul R. and S. Kara. (Winter 1992–1993). Growing greenhouse strawberries with aquaculture effluent. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Vol. F. p. p. Hargreaves. 4. Economic analysis of an aquaponic system for the integrated production of rainbow trout and plants. Jenkins. Vol. Inslee’s aquaponics. 5. S.. Effects of solids removal on tilapia production and water quality in continuously aerated. 4.T. 35–40. The Growing Edge.E. No. p. 2000.) 1992. Water quality characteristics of a closed recirculating system for tilapia culture and tomato hydroponics. James E. and F. Acta Horticulturae. Vol. Nair. Integrating aquaculture and hydroponics on the small farm. 4–8. Richards (ed). No. p. 9. Wade. 5–6. FL. P. 1998. Hydroponics & aquaculture working together: A case study. 6. 2001. 20. Vol. 40-42.A. A natural gas-powered small-scale: aquaponic demonstration project. Vol. 251–264. p. Jenkins. Summerfelt. Vol. International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture.T.L. (May-June). 65. p. 2000. 1993. P. Scientists seek better ways of utilizing effluent from fish. No. Cole. February 5-8.T. September-October. Harper. Michael Glenn and Fumiomi Takeda.. p. Acta Horticulturae. D. 57–61. (Spring). 9. Environmental Research Forum. Spencer. Harper. Takeda. P. D. Aquaponics Journal. No.system for the production of tilapia and lettuce. 10. Farmer to Farmer: Better Farming in the Ozarks. p. 5. 1999. 10. p. Vol. R. Fishpond effluent + iron=good crop nutrition. January-February. FL. The Growing Edge. W. Demonstrating aquaponics. 348. Stanley. p. 1985. p. Vol. Vols. 48–51. p. Inslee fish farm: A family run aquaponic operation produces chives and fish. www. AgVentures. (October-November). No. 3. Adler. Vol. Phytoremediation of aquaculture effluents. Adler. 5. 17–21. Takeda. Strawberry production linked to aquaculture wastewater treatment. Overview of economic evaluation of phosphorus removal by plants. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture ATTRA . and D. Watkins. Hydroponics in the Ark. Mechanistic approach to phytoremediation of water. Investing in an ecosystem. p.R. P. p. Evaluation of the effect of a conveyor Page 22 Inslee’s Fish Farm Nelson. production strategy on lettuce and basil productivity and phosphorus removal from aquaculture wastewater. Agricultural Research. 3. Shultz and D. 603-612.R. p. M. 1999. Gordon Watkins’ System Watkins. 223-254. (May-June) p. 23. Vol. 12. 1999. Gordon. F. 1985. Summerfelt. Journal of the New Alchemists. E. 8.R. p. p. 131–136. Wade. Ayyappan. No.htm Williams.K.K. No. Aqua-vegeculture: more food from our water. 35.T. 1982. Aquaponics Journal. and S. The Growing Edge. In: Randy Day and Thomas L. Aquaculture springs up in West Virginia.S. outdoor tanks. 45–46. 673–678. Steven T.W. July-August. K. Summerfelt. and D. HortScience. 5. Bioshelters. Summerfelt. Gordon. 1. Vol. 1993. Gordon. Economic evaluation of hydroponics and other treatment options for phosphorus removal in aquaculture effluent. P. Adler. P. Greg. Adler.R. Takeda. 11. 1997. Jr.. p.M. Rakocy. Feedstuffs. p. 1997. R. No. Vol. Dinda. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. No. No. J.. 22. 1993.M. Doris. Glenn. 4. 1997. 1990. New Alchemy Anon. J. Vol. Adler. Orlando. Vol. Adler. F. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Warm Water Aquaculture – Fin-fish. In Business. 4. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses. p. Orlando. Summerfelt. 2003. J. Takeda. Small Farm Today. 1–3. Vol. 15–34. Brigham Young University Hawaii Campus.. 17. F. M. May 31.. 2000. p. p. P. 4. 1998. (July-Aug).T. 264–267.

