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CHAPTER CHAPTER 1 1
NAVAL NAVAL ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE FOR FOR THE THE SALVAGE SALVAGE ENGINEER ENGINEER
11 INTRODUCTION
Ships are built for a wide variety of purposes, but all must meet certain fundamental requirements. They must have reserve buoyancy to enable
them to carry their designed loads and resist damage, stability to resist environmental forces or damage, and strength to withstand the stresses
imposed on their structure by their own weight, cargo, stores, and the sea. The following discussion provides the salvage engineer with the
basics of surface ship construction, stability, and strength. Submarine construction and stability are discussed in the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage
Manual, Volume 4 (S0300MANA6040).
Vessels are built to construction specifications based on stability and strength requirements, that are, in turn, based on intended service. Publicly
owned vessels (Navy, Coast Guard, etc.) are built to government specifications. Most Navy ships are built to the General Specifications for
Ships (GENSPECs), published by the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), although some auxiliaries are built to commercial specifications.
Stability standards for Navy ships are established by Design Data Sheet (DDS) 079 issued by the Naval Ship Engineering Center. Construction
rules and stability standards for commercial vessels are established by classification societies, the International Maritime Organization (IMO),
and government regulations for the country of registry; the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) and United States Coast Guard (USCG) establish
and enforce construction rules and stability standards for U.S. vessels. The U.S. rules are often based on IMO standards. The U.S. Maritime
Administration (MARAD) may place additional requirements on ships built with Federal financial assistance. MARAD also produces standard
designs for certain types of merchant ships. Stability and construction standards are discussed in Appendix C.
There is a basic difference in the way naval architects and salvage engineers approach the problems of ship stability and strength. Naval
architects, as designers, divide the subject into examinations of intact and damage conditions. The stability and strength of a proposed design
is examined in normal operating, or intact, conditions, which must, as matter of course, include free liquid surfaces in tanks. Damage stability
analysis examines a ship design in various hypothetical conditions of damage that include breaches in the immersed hull.
The salvage engineer on the other hand, deals with damaged stability and strength, i.e., ships in conditions of known or identifiable damage,
that may or may not include breaches in the immersed hull. There is a subtle distinction between damage and damaged stability. A salvage
engineer doesn’t really deal with damage stability, or for that matter, with intact stability either. He deals with damaged stability, and conditions
that can reasonably be attained from the initial damaged condition. While the salvage engineer also examines hypothetical conditions, those
conditions usually have as a point of departure an initial damaged condition. This chapter discusses ship stability in light of those factors that
provide and enhance stability, and those that impair or degrade.
Those familiar with standard naval architecture texts may feel that this handbook’s treatment of the subject glosses over the distinction between
intact and damage stability. This is true to some extent, because in the main, the distinction just doesn’t matter to salvage engineers; they deal
with stability—good, bad, or indifferent—as they find it. The fact that free surface occurs in intact ships does not obscure the fact that it always
impairs stability.
12 HULL FORM
A ship’s hull is a complex geometric form that can be defined accurately by mapping its surface in a threedimensional orthogonal coordinate
system. If a Cartesian coordinate system is used, conventions usually set the Zaxis vertical, the Xaxis longitudinal and the Yaxis athwartships.
Principal dimensions are measured along these axes. The hull form can be shown in two dimensions by a series of curves formed by the
intersection of the hull surface with planes parallel to these axes. The hull form, chosen by the designer, controls the stability and performance
characteristics of the ship in its normal environments.
12.1 Location of Points Within a Ship. Because a ship is a threedimensional mobile object, references within the ship itself must be
established for locating points in, on, and about the ship. The position of any point in the ship can be described by measuring its position from
reference planes or lines. The following planes are most commonly used:
• Centerplane – A vertical plane passing fore and aft down the center of a ship; the plane of symmetry for most hull forms.
• Design Waterplane – A horizontal plane at which the hull is designed to float.
• Midship Plane – A transverse, vertical plane perpendicular to both the centerplane and the design waterplane, located at the
midpoint of the molded hull length between perpendiculars on the design waterplane.
• Baseplane – A horizontal plane passing through the intersection of the centerplane and the midships plane, or through the lowest
point of the molded hull.
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The intersections of the reference planes with specified locations on the hull create additional reference lines and points:
• Forward Perpendicular (FP) – A vertical line through the intersection of the stem and the design or load waterline (DWL, LWL).
• After Perpendicular (AP) – A vertical line at or near the stern of the ship. In naval practice, the after perpendicular passes through
the after extremity of the design waterline; in commercial practice, the after perpendicular usually passes through the rudder post,
or the centerline of the rudder stock if there is no rudder post.
