TYPES OF MEASURING TAPES AVAILABLE AND APPROX COSTS

ELECTRONIC MEASURING DEVICE

LEVELLING STAVES AVAILABLE IN 3 AND 5 METRE LENGTHS

READING THE STAFF
A B 2050 2033 READINGS TAKEN ON STAFF EACH SEGMENT IS 10 mm YOU MUST INTERPOLATE READINGS BETWEEN THE SEGMENTS

C D E

2002 1978 1960

NOTE: FOR OUR PURPOSES READ THE STAFF IN INCRIMENTS OF 5mm

F

1915

TOTAL STATION USED BY SURVEYORS TO INPUT DATA VERY SOPHISTICATED AND EXPENSIVE

TERMINOLOGY

LEVELLING THIS IS THE TAKING OF MEASURMENTS IN THE VERTICAL PLANE

DATUM A PERMANENT OR ARBITARY MARK TO WHICH ALL LEVELLING RESULTS ARE CONNECTED OR TIED.

REDUCED (OR RELATIVE) LEVEL (RL) THIS IS THE ACTUAL HEIGHT AT THE GIVEN POINT – FOUND BY SUBTRACTING THE STAFF READING FROM THE HEIGHT OF PLANE OF COLLIMATION

RISE AND FALL IS THE DIFFERENCE IN HEIGHT BETWEEN POINTS

BACKSIGHT THIS IS THE FIRST RECORDING TAKEN AFTER SETTING UP THE LEVEL

FORESIGHT THIS IS THE LAST READING TAKEN BEFORE MOVING THE LEVEL ELSEWHERE (OR THE LAST READING TAKEN TO FINISH THE LEVELLING.

INTERMEDIATE SIGHT THIS (OR THESE) IS A POINT OF LESS IMPORTANCE THAN BS OR FS AND IS TAKEN TO FILL IN DETAIL (MAY NOT ALWAYS BE IN A STRAIGHT LINE)

CHANGE POINT THIS IS A STAFF STATION WHERE 2 STAFF READINGS ARE TAKEN 1 - A FORESIGHT IS TAKEN THEN THE LEVEL IS MOVED TO ITS NEW LOCATION 2 - A BACKSIGHT IS THEN TAKEN TO THE SAME POINT

THE RECORDING OF LEVELS TAKEN ON SITE IS DONE IN A MANNER AND SEQUENCE THAT ALLOWS US TO RETURN TO THE OFFICE AND THEN REDUCE THE LEVELS TO A COMMON POINT

THE EXAMPLE ON THE NEXT SLIDE SHOWS THE COMPLETED TABLE

THE FOLLOWING SLIDES THEN SHOW HOW INDIVIDUAL ENTRIES AND TOTALS ARE CALCULATED

BS 4.200

IS

FS

HPC 104.200

RL 100.00

REMARKS A

3.250 0.970 4.150 3.750 0.710 2.500 1.970 2.150 3.700
LAST READING IS A FORESIGHT

100.950 B 103.230 C 0.700 107.650 103.500 D 103.900 E 106.940 F 0.550 109.600 107.100 G 107.630 H 107.450 I 105.900 J Change point Change point

10.850

4.950 -10.850 -5.90

100.00 -105.900 -5.90

BS

IS

FS

HPC

RL

REMARKS

4.200 THIS IS THE FIRST READING TAKEN ON THE STAFF

104.200 THIS IS THE SUM OF THE BS AND THE RL

100.00

A

RL IS ANARBITARY FIGURE USUALLY 100 OR 50

BS 4.200

IS

FS

HPC 104.200

RL 100.00

REMARKS A

3.250 0.970

100.950 B 103.230 C

TO GET THE NEXT RL TAKE THE IS AWAY FROM THE HPC 104.200 – 3.250= 100.950

BS 4.200

IS

FS

HPC 104.200

RL 100.00

REMARKS A

3.250 0.970 4.150 0.700 107.650

100.950 B 103.230 C 103.500 D Change point

TO GET THE NEXT RL AFTER THE CHANGE POINT TAKE THE FS AWAY FROM THE HPC 104.200 – 0.700 = 103.500

BS 4.200

IS

FS

HPC 104.200

RL 100.00

REMARKS A

3.250 0.970 4.150 3.750 0.710 0.700 107.650

100.950 B 103.230 C 103.500 D 103.900 E 106.940 F Change point

TO GET THE NEXT RL TAKE THE IS AWAY FROM THE NEXT HPC 107.650 – 3.750= 103.900

BS 4.200

IS

FS

HPC 104.200

RL 100.00

REMARKS A

3.250 0.970 4.150 3.750 0.710 2.500 1.970 2.150 3.700 0.550 109.600 0.700 107.650

