- - ~
· ..
~ · ...
. .,.
DET NORSKE VERITAS ClASSIFICATION AS
5.81.3000
9.82.2000
7.85. 300
9.86. 300
APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF DIRECfORS
APRIL 30. 1981
co Det norske Veritas 19 81.
Printed by
Del norskc Vcritas. Oslo.
.-· I• ., >,_ 1 ;---.:.· -;, t"""'... .- • .,.
. ..;::;;:_ "-·,-. '"'-'
;• ~ ·::.._:I
PREFACE
VERIT AS has published Rules for offshore structures. off·
shore loading systems. process equipment. submarine pipe1i·
nes etc .. and is prepared to issue a Certificate of Approval for
such installations when found to be designed and constructed
in accordance with the appropriate Rules.
The procedure for obtaining and retaining a Certificate of
Approval is defined in these Rules.
The purpose of the Rules is to'
Serve as basic philosophy and rule requirements when
applying for certification by VERIT AS.
Recommend an international acceptable level of safety
and reliability by defining minimum requirements re-
garding strength. serviceability and maintenance.
Serve as a technical reference document in contractual
matters between Owner and Contractor.
The Rules open for a freedom in choice of technical solutions
to obtain an acceptable safety level. More detailed description
of possible methods satisfying the Rule's requirements. are gi·
ven in the Appendices to the Rules. Other methods will be ac·
cepted provided the same safety level is obtained.
In addition to the Rules and Appendices, VERIT AS also is·
sues Technical Notes. which give further guidelines on speci·
fie problems related to the fulfilment of the Rule's require-
ments.
Where VERITAS is recognized as a Certifying Agent by Na·
tional Authorities, the Rules may serve as a supplement to
any National Regulations which are mandatory.
Although the Rules. the Appendices and the Technical Notes.
are all prepared with VERITAS' Certificate of Approval in
mind, the publications may be used as guidelines for desig·
ners. owners and others not directly involved in the certifica·
tion process. Where parts of the Rules are copied or applied.
proper reference to the source should be made.
. .'
• 1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.3.6
1.3.7
1.3.8
1.3.9
1.3.10
1.3.11
1.3.12
1.3.13
1.3.14
1.3.15
1.3.16
1.3.17
1.3.18
1.3.19
1.3.20
1.3.21
1.3.22
1.4
1.4.1

. 2
... 3
1.4.4
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.6
1.6.1
1.7
1.7.1.
1.8
1.8.1
1.8.2
1.8.3
1.8.4
1.8.5
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
••. 1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
CONTENTS
Section 1
General regulations
Symbols ................................. 9
Technical terms .......................... I 0
Definitions .............................. I 0
Pipeline system .......................... I 0
Submarine pipeline ....................... I 0
Riser system ............................ I 0
Pipeline riser ............................ I I
External riser ........................... II
Internal riser ............................ II
Riser support ........................... ·. II
Piping components ....................... II
Splash zone ............................. II
Submerged zone ......................... II
Atmospheric zone ........................ II
Platform ................................ II
Zone I .................................. II
Zone2 .............. · ......... c ••••.••••• ll
Surveillance ............................. II
Inspection .............................. II
To survey .............................. II
A survey ............................... II
Surveyor ........................•...... II
Liquid hydrocarbons ...................... II
Gaseous hydrocarbons .................... II
Fluid .................................. II
The Rules .............................. II
Application ............................. II
Amendments ............................ II
Alternative methods and procedures ......... II
Assumptions ............................ II
Certificate of Approval. ................... 12
Issuance of the Certificate ................. 12
Recommendations ........................ 12
Memoranda to Owner .................... 12
Withdrawal of Certificate .................. 12
Concept evaluation ....................... 12
General ................................ 12
Instrumentation for monitoring of the
pipeline system .......................... 12
General ................................ 12
Documentation .......................... 13
Submission of documentation .............. 13
Design phase ............................ I 3
Fabrication phase ........................ 13
Installation phase ........................ 13
Filing of documentation ................... 13 ,,, •.•
Section 2
Environment
General ................................ 14
Environmental phenomena ................ 14
Acceptable environmental data ............. 14
Pipeline route ........................... 14
Location ............................... 14
Route survey ............................ 14
Bottom topography ....................... 14
Seabed properties ........................ 14
Environmental conditions ................. 14
General ................................ 14
Tide ................................... 14
Wind .................................. 14
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.6
2.3.7
2.3.8
2.3.9
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7
3.3.8
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
Waves ................................. 15
Current ................................ 15
Corrosivity ............................. 15
Ice ..............................•..... IS
Air and sea temperatures .................. 15
Marine growth .......................... IS
Internal pipe conditions ................... 15
Installation conditions ..................... IS
Operational conditions .................... 15
Design temperature ....................... 16
General ................................ 16
Differentiated design temperatures ........... 16
Section 3
Loads
Loading conditions and design conditions ..... 17
General ................................ 17
Loading conditions ....................... 17
Design conditions ........................ 17
Functional loads ......................... 17
General ................................ 17
Functional loads during operation ........... 17
Functional loads during installation .......... 17
Environmental loads ...................... !7
General ................................ 17
Wind loads ............................. 18
Hydrodynamic loads. general. .............. 18
Wave loads ............................. 18
Current loads ....................... · .... 18
«Indirect» environmental loads ............. I 9
Ice loads ............................... 19
Accidental loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 9
Section 4
Strength and inplace stability
General ................................ 20
Design analyses .......................... 20
Design criteria ........................... 20
Design conditions ........................ 20 ·
Pipeline/ riser during operation ............. 20
General ................................ 20
Yielding ................................ 20
Buckling ............................... 21
Fatigue ................................. 21
On-bottom stability ....................... 22
Propagating ductile fractures ............... 23
Riser supports ........................... 23
Spans .................................. 23
4.3 Pipeline/risers during installation ........... 23
4.3.1 General ................................ 23
4.3 .2 Yielding ................................ 23
4.3.3 Buckling ............................... 24
4.3.4 Fatigue ................................. 24
4.4 Pipjpg components and accessories .......... 24
4.4.1 General ................................ 24
Section 5
Material requirements for pipes and piping components
5.1 General ................................ 25
5.1.1 Validity .............................. ·. 25
S .1.2 Selection of materials ..................... 25
5.1.3 Material specification ..................... 25
5.1.4
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.2.8
5.2.9
5.2.10
5.2.11
5.2.12
5.2.13
5.3
5.3.1
5.4
5.4.1
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.6
5.6.1
5.7
5.7 .]
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4

6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.3
6.6.4
Documentation and identification . . . . . 25
Steel for line-pipes. . . . . . ... 25
Steel making . . . . . . . 25
Supply condition. . . . . . 25
Heat treatment . . . . . .. 25
Chemical composition. . 25
Mechanical testing ....................... 25
Tensile properties . . . . . ........ 26
Brittle fracture resistance .................. 26
Resistance against propagating ductile fractures 26
Supplementary fracture toughness testing ..... 27
Resistance against hydrogen induced cracking
in welded joints .......................... 27
Resistance against environmental induced
blistering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Resistance against sulphide stress corrosion
cracking (SSC) ........................... 27
Resistance against chloride stress corrosion
cracking..... . .. 27
Soundness .............................. 27
General ................................ 27
Steel for piping components ................ 27
General ................................ 27
Welding consumables ..................... 27
General........................ . .. 27
Chemical compcsition ..................... 28
Mechanical properties ..................... 28
Handling and storage of welding consumables. 28
Bolt assemblies .......................... 28
General ................................ 28
Materials for support structures ............. 28
General ................................ 28
Section 6
Corrosion protection and weight coatiiJg
Corrosion protection. general . .............. 29
validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Definitions .............................. 29
General requirements to corrosion protection
systems ................................ 29
External coating ............ - ............ 29
General ................................ 29
Coating materials ........................ 29
Coating application ....................... 30
Field joint coating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 30
Cathodic protection ....................... 30
General . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 30
Design of system ......................... 30
Anode materials and fabrication . . . . . . . . . 31
Installation of anodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Testing of system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Internal corrosion control. ................. 31
General ................................ 31
Internal corrosion control by inhibitors . ...... 32
Internal corrosion control by coating ........ 32
Internal corrosion control by corrosion
resistant alloys ........................... 32
Internal corrosion monitoring .............. 32
Protection of risers and pipelines in 'critical
areas .......... :· .... : .................. 32
Splash zone protection .................... 32
Protection of risers in J-tubes. tunnels etc ..... 33
Protection of risers in internal transition zones. 33
Pipeline shore-approach ................... 33
Weight coating .......................... 3 3
General ................................ 33
Weight coating specification ................ 33
Concrete constituents ..................... 3 3
Properties of concrete ..................... 33
6.6.5
6.6.6
6.6.7
7.1
7 .I. I
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7 .2.4
7.2.5
7.2.6
7.2.7
7.2.8
7.2.9
7.3
7.3.1
7 .3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.4
7.4.1
8.1
8.1.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.4
8.4.1
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.3
8.5.4
8.5.5
8.5.6
8.5.7
8.5.8
8.6
8.6.1
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.7
8.7.1
8.7 .2
8.7 .3
8.7.4
8.8
8.8.1
8.8.2
8.8.3
Reinforcement.... . .............. 33
Application and curing of concrete coating . ... 34
Testing and inspection . .- ................. 34
Section 7
Fabrication of pipes and piping components
General ............ .
Validity ..
.... 35
. 35
Pipe fabrication. . . . . . . . .............. 35
General ................................ 35
Fabrication procedure specification .......... 35
Qualitification of welding operators. welders
and arc- air gougers .............. ] 5
Qualification of pipe fabrication procedure .... .35
Hydrostatic testing ..................... :. 36
Dimensions and workmanship .............. 37
Visual examination and non-destructive testing 38
Production testing ........................ 38
Repairs ................................ 38
Fabrication of. piping components ........... 39
General .........................•...... 39
Fabrication procedure specification .......... 39
Qualification of fabrication procedures ...... . 39
Production testing. . ................ 39
Repair welding of piping components, . ·., .. · .• •39
Post weld heat treatment .................. ·39
General ................................ 39
Section 8
Installation
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ·.·. 4 .. I "·. .
Specifications. . . . . . . . . ..... ·. 41 \.
Pipeline route .. , ........................ 41
Route survey. . .................... 41
Seabed preparation .............. , ..•. : . .. : ..: .. :::.: ..
Construction ............................ ,
Qualification ................... ,. , ... ···'
Handling and storing .................... ,.
Installation operations. . . . . . . . . ..... 41
Pipeline and cable crossings. . ........ 42
Buckle detection ........................• 42
Anchoring and protection of pipeline systems : 42
General ................................ 42
Installation welding ...................... 42
General ................................ 42
Welding procedure specification ......•..... 42
Qualification of the welding equipment and
welding procedure ...................... :' 42
Essential parameters for welding procedures .. 43
Qualification of welders and welding operators 43
Welding and workmanship ................ 43
Production test .......................... 44
Repair of field joints. . . . . . . . . . ......... 44
Visual examination and non-destrUctive testing
of installation welds ...................... 45
General ............................... , 45
Visual examination ........ , . , ............. 45
testing .................... 45
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : '
Mechanical connectors .................... 45 -,
Welded tie-in on the lay vessel ............. 45
Tie-in by underwater welding .............. 45
Final surveys and tests . ................... 46
General ................................ 46
Survey of installed pipeline system .......... 46
Survey of corrosion protection system ..... . 46
Pressure test ............................ 46
Buckle detection ......................... 47
Testing of alarm and shutdown systems ...... 47
Section 9
Operation and maintenance
General .... , ........................... 48
Owners duty ............................ 48
Retension of Certificate of Approval ......... 48
Operation and maintenance of the pipeline.
system ................................. 48
Operation. inspection and maintenance manual 48
Operation ............................... 48
In-service inspection ...................... 48
General ....... , ........................ 48
Start up inspection ....................... 48
Periodical inspection ...................... 48
Frequency of periodical inspection ........... 48
Extent of periodical inspection - pipeline .... 48
Extent of periodical inspection - riser ....... 4 9
Special inspection ................ , ....... 49
Repairs ................................ 49
General ................................ 49
Grooves. gouges and notches .•............. 4 9
Dents .............. , ................... 49
Leaks .................................. 49
Repair by welding ....................... 49
Temporary repairs ....................... 50
Section 10
Non-destructive testing
General ................................ 51
Selection of method ...................... 5 I
Radiographic examination of welds .......... 51
Radiographic procedure specification ......... 51
Radiographic procedure qualification ......... 51
Qualification of radiographers .............. 52
Production radiography ................... 52
Evaluation of .welds and standards of
acceptability .. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Ultrasonic examination of welds with
stationary equipment ..................... 52
Equipment .............................. 52
Ultrasonic procedure specification ........... 52
Ultrasonic procedure qualification ........... 52
Calibration of equipment .................. 52
Qualifications of operators . . . . . . . . . . .... 52
Production ultrasonic examination .......... 52
Evaluation of welds and standards of
acceptability ............................. 52
Ultrasonic examination of welds with
pcrtable equipment. ...................... 52
Equipment.., ........................... 52
Ultrasonic procedure specification ........... 53
Ultrasonic procedure qualification ........... 53
Calibration of equipment .................. 53
Qualifications of operators •... , .... , . , ..... 53
Production ultrasonic examination .......... 53
Evaluation of welds and standards of
acceptability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Magnetic particle examination of welds ...... 55
Magnetic particle procedure specification ..... 55
Magnetic particle procedure qualification ..... 55
Qualilic:ations of operators ................. 55
magnetic particle testing ......... 55
Evaluation of welds and standards of
acceptability . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Liquid penetrant examination of welds . ...... 55
10.6.1
10.6.2
10.6.3
10.6.4
10.6.5
A.l
A.l.l
A.l.2
A.l.3
A.2
A.2.1
A.2.2
A.2.3
A.3
A.3.1
A.3.2
A.3.3
A.3.4
A.4
A.4.1
A.4.2
Liquid penetrant procedure specification ...... 55
Liquid penetrant procedure qualification ...... 56
Qualifications of operators ................. 56
Production liquid penetrant testing .......... 56
Evaluation of welds and standards of
acceptability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 56
Appendix A
Environmental loads
Wind loads ............................. 63
General ................................ 63
Static wind loads ......................... 63
Vortex shedding due to wind ............... 63
Vortex shedding due to current ............. 63
General ................................ 63
In-line oscillations ........................ 64
Cross-flow oscillations .................... 64
Recommended values of hydrodynamic
coefficients .............................. 64
General ................................ 64
Added mass coefficient. ................... 64
Drag coefficient. ................. ; ....... 64
Lift coefficient. .... , ..................... 64
Wave slamming ......................... 64
Wave slamming loads .................... 64
Fatigue due to wave slamming ............. 6 5
Appendix B
Buckling calculations
B.l Local buckling ........................... 6 8
B.2 Propagation buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 68
B.3 Buckling of the pipe as a <<bam ............. 69
Appendix C
Quality control of materials.
Qualification of welding procedures and welding per-
sonnel
C. I General. .. , . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 7 0
C.l.l Scope. . . . . . . . . . ....... 7 0
C.l.2 Defmitions .............................. 70
C.I.3 Testing equipment ................... , .... 70
C.2 Steel making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 70
C.2.1 General . . . . . . ...................... 70
C.3 Steel casting. . . . ........... , ......... 70
C.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 70
C.4
C.4.1
C.5
C.5.1
C.6
C.6.1
C.7
C.7.1
C.7.2
C.7.3
C.7.4
C.7.5
C.7.6
C.7.7
C.7.8
C.8
C.8.1
C.8.2
C.8.3
Chemical analyses . .... . . .......... 70
General ............ . . .............. 70
Heat treatment ............ 7 0
General ................................ 70
Surface defects in base material ............. 70
General ................................ 70
Mechanical testing ....................... 71
General ................................ 71
Tensile testing ........................... 7 ].
Benct'testing ............................. 71
Nick break testing ....•...... ' ............ 71
Charpy V -notch impact testing ............. 71
Macrosection of welded joints .............. 71
Hardness testing of welded joints ............ 71
Strain ageing testing ...................... 71
Sampling of test specimens . ................ 7 2
Seamless pipes. . . . . . . . . ............... 72
Welded pipe ............................ 72
Cold formed or forged bends ............... 72
C.8.4
C.8.5
C.9
C.9.1
C.IO
C.IO.l
C.l0.2
C.I0.3
C.I0.4
C.l 0.5
C.I0.6
C.l0.7
Forged seamless piping components other
than bends ................... - - - - - . · · · · · 72
Cast piping components . - .. · - - - · · · · · - · · · · · 72
Welding procedure qualification - - - .... · · · · · 72
General ..................... --.---··-·· 72
Qualification of welding personnel .......... 72
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ;
Inspection and testing of qualification test welds 7 3
Welder qualification ..................... - 7 3
Welding operator qualification for
mechanized welding ...................... 7 3
Qualification of welding personnel for
underwater welding ...................... 7 3
Extraordinary requalification of welding
personnel ............................... 74
Appendix D
Guidelines on corrosion control
D. I Design of cathodic protection systems ........ 82
D. I.! General ................................ 82
D.l.2 Design basis ............................ 82
0.1.3
D.J.4
D.I.S
D.I.6
0.1.7
D.I.8
0.2
D.2.1
D.2.2
D.2.3
Current demands - - . - - - - .......•. 82
Anode materials ... - - . - -- · ... - - .... : ... : . 83
Current output capacity of anodes ........... 84
Calculation of anode life ................... 84
Current distribution - 84
Fabrication of anodes ..................... 84
Standards for coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _._·'84
General .......... -- ... -- .... - .......... 84
Acceptable standards for coating properties .
and test methods referring to generic type .. , . 84
Application and inspection of coatings.
general standards · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·8?
Appendix E . _ .
Pressure testing of pipelines and pipeline sections
E.l General ... · · - - - · - · · · · · · - · · · · · · • · · · · · · · 8?
E.2 Pressure test method no. 1 ........... - .... _- 87
E.J Pressure test method no. 2 ........... : . . . . 87
E.4 Acceptance criteria ..................... :. 8]
E.S Witnessing ................. · - . · ... · · ... · 88
E.6 Hydrostatic test report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
a
a,
B
B
b,
c
Co
(::L
Cm
c.
d
<i
D
D,
E
g
F•
SECTION 1
GENERAL REGULATIONS
1.1 Symbols
cross sectional area of pipe. also:
(n).
p
exposed area of anode . . Per
parameter used in wave analyses. (Defined m F1g.
A2). also:
acceleration
relative acceleration ·
= buoyant force per unit length of pipe, also:
= width of reference block
p,
P;
Ppr
:'!T>
= parameter used in wave analyses. (Given in Table Q
AI) Q
shape(drag) coefficient used in wind force formula
drag C9"fficient
lift coefficient
·added mass coefficient
slamming coeffiCient
water. depth.ll)so:
= di'lffiO(er
= nominal outside diameter of pipe
= total outside diameter of pipe (including coating)
oc m<>Qulus of elasticity, also:
= . col)Sumption rate of anode
"= iota! horizontal (Ja\erall force per unit length of a pi-
pe due to drag and inertia
= dragforce
tift force
q
R,
r
s
s
&":,>
·s p
T
T
T,
T,
mass<inerpal force Tv
wave slamming force 1
total vertical force per unit length of a pipe due to U
dn!g and inertia
coefr!cient offriction, also:
vortex shedding frequency
natural frequency for cross-flow excitation
naturll) frequency for inline excitation
clearance between pipe and fixed boundary, also:
wave height
significant wave height
u
u
/u/
wave height» v,
the most "probable largest" wave height out of 10" v.
waves encountered w
referencevalueofH •• i.e. for n = r
IDeal! <;Um;nt requirement per anode
factor, also:
slope of the S·N curve
Keu10gan-Qu-penter number
stability parameter
roughness
parameter in wave analyses (Table AI)
derating factor
length of reference block, also:
effective life of anode
Sll$peDded length, span width
bending moment in pipe
critical bending moment
"'_ moment in pipe . .
= parapteter used in wave analyses. <Defmed m F18-
A.2l
· effeCtive mass per unit length of pipe
axial force in a pipe. also:
number of years in a probability consideration
critical axial force in a pipe
w
w
X
y
y
a
a
a
y
«eqlJivaleJ)I>> axial force in a pipe subjected to inter·
nlll ;llld/ or external pressure
nUmber of constant amplitude stress cycles «u )) to
failure
criticlll number of stress cycles
exponent when number of waves is expressed as a
power of 10 .
actual number of stress cycles of a gtven stress ran·
8!'<..), .
number of waves within block j
a,
a,.
Of
o,
(u);
= perrnissJ.ble value of n1
= pressure. difference between two absolute pres-
sures. external over·pressure
:: critical external
= external pressure
= internal pressure
= propagation pressure
initiatioJl pressure
frequency distribution of average apparent wave
periods
shear force nominal to pipe axis, also:
= probability level
= lateral force per unit length of pipe
= wind force per unit length of pipe
reduction factor on number of waves
= Reynold'snumber
= reference value of n
= safety factor in on-bottom stability analysis, also:
= Stroubal' s number
= Miner's sum
= permissible value of Miner's sum
= number of stress blocks
= . thickness of reference block, also:
= average zerc>-upcrossing period
= pipe material temperature at time of installation
= pipe material temperature under considered condi-
tion
= «visual)> wave period
= nominal wall thickness of pipe
= flow velocity for anodes
= utilization factor, also:
= liquid particle velocity noma! to pipe axis
= absolute (positive> value of u
= current velocity
= resulting «design» velocity due to wave and current
= maximum orbital particle velocity
= particle velocity due to «design>> wave
= ·flow velocity for anodes
= relative water particle velocity
= component of wind velocity_ to pipe axis .
= weight per unit length of ptpe m aJT, PIJ'C'
contents and water absorbed by the coattng, also:
section modulus of pipe cross section, also:
= netweigbtofanodes
= longitudinal position_of a point on a pipe.
circumferential position of a pomt on a pipe, also:
modesbape · .
linear coeffiCient of thermal expanSion, also:
symbol used in buckling formula
logarithmic decrement of structural damping
usage factor
usage factor for equivalent stress
usage factor for hoop stress
permissible usage factor _ .
permissible usage factor when a,IS acting alone
permissible usage factor when u,is acting alon_e
angular position of a point on a ptpe relative to a
defmed radius e = 0
mode shape parameter
Poisson's ratio, also:
kinematic viscocity of a liquid
density. also:
resistivity
element stress due to net buoyancy force
critical one dimensional compressive stress for com-
pletely elastic buckling (a,E or a,.>
equivalent stress according to von Mises
permissible equivalent stress
specified (nominal) yield strength
stress range
stress range for stress <<block» no i
Cixcr

r,,
i'xz
element stress due to vertical wave force
element stress due to net buoyancy force
longitudinal stress
critical longitudinal (compressive) stress
longitudinal stress due to pipe bending, defined as
M/W
longitudinal stress due to axial force = N I A
critical ax when M is acting alone
critical r7x when N is acting alone
permissible ax
longitudinal stress due to shell bending
hoop stress
critical compressive hoop stress
permissible hoop stress (in tensionl
critical compressive hoop stress for completely elast-
ic buckling when rr, is acting alone
tangential shear stress
radial shear stress
1-2 Technical terms
Longitudinal stress = normal stress acting parallel to pipe
axis.
Hoop stress = normal stress acting in the circumferential di-
rection.
10
Maximum operating pressure = maximum pressure to
which a piping system will be subjected in operation. which
should include static pressure and pressure required to
come friction.
Surge pressure = total pressure caused by a change in ve-
locity of flow within a pipeline system. '
Test pressure = pressure specified to be applied to a vesset
pipe. component. etc .. on completion of manufacture and/ or
on completion of construction. It may also Pe the pressure
specified to be applied to a vessel. etc., after appropriate per-
iods in operation.
Strength test pressure = pressure of a higher magnitude than
test pressure and with short duration.
Leak test pressure = pressure normally of a lower magnl· ·
tude than test pressure and with at least the same duration.
Minimum design temperature = lowest possible steady state
temperature which the pipeline system experiences during
installation and operation. Environmental as well liS opera-
tional temperatures are to be considered. "I
Maximum design temperature = highest possible steady
temperature which the pipeline system may be exposed to
during installation and operation. Environmental as well liS ·
operational temperatures are to be considered.
Tangemial shear stress = shear stress which in a cross sec- Restrained lines = pipelines which cannot expand Of coq:
tion of the pipe acts in the tangential (circumferential) direc- tract in the longitudinal direction due to flxed supports or
tion. friction between pipe and soil. ' · ''
Radial shear stress = shear stress which in a cross section of Understrained lines = pipelines without substential aJI:ial r"'i:
the pipe acts in the radial direction. traint (Maximum one flxed support and no substential fric-
tionl.
Pipe bending moment = bending moment (M) in the pipe
cross section as a whole.
Shell bending moment = bending moment (m,or m,) in the
pipe wall per unit length.
Suspended length = length of a pipeline without contaci
with the sea bottom or other supports ( = unsupported
length). .. ,'.: , ...
Pipe bending stresses
bending moment. .
Laying parameters = essential parameters affecting the stres'-
Iongitudinal stresses due to pipe ses in a pipeline during laying. such as applied tension. stin-"
ger curvature, etc.
Shell bending stresses = stresses due to shell bending mo- Nominal wall thickness = the pipe wall thickness that is
ment. cified for supply of pipes.
Longitudinal shell bending stresses = · longitudinal stresses Nominal pipe diameter = the outside pipe diameter to be
(a, to longitudinal shell bending moment(m). ed in the design calculation.
Hoop bending stresses = hoop stresses (a/l due to circum-
ferential shell bending moment (hoop· bending· moment -
m,J
Direct stresses :;;; stresses of which the resultant acts in
middle surface of the pipe wall ( = membrane stresses>.
Internal pressure = pressure inside the pipe. May be given as
absolute pressure or gauge
External pressure = pressure (immediately) outside the pipe.
May be given as absolute pressure or gauge pressure.
Overpressure = difference between two absolute pressures.
Initiation pressure = external overpressure required to initi-
ate a propagaiing buckle from an existing , local buckle or
dent. ·
1.3 Definitions
1.3.1 Pipeline system
By a pipeline system is meant an interconnected system of
submarine pipelines, pipeline risers. their supports. all in-
tegrated piping components. the corrosion protection system
and weight coating. '
1.3.2 Submarine pipeline
A submarine pipeline. later referred to as is
as that part of a pipeline which is located below the water
surface at maximum tide- except pipeline risers (see 1.3.•f).
The pipeline may. wholly or in part be suspended above
sea floor, rest on the sea floor or be buriecl below the s""·
floor. . '
Propagation pressure = external overpressure required to
propagate a buckle that has been initiated ( at higher pres-
sure). 1.3.3 Riser system
Design pressure :;;; maximum internal operatina pressure.
By riser system is meant the riser. its suppol't$. all integraied
piping components and corrosion protection system.
1.3.4 Pipeline riser
A riser, later referred to as riser. is defmed _as th_e
connecting piping or flexible hose between a submarme pl-
. pellne on the sea floor and the processing equipment on a
Exact points of riser termination are to be agreed
·ron in eash case.
1.3.5 External riser
·By external risers is meant risers which are mounted in such
a ·way that no effective shelter against the action of wind. wa-
and currents is provided.
1.3.6 Internal riser
'By iilternal risers is meant risers which are effectively shelter-
e4 against the action of wind. waves and currents.
1.3.7 Riser support
II
1.3.17 To survey
By to survey is normally meant to carry out surveillance on
behalf of Veritas.
1.3.18 A survey
By a survey is meant the general inspection carried out by the
Owner, by his ·contractor or by Veritas.
1.3.19 Surveyor
By a Surveyor is meant a person carrying out surveillance on
behalf of V eritas.
1.3.20 Liquid hydrocarbons
By liquid hydrocarbons is meant crude oil, condensate. natu-
ral gasoline. natural gas liquids. liquefied petroleum gas, pet-
roleum products and their fractions in their liquid phase.
By riser supports is meant structures intended for fiXing the 1.3.21 Gaseous hydrocarbons
riser to the platform or for local or continuous guidance of By gaseous hydrocarbons is meant hydrocarbons in a vapor
the riser. · phase from wells drilled· Tor the purpose of producing liquid
hydrocarbons or natural. gas.
1.3.8 Pipiog components
· BY piping components is meant items integrated in the pipeli-
ne/ li,ser such as flanges. 1ee1;, bends. reducers and valves.
1.3.9 Splash zone
By the splash zone range is meant the astronomical tidal ran-
ge plus the wave height having a probability of exceedance of
O.Q1. The upper limit of the splash zone is determined by as-
suming 65 96 of this wave height above HAT and the lower
limit by assuming 35 96 below LAT.
\,-3-10 Submernd zone
. Jy the submerged zone is meant the region be_Iow the splash
zone including sea water, sea bottom, and buned or mud zo-
By the atmospheric zone is meant the region above the splash
zone.
1.3.12 Platform
By a platform is meant a flxed or permanently anchored off-
shore installation onto which the riser is mounted.
1.3•13 Zone 1
By Zone I is meant the part of the seabed located more than
a certain distance away from any platform or building, nor-
mally to be taken as 500 m.
1.3.14 Zone 2
- By Zone 2 is meant the part of the seabed located close to any
platfor111 or building. and normally to be taken as a distance
of 500 m.
1.3.15
By surveillance is meant the work carried out by V eritas in
order to assure that the pipeline or riser is built and operated
in accordance with the Rules. This work comprises approval
of d!'awiflss. procedures and specifications an<l inspection
E
d <Xl!itrol during prefabrication and installation. It also in-
. des the work carried out by Veritas in order to assure that
e in•service inspection and maintenance are carried out ac-
cording to these Rules. This surveillance is not meant to re-
PliiCe the quality control program of contractor/ operator.
1 ,.U I!IS!'ection
· By insPection is meant the quality control carried out by the
Owner or his contractors.
1.3.22 Fluid
By fluid is meant a gas. liquid or slurry that is transported
through the pipeline system.
1.4 The Rules
1-4.1 Application
1.4.1.1 These Rules apply to submarine pipeline systems as
defmed in 1 .3.1 intended for the transportation or transporting
liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons as defined in 1.3.20 and
1.3.21. The Rules may also be applied. wholly or'in part. to
pipeline systems carrying other products. This is to be decided
by V eritas in each separate case.
1.4.2 Amendments
1.4.2.1 Amendments to the Rules may be undertaken at
any time and may also be applicable for pipelines or risers
which have already been approved by Veritas.
Unless otherwise decided. the amendments are to come into
force 6 months after the date of issurance.
1.4.2.2 Application of amendments to pipelines or risers al-
ready approved. or in the process of approval. will be limited
to cases where it is judged essential to the structural integrity.
If amended requirements to construction, materials, dimensi-
ons. etc. are to be made applicable to pipelines or risers al-
ready approved, necessitating re-analysis and re-evaluation of
strength 'requirements, this will be clearly stated in the
amendments.
1.4.3 Alternative methods and procedures
1.4.3.1 V eritas is prepared to consider alternative methods
and procedures found to represent overall safety and strength
standards equivalent to those of the Rules.
1.4.4 Assumptions
1.4.4.1 These Rules are based on the assumption that pipe-
line or riser in question is designed, constructed and operated
by adequately skilled personel according to sound engineer-
ing practice.
I .4.4.2 The Owner and or his contractors are to establish
and implement a detailed. independent control system
covering all phases involved by the Certification. The quality
control functions are to be directed and performed by compe-
tent persons.
1 .4.4.3 It is assumed in these Rules that external risers on
platforms and similar structure:' are ad7quately
from impacts from vessels and sunilar mechamcal
influence. Hence it is assumed that the protectmg structure.
and not the riser, is designed for such loads.
1.5 Certificate of Compliance
1.5.1 .Issuance of the Certificate
1 .5.I. I Upon request Veritas is prepared to issue a Certifi-
cate of Compliance for pipeline systems when found to be de-
signed and constructed in accordance with these Rules.
1 .5 .I .2 The client requesting certification is to'
12
submit required documentation with complete and correct
information of significance for certification. see 1.8.I .
pay all expenses which arise in connection with the sub-
mitted request.
1.5.1.3 The Certificate of Compliance will be issued after
V eritas consideration of all relevant documents and declara-
tions of survey concerning the pipeline system in question.
The Certificate will contain'
a description of the pipeline system and its function. . .
a specification of the operational limitations for the p1peh·
ne system. . . . .
a specification of the geographical Jocat1on of the p1pelme
system.
a statement that the pipeline system is designed and con-
structed in accordance with these Rules and under the sur-
veillance of Veritas.
(.5.1.4 Individual Statement of Compliance may upon re-
quest be issued for design, fabrication, installation or testing.
1.5.2 Recommendations
1.5.2.1 On matters considered to represent a possible safety
hazard Veritas will issue separate recOmmendations.
1.5.2.2 Recommendations may be issued to the effect that
specified actions (e.g. repa.ir$) or specified surveys are to be
carried out within· specified time limits. Recommendations
may also be given regarding reduction of permissible loading.
1 .5.2.3 Once a recommendation is formally issued the validi-
ty of the Certificate of Compliance is conditional upon com-
pletjon of the required work before the expiry date. The Ow·
ner is expected to take the necessary steps to fulfil the cond1·
lion without further action from Veritas. Should circumstan-
ces occur that make the fulfilment of the recommendation im-
practical before the expiry date. or that requires the recom-
mendation to be altered. the Owner"s for a change of
extention of the recommendation should be made in
time before the expiry date.
1 .5.2.4 The Owner sllould notify when a recom-
mendation has "been completed so that a completion survey
may be carried out before expfry of the time limit.
1.5.2.5 Updated lists of recommendations will be forward-
ed regularly to the Owner and to the Surveyor carrying out
the surveillance.
1.5.3 Memoranda for Ow11ers
1 .5.3.1 Memoranda for Owners are information to the Ow-
ners regarding observed damage. deterioration or other sig-
nificant change in a structure which does not justify the issu-
ance of a recommendation at the present time.
1.5.3.2 Updated lists of these memoranda will be forward-
ed regularly to the Owner and to the Surveyor carrying out
the surveillance.
1.5.4 Withdrawal of Certificate
1.5 .4.1 Veritas reserves the right to withdraw the Certificate
of Approval if the Owner fails to comply with_ the directives of
operating the system within the spec1fied hm1ts.
1.5.4.2 Withdrawal may also take place when the Owner
fails to carry out regular in-service inspection and mainten•
ance according to the specifications for such inspection
maintenance. Such work is to be by Veritas. see
Section 9.
1 .5.4 .3 Any of the events mentioned below may lead to
withdrawal'
The pipeline system is damaged. or is suspected of having
been damaged. in a manner likely to impair its safety.
strength or stability. ·
The pipeline system demonstrates signs of deterioration
likely to impair its safety. strength or stability.
The pipeline system is subjected to any alteration. repair
or replacement which will impair the operational safety.
1 .5.4.4 The withdrawal may be made conditional, in that it
will be executed only if the Owner has failed to carry out his
obligations within a stipulated time period.
1.5.4.5 If the situation leading to withdrawal of the Certifi-
_cate of Compliance no longer exists. the Certificate may be
reinstated. As a condition hereto. Veritas can requir-e that
pipeline system will be subjected to certain specified surveys
tests or
1.6 Concept evaluation
1.6.1 General
1.6.1.1 Prior to the detailed design. the overall concept of
the pipeline system is to be checked in order to identify pos-
sible weal( points or unacceptable desJgns. Th1s applies to
such as:
selection of pipeline route and protection methods
location and protection of riser
location and protection of landfall
possibilities for pigging. inspection and monitoring of the
pipeline
choice of Codes.
1.6.1.2 Accidental situations should be taken into account
in the detailed design.
1 .6.1 .3 Special attention should be paid to protection of and
to the possibilities for inspection and maintenance of gas
sers inside waterfilled or closed companments. and to gas li-
nes near platforms and populated areas.
1 .6.1.4 For systems that involve new technology _it may be
recommended to carry out an overall safety analysis.
1.7 Instrumentation for monitoring the pipeline system
condition
1.7.1 General
1.7.1.1 By instrumentation is meant special devices
servation and monitoring of the loading. response and cond1·
tions of the pipeline system during fabrication. installation or
operation.
J .7. J .2 Instrumentation may be required when visual . in-
spection or simple are not considered
ble or reliable. and available desogn methods and prevtous ex-
perience are l)ot sulfJCient for a reliable prediction of the per-
formance of the pipeline system ..
(
1.8 Documentation
1.8.1 Submission of documentation
(.8.1,1 This section outlines the documentation required in
order to obtain a Certificate of Compliance. Detailed require-
I 3
1.8.2.6 Materials and fabrication of pipes and components.
The following is to be submitted for approval'
Material specifications for pipes. piping components, sup-
ports, bolts. nuts and welding consumable.
- Fabrication specification of pipes. piping components and
supports.
to the documentation is described in the respective main
k:t10ns.
1.8.1.2 D
ocumentation essential for ·the understanding of 1.8.2.7 Corrosion protection. The following information is
to be submitted for approval'
the pipeline system and necessary to prove its safety is to be Specification for coating and coating application. includ-
submitted Veritas. ing field joint coating
Specification for anodes
1.8.2 Design phase
1.8.2.1 The Owner is normally to submit to Veritas the de-
documentation before fabrication and installation com·