M. Year round fish and vegetable production in a passive solar greenhouse. p. Recirculating aquaculture: Is it for you? Small Farm Today. 34. 1984. Aquacultural Engineering. Vol. 23–24. Aquaculture International.sciencedirect. B. gravel bed. P. 3. Aquaculture Economics & Management. Demonstrating ecological engineering for wastewater treatment in a Nordic climate using aquaculture principles in a greenhouse mesocosm. No. 6. Langston University. An integrated fish culture hydroponic vegetable production system. p.. H. 1980. JulyAugust.attra. New Alchemy Quarterly. Vol. No. Chaves. (Spring). Water farms: Integrated hydroponics in Maine. P. 42. p. Robert. Aquaponics Journal. 1998.. p. June. 39-41. 43 p. Miscellaneous Bender. 1998. Gordon. L. Vol. 1984. In. Clanton. and A. 7–14.June). Leonard. and Brian V. Ecological Engineering. 11. Phytoremediation of aquaculture wastewater for water recycling and production of fish feed. and C. Cape Cod Aquafarm: Combining Ingenuity and Enterprise. . and C.. p.ncat. New Alchemy Quarterly. 2005. Geoff. Aquaculture Magazine. 1999. p. 151–171. 1997. 141–152. 2.sciencedirect. R. Jan. and L. Glen Gebhart. 1993. www. 83–91. Lewis. Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment. Carl. 37. Vol. Propagation of prawns and plants in the same environment.H. Aquaponics – combining aquaculture with hydroponics. 10. Bill. International Society for Soilless Culture (ISOSC) Proceedings.. p. The Netherlands. p. Gardening in fertile waters. Head. 13–4. 2–8. Costa-Pierce. Amity Foundation. 24. Lane. p. www. Wilson A. Kimon T. 341–354. Environment International. Luntern.H. Creaser. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Soilless Culture. Department of Interior. 37–45. and N. 3. 34. January-February. Wilson. S. Vol. Baum. No. Vol. 1981. and Ken Williams. The Netherlands. Kleinholz. Sutherland.. 24–26. McLarney. Gordon R. Ecological Engineering. 1984. www. Preliminary investigation of an integrated aquaculture-wetland ecosystem using tertiary-treated municipal wastewater in Los Angeles County. 4. 22. Clarkson. 1993. 36– Dontje. Wageningen. 1 (January). Brandenburg. Integration of aquaculture and agriculture. Held April 28–May 5. P. p. 1986. Conrad. No. Vol. 12. An economic and technical evaluation of integrating hydroponics in a recirculation fish production system. Langston. 539–553. Combined Proceedings International Plant Propagator’s Society.S. Ronald D. Use of hydroponics to maintain ATTRA Page 23 Barramundi and Murray Cod Systems Lennard. Letterman. M. p. The Growing Edge. 1996. William. Summer.J.A. p. 65 p. Hydroponic/Aquaculture and Aquaculture/ Irrigation Systems: Fish Waste as a Plant Fertilizer. Burgoon. No. 2005. 2nd Quarter. 31. A comparison of reciprocating flow versus constant flow in an integrated. Year round fish and vegetable production in a passive solar greenhouse. Bureau of Reclamation Research Report. Ghaly. Schramm Jr.S. and S. Vol.S. Burgoon. Fish Farming in Your Solar Greenhouse. Vol. Volume 12.A. 1985. No. p. (May. and C. Transactions of the ASAE.. (December). 2005. www. A. and Jon Splane. 39–42. 1. 1–13. Larry. Maine Organic Farmer and Gardener. p.Baum. Guterstam. Vol. p. Langford. J. 36–37. Zweig. California. p. B. Australian barramundi farm goes aquaponic. Kubiak. 4.D. J. 151–171. Kamal. Baum. p. An integrated system of aquaculture. 4. Number 6. Belusz. Use of small-scale nutrient film hydroponic technique to reduce mineral accumulation in aquarium water. OR. M. Yopp. 1985. 12–16.M. in the Northern United States. U. No. 1991. 1998.sciencedirect. Bird. Norma Jane.E. Issue No. vegetable production and solar heating in an urban environment. and Ellen F. ISOSC. Mahmoud. W. OK. New Alchemy Quarterly. 185–188. Judith. 1978. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management. No. p. 1987. Cell fish and plant pipes and young moms. 1983. aquaponic test system. Aquatic plants for treatment of aquaculture wastewater. Spring. No. 73–97. Aquaculture Magazine. 1073–1085. p. p. Letterman.M. R. 3. Eugene. 1 (March). 9. The Growing Edge. 1999.