100.950 B 103.230 C 103.500 D 103.900 E 106.940 F 107.100 G 107.630 H 107.450 I 105.900 J Change point Change point

10.850

4.950 -10.850 -5.90

100.00 -105.900 -5.90 FIRST RL MINUS LAST RL

CHECKING STAGE IF SAME RESULT ALL IS OK IF NOT –RECHECK ENTRIES

SUM OF FS MINUS SUM OF BS

BS 4.200

IS

FS

HPC 104.200

RL 100.00

REMARKS A Nail in SEC pole Front step Ground at step Change point 1

3.250 0.970 4.150 3.750 0.710 2.500 1.970 2.150 3.700 0.550 109.600 0.700 107.650

100.950 B 103.230 C 103.500 D 103.900 E 106.940 F 107.100 G 107.630 H 107.450 I 105.900 J

Change point 2

MAKE NOTES THAT WILL HELP YOU RECALL THE SITE AND WHERE THE LEVEL WAS TAKEN

LAST READING IS A FORESIGHT

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF A FIELD SURVEY WITH ONE CHANGE POINT. USE THIS EXAMPLE TO HELP YOU CARRY OUT YOUR FIRST SURVEY. THE FOLLOWING SLIDE THEN SHOWS HOW THIS FIELD INFORMATION IS RECORDED AND CHECKED, FOLLOW THE EXAMPLE WHEN CARRYING OUT YOUR SECOND FIELD SURVEY AND RECORDING SESSION. NOTE HOW A BENCH MARK OF 50.00 (FIRST RL) HAS BEEN ADOPTED AND THE SUBSEQUENT RESULTING REDUCED LEVELS ARE THEN SHOWN AT EACH STAFF STATION.

TASKS
TASK 1 SET UP A THE TABLE FOR THE FIELD BOOK AS SHOWN IN THE EXAMPLES TASK 2 SET UP LEVELS FOR SOME INTERNAL LEVELS WHERE NO CHANGE OF STATION IS REQUIRED TASK 3 SET UP LEVELS FOR SOME INTERNAL LEVELS WHERE AT LEAST 2 CHANGES OF STATION ARE REQUIRED TASK 4 SET UP LEVELS FOR THE COURTYARD AREAS PREVIOUSLY MEASURED USE YOUR EXISTING PLANS TO RECORD THE POSITIONS OF LEVELS TAKEN TASK 5 DRAW A SECTION THROUGH YOUR SITE WHERE YOU HAVE TAKEN THE REQUIRED LEVELS. INDICATE THE LEVELS ON THIS SECTION DRAWING

PENTAX AUTOMATIC LEVEL

PENTAX AUTOMATIC LEVEL

PENTAX AUTOMATIC LEVEL

PENTAX AUTOMATIC LEVEL

NEXT SESSION

BRING MEASURING TAPES PREPARE A LEVEL RECORDING SHEET AS PER EXAMPLE SURVEY THE AREA YOUR GROUP PREVIOUSLY MEASURED REDUCE THE LEVELS YOU TAKE

FINAL STUDIO SESSION ADD THE REDUCED LEVELS TO YOUR PLAN, ELEVATIONS AND PHOTOS YOU HAVE DRAW A SECTION THRU YOU SITE SHOWING THE LEVELS FINAL HAND IN SUBMIT ALL SURVEYING WORK AS A COMPLETED FOLIO OF WORK NEATLY STAPLED AND BOUND

A
3420

B
3350

C
3575

A

C B

TAKE LEVELS AS PER EXAMPLE SHEET RECORD DISTANCES, LOCATIONS ETC ADD REMARKS IN THE REMARKS COLUMN

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