1.8.2.2 Concept evaluation. The following is to be submit!·
ed for information'
' w aier depth along the pipeline route
...,. Pipe dimensions
Fl\Jid to be tnansported
Pesi&n life
Maximum and minimum design temperature
Design pressure
Project schedules
. , plans for known future developments along the pipeline
route
'Type and grade of material
Corrosion protection system
The following is to be submitted for approval:
· '" . Overall drawing(sl showing location of the pipelines rela-
tive to platforms. buildings, populated areas, ship lanes
and harbours and other items or activities essential for
the safety of the pipeline.
·): Platform layout with risers, riser protection system. cra-
nes. ·living ·quarters. boat landing area as well as rescue
area clearly marked.
Specification of cathodic protection system including de-
sign calculations
Description of anode location
Drawing of anode. including rebar and earthing connec-
tion
Specification for protection of risers and pipelines in criti-
cal areas such as in splash zone, J-tubes. tunnels.
Specification for internal corrosion control .
I .8.2.8 Construction. The following information is to be
submitted prior to start of construction.
Construction procedure specifications including installa-
tion. tie-ins and protection
Description of construction vessels and equipment
Specification for installation welding
Description of quality control system including speciflca·
tion for non-destructive testing
Specification for fmal surveys and tests
1.8.3 Fabrication phase
I .8.3.1 During and/or after fabrication the following doc-
umentation is to be submitted:
Material certificates for pipes. piping components. riser
supports and anodes
Fabrication procedure qualification report including
welding procedure qualification record
.......,..;;"':"'l"'"·'·i:" . .,:.cc: h8::! . .J .::Environment. The following is to be presented for
Qualification record for welders and welding operators
Hydrostapc testing reports
Production test records (visual. NDT. dimensional)
Reports on coating
information and evaluation:
SoU properties relevant for foundation evaluation
Bottom topography
Wind and wave conditions .
Current and tide conditions
Maximum and minimum seawater and air temperatures
. .. Corrosivity
Ice conditions
Seismic activity
Marine growth
J .8.2.4 Loads. The following is to be presented for in-
formation:
Any loads during fabrication. installation and operation
which may govern the design.
The following is to be presented for approval:
- Calculation of functional loads
- Calculation of environmental loads
1.8.2.5. and inplace stability. The following is to be
submitted for approval:
-, SIJ'uctural drawings of risers and riser supports.
Structural drawings of special pipeline geometries such as
expansion loops. crossings and laterals.
Structural drawings of piping compo-
such as tees. reducers. connectors etc.
·) On bottom stability analysis.
Structural analysis. including control against excessive
yielding. fatigue failure. propagating ductile fracture and
brittle fracture as applicable.
Structural stability analysis. including control against
buckling and excessive displacements.
PYnl!llliC analysis. including vibration analysis. if rel-
'evarit. ·
' Foundation analysis. including sea bottom stability.
1.8.3.2 Material test certificates for pressurized parts are
normally to be endorsed by V eritas.
1.8.4 Installation phase
I .8 .4.1 During and/ or after construction the following doc-
umentation is to be submitted:
As-laid alignment sheets
As-built drawings of special pipeline geometries such as
expansion loops and crossings
As-built drawings of riser systems
As-built isometric drawings of risers showing the location
of each item and weld and with reference to their item/
heat/ number/ certificate and heat treatment report num-
ber if relevant
Non-destructive testing records
As-built drawings of non-standardized piping compo-
nents such as tees and reducers
Post weld heat treatment report
Dimensional control report if relevant
Final inspection report
Hydrostatic test report
Report on pigging and drying (if relevantl
Report on performance of the cathodic protection system
Report on trenching/ protection
1.8.5 FUlng of documentation
1.8.5.1 It is the Owners responsibility to keep complete fi-
les on all relevant documentation during the life of the pipeli-
ne system. Documentation to be med is at least as defined in
1.8.2-1.8.4. The me should include the necessary reports
from operation. in-service inspection and maintenance.
14
SECTION 2
ENVIRONMENT
2.1 General
2.1.1 Environmental phenomena
2. i .1 .l All environmental phenomena which may impair
the proper function of the system or cause a reduction of the
system reliability are to be considered. Such phenomena in·
wind, waves. currents. ice, seismic. geological, and geo-
technical conditions. temperature. fouling. biological activit·
ies. chemical components of water. and transported fluid etc.
2.1.2 Acceptable environmental data
2.! .2.1 The environmental conditions are to be described
using adequate data for the areas in which the system is to be
installed.
2.1.2.2 Data supplied by generally recognized consultants
will normallY be accepted as a basis for design. Background
information on data collection and derivation is to be sub-
mitted on Veritas" request. -
2.1.2.3 The various environmental factors are to be describ-
ed by characteristic parameters based !=m statistical or
long term observations. If sufficient data directly applicable
for location in question are not available. reasonably conserv-
ative estimates based on relevant data for other relevant loca-
tions may be used.
2.1.2.4 Statistical data are to be utilized in describing en-
vironmental parameters of a waves.
wind}. Proper care is to be exercised in deriving such par-
ameters in a statistically valid manner. and accepted
methods are to be used. ' ,
2.2 Pipeline route
2.2.1 Location
1.2 1.1 The route should be selected with due regard to the
probability of damages to tbe pipe and. the consequences of a
possible pipe rupture. Factors to take into consideration are:
- population density
- location of living quarters
- ship traffic
-.-fishing activity
- o!Tshore operations
- unstable seabed
- corrosivity of the environment
Known future operations in the vicinity of f.he route is to be
into consideration.
2.2.2 Route suney
2-2.2.1 A detailed route survey is to be performed to pro-
vide sufficient data for design and construction.
2.2.2.2 The route survey is to cover sufficient width and ac-
curacy to permit the safe and proper installtion and operation
of ihe pipeline. '
2.2 .2 .3 The accuracy needed may vary along the proposed
route. A higher degree of accuracy is required in areas where
other activities. obstructions or highly varied seabed topogra·
phy or subsurface conditions may dictate more detailed in·
vestigations.
2.2.2.4 A proper investigation to reveal pQssigle conflicts
with existing or planQed ipstallations t<? be perfoqned. Ex-
amples of such installations are other submarine pipelines and
communication cables.
2.2.2.5 The intended pipeline route is to be surveyed for
wrecks and obstructions down to a depth exceeding that
reached by the pipeline during installation. burial or opera·
tion.
2.2.2.6 The results of the survey are to be presented in an
accurate route map indicating the location of the pipeline and
related facilities and the seabed properties. See 2.2.4. ·
2.2.3 Bottom topography
2.2 .3 .I All topographical features influencing the stability
and installation of the pipeline are to be covered by the route
survey. The survey is at least to define' ,
obstructions in the form of rock outcrops. large boulders
etc. that could require levelling or removal·
prior to pipeline installation . '·_,
topographical features that contains potentially unstable
slopes. sand waves. deep valleys and erosion in fopri of
scour patterns or material deposits. ·
2.2.4 Seabed properties
2.2 .4.1 All the geotechnical . fqr .
evaluating the effects of relevant loading conditions are to be
determined for the subfloor deposits. This should include
possible unstable deposits in tbe vicinity of the pipeJjne. '
2.2 .4 .2 The geotechnical properties may be ol;>taiped
through a combination of seismic $UrYey. coring. in s.itti
and borings with sampling. · ··
Supplementary informations may be obtained from gwlogi·
cal surveys. sea bottom topographicid visl,l31 'sur
veys. biological investigations. chemical examinations and la-
boratory testing on samples from borings. ,,
Guidelines for site and laboratory ,.testing maY· be
Veritas" Technical Note TNA 302. ·
2.2.4.3 Special investigations of the subfloor deposits may
be required to evaluate specific problems. Examples of such
problems are:
ease of excavation and/ or burial operations.
possibilities of flow slides or liquefaction as the result of
repeated loadings.
2.3 Environmental conditions
2.3.1 General
2.3 .I . I Possible effects of the various environmental actions
are to be taken into account to the extent relevant to the si-
tuation considered.
2.3.2 Tide
2.3.2.1 Tides are to be taken into consideration when the
water depth is a significant parameter. such as when deter ..
mining wave loads on a riser. planning laying- de-
termining maximum or minimum water pressures etc.
2.3.2.2 The- assumed maximum tide is to include both as-
tronomical tide and storm surge. Minimum tide
should be based on the astronomical tide and possible 11ega·
live storm surge. · ,,
2.3.3 Wind
2.3.3.1 Direct actio!! of wind is to be taken into
tion for slender risers. The possibility of vibrations of such ri-
sers excited by winQ is to be considered. Special
to be paid to wind loads in the construction and transporta-
ti0!1 phases.
2.3.3.2 For risers the wind data used are in principle to be
tile same as those used for the design of the platform.
}.3.3 If the riser is positioned adjacent to other structural
parts. possible effects due to disturbance in the flow field
should be considered when determining the wind loads. Such
may either be caused by an increase or reduction of
speed. or by dynamic excitations caused by vortexes
from the adjacent structural parts.
2.3-4.1 The effect of waves is to be taken into consideration
for both pipeline and riser. Examples of·such effects are the
aGli9P' of wave forces on riser or on pipeline during installa·
tion or when resting on bottom (not buriedl. Examples of indi·
effeCts ·are deformation of riser due to wave forces acting
lh¢ platform. and deformation of pipeline due to Jay barge
rrtQtions in waves.
P=ible Jiquifaction and transportation of sea bed material is
tQ be considered.
2.3.4.2 If the riser is positioned adjacent to other structural
partS. possible effects due to disturbance of the flow field
,·.sh9uld be considered when determining the wave loads.
Such effects may either be caused by changes in the wave
kinematics. or by dynamic excitation caused by vor·
shed from the adjacent structufal pans. '
' .4.3 For riser the wave data to be used are in principle to
be the same as those used for the design of the platform.
2).4.4 For the assessment of wave conditions along the pi·
''-"'"·''··"· .: route a limited number of intervals may be assumed.
1': tn of which being characterized by water depth. bottom to-
pography and ?ther factors affecting the wave conditions.
2.3.5.1 The effect of current is to be taken into considera-
tiO!J for both pipeline and riser.
2.3.5.2 The assumed current velocities are to include pos-
contributions from tidal current. wind induced currents.
sto'rm surge current. density current and possible other cur-
,_ rent phenomena. For near shore regions longshore current
dl.le to wave breaking should also be considered.
2.3.5 . .Jr. The tidal current may normally be determined from
harmonic analyses of recorded data. while wind induced-.
storm surge and density currents may be determined either
from statistical analyses of recorded data. or from numerical
simulations.
15
salinity
oxygen content
pH-value
resistivity
current
biological activity (sulfate reducing bacteria etc.)
2.3.7 Ice
2.3.7.1 In case the installation is to be located in an area
where ice may develope or drift. proper consideration of ice
conditions and their possible effects on riser or pipeline is to
be made. The ice conditions should be studied with particular
attention to possible:
ice forces on riser and on pipeline
potential scour at pipeline location and contact with pipe-
line by floating ice
ice problems during the installation operations
2.3.7 .2 The description of ice conditons should preferably
be in accordance with the cc\'\.:orld Meterorological Organiza-
tion Sea-Ice Nomenclature>).
2.3.8 Air and sea temperatures
2.3.8.1 Reasonably accurate air and sea temperature statist-
ics are to be provided. These data are important for proper
determination of design temperatures. possible thermal stres-
ses. deformations. displacements. etc.
2.3.8.2 The period of observations on which tbe maximum
and minimum air and sea temperature statistics are based.
should preferably be several years.
2.3.9 Marine growth
2.3.9.1 The effect of marine growth on riser and pipeline
loads is to be considered. taking into account all biological
and environmental factors relevant to the site in ques;tion.
2.3.9.2 For determination of the hydrodynamic loads spe-
cial attention is to be paid to the effective diameter increase
arid the equivalent roughness of accumulated marine growth
when determining the hydrodynamic coefficients.
2.4 Internal pipe conditions
2.4.1 Installation conditions
2.4.1.1 A description of the internal conditions during stor-
age. installation. and pressure testing is to be prepared. Of
. . special concern is the duration of exposure to sea water and
!'Jormally a wmd mduced surface speed air. and whether inhibitors are 10 be used.
tng to 2 per cent of the I hour mean wmd speed will be ac- See section 4. 5 and 6.
10epted.
2.3.5.4 In regions where bottom material may erode. spe-
cial studies of the current conditions near the bottom includ-
ing boundary layer effects may be required for onbottom
stability calculations of pipelines.
For risers and for pipelines during laying reasonable
should be made as to current velocity distribu-
1' over the depth. For risers this is normally to be the same
!use(! for the platform.
2.3.6 Corrosivity
For the evaluation of the corrosion protection sys-
tem the following properties. with seasonal variations of the
water ami soil along the route are to be considered'

2.4.2 Operational conditions
2.4.2.1 The physical and chemical composition of the pro·
duct and the pressures and temperatures along the pipeline
are lo be specified.
2.4.2.2 Limits of :emperatures and pressures. and allowed
concentrations oi corrosive components for the product to be
transported are to be specified. Of special concern is the con·
tent of
sulphur compounds
water
chlorides
oxygen
carbon dioxide
hydrogen sulphide.
16
2.5 Design temperature
2.5.1 General
2.5.1.1 Minimum and maximum design temperatures for
pipeline system is to be established for selection of adequate
materials for pipes and coating. See section 4. 5 and 6.
2.5.2 Differentiated design temperatures
2.5.2.1 When estimated operational and environmental
temperatures vary significantly along the pipeline. a differ-
entiated design temperature for different intervals or sections
of the pipeline system may be specified.
17
SECTION 3
LOADS
3.1 Loading conditions and design conditions
3.1.1 General
\ .1.1 In order to relate permissible stresses or strains to
the probability of the loading and the risks involved these Ru·
les define two loading conditions and tV{O design conditions.
3.1.2 Loading conditions
3.1.2.1 Any part of the pipeline system is to be designed for
the most unfavorable of the following loading conditions:
al Functional loads
b) Design environmental loads and simultaneously acting
functional loads
Functional loads and design environmental loads are defined
in 3.2 l'nd 3.3
3.1.2.2 For each of the above loading conditions and for
each member or cross section to be considered. the most un·
fav9urable relevant combination. position and direction of
forces which may act simultaneously are to be used in the an·

3,1 .2J All direction of wind. waves and current are to be
equally probable. unless statistics show clearly that
wind. waves and current of the prescribed probability are dif·
ferent for different directions.
3:1.3 Design conditions
3 ..1.3.1 )loth loading conditions defined in 3.1.2.1 are to be
considered for all different conditions or phases relevant to
pipeline ·or in question.
3.1 .3 .2 With respect to levels of permissible stresses
_ccc. ..:c.cc::::c:::c""' a,ny situation or phase is to be referred to one of the
design conditions:
3.2 Functional loads
General
3,2.).1 · Functional loads are loads which are necessary con-
Sequences.of the system"s use and treatment in the
Various situations under ideal conditions. Ideal conditions
no wind. waves etc .. i.e. no environmental loads act-
_.
:1.2.1.2 Functional loads which normally are to.be consid·
for the operation and installation phases are given in
3.2.2 and 3.2.3.
-· : .. Functional loads during operation
·3:2.2.1 Functional loads during operation will normally be
those (!ue to
)"•igpl

. expansion and contraction
prestressing.
Weight is to includ"'
of pipe. including coating and all attachments to
Note that weight of transported contents and buoyancy will
not have the effect on stresses as weight of pipe if the
p1pe IS vertical or mclined. See also 3.2.3.2.
3.2.2.3 Pressure is to includ"'
internal fluid pressure.
-- external hydrostatic pressure.
- soil pressure for buried pipes.
3 .2.2 .4 Thermal expansion and contraction loads are pri·
marily to include the effect of product temperature on mate-
rial temperature. Possible other causes of changes in material
temperature are also 'to be considered. The temperature dif·
fere.nce to be c:onsidered is that between material temperature
operatiOn and material temperature during installa·
uon. (Loads due to thermal expansion of an enclosed fluid are
to be included in fluid mentioned in
3.2.2.3)
3.2.2.5 Thermal expansion or contraction loads do not ha·
ve to be taken into account when they do not influence the
capacity to carry other loads. Fluctuation in temperature may
cause fatigue and be taken into account when checking fati·
gue strength.
3.2.2.6 Prestressing. such as permanent curvature or a per·
manent elongation introouced during installation. is to be ta-
ken into account to the eXtent the capacitY to carry other
loads is affected by the prestressing.
3.2.2.1 The functional loads are mainly static. Exception
may be internal fluid pressure. which may change with time
rapid enough to cause dynamic effects. Under normal condi·
lions this effect may be considered allowed for by the per·
missible hoop stress in the sl<jtic condition. ·
3.2.3 Functional loads during installation
3.2.3.1 'J.:he functional loads during installation may be
grouped as·
weight
- pressure
- installation forces.
3.2.3.2 If the buoyancy of the pipe is included in the term
c<weighb>. the longitudinal force due to pressure is ·to be add-
ed. If weight in air is used together with .the actual pressure
normal to the surface. the effect of pressure on the longitudi·
nal force is automatically included in the result.
3.2.3.3 Installation forces are to-include all forces acting on
the pipe due to the installation operations. Typical installation
forces are applied tension during laying and forces from the
trenching machine if trenching is carried out after laying.
3.3 Environmental loads
3.3.1 General
3.3.1.1 Environmental loads are loads due to wind. waves.
current and other environmental phenomena. Loads due to
hum?on activities independent of the pipeline system are also
included. e.g. impact from trawl boards .
3.3.1.2 The environmental loads are random in nature and
should in principle be evaluated by means of probabilistic
methods. Natural. simultaneous occurence of different en·
vironmental phenomena is to be determined by proper super·
postition of their individual effects. taking into account the
probability of their simultaneous occurence.
18
3 .3 .I .3 The environmental loads during normal operation a
are not to be taken Jess than the most probable severest load
liquid particle acceleration normal to the pipe axis
(wave induced particle accelerationl.
relative acceleration between water particle and pi-
pe normal to the pipe axis.
in a time period of I 00 years. a,
3.3.1.4 For temporary phases the design period is to beta· Cm
ken as three times the expected duration of the phase. but not
added mass coefficient. In general Cm is a function
of Reynolds number. Keulegan-Carpenter number.
pipe roughness. and the distance between the pipe
and a fiXed boundary. This boundary may f.inst. be
the seabottom for a pipeline on or close to the sea·
bottom. or the caisson wall for the outside riser on ·a
gravity strUcture. Proposed values of Cm
less than 3 months. See also 3.3.1.5.
3.3.1.5 The environmental parameters for determination of
environmental loads in temporary phases lasting 5 days or
less. and which can be interrupted on a 48 hours warning.
can be based on reliable weather forecasts.
3.3.2 Wind loads
3.3.2.1 Wind loads. based on given wind data. may be de-
termined in accordance with a recognized code or in accord-
ance with Appendix A. Direct application of data from ade-
quate tests may also be used.
3.3.2.2 The wind data assumed for the determination of
loads are to ·be based on statiStical information. See also
2.3.3.2. When combined with maximum wave loads the one
minute sustained wind speed is to be used. If gust wind only
is more unfavourable than sustained wind in conjunction
with wave loads. the 3 seconds gust wind speed is to be used.
D,
Appendix A may be used. · · · · ·
total outside diameter of the pipe !including coating.
marine growth etc.l.
3.3.4.3 The drag force per unit length of the pipe is to be
calculated as: '
F0 = 112 pC0 V,IV,ID,
drag force per unit length normal to the pipe axis.
drag coefficient for the flow normal to the pipe axis.
In general C0 is a function of Reynolds number.
· Keulegan-Carpenter number. pipe roughness "an<!
the distimce between the pipe and a fiXed boundary.
IV,!
Proposed values ofC0 are given in Appendix A.
water particle velocity relative to the pipe. normal
to the pipe axis.
absolute value of V, introduced to obtain proper
sign ofF0 •
3.3.2.3 In addition to the determination of maximum static V'
(or quasistatic> wind loads. the possibility of vibrations due to
windinduced cyclic loads is to be considered. Guidelines per·
taining in particular to the vortex shedding phenomena are
pand D, see 3.3.4.2.
given in Appendix A.
3.3.3 lclydrodynamic loads, general
3.3.3.1 Hydrodynamic loads are flow induced loads caused
by the relative motions betweep the pipe and the surrounding
liquid. When determining the hydrodynamic loads. the rela·
tive liquid particle velocities and accelerations used in the cal·
culations are to be established taking into account contribu-
tions from waves. current and pipe motions if significant.
3.3.3.2 The hydrodynamic loads on a pipe may be divided
into the following five categories:
Drag and lift forces which are in phase with the absolute
or relative particle velocity.
Inertia forces which are in phase with the absolute or
relative water particle acceleration.
Flow induced cyclic loads due to vortex shedding and
other instability phenomena.
Impact loads due to wave slamming.
- .J3uoyancy variations dUe to wave action.
Flow induced cyclic loads and wave slamming loads are dell
with in Appendix A.
3.3.4 Wave loads
..a>··
3.3.4.1 Wave-induced loads acting on a submerged pipe are
to be calculated according to recognized methods. In the de-
termination of the hydrodynamic coefficients involved. rel-
evant model test data and published data may be used.
Forces obtained directly· by reliable and adequate model tests
may alternatively be used in the prediction of wave loads.
3.3.4.2 The inertia force per unit length of the pipe is to be
calculated as:
where
F - _;;QL C •D? a
m-e 4a+em 4 r
the inertia force per unit length acting normal to the
pipe axis.
the mass density ofthe surrounding water.
3.3.4.4 If the riser is built up of a number of closely spaced
pipes. interaction and solidification effects are to be taken into
account when determining the mass and drag coefficient for
each individual pipe or for the whole bundle of pipes. If suf-
ficient data is not available large scale model tests may be re-
quired.
3.3.4.5 For pipes on or close to a fiXed boundary lift forces
to the axis of the pipe. and perpendicular to the ·
velocity vector are to be taken into account. These forces are
to be calculated as:
where
F L lift force per unit length acting normal to the axis of
the pipe. and normal to the velocity vector.
CL the lift force coefficient. In general CLis a function
of Reynolds number. Keulegan-Carpenter number.
pipe roughness and the distance between the pipe
and a fiXed boundary. Proposed values of Ctare gi-
ven in Appendix A.
•· VrD1 see3.3.4.2 .
3.3.4.6 To obtain the combined effect of simultaneous drag.
lift and inertia forces. these are to be added vectorially. taking
the phase angles between them into account.
3.3.4.7 Possible influence of adjacent structual parts should
be taken into account when determining the wave loads as
described in 2.3.4.2.
3.3.4.8 For exposed risers and suspended spans of pipeli·
nes. the possibility of vibrations due to vortex sheddin"g and
other instability phenomena due to wave action should be
considered.
3.3.5 Current loads
3 .3 .5 .I The current induced drag and lift forces on a pipeli·
ne or riser are to be determined in combination with wa-
ve forces. This may be done by a vector additon of the wave
and current induced water particle velocities. If available.
computations of the total particle velocities and accelerations
based on more exact theories of wave - current interaction.
will be preferred.
.5 .2 Special attention is to be paid to possible current in·
duced vibrations of exposed risers and free spans of pipelines
due to vortex shedding or other instability phenomena.
For guidance see Appendix A.
, 3.3.6 .Indirect» environmental loads
3.3.6.1 For a riser during operation possible significant soil
qeformation. displacement of the platform due to soil de-
formation. and signiflcantplatform deformation are to be ta-
into account. Some portion of the connected pipeline
, p1a)' ;>!so l>e considered for such effect.
· 3.3.6.2 For a pipeline during laying. the effect of lay-vessel
·:p1ovements due to waves are to be considered. For a riser be-
ing installed from a vessel a similar effect may be considered.
3.3.7 Ice loads
3.3.7 .I In areas where ice may develop or drift. the possi·
, .!?il.ity of on _the pipeline system is to be considered. Such
· forces may partly be due to ice frozen on the pipeline system
itself. and partly due to floating ice. For shore approaches
o;nd '!fea5 of shallow water the possibility of ice scouring and
Irrpat;ts from drifting ice is to be considered.
· 3.3.7 .2, In case of ice frozen to above-water parts of the sys-
tem (e.g. due to sea spray) the following forces are to be con·
· sidered:
19
Weight of the ice.
Impact forces due to thaw of the ice.
Forces due to expansion of the ice.
Increased wind- and wave-forces due to increased expos·
ed area or volume.
3.3.7 .3 Forces from floating ice are to be calculated accord·
ing to the best ·available theory. Due attention is to be paid to
the mechanical properties of the ice. contact area. shape of
structure. direction of ice movements etc. The oscillating na-
ture of the ice forces (build-up of lateral force and fracture of
moving ice) is to be taken into account in the structoral ana·
lysis. When forces due to lateral ice motion will govern struc--
tural dimensions. model testing of the ice-structure
tion may be required.
3.3.8 Accidental loads.
3.3.8.1 Accidental loads are to be classified as environ-
mental loads. and they are to be taken into consideration for
those parts Qf the system where such loads are likely to oc-
cur. Examples of accidenllll _loads are impact from vessels.
trawlboards and dropped object as well as fire.
3.3.8.2 The pipeline and its accessories are to be protected
against accidental loads which are likely to occur. Such loads
are
- impacts from vessels
- impat;ts from trawlboards
- impacts from dropped objects
See also 1.4.4.3.
20
SECTION 4
STRENGTH AND INPLACE STABILITY
4.1 General
4 .1.1 Design analyses
4 .I .1.1 The design analyses are to be based on accepted
principles of statics. dynamics, strength of materials. and soil
mechanics. and are to be in accordance with these Rules. See
also 4.1.2.3.
4. 1. 1.2 Simplified methods of analysis may be used if these
are reasonably conservative. Model tests may be used in
combination with or instead of theoretical calculations. Iri ca-
ses where theoretical methods are inadequate. model or full
scale tests may be required.
4.1.1.3 When determining responses to dynamic loads. the
dynamic effect is to be taken into if deemed signi·
licant. Dynamic analyses or reasonably conservative qua-
sistatic considerations may be used. ·
4.!.1 .4 All forq:s and support displacements which may
influence the safety, are to be taken into accounL For each
cross section or part of the system to be considered. and for
each possible form of failure to be analysed, the relevant
combination of forces which may act simultaneously are to
be considered.
4.1 .1 .5 These Rules do not include the problem of optimum
design. which would involve repeated design analyses. Pipe
diameter. operating pressure and other vital parametl'lS are
assumed to be known.
4.1.2 Design criteria
4.1.2.1 Pipelines and risers are to be designed against the
following possible modes of failure,
4.1.3.2
fined'
In these Rules two main design conditions are
- Pipeline systems during operation
- Pipeline systems during installation
4.1.3.3 The term (<during operatiom) refers to normal $itua':'
tions after completed installation whether the system is. in
operation or not. Shutdown conditions and conditions dur\ng
maintenance operations are included. Repair situations,
normally not included.
4.1.3.4 The term «during installation» referst\) siwa-
tion (construction. installation. laying. buriall before'comple(-
ed installation of the system. Repair situations will noqnally
also be included. ·
4.2 Pipeline/ riser during operation
4-2.1 General
4.2.1.1 The pipeline/riser is to have a lllinimum
against the modes of failure mentioned in 4 .).2 .1 c
4.2.1.2 order to avoid damage to the pipeline/risers
should not be located too close to foreign structures. pipeli-
nes. wrecks boulders etc. If. however. this is unavoidable
pipeline/ riser should be kept in posi\ion 1:>)' cJart!P5· supP9fts
etc. When one pipeline is' crossing another the recommeq<!ed
minimum clearance between the two pipelines is 0.3 m.
4.2.1 .3 External risers are to be adequately protected agaipst
impact loads from vessels and other mechanical influence .. ,
The protection may be obtained by:
(
Excessive yielding
Buckling
- suitable wi!.!l 1\! , !i!','J;!L!.!!!.!l'!!!!Qi>,.
Fatigue failure
Brittle fracture
Excessive damage to or loss of weight coating (see Sec-
tion 6)
Loss of inplace stability (external equilibrium)
Propagating ductile fracture
For design against corrosion. see Section 6.
These Rules do not specify any limitations regard-
ing elastic deformations or vibrations. provided the effect of
large deformations and the effect of dynamic behavior. in-
cluding fatigue effect of vibrations. are taken into account in
the strength analyses.
4. 1.2.3 Strength criteria are here primarily based on ·rt;;,
method of permissible stresses. The limit sta,te method may
also be used. provided the load- and material factors used for
the ultimate limit state will represent the safety required in
these Rules. See also 1 .4.3.
4.1.2.4 The safety against brittle fracture is normally con-
sidered satisfactory if the materials are in accordance with
Section 5 and the workmanship. welding. and testing are in
accordance with Section 7.8 and 10.
4.1.3 Design conditions
4.1.3.1 The safety against the modes of failure mentioned
in 4.1 .2.1 is to be checked for the design conditions in which
the mode of failure in question is possible - with due regard
to permissible stress (or strain> levels in the considered condi-
tion. A general definition of «design conditiom• is given in
3. 1.3. A more precise defmition of the design conditions. to
which different stress levels are connected. is given in 4.1.3.2.
- instaU3.tion or renctering structures-
- location of the risers within the platform structure itself:
The protection system is subject to approval. See 3.3.8.
4.2. 1.4 In zone 2 and where found necessary pipelines
to be protected against unacceptable mechanical influence.
Protection may be achieved by one or a combination of th.e
following means:
Concrete coating
Burial
- Backfilling
- Other ·mechanical protection.
4.2.2 Yielding
4.2.2.1 For pipelines the tensile hoop stress (ay) due to a pre,
ssure differential between internal and 1S
not to exceed the permissible value u)-p given below,.
usage factor<See Table 4.1)
permissible hoop stress
specified minimum yield strength
temperature derating factor.
For material temperatures below 1 20°C,
may normally be usf!l. For higher ternn<,raltur'es
reduction of k,. depending on type
be considered.
21
Usage factor
Zone Loading condition
a b
0.72
0.50
0.96
0.67
If not a more accurate method is used. the tensile
stress, to be compared with a,, of 4.2.2. 1. is to be deter-
by the following formula'
D
.,.,(p;-p)· 21
lnteinal pressure
p·ressure
nominal outside diameter of pipe
nOininal wall thickness of pipe (see 7 .2.6.5)
p,) is to be the maximum of the difference (p;,.,- p, ;n'
the portion of the ptpehne mtended to have constant r!: t
;ti!d material properties. and which is to be pressure tested m
Qne the operation. Pi is not to be taken less than
th' highest of the following at the considered point'
maximlJm state operatmg pressure
the ·line a static condition
, p . is not to be taken higher than the water pressure at the
_point corresponding to low tide.
4.2;2.3 For risers and for pipeline sections where longitudi-
stresses- are F;SSential for equilibrium. the equivalent
to be used as a criterion for safety against ex-
The criteria for equivalent stresses are given
er>r n<inelline.r.' and risers the permissible longitudinal
( r .,l depend on the consequences of
possible strain (displacementl does not
• strain (see 4.2,2.5). stresses need not to
as a criterion for safety against excessive yielding. In
S\fain the permissible strain (dis-
equivalent stress (a,} is to be used as the criteri-
The permissible strain depends on the ductility of the
and on previously experienced plastic strain. The
is to have acceptable fracture toughness after
deforri,ttio·n. For D/ t ratios above a certain value.
&!'vern. see 4.2.2.6.
flattening due to bending together with the out
tolerance from fabrication of the pipe (see
to exceed 2 % '
2
..;100
req11irements of 4.2.2.5 and 4.2.2.6 apply to
·. strain. such as permanent
also apply to exposed pipelines
with the bottom. For exposed
01 contact with the bottom the re-
i Qi\iu·ealents <and 4.2.2.6 will apply provided yield-
tO" Such contact that the strain would be
the permissible value.
for risers and in cases where possible
permissib.le strain. e.g. suspended spans
with the bottom is not obtained before
strain is exceeded, the equivalent stress. defm-
is not to exceed the permissible value Gcp given below.
O"cp 71cpO'F·k,
usage factor as defined in Table 4.1
Gx longitudinal stress
ay hoop stress
T xy tangential shear stress
"F and k, are defined in 4.2.2.1.
4.2.2.9 For suspended spans in axially restrained lines the
axial force developed due to the sag may be taken into ac-
count If this effect will stop the bending strain (or flattening)
within the limit given in 4.2.2.5 and 4.2.2.6. the value of a,
to be inserted in the formula of 4.2.2.8 may be determined as
if the span acts as a cable. In such a case stresses due to ther-
mal expansion will only be those corresponding to the chan-
ge in sag caused by the thermal expansion.
4.2.2.10 Corrosion and erosion allowances are not to be
included in the nominal thickness used for the determination
of stresses. ·
4.2.2.1 1 Possible strengthening effect of weight coating on
a steel pipe is normally not to be taken into account in the
design against yielding. Coating which adds significant stiff-
ness to the pipe may increase the stresses in the pipe at dis-
continuities in the coating. When appropriate this effect is to
be taken into account.
4-2.3 Buckling
4.2.3.1 The possibility of buckling is to be considered. De-
pending upon the load and support conditions of the pipe.
one or more of the following three buckling modes may be
possible
Local buckling of the pipe wall due to extemal pressure,
axial force and bending moment. See 4.2.3.2 through
4.2.3.4.
Propagation buckling due to external pressure - when
frrst j!.- local buckle or similar damage has occured. See
4.2.3S.
Buckling of the pipe as a bar in compression. See 4.2 .3.6.
4.2.3.2 The pipeline is to have adequate safety against local
buckling under . the most unfavourable combination of ex-
ternal overpressure. axial force and bending moment. The
applied combination of stresses is to be compared with the
critical combinations. The critical combinations may be de-
termined .from available relevant test results. The empirical
formulas. methods and corresponding criteria given in Ap-
pendix B may be used-
4.2.3.3 Bending moment due to a curvature which cannot
change. ·e.g. a riser in a needs not be taken into ac-
count in the buckling analysis.
4.2.3.4 The effect of weight coating on pipe wall buckling
may be taken into account if satisfactory analytical or
perimental documentation is provided.
4.2.3.5 Since propagation buckling cannot be initiated be-
fore a local buckle has occured. no additional safety against
propagation buckling is required. For guidance see Appendix
B.
4.2.3.6 It has to be documented either that the safety
against barbuckling is not less than what is normally accept-
ed or. if barbuckling is unavoidable. that the pipeline/ riser
will not suffer any damage in the postbuckled mode. For a
nonburried pipeline such proof will normally not be requ'r-
ed.
4.2.4 Fatigue
4.2.4.1 All stress fluctuations of magnitude and number
large enough to have a significant fatigue effect on the pipeli-
ne system are to be investigated.
4.2.4.2 Typical causes of stress fluctuations in a pipeline
22
system are: where
- Direct action of waves.
--Vibrations of the pipeline system, e.g. due to vortex s number of stress blocks
shedding caused by current. waves. or wind. n1
- Platform movements (displacements or deformationsl. N,
number of stress cycles in stress block i
- Fluctuations in operating pressure and temperature.
The above phenomena, together with possible other causes of
number of cycles to failure at constant stress range
(a);
usage factor
stress fluctuations, are to be considered to the extent relevant The number of stress blocks. s, is to be large enough to ensu-
in each case. re reasonaJbe numerical accuracy.
4.2.4.3 Fatigue analyses are in particular to be made for
details likely to cause stress consentrations.
The aim of fatigue design is to ensure adequate safety against
fatigue failures within the planned life of the structure. The
specific criteria will depend on method of analysis. of which
two different categories exist:
al Methods based on fracture mechanics. See 4.2.4.4.
b) Methoqs ba5ed on fatigu.e tests. See 4.2.4.5.
The limit damage ration ., will depend on the maintainability,
i.e. possibility for inspection and repair.
Recommended values of., are given in Table 4.3.
Methods. other than Miner's rule. for accessing cumulative
damage will be considered in each separate case.
4.2.4.4 Where appropriate. a calculation procedure based Table 4.3 Usage factor
on fracture mechanics may be usecl The specific criteria will
be considered in each separate case. Access for inspection
4.2.4.5 The methods based on fatigue tests consists general-
ly of the following three main steps:
Determination of long term distribution of stress range.
see 4.2.4.6.
Selection of appropriate S-N curve (characteristic resist-
ance!, see 4.2.4.7.
Determination of the accumulated dantage. see 4.2.4.8.
4 .2.4.6 All stress fluctuations imposed during the entire life.
included the installation phase of the pipeline system which
have magnitude and number large enougb to cause fatigue
effects are to be taken into account when determining the
long term distribution" of stress range. .. - . . .
As most of the loads which contribute to fatigue are of ran-
dom nature statisti\'aJ considerations will normally be requir-
ed for determination of the long term distribution of fatigue
loading effects. Deierministic or spectrai analysis may be us-
ed. The method of analysis used is subject to acceptance.
The effect of dynamic are to be properly accounted
fo{· when determining the i-anges unless it can be
shown that the dynamic effects are neglil;ible. Special care is
to be taken to determine the stress ranges adequately in pipe-
lines or risers excited in the range. The amount of
damping assumed in the analysis is to be conservatively esti-
mated.
4.2.4.7 Characteristic resistances are normally given as S·N
curves. i.e. stress versus of cycles to failure.
The S·N curve used is to be applicable for the material, con-
struction detail and state of stress considered as well as to the
surrounding environment.
The 1;-N curve is normally tq )le !>O>ed Rn a 95% c;onfidence
limit.
4.2.4.8 In the general case where stress fluctuations occur
with arriPHn.ide in random the linear damage
hypothesis (Miner's rule) may be used.'
Application of Miner's rule implies that the long term dis-
tribution of stress range is replaced by a stress histogram,
consisting of a convenient number of constant amplitude
stress range blocks and a number of n;. The fa-
tigue criteria then reads:
Usage factor
4.2.5 On-bottom stability
4.2.5.1 The pipeline is to be supported. anchored or buried
in such a way that under the assumed conditions it will not
move from its as-installed position, apart from movements (
corresponding to permissible deformation, thermal expan-
sion. and a limited amount of settlement alter installation.
Criteria which will limit permissible deformations are:
yiefdiiig: ouckiing""and faugue of pipe • . - . - ..
deterioration/ wear of coating
geometrical limitations of supports
distance to other pipelines. structures or obstacles
The requirement to permissible deformation may thus vary
along the pipeline.
4.2.5.2 If the pipeline at any location along its route is on or
near slopes. the risk of slope failure is to be Regard-
ing precautions against slides. reference is made to 8.2 .2.
4-.2.5.3 Buried lines are to be checked for possible sinking
or floatation. For both liquid and gas lines sinking is to be
considered assuming the pipe is waterfllled, and floatation is
to be considered assuming the pipe is gas· or ajr-ftlled.
4.2.5.4 If the specific weight of the waterfilled pipe is less
than that of the soil (including water contentsl. no further
analyses are needed to document the safety against sinking.
For lines to be placed .in soils having low shear strength. a
consideration of soil stresses may be required. If the soil is. or
is likely to be liquefied. it is to be shown that the depth of
sinking will be satisfactorily limited. either by the depth of li-
quefaction or by build-up of resistance sinking.
4.2 .5 .5 If the specific weight of the gas- or air-filled pipe is (
less than that of the soil. it is to be proven that the shear
strength of the soil is sufficient to prevent floatation. Con-
sequently. in soils which are or may be liquefied, the specific
weight of the gas- or air-filled pipe is not to be less that that
of the soil (if burial is requiredl.
4.2.5.6 Exposed lines resting directly on the bottom withoUl
any special supporting elements or anchoring devices. except
possible weight coating. are to be checked for sinking in the
same manner as explained above for buried lines. Further.
such lines are to have the below required safety against being
lifted off the bottom or moved horizontally.