• Midship Section ( or MS) – An intersection of the midship plane with the molded hull.
• Centerline (C
L
or CL) – The projection of the centerplane in plan or end views of the hull.
• Baseline (B
L
or BL) – The projection of the baseplane in the side or end views of the hull. In ships with design drag where the
baseline passes through the intersection of the midships section and the keel, parts of the hull will be below the baseline. For ships
with flatplate keels that float on an even keel, the baseline, bottom of the molded surface, and top of the keel plate coincide; if
the keel plate is an outside strake (lapped over the adjacent strakes rather than buttwelded to them), the top of the flatplate keel
is below the bottom of the molded surface by the thickness of the strakes on each side of it (the garboard strakes). In vessels with
hanging bar keels, the top of the keel coincides with the bottom of the molded surface.
12.2 Location of Points. The position of any point in the ship can be described by its:
• Height above the baseplane or keel.
• Athwartships position relative to the centerplane.
• Longitudinal position relative to the midship section or to one of the perpendiculars.
12.3 Ship Dimensions. Molded dimensions, lines, etc., describe the fair surface defined by the framing and are principally of use to the
shipbuilder. Displacement dimensions and lines describe the surfaces wetted by the sea and are of principal interest to the naval architect and
salvage engineer in determining stability and performance characteristics. Extreme dimensions, such as extreme breadth, account for projections
such as overhanging decks, fender rails, etc. Molded dimensions differ from displacement dimensions by the plating, planking, or sheathing
thickness. In steel ships, this difference usually amounts to less than one percent of the total displacement. Displacement dimensions are not
usually tabulated as such; if desired, they are deduced by adding plating thickness to molded dimensions, or deducting appendage measurements
from extreme dimensions.
The principal dimensions of a ship are length, beam, and depth. Two other important dimensions are draft and freeboard. Figure 11 shows
the principal dimensions of a ship.
• Length between perpendiculars (L, LBP or L
pp
), is used for the calculation of hydrostatic properties. Length overall (LOA) is
the maximum length of the vessel, including any extensions beyond the perpendiculars, such as overhanging sterns, raked stems,
bulbous bows, etc. Length on the waterline (L
WL
or LWL) may or may not be the same as LBP, depending on the location of the
perpendiculars; tabulated L
WL
is usually taken on the design waterline.
• Beam or breadth (B) is the width of the ship. Molded beam is measured amidships or at the widest section from the inside surface
of the shell plating. Maximum beam or extreme breadth is the breadth at the widest part of the ship, and is equal to the molded
breadth plus twice the plating thickness plus the width of fenders, overhanging decks, or other solid projections.
• Draft (T) is the vertical distance between the waterline and the deepest part of the ship at any point along the length. Drafts are
usually measured to the keel and are given as draft forward (T
f
), draft aft (T
a
) and mean draft (T or T
m
). A ship’s forward and
after draft marks are seldom at the perpendiculars and mean draft is not necessarily amidships; the slight errors introduced by using
drafts at these points can be discounted if trim is not extreme. Molded drafts are measured from the molded baseline, while keel
drafts are measured from a horizontal line though the lowest point on the bottom of the keel extended to intersect the forward and
after perpendiculars. Navigational or extreme drafts indicate the extreme depth of sonar domes, propellers, pit swords, or other
appendages which extend below the keel, and are therefore not used to calculate hydrostatic properties. Draft scales for keel drafts
are usually placed on both sides of the ship at each end as near as practical to the respective perpendiculars. The external draft
marks are generally Arabic numerals, with height and spacing arranged so that the vertical projection on the vessel of the numeral
heights and vertical spacing between numerals are both six inches. The draft figures are placed so that the bottom of the figure
indicates the keel draft. Drafts can thus be read to the nearest quarterfoot (3 inches) in relatively calm waters.
• Freeboard (F) is the vertical distance between the waterline and the uppermost watertight deck.
• Depth (D) is the vertical distance between the baseline and the uppermost watertight deck and is the sum of freeboard and draft.
Molded depth is measured from the top of the outer keel to the underside of the main or freeboard deck at the side. Depending
on hull form and ship’s attitude, both freeboard and depth can vary along the length of the ship. Unless otherwise specified,
tabulated values for depth and freeboard are usually taken at midships or at the point of minimum freeboard.
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12.4 Lines. The shape of a ship is
Figure 11. Principal Dimensions.