No. K. 177 p. 11. An artificial productive ecosystem based on a fish/bacteria/plant association. 1989. R. No. Quillere. A literature review. Jennifer J. Aquaculture. Ecosystems and Environment. Environmental Science and Engineering. Hydroponic Tomato Production Using Fish Pond Water. 1990. http://afsjournals. Vol. 18–20. Tropical production of tilapia (Sarotherodon aurea) and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a small-scale recirculating water system. p. R..) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture.H. Barnaby J. 41. 121–130. Spencer. 1990. Sneed. p. 8. 1977. (Spring). Nutrient cycle and sludge production during different stages of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. 76. 1990. MI. p.0. Nutrient dynamics in integrated aquaculturehydroponics systems. Vol. 55–59. 109– Youth. W. Newton. p. 244. Surfless and turfless: A new wave in integrated food production. Double-duty greenhouse. Joseph. 53. p. 1. 23–29.. 1. Page 24 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . p.C. American Society for Agricultural Engineers. Ecosystems and Environment. No. The Growing Edge. Przybylowicz. Vol. Seawright. L. 1995. D. 13–30. Agriculture. 5–7. Design and management. F.F. Proceedings from Aquaculture Expo VIII and Aquaculture in the Mid-Atlantic Conference. 17–24. Tiews and H. A. 2. On the maintenance of water quality for closed fish production systems by means of hydroponically grown vegetable crops. The Furrow. Sutton. Gosse. Advanced Fish Science. 2.. 271–283. p. In: J. Walker. Virginia Cooperative Extension Service. Roux. Mathieu. and Robert L. 3.sciencedirect. Farming in a fish tank. Watten. p. Vol. 1975. In: K. Yopp. Paul.B. L.. Wastewater recycling for fish farmers. Gregg. 137–47.) Aquaculture in Heated Effluents and Recirculation Systems. Fish farming and hydroponics. Aquaculture. 3 p.. p. Aquaculture. Performance. p. Vol. 34 (January). p. p.Los Angeles. University of California-Los Angeles. (Summer). Vol. www.) growth in a recirculating aquaculture system. 215–237. I. Aquaculture and the Fish Farmer.sciencedirect. 1993. No. Submitted to: New York State Department of Agriculture & Markets.M. Vol. Volume 1. Drews. No. Quillere. An artificial productive ecosystem based on a fish/bacteria/plant association. 1975. Scott and Jimmy Mullins. 1993. (March). Busch. www. Roux. 1. p.1577/1548-8659(1978)107%3C92%3AUOHTM Q%3E2. Pierce. Final Report: A Demonstration of an Integrated Hydroponics and Fish Culture System. p. abs/10. The possibility of combined fish and vegetable production in greenhouses. and Bruce Isaacs. 28–34. Progressive Fish Culturist. Lewis. 160. 1992. Rivera. 1982. B. The effect of water velocity and nutrient concentration on plant nutrient uptake. Naegel. 1994. Marie. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the World Mariculture Society. Water reuse aquaculture systems in two solar greenhouses in Northern Vermont.A. 1992. MorotGaudry. Barry A. 11. 40. D. Vol. 118–127. p. D. D. McClintic. 15 p. Marie. April. March-April. 92–99. Vol. Vol. BioCycle. Wang (ed. Heenemann (ed.R. 1. No. May-June. 41–42. Seawright. MorotGaudry. 107. 60–61. Howard. No.M. Brandenburg. 3. Gosse. 1981. www. 10. The Growing Edge. 1995. 47. Agricultural Research and Development Grants Program. Going for gold.D. and W. Luther. p. 73–74. Germany.F. Combined production of fish and plants in recirculating water. 1. 2005. Gholamreza and Che Roos Saad. I.. St. Dennis. Agriculture. 19–30. 1998. 31. J. L. p. University of Rennert. A method for investigating nutrient dynamics in integrated aquaculture-hydroponics systems. J. Vol. Robert. Aquaculture. 3. World Watch. Institute of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology.J. No. 19–27. 2.M. Vol. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.CO%3B2 Lewis. J. In: Aquacultural Engineering and Waste Management. Vol. No. (October).E. Rafiee. No.E. p. 187–211. Schnoor. 1-4. 1984. Fact Sheet No. Berlin. 1. Waste nutrient recycling using hydroponic and aquacultural methods. 1991. Further observations on a fish production system that incorporates hydroponically grown plants. and M.sciencedirect. Stickney. 1. No. and R. F. and Jaw-Kai Wang. 44. and K.quality of recirculated water in a fish culture system. (October). 4. 1980.