7 Liquid lines as well as gas lines are. in the air- or
-filled condition. to have a specific gravity higher than that
f water. (((Negative buoyancyn). Required minimum va-
lues will depend on pipe size.
4.2.5.8 Horizontal (transverse) stability is to be checked for
wave and current conditions according io 3.3.1.3 and 3.3.1.4.
The most unfavourable combination of simultaneously acting
venical and horizontal forces on the pipeline is to be consid-
ered. When determining this unfavourable combination, it
maY Qe taken ·into account e.g. that the forces will vary along
the line, and directional distribution of waves and currents.
4 .2.5 .9 If the motions of the pipeline is to be restrained eith-
er by friction force between the pipe and the sea bottom or
by forces _mobilized through plastic deformation of the sup-
portmg soil, a factor of safety of minimum 1.1 is to be includ·
, ed when establishing the restraining force.
4-Z-5.10 The coefficient of friction may vary(within a wide
with material and surface roughness of the 'pi-
pehne. The apphed values are to be based on relevant in·
formation from the actual location.
4.2 .5.I I Axial (longitudinal) stability should be checked.
Especially. near platforms and/ or places where the pipeline
dlfectJon, sufficient flexibility and space for expan·
s1on should be allowed for. The expansion calculation should
Qe, based on conservative values for the axial friction between
pip!:ljne and soil.
_In shallqw water repeated loading effects due to
:Jave '!lay lead to a reduction of the shear strength of
s9il. ThiS s]jould be considered in the analysis, especially
'"·'""-t:==-'-'''·"'""''"!!l!U:>l!.<;!\(1)1 .consists of loose sands which is more sus·
, . to liq!lefaction tl)an looser graded deposits and clays.
·4::1::6·'''-PrOJ>ag:;ting'dl\ctile fractures
4 ,6-1 . P transporting gas or mixed gas and liquids
under pressure are to have reasonable resistance against
propagatJng (fast running) ductile fractures.
This may be obtained by using steel with a itigb upper shelf
Cll'llpY V-notJ::h toughness, lowering the stress level. me-
crack. arrestors. changing the fracture direction or by
of these solutions.
23
Fatigue (due to possible vortex shedding) see 4.2.4.
Interference with human activiteis e.g. fiShing
Free spans are not acceptable if they may lead to failure of
the pipeline or put restrictions to human activities.
4.3 Pipeline/riser ,during installation
4.3.1 General
4.3. .I Strength considerations for the pipeline/risers dur-
mg mstallation are to be made in order to determine how the
pipeline/ riser may be installed without suffering· any damage
which may _impair function or the safety of the completed •
line, or which may mvolve hazardous installation or repair
work. See also Section 8.
4.-3 .I .2 If the installation analyses for a proposed pipeline/
nser show that an acceptable set of installation parameters
cannot be obtained with the installation equipment to be us-
ed, the pipeline/ riser is to be modified.
4.3.1.3 The requirements of 4.3 apply also, as far as applic-
able. to repair operations.
4.3.1.4 Only those sections under 4.3.2, 4.3.3 and 4.3.4
found pertinent to the various installation techniques/ phases
should be considered.
43.!.5 Any installation phase/technique is to be checked
Such phases and techniques are:
- Stan of laying operation
- Normal continous laying
Pipe abandon and retrieval
Termination of laying operation
Tow out
Bottom tow
Bottom pull
Spool on
Tie-in
Straighfening
Trenching
Back fill
4_.3.1.6 any of the phases mentioned in 4.3.1.5 the pipe-
hoe/ nser IS to have the below required safety against the fol-
lowing modes of failure and damage
Yielding. see 4.3.2.
Local buckling. see 4.3.3.
- Fatigue effect. see 4.3.4.
- Excessive damage to weight coating.
The <;lesign solution is to be supported by calculations based 4.3.2 Yielding
0 Q relevant. experience and/or suitable tests. See also 5.2.8. 4.3.2.1 The primary requirement as to yielding during in-
R" IS that the residual longitudinal strain after installa·
• supports .,,.., t10n IS not to exceed 0.002 (0.2 per centl.
4.2.7.1·_ Riser supports are to be so designed that a smooth strain limitation does not apply to the bending and
forces between riser and support is obtained. strrughtemng the reel barge method or the pulling
As (ar as _POSSible. introduction of bending in the pipe wall is through a J-tube or surular. see 4.3.2.3-4.3.2.5. When a pipe
, t<;>, ayqJded. has vanable suffness e.g. due to concrete coating, this will lo-
cally give high strain. Such local strain are no to exceed 0.02
(2.0 per centl.
.2 The supports are normally to be designed
the possJble forms of failure with. at least the same
lle$ree of safety as that of the riser they support. However. if
safery consideration indicates that the overall sa-
IS by a reduction of the failure load of cenain
may govern the support design.
here there is no contact between the bottom and
(free spansl the following problem areas are to be
4.3.2.2 \\'hen the pipe is to be given a permanent curvature
(e.g. by the «bepding shoen or the «J-tube>, method). strain and·
flattening. are to be used as criteria in accordance with 4.3.2.3
and 4.3.2.4.
4.3.2.3 The permissible permanent strain depends on the
ducility of the pipe material. A total. permanent. bending
strain of 0.02 (2 per centl is acceptable. If the bending pro-
cedure involves successive bending and straightening of a
portion of the pipe, the maximum plastic strain is not to exce-
ed I % . (The corresponding radii of curvature are 250 and
500.) See also Section 5.
24
4.3 .2 .4 The flattening due to a permanent curvature togeth·
er with the out of roundness tolerances from fabrication of
the pipe shall not exceed 2 % .
Dmu- Dmjn
Dmax- + Dmin
2.0
"'100
4.3.2.5 The requirement of 4.3.2.1 apply to the assumed
most unfavourable condition during installation. i.e. assumed
maximum wind. waves and current acting. (Loading condi-
tion b). see 3 .I .2 .I). This requirement applies also to portions
of the pipeline where the strains are completely controlled and
cannot change. e.g. where the curvature is controlled by the
curvature of a rigid ramp. wp.ether or not environmental loads
are acting.
4.3.2.6 Instead of a direct consideration of residual strain as
explained in 4.3.2.1 and 4.3.2.5. the following criterion may
be appliedo
I (N 0 ..85M )2 2 . (.!::! + 0.85M) "'
V A + -v:;- + y - A --,;;;;-- ay
where the usage factor 11 is 0.72 for loading condition al and
0.96 for the loading condition b) and portions of controlled
strain in condition a) (see 4.3 .2 .5). ·
Other symbolso
N axial force (including effect of water pressure).
A = crosS s·ectional area of pipe.
M = bending moment
W = section modulus of pipe.
a y = hOop stress. ·
•r = specified minimum yield strength.
It is to be noted that if M is determined on the basis of a given
curvature. the nonlinear relationship between moment and
curvature is· to be taken into account.
4.3.2.7 For installation methods involving a J or S shaped
curve of the pipeline N and M are to be determined by an ap-
propriate method. suitable for the water depth: pipe stiffness
and weight in question. Since the effect pf the
loads is difficult to determine. the required analyses
are as follows:
A) Loading condition a) is to be analyzed in detail. and the
formula of 4.3.2.6 is to be applied with a usage factor >i
pf maximum 0.72.
B) Loading condition bl is to be co!lsidered by evaluating
the' increase of M due to environ lqads on the
basis of the assumed environmental conditions. the rele--
vant characteristics of the installation equipment (parti·
cularly the laying vessel). and an' available relevant ex·
• perience. If there is reason to expect that the increase of
M will exceed 33 ex,. the assumed maximum M is to be
inserted in the formula of 4.3.2.6. applying a usage fac·
tor of maximum 0..96.
Cl The particular effect of transverse forces acting on the
pipe during laying. namely the change in direction of
the pipe axis in the horizontal plane near the lift-off
points. is to be specially considered.
4.3.3 Buckling
4.3.3.1 Local buckling of the pipe wall is to be considered in
accordance with the applicable clauses from 4.2.3.
Guidelines is found in Appendix B.
4.3.4 Fatigue
4.3.4.1 When checking the fatigue life according to 4.2.4.
possible fatigue effects in the installation phases are to be add·
ed.
4.3.4.2 When the bQttom tow. bottom pull or the floatation
methode is used for installqtion of a pipeline. fatigue is consid·
ered to. be a majpr effect and this effect should be paid special
attention both through theoretical calculation and tests.
4.3.4.3 Wind induoed cyclicOioads on risers during constru"'
lion and transportation is to be considered and taken into ac-
count when found relevant.
4.4 Piping components and accessories
4.4.1 General
4.4.1.1 All pressure-containing piping components and a"'
cessories are generally to represent the same safety as that re-
quired above for plain. straight pipe.
4.4.1.2 For all components. for which detailed design pro-
cedures and criteria are not. given in these Rules. sufficient
strength is to be documented in at least one of the following
_:-·
Equal' or similar components been proven satisfacto-
ry by perfo.rmance under co01parable
conditions.
By proof tests.
By experimental stress analyses.
By engineering calculations.
4.4.1.3 If components designed according to a recognized
Code pr Standard has proven satisfactory performance. design
according to that Code or Standard may be generally accepted.
(
25
SECTION 5
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
FOR PIPES AND PIPING COMPONENTS
5.1 General
5.2.2 Supply condition
. : Validity
_?.,1-1.. !: This specifies requirements to characteristic
" .. pro,l'7rtles for design and quality control of steel line-
. Pipes and p1pmg components. The requirements are applica·
ble to. C·Mn steels. C·Mn·fine grain treated steels and low al·
. ,Joyed steels having a specified minimum yield strength up to
-500 Mpa. and consumables for welding.
5.2.2.1 The supply condition is to be specified taking into
possible adverse effects as a result of forming. weld-
mg heat operations which will occur during
fabncauon and Installation.
5.2.2.2 Steel to be used for general service may be supplied
as controiJed rolled. thermomechanical treated. nor-
maltzed. quenched and tempered or subcritical age--hardened.
of higher strength. other alloys and other materials
used subject to special approval.
5.2.3 Heat treatment
Materials for corrosion protection and weight coat·
covere<) by Section 6.
5.2.3.1 . Steel castings and forgings are to be normalized.
normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered.
The manufacture is to be capable o.f producing rna·
' of required quality. Relevant documentation is to be
"'Ya,i!ll\)le on request.
5.2.3.2 Rolled steel for low temperature service (i.e. mirii·
desJgn temperature below 0°C) is either to be normal·
quenched and tempered or thermomechancicaJiy treat·
t.Sii11g or an extended quality contro.l sche-
reql:ltred_ for manufacturers having limited experience.
.. nd IIJ new production methods are introduced.
of materials
,2.1... Materials are to be selected with due consideration
commodity. to be transported. loads. temperature. cor·
' a11d ?Onsequences of a possible failure during installa·
. _ .. ·.·. _opera.uon and mamtenance of the pipeline system.
·-_ specificatioD
specification is to be prepared giving the
for line-pipes. piping components.
. ' bQits ·:'nd nuts and any other impor·
IS to cover manufacturing meth-
... heat treatment. mechanical pro-
'quality control testing. documentation
mark mg.
tP"7ificaqon is to be submitted for approval.
and Identification
, $j .4,1 All materials are to be delivered with test certificates
the !teat number. manufacturing methods. test results.
ldentifiC!ltiOn etc. Material test certificates for pressurized parts
are I'Pf!Jlally to be endorsed by Veritas.
' '
·AU materials are to be traceable and suitably mark·
eg JdentJficauon of manufacturer. grade. heat num·
ber: S!Ze an(! application.
,4.'3 M at_erials · of uncertain origin or uncertain quality
are to reJected. or a special identification and test pro-
gramme IS ro be agreed upon.
'5.2 Steel for line-pipes
The steel is to processed and cast in a manner ensur·
composition. properties and soundness. Jmpurit-
elements are to be kept at a level consistent
property and service requirements.
steel is normally to be fully killed. Steels for li·
may. however. be semi·killed when the specif·
rield strength is less than 300 MPa.
5.2.4 Chemical composition
S-?.4.1 The is to have a chemical composition which
With the S!"7'fied manufacturing. fabrication and welding
procedures will ensure sufliCJent strength. ductility. toughness
and corrosion resistance.
5.2:4.2 The chemical composition of C·Mn and C·Mn. fine
gram 5te:"ls be welded is to be specified within the
analysiS hml!" gtven tn Table 5.1. Modifications may be agre-
ed ul'on subject to the application of suitable fabrication and
weldtng procedures.
·5.2.4:3 If the hardenability of a steel may be better predict·
wllh •!!other carbon equivalent formula. this may be con·
stdered together with a revised CE·Iimit.
5.2 .4.4 The chemical composition is to be determined both
tn the ladle and the product. Ladle analyses are to be taken
for every heat A check analysis is to be taken for each batch
of 50 finished products. but at least once every heat
5.2.4.5 The elements listed in Table 5.1 are to. be determin·
ed and reported. Other remaining elements added on purpose
to control the material properties are also to be checked. and
to be reponed.
Procedures for chemical analyses are described in Appendix
c. .
5.2.4.6 The chemical composition of low-alloy and alloyed
steels will be considered in each case.
5.2.4.7 Tbe level and inclusion contents are to be
k_ept spec1ally low tn steel to be used in pipeline systems de-
Slgne.d. to transport commodities which under unfavourable
condltlons may cause blistering. also called stepwise cracking.
<see 5.2.11 and 6.4.)
5.2.4.8 The chemical composition is to be specially consid·
ered for steel to be used in pipelines where underwater weld·
ing is planned for tie-in operations or should be anticipated in
case of repair situations.
5.2.5 Mechanical testing
5.2.5.1 The following mechanical properties are essential
and are to be determined and reported as part of the quality
control:
- Yield strength
26
u Jtimate tensile strength
Elongation
Reduction of area
fracture toughness
Hardness of welded joints
The reduction of area is normally to be measured only for
cast and forged steels.
5.2 .5 .2 The mect>anical properties of the base_ material is.
when practically posSJble. to be tested w1th spec1mens onen-
tated transverse to the principal rolling/ working direction.
5.2.5.3 Procedures for mechanical testing are described in
Appendix C. Alternative standarized methods jl1ay be used
subject to agreement.
Table 5.1 Chemical composition of C-steel, C-Mn steel and
· C-Mn fine-grain treated steel for general service.
c Mn Si p s Cu
% % % % 96 %
5.2. 7 Brittle fracture resistance
5.2.7.1 Base materials and weldments are to be reasonable
resistant against initiation of brittle fractures. This is to be en-
sured by keeping the transition temperature from brittle to
ductile behaviour sufficiently below the minimum design
temperature.
Charpy V-notch transition curve is to be established for in-
formation for the base material of line-pipes. (See Table 7. I J
5.2.7 .2 Base materials and welded joints are normally \P
meet the average Charpy V -notch energy values given bY Fi-
gure 5.1. Single values are to be at least 75% of the sp<;eified
minimum average. Where standard specimens can not be
made, subsize specimens may be used with
tion factors as given in Figure 5. I.
Ni Mo Cr AI OtherS Carbon
% % % (total) % equivalentl1
Analysis
max. max. max. max. max. max. tnilX. max. max. 96 max.
Ladle 0.18 1.60 0.55 0.025 0.020 0.35 0.40 0.25 0.20 0.08 J) 0.40
Check 0.20 1.70 0.60 0.030 0.025 0.35 0.40 0.25 0.20 0.08 J) 0.43
J) Vmax. 0.10 (V+NblmaxO.l2
Nb max. 0.05
2) CE=C+ CulsNi
Ti max. o.os
N max. 0.009 (0.015 when AI fme grain treated)
Residuals(Cr+Mo+Cu) max 0.50 .
5.2.6 Tensile properties
5.2.6.1 The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength are
to meet the specified values for the actUal grade. Downgrad-
ing of high strength steejs is normally not acceptable.
5 .2.6.2 The ratio of yield to ultimate t"'nsile strength is nor-
mally to be maximum 0.85. A ratio up to 0.90 may be ac-
cepted for cold expanded having yie!cl
than the specified minimum.
5.2.6.3 Stress-strain curve typical for the specified line-pipe
material is to be recorde!'l. (See 4.3.2.1 and Table 7 .1).
5.2.6.4 The elongation of the base J11ateria:Is is to comply
with Table 5.2.
Table 5.2: Minimum elongation for base materials
(Based on flat specimens 38 mm wide.}
Specified Minimum percent elongation in 50 mm
minimum yield gage length for wall thickness. t mm'
strength MPa t .. 12.5 12.5 < t .. 25.5 t > 25.5
200-295 27 29 30
295-340 23 25 26
340-390 22 24 25
390-440 21 23 24
440-500 20 22 23
5.2.6.5 The reduction of area of cast and forged steels C-.
C-Mn and C-Mn grain treated is to be at least 35 per cent.
for heavy wall components or higher strength steel a higher
ductility level may required.
5.2.6.6 The ductility in the thickness direction is to be ade-
quate for the pan in question. In special through
ness tensile testing may be required.
5.2.7 .3 The impact testing temperature is to be selected in
accordance with Table 5.3. Maximum testing temperature is.
however. not to be taken higher than + 20°C.
Joule
Kpm
47
ll
v
4.8
,/ ....
v
43 4.4
v
v
39 4.0
L
v
35
3.6
/
ll
31
3.2
27
/ 2.8
11
235 275 315 355 390 430 470
Specified minimum yield strength (MPal
Specimen Energy
section factor
<mm1)
IO x IO I
10 X 7.5 5/6
10x5 2/3
Fig. 5.1 Average Charpy V-notch energy values
5.2.8 Resistance against propagating ductile fractures
5.2.8.I Pipelines transporting gas or mixed gas and liquids
are to irl a manner preventing duculc
fractures (see 4.2.(;). When the design is based on the mstalla-
tion of line-pipe materials with arrest propenies H. e. a high up-
27
Charpy V-notch impact testing temperature (°C).
induced cracking in
.TOT''· "Tit;;•;n,.x1miiim hardness is to be kept at a level safe-
hydrogen induced cracking during
After welding the hardness is not to
at any part of the weld unless otherwise re-
2} ..
against sulphide stress corrosion crack·
and welding consumables for use in pi-
systems required designed against sulphide stress cor-
¢racking <see 6.4). are to have a chemical composi\ipl'l
level suitable for such service. Selection is to be
on documented experience. e.g. NACE Standard
-7 {Rev 1980).
final hardness of the base material and any part
is to be kept in the range of 260 HV5 or Io-
systems required designed against sulphide
.•; . · ' •cor·ro:"on cracking. The actual limit is to be agreed upon
J . . , , 0 .,. to operational conditions, corrosivity
coxnrr1oauy. material properties. fabrication and weld-
'"'x;cuu•res. corrosion contro! and monitoring systems etc.
. · Suitable heat treatment may be required for high
arid weJds to ensure adequate resistance
formed C-Mn and C·Mn fine grain treated
heat treated and meet the applicable hardness
limit for sse resistance. when the accumulated plastic strain
exceeds 5 96 . •
Cold formed and/ or welded low alloy steels are normally to
be heat treated and meet the applicable hardness limit when
sse resistance is required.
5.2.13 Resistance against chloride stress corrosion crack-
ing
5.2.13.1 Materials which are to be used in seawater en-
vironment are to ·be resistant against chloride stress corrosion
crackrting.
5.2.13.2 Application of alloyed steels and/or extra high
strength steels (specified min yield strength above 500 MPal
is to be specially considered when the pipeline will be operat-
ing at higher temperature (above 70°C). or the oil and gas
contain significant amounts of chloride components. V
cation by relevant experience or suitable laboratory tests may
be required.
5.3 Soundness
5.3.1 . General
5.3.1.1 The material is to be free from any defects which
may ma:I<e the material unsuitable for intended service.
Cracks. notches. gouges and tears are not acceptable. Over-
laps_ slivers. impressed mill scale etc. are to be removed by
grinding unless proved to be of a superficial nature (see
7.2.6.12).
5.3.1.2 The material is to be free from gross laminations.
gross inclusions. segregations. shrinkages and porosity. The
soundness of rolled. forged and cast material is to be verified
by non-destructive testing according to agreed procedures
and standards (see 7 .2.7 .3).
5.4 Steel for piping components
5.4.1 General
5.4.1.1 Piping components such as bends. valves. flanges.
tees. mechanical couplings etc. are in general to fullfiU the sa-
me material requirements as specified for line-pipes of the sa-
me grade and thickness.
5.4.1.2 Modification in chemical composition may be agreed
provided special pr,.,autions like preheating and post weld
heat treatment are included in the welding procedure.
5.5 Welding consumables
5.5.1 General
5.5.1.1 Welding consumables are to be suitable for the in-
tended application giving a weld with required properties.
soundness and corrosion resistance in the finally installed
condition.
5.5.1 .2 Welding consumables are to have classification ac-
cording to recognized classification schemes. Low hydrogen
consumables are normally to be used for welding of high
strength steels.
Cellulosic electrodes may, however. be used provided it is es·
tablished special welding procedures preventing hydrogen in-
duced cracking.
5.5.1.3 Hydrogen controlled consumables are to give a dif-
fusible hydrogen content of max Sml/ I 00 g weld metal
(when determined with the glycerin method). and are to be
type approved.
5.5.2 Chemical compositon
5.5.2.1 The chemical composition of the weld deposit is to
be compatible with the base metal to prevent general and lo-
calized corrosion. Content of alloying elements is to be kept
at a level consistent with documented experience. Pre-
cipitation effects due to intended heat treatments are to be
considered. ·
5.5.3 Mechanical properties
5.5.3.1 The mechanical properties of the weld metal are to
meet the base mate-rial require11Jents. Exessively overmatch-
ing yield and tensile strengths are. however. to be avoided.
5.5.3.2 Impairment of tensile and toughness properties due
to intended heat treatments is to be considered.
5.5.4 Handling and storage of welding consumables
5 .5 .4.I Welding consumables are to he treated with care to
avoid contamination. moisture pick-up and rusting. and are
to be stored under dry conditions.
5.5.4.2 The relative humidity is to be kept at max 40% in
stores for low hydrogen consumables unless supporting evid·
ence confirm a somewhat higher humidity to be tolerable.
5.5.4.3 Table 5.4 shows generally recommended storage
and handling routines. Recycling and rebaking is to be strict·
ly in accordance with the manufacturers· instructions.
Table 5.4 Storage and handling of welding consumables
Type of Storage of Storage of Storage of
consumable hermetically opened consumables
sealed containers withdrawn
containers
for use
Covered electrodes
- low hydrogen
type
20-30°C" 150°C 70°C"
- cellulosic type
20-30°C" 20 30oCil
Flux for submerg·
ed arc welding 20-30°C" 70°C
]) 4>'"i"
Notes:
I) The temperature should exceed ambient by + 5°C.
2) When withdrawn (or use. low hydrogen consumables arc to be kept in
heated containers and normally to be used within 4 hours.
3) To be handled according to good workshop practice.
28
5.6 Bolt assemblies
5.6.1 General
5.6 .1.1 Bolts and nuts are to be made of steel having chemi·
cal composition and mechanical properties in accordance
with. and are to be manufactured and tested to relevant. re- •
cognized standards. '
5.6.1.2 Bolts to be exposed to or immersed in sea water are
to be of property class 8.8 HSO R8Q8) or of a equivalent
strength level. The strength level is not to exceed property
class I 0.9 for bolts to be installed above the splash •
5.6.1.3 When bolt assemblies are to be used in low tempe-
rature service. or having large diameters. fracture toughness
testing may be required.
5.6.1.4 Bolts. nuts and other fastening elements are to be
protected against corrosion by suitable. durable c9atingi
When bolts assemblies are part of or will join components
Which are required designed against stress corrosion
ing. the. applicable conditions to materials.
and testing would also apply to these connections. (See
5.2.12.) c
5. 7 Materials for support structures
5.7.1 General
5.7.1.1 When support structures are welded directly to. or
act as a pressurized pan of the pipeline system. the material re-
quirement for the pipeline part in question are to be mel·
5.7.1.2 Support structures which are not directly welded to
pressurized parts are considered as structural members. The
material requirements specified for primary structural melll·
hers according to Veritas. «Rules for the design,
and inspection of offshore structures» - latest issue will
mally apply. c
29
SECTION 6
CORROSION PROTECTION AND WEIGHT COATING
6.1 Corrosion protection, general
Validity
6.1.1.1 Pipeline systems are to be adequately protec.ted
from corrosion. 6.1 through 6.5 cover nummum
rnents to corrosion protection systems. 6.6 covers the require-
mems to weight coating.
6.1.1 .2 Requirements to pipe materials and welds with res·
: pect to enviroqmentally induced cracking such as hydrogen
·induced pressure cracking (hydrogen blistering) and sulphide
stress corrosion cracking are given in Section 5.
'' §,L2 De'finitions
6.1.2.1 Splash zone: The splash zone is defined as the as·
tronomical tidal range plus the wave height having a proba·
bdity of exceedance of 0.0 1. The upper hmit of the .splash zo-
ne is determined by assummg 65% of thts wave height above
HAT and the lower limit by assuming 35% below LAT.
Stray currents may be avoided by means of a metallic con·
ductor connected to the return (negative) side of the stray cur-
rent source. Counteraction of the effect of stray current may
be obtained by means of cathodic protection or removal relo-
cation of the stray current source.
6.2 External coating
6.2.1 General
6.2.1.1 The external coating is to provide adequate corro-
sion protection in the actual environment.
.6.2.1.2 Different parts of the pipeline system such as
pipe coating
field joint coating
coating of supports
are to be adequately covered by the coatings specifications.
, q.l.:i.2 Submerged zone: The submerged zone is defined as
6
.
2
.
2
Coating materials
the region below the splash zone including sea water and sea
bottom zone. 6.2.2.1 The following generic types of external coating may
6.1.2.3 Atmospheric zone: The atmospheric zone is defined
!'5 the region above the splash zone.
6.1.2.4 External coating: External coating is organic. in-
organic or metallic materials applied to the external metal
· to
i! J1 .2.5 Cathodic protection: Cathodic protection is a tech·
c nique toe c corrosion of a metal surface by making the
cathqde of an electrochemical cell.
'v, 6.1 .2.6 Internal prOJection: lnternal protection is
;_-;:-· to reduce corrosion attacks of internal surfaces of pl-
.. PrJines and risers.
,. ..3 General to corrosion protection sys-