B
D
C
L
LBP
AP FP
DWL
MIDSHIPS
SECTION
LOA
T
developed to meet specific requirements of
speed, seakeeping ability, and capacity for
the intended use of the vessel. The shape
of the hull is defined by the plan shapes
produced by the intersection of three
families of orthogonal planes and the hull
surface. Most hulls are symmetrical about
the vertical plane of the centerline. The
intersection of the ship’s molded hull
surface with this and parallel planes is
called a buttock, or buttock line. The term
buttock was formerly applied only to the
portions of these lines aft of midships; the
forward portions were called bow lines. A
plane parallel to the baseplane and
perpendicular to the centerline plane is a
waterplane. The intersection of
waterplanes and the molded hull are called
waterlines (WL). The intersection of
transverse planes perpendicular to both
waterplanes and buttocks are termed sections. The superimposed sections (body plan), waterplanes (halfbreadth plan), and buttocks (sheer plan)
form the lines plan or lines drawing for the ship. Like other engineering drawings, the lines plan is composed of views from ahead or astern,
from above, and from the starboard side. Figure FO1 is the lines plan for an FFG7 Class ship.
The lines plans for steel ships usually show the molded surface. For surface ships, the molded surface is the inside of the shell plating, while
the molded surface for submarines is the outside of the hull plating. For vessels with hanging bar keels, the line of the bottom of the keel is
shown on the sheer plan to complete the lower contour of the vessel; the keel line is not usually shown for vessels with flatplate keels because
it lies so near the line of the bottom of the molded surface. Because of the greater hull thickness, wooden ships may have separate molded and
displacement lines drawings.
12.4.1 The Body Plan. The body plan shows the outline of the transverse sections of a ship at equally spaced stations or ordinates along the
length of the ship. The distance between perpendiculars is commonly divided into 10 or 20 equal spaces by 11 or 21 stations, including the
forward and after perpendiculars. More or fewer stations may be used depending on the complexity of the hull shape. Halfspaced stations
may be used when the shape of the hull form changes rapidly, such as near the bow and stern. As the transverse sections are normally
symmetrical about the centerline, it is conventional to show only half sections with the forward stations on the right and after stations on the
left. Stations are numbered from forward aft, with the forward perpendicular as station zero on U.S. Navy ships. Stations forward of the forward
perpendicular (if any) may be designated by negative numbers or letters. Commercial vessels, particularly foreignbuilt vessels, commonly
number stations from aft forward, with the after perpendicular as zero.
12.4.2 Halfbreadth Plan. Due to symmetry, it is conventional to show only half of the waterplanes in a halfbreadth plan. Waterlines are
designated by their height above the baseline. The waterlines define the shape and area of the waterplane and are spaced closely enough to
accurately define the waterplane at any draft.
12.4.3 Sheer Plan. Superimposed buttocks form the sheer plan. They are spaced as necessary to adequately define the ship’s form.
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12.4.4 Descriptive Terms. Certain other
Figure 12. Hull FormNomenclature.
ONEHALF OF
MOLDEDBREADTH
TUMBLEHOME
FREEBOARD
C
L
CAMBER
DEADRISE
MOLDED
BASE LINE
MOLDED
DRAFT
DESIGN
DRAFT
DESIGNWATERLINE MOLDED
DEPTH
DEPTH
SHEER
AFT
SHEER
FORWARD
geometric concepts are useful in describing
a ship’s form. Figure 12 illustrates some
of the following definitions:
• Parallel midbody – In many
modern ships, the form of the
hull’s transverse section in the
midships region extends with
out change for some distance
fore and aft. This is called
parallel midbody and may be
described as extensive or
short, or expressed as a
fraction of the ship’s length.
Even in ships without parallel
midbody, the form of the
fullest transverse section
changes only slightly for
small distances forward or aft.
• Forebody – The portion of
the hull forward of the mid
ship section.
• After body – The portion of
the hull abaft the midship
section.
• Entrance – The immersed
portion of the hull forward of
the section of greatest im
mersed area (not necessarily
amidships) or forward of the
parallel midbody.
• Run – The immersed portion of the hull aft of the section of greatest immersed area or aft of the parallel midbody.
• Deadrise – The departure of the bottom from a transverse horizontal line measured from the baseline at the molded breadth line
as shown in Figure 12. Deadrise is also called rise of floor or rise of bottom. Deadrise is an indicator of the ship’s form; full
bodied ships, such as cargo ships and tankers, have little or no deadrise, while finelined ships have much greater deadrise along
with a large bilge radius. Where there is rise of floor, the line of the bottom commonly intersects the baseline some distance from
the centerline, producing a small horizontal portion of the bottom on each side of the keel. The horizontal region of the bottom
is called flat of keel, or flat of bottom. While any section of the ship can have deadrise, tabulated deadrise is normally taken at
the midships section.