recirculating aquaculture. Oregon State University. New Mexico State University. 150 p. Artemesia tridentata. Ann Harbor. There are numerous other titles in hydroponics. Ceratoides lanata. PhD. Ann Harbor. Ann Harbor. Chad Eric. aquaculture.Appendix II: Dissertations Dissertations (PhD) and theses (Masters degree) on integrated aquaculture-hydroponic systems can provide critical access to research data and literature reviews. Ann Harbor. MI. Ann Harbor. UMI. For example. Damon Eurgene. UMI. tilapia. 2002. The thesis by Carla MacQuarrie contains a detailed description of an aquaponics facility. Chrysothamnus nauseosus. 1995. Ann Harbor. 127 p. tank culture. the Speraneos in Missouri and Gordon Watkins in Arkansas used Mark McMurtry’s dissertation from North Carolina State University as a guide in the design of their ATTRA Page 25 . MI.attra. Selected titles on aquaponic systems are listed below. PhD Dissertation. Mark Richard. Oklahoma State University. Integrated Agriculture and Aquaculture for Sustainable Food Production. Daltech-Dalhousie University. UMI. An Assessment of a Closed Greenhouse Aquaculture and Hydroponic System (Tilapia Diets). 1997. 1992. Print copies are available for sale. Jr. MI. PhD Dissertation. 87 p. 78 p. MI. 1986. Ann Harbor. MI. A Computer Simulation Model for Wastewater Management in an Integrated (Fish Production-Hydroponics) System. Eisenhower Parkway P. King. MI. The UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations database (see below) provides public Web access to titles and abstracts. and Cercocarpus montanus).ncat. 2005. Auburn University. MI. James Edward. and wastewater effluent for those who wish to explore further. 1996. PhD Dissertation. PhD Dissertation. Carla Dawn.O. William. 127 p. 274 p. Computational Model of an Integrated Aquaculture. MS Thesis. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. McMurtry. PhD Dissertation. Masud A. Raymond Frank. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. UMI. Singh. Seawright.Hydroponic System. Evaluation of a Recirculating Aquaculture-Hydroponics System. MI. Evaluation of a Closed Recirculating System for Tilapia Culture. UMI. Land-grant university libraries – through fee-based subscription– provide full-text access to recent documents via the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. 218 p. Utilization of Aquaculture Effluent to Supplement Water and Nutrient Use of Turfgrasses and Native Plants (Ephedra viridis. 129 p.shtml Faucette. The University of Arizona. 1980. 69 p. PhD Dissertation. Khan. Sahdev. Integrated Aquaculture-Hydroponic Systems: Nutrient Dynamics and Designer Diet Development. University of Mexico. Ann Harbor. for example. MacQuarrie. UMI. Atriplex canescens. MI 48106-1346 734-761-4700 800-521-0600 http://proquest. PhD Dissertation. Contact: UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations 789 E. 1996. Integrated AquacultureOlericulture System as Influenced by Component Ratio. Rakocy. MI. Dissertation. UMI. via keyword and author search. Ann Harbor. North Carolina State University. UMI. including parts and pumping equipment. www. UMI.

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ncat. Editor Amy Smith. NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Holly Michels. Production This publication is available on the Web at: www.pdf IP163 Slot 54 Version 033010 Page 28 ATTRA . NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart.Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture By Steve or www.ncat.

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