· 6. L3 .I The pipeline system is normally to be protected by
'• external coating in the submerged zone as well as the at·
m_osRheric zone.
6.1.3.2 In the submerged zone the pipeline system is nor·
mally 10 be cathodically protected by sacriflcal anodes.
li .3.3 In the splash zone the riser is to be protected by
< .. means of corrosion protection normally in combma-
,tiOq ...;hh corrosion allowance.
(i.t . .JA For pipeline systems transporting corrosive com·
rnodities internal protection is required.
Fgr pipeline systems which are exposed to intern":! or ex·
\ernar erosion wall thickness allowance may be requued.
6.r3s ··For risers which 3fe installed in Hubes. tunnels etc.
$pecial of corrosion protection are normally required.
.) .6 The possibilities of stray currents in connection
strUctures are to be evaluated and in areas where
suspected. appropriate tests are lO be :on-
Detrimental effects of stray currents are to be avOided
!!Y-llPlPIYIJng preventive methods.
importance is proper grounding of the welding sys·
for barge welding during pipelaying.
be used for corrosion protection:
Coal tar and asphalt enamels and asphalt mastic. normal·
Jy in combination with concrete weight coating for s·ub-
merged pipelines/ risers.
Epoxy. on conditions of compatibility with any weight
coating.
Epoxy and coal tar epoxy for the submerged part of ri·
sers. .
Epoxy. vinyl and coal tar epoxy for atmospheric pan of
risers.
Asphalt ..mastic or epoxy for field joint coating.
Rubber lining for risers.
Other generic types of coatings may be used if satisfactory
long term performance under similar exposure conditions is
documented. Relevant laboratory data and field testing may
be satisfactory documentation. This will be considered in
each case. (See 6.2.2.3)
6.2.2.2 Asphalt or coal tar based coatings should have a
softening point not less than 30°C above the maximum de-
sign operating temperature of the pipeline system.
6.2.2.3 When selecting an external coating for a pipeline
system the following properties are to be taken into account:
Adhesion or resistance to disbanding
Durability or resistance to chemical. physical and biologi·
cal deterioration
Service temperature range
Tensile elongation or flexibility
Strength and impact resistance
Compatibility with concrete weight coating
Repair of damaged coating
The relation between adhesion and strength properties with
time should be fairly constant so that underrusting or shield·
ing of cathodic protection in case of disbanded coating is
avoided.
The above properties are to be documented by relevant tests
or by reference to earlier successful application.
6.2.2.4 In addition to the p"roperties given in 6.2.2.3 the
coating specification is to include information on
generic type and composition
coating thickness
primer
binder
reinforcement
fillers
6.2.3 Coating application
6.2.3.1 The external coating is to be applied according to an
approved procedure. The procedure is normally to include!
handling and treatment of coating materials
surface preparation
temperatures. air humidity and time lags between steps in
the coating process
testing methods. with reference to generally recognized
standards or a correspondingly detailed description
acceptance criteria
repair procedure following attachmein of cathodic pro·
tection cables. padeyes. etc.
handling. transport of coated pipes
quality control and inspection
reporting procedure
6.2 .3.2 The minimum requirement to pipe surface treat·
ment before application of coating is generally bl.St cleaning
to min. SIS 055900 C Sa 2.5 or equivalent standard.
6.2.3.3 The quality control reports are generally to include:
acceptance criteria according to the coating specification
surface preparation data
temperature and humidity measurements
number of coats and total dry film thickness
adhesion data .. · · ·
holiday detection
information on the location of reinforcement in the
ing.
6.2.3.4 A preproduction to out at the coat·
ing yard in order to demonstrate that the coating can be ade-
quately applied under the prevailing conditions.
6.2.4 Field joint coating
6.2.4.1 Field joiiit coating should be applied according to an
approved procedure of similar nature as described in 6.2.3.
The field joint coating shoulcl be compatible with the pipe
coating.
Cri1eria for acceptance, repair and rejc;ction of coating before
final submersion of pipe are to be stated. Repair methods for
damaged coating under field conditions are to be described in
the procedure for field joint coating.
6.2.4.2 Surface preparation by power tool brushing to a
uniform near·white metal finish may be accepted for aspmut
or coal tar based field joint coating. ·
6.2.4.3 When mastic is used for field joint coating. it is of
special importance to keep the temperature of the mastic
within acceptable limits.
The mastic should be adequately cooled by continuous wa·
tercooling before the pipes passes over the stinger during lay·
ing operations. · · · · · ·
6.3 Cathodic proteetion
6.3.1 General
6.3 .1 .1 The cathodic protection system is normally to be
based on sacrifiCial anodes.
Impressed current may be used upon special consideration
30
and approval. If an impressed current system is to be used.
due consideration is to be paid to avoid overprotection and to
design a system with sufficient mechanical strength.
6.3 .1.2 Cathodic proteCtion by sacrificial anodes is to be
designed to provide adequate protection during the design life
of the pipeline system. '
The design may be based on a shorter period if reinStallation
of anodes is arranged for.
6.3 .1.3 Potentials for cathodic protection are given in table
6.1. These potentials apply to sea water and saline mud at
ambient temperatures-(S- 25°C) and normal sea water com·
position (salinity 32-38%ol.
Table 6.1 Potential (in volts) for cathodic protection of
steel
Metal Reference electrode
Cu/CuS04 Ag/AgCI Zn
Steel in aerobic
envirOnment
al positive limit . -0.85 -0.80 +0.25
b) negative limit -1.10 -1.05 +0.00
Steel in anaerobic
environment
al positive limit -0.95 -0.90 +0.15
b) negative limit -1.10 -1.05 +0.00
Very high strength steel
(yield strength
>700 MPal
al positive limit -0.85 -0.80 +0.25
b) negative limit -1.00 -0.95 +0.10
In brackish water the potential of the Ag/ AgCI electrode f
must be corrected by the actllal chloride composition.
The . .reference electrodes is only reliable in· open ·sea, ,
water.
At temperatures other than ambient the potential given in
table 6.1 may not apply. Protective potentials which are
I mV /°C more negative may be used for steel surfaces ope-
rating at temperatures between 25 and I 00°C.
6.3.1 Design of system
6.3.2.1 The cathodic protection system is to be designed so
that it is able to deliver sufficient current and distribute this
current so that the criteria for cathodic protection is obtained
(Table 6.1).
The current density requirement is to be selected on the basis
of the environmental conditions either by experience from si-
milar conditions or from direct measurements along the rou-
te.
Guidance on the design of cathodic protection systems is gi-
ven in Appendix D.
6.3.2.2 Cathodic protection design specification should in·
elude:
calculation of area to be protected
influence"t>n/from electrically connected systems
current density requirement
coaling breakdown criterion
anode material and manufacturer
anode weight. design. distribution and total number
calculation of the effectiveness of the system.
6.3.2.3 The anode core is to be designed to support the an-
ode during all constrUctional and operational phases. e.g.
transportation. installation etc.
31
Anode materials and fabrication
. Sacrifical anodes may be alloys of aluminium or
· ,, potential and electrochemical effiCiency of tbe
' are to be documented by appropriate tests. The
The test welds are to be sectioned and examined for bonding
and possible excessive Cu-penetration using a microscope
with magnification of at least I OOx. The Cu·penetration is
normally to be less than OJ mm for procedures to be used on
risers. while maximum 0.8 mm for procedures to be used on
pipelines.
be based on long term freerunning tests under The hardness in the heat affected zone is to be determined· on
be furnished with a test certifx:ate at least
the specified alloy composition. an-
the chll)"ge number. the chemical analysis.
the method of analysis. and other relevant
anodes are to be examined 100% vi-
is to be free from coating and
efficiency.
are to be fastened securely on the
may bi, welded together with steel
, , ·satisfactory mechanical connection
Each anode is to be electrically con-
least two attachments.
. co,nnection between anode and pipe is
manual welding or !hermite weld-
:hrne.lt 11t'eldirog arc to be placed at least 1 SO mm off
the macrosections and is to be within the normal liinit
ied for the pipeline system.
6.3.4.7 The welds and electrical connection between anode
and pipe is to be checked before pipe installation. Pipes with
metallic connection between anode and reinforcement in
weight coating are to be rejected.
. '
6.3.5 Testing of system
6.3.5.1 Potential measurements are to be carried out to en·
sure that the pipeline system is adequately polarized. This
testing is to be carried out within one year after installation.
6.3.5.2 A program for the including test equipment.
procedure for and extent of potential measurements are to be
submitted for approval.
The reference electrode is to be loCated as close as possible to
the se.lected surface point to be measured.
6.4 Internal corrosion control
6.4.1 General
6.4.1.1 Internal corrosion control is to be provided for pi·
peline systems transporting corrosive hydrocarbons.
Internal corrosion control may be achieved by one or more
of the following methods:
Application of corrosion inhibitors
Corrosion allowance
Internal co"ating
Application of corrosion resistant alloys or linings
Drying
6.4.1.2 The following properties of the commodity to be
transported should be taken into account in the establishment
of a program for internal corrosion control:
Oil/ gas/ water ratios
Salinity. bacteria content. pH of water phase
Content of corrosive gases such as C02• H-;> and 0 2
Solids content and Dow characteristics
Temperature and pressure
fnr· eJ.ect·riclll connections are to be made on an
plates welded directly onto the
orientated circumferentially. and per-
welding procedure. See 8. 7. Regarding
see 5.7.
Expected time dependance and variations due to .operational
•'""'Conditions should be indicated. The possibility of changing
is used for attachment of anode conditions by seawater injection (secondary recovery) should
is to include: be considered at the design stage.
the surface is to be dry. clean and
. of electrical connections by !hermite
with a qualified procedure proved to
an<!. negligible Cu-penetration along
and shape of the mold is to suit the
the anode cable size.
welding procedure is
and mechanical testing of
6.4.1.3 Internal corrosion control is normally required
when the commodity is containing water or has a relative
humidity of more than SO% and when the partial pressure of
corrosive gases is above the following limits:
oxygen
- hydrogen sulphide
- carbon dioxide
:0.001 MPa
: O.Dl MPa
:0.01 MPa
(0.014 psi
(1.4 psil
(1.4 psil
Combination of these corrosive gases may be more agressive.
especially the combination of H2S and 0 2. The corrosivity
will also generally increase by increasing temperature.
6.4.1.4 The H,S values listed in 6.4.1.3 are to be considered
for general corrOsion. Regarding limits of hydrogen sulphide
for sulphide stress corrosion cracking reference is made to
NACE-Standard MR-01-75 (latest revision).
6.4.2 Internal corrosion control by inhibitors
6.4.2.1 When inhibitors are used for internal corrosion
control the following conditions are to be taken into account:
General philosophy for the inhibitor selection
Trade name
Chemical typjl and mechanism for inhibition
Solubility and despersibility
Ecological effects
Recommended inhibitor concentrations
Pressure. flow rate and temperature limitations
Compatibility if more than one inhibitor is used
A reference list of previous applications
6.4 .2.2 The protective properties of th!> selected inhibitor
are to be properly documented by appropriate laboratory
and/ or field tests. Laboratory tests should include exposure
testing in a relevant fluid with respect to composition. flow.
temperature. etc.
The testing should normally be carried out by an independant
body.
6.4.2.3 The inhibitors are to be injected into the system ac-
31
Exposure to corrosion
Consequences of a corrosion failure
Accessibility
6.4 .5 .3 Thickness measurements at selected reference points
on risers are to be carried out prior· to installation and in con-
nection with periodical inspection (See 9.4 .4 .3). The measure-
ments are to be carried out according to an approved pro-
cedure which should include information on:
type of equipment
type of probe
recording and evaluation procedure
location of reference points
6.4.5.4 fluid analysis may provide valuable information on
the corrosion behaviour of a pipeline system. A specification
on sampling procedure. types. methods. frequency and
evaluation of fluid analysis should be submitted for approval.
The following analysis may be carried out:
pH
Iron content
Bacteria
Salinity
Inhibitor
cording to an approved procedure. The procedure is to in- Flow. temperature. pressure. dew point and other operational
elude information on characteristics should be recorded as well.
principles of inhibitor application
general arrangement system
dosage
control system
6.4.3 Internal corrosion control by coating
6.4.3.1 Internatcorrosion control may be achieved by app-
lication of a suitable coating system. Regarding properties of
coating materials and application procedures reference is ma-
de to 6.2.2.3-4 and 6.2.3.).
If the coating is applied after the pipeline has been installed.
due consideration should be given to proper surface prepara-
tion and quality control after application.
If the coating is applied before the pipeline is installed. due
consideration should be given to internal coating of field
joints.
Internal coating which only is applied to increase
the capacity of the pipeline system is not subject to approval.
Due consideration is to be given to the possibilities of increas-
ed localized corrosion at imperfections in the internal coating.
6.4.4 Internal corrosion control by corrosion resistant ..
loys
6.4-4.1 Corrosion resistant alloys may be used for corrosion
control. The alloy may be used as solid pipe or as a lining in-
side the pipeline.
6.4.4.2 The corrosion resistance of the alloy should be doc-
umented by reference to previous in si-
milar enviroments or laboratory The test-
ing should include tests for resistance against stress corrosion
cracking, pitting, corrosion and erosion corrosion.
6.4.5 lntefllal monitoring
6.4.5.1 Internal corrosion monitoring is normally to in-
clude different procedures such as thickness measurements.
fluid analysis. electrochemical probes. electrical resistance
probes and different types of weight loss coupons. The pro-
gramme should be based on !be following:
6.4 .5 .5 Properly installed electrochemical probes and
weight loss coupons may provide valuable informati<:m in
systems containing sufficient water. A specification on design
installation and operation of the probes should be submitted
for approval.
6.5 Protection of risers and pipelines in critical areas
6.5.1 Splash zone protection
6.5.1.1 In the design of corrosion protection system for ri-
sers in the splash zone. due consideration is to be give11 to:
temperatures of hydrocarbons
intermittent wetting and drying
wave forces
resistance to ageing by seawater and sunlight
ease of repair and maintenance
compability of different materials when such are combin-
ed.
6.5 .1 .2 The riser is to have a corrosion allowance in addi-
tion to other means of corrosion protection as described in
6.5.1.3.
The corrosion allowance is to provide protection for 2 years.
Table 6.2 gives guidelines on determination of the corrosion
allowance as function of operating temperatures of the riser.
Table 6.2 Corrosion allowance of risers as function of
operating temperature
Corrosion allowance. mm
< 20 2
20 - 40 4
40 - 60 6
60 - 80 8
80 - 100 10
6.5.1.3 Acceptable !DeanS of corrosion protection in the
splash zone application of a corrosion resistant met;lllic
sheating or vulcanised rubber. ,
33
6.5.1.4 If metallic sheating is used. the alloy should have
adequate corrosion resistance and_ _thickness and
to withstand the loads dunng Installation a?d opera-
tic;>ri. The welding is to be carried out to a quahfied pro-
cedure. All welds are to be examined I 00 per cent by suitable
"\PT·methods. A sacrificial anode is to be located below the
,;, ; Jta:UiC sheating to compensate for galvanic effects.
caused by the contact between the bottom and the pipeline
during the towing operation. This is normally to be proved
through tests. Such tests should be carried out with relevant
diameters. submerged concrete quality. jointing
methods and along a similar route as the actual towing.
6.6.2 Weight coating specification.
6.6.2.1 The following items are normally to be covered by
shielding should be of a type that can be completely weight coating specification:
to itself and to the steel doubler plate. No me-
L'H::;;_:,:,;,,,,,,.., • .,, type sealing should be permitted.
·of inhibitors are to be adequately. documented.
A pltlg should be fitted to the drawn in section of the
ri.0-'S9 that it seals the J-tube at the bellmouth. when the line
i$pulleP m.
for installation of sealing plug and application
of W.hibitors should include a description of provisions for
Sl!JilPlinl! and chemical analysis of the inhibited fluid.
1.2.2 Pr;Otection by sacrificial anodes may be used as an
precaution if technically feasible. Monitoring of the
protection system should be specially considered.
Of-ii5efs- in ·interila1 transition zones
of risers in internal transition zones (air I
for instance in shafts of concrete structures may be
anq corrosion allowance. Acceptable corro-
may be as given in Table 6.2.
Ptle i;9rlsicler••ticm should be given to the possibilities of in-
repair for transition zones.
The pipeline shore approach are to be specially
in !be design of the corrosion protection system.
area the pipeline may be treated as risers corrosi-
Thickness and strength
Materials to be used
Method of application
Curing method
Inspection and tests
Requirements on storage and handling of coated pipe.
6.6.3 Concrete constituents
6.6.3.1 General. It is to be documented that the properties
of the materials under consideration are adequate for the in-
tended purpose.
6.6.3.2 Cement. Cement is to be equivalent to ASTM Port-
land Cement type ·1. II. III IS. or 1!'-
The tricalciU!)l aluininate of the cement is to be such
as to enhance the corrosion protection of steel without impar-
ing the durability of concrete.
6.6.3.3 Water. Water is to be free from contamination in
amounts likely to harm the concrete or the reinforcemenL
6.6.3.4 Aggregates. Aggregates are to have suflicient
strength and durability. Aggregate containing potentially
reactive or deterious constituents is not to be used Aggrega-
tes are to be properly graded.
6.6.3.5 Admixtures. Admixtures are to meet requirements of
a recognized standard and are normally to be verified by trial
mixes.
6.6.4 Properties of concrete
6.6.4.1 General. Concrete for weight coating is to have suf-
ficient strength and durability.
6.6.4.2 Strength. The concrete is to have a minimum char-
acteristic strength of 30 N/ mm2 found from 150 x 300 mm
cylindrical speciments tested in accordance with ASTM C39.
When test specimens of different shape or dimensions are u.s-
ed. an appropriate correction factor is to be applied to convert
the compressive strength determined to the standard cylinder
strength.
QiiE{coortsicler••*!n is to be given to possible interaction with''" 6.6.4.3 Durability. Permeability is the most unportant pro-
systems for land based structures and pi- perty determining the long-term durability of concrete expos·
insulating devices may be used above the ed to sea water. Low permeability may normally be obtained
6.6 Weight coating
sectio<n deals with concrete weight coating.
anchoring systems will be subject to special
9f concrete weight coating are to provide neg-
to submarine pipeline throughout its service
corrosion protection coating against me-
during pipeline installation and service.
whc:re the bottom tow methods is used for
• • must withstand the abrasion
by use of:
high cement content
low water-cement ratio preferably below 0.40. however
not greater than 0.45.
sound and dense
proper grading of fine and coarse aggregates. .
good concreting practice and good workmanship ensur-
ing adequate workability .thorough compaction. proper
curing and handling.
6.6.5 Reinforcement
6.6.5.1 Material properties: Reinforcing steel is to satisfy
the chemical and physical requirements of a recogniZed
standard.
34
6 .6.5 .2 Types' Reinforcement may be in the form of steel wi-
re fabric or welded cages fabricated of plain or deformed bars.
The type and amount of reinforcement is to be selected in due
account of the anticipated pipeline loading and service condi-
tions and so as to control the crack pattern of the concrete
coating.
6.6.5.3. Splices' Reinforcement type application method
are to msure continuity of the hoop reinforcement
6.6.5.4 Placing' Reinforcing steel is to be accurately placed
and adequately supported. · · .. ·· · · · ·
Reinforcing steel is not to make electrical contact with the pi-
pe or anodes.
6.6.6 Application and curing of concrete coating
Applicatio_n. Concrete is to be applied to pipe joint
usmg su1table equ1pmo:nt and procedures tllat will result in
adequately COilS()Iidate concrete coining of uniform thickness.
density and strength. The conCrete is to be plai:Cd as socin as
possible after mixing and in any case weU before ihe ·initiai
set.
6.6.6.2 Curing. The selected method of curing and its dura-
ti?!l is to be such as to ensure satisfactory strength_ and dura-
bility of concrete. and to prevent undue cracking of concrete
coating. ·· ·
Documentation of the adequacy of the proposed curing
method may be required. particularly for adverse climatic
conditions. · ' · ·
6.6.7 Testi!!g i11spect1on
6.6.7 .I General. Methods for testing of materials are to be
in accordance with a recognized siaildard. The organization
plan for testing. inspection. reporting of results etc. at coating
yard is subject to acceptance. ·
6.6.-7.2. Concrete Testing of the individual ma-
to be earned out at regular intervals during conci'ete
producuon. The frequency of testing is to be determined tak-
quality and uniformity of material supply into ac-
6.6.? .3 Concrete. Prior to start of concreting the mix pro-
poruons. concrete strength and weight are to be documented
by tests. · · ..•. ··
During production concrete is to be tested regularly for thick-
ness. Strength and density. The frequency is 10 be minimum
one sample per IS pipes coated and minimum one per shifL.
In addition to molded test the !Ire to
be SUJ?plemented by control of the in-place strength
on drilled-out cores. The minimum diameter of the iS to
be at least 3 tilpes the maximum aggrcopl!' anc;l
!he to d1ameter !'"uo IS to be not less than 1.0. Sa!rii>l-
mg. stonng an!! . tesun.s are to be in accordance with
ASTM-c42 or equivalent. The core strength is to be coi!Vert'
ed to the stt;ength of standard cylinders I SO. x 300 mm· in ac-
C?rdance ASTM-?'2. The strength requirement is con-
Sidered the mean converte!:! $\!:cngth gf
three. "?res IS at least 8 S % of the specified minimum char-
acteriStic Strength and no single core is 7 11\J •
6.6.7 .4 Electrical insulation measurements by
to Prove no contact between weisht coatiiJe;
forcement and pipeline steel are to be earned ouC" · · ·
35
SECTION 7
FABRICATION OF PIPES AND PIPING COMPONENTS
7.1 General
This section specifies requirements for fabrication
control of pipes and piping components. Material
to wmply with Sectiop S.
fabricator is to be capable of fabricating .line pi·
components of the required quality. Relevant
::!!l:x;\lmentatio" is to be made available on reque5L
teSting or an extended quality control pro-
for fabricators having limited experience.
.. and components to the actual or similar
is to establish and implement a de-
control system covering all succes·
qualjzy conirol functions are to be
by competent persons. ·
SCillemes ·IOf qJ!II)ifJcation and quality c:Ontrol
been based on current rec:oSn-
methods may alsO be used.
'''"'" tO approval.
·Pipe fabrication
recognized classifies-
7 .2.2.4 Previously qualified fabrication procedure may be
transferred to a new production when the fabricator has used
it recently for production of pipes to the same or more strin-
gent requirements under the surveillance of V eritas or an in·
spection agency accepted by Veritas.
1.2.2.5 Jointers may be produced in limited numbers using
sound sections of pipes. The girth welding procedure is to be
qualified prior to or during initial production as given in
7.2.4 and Table 7 .(.
7 .2.2.6 All welding is to be carried out strictly in accord-
ance with the qualified procedure. If any parameter is chang-
ed outside the acceptable limits. the welding procedure is to
be respecified and requalified. Essential parameters and va-
riation limits are specified in 8.5.4.
7 .2.3 Quallfieatlon of weldlnc operators, welders and arc-
air cougers .
7.2.3.1 Welding perSonnel is to have reasonable under-
standing of fundamental welding techniques. welding pro-
cedure specifications. relevant methods of non-destructive
testing and acceptance criteria. obtained .through training and
pniCiise prior to qualifJcation testing. see Appendix C.
7 .2.3 .2 Qualifu:ation testing is required for welding opera-
tors when their tasks are to preset. acljusL start. guide and
stOp the welding operation. and thereby may influence lhe
quality of the weld. Qualification testing may be exempted
for welding operators whose tasks have no influence on the
weld quality provided they have been given adequate training
on the actual welding equipment.
7.2.3.3 Welden are normally to be qualified for single side
buUwelding of pipes in the required principal positions. Un-
der special circumstances qualification may be carried out on
plates. .
Repair welders may be qualified for partial thickness repair
on a representative devised test set up if only such weld re-
pairs will be made.
7 .2.3 .4 The qualifJcation test is to be carried out with the
same or equivalent equipment such as to be used during pro-
duction welding. and normally at the actual premises. e.g.
work shop. yard. vessel. The test is to be witnessed by Veri-
laS or an inspection agency recognized by V eritas.
7 .2.3 .S Qualification testing is normally to be based on vi-
sual inspection and radiographic examination. When the sas
metal arc process is used. mechanical testing is also to be per-
formed. normally using side bend and nick br.eak test speci-
mens.
Qualification schemes are described in Appendix C.
7.2.3.6 The qualification expires when the welder and
welding operator have not been welding regularly within the
qualified range during a period of more than 6 months.
7.2.3.7 A welder or a welding machine operator who has
produced a complete and acceptable welding procedure qua-
lifx:ation test lS thereby qllalified.
7 .2.3.8 Personnel to perform arc-air gouging is to be train-
ed and experienced with the actual equipment. Qualification
testing may be required.
7.2.4 Qualification of the pipe fabrication procedure
7 .2.4.1 From the flfSt production batch of maximum SO pi-
pes. two pipes selected by V eritas are to be used for qualifi-
cation testing.
36
Type and number of tests to be made for each pipe are given 7 .2.4.3 Failure of a test specimen due to defective prepara·
in Table 7.1. tion be disregarded and is I? be replaced by a new test
specimen.
Dimensions of test specimeru; and testing procedure are given
in Appendix C.
7 .2.4.2 The quaiification of the fabric;l.tion procedure is to
be based on the following requirements:
Hydrostatic testing to the specified test pressure (see
7.2.5).
Dimensional and workmanship to the specified
limits !see 7 .2.6).
7 .1.5 Hydrostatic testing
7 .2.5.1 Every pipe is to be hydrostatically tested and with·
stand without any sign of leakage or sweats a test pressure (p)
determined by the following formula for at least I 0 seconds:
2t
p = u,·K
0
(Mpa)
Soundness of base material and welds within the specif· "•
ied acceptance limits (see 7.2.6 and 7.2.7). ' t
Check analyses within the specified composition limits D
(see 5.2.4). K
TensDe properties qwerial at least equal to the
specifted mlniliiUlJl ValUeS (see 5.2.6). .
specified minimum yield strength (MPal.
nominal wall thickness (mml. .
nominal outside diameter (mml.
factor determined by pipe diameter.
Notch tol!ghness Of base materi<ll at least equal to the
miilimllt'll Specified values for resistance against l>riWe
fracture: and propagating ductile fractures when so re-
quired (see 5.2.7 and 5.2.8).
Transverse weld tensile strength at least equal to the
cilied minimum tensile strength.
Bendhig duCtility to specified deformation without ap-
pearimi:e of imy defect greater than 3 mm. however.
max. 6 rnm at the specimen edges.
BriWe fracture resistilnee of weld metal and beat affected
zone at least equal to the required average and minimum
single values (see 5.2.7).
Macrosections with a sound weld merging smoothly into
ihe pipe. Acceptance criteria as per Table I 0.1.
Maxirninri ·hardneSs equal to or below the specified limit
(see 5.2.10 and 5.2.12}." ·
Outside diameter j{ ·.
(nominal)
00<200 0.15
200<00<500 0.85
00>500 0.90
f9.r pydrostatic testers equipped with end sealing devices. tile
applied sealing" force for'endsealing resulting in an ac:!ditional
longitudinal siress has to be considered. Supporting calcula·
tions to achieve the required stress intensity for computins of
tests pressure is to be submitted by the pipe manufacture.·
7 .2.5.2 Pressure test records showing test pressure and. du-
ration are to be available for each pipe.
7 .2.5.3 Pipes which have failed on pressure testing. are to
be rejected.
Table 7.1
Qu3ilficatii!JI or PiPe procedure
, Type and number of tests for .each pipe • • ••vH••, o
Pipe sil:e. FULL LENGTH BASE MATERIAL TESTS
outside PIPE TESTS
diameter
(mml Hydi-o- Oimcn· Non- Chock TcnsiletcstU Charpy T..wle Guided Charpy Macro,
&tatic sional deolru<- analysis V·notch .... bend V·notch sec:tjo,>/
u:sts inspc:c- livet<SIS Lonai· Trans- transi- uans- .... tough·
""* lion tudinal ..... lion verse to
Sl
. ... •1"5
CU!Ye weld
61
llll ..
Seamless Ace. Ace. Ace.
00<300 to to to
OD> 300 7.2.5 7.2.6 7.2.7
Welded Ace. Ace. Ace. .....
00<300 to to to
j1l
2 4 4 samples
00>300 1.2.5 1.2.6 7.2.7 2 4 4 samples
Noles:
1. Yield strcnglh. ultimate tensile SU"cngth and cJona:ation to be c1ctermincd with recording of the stress-strain curve (only for line-pipes).
2. Charpy transitioo curve is lO t?e usina transverse samples whctc so is possible. Acceptance testing temperature is to be as spcciftcd
iu S.2.7.
t resisranc:c to ductile is to be evaJualed by other testS than Charpy testing. the specified te$ts are 10 be;
(see a&o"$.2.91. · • ·· "' ..... '·. ·•· · .. , · •· ·•·· - .. · ·
4. The Ultimate tensile strenath of the weld is 10 be detenQined. .
S. Guided bend tests to be either 2 face bend plus 2 root bend specimens. or 4 side bend specimens for lhickncss less and greate:r than 12.S
6. Charpy les1ini 4 to be spec;ifie4 remperowre iu the metal and the heal affected zone at sufficient posilions .0
overall io briu1c S.2.7l. Cbarpy is normally to be performed with the noach positioned ln: Center of weld. on 2
mm from f\lsion line and S mm from fusioa line (Each sample prov!de J lCS\ specimens). -· ·
7. Longitudinal tensile 1es1 is to be taken 1800 opposite to the weld.
37
Table 7.2
Frequency and extent of pipe production tests
Mechanical testing21 Hydrostatic test Non-destructive
tests
Each SO pipe. mini·
mum once each heat
(Ace. to Table 7 .3)
Each pipe
(Ace. to 7 .2.5)
Each pipe
(Ace. to 7 .2.6)
Each pipe
(Ace. to 7 .2.7)
is not ·ri;Qllired if this has already been performed during an intermcdialc s&age.
more 1han SO pipes manuracu.ued from each SO tons. mechanical is only required for cacb 50 tons.
Table 7.3
Number and type of mechanical tests on pipe production tests
verse
Charpy2131 . T ensile41 lest
V -notch transverse to
toughness weld
I sample
I sample
I sample
I sample
Guided'1
bend test
2
2
u!rimate tensile strength and elonplion 10 determined.
' RS:isu.nce: to be determined by Charpy V·nocch testing at the specifted testing (see: S.J,.7l.