• Knuckle – An abrupt change in the direction of plating or other structure.
• Chine – The line or knuckle formed by the intersection of two relatively flat hull surfaces, continuous over a significant length
of the hull. In hard chines, the intersection forms a sharp angle; in soft chines, the connection is rounded.
• Bilge radius – The outline of the midships section of very full ships is very nearly a rectangle with its lower corners rounded.
The lower corners are called the bilges and the shape is often circular. The radius of the circular arc is called the bilge radius
or turn of the bilge. The turn of the bilge may be described as hard or easy depending on the radius of curvature. If the shape
of the bilge follows some curve other than a circle, the radius of curvature of the bilge will increase as it approaches the straight
plating of the side and bottom. Small, highspeed or planing hulls often do not have a rounded bilge. In these craft, the side and
bottom are joined in a chine.
• Tumblehome – The inward fall of side plating from the vertical as it extends upward towards the deck edge. Tumblehome is
measured horizontally from the molded breadth line at the deck edge as shown in Figure 12. Tumblehome was a usual feature
in sailing ships and many ships built before 1940. Because it is more expensive to construct a hull with tumblehome, this feature
is not usually incorporated in modern merchant ship design, unless required by operating conditions or service (tugs and
icebreaking vessels, for example). Destroyers and other highspeed combatants are often built with some tumblehome in their mid
and after sections to save topside weight.
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• Flare – The outward curvature of the hull surface above the waterline, i.e., the opposite of tumblehome. Flared sections cause
a commensurately larger increase in local buoyancy than unflared sections when immersed. Flaring bows are often fitted to help
keep the forward decks dry and to prevent "nosediving" in head seas.
• Camber – The convex upwards curve of a deck. Also called round up, round down, or round of beam. In section, the camber
shape may be parabolic or consist of several straight line segments. Camber is usually given as the height of the deck on the
centerline amidships above a horizontal line connecting port and starboard deck edges. Standard camber is about onefiftieth of
the beam. Camber diminishes towards the ends of the ship as the beam decreases. The principal use of camber is to ensure good
drainage in calm seas or in port, although camber does slightly increase righting arms at large angles of inclination (after the deck
edge is immersed). Not all ships have cambered decks; ships with cambered weather decks and flat internal decks are not
uncommon.
• Sheer – The rise of a deck above the horizontal measured as the height of the deck above a line parallel to the baseline tangent
to the deck at its lowest point. In older ships, the deck side line often followed a parabolic profile and sheer was given as its value
at the forward and after perpendiculars. Standard sheer was given by:
where sheer is measured in inches and L is the length between perpendiculars in feet. Actual sheer often varied considerably from
sheer forward = 0.2L + 20
sheer aft = 0.1L + 10
these standard values; the deck side profile was not always parabolic, the lowest point of the upper deck was usually at about 0.6L,
and the values of sheer forward and aft were varied to suit the particular design. Many modern ships are built without sheer; in
some, the decks are flat for some distance fore and aft of midships and then rise in a straight line towards the ends. Sheer
increases the height of the weather decks above water, particularly at the bow, and helps keep the vessel from shipping water as
she moves through rough seas. Some small craft and racing yachts are given a reverse or hogged sheer to give headroom
amidships without excessive depth at bow and stern.
• Rake – A departure from the vertical or horizontal of any conspicuous line in profile, defined by a rake angle or by the distance
between the profile line and a reference line at a convenient point. Rake of stem, for example, can be expressed as the angle
between the stem bar and a vertical line for ships with straight stems. For curved stems, a number of ordinates measured from
the forward perpendicular are required to define the stem shape. Ships designed so that the keel is not parallel to the baseline and
DWL when floating at their designed drafts are said to have raked keels, or to have drag by the keel.
• Cutup – When a keel departs from a straight line at a sharp bend, or knuckle, the sloping portion is called a cutup. Highspeed
combatants usually have a long cutup aft (extending 13 to 17 percent of LWL) to enhance propeller performance and
maneuverability. Icebreaking vessels often have a cutup forward to allow the ship to ride up on the ice.
• Deadwood – Portions of the immersed hull with significant longitudinal and vertical dimensions, but without appreciable transverse
dimensions. Deadwood is included in a hull design principally to increase lateral resistance or enhance directional stability without
significantly increasing drag when moving ahead. Sailing craft require deadwood to be able to work to windward efficiently.
Skegs or fins are fitted on barges to give directional stability. Deadwood aft is detrimental to speed and quick maneuverability
and is minimized by use of cutup sterns in highspeed combatants and by arched keels or sluice keels (with athwartships apertures)
in tugs and workboats.