Cbarpy61
V-notch
toughness
2 samples
2 samples
Macro-
section/
hardness
if«';,laUrial bn .. •ulred to be rcsislant ap.in$l propaplins duaile fractUres. production testS arc also to include the specified type and number of
Table 7.4
Mechanical testing or weld repair procedures
TensDe test transverse
toweldll
ultimate tensile strength of the joint
Guided bend testZl
4
Charpy V·notch
toughness31
4
bends plus two face bends. or four side bends for thickness less and greater than 12.5 mm respectively.
Macro-section/ hard·
ness
, be:. c;arried out with the notch positioned in centre of weld. fusion line. 2 mm from U. and .S mm from f.l. This teSting may be exempted
• • :
0
provided same weldina consumable. heat input ts applied.
..,-,,,.,.;,.'"_ op <,limensions and workmanship for li-
. 7 .2.6.2 through 7 .2.6.12. When pipes
. ends are to be rechecked. Tighter toler·
if installation welding is to be
equipment demanding line-
7.2.6.3 The inside diameter at the ends is to be measured
over a length of I 00 mm from the end and is to comply with
the following limits:
Inside diameter (nominal) Tolerances
10<300 mm +1.6mm
-0.4 mm
10>300 mm +2.4 mm
-0.8 mm
38
7.2 .6 .4 The out-of-roundness is to be limited and measured
inside pipe over a length J 00 mm from each end. is to comp-
ly with following limits:
Inside diameter (nominal) Tolerances
ID<SOO mm ±I per cent.
max. 3 mm
!D>SOO mm ± 0.5 per cent.
max. 5 mm
7.2 .6 .5 The wall thickness at any point of the pipe material
is not to deviate from the nominal thickness by more than
plus 15 per cent and minus 12.5 per cent. For welded pipes
having 00 > 500 mm. the minus tolerance is not to exceed 8
per cent.
7.2 .6 .6 The variation in pipe weight is to be within minus
3.5 per cent and plus I 0 per cent of nominal weight of a sin·
gle length pipe.
7.2.6.7 Offset: The radial offset is to be within the following
limits:
Wall thickness Offset
(nomina!l
t<l2.5 mm Max. 1.5 mm
t> 12.5 mm 12.5 per cent.
max. 3 mm
7.2.6.8 The straightness of the pipe measured as the gap be-
tween the straight line between the ends and the lowest point
of the pipe surface is to be maximum 2.0 mm per meter
length.
7.2 .6 .9 The pipe is to contain no dents deeper than 6 mm.
being measured as the gap between the prolongation of the
original contour of the pipe and the lowest point of the dent.
The length of a dent in any direction is not to exceed half the
pipe diameter.
Any cold formed gouges and notches in dented areas are to
be removed by grinding (see also 7.2.9.3).
7.2.6.10 The reinforcement of the weld seam is to be kept
within the following limits:
Wall thickness Reinforcement of weld
(nominal) Inside pipe Outsid!" pipe
Max. I Min. Max. Min.
t,;:l2.5 mm
2 mm I
0
3 mm I
0
t> 12.5 mm 3 mm 0 4 mm 0
The weld seam inside the pipe is to be ground flush over a
length of I 00 mm from each end.
7.2.6.11 The weld is to have an even surface
merge smoothly into the base material. Minor undercutting
may be tolerable without repairs provided the depth and
length comply with Table I 0.1. ·
7 .2.6.12 The pipe surface is to be free from any defects
which may make the pipe unsuitable for intended service.
Cracks. arc burns. notches and gouges· are not acceptable.
Overlaps. slivers, impressed mill scale etc. which do not
comply with a workmanlike finish are to be removed.
nations and extending to the surface or the bevel
face and having a transverse dimension above 6 mm are to
be removed by grinding (see also 5.3 and 7 .2.9 .3).
7.2.7 Visual examination and non-destructive testing
7 .2.7 .I Each pipe is to be visually examined and non-des·
tructive tested after pressure testing. If a pipe is cut back. the
new pipe end is also to be inspected.
NOT-records of each pipe are to be identified and traceable
(see 8.6.1.3).
7 .2.7 .2 Visual examination is to be performed at outside.
and also inside if access allows. The surface finish of the base
material and the welded seams is to comply with 7.2 .6 .12
and Table 10.1.
7.2. 7.3 Welded and seamless pipes are to be ultrasonic test-
ed full length. or by other suitable: agreed methods. for !ami·
nations and cluster inclusions. Procedures and acceptance cri-
teria are to be in accordance with agreed. recognized stand-
ards.
Plates and strips may optionally be tested prior to pipe fabri·
cation. but after quenching and tempering if this has been
applied. ·
7.2. 7.4 Longitudinal welds and spiral welds are to be ultra'
sonic tested full length. The testing procedure is to be capable
of detecting two-dimensional. and three-dimensional defects
located in any direction and position. Additionally such
welds are to be radiographed over a length of 200 mm from
each pipe end.
Circumferential welds are to be radiographed full length. Ul-
trasonic testing may also be required in
Weld repairs are to be radiographed full length.
Non-destructive testing is to be in accordance with Section
10. Weld seams are to meet the acceptance limits of Table
10.1. .
7 .2.8 Production testing
7.2.8.1 Production testing is to be carried out to verify that (
the pipes are fabricated to the composition. mechanical pro·
perties. soundness and specified. Production tests
are to be performed as directed in Tables 7.2 and 7.3.
Testing iS. io be witnessed by Veritas or an inspection
recognized by V eritas.
7 .2.8.2 If any of the selected test specimens do not fulfil the
requirements. the corresponding pipe is to be rejected. In or·
der that the remaining pipes from the same batch of maxi-
mum 50 pipes (or 50 tons. see note in Table 7 .2) may be ac-
cepted. two similar tests are to be repeated on two different
pipes. and both tests are to be satisfactory. Should one of the-
se tests fail. individual testing of the remaining pipes of the
batch is to be carried out.
7 .2.8.3 Failure of a test specimen due to defective prepara·
tion may be disregarded and replaced by a new test speci·
men.
7 .2.8.4 If the failure rate exceeds 5 per <:;ent. the quality
control program is to be increased to an appropriate level and
maintained until the failure cause is identified and eliminated.
Retesting of supplied material and requalification of the fabri-
cation procedure may also be required.
7.2.8.5 When pipes have failed by mechanical testing. and
acceptable properties are intended restored by a controlled
heat treatment. individual retesting is to be performed.
7 .2.9 Repai;s
7 .2.9.1 Pipes containing defects may be repaired. or the t;le· (
fective sections cut off. Weld deposits having unacceptable
mechanical properties are to be completely removed
rewelding. ·
7 .2.9 .2 Surface defects in pipe material inside the pipe. on
the outside of the pipe and less than I 00 mm from the pipe
end are to be repaired by grinding only.
In other areas. surface defects may be weld repaired once.
provided the depth of the defect is maximum 1/3 of the wall
thickness. The length of that part of a defect which has depth
more than 1/8 of wall thickness is to be no longer than 1/4
of the outsjde pipe diameter.
'"\2.9.3 Where defects are eliminated by grinding. the re-
... wall thickness is to be within the minimum specified
limit. Grinding is to be performed in a workmanlike manner.
7.2.9.4 A local weld repair is to be at least 100 mm long.
'--Weld repairs in pipe material are to be orientated circum·
ferential if so is possible. Weld seams may be repaired full
length. however. not more than twice in the same area. Weld
repairs are to be ground to merge smoothly into the original
J>ipe contour.
'1 .2.9.5 When a heat treated pipe is repaired by welding. a
-new suitable heat treatment may be required depending on
the Of the weld repair on the properties and microstruc·
111re of the pipe.
7-2.9.6 Repair welding specifications are to be prepared co·
verirlg repair of the pipe material and of the weld. The fol-
lowing information in addition to that mentioned in 7 .2.2 is
to be included in the specifications:
Method of removal of defect. preparation of weld area
and subsequent non-destructive testing. see Section I 0.
and maximum repair depths and lengths.
Repair welding is to be performed with a low hydrogen
process using appropriate preheating/ interpass tem-
peratures.
7 .2.9.7 Unless the production welding procedure can be
¥Plied. !he_ repair welding procedure is to be qualified. e.g.
[.Jartual repairs of submerged arc welds of pipe material. The
test wclds are to be made on pipe nipples in a
manner f"ealistically simulating the repair situations to be
The length of the pipe nipple is to be sufficient to give realis·
tic restraint. Pipe material is to be on the high side of the
chemiC'!! composition.
7.2.9.'8 Qualification testing is to be based on visual inspec·
tion, r'ldiography and mechanical testing. Mechanical testing
is lO be performed according to Table 7 .4. Repair welding
meet the pipe requirements.
7.3 Fabrication of piping components
(ieneral
Piping components such as bends. valves. flanges.
tees. Intersections etc. may be forged. cast or welded. The
CO!llposition. mechanical properties. heat· treatment and
soupdness. of piping components are generally to comply
wit!J Section 5 in their final installed condition. Dimensional
, to comply with recognized standards.
, The material flow direction of a forged component
l$ to follow the main stress flow pattern. Where
components like flanges. tees. intersections etc. are
other methods than shape or die forging. e.g. being
out of bars or plates. materials without significant
,, dependent propenies are to be used and verified
!lppropriate mechanical tests.
;; The effect of forming and heat treatment operations
properties. microstructure and corrosion re--
into account.
39
7 .3.!.4 When cold forming of pipes to bends or other com·
ponents introduces a permanent deformation more than 3 per
cent. the mechanical properties ofC·Mn and C·Mn fine grain
treated steel are to be retested in the affected region. When
such materials are cold deformed more than 5 96 . stress re-
lieving is to be performed. When the deformation exceeds
I 0%. hot forming is normally to be performed followed by a
controlled heat treatment. restoring a uniform microstructure
and mechanical properties (e.g. normalizing. quenching and
tempering).
Low alloy steels are normally to be suitably heat treated after
any cold and hot forming operation.
7 .3.2 Fabrication procedure specification
7 .3.2.1 A fabrication procedure specification describing the
sequences of manufacturing is to be established. When piping
components are to be produced by welding. a detailed weld·
ing procedure specification is to be prepared. see 7 .2.2.
7 .3.3 Qualification of fabrication procedures
7 .3.3 .I The fabrication procedure is to be qualified by test-
ing the first components being produced. A qualification test
is to be performed for each group (based on grade of mate-
rial. thickness. bending ratio. fabrication method. as applica-
ble). Number and type of tests are to follow the requirements
given for pipes. see 7 .2.4 through 7 .2.7. as applicable.
Previous qualification tests may be accepted when the com·
ponent tested meets the specified requirements and the tests
have been witnessed by Veritas or an inspection agency re-
cognized by Veritas.
7 .3.4 Production testing
7.3.4.1 Production testing of fabricated piping components
is to be performed according to the methods stated in Table
7.2 and 7.3.
Check analysis is to be carried out for each heat. Mechanical
testing is .. normally to be carried out for each cast component.
and once ·every tenth forged or welded component of each
lot. If more than one heat is used for fabrication of a lot of
components. each heat is to be tested.
Dimensional inspection and non-destructive testing as specif·
ied in 7 .2.6 and 7 .2.7 are to be carried out for each fabricated
piping component. Hydrostatic testing is to be performed by
the manufacturer or on site with the piping components as
built-in section. see 8.8.4. If the latter is agreed. non-destruc-
tive testing may be required after the pressure test of the
built·in section.
7 .3.5 Repair welding of piping components
7.3 .5.I Repair welding of piping components is to be carr·
ied out by qualified welders using a qualified repair welding
procedure as allowed by and according to 7 .2.9. After repair
welding. casted and forged piping components are to be post
weld heat treated. visually examined and non-destructive tes-
ted.
7.4 rost weld heat treatment
7.4.1 General
7 .4.1.1 Post weld heat treatment is generally to be perform-
ed for welded joints of C-Mn and C-Mn fine grain treated
steels having nominal wall thickness (see Appendix C) more
than 49 mm.
\\'hen the minimum design temperature is less than - l0°C.
the thickness limit is to be specially decided.
40
The thickness limit for post weld heat treatment of low alloy-
ed steels is to be considered in each case.
7 .4.1.2 When post weld heat treatment is used to ensure
adequate resistance of welded joints against sulphide stress
corrosion. this is normally to be perfonned far all thjcknes-
ses.
7 .4 .1.3 Post weld heat treatment is to be carried out at
575-600°C for C-Mn and C-Mn fme grain treated steels.
while low alloyed steels are to be post weld heat treated at
600-625°C unless otherwise recommended by the steel ma-
ker.
If the steel has been quenched and tempered. the post weld
heat treatment temperature is. however. not to be higher than
30°C below the tempering temperature.
7.4.1 .4 Heating, soaking and cooling is to be performed in a
controlled manner. The soaking time is to be 2 min/ mm.
however. minimum l hour. Where local heat treatment is
performed. the specified temperature is to be maintained in a
band extending at least 3 times the wall thickness on each
side of the weld. The temperature at the edge of the insula-
tion bend is to be maximum half the soaking temperature.
When the temperature at all parts has fallen to 300°C. the
joint may be cooled freely.
41
SECTION 8
INSTALLATION
8.1 General
Speelfications
8-1 .].1 Installation of a pipeline system is to be carried out
. ill with written specifications. plans and drawings
which are satisfying these Rules. The specifications are sub-
Ject to approval by Veritas.
f I , 1.2 . Welding procedures are to be specified as described
in8,5.2.
8.2.2 Seabed preparation
8.2.2.1 Seabed preparation is to carried out in acoordanoe
with an approved specification.
The specification is to include information such as
extent of preparation
preparation methods and equipment
- inspection methods and equipment
8.3 Construction
;L(.3 Field coating procedure is to be specified as describ- 8.3.1 Qualification
ed in
6
·
2
·
4
• 8.3.1.1 Construction has to be carried out by means of
g .f.L4 . NOT procedures are to be specified as described in qualified personnel, procedures and equipment The quali-
1 o. fications are to be proved prior to start of construction.
8 :lX.S · · A detailed quality control system has to be specified 8.3 .I .2 Welders and welding operators are to be qualified
for 1.11 Installation activities. see 1.4.4.2. in accordance with 8.5.5.
,6 The instailation specification is to give detailed in-
formaticm on parameters which have to be controlled in or-
. ll.er 'to ihe correct configuration ofand stress levels in
the i!4f<>:;!e4 poJlion of the pipeline. The range within which
the allowed to vary is to be clearly stated. see
4.3. .
811..1.7. i!IStrumentation systems used for measuring or con-
trolling essential pa;.ometers during the installation operation
are to !>e specifted.
.'J.S layvessel the following should be included in
sPf9.fication: ·
· "-- general lay-out drawings showing location of working
'"'"'on<. '"''""'" devices. stinger. supports. guides etc.
• • • ·and· stinger showing proposed pipeline
brief ,descri•oticm of the with information
holdiqg force and squ= pressure
support and guides on layvessel and
infiorn>ation on possible horizontal and
8.3.1.3 Welding procedures are to be qualified in acoord-
ance with 8.5.3 and 8.5.8.
8 .3 .I .4 NOT procedures and operators are to be qualified in
accordance with Section I 0.
8.3.).5 It may be required that installation vessels are sur-
veyed prior to start of installation. This may include testing
and calibration of equipment and instrumentation such as
tension machines
winches
load cells
depth gauges
welding equipment
8.3.2 and storing
8.3.2.1 Pipes. fabricated sections and accesories are to be
handled in a safe manner to prevent damage, and are to ·be
adequately supported and protected during storage and trans-
portation.
8.3.2.2 Pipes. prefabricated sections and accessories are to
be inspected before installation. Damaged items are to be re-
paired to the satisfaction of the Surveyor or clearly marked
and deplaced, see 6.3.4 and 8.5.8.
8.3.2.3 Storing of pipes has to be carried out in such a way
that the pipe is not being permanently deformed by its own
installation the specification should in- weight or the weight of above layers of pipes. Special care
inforrclltion such as: should be taken for storing heavy coated anode joints.
general layout drawings of the riser
of supports. bends. flanges. etc. '""" · 8.3.3 Installation operations
of riser supports. !>ends. flanges. spoolpie-
,, •.•.··.·• systemS used for measuring or contrail-
parameters during the installation operation
specification covering all installation opera-
8.2 Pipeline route
8.3.3.1 The installation of the pipeline system is to be car-
ried out in acoordance with approved procedures and in such
a way that the pipe and coating will not be exposed to un-
acceptable strains/ stresses or be damaged.
8 .3.3.2 Mounting and application or riser supports are to be
carried out so as to obtain the support conditions upon which
the design ""'!,culations have been based.
8.3.3.3 Instrumentation systems used for measuring or con-
trolling essential parameters are to be accessible for the Sur-
veyor at any time.
8.3.3.4 Joining of pipes and subsequent non-destrUctive
testing are to be carried out in accordance with 8.5 and 8.6
respectively.
Tie-ins of pipeline sections are to be carried out in acoordance
with 8.7.
42
8.3.3.5 Corrosion coating of field joints is to be carried out 8.4.1.3 Measures for obtaining protection of risers and pi-
in accordance with 6.2.4. pelines are outlined in 4.2.1.3 and 4.2.1.4.
8.3.3.6 Pipes which have suffered damage during abandon
or retrieval operations are to be replaced or repaired to the
satisfaction of the. Surveyor.
Aoceptance criteria for coating damages are to be worked out
prior to stan of laying.
8.3.3.7 Survey of the installed pipeline is required when
there is reason to believe that damage has occurred. and that
further laying may render later surveys and repairs difficult
or impossible.
8.3.4 Pipeline and cable crossings
8.3 .4.1 Crossing of pipeline and cables is to be carried out in
accordance with an approved specification. Safety measures.
adopted to avoid damage on foreign installations or by other
to be specified.
8.3.4.2 The specification is to include information such as
layout and profile of crossing
auxiliary constructions or components including layers of
separation
methods and equipment adopted for installation
inspection methods.
8.3.4.3 Normally a minimum clearance distance of 0.3 m is
to be maintained between the pipeline and other pipelines or
cables.
8.3.5 Buci<Je
8.3.5.1 In connection with pipelaying from vessel where pi-
pe sections are joined onboard the vessel it may be required
that continuous buckle detection is carried out during laying.
In such cases the method of buckle detection is subject to ap-
proval. Normally a rigid disc is to be located withing the pipe
at a suitable distance behind the touch down point.
8.3 .5.2 The diameter of the detector is to be chosen with due
regard to pipeline inside diameter and tolerances on ovality.
wall thickness. misalignment a11d· heisht of internal weld bead.
The following may be used.
where
s
d "'
D
d = D-2t-S
0.01 D + 0.4 t + 5 I
diameter of detector
nominal outer diameter of pipe
nominal wall thickness of pipe
20% oft. max. 5 mm
8.4 Anchoring and protection of pipeline systems
8.4.1 General
8.4.1.1 The pipeline system is to be protected and/or an-
chored against unacceptable loads and incidents such as'
lateral axial movements
-
- corrosiOn
8.4.1.2 1\ncboring/protection of a pipeline sy$1em is to be
carried out in accordance with an approved specifiCiltion. The
specification is at least to include
defmition of the fmal conditions
description of methods and equipment
- description of means and instrUmentation for control and
inspection
Provisions for corrosion protection are covered in Section 6.
8.5 Installation welding
8.5.1 General
8.5 .I. I The schemes for installation welding described in
this section have been baSed on current recognized practice.
Other methods may also be used. but are lhen subject to spe-
cial approval.
8.5 .1.2 All installation welding is to be performed with
equipment which has been proved reliable and suitable for
field applications. PrequalifiCiltion testing is to be performed
for welding systems where previous field experience is limit-
ed. or the system will be used under new conditions.
8.5.1.3 Welding may be performed with the manual metal
arc. the flux-cored arc. !he gas metal arc or the tungsten inert
gas metal arc process. Higher strength steels are to be welded
with low hydrogen consumables unless special welding
techniques are used ensuring an equal Safety against cold
cracking. ·
8.5.2 Welding procedure speelfication
8.5.2.1 A welding procedure specifiCOtiOn is to lie prepared
for each procedure giving the following information:
- Pipe material. grade and project specification.
Diameter and wall thickness.
Groove preparation and design.
Clamping device and line-up tolerances.
Welding process.
Welding cons!lmablasl. trade name and recognized clas-
sification.
Electrode/wire diameter.
Shielding gas. mixture and flow rates.
tyJ,>e .
polaritY< ..,.,...... etc.
Welding position.
Welding direction.
Temporary backing and type (if any}.
Number of passes.
Time lapse between passes.
Preheating and interpasS temperatures.
Post weld heat treatment.
8.5.3 Qualification or the welding equipment and welding
procedure
8.5.3.1 The selected type of welding equipment and the
specified welding procedure is to be qualified prior to instal-
lation welding. The qualification test is to be carried out with
the same or equivalent equipment as that to be used during
installation. The test is normally to be performed on the yard
or the vessel where the installation welding is to_ take place.
and be conducted under representative conditions.
The test joints to be used for qualifiCiltion testing are to be of
sufficient length to give realistic restraint during welding. Pi-
pes on the high side of the specified chemical composition are
to be selected.
8.5.3.2 When manual welding is to be used. one complete
test joint is to "be made. For mechanized welding equipment.
three consecutive complete test joints are to be made.
Each test joint is to be subject to visual examination. non-
destructive tests and mechanical testing.
8.5 .3.3 Non-destructive testing is normally to be radio-
graphy tested using X-rays. When the ga$ metal arc process
is used. the test joints are also to be ultrasonic tested. Magnet-
ic panicle testing may be required in special cases.
t
43
Qn:jlelitnlctJIVe testirig is to be performed in accordance with
and the soundness of the test welds is to meet the
limits given in this section.
The !Ype and number of mechanical tests for each
given in Table 8.1. Sampling of test speciQlens. di-
and method of testing are described in Appendix C.
tensile strength of the joint is to be at least
specified ultimate tensile strength of the pipe
When different steel grades are joined. the ulti-
strength of the joint is to be at least equal to
specified ultimate tensile strength of the lo-
bend tests are to disclose no defects exceeding
cracks. less than 6 mm. originaling at the
be disregarded if not associated with
"'" ·.1
· · 11!1'1 Charpy V -notclt toughness at
to be less than specified according to
m...... ''""·-··• steel grades are joined. a series of
performed in the lteat affected woe
· weld The weld metal is then to meet
requirement
remains valid as within I!CCOPtable li-
regulariy. When one
limits occur. the
invalid. and is to be re-
from a lower strength grade to a
in type. composition and proces-
weldability and the 'mechanical
the weld. The C-content. alloy content
'and supply condition is to be specially
in diameter from one to another of
00 .. I 00 mm. I 00 < OD ""301)
ration. dilution and solidifiCiltion pattern. i.e. groove type
(V, U. Y. X} angles. root gap and root face are to be spe-
cially considered.
Welding process: Any change.
Welding consumables: Any change of type, classifiCation.
diameter and brand as well as additions/ omissions of
powders. bot and cold wires./
Gas shielding: Any change of specified mixture. compo-
sition and flow rate range;/
Welding position: A change to a principal position not be-
ing qualified according to Table 8.2.
Welding direction: A change from vertical down to verti-
cal up or vice versa. ·
Current: Any change beyond ± IS% and from AC to
DC.
Polllrity: Any change.
Yohage: Any change beyond ;1: 10% except ± 596 for
gas metal arc welding.
Travel speed: Any change beyond ± I 0 96 .
lapse between root pass and first filler pass: Any de-
lay signif1C8Ittly increasing the cold cracking risk.
Prehe4ting: ,o\ny decrease.
lnterpass tempertlture: Any signifiCant change in the mi·
nimu!ll and maxb!lu!ll interpass te!llperature limits.
Post weld heat treatment: Any change signifiCantly affect-
ing mechanical properties. !he residual stress level. the
corrosion resistance. i.e. the beating rate. cooling rate.
temperature level and periOd; heating band and insulation
width to be specially considered.
8.5.5 Qualification of welders and welding operators
8.5.5.1 QualifiCiltiO!l of welders and operators are
generally to be as described in 7 .2.3. For underwater welding
additional conditions apply. see 8.7.4.10.
The fractured surface is to show complete. penetration
and fusion. There is to be maximum one - I - gas
pocket per cm1• being less tl)an I .5 mm in extension. On-
ly mirior slag inclusioni with maximum depth 0.8 mm
and with maximum length 3 mm spaced at least 12 mm.
may be accepted. «Fish eyes>• may be disregarded unless
not associated with significant number of slag inclusions
and cluster porosity.
8.5.6 Welding and workmanship
8.5.6.1 AU installation welding is to be performed with
qualified welding equipment. qualified welding procedures
and type of equipment and by qualified welders/ operators.
The back lead of the welding equipment is to be correctly
connected to avoid straY current giving arise to corrosion. see
also 6.3.2.3. Identical welding units. either additional or re-
placement units. may be qualified by non-destructive testing
of production welds.'
44
Table 8.1 Qualification of glrthwelding procedure.
Type and number of mechanical tests for each joint.
TEST JOINT NUMBER OF EACH SPECIFIED TEST
Wall Outside Transverse Root bend Face bend Side bend Nick break21 CharpyV· Hardness
thickness diameter weld tensile notch sam- and macro
(mml (mml ples3)4 15 l6•
<;300 2 2 2 0 2 4 2
<12.5
> 300 4 4 0 4" 4 4 2
.;;300 2 0 0 4 2 4 2
> 12.5
> 300 4 0 0 8 4 4 2
Notes:
I) and face bend tests may be used instead of side bends.
2) Nick may be omitted for manual metal arc: welding to be performed above water.
3) Impact testmg IS not required for t <5 mm.
4) Each Charpy·V-notch saniple consists of 3 specimens. · ·
S) testing is to be carried out with the V·notch positioned in the weld metal. on the fusion line. 2 mm from tbe fusion line and 5 mm from the fusion
6) = ::e:d testing is nonnaJiy to be carried out in the corresponding weld regions if the
8.5.6.2 The bevelled pipe ends are to be free from con·
lamination by moisture. oil, grease. rust etc. which might af·
feet the weld quality.
8.5.6.3 Internal or external line-up cliiillPS 1'-te normallY not
to be removed before the first two passes are completed.
When tack are for ali!lJlment, these are oJ1]y
to be made m the weld groove using a qualified welding pro-
cedure. Defective tack welds are to be completely removed.
8.5.6.4 Welding is not W be discontinued before the joint
has. sufficient strength to avoid plastic yielding and cracking
dunng pullmg and haJ1dfulg. Prior to r!'starting after inter·
rupuons. preheating to the minimum specified preheating
temperature is to be applied.
8.5.6.5 attachments. lifting devices etc. used for
permanent positioning of risers and pipelines are normally to
be welded to a doubler ring. Doubler rings for temporary use
are to be clamped. ' ·
8.5.6.6 Permanent doubler rings are to be 111ade as fully
enc.;rcbng sleeves and of materials satisfying the requirements
pressure_parts. see 5.7. Longitudinal welds are to be made
w1th backing st;ip. avoiding penetration into the main pipe.
The welds "!"e to be continuous, and made io
a m.3..:-mer nummiZtng the nsk of root cracking and lamellar
tearmg.
Table 8.2 Qualified principal welding positions
Test pOsition Applicable welding positions
IG IG
2G IG.2G
5G IG.5G
2G + 5G All
or 6G All
8.5.7 Production test
8_.5.7.1 tests may be required during installa-
I.Jon. The test IS to be performed in a manner which. as far as
possible. the actual welding. and is to cover weld-
mg of a suffiCiently large pipe sector in a relevant position.
testing is required. half the number of tests
specified m Table 8.1 are to be carried out- Impact test sam·
pies are to be located in the weldmetal. and in the heat affect·
ed zone at positi<:>n which showed the lowest average
energy absorption dunng the procedure qualification test. see
8.5.1.
8.5.8 Repair of field joints
8.5.8.1 Pipes and welds containing defects are to be repair·
ed as described in 8.5.8.2 through 8.5.8.9.
8.5.8.2 Defects outside the weld are to be repaired by grind·
mg only. If grmding reduces remaining wall thickness below
the minimum the defective pipe sectior is
to be cut <>UL Gnndmg IS to be performed in a workman-like
manner. and with smooth transition into the pipe surface.
8.5 .83 Defects in the weld be repaired by grinding or
weldmg. Reparr weldmg specifications are to be prepared.
and are to g1ve the following information in addition to that
relevant of 8.5.2.1.
Method for removal of defecL
Preparation of weld area.
- for confirmation of defect removal.
- Perrmssible mmunum and maximum weld repair sizes.
8 .5 .8 .4 The _repair welding procedures are to be qualified.
The tests are to be made in a realistic manner si-
rnulatmg repair situations likely to occur. e.g.
- Through thickness repair.
repairs or undercuts with one stringer pass.
Inside root repair with one pass only.
Repeated weld repairs in same area.
The repair welds are to be made in the overhead
verucal position. using pipe with a chemical compo-
Sition m the upper range of the specification.
8.5.8.5. The_ test weld covering through thickness repair is
to be VISUally inspected. non-destructive tested and mechani·
cal tested as for the installation welding procedure.
see 8.5.3. pass test welds are to be visually inspect·
ed. magnettc parucle exammed and mechanical tested with
two macro/ hardness tests provided there is used the same
weldmg consumables and parameters as for the major re·
pairS.
8.5.8.6 Pre.h:ating is to be performed prior to repair weld-
ing. The specified preheating/ tempera-
45
ture is lO '''! maintained until the repair has been completed.
8.$.8.7 Long defects may require repair in several steps to
avoid yielding and cracking. The maximum length <>f allowa·
'repair step is to be calculated based on the maximum
wesses in the joint during the repair operation. The repair
:'fngth is •o be at least approximately 100 mm even if the de-
.of Jess extension.
8.5.8.8 Grinding is to be performed after arc air gouging to
;;;ny carbon pick-up.
$.5'.8.9 .-\ joint may be repair welded twice io the same
aiea. If the joint stili contain defects. the complete joint is to
1M; 'cl!t · o:.n unless special repair welding procedures simulat-
Ing actual number of weld repairs have been qualified.
8.6 Visual examination and non-destructive testing of
installation welds
8.6.1 General
8,6.J.I , welds including repairs made by grind·
ing and welding are to be visual examined and non-destruc-
tive tested.
1.2 NoncdestrUctive testing is to be performed in ac·
with qualified procedures and qualified NPT·opera·
tQl"li· SectiOIJ 1 0.
'Inspection and NOT-records are to be made for
each weld including any repair actions. The records are to be
111arked an>! ideqtified in a suitable manner enabling tracebili·
\y til locatio!) of welds and the welding procedure!sl being us·
O<J.

is to be carried out for all
The finished welds and the pipe surfaces are to
¢amply with the acceptance criteria specified in Table I 0. I.
Welds whi!;:h do not comply with Table 10.1 are to
according to 8.5.8 or cut out.
, testing
8.6.3.1 All installation welds are to be radiographed full
leiw!th· Ultrasonic testing and magnetic particle testing may
; be required depending on the applied welding method.
8.6.3.2 Defects which exceed the acceptance limits in Table
::JO.I ,are to be completely removed and repaired in accord·
with 8.5.8. Magnetic particle testing is normally to be
\lSed complete removal of defects prior to
'"Welding. ·
Weld repairs are to be radiographed. This examina·
tion is to cover the repaired area and an additional length of
, 50 mm at each end of the repair weld.
8.6.3.4 Magnetic particle testing may replace radiography
when the defect is located at the outside of the pipe. and is re-
'-'lloved by grinding only.
8.7 Tie-ins

Tie-ins between different ponions of a pipeline. or
v and riser. mav be carried out by one of the
·,. 'methods. .
connectors.
W eided connection on the Jay vessel and subsequent lo-
wering.
Underwater welding.
The choice of method is to be based on an evaluation of the
conditions under which the tie-in is to be carried out and the
service conditions under which the tie-in is to operate.
8.7.1.2 The tie-in operation is to be carried out in accord·
ance with an approved tie-in specification.
8.7.1.3 Tie-in specification is to include:
description and specification of components which will
be introduced as permanent pans of the pipeline.
calculation of stresses occurring .during installation and
operation. ·
procedure specifications covering all tie-in operations.
description and specification of equipment and instru·
mentation essential for the installation.
description and specification of methods of inspection and
testing.
8.7.2 Mechanical connectors
8.7 .2.1 Mechanical connectors include flanges. couplings or
other components adapting similar mechanical principles of
obtaining strength and tightness.
8.7 .2.2 An evaluation is to be carried out for loads and re-
sulting stresses to which the components are subjected during
installation and operation. Safety factors to be included to en·
sure an equivalent overall safety to that adopted for the ad·
jacent pipeline.
8.7.3 Welded tie-in on the lay vessel
8. 7.3 .1 Lifting and lowering of the pipeline during the tie-in
operation are to be carried out so that induced stresses are
within the allowable limits for pipeline or riser respectively
during installation.
8.7.3.2 ..Suitable means for monitoring the configuration of
the pipeline section are to be used.
8.7.3.3 Welding and inspection of the tie-in is to be carried
out in accordance with approved specifications. see 8 .S and
8.6.
8. 7.4 Tie-in by underwater welding
8.7.4.1 Welding is to be carried out with a low hydrogen
process in a chamber (habitatl from which the water has been
displaced.
Other methods are subject to special approval.
8.7 .4.2 Sealing devices are to be of a proven design and rna·
nufacture. Sealing pigs are to be pressure tested prior to in-
stallation into the pipeline sections unless this has been carr·
ied out at an earlier stage.
8.7.4.3 A detailed welding procedure specification is to be
established. and is in addition to that specified in 8.5.2.1 to
contain:
water depth.
pressure inside the chamber.
gas composition inside the chamber.
humidity level.
temperature fluctuations inside the chamber.
8 .7 .4 .4 Storage and handling routines of welding con·
sumables on the support vessel and in the welding chamber
as well as the sealing and the transfer procedures to the weld·
ing chamber are to be specified.
8.7.4.5 The welding procedure is to be qualified under re-
presentative conditions in a suitable testing facility. The qua·
46
Jification test is to consist of minimum one complete joint for
manual welding and minimum three joints for mechanized
welding system.
The qualification program may be increased when the under-
water welding will occur under conditions where previous
experience is limited. or will be undenaken by a company
with limited experience in this field.
8.7.4.6 The qualification test welds are to be inspected and
tested as per 8.5.3 and comply with the requirements specif-
ied for the pipeline section in question.
8. 7.4. 7 Preheating to a suitable temperature is to be applied
for moisture removal and hydrogen diffusion.
8.7 .4.8 The essential parameters for underwater welding
are those specified in 8.5.4.1 plus those given in 8.7.4.3. The
accep4tble variation limits are normally those specified in
8. 5 .4 plus the following,
Pressure inside chamber:
Gas composition inside chamber:
Humidity,
any increase
any change
any increase beyond
specified range may
be required
8.7 .4.9 A confirmation test weld may be required made on
location prior to starting the tie-in welding. The test weld is
to be made on pipe coupons in the habitat under actual con-
ditions. The coupons are to cover welding from the 6 o'clock
to 9 o'cJock region. Subject to acceptable visual inspection
and radiography in accordance with 8.6 the tie-in welding
may commence. Mechanical testing is to be performed as
soon as possible. The number of mechanical tests is half that
required for welding procedure qualification.
When the same welding habitat. equipment and welding pro-
cedure are used for consecutive tie-ins on the same pipeline
under comparable conditions further confrrmation test welds
are not required.
8. 7.4 .I 0 The tie-in weld is to be non-destructive examined
full length. as per 8.6 and comply with the applicable accept-
ance standard in S<;ction I 0.
8.7 .4.1 I Prior to qualification testing for underwater weld·
ing. the welder is to have passed a surface welding tests (see
7 .2.3) and have relevant training for welding under pressure.
for underwater welding is to consist of at least
one test weld made in a testing facility under representative
conditions in accordance with the qualified underwater weld-
ing procedure. The test weld is to be visually inspected. radio-
graphed and mechanically tested. see 7 .2.3 and Appendix C.
8.8 Final surveys and tests
8.8.1 General
8.8.1.1 A final survey of the installed pipeline system is to
be q:trried out in order to verify that the condition of the pi-
peline and the re-
quirements of these Rules.
8.8.1.2 If the pipeline is to be buried or covered by other
protection stabilization methods. surveys are normally requir-
ed both before and after burial (covering) operations.
8.8.2 Survey of installed pipeline system
8.8.2.1 The fmal survey on the pipeline system is at least to
provide the following information'
- Detailed plot of the pipeline position
Thickness of cover or depth of trench lif applicable) and
description of the state of rest along the route
Verification that the condition of weight coating or the
anchoring system which provides· for on-bottom stability
is in accordance with the approved specification
Description of wreckage. debris or other objects which
may affect the cathodic protection system or otherwise
impair the pipeline
Description and location of damages to the pipeline. its
coating or cathodic protection system
8. 8 .2.2 The final survey report of the installed riser is to
verify that the riser. including supports. clamps. anchors. pro-
tection devices (e.g. fenders. casings. etc.) and corrosion pro-
tection system. are installed in accordance with approved
drawings and specifications.
8.8.3 Survey of corrosion protection system
8.8.3.1 Inspection of the external coating of the pipeline
system is required. Special attention should be given to the ri-
ser in the splash zone.
8.8.3.2 Spot measurements of the polarization along the pi-
peline may be required in areas with damaged coating. Spe-
cial attention is to be paid to areas far from sacrificial anodes
and areas with stress concentrations.
8.8 .3 .3 In areas where measurements indicate that cathodic
protection has not been attained. some cOrrective action is to
be arranged. e.g. mounting of additional sacrificial anodes.
increasing current output from rectifiers. or application of
protective coating.
8.8.3.4 The possibility of over-protection is to be investigat-
ed at locations where detrimental effects of over·Protedion
may be suspected.
8 .8 .3 .5 The possibility of stray currents are to be investigated
by measurements and visual· observations by qualified per-
sonnel. Pr'!visions to 6.1.3.6 are to be
with detrimental effects may be suspected.
8.8.4 Pressure test
8.8.4.1 The pipeline system is to be pressure tested after in-
stallation. The testing is to be carried in accordance with
an approved procedure. A pipeline system may be tested in
sections. e.g. between top of risers or of the riser
and shore. When a pipeline is to be buried or covered. the pre-
ssure test to be performed after such operation. ·
8 .8 .4.2 The test is normally to be carried out with liquid test
medium.
8.8.4.3 The pressure test is to prove the strength and the
tightness of the tested section. The minimum test pressure is to
be 1.25 times the design pressure. Hoop stress in the pipe dur-
ing testing is normally not to exceed 90 per cent of the mini-
mum specified yield strength. Higher stresses will be consider-
ed in each case.
8 .8.4.4 During pressurizing. added test liquid versus pre-
ssure is to be recorded in order to evaluate the amount of resi-
dual air in the test section.
8 .8.4.5 pressurizing sufficient time has to be allowed
for stabilization of the pressure in the pipe section.
8.8 .4 .6 The holding time for pipeline sections is normally to
be minimum 24 hours. after the pressure has stabilized. For
short lines and risers 8 hours holding time may be accepted.
For pipesections that can be 10096 visually inspected the hold-
period is normally to be at Jeast 2 hours.
8.8.4.7 Alternative pressure testing procedure$ may also be
accepted. For guidance see Appendix E.
47
8.8.4.8 If the tested section bursts or leaks. the failure is to be
co·rrected and the section retested.
'. 8.8.4.9 Pressure testing of tie-in welds between already test-
sections may in special cases be exempted provided the re-
,1,..-UU!lar.ra_diqgraphic examination is extended with ultrasonic ex·
··,:_fnination or other suitable methods. Monitoring may be re--
<!Uired.. The NDT procedures and operators are to be qualified
f<>r this testing; see Section I 0.
:.,,.8.11,5, Buckle detection
8 .8 5.1 Buckle detection is to be carried out by running a
pig (caliper pig) through each pipeline section after in-
.'.stallation. When the pipeline is to be buried. the final buckle
; detection is to be performed after trenching.
8.8.6 Testing or alarm and shutdown systems
8.8.6.1 It is the Owner's responsibility to protect the pipeli·
ne system against operational conditions for which the sys-
tem is not designed.
8.8.6.2 Instrumentation for the safe operation of the pipeli-
ne system is to be tested according to generaJly recognized co-
des and the manufacturer's recommendations prior· to start of
operation.
8.8.6.3 Emergency shutdown systems are to be tested ac-
cording to generally recognized codes prior to start of opera-
tion.
48
SECTION 9
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
9.1 General
9.1.1 Owner's duty
9.1.1.1 The Owner is to inform Veritas when inspections re·
quired to retain the certificate is to be carried out.
9 .I .I .2 The Owner is to retain files of the running
and the remedial measures taken and make these files avalla·
ble upon request.
9.1.1.3 The Owner is forthwith to notify Veritas if any of
the events occur as given below. so that the need for surveys
can be determined:
the pipeline sYstelll is damaged. or is of having
been damaged. in a manner likely to 1mpa1r 1ts safety or
strength ·. · l'k
the pipeline system demonstrate signs of 1 e-
ly to impair its safety or strength . · .
the pipeline system is subjected to any alteration. repa1r or
replacement
transportation of new fluids.
9.1.2 Retension of Certificate of Compliance
9.1.2.1 The Certificate of Compliance will be retained in the
9.3 In-service inspection
9.3.1 General
9.3.1.1 In-service inspection is to be carried out according
to an acceptable program. see 9.2 .I .2. .
9.3.1.2 Veritas may have free access to
scrutinize in-service inspection reports
carry out in connection with in-service
made by the Owner or his contractors
carry out survey.
whenever found necessary in order to retain the Certificate of
Compliance.
9.3.2 Start up
9.3.2.1 The objective of the start up inspection is to observe
during and immediately after start up any movements or be-
haviour of the pipeline system. This may include inspection
and measurement of the f;iistance between the bend connect-
ing the pipeline and the riser. and the installation in order to
detect lateral or axial movement. If necessary these measure-
ments are to be continued until such movements have stabil-
ized.
operating phase provided the requirements in these Rules are 9 .3.2.2 Mechanical couplings including flanges may require
satisfied. See also I .5.2 · visual inspection during start up. Leak detection is to be car-
9.2 Operation and maintenance of the pipeline system
9.2.1 Operalion, and Dlaiote_oance manual
9.2.1.1 The Owner is to prepare a manual for this opera-
tion. inspection and maintenance of the pipeline $Ystem-
9.2.1.2 The operation. inspection and maintenance manual
is to:
describe organization and management of the mainten-
ance and in-service inspection
identify all items to be monitored. inspected and main-
tained
- JPecify the monitoring equipment. inspection method and
Trequency for each item to be inspected
- specify operation limitations
- specify start up/ shut down procedures
9 .2.2 Operation
9.2.2.1 Pressure at delivery and receiving stations alonl! ttit'
pipeline is to be contrOlled and recorded. It may also be re-
quired that the temperature and dew point of the product is
measured and recorded at various points in the pipeline sys-
tem at regular intervals.
9.2.2.2 Automatic shut down valves and other safety devi-
ces in the pipeline system is to be tested and inspected. The
inspection Shoidd verify that the deVices are in ·good condi-
tion and properly performs the safety function.
9.2.2.3 It is assumed that regulators and pressure relief val-
ves not part of the pipeline system are subject to regular test-
ing and inspection.
9.2.2.4 Surge pressure is not to exceed 1.1 times the inter-
nal design pressure.
9.2.2.5 The concentration of aggressive and toxic compo·
nents in the product is to be monitored.
ried out when found necessary. ·
9.3.3 Periodical inspection
9.3.3.1 The frequency and extent of each periodical inspec-
tion are to be based on factors such as
type of inspection
design and function of the pipeline SYStem
seabed· conditions and protection
conditions
corrosion/ erosion conditions
traffic density
condition of the pipeline system as installed and as per
earlier inspections
PQ$Sible conseque'lces of failure
9.3.3.2 Pipeline systems that are not in operation are also t?
be subject to periodical inspection if the Certificate of Comph-
ance is to be retained.
9.3.4 Frequency of periodical inspection
9.3.4.1 A periodical inspection is normally to be carried out
annually if not otherwise agreed upon. The time for annual
inspection may. under normal circumstances. be selected
with due regard to factors such as weather conditions and
operation of the pipeline system.
9.3.4.2 Veritas may. upon request. accept a continuous in-
spection in lieu of regular periodical inspection. Each pan of
the system is to be controlled as frequently as in the case of
regular periodical inspection.
9.3.4.3 The..Owner is tc notify Veritas on occasions when
such pans of the pipeline system. which are not normally ac-
cessible for inspection. may be examined.
9.3.5 Extent of periodical inspection - pipeline
9.3 .5.1 The pipeline is to be surveyed to detect free spans.
and. if specified to be buried. to detect e/<posed sections.
Length of free spans and exposed sections and degree of ex-
posure is to be quantified.
49
Visual inspection of exposed parts of the pipeline is
out to determine the general conditions of the
locate areas that may be subjected to close visual
and testing. This is to include detection and mapp-
l!I"!X'essiible·parts of the pipeline system are to be re-
by suitable equipment.
measurements may be required where
to believe that 'the pipe wall thickness may be
to external/ internal corrosion or erosion (e.g.
sand content in the flow). · ·
the below specified inspection is to be
to the inspection specified for the pi-
reference
out on a regular basis. see 6.4.5.3.
be carried out according to an ap-
should include information on:
9.4 Repairs
9 .4.1 General
9.4. I. I All repairs are to be carried out by qualified per-
sonnel in accordance with approved specifications and pro-
cedures. and up to the standard defined for the pipeline.
9.4.1.2 Repairs of parts that are subject to certification are
to be surveyed and approved by Veritas.
9.4.1.3 The Owner is to notify Veritas in advance of any
such action and to submit the necessary plans and specifica·
lions for approval. The exact documentation that is to be sub-
mitted for approval or information purposes is to be decided
in each particular case.
9.4. 1.4 Pipeline systems with defects may be operated tem-
porarily at a reduced pressure until the defect has been re-
moved.
9.4.1 Grooves, gouges an- notches
9 .4.2.1 Sharp defects !ike grooves. gouges and notches are
to be removed by grinding or by other approved repair metl!-
od. The remaining wall thickness is to meet the minimum re-
quired for the particular location. see 4.2.2. Deeper defects
are to be removed by cutti11g out the damaged portion of the
pipe as a cylinder. ·
!1.4.3 Dents
9.4.3.1 A dent is defmed as a depression which produces a
gross disturbance in the curvature of the pipe wall.
9.4.3.2 A dent affecting the longitudinal or circu;ruerential
weld is to be removed by cutting out the damaged portion of
the pipe as a cylinder. or by installing a fUll encirclement
welded split sleeve. see 9.4.5. 9.4.6 and 9.4.7.
9.4.3.3 The acceptability of dents are to be evaluated in
each case. !;actors to be into consideration are:
size and ·shape of dent
properties of pipe material
oil or gas
pressure
possible consequences of pipe rupture
pigging possibilities
!1.4.4 Leaks
9.4.4.1 Prior to permanent repair of any leak. the mecha-
nisms causing the leak are to be established.
9.4.4.2 Permanent repair of a leak in pipe body or weld
may be carried out by cutting out the damaged portion of the
pipe as a cylinder or by installing a full encirclement welded
split sleeve. see 9.4.5. 9.4.6 and 9.4.7.
For low pressure oil lines repair by properly designed leak
clamps may be accepted.
apy occur which impair the safety. 9.4.4.3 Leaking flanges and couplings are to be sealed if
11tabiiity of tite pipeline system. the Owner is found satisfactory by torquing the bolts or by replacing at
· pl)\ify V eritas and a special inspection is to be least the sealing devices such as gaskets and seals.
9.4.5 Repair by weldiDg
. is damaged or suspected of having be- 9.4.5.1 Repair welding procedures and welders are to be
qualified as described in 8.5.3 and 8.5.5.
: SJrS!i:m signs of deterioration·
is subjected to alteration. repair or re- 9.4.5.2 Repair welding above water is to be carried out as
described in 8.5.
is normally to be carried out in 9.4.5.3 Underwater repair welding is to be carried out in a
The Surveyor is to be provided dry habitat. see 8.7 .4.
for flfSI band evaluation of the
the inspection. 9.4.5.4 Repair welding may in special cases be carried out
50
on pipelines under pressure. Acceptable repair conditions are
to depend on:
actual wall thickness
pressure
flow rate
oil or gas
welding procedure
safety procedures
9.4 .5 .5 All repair welds are to be visually examined and
non-destructive tested. see 8.6. When relevant. pressure test-
ing is to be carried out as described in 8.8.4.
9.4.6 Temporary repairs
9.4.6.1 If not possible to take the pipeline out of operation.
· repairs may be made by installing properly designed leak
clamp over the defect. The strength of the sleeve is to be as
required in 4.2.2.
(
51
SECTION 10
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
10.1 General
Selection of method
Methods for non-destructive testing are to be cho-
with due regards to the conditions influencing the sensivi-
tY. of the methods.
Appropriate methods will be evaluated in each case.
10.2 Radiographic examination of welds
Radiographic procedure specification
I O,l;l.l ;A specification for the radiographic ex-
a!Dini\tion is to be established and is at least to include the fol-
lowing information:
Materia,! qu;ilitY and dimensions
Welding process and groove geometrY
Racliation source (X -rays or gamma rays. If gamma rays.
of isotop).
Teclmique. (Equipment rating in voltage or curie. ex-
ternal or internal equipmentl.
.Geoll1etric relationships. (Source focal spot size. film-
focus distance. radiation angle with
respect to weld and mml .
. Film type. (Trade name and designationl.
lntensUYing screens. (Front and/or back. material. thick-
'. nessl. : ' · ·
conditions. (kV. rnAmin. Cimin.l
PrOC<;SSing. (Developing time/temperature. stop-bath. fi-
'washing. drying. etcl.
Image quality indicator sensitivities in per cent of the wall
based on source and fllm side indicators res·
pecuvely.
Density. (The density of the radiographs measured on the
sound weld metal imagel.
Film Coverage.
10.2.2 Radiographic procedure qualification
10.2.2.1 Two radiographic exposures are to be made of a
welded joint using pipe of the same diameter and wall thick-
ness and of material equal to or similar to that which is to be
used in the pipeline system.
I 0:2-2.2 Image quality indicators of the wire type and of re-
QUITed number (according to the recommendations of docu-
ment JIW /115·62-60) are to be placed on both the mm side
and the source side. The image quality indicators are to be
clearly identified. and the sensivity of the source side indi-
cator is to be equal to or better than the requirements given in
Fig. I O.J.
1 0.2.2.3 Exposed radiographs are lo have an average H&D
density at the sound weld metal image of 1.8-2.5. High in-
tensity illuminators are to be available for radiographs with
density in the upper density range.
rar sensitivity = diameter
of the smallest wire .still visible •100 "/.
thickness of tne weld
5 10 15 20 25
Material thickness, mm
For radiography; sensitivity
· b"*d. !>n film side penetrameters
judged as per results from the
qualification.
35 40
Fig. 10.1 Required IQI sensitivity. Source side parameter.
45 50
10.2.3 Qualifications of radiographers
10.2.3.1 Radiographers are to be fully capable of perform·
ing an operational test using the qualified radiographic pro-
cedure.
10.2.4 Production radiography
I 0.2.4.1 Only approved radiographic procedures are to be
used. If the panorama technique is used to include I 00 per
cent of a girth weld in one exposure. a minimum of three pe-
netrameters are to be equally spacea around the
ence.
52
Surface requirements
Type of couplant<sl
Scanning techniques
Reporting and identification system
10.3.3 Ultrasonic procedure qualification
10.3.3.1 The ultrasonic examination procedure is to be
qualified through a procedure qualification test.
The test is to be performed under normal working conditions -
in the presence of a Surveyor.
If the multiple exposure technique is used. at least two penet- The test pieces are to be available as reference during the in-
rameters are to be recorded on each fllm and located near spection work.
each end of the fllm.
For testing of the ends oflongitudinal or spiral welded seams.
one may be used.
I 0.2 .4 .2 The maximum acceptable fllm lengths are limited
by a 6 per cent increase of the wall thickness in the beam di-
rection.
10.3.3.2 The procedure qualification is to be performed on
a sample pipe containing artificial defects made as drilled ho-
les or machined notches. The defects are to be placed both on
the outside and inside of the sample. orientated parallel.
transverse and through the weld and in base material .. The .. '
defect dimensions and locations are subject to agreement.
10.2.4.3 All fllms are to be clearly marked to identify the 10.3.4 Calibration of equipment
proper weld and to locate any discontinuities quickly and ac-
curately. Veritas may specify the identification system. 10.3.4.1 Calibration of the ultrasonic equipment is t!l be
Processing and storage is to be in a way that enables the fllms
to maintain their quality throughout the design life of the in-
stallation.
10.2.5 Evaluation of welds and standards of acceptability
10.2.5.1 The radiographs are to be interpreted by qualified
personnel. The report is to show if the weld quality meets the
requirements of Table I 0.1. which defects have been judged
unacceptable. and the number of repairs made.
10.2.5.2 Since radiography gives two dimensional results
only. welds which meet the acceptance criteria may be reject-
ed if the density indicates the depth of the defect to be detri-
mental to the integrity of the weld.
10.2.5.3 The SurVeyor is to have the right of being final
judge in assessment of weld quality.
10.3 Ultrasonic examination of Welds with stationary
• equipment
10.3.1 Equipment
carried out whenever it bas been out of function for any rea-
son including on/off. and whenever there is any doubt con-
cerning proper functioning of the equipment.
10.3.4.2 Calibration is to be performed with the Sllmple pi-
pe described in 10.3.3.2. The equipment is to be set to prO-·
duce maximum signal amplitude from the artificial defects.
The trigger level is then to be reduced to an agreed level. Cali-
bration is to be performed at the production speed.
10.3.5 Qualifications of operators
10.3.5.1 Tile operators are upon request to be able to de-'·''-"o-""""'"'1· :c•;,
monstrate the following capabilities;
Calibrating the equipment
Performing an operational test under production condi-
tions
Evaluating size and location of reflectors.
10.3.6 Production ultrasonic examination
10.3.6.1 The contact surface is to be clean and smooth. i.e.
free from dirt. scale. rust. welding spatter. etc. which may
influence the results of the testing.
10.3.!.1 The equipment is to 10.3.7 Evaluation of welds and standards of acceptability
be applicable for the pulse echo technique or the double- 10.3.7.1 For stationary equipment the purpose of the test-,;
probe technique 4;!oto ing is normally to detect defects which are to be further
use a frequency of 4 MHz unless otherwise agreed upon evaluated by radiography.
have a sufficient number of fixed. guided probes ensuring
examination of the complete seam for longitudinal and Indications giving signals below the agreed trigger level are
transverse defects and for detection of possible lamination acceptable.
interfering the testing
have a trigger system alerting indications of defects and a
system alarming malfunctioning of the equipment
have a system automatically locating the defect area
have a continuous monitoring of weld seam centering
I 0.3.2 Ultrasonic procedure specification
10.3.2.1 A procedure specification is to be established and
is at least to include the following information;
Material quality and dimensions
Welding process and groove geometry
Type of instrument
Typasl of transducers
Frequencies
Calibration details
Indications giving signals above the trigger level are to be
considered injurious unless further investigations by radio-
graphy show that the weld meets the acceptance cfiteria in Ta-
ble 10.1.
10.3.7.2 The Surveyor is to have the right of being final
judge in assessment of weld quality.
10.4 Ultrasonic examination of welds with portable
equipment
I 0.4.1 Equipment
10.4.1.1 The equipment is to
be applicable for the pulse echo technique and for the
double-probe technique
cover as a minimum the frequency range from 2-6
calibrated gain regulator with ·max. 2 dB per step
have a flat screen accessible from the front for
f plottirig of reference cur:ves
- allow echoes with amplttudes of 5 per cent of full screen
height to be clearly detectable under test conditions
include straight beam transducers and angle beam trans-
ducers of45°. 70° and goo.
r-
PROBE CONlo>.CT SURFACE


L
0 T
B
1.0-lJOnm
L Length of reference block given by probe angle and
materia! range to be covered.
Thickness of reference block.
..,.
D
p
Width of reference block. minimum 40 mm.
Diameter of drilled hole.
Position of drilled hole.
... . ..
Actual wall Thickness of Position of Diameter of
thickness ref. block drilled hole drilled hole
tinmm Tin mm Pinmm D inmm
t.;;25 20 or t T/2 2.4
25 .;;t<50 38 or t T/4 3.2
50< t .. IOO 75 or t T/4 4.8
10.2 Reference block for of reference
curve for portable equipment.
1 0.4.2 Ultrasonic procedure specification
1 0.4.2.1 A procedure specific.ation is to be established alit!
is at least to include the followmg mformat1on:
Material quality and dimensions
Welding process and groove geometry
Type of instrument
Type(s) of transducers
Frequencies
Calibration det;lils
Surface requirements
Type of couplannsl
- Scanning techniques
U Reporting and identification system
10.4.3 Ultrasonic procedure qualification
10.4.3.1 The ultrasonic examination procedure is to be
qualified through a procedure qualification test.
The test ·is to be performed under normal working conditions
in the presence of a Surveyor.
53
The test pieces are to be available as reference during the in-
spection work.
1 0.4.3.2 Reference blocks as described I 0.4.4 will
normally be considered satisfactory as test p1eces. Whenever
groove geometry. welding methods .or other _factors may e3:u·
se special problems in flaw detecuon. Yentas may requtre
special test pieces to be prepared.
1 0.4.4 Calibration of equipment
1 0.4.4.1 Calibration of the ultrasonic equipment is to be
carried out whenever it has been out of fun.cuon for any rea-
son inducting on/ off. and whenever ts any doubt con·
cerning proper functioning of the equipment.
1 0.4.4.2 The IJW /ISO calibration block is to be used for
calibration of range and for angle determination. The V2 cah-
bration block according to DIN 54122 may be used for cah-
bration of range only.
10.4.4.3 For evaluation of flaw indications a reference. curve
is to be established. The curve is to be plotted on the mstru-
ment screen.
1 0.4 .4 .4 A reference block is to be used for gain calibration
and construction of the reference curves. The referenc: block
is normally to be manufactured from the actual matenal and
have dimensions according to Fig. 10.2.
1 0.4.4.5 The sound path from the probe in position A to
the reflector. Fig. 10.3 is not to be less than 60 per cent of the
nearfield length of the probe. ·
10.4.4.6 The echo height from position A is to be maxin;-
ized and the gain control regulated so that the echo he1ght IS
7 5 per cent offull screen heighL Th1s gam settmg .IS called the
P.rimary gain and is to be recorded. altenng thiS gam
setting the maximized echo he1ghts from pomt Band C are to
be plotted on the screen. The reference curve IS now to be
drawn as a-smooth line through the three pomts. Two curv-
es. 20 and 50 per cent of the reference curve are also to be
constructed.
1 0.4.4.7 The primary gain is to be corrected for difference
in surface character and attenuation between the reference
block and the actual pipe by means of the double probe
technique. Two identical angle probes. facing each other one
skip distance apart as shown in Fig. I 0.4. are to be used. The
primary gain is to be corrected accordingly and then becomes
the corrected primary gain.
10.4.5 Qualifications of operators
10.4.5.1 The operators performing ultrasonic examination
are to be certified and upon request to be able to demonstrate
the following capabilities'
Calibrating the equipment . .
Performing an operational test under production condl-
tions
Interpreting the screen display
Evaluating size and locatiOn of reflectors.
10.4.6 Production ultrasonic examination
10.4.6.1 Tlfe contact surface is to be clean and i.e.
free from dirt. scale. rust. welding spatter. etc. wh1ch may
innuence the results of the testing.
10.4.6.2 The weld is to be examined from both sides as
shown in Fig. 10.5 and 10.6.
10.4.6.3 For defect detection. the correctedprimary gain is
to be increased by 6 dB. Defect size evaluauon IS not to be
performed at this increased gain level.
100'/o
a
b A
100'/,
c
I
I
--REFERENCE CURVE
FOR THICKNESSES
-10mm
--REFERENCE CURVE
FOR THlCKNFSSFS
BETWEEN IOANQ 2Smm
--... _
\
--REFERENCE CURVE
FOR THICKNESSES - 25mm
Fig. 10.3 Construction of reference curves for portable
equipment.
54
REFERENCE BLOCK:
TRAHSHITTER RECEIY£R
lxdBI
C1Wit«i TO DffEREKE IN
SlRFACE AM) ATTENJATION.
r.l r..

HATERIAL TO BE TESTED:
FIB. 10.4 Attenuation and surface correction for portable
equipment. Double probe technique.
,- -===-f-)
_) "- ---- -,
,- --- _,
"- --- - ...
,- --- _.,'
... _ --- -.,
,- --- _ ..
,_ ---
SCANNtNG
AREA
Fig. 10.5 Probe movement for testing butt welds, portable
equipment.
10.4.6.4 The defects are to be investigated by maximizing
the echoes with different angle probes and by rotating the
probes.
10.4.6.5 For dimensional evaluation. either the «20
dB·drop• method or the «half·value-drop» method is to be
used.
b
. J:)etection of transverse cracks.
£valuation of welds and standards of acceptability
55
I 0.5.2 Magnetic particle procedure qualification
10.5.2.1 No special procedure qualification test is required.
The procedure is considered qualified based on approval of
the testing procedure specification.
1 0.5.3 Qualifications of operators
10.5.3.1 Operators' performing magnetic particle examina·
lion are to be capable of performing and operational test. us·
ing the test method and technique which is to be applied in
production.
10.5.4 Production magnetic particle testing
I 0.5 .4.1 The testing equif:ment is to establish a field
strength between 2.4 kA/m 30 Oel and 4.0 kA <so Oe).
I 0.5.4.2 Use of permanent magnetic yokes is not permitted.
10.5.4.3 The pipe surface is to be clean and dry. free from
any dirt i.e. grease. oil. lint. scale. welding flux etc. which
may interfere with the examination.
10.5.4.4 To ensure detection of discontinuities having axes
in any direction. the examination is on each area to be per-
famed with the magnetic field shifted in at least two direc-
tions approximately perpendicular to each other .
10.5.4.5 Non-fluorescent wet or dry particles are to provide
adequate contrast with the background of the surface being
examined.
10.5.4.6 Examination with flourescent magnetic particles is
to be conducted in a darkened area using filtered ultraviolet
is .to show if the weld quality meets the require- light with wave lengths within the range of 3200-3800 A.
defects have been judged unacceptable and the
As ultrasonic examination is principle detects «re-
in the material. all indications are to be considered
. m9\il. Q!!!!gerollS type of defect until otherwise proven.
=;o of n:pail"!i made..
'tn general all defect indications exceeding the re-
!!fe to be repaired and reexamined.
wiih length .. t exceeding
•·•'·''· .. ,,_.. .. ,_. the reference curve are to be repaired and ree-
. All defects indications exceeding 20 per cent of the
curve are to be investigated to the extent that the
can <:valuate the shape. identity and location in
lbe-=piance criteria in Table 10.1.
If only one side of the weld is accessible for test·
!)efect indications exceeding 50 per cent of the refer-
with length ;>t and all defect indications exceed·
cent of the reference curve with length ;a. 2t are to
.... -··· •··-' and
Surveyor is to have the right of being fi9jl
fir• ·Sl>Sel>Sm:ent of weld quality.
panicle and contrast paint
10.5.4.7 Magnetic particle examination is not to be per-
formed on parts with surface temeratures exceeding 300°C
(570°Fl Between 6o•c (J40°Fl and 3oo•c. only dcy magnetic
particle examination is to be used.
10.5.4.8 -C:are is to be taken to avoid local heating of the test
surface. PrOds tipped with lead. or «soft prods» are recom·
mended. Arc strikes and burn marks are to be ground out
and reinspected with a suitable method .
10.5.4.9 Demagnetization is required if the material due to
the magnetic panicle testing bas become permanently mag·
netized and this may interfere with the servicability of the
part or installation.
10.5.5 Evaluation of welds and standards of acceptability
I 0.5 .S.) The magnetic particle examination operators are to
report all surface defects detected. The report is to show if the
weld quality meet the requirements of Table. I 0.1. and the
number of repairs made.
10.5.5.2 Surface which are shown to have defects exceed·
ing the limits given in Table 10.1 are to be repaired and re-
examined.
I 0.5.5.3 The Surveyor is to have the right of being final
judge in assessment of weld quality.
10.6 Liquid penetrant examination of welds
10.6.1 Liquid penetrant procedure specification
I 0.6 .1.1 A procedure specifiCation is to be established and
is at least to include the following information:
Material quality and dimensions
Welding process and groove geometry
Surface preparation
Brand name and specifiC type (number of letter designa·
tion if availablel of penetranL remover emulsifier and
developer.
Details of the method of pre-examination cleaning and
drying. including cleaning materials used and time allow·
ed for drying.
Details of the method of penetrant application• the length
of time that the penetrant remains on tpe surface. and the
temperature of the surface and penetrant during the ex·
amination if not within the 15"C-35"C range
Details of the method of removing excess penetrant from
the surface and of drying the surface before applying the
developer.
Details of the method of applying the developer. and
length of developing time before examination
Method of postexamination cleaning.
10.6.2. Liquid penetrant procedure qualification
10.6.2.1 When the temperature of the surface and the pe-
netrant is within I 5°C-35"C range. no' special procedure
qualifiCation. test is required. The procedure is considered
qualified based on approval of the testing procedure specifi-
cation. ·· ·
Outside the temperature range 15"C-35"C a suitable com-
parator block is to be used to compare indications from sur·
face defects examined within and outside the range.
56
I 0.6.3 Qualifications of operators
I 0.6.3 .I Operators performing liquid penetrant examina·
tion are to be capable of performing an operational test. using
the test method or technique which is to be applied in pro-
duction.
10.6.4 Production liquid penetrant testing
10.6.4.1 Liquid penetrant examination is only to be used on
nonferromagnetic materials and materials with great varia-
tion in magnetic permeability.
10.6.5 Evaluation of welds and standards of acceptability
I 0.6.5.1 The liquid penetrant examination operators are to
report all surface defects detected. The report is to show if the
surface meets the requirements of Table I 0.1 and the number
of repairs made.
10.6.5.2 Surfaces which are shown to have defects exoeed·
ing the limits given in in Table I 0.1 are to be repaired i;,nd re-
examined.
10.6.5.3 The Surveyor is-to have the right of being fmal jud-
ge assessment oi' weld quality.
57
Pipeline systems.
Acceptance limits for visual inspection and radiographic examination.

!
t:ACK OF FUSION OR
rcoMPLETE PENETRATION
tdiSAUGNMENT OF ADJOINING
f,IPEENDS
bENTS
·:<-
COLD FORMED GOUGES.
GROOVES. NOTCHES AND
All,CBURNS
Scattered porosity is to be max. 3 per cent by projected area. Largest
pore dim. t/4. max. 4 mm.
porosity is not to exoeed an area of 12 mm in diameter in any
conunuous 300 mm of weld length. Max. dim. of any individual pore
is not to exoeed t/8. max. 2 mm.
Porosity on line is not to penetrate weld surface. largest pore dim.
t/8. max. 2 mm.
Isolated sl!lg• Length <t/2. width <t/4, max. 4 mm.
Slag lines• <;2t. max. 50 mm. width <;2 mm.
For «wagon trackS» width of each parallel slag line is not to exoeed
I.S nun.
Length <;2L max. 50 mm.
Max. 6 mm. Lengtho Max. OD/2.
Not acceptable. May be removed by grinding.
For t<;l2.5 mm: Max. 3 and 2 mm respectively.
Fort> 12.5 mm• Max. 4 and 3 mm respectively.
ExlefDal concavity not acceptable.
fntei-nai concavity acceptable provided that the density of the radio-
graphic image of the concavity does not exoeed that of the adjacent
base metal.
Depth <;tit 0. max. 0.8 mm.
For girth welds the length of an undercut in any continuous 300 mm
of weld length is not to be more than•
Max. 50 mm for depth <;t/10. max. 0.8 mm
Max. 100 mm for depth <;t/20. max. 0.4 mm
For longitudinal or spiral welds the length is not to be more than
max. 1/ S of the above limits for girth welds.
For depth <;0.3 mm. undercut may be accepted regardiess of length
2. 3. 4
2. 3. 4
provided its shape and notch effect is not considered detrimental. 2. 3. 6. 7
2. 3. 7
3. 4
continUous tenich of weld whicb equals five times the lenath o( tbc defect
.....
Sl Observed cracks should initiate more cxlenSivc non--dc5trUc:tivc testing or
the joint and revision of the welding procedure.
6) The dcplll to be mcasuRd by mcd1anical means.
sla& incomplcle pcnetralion. misalia:n-
lhi'<M:llh Qr undercut are to be judJCCI as lhe
in queslion..
7) Severe corrosive cnvironmenl may no:essilale more strinaent require-
mans to be adopted.
8) The \Olal lcnalh of hollow bead in any COilliDuous 300 mm len&:th o(
weld mct.al shall not cxc:ccd SO mm. Individual adjacent hollow bead dis--
continuities. each exceeding 6 mm in length. are to be scparaled by a1
least SO mm of sound meW. time lllc defect timiiS as per ootcs 2 and 3 within any
58
Table 10.2 Pipeline and pipeline risers
Definitions and radiographic characterization.
POROSITY'
Definition:
Voids due to entrapped gas.
Radiographic characterization:.
Sharply defined dark shadows of rounded or elongated sha·
pe.
HOLLOW BEAD'
Definition:
Elongated voids in the root pass.
Radiographic characterization:
Sharply defined dark shadows in line of elongated shape.
SLAG INCLUSIONS'
Definition:
Slag entrapped during welding.
Radiographic characterization:
Dark shadows of irregular shape.
SLAG LINES'
Definition:
Elongated cavities containing slag.
Radiographic characterization:
Dark lines parallel to the weld edges.
LACK OF FUSION'
Definition:
Plane defect due to incomplete fusion between beads or be-
tween metal and parent metal.
Radiographic characterization:
Thin dark line with sharply defined edges. The line may tend
to be diffuse and wavy depending upon the orientation of the
defect with respect to the x·raybeam.
INCOMPLETE PENETRATION'
Definition:
Gap left by incomplete filling of the weld root with weld me-
tal.
Radiographic characterization:
Dark continuous or intermittent line following the weld root
Definition:
Fracture in the weld metal or in the heat affected zone.
Radiographic characterization:
Fine dark line. The line may terid to diffuse and wandering in
direction. •
UNDERCUT,
Definition:
A groove in the surface of the pipe following the edge of the
weld.
Radiographic characterization:
Dark line along the edge of the weld. The line may be more
or less diffuse dependent on the shape of the undercut.
- ........ , . . - ,;:::-
''' . ,,
-:/''''"'
. . ,,
I IIIII I\$
. . ,,
-

"'''' tl I

1
11111111
;..-,.,
''Jh,, .....
, "
, ' ._ _____ ..;· .......... ,-'.;... ____ ...,.._,
1
/jll1111111 lriJ 111111 ,,_111111') _' .
"''''" VII'"'
-
.... ,,

10 PER CENT
........
........
. ...... .
........
.. •·• .. ,...
. ...... .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
........
........
........
........
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . .. .
. ...... .
. . . . . . . .
59
lmm PORE DIAMETER
3 PER CENT 1 PER CENT



2mm PORE DIAMETER
10 PER CENT 3 PER CENT
• • • • • •
• • • •

• • • •
.. ·.

• • • •
• • • •

• • • •
• •
• • • •
• • • •

• •
4mm PORE DIAMETER
J!)W
10 PER CENT
• •
• •
• •
• •
Fig.10.7 Typical distribution of porosity by proje<:ted
area.
61
APPENDICES
The purpose of the appendices to the Veritas Rules·for sub-
marine pipelines is to provide recommended practice. meth-
ods and procedures for design, construction and inspection of
submarine pipelines.
The appendices give guidance, methods and procedures satis-
fying the Rules' requirements. The engineer is free to use oth-
er methods and procedures than those recommended, provid-
ed an equivalent standard of quality and safety is obtained.
Each appendix is self-contained and the procedures and
methods given may be used independent of the Rules alt-
hough the content of the appendices is directly related to the
Rules.
In the appendices text reference to specific paragraphs in the
Rules is made by giving the paragraph number marked with
the letter(R), see 5.4.2 (R).
63
APPENDIX A
ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS
A.l Wind loads A.l.3.2 In-line excitations may occur when
1.7 <V,<3.2
where
Static quasistatid wind forces. which are as· y r
sUmed to be constant as long as the wind is· constant.
These forces are assumed to act normal to the pipe axis in V
the plane defined by the pipe axis and the wind direction. fi
See A.l-2. D
v
f,.o
wind velocity normal to the pipe axis
natural frequency of the pipe
pipe diameter
.. .
Cy,iic wind forces due to vortex shedding. Also these
forces are assumed to act normal to the pipe axis. They
!nay act in two planes - «parallel» and (tnormal)) to the
i.vind direction. See A.l.3.
qw = 0.613CV/D,
Wind force per· unit length of the pipe. acting normal
topjpeaxis in N/m
Shape coefficient according to A.l.2.2
CompPnent of \he wind velocity normal to the pipe
axjs ill rill sec:,
Total outer diameter of pipe. i.e. including coating
etc... in metres.
k (meters>
5 ·10 _,
5 ·10 -·
3 ·IO-l
3 ·I0-·1
5·IO-L5·I0·2
A.l.3.3 Cross-flow excitations may occur when 4.7 < V, <
8.0. V,asdefinedinA.I.3.2.
A.I.J .4 The amplitudes of the vortex shedding induced mo-
tipns due to wind may be derived according to the simplified
approach for vortex shedding in steady current given in A.2.
the mass density of the water with the mass
density of the air. · ·
A.2 Vortex shedding due to current
A.2.1 General
A.2.1.1 Fluid flow past a riser or a free span on a pipeline
may cause unsteady flow patterns due to vortex shedding.
This may lead to oscillations of the pipe normal to its axis.
A.2.1.2 Normally two types of oscillations may be encoun·
tered: oscillations in Jine with the velocity vector <in-line mo-
tionl. and 9scillations perpendicular to the velocity vector
(cross-flow. motionsl. Such .oscillations may be investigated
according to A.2.2 and A.2.3.
A.2.1.3 For certain critical flow velocities. the vortex shed·
ding frequency may coincide with or be a multiple of the na·
tural frequency of the pipe. resulting in harmonic or sub-
harmonic excitations.
A.2.1.4 The vortex shedding frequency may be obtained as'
where
f = s,.v
D
Fotr sevcoral pipes (relatively) close together. group w;,..
into account. if no adequate
effects for the specific case is avail·
• given in A.l.2.2 may be used for D
vortex shedding frequency (Hzl
Strouha!'s number
flow velocitY normal to the pipe axis
pipe diamter
.l!l1!.. pipes in the group.
sens1uve to dynamic
construction. transportation or
of the wind is to be taken into
det.ernninin• the wind loads. This may either
Sllst loading factors. or by use
for the wind loading.
il)duced cyclic excitations of pipes may occur
For pipes. Strouha!'s number is a function of the Reynold's
number. see Fig. A.2.
A.2.1.5 For determination of the velocity ranges where vor·
tex shedding induced oscillations occur. a parameter. Vr
called the redut:ed velocity. is used. V, is defined as
where
v
v, = f,.o
with or perpendicular to the wind di· V
a closer description of the vortex f,
phc.-.ornena. see A.2. D
flow velocity normal to the pipe axis
natural frequency of the pipe
pipe diameter
64
A.2.1.6 An other parameter controlling the motions is the A.3 Recommended values of hydrodynamic coefficients
stability parameter. K5. defined as
where
0
e
D
where
m =
y(x)=
L
d
logarithmic decrement of structural damping
mass density of surrounding water
pipe diameter
effective mass per unit length of the pipe. defmed as
mass per unit length. including structural mass. add·
ed mass and the mass of any fluid contained within
the pipe
mode shape of the actual pipe span
length of the pipe
submerged length of pipe
A.3.1 General
A.J.l.l The proper hydrodynamic coefficients to use in each
case will depend on the flow and pipe conditions character-
ized by
Reynold's numbedR, = U D/v)
Keulegan-Carpenter number (Kc = U m • T /D)
pipe roughness (k/D)
distance between the pipe and a fixed boundary (H/ D)
where
D pipe di3.meter
H clearance between the pipe and a fixed boundary
T wave period
k roughness height
U flow velocity
U m maximum orbital particle velocity
kinematic viscosity of the water
A.J .1.2 The hydrodynamic coefficients should preferably be
obtained from relevant model test. taking into account the ac-
tual values of the different parameters specified in A.J.I. In
the following some proposed values of the hydrodynamic
coefficients are given.
A.3.2 Added mass coefficient
A.3 .2.1 The added mass coefficient for a circular cylinder as
A.2.2 In-line oscillations function of the distance from a fiXed boundary is given in
A.2.2.1 Resonant in-line vortex shedding induced oscillations Fig. A.?.
may occur when 1 .0 < V, < 3.5 and Ks < 1 .8. For definition
ofV,and K5• seeA.2.1.5 and.A.2.1.6.
A.2 .2.2 Depending on the flow velocity. the vortices will eith·
er be shed symmetrically or alternatively from .either side of
the pipe.
For V, < 2.2. the shedding will be antisymmetrical. and the
necessary flow velocity for onset of motion may be d.etermin·
ed from Fig. A.J.
ForV,> 2.2. the shedding will beantisymmetrical.
A.2.2.3 The maximum amplitude of the motions due to in·
line vortex shedding may be detennined from Fig. A.4.
Cross-flow oscillations
A.2.3.1 Cross-flow oscillations may occur forKs< 16 and
values ofV, as determined from Fig. A.5.
A.2.3.2 The maximum amplitude of the cross-flow oscilla-
tions may be from Fig. A.6. The mode shape par-
ameter. y, used m thiS figure is defined as .,,_
L 1/2
J [y'<xl]dx
Y = Ymu
0
L
J [>"(xl]dx
0
where
y (xl= mode shape
Y max= maximum value of the mode shape
For a supported beam in first mode. y is equal to 1.16.
For a cantilever beam in ftrst and second mode. the rvalue is
equal to 1.31 and 1.50 respectively.
The fJgUre may be used for both smooth and rough pipe sur-
faces. For a pipe which is not influenced by any fiXed bound·
ary. the recommended added mass coefficient is 1 .0.
A.3.3 Drag coefficient
A.3.3.1 Tpe d!1lg coefficient as function of the Keulegan-
Carpenter. number for smooth and marine growth covered
pipes for supercritical Reynold's numbers is given in Fig.
A.B. The figure is valid for free field flow without any influ-
ence of a fiXed boundary.
A.3.3.2 The drag coefficient for steady current is equal to the
asymptotic value for Kc equal to infmity. For combined wa-
ve and current action. the increase of Kc due to the current
may be taken into account.
A.3.3.3 To determine the drag coefficients for pipes close to a
fixed boundary. the drag coefficients given in A.3.3.1 may be
multiplied by a correction factor obtained from Fig. A.9.
A.3.4 Lift coefficients
A.3.4.1 The lift coefficient for a pipe at a fiXed boundary in
oscillatory flow is given in Fig. A.IO. The figure may be used
both for smooth and rough pipe surfaces. In steady flow. the
lift coefficient may be taken equal to 1.0. For combined wave
and current action the increase of Kc due to the current may
be taken into account .when determining the lift coefficient
from Fig. A.lO.
A.3.4.2 To determine the lift coefficient for pipes at a certain
distance from a fiXed boundary. the lift coefticients given in
A.J .4 .1 may be multiplied by a correction factor obtained
from Fig. A.ll.
A.4 Wave slamming
A.4.1 Wave slamming loads
A.4.1.1 Horizontal pipes in the wave zone may be subjected
to forces caused by wave slammin_g. The dynamic response
of the pipe should be accounted for.
65
The wave slamming force per unit length of the pipe
maY be calculated as
Fs = l/2eCsV2 D
slamming force per unit length in the direction of the
velocity
mass density of the surrounding water
slatp.ming coefficient
member diameter
velqcity of the water surface normal to the surface of
the pipe. Normally the vertical water surface velocity
will apply
slamming coeffiCient Cs may be determined us-
and/ or experimental methods. For smooth.
cylinderS the value of Cs should not be taken less
The contribution to fatigue from each wave block is gi-
ven as:

n;
R
K
n •= 20 ( i )K
Y· = R .!!L l: -
J Nj i""20-nj 20
of waves within block j
critical number of stress cycles (from relevant
S-N curvel associated with !> o;
number of stress ranges in excess of the limiting
stress range associated with the cut off level of
the S-N curve
reduction factor on number of waves. For a gi-
ven element only waves within a sector of I 0
degrees to each side of the perpendicular to the
member have to be accounted for. In case of an
undirectional wave distribution, R equalsO.II.
slope of the S·N curveHn log-log scalel
A.4.2.2 The calculated contribution to fatigue due to slamm-
. ing bas to be added to the fatigue contribution from other
As the slamming force is impulsive. dynamic amplifJ- variable loads.
considered when calculating the response.
pip<; section fixed at both ends. dynamic amplification
of 1 .5 and 2.0 are recommended for the end moments A I.
the midspan moment. respectively.
A2.
fatigue damage due to wave slamming may be
"!'COrding to the following procedure: AJ.
''Determi,ne minimum wave height, Hmin' which can cau·
se slalnming
Divide the long term distribution of wave heights. in ex·
ofHm;,. into a reasonable number of blocks
Fq(.each block the stress range may be taken as'
l> o;= 2 [ao;...,-<ob + crwll
..a,o>m.,; _.str:ess in ...the element.due to the slam load given
inA.4.1.2
stress due to the net buoyancy force on the ele-
nierit '
stress due to vertical wave forces on the element
factor actounting for dynamic amplifications. see
A,4.j.4
Each slam is associated with 20 approximate linear deca-
stress ranges
-
A4.
A5.
A6.
A7.
A8.
References to Appendix A
BSI Code of Practice No.3. Chapter 5. Part 2' «Wind
LO'lds>>. September 1972.
CIRIA Underwater Engineering Group.· Report
UR8' «Dynamics of Marine Structures>>, London. Ju-
ne 1977.
Blevins. R.D., «Flow-induced Vibration•. Van Nos-
trand Reinhold Company. New York. 1977.
Heideman. Olsen and Johansson: «Local Wave Force
Coefficients>>, ASCE Civil Engineering in the Oceans
N. September 1978.
Sarpkaya. T.: «Vortex Shedding and Resistance in
Harmonic Flow about Rough Circular Cylinders>>.
BOSS 76-conference. Trondheim. Norway. August
1976.
Sarpkaya. T., <<In-line and Transverse Forces on Cy-
li!?ders near a Wall in Oscillatory Flow at High Re-
ynold"s Numbers». OTC Paper No. OTC 2980. May
1977.
Sarpkaya, T.: «Hydrodynamic Drag on Bottom-
mounted Smooth and Rough Cylinder in Periodic
Flow». OTC Paper No. OTC 3761. May 1979.
King. R .. Prosser. MJ .• John. DJ., «On Vortex Ex·
citation of Model Piles in Water>>, Journal of Sound
and Vibrations. Vol. 29. No.2. pp. 169-180. 1973.
c
'
''"
\ g;;--- ' ,.,;,J
I
\\.1 • .---
I • -;r I
' ' I

104 10
5
10
5
10
7
'?
Re
Fig. A.l. Shape coefficient for circular cylinders.
Ref. A.l.
66
LAMINAR SUBCRITICAL
jt:Hm-
CAL I SUPEf CRITICAL·
0.4
s
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.1 1.0
-
, !"
10 102 103 10
4
hi
J
I
I
.,0,
106 107
Re
Fig. A.2. Strouhals number for circular cylinders as
function of reynolds number. Ref. A.8.
... 2.5
FIRST
1
1NSTABILITY
1
INSTAB.
REGION
I
REGION
v,
/
!"
I
!
/
I
•Jt-
MOTION
2.0
I
I
NO MOTION
1.5
1.
---- - ··- ·--------- ------
0 0.5 l.O 1.5 2.0
Ks
Fig. A.3. Flow velocity for onset of in-line motion. Ref.
A.2.
AMPL.
OIAM.
0.20 -r-----r------,------r----,
0 .15-r---"\-t----f----+------l
IN -LINE MOTION
0.
v, > 2.2

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Ks
Fig. A.4. Amplitude of in-line motion as a function of K
5
Ref. A.2.
6.0
v,
5.
4.0
3.
0.0
10
4 ,as 106 .
1C
Re
Fig. A.S. Flow speed for onset of cross flow motion. Ref.
A.2.
AMPL.
'(·DIAM.
1. 2
CROSS FLOW

0.8
0.6
0.2
2 4 6 s 10 i2 14
Ks
Fig. A.6. Amplitude of crossflow motion as a function of K
5
Ref. A.3.











I
I
-·-

3.0
Cm
.9


r---
1.0
oo
1.0 I S. 2.D

2.S J.O
M
..,.
1S
Fig. A. 7. Recommended value of the added mass
coefficient, Cm for a circular cylinder.
CD -
,...___
"
v
GROW H
\
ROUGH., ess
2.0
'·-
\
..........
-........._
\
--
• nn
..........
-
,
0.70
1.0
ST EEL RC f.JGHNES
s.r
0.0
--
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
K.,
Fig. A.8. Drag coefficient for a circular cylinder in
oscillatory flow.
Ref. A.4.
i
70
67
2.0
I ,-,.:•.-..
Co/co.,..
!
1. 5
I
j
I
1.0 -
'
.t
___ _l -- I J
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
H/0
Fig. A.9. Influence of a fixed boundary on the drag
coefficient of a circular cylinder in oscillatory supercritical
10
5
-2·10
6

Ref. A.S, A.6 and A.7.
s.
CLO \
1\..
I
""'"


---
1---
--
•-
3 ..
2.0
--- --
1.0
0.0
0 10 20 30 40 so 60 10
Kc
Fig. A.lO. Lift coefficient for a circular cylinder at a fixed
boundary in oscillatory flow.
Ref. A.S, A.6 and A.7.
1 . 0
CL/ Clo
1\
\
0.8
0.6
0. 4
0.2
..
0. 0
0.0
\
\
·-
0.2
-.......__
0.4

I fH
/////// -
- I
----
0.6 0.8 1.0
H/0
Fig. A.ll. Variation of lift force coefficient as a function
of the distance from a fixed boundary.
Ref. A.S, A.6 and A.7.

68
APPENDIX B
BUCKLING CALCULATIONS
B.l Local buckling
B.l.l In the absence of more accurate information (or
methods} the critical combina.tion of longitudinal and hoop
stresses may be expressed as follows:

-I
Uxcr aycr
(Compressive stress is positive in this formula.)
a,
N
A
M
w
D
a,.N + r1xM
(Compression positivel
M
w
(Compression positivel
aXial force.
" (D - tl t = cross sectional area
bending moment.
f (D- tl2 t = (elasticl section modulus.
nominal outer diameter of pipe.
nominal wall thickness of pipe.
== critical longitudinal stress when N is acting aJone
<M= o. P; ol.
a•
p,
P;
p
r1ycr
Uycr
Of
"F[t-ri.oot( ¥ -2o)]
forD/t<;20
for20 < Q < 100
t
specified yield strength (corresponding to 0.2 96 resi-
dual strainl.
critical (maximurnllongitudinal stress (when deter-
mined as·M/W) when M is acting alone (N= 0.
p= O).
"F ( 1.35-0.0045 -T)
1 + lQQ_ _!!:,_
D/t D rJycr
= (p,- p) 2t
= hoop stress to be considered in buckling analyses.
<Not necessarily equal to actual hoop stress.)
external pressure.
internal pressure.
Pe- Pi= external <(overpressure>>.
critical hoop stress when p is acting alone (N = 0.
M=O).
a,E
B. I .2 The permissible combination of a, and "• should be
defined by inserting permissible usage factors in ihe formula
of 8.1.1 for critical combination. The permissible combina-
tion may then be expressed as
where
llxp permissible usage factor (i.e. permissible value of
0.
""" lJyp permissible usage factor (i.e. permissible value of
..E.Y..) when Ox::: 0.
Gycr
Other symbols are defined in B.l I .
The usage factors should depend on whether the critical
stress is in the elastic or in the plastic range. Therefore nor-
mally will be smaller than >Jxp.Recommended usage factor
are given in 8.1.3.
B. 1.3 . A dependence ':'" the degree of plas-
ticity mvoJved ts gtven for nsers dunng operation in Table
B.l. For pipelines during operation the factors in Table B.l
be multiplied by 1.2. For both pipelines and risers dur-
mg mstallauon. the factors in Table B. I may be multiplied by
maximum 1.44. However. no usage factor should exceed 1.0.
See also 8.1.4.
Table B. I Permissible usage factors - general case
Loading
.£.E <; I <3
_.£.E_
Condition
>3
aF "F ar
a)
0.52 0.48 + o.o4.£.E 0.60
"F
b) 0.68 0.62 + 0.06 0.80
aE = critical stress if completely elastic material. (uxE or ayE)
a,.E is defjned in B. 1.1.
. E ·t
"•E "= 0.42-o--
8.) .4 For most pipes buckling due to a, alone will be nearly
plastic. buckling due to a,. alone will be nearly elastic.
For such ptpes the recommendations of B.J.3 will lead to the
usage factors given in Table B.2.
Table B.2 Permissible usage factors- typical D/t
Installation Operation
Loading Pipelines Pipelines Pipelines
condition
and Zone I Zone 2 and
risers risers
.. 1/yp 1}xp 1Jyp .. 1}yp
a) 0.86 0.75 0.72 0.62 0.50 0.43
b) 1.00 0.98 0.96 0.82 0.67 0.56
Empty (airfilledl liquid pipes during «Operation» may be
considered as during <<installation•).
B·2 Propagation buckling
8.2.1 Theoretically. the probability that a propagating buck-
le will be initiated is not higher (but may be lower) than the
probability that a local buckle will occur. However. due to
the great economic ri$k involved in propagation b!Jckling.· in-
creased safety. or at least a closer investigation. may be ad-
viceable. For such investigation the available results from the
later research work sbould be V;tilized.
8.2.2 A propagation cannot be initiated in. ()r pr()pa-
gate mto. a portion. of the pipe where the maximum externaJ
69
overpressure is Jess than the propagation. pressure_ (pp) of the
pipe. A simplified consideration of plasttc work mvolved m
total collapse gives
'fr•'"'J.JS;,ar( )'
wpjch may be considered a lower bound. p., will most prob-
ably be somewhat higher than by the above formula.
further. the initiation pressure (p;,) ts somewhat htgher than
·. PB.f
·B-2:3 A propagation buckle cannot be initiated in. but may
into. a portion of the pipe where the maximum ex-
iernal 9verpressure is between P..- and P;.<p.,< p < p,.,). If
9uckle arr!'Stors are installated where P >Pin· there is no need
arrestors where Pp< < P < P;n·
J;Juik)ing of the pipe as a ..
·B.J.l . If there is doubt about the stability of a span against
' <<b<!rbuckling». the stability may be checked according to the
roitowini-
,, 'il-f. Tbl: effect of internal ;tnd external pressures may be
·· taken into 'account by introducing an <<effective>> axial force.
s. whiclj in effect is equivalent to the real axial force in an
«ordinary>> compression member in air. Otherwise the pro-
cedure is as for <<ordinary)) compression members in air.
8.3 .3 For a pipe subjected to an axial force N in the pipe it-
self. an internal pressure Pi and an external pressure Pe- the
«<effective>) axial force with respect to ccbar buckling•) is:
S = N + (D- 2tl2 P;- D
2
p,
(Compression positive in this formula.l
The formula applies to any type of axial restraint. since the
restraint is reflected in N.
8.3.4 lfS is positive. S should be compared with the critical
axial force with respect to «bar buckling» of the considered
span. If S is zero or negative. buckling is not possible. (Nega-
tive S has a similar effect as tension in an «ordinary» mem-
ber. even if the real axial force N is compressive.)
B.3 .5 The required minimum critical axial force Scr in rela-
tion to S should depend on axial restraint If both ends of the
considere\1 span are ftxed against axial displacement. S need
not be Jess than Scr Even with S exceeding Scr the pipe may
find a new eqilibrium position after a limited lateral deflec-
tion. The possible bending stresses should in such cases 0.
checked. If the considered span is free to contract axially. the
safety against buckling should be as commonly used in steel
construction.
70
APPENDIX C
QUALITY CONTROL OF MATERIALS.
QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES AND WELDING PERSONNEL
C.l General
C.l.l Scope
C.l .1.1 This appendix is a guidance to quality control of rna·
terials and defines methods for determination of chemical
composition. mechanical testing of materials and welds
schemes for qualification of welding personnel.
C.4.1.2 Wet analyses and. spectrochemical analyses are to be
made on materials sampled by e.g. drilling or milling and be
representative for the material composition.
C.4 .I .3 Spectrographical analyses are to be made on a clean.
bright metal surface after grinding to a depth at least 2 mm
below the surface. Analyses of semi-killed steel are. however.
to be taken at approximately one quarter position.
Other standardized testing methods. test specimens and C.4.1.4 Ladle analyses are to be taken prior to <tnd during
combination of tests may be used subject to agreement. steel casting to ensure a uniform composition of Cl!Ch
C.1.2 Definitions
C.t.n Test sample The part of the material (pipe. plate. sec-
tion. east-on bar; pi«:!'C cut from forgings etc.) which is select·
ed for testing.
c.1.2.2 Test specimen' Tbe part of !he test sample which is
prepared by mac:1lining etc. for carrying out the various lest$.
C.I.J Testing equipment
Testing equipment is to be of with.
capacity and accuracy. Tbe equtpment IS to be satisfact?rilY
maintained and kept in accurate condition by regular calibra·
lion and check routines. Endorsed calibration records are to
be kept available in the testing facility.
Only competent and trained personnel is to carry out testing.
C.2 Steel making
C.2.1 General
C.4.1.5 Check analyses are to be taken on the fmal products.
The check analyses may. however. optionally be determ,ined
at an intermedi<tte stage. e.g. on plates. provided results
are stated on the certiftcates. ·
C.4.1.6 Determination or"chemical composition is" to include
all eleme!ll$ listed in Table 5 .I (R) and rS!JWning :Je-
ments intentionally •deled to control the material properues.
When the steel is imdc from the !'Is<>
to check the content of other residual elements which may
impair the quality of the product. e.g. Sn. Sb.
C.4.1.7 The chemical composition is to be stated on the certi·
licate by the elements listed in Table 5.1 (R) apd al!y other
elements intentionally added to control the material propert·
ies. Trace elements need. however. not be reported.
C.4.1.8 Recheck analysis Should a check analysis fail to meet
the specified composition limits. all other heats within tl!e sa·
me batch are to be subject to a complete chemical analfsis-
Only those heats which are -,vithin the specification. may be

C.2.1.1 Steel may be made from pig iron. sponge iron or re-
cycled scrap. Residual elements are to be kept at a level C.4.1.9 Requirements are given in 5.2.4 (R).
which will not impair
hot working ability C.S Heat treatment
weldability ·
mechanical properties C.S.l General
soundness c.S.I.I Heat treatment is to be carried out in a controlled
surface fmish manner using calibrated equipment. Accuracy of temperature
.I .2 Ladle treatment is to be performed in a controlled measurement is to be within S"C.
manner taking appropriate precautions to prevent humidity
increasement and contamination.
C.J Steel casting
C.3.1 General
C.3 .1.1 Steel may be ingot cast. continuous cast or mould
cast. Sequence casting is subject to agreement.
C.5.1.2 Temperature fluctuations during austenizing are to be
within ± 1 0°C. During tempering. stresS relieving or post·
weld heat treatment carried out within the range
500-650°C. the fluctuations are to be within ± 15°C.
C.6 Surface defects in base material
C.3.1.2 The cast ingot. item or slab is to be inspected for sur· C.6.1 General
face defects. Defects are to be removed prior to subsequent
wor)<.ing.
C.3.1.3 Spun cast products are to be machined to a depth en·
suring removal of impurities and surface defects.
C.4 Chemical analyses
C.4.1 General
C.4.1.1 The chemical composition is to be determined by
C.6 .1.1 The steel manufacturer or any other works perform·
ing operations which m!lY influence the surface finish of the
material. to take precautions oand make regular checks
with suitable equipment to ensure that the final surface finish
is acceptable.
C.6 .1.2 Surface defects are to be removed. Superfteial indica-
tions formed at high temperature and without a sharp tip.
may be accepted if their maximum depth is less than 5% of
the nominal wall thickness. however. maximum I mm.
either wet analyses. spectrochemical or spectrograpbical C.6.1.3 Local surface defects may be ground out provided the
methods. remaining thickness is within the minimum specined.
C. 7 Mechanical testing

"1 The. material properties are to be determined on the
. in its final condition.
· Samples for testing are normally to be cut from the
·or provided as integrally attached coupons. or ex·
pif;CCS-
are to be prepared in a manner which
mechanical properties and \he testing.
tensile and bend test specimens from roll·
are to retain the as·roUed surface fmisb. ·
. Tensile test specimens from a product· of· uniform
to have a rectangular cross section be-.
and with the dimensions as given in Fig.
specimens from castings ancl forgings of va·
to have a round cross section.
Sirenliih- Is to ·tie· ialien as the lOwer yield
resulting in 0.2% permanent strain (offsetl
· O.S% total elongation during testing.
71
C.7.5 Cbarpy V-notch impact testing
C.7.5.1 Charpy V-notch specimens are to have dimensions as
given in Fig. C.4. The provisions ofiSO R 148 «Beam impact
test (V-notchl». are to be applied. When using subsize speci·
mens (Le. I 0 x 7.5 and I 0 x 5 mml. all the dimensions except
the height are to be in accordance with the said document.
Full size specimens are to be used unless they can not be rea·
sonably provided. The impact toughness is the absorbed ener-
gy expressed in Joule (or kpml. and the symbol being KVT
for specimens orientated transverse to the principal rolling/
working direction.
C.7 .5.2 Charpy V·notch specimens sampled from the base
material are normally to have their longitudinal axis transver-
se to the principal rolling/ working direction. The notch is to
be perpendicular to the rolled surface.
When the wall thickness exceeds 50 mm. the Charpy
V -notch specimens are to be sampled at approximately t/4
position below the outside surface.
c. 7.5 .3. Tbe scale of the llUIChine is to be calibrated to ac:
curacy of ± 0.5% of the machines maximum striking ener-
gy.
C.7 .5.4 Wilen imPact testing is specified to be carried out at a
iemperature lower than the room tempciature. !be test speci·
men is to be cooled down by immersion for I 0 minutes or
more in a bath of a suitable temperature (e.g. methyl alcohol
cooled by solidified carbon dioxidel. When withdrawing the
test specimen from the bath. the bath temperature is not to be
higher. and not more than 2°C lower. than the required test
temperature. The specimen is to be inserted in the machine
and tested within 5 seconds.
C.1.5.S Requirements are given in 5.2.7 (R). 5.2.8 (R). 7.2.4.2
(R) and 8.5.3.4 (R). .
• are given in 5.2.6 (R). 7.2.4.2 (R) and C.?.
6
Macrosectiqn of welcled joints
be tensile tested by the ring expansion
••M"·'"'"''. w .a&re:llment.
:test· specimens are to have full wall thickness.
root and face bend specimens are to be approxi-
The width of side bend specimens are to be
niay be rounded off to a radius of 1/1 0
weld reinforcement on both faces is to
· with the original surfaces (Fig. C.2). j!!e
located symmetrically on each specimen. ·
are given in 7.4.2 (R) and 8.5.3.4 (R).
!lick break test specimens are to have full thick·
reinforcement retained on both faces and
in Fig. C.3. The specimens are to
the thickness from both sides at
niay be fractured either by pulling.
. or by striking one end while the other is
C.7.6.1 Tile width of the macrosection is to be minimum
three tinies the width of the weld. The section is to be prepar-
ed by grinding and polishing. and etched to clearly reveal the
weld metal and the heat affected zone. The macrosection is to
be examined using a magniftcation of at least Sx.
C.7.7 Hardness testing of welded joints
C. 7. 7 .I The prepared macrosection is to be used for hardness
testing using the Vickers method with 5() N (S kp) load. In·
dentations are to be made along mtverses. each approximate-
ly I mm below the surface at either side of the weld. In the
weld metal minimum 6 indentations equally spaced along the
traverses are to be made. In the HAZ indentlltions are to be
made along the traverses for approximately each 0 .S mm into
unaffected material. and starting as close to the fusion line as
possible. Reference is made to Fig. C.S.
C.1.1.2 In case of a.single reading slightly higher than the
specified limit funher indentations should be made to check if
the «high» value Wll$ an isolated case. Then indentations are
to be made in the adjacent region as well as on the opposite
side of the macrosection along the specified traverses. If these
additional tests give a hardness within the speciftcation limit.
the slightly high value may be accepted.
C.7 .7 ,3 The.. accuracy of hardness testing with the actual
equipment and method is to be taken into account in the
evaluation of the readings.
C.7.7.4 Requirements are given in 5.2.10 (R). 5.2.12 (R).
7.2.4.2 (R) and 8.5.3.4 (R).
C. 7.8 Straht ageiDg testing
C.7.8.1 The specified mechanical properties of a product is
are given in 8.5.3.4 (R) and &.S.S.2 (Rl. guaranteed in its final supply condition. In special situations
72
subsequent operations may still affect the material properties.
e.g. by field bending of pipes to bends. pulling of pipes
through J-tubes or pipelaying of reeled pipestrings. The frac-
ture toughness is particularly sensitive to cold deformation.
Strain ageing testing may then be a suitable method to asses
whether adequate notch toughness does remain.
C.7.8.2 When the material is deformed to a fibre strain more
than 3%. strain ageing testing is considered appropriate for
pipeline systems required to have high resistance against brit-
tle fracture. Base material and weld metal are then to be test-
ed.
C.7 .8.3 Procedure: The material is to be cold strained by eith-
er uniform compression or tensioning to a deformation of
5%. or to the actual deformation if this is greater. The mate-
rial is to be artifically aged for 1 hour. The ageing tempera-
ture is to be I 00°C, or 250°C for pipeline systems having ma-
ximuiJl design temperature above 100°C.
The deformed and aged material is to be Cbarpy V-notch tes-
ted at the testing temperature and meet the same re-
quirements as specified for the pipeline system.
C.8 Sampling of test specimens
C.8.1 Seamless pipes
C.8.1.1 Tensile test specimens (transverse and longitudinaO
and Charpy V-notch specimens (transverse> may be sampled
from any location within the pipe material. However. if the
pipe has been spun cast. the test specimens are to be taken at
the inside surface of the pipe.
C.8.2 Welded pipe
C.8.2.1 Pipe material: Tensile test specimens (transverse and
longitudinaO and Charpy V-notch specimens (transversel. are
to be sampled from the weld.
C.8.2.2 Weld seam: The test specimens are to be sampled
transverse to the weld. with the weld deposit at the center. as
shown in Fig. C.6. The same applies for jointers which are
produced in the I G· principal position (pipes horizontal while
rotating).
C.8.3 Cold formed or forged bends
C.8.3.1 The test specimens are to be cut from an overlength
behd section having received the same deformation and heat
treatments as applied for the bends. Base material test speci-
mens are to be sampled from the area of maximum tensional
deformation. The longitudinal axis of the specimen is to be
orientated transverse to the Qirection of the principal wor-
king/ grain flow. When a bend contains longitudinal weld
seam<sl. test specimens are also to be selected as described' ror
welded pipe (C.8.2).
C.8.4 Forged seamless piping components other than bends
C.8 .4.I The test specimens are to be taken from a portion of
the forging which has received a deformation representative
for the working ratio of the most highly stressed cross sec-
tion. For components with greatly varying working ratios
and sectio11 thjcknesses. more test samples may be nec;essary.
Separately forged test blanks may be used when integrally
forged extension samples can not be reasonably provided.
C.8.4.2 The test specimens are to be with their
principal axis transverse to the direction of principle grain
flow. and be at least 0.11 from the as-forged surface. Where
transverse testing can not reasonably be performed due to the
small size of the component. the test specimens may have
longitudinal orientation.
C.8.5 Cast piping components
C.8 .5 .I Cast coupons are to be of a size and located in a man-
ner realistically predicting the properties of the casting. The
coupons are to be heat treated with the casting. and are not to
be detached before completion of all heat treatments.
C.9 Welding procedure qualification
C.9.1 General
C.9. I. I The position for sampling of test specimens in con·
nection with welding procedures for fabrication and installa-
tion welding are shown by Figs. C.6 and C.7 respectively.
The welding procedure specification and the test results are to
be presented on suitable forms including references to pro-
ject. application. fabrication. installation company and eQdor·
sement of witnessing.
C.lO Qualification of welding personnel
C.lO.l General
C.IO.l.l The purpose of qualification testing of welding per·
sonnel is to verify that the welder or welding operator have
the necessary training. skill and understanding to produce
sound welds according to a qualified welding procedure.
C. I 0.1.2 In order to be qualified. welders and welding opera·
tors are to be at least 18 years of age. and are to have passed a
relevant theoretical and practical training program. ... ·
C.lO.LJ The company responsible for the welding opera·
tions is prior tu qualification t.Sting. to confmn thllt each
welder and welding operator have obtained adequate under'
standing of
fundamental weldi!lg techniques
signitlcance of welding parameters
relevant materials response to welding
operation of the welding equipment to be used
welding procedure specifications
handling of welding consumables
relevant methods of non-destructive testing
relevant acceptance criteria for weld defects
C. I 0 .I .4 Welding personnel to make buttwelds and fillet
welds is to have passed qualification testing for single side.
full section buttwelding of pipes in the principal position(sl
required.
C.IO.I.S Welding personnel satisfying the above general con-
ditions and having performed an acceptable test weld accord-
ing to C. I 0.2 is thereby qualified.
C. I 0.1.6 For underwater welding additional conditions will
apply. see C.I0.4.
C.IO.I.7 An endorsed qualification test record is to be
after completion of an acceptable test weld. The record is to
be of a suitable form containing information tO
describe applied welding procedure. testing set up. evaluation
methods and conclusions. of application and date of
testing. ....
C.IO.I.8 Where a qualification of recent date is allowed
transferred to a new project. the welding personnel is to be,
informed about pllf(icular project requirements for which
their welding performance will be specially important.
C.IO.I.9 Requalification is to be performed if the welding
personnel has not regularly performed qualified welding
within a period of more than six months.
73
doubled. and both the new welds are to be acceptable. No
'C,
0
·
2
·
1
· p · further retests are permitted until the welder/operator has
... 1 . . nor to starting the test welding. reasonable time is passed acceptable additional training.
!O be permitted to adjust the welding equipment.
lf the welding procedure involves more than one
· .. :.,,.1"1f""'"' or more welding units. test welding is to include all
. Jl:""'ltic>ns and units necessary to complete the weld. Con-
the performance test may require welding with dif-
units and welding parameters.
·Two pipe nipples of sufficient length to introduce
are to be joined according to the qualified
The pipe diameter. wall thickness and the
are to be selected in accordance with the
qualified.
installation of transmission pipelines the actual line
shol,lld be US!'d for qualification testing.
Fpr welding of pipes with t < 5 mm or OD < I 00 mm. the
test pipe dimensions are to be agreed upon.
C.l 0.2.4 For pipe diameters less than 300 mm. the complete
joint ls to ·be welded. For testing on significantly greater dia·
n>eter. the welding length is to be at leaSt half the circumfer-
that. typical flat. vertical and overhead welds are
made without interruption.
C.! 0.2.5 Minimum one stop and start is to be made during
welding of the root and cap pass. Electrodes are to be com-
pletely consumed. Light mechanical treatment is permitted
for removal of scale. debris and minor local irregularities.
however. not for the intent of removing weld defects due to
unsatisfactory performance of welding. Welding is to proce-
ed ,\Vith a speed representative for regular production.
0.2.6 Test material may be of semikilled or killed C-Mn
steel for welding on pipeline system designed with unalloyed.
mlcroalloyed or low alloyed steels with ultimate tensile
' ·620 MPa. Qualification for welding of
strength grades or alloyed steel may require additional
''""'·'· ,,,,. ·-·"-"'!!'·'¥- ()!'_the actual material tYPe.
C.l0.3 Inspection and testing of qualification test welds
C.IO.J.l Each test weld is to be visually inspected and show
.aworl<manlike appearance satisfying Table 10.1 (R). If found
the test weld is to be radiographed using a qualif·
led based on X-rays. see section 10 (R). and comp-
ly• with Table 10.2 (R).
C.I0.3.2 The test weld is also to be destructively tested if it
lias been made with a welding procedure involving the gas
metal arc welding process or other processes of high potential
for non-fusion defects. Type and number of mechanical tests
!U'e given in Table C. I.
Nick Face Root Side
break bend bend bend
test test test test
2 0 2 0
t..:12.5 4 0 2 0
8 2 2 0
0 0 2
0 0 2
0 0 4
If a_ failure occurred due to conditions beyond the welders/
operator's control. this failure may be disregarded. and a new
opportunity to qualify given.
C.l0.4 Welder qualification
C.I0.4.1 A welder is qualified for welding when the condi-
tions given in C.IO.I. C.I0.2 and C.l0.3 have been fulfilled.
Qualified welding positions are given in Table C.2.
C.I0.4.2 A welder qualification is valid within the limits of
essential variables as described below. If any of the following
essential variables are changed, a new qualification test is re-
quired
A change of welding process
A change of welding direction
A change of welding consumables from basic coated to
cellulosic coated or vice versa
A change of pipe diameter-from one to another of the fol-
lowing diameter groupings: OD ..:100 mm. 100 < OD ..;
300 mm. and OD > 300 nun
A change of wall thickness from t > 5 riun to t < 5 mm
A change in principal welding position other than already
qualified. see table C.2
A significant change of joint design e.g. V-groove to
Y·groove
Table C.l
Principal test position Qualified welding positions
IG IG
2G IG.2G
SG I G. SG
2G + 5G All
6G All
C.lO.S Welding operator qualification (or mechanized weld-
ing
C.l0.5.1 A welding operator is qualified for welding when
the conditions given in C.IO.I. C.l0.2 and C.I0.3 have been
fulfllled.
C.I0.5.2 An operator's qualification is valid within the limits
of essential variables as described for welders. see C.I0.4.2.
Additionally the qualification is limited to the type of welding
equipment qualified for the actual installation welding. Re-
qualification is further to be initiated if there is made a chan·
ge in the welding procedure which itself requires requalifica-
tion. and this change is depending on the operator's control
and skill. and necessitate a different operating technique.
C.l0.6 Qualification of welding personnel ·for underwater
welding
C. I 0.6.1 Qualification of welding personnel working under·
water is to be based on the scheme given in C. I 0 with the ad·
ditional conditions specified herein.
C.I0.6.2 The test welds are to be produced under actual or si-
mulated conditions for the work in question.
C.l 0.6 .3 In to the requirements given in C. I 0.1.3.
underwater welding personnel is initially to have passed a
relevant welding test above water before beeing pennitted to
qualify for welding underwater. Prior to the tests. the wel-
ders are to be given sufficient training to get familiar with the
influence of pressure. temperature. atmosphere etc. on weld·
in g.
test weld fails to meet the specified require-
. or welding operator may be permitted im- C.I0.6.4 Approval of welders/operators are to be based on
retesting. Tben the number of test welds are to be visual. mechanical and radiographic testing.
74
Type and number of mechanical tests are given in Table C. I. is to be examined visually and by radiography. If interrupted
period exceeds 6 months. the performance test is to be as
specified for initial qualification. C.J0.6.5 The applicability of a welder's certificate is given in
Table C.2 as regards welding positions. Applicability for
welding at greater water depths or other pressure or diving
modes will be decided in each case.
C. I 0.6.6 For underwater welders any change of coated elec·
trades will normally require requalification.
C.l0.6.7 Renewal of the certificate for underwater welders
may be required if welding has been interrupted for a period
of more than 3 months. The retest is then to consist of rriak·
ing minimum one test coupon of length approximately
300-400 mm in an agreed welding position. and the coupon
For underwater welders who are on stand·by and without
necessarily doing regular underwater welding. the conditions
for maintenance of the qualification is to be ··specially agreed ,
upon.
C.I0.7 Extraordinary requalification of welding personnel
C.I0.1.1 Welding personnel may be required to reQualifyjn
case of negligence or questionable welding performance. In
such cases the welder/ operator in question shall present evid·
ence of further acceptable training. and are to be requalified
as for initial qualification.
75
SOmm.
HansYIH5t, Of longitudinal. base material tensile
te.st specimen·
REDUCED SECTION
r--6Dmm -1
: II
25mmRmin. t
Weld tensile test- fabticati on
of pipes/piping c.omponents.
SPECIMEN MAY BE MACHINE OR OXYGEN CUT.
I EDGES SHALL BE PARALLEL AND SMOOTH.
r--1 25mm
,,. APPROiflMATELY 225 MM
i . ... WELO REINFORCEMENT SHOULD NOT BE
. ,·

ON EITHER SIDE ?'?¥··-·'';>:O:.:.F_ . ..:S:.:.P.::E.::C.:.;IM::.:E:.:N;______ _,..i_
L...-- =s . . I. WALL THICKNESS
T
Wei d len$ile test for field weld procedure
qualification test.
Fig. C.l. Tensile test specimens
76
t/10 MAX.
SPECIMEN MAY BE MACHINE OR OXYGEN C7UT.
\\lRAO. ALL CORNE
IL___ DIWROX.25mm
r
•--------200mm !minimum l
I
l_
i:. :=- WALL THICHNESS
'
WELD REINFORCEMENT IS TO BE REMOVED" FROM BOTH FACES FLUSH WITH THE SURFACE OF THE SPECI-
MEN. SPECIMEN SHALL NOT BE FLATTENED PRIOR TO TESTING. CUT SURFACES SHALL BE SMOOTH AND
PARALLEL
FACEBEND/ROOT BEND SPECIMEN
WELD REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE REMOVED FROM BOTH
FACES FLUSH WITH THE SURFACE OF THE SPECfMEN
1------- 200mm !minimum l
J
I
WALL
THICKNESS
,---
\ t /10 RADIUS MAX.
_j_ \ CORNERS
12.5mm c=::J/
T I _j1WIDTH
1-- t SPEC! ME
/WALL
SPECIMENS MAY BE MACHINE CUT TO 12,6 MM WIDTH OR THEY MAY BE OXYGEN CUT TO APPROXIMATi
L Y 20 MM WIDE AND THEN MACHINED OR GROUND SMOOTH TO 12.5 MM WIDTH. CUT SURFACES SHALl
BE SMOOTH AND PARALLEL.
SIDE BEND SPECIMEN
Fig. C.l. Bend test spedmens
77
3mm
20mm
NOTCH CUT BY HACK SAW.
SPECIMEN MAY BE MACHINE
OR OXYGEN CUT. FACE 5 SHALL
BE REASONABLE PARALLEL
I
3mm
__________ APPROX.225mm ---------.,j
l..
DO NOT REMOVE REINFORCEMENT OF WELD OF
EITHER S.IDE OF
I
0
WALL THICKNESS
T T
Fig. C.3 Nick break test specimen
NOTCH POSITIONS.
CENTER OF WELD
FUSION LINE II.IJ
2mm FROM 1.1.
Smm FROM 1.1.
location of Charpy V-notch samples
of welded joints. (Each sample consists of
three spedmens.)
Fig. C.4. Cbarpy V -notch impact testing.
78
O.Smm
I DETAIL A MAGNIFIED I
HARDNESS TESTING
MULTIPLE PASS
WELD REPAIR
Fig. C.S. Hardness testing welded joints - schematic.
HARDNESS TESTING
SINGLE BEAD REPAIR
INSIDE OR OUTSIDE
79
(Z//2i'i///JZ/6Jscfd 5a;m/21
I
C b] I Tensile test spec.imens. .
. c ~ '} I
1
L Q I Bend test specimens.
!
. ~ } IMPACT TESTING: I
Center of weld metal
specimens.
I ; A : } Fusion line I
1 @ specimens.
I ~ } 2 mm from fusion line I
~ specimens,
I ~ : : : u . 'r I
· ~ Smm from fusion line
f ;f{j : : specimens. .
5 } Bend test :specimens. I
Fig. C.6. Welding procedure qulaification - fabrication
of pipes/ piping components: sampling of test specimens.
80
TOP OF PIPE
. .r-'----- Hardness /macrosection
Face or side bend
Root or side bend Nick break
Nick break -----....
Tensile
}
if
Ec
- Smm from f.l. -"'
..._--'-_"<!.,S.>",._ ___ Root or 5ide bend
"'-----Face or 5ide bene!
'------- Hardness I macrosect ion
r----------Hardness/ macr osectio;
Root or 5ide bend
Nick break --------+:Ar.it»
Tensile ---------.,,c::;:y
Face or 5ide bend--___,.,..AI
Outer diameter
f'l...-o------Tensile
or side bend
11.•--- Nick break
00 > 300mm ...--Weld metal
line [f.l)
I
- 2mm from f. I.
- Smm from f. I.
}
u:
c!
.a. I
E'

L
Root or sicfe bend ___ _.,.".I<!!>.
Nick break
Tensile
Sidebend _________ __,.
... t----Nick break
v ... t-----Teosile
v..------ Root or side bend
Note: The indicated locations of the test specimens are to be used for welding positions 2G. 5G and 6G.
For qualification of welding in I G position. sampling positions are optional.
Fig. C.7 Welding procedure qualification test-field joints.
Sampling of test specimens
Root bend
Root bend or side bend
Root bend or 5ide bend
Nick break
Nick break
8 I
TOP OF PIPE
break
bend or side bend
TOP OF PIPE
Root bend or side bend
side bend
bend
option. the locations may be rotated 45 degrees counterclockwise or they may
around the pipe except specimens shall not include the longitudinal weld. Also,
LCC'IllllaiiY·s option, additional specimens may be takell.
Fig. C.S Welder and welding operator performance test-
joints, Sam!'ii11g of test specimens
82
APPENDIX D
GUIDELINES ON CORROSION CONTROL
D. I Design of cathodic protection systems
D.J.J General
0.1.1.1 The purpose ofO.l is to provide some general guide-
lines to the design of cathodic protection systems for sub-
marine pipeline systems.
Veritas will be open to evaluate cathodic protection systems
based on alternative design methods.
0.1.1.2 Cathodic protection for submarine pipelines and ri·
sers is generally by sacrificial anodes.
The cathodic protection system is generally applied in com·
binatlon with a suitable coating system. The coating will re-
duce the initial current requirement and improve the current
distribution.
D .1.2 Design basis
For coated pipeline systems. however. the current demand
may increase with time as the coating deteriorates.
Table 0.1 presents a general guide for selection of design cur-
rent densities. Three minimum design current densities are
listed for some major offshore areas and special environ-
ments.
The initial current density is used to determine the necessary
current output capaciry of new anodes. The final current
density is used to determine the necessary current output ca·
pacity of anodes when the anodes are consumed to the utili·
zation factor. The mean current density is used to determine
the weight of the anodes. ·
Tallie" D.l Guidance on minimum design current densities
0.1.2.1 Design life: Normally the design life of the cathodic (mA/m'lforcathodicprotectionofbaresteel
protection system should be taken as the design life of the pi·
peline system.
0.1.2.2 Environmental conditions: The following parameters
should be taken into account in the design of the cathodic
protection system:
Temperature of pipeline system
Temperature of seawater/ sea bed
Oxygen content of seawater/ sea bed
Chemical composition of seawater I sea bed
Resistivity of seawater/ sea bed
Current velocity of seawater
Biological activity
If relevant parameters from the same area on these are not
available. measurements along the route may be required.
The current output of anodes is dependent on the resistivity.
For seawater the resistivity in tropical waters (t == 25°C) may
be taken as 20 ohmcm while in colder waters (t==S-I0°C)
it may be taken as 33 oluncrii.
The resistivity of the 1m upper layer of the sea bed may be ta-
ken as I 00 ohmcm if no measurements have been carried
ou•
0.1.2.3 Potential criteria: The potential criteria for cathodic
protection are given in 6.3.1.3 of the Rules.
D.J.3 Current demands
0.1.3.1 The total current demand is given by the current
density and the area of exposed steel surfaces. The following
areas should be considered:
areas in seawater
areas below mudline
Initial Mean Final
value value value
North Sea (northern) 160 120 100
North Sea <southern) 130 100 90
Arabiati Gulf 120 90 80
India 120 90 so·
Australia 120 90 80
Brazil 120 90 80
Gulf of Mexico 100 80 70
West Africa 120 90 80
Indonesia 100 80 70
Pipelines (burial
-' "' 50 40 30
Risers in ·shafts with
flowing seawater 180 140 120
Risers in shafts with
stagnant seawater 120 90 80
Sea bed (ambient
temperature>· ·
25 20 IS
For buried pipelines. higher values are used than for bare
steel in seabed. This is due to that a higher safety margin is
necessary and the fact that complete burial may not be ob-
tained.
0.1.3.2 The current density for a coated steel surface is high·
ly dependent on the quality of the coating materials and the
unprotected foreign structures in
the pipeline system
electrical contact with application.
The current density is determined by the environmental
conditions. The selection of design current densities may be
based on experiences from similar pipeline systems in the sa-
me environment or measurements.
The current density is normally not constant with time. For
bare steel surfaces in seawater the current density may dec-
rease due to the formation of calcareous deposit caused by
the cathodic
Table 0.2 gives guidelines on the selection of coating break·
down criteria for coated structl!res. The coating breakdown
criterion is defined as the ratio:
Current density coated steel •
1 00
%
Current density bare steel
The presented values are based on satisfactory coating appli·
cation. If the coating is particularly exposed to wear and me·
chanica! damage. higher values must be used.
83
the current density requirement for coated steel. D. 1.4 Anode materials
Table 0.1 should be multiplied by the percenta· 0.1.4.1 Zinc anodes should conform to the following compo-
0.2. sition in order to reduce the susceptibility to intergranular
criteria (X) for
pipeline systems in contact with the reinforce-
structures. allowance should be made for
to the reinforcement. An average current
mAl m2 for the outer reinforcement layer is
Initial values may be somewhat higher
!ijgnificantly lower. The area of the outer
may ·be taken as the area of the concrete sur-
. 2SOC to Joo•c an increase in the
order of I mAl m2 per OC as compared
Table D. I may be used. The tempera-
is the temperature differem;e between
byc;lfow!txlnl!lld seawater/ sea bed.
seawater
seawater <s-3o•c>
saline mud (S-30°Cl
saline mud (30-90°Cl
seawater
saline mud (O- 60"Cl
corrosion.
max% min%
Aluminium 0.2 0.1
Cadmium 0.06 0.03
Iron 0.002
Copper 0.005
Silicon 0.125
Lead 0.006
Zinc remainder
0.1.4.2 The following electrochemical properties of alloys
other than given in D.l.4.1 should be documented by ap-
propriate tests: .
- Driving potential (mV) to polarized steeL i.e. the differ-
ence between closed circuit anQde potential and the po-
tentials siven by Tl!l!le
- Current capacity (IIIJIWC • hours/ kg).
- Susceptibility to passivity.
- Susceptibility to intergranul;u- corrosion.
The testing of the properties may be
out by long tetm (i.e. without external power
source> laboratory testing. or field testing of full scale anQdes.
Table 0.3 gives some g\lidelines on typical values for es-
sential parameters for 5ome technical anodes alloys.
Consumption rate
kg/ A year
3.1-
3.2 - 3.5
3.85- 6.7
6.7 -22
11.2 -11.5
11.2 -ll.S
84
D.1.5 Current output capacity of anodes
0.1.5.1 The current output capacity(),) is given by Ohm's
law.
!'J.V
R
{O.J)
!'J. V Driving potential
R Circuit resistance {usually taken as the anodic resist·
ancel
The anodic resistance is determined by the resistivity of the
surrounding environment and the geometric conditions of
the anodes. Empirical formulae as shown in Fig. D. I may be
used.
If the anodes are grouped closely in array. interference be-
tween the anodes must be taken into account when calculat-
ing the anodic resistance.
0.1.5.2 For bare steel surfaces the anode current output ca-
pacity should be calculated in the initial stage when the cur-
rent demand is greatest and at the end ofthe lifetime when
the anode is consumed to the utiliziltion factor and the anode
has the lowest current oUtput..
0.1.5 .3 Installation of additional anodes with smaller dimen-
sions for the initial stage {for instance 3 years) to meet the
high initial current requirements may be more economical
than to find a single anode shape which meets both initial
and final current demand.
For coated structures where an increase in the current density
may be observed the current output capacity should be
checked at the end of the lifetime when the anode is consum-
ed to the utilization factor.
The total current output capacity should be greater than the
total current demand.
D.1.6 Calculation of anode life
0.1.6.1 The anode life L may be determined as follows:
W·U
L= --
E·I
effective life of the anodes
net mass of the anodes
{0.5)
L
w.
u utilization factor determined by the amount of anode
material consumed when the remaining anode mate-
rial cannot deliver the current required
E
I
consumption rate of the anode
mean current requirement per anode during the life-
time
The following values for utilization factor may be usedo
Slender anodes: 0.90-0.95
Bracelet anodeso 0.75-0.80
Other shapeso 0.75-0.85
D.l.7 Cur;ent distribution
0.1.7.1 The anodes should be evenly distributed over the
steel surface to achieve a uniform current distribution.
For systems with complex geometry model testing may be
necessary.
It is recommended that the distance between anodes on a
coated pipeline does not exceed 150 m. Close to platforms
and pipe crossings additional anodes should be installed.
D.1.8 Fabrication of anodes
0.1.8.1 The electrochemical properties are highly dependent
on the content or alloying elements and impurity elements.
The anode manufacturer should thus prove his capability of
delivering anodes which satisfy the specification.
0.1.8.2 The quality control at the anode manufacturing plant
should include control systems on the following:
Raw materials. i.e. chet:king of documentation.
Production equipment and process.
Testing during and after production.
Identification of products.
Chemical analysis of produCts.
Weight and dimensional tolerances.
Visual check of any surface defects.
Documentation (test certificates>.
D.2 Standards for coating
0.2.1 General
0.2.1.1 Standards or recommendations for coatipg
application and testing are listed below. Most test methods
will be found under the frrst group referring to the most com-
mon generic types of pipeline coatings·. :Yhe second group
contains more general guidelines for coating application and
inspection.
D.2.2 Acceptable standards for coating properties and test
methods referring to generic type
0.2.2.1 Coal tar based coatings:
British Standard BS 4164. Specification for Coal Tar Based
Hot Applied Coating Materials for Protection of! ron & Steel.
t . . . .. . ....... .
Americah Water Works Association. AWW A C 203. Stand·
ard for Coal Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel
Water Pipelines- Enamel and Tape- Hot- Applied.
National Association of Corrosion Engineers NACE 2G 156.
Coal Tar Coatings for Underground Use.
0.2.2.2 Asphalt based coating:
British Standard BS 4147. Specification for Hot Applied Bitu-
men Based Coating for Ferrous Products.
Netherlands Corrosion Committee II. Communication 13.
published by T.N.O.
NACE Publication 2H 157. Asphalt Protective Coatings for
Underground Pipelines - Wrapped Systems.
The Asphalt Institute. Asphalt Protective Coatings for Pipeli-
nes - Construction Series No. 96 - Wrapped and Mastic
Systems.
NACE Standard RP-02-76. Extruded Asphalt Mastic Type
Protective Coatings for Underground Pipelines.
0.2.2.3 Reinforcing materials for coal tar and asphalt based
coatings:
Netherlands Corrosion Committee II. Communication 13.
NACE Publication 2J 262. Specifications for Fil)rous Glass.
Reinforced Type Underground Pipe Wrap.
NACE Publication 21 162. Specifications for Bitumous Satu·
rated Glass Pipe Wrap.
85
Standard for Coal Tar Protective Coatings
Water Pipelines - Enamel and Tape -
All surface preparation of pipes for pipelines or risers is nor·
many to be in accordance with:
Swedish Standard SIS 055900. Pictorial Surface Preparation
Pul>li•::atiion 21 362. Specifications for Asbestos Pipeli- Standards Grade Sa 2 I /2. or better (Sa 3).
Code of Practice CP 3003: Part I. Rubber.
good bonding the rubber coating should be applied
of a c;ontinuous rubber stripe under controlled
rotating pipe.
and inspection of coatings, general
are listed $Ptpe recognized general standards for coat-
including pipe metal surface preparation. in·
The following standards for surface preparation are consider-
ed to be equivalent:
British Standard BS 4232. Surface Finish of Blast-cleaned
Steel for Painting. Second Quality. or better< First Quality).
U.S. Steel Structures Painting Council SSPC. Grade SSPC-SP
I 0. Near-White Blast Cleaning. or better (Grade SSPC·SP 5),
NACE No. 2. Near-White Blast Cleaned Surface Finish. or
better {NACE No. J).
For field joint coating of weld areas on lay barge or similar.
for coal tar or asphalt based coatings. surface preparation by
wire brushing. to remove all weld spatter rust dirt and dust
until a clean uniform grey-white metallic finish is obtained.
0.2.3.3 Application and inspection of coating:
NACE Standard RP-Q6-7S. Recommended Practice. Control
of Corrosion on Offshore Steel Pipelines.
and testing of final coatings. For application of pipe- U.S. Steel Structure Painting Council SSPC. Steel StrUctures
coatings. the standard listed under 0.2.2 are of primary ·Painting Manual.
ip.terest. The below requirement to surface preparation of mi- ·
. nimum SIS grade Sa 2.5 or equivalent should always be gov-
erning for yard coating of pipes.
SLENDER ANODES
British Standard BS 549 3. Code of practice for protective
coating of iron and steel structures against corrosion.
References is also made to the standards given in 0.2.2.
2 .:. 1 (1n_±f-1)
resistivity {ohm cml
le)"lgth of anode {em)
equivalent radius of anode {cml
f;
a cross section ofanode{cm2)
Stand off core greater than 30 em
R,
s
s
R,
A
_e_
2·S
mean length of anode side {cml
b + c
-
2
- b;;>2c
0.315 .•
V"A
exposed surface area of anode
{0.2)
{0.3)
{0.4)
Fig. D.l Anodic resistance formulae (R,.)
86
APPENDIX E
PRESSURE TESTING OF PIPELINES AND PIPELINE SECTIONS
E.l General
E.J .I This appendix covers Veritas' guidelines with respect to
pressure testing of pipelines and pipeline sections.
The purpose of the pressure testing is to verify that the tested
sections are leakproof and have the required structural
strength to withstand the design pressure with the anticipated
level of safety.
It is assumed that the separate pipes have been individually
pressure tested in the pipe mill.
E. I .2 The Owner is to establish specifications for hydrostatic
testing describiilg procedures and equipmf;nt.
The procedure speciiication is to cover at least the following,
Pressure test specification designation and revision num-
ber
Description of the sections to be tested (defining lengths.
elevations. in-line valves and connectors. branches. con-
nection for test equipment. e.g. isometric drawings. flow-
sheets and alignment sheetsl
Test medium (including additives)
Mixing oftest medium and additives
Test pressures
Test holding time
Description of all testing equipment
Description of all testing instruments
Method for cleaning and removing of air from the test
section
Sequence of pressurizing
Monitoring and recording of test pressure
Depressurizing and discharge of test medium
E.l.3 Instruments and equipment for measuring pressure. vo-
lume and/ or temperature is to have an appropriate
ing range with sufficient accuracy verified by a recognized
test laboratory. The verification should normally not be older
than one year.
Pressure measuring equipment is to have an accuracy and re-
peatability of ± 0 .I 96 .
If temperatures are measured during the pressure test. the ac-
CUW'CY of temperature testing equipment is to be 0.1 °C.
The volume measurement equipment. if used. is to have a
sensitivity of 0.1 96 of the added volume of liquid necessary
to produce a hoop stress equal to SMYS.
E.l.4 Below are described two alternative methods of.pres-
sure testing.
E.2 Pressure test method no. I
E.2.1 The testing sequence will be as follows'
Caliper pigging (normally included)
Filling of test liquid
Stabilization (long sectionsl
Pressurizing to test pressure
Stabilization
Holding
Pressure release
Reporting
E.2.2 Filling of test liquid should be carried out in due time
prior to the actual pressure testing (several days). During flll-
ing. steps should be taken to ensure that the volume of air re-
maining in the test section is minimized.
E.2.3 The minimum test pressure is to be at least 1.25 times
the design pressure. The hoop stress during pressure testing is
normally not to exceed 90% of SMYS. Higher stresses will
be considered in each case. During pressurizing. added test li-
quid versus pressure should be recorded in order to evaluate
the amount of residual air in the test section.
E.2.4 After pressurizing sufficient time for stabilization must
be allowed having in mind that a temperature change during
the pressure test wil1 greatly influence on the pressure. Signi-
ficant temperature differences between added test liquid and
surrounding .environment might lead to a long stabilization
time (several daysl.
E.2.5 The holding period should normally be 24 hours. If.
however. a I 00 96 visual inspection of the tested section is
carried out. the holding period could be limited to the time
necessary to carry out this inspeetion. but not less than 2
hours. For short sections as for instance risers 8 hours hold-
ing penod inay be acceptable. During the holding period the
pressure is to be recorded every ·I I 2 hours.
E.J Pressure test method no. 2
E.3 .I The testing sequence will be as follows'
Caliper pigging (normally included)
Filling of test liquid
Stabilization (long sectionsl
Pressurizing to strength test pressure
Stabilization
Holding
Reduction to leak test pressure
Stabilization
Holding
Pressure- release
Reporting
E.3.2 With respect to fllling of test liquid and stabilization. re-
ference is made to E.2.2 and E.2.4.
E.3 .3 The minimum strength test pressure is I .4 times the
design pressllre. The maximum equivalent stress during pres-
sure testing is normally not to exceed the von Mises equiva-
lent stress during pressure testing in the pipe mill or 0.96
times SMYS. whatever is the largest. Higher stresses will be
considered in each case. The holding period for this strength
test should not be shorter than I hour and not longer than 3
hours. The pressure is to be recorded every I 0 minutes.
E.3 .4 The leakproof test pressure is to be I .I times the design
pressure. For a leakproof test the holding period should nor·
mally be 24 hours. For test sections where I 00% visual in·
spection is carried out. the holding period could be limited to
the time necessary to carry out this inspection. but not less
than 2 hours. During this holding period. the pressure is to be
recorded every I /2 hours. For shorter sections. for instance
risers. 8 hours holding period may be acceptable.
E.4 AcceptaDH criteria
E.4.1 The test will be accepted if during the test all pressure
containing components in the tested section maintain their in-
tegrity and no leaks are found. Since it is difficult to judge if
certain small pressure changes could be caused by for inst-
ance temperature changes. a pressure change of ± 0.2% of
the test pressure could be accepted. If greater pressure· drops
occur the test will not be accepted or the holding period
should be extended until a 24 hour period with acceptable
pressure change has occurred.
87
E.4.2 If the temperature is taken into account when interpret- cations along the section to be tested (e.g. one in each end of a
ing the test results. then the Owner has. prior to the test. to long section). ·
present calculations clearly showing the effect on the pressure
from variations in the following variables' E.6 Hydrostatic test report
- Temperature of test liquid when filling
.• of environment
Restramts
During the actual test. the temperature of the environment
has to be recorded at several relevant positions along the line.
The readings to be made every hour.
E.5 Witnessing
E.S.I The pressure testing shall be witnessed by Veritas. If
found necessary. Veritas may have surveyors at relevant lo-
E.6.1 The Owner is to provide a test report for each section
tested.
The report is at least to comprise
test report as per attached form
pressure time diagrams
actual pressure volume diagrams plotted versus theoreti-
cal pressure volume diagram
if relevant. all temperatures versus time is to be plotted
and included
certificate of pressure measuring equipment
88
HYDROSTATIC TEST REPORT
REPORT NO ........ .
Owner.: .............................................................................................. .
Pipeline Description: .................................................................................... .
Testing Contractor: ..................................................................................... .
Construction Contractor:
Testing Specification: ................................................................................... .
Section Tested From: ................................. To: ............................................... .
Pump Location: ................................ · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ... · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Pressure Recorder Location (Elevation): ...................................................... .
Length of Section: ................... · ................ Volume of Section: .................................. .
Pipe Tested (Size, W.T .. Grade, Type and Manufacturer): ............. , ........................................ .
Type and Source of Test Medium: ......................................................................... .
Additive: ............................................................. Quantity:
Dye: ................................................................ Quantity:
Inhibitor: ............................................................ Quantity:
Dead Weight Tester No.: ............................................................................... ..
Strength Test Pressure: ..................... bar Start of Test: ...... bar End of Test: ....... bar
Leakproof Test Pressure: ... · ................. bar Start ofT est: ...... bar End of Test: ....... bar
Time and Date S t ~ e n g t h Test Started: ...................................... Ended: . , ........................ .
Time and Date Leakproof Test Started: .................................... Ended: .......................... .
Remarks: ............................................................................................. .
Company Representative: ............................................... Date:
Colttractor Representative: .............................................. Date:
VERITAS Representative: ............................................... Date:
Attachments:
Pressure--time diagrams
Pressure-volume diagrams .................. .
Temperature-time diagrams ..... .
Instrumentation calibration sheet ............ .

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