• Appendages – Portions of the vessel that extend beyond the main hull outline or molded surface. Positive appendages, such as
rudders, shafts, bosses, bilge keels, sonar domes, etc., increase the underwater volume, while negative appendages, such as bow
thruster tunnels and other recesses, decrease the underwater volume. Shell plating, lying outside the molded surface, is normally
the largest single appendage, and often accounts for onehalf to twothirds of the total appendage volume. Appendages generally
account for 0.2 to 2 percent of total immersed hull volume, depending on ship size, service, and configuration. Paragraph 14.10.2
discusses methods for estimating appendage displacement.
• Hull Surfaces – Hull surfaces are either warped, consisting of smoothly faired, complex threedimensional curves, developed,
consisting of portions of cylinders or cones, or flat. Hydroconic hulls are built up of connected flat plates rather than plates rolled
to complex curves. Hydroconic construction lowers production costs and may simplify fitting patches to a casualty.
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12.5 Coefficients of Form. Coefficients of form are
Table 11. Typical Coefficients of Form.
Type Ship
Block
Coefficient
C
B
Midship
Coefficient
C
M
Waterplane
Coefficient
C
WP
Navy Ships
Aircraft Carrier (CV59 Class) 0.578 0.984 0.729
Battleship (BB61 Class) 0.594 1.000 0.694
Cruiser (CGN38 Class) 0.510 0.810 0.780
Destroyer (DD963 Class) 0.510 0.850 0.760
Frigate (FFG7 Class) 0.470 0.770 0.750
Replenishment Ship (AOR1 Class) 0.652 0.981 0.777
Salvage Tug (ARS50 Class) 0.542 0.908 0.791
Commercial Vessels
General Cargo (slowspeed) 0.800 0.992 0.880
General Cargo (mediumspeed) 0.700 0.980 0.810
General Cargo (highspeed) 0.576 0.972 0.695
Tanker (35,000ton DWT) 0.757 0.978 0.845
Large Tanker (76,000ton DWT) 0.802 0.997 0.874
VLCC (250,000ton DWT) 0.842 0.996 0.916
Container Ship 0.600 0.970 0.740
RO/RO 0.568 0.972 0.671
Ore Carrier 0.808 0.995 0.883
Great Lakes Bulk Carrier 0.900 0.995 0.950
Passenger Liner 0.530 0.956 0.690
Barge Carrier 0.570 0.950 0.820
Large Car Ferry 0.530 0.910 0.680
Ocean Tug, Trawler 0.550 0.833 0.850
Offshore Supply Vessel 0.660 0.906 0.892
Harbor Tug 0.585 0.892 0.800
Ocean Power Yacht (250 ft LWL) 0.565 0.938 0.724
Coefficients for commercial vessels are typical values; coefficients for specific ships will
vary. Coefficients of form for U.S. Navy ships can be obtained from Naval Sea Systems
Command, Code 55W. Coefficients for many merchant vessels are available from the
National Cargo Bureau, telephone (212) 5715000. The builder’s hull number or name
and type of vessel must be provided to access the data files.
dimensionless numbers that describe hull fineness and
overall shape characteristics. The coefficients are ratios of
areas or volumes for the actual hull form compared to
prisms or rectangles defined by the ship’s length, breadth,
and draft. Since length and breadth on the waterline as
well as draft vary with displacement, coefficients of form
also vary with displacement. Tabulated coefficients are
usually based on the molded breadth and draft at designed
displacement. Length between perpendiculars is most often
used, although some designers prefer length on the
waterline. Coefficients of form can be used to simplify
area and volume calculations for stability or strength
analyses. As hull form approaches that of a rectangular
barge, the coefficients approach their maximum value of
1.0. The following paragraphs describe the most commonly
used coefficients. Table 11 gives sample coefficients for
different type ships.
12.5.1 Block. The block coefficient (C
B
) is the ratio of
the immersed hull volume (∇) at a particular draft to that
of a rectangular prism of the same length, breadth, and
draft as the ship:
where:
C
B
=
∇
BTL
∇ = immersed volume, [length
3
]
B = beam, [length]
T = draft, [length]
L = length between perpendiculars, [length]
12.5.2 Midship Section. The midship section coefficient
(C
M
) is the ratio of the area of the immersed midship
section (A
m
) at a particular draft to that of a rectangle of the
same draft and breadth as the ship:
where:
C
M
=
A
M
BT
A
M
= area of the immersed portion of the midships
section, [length
2
]
B = beam, usually taken at the waterline, [length]
T = draft, [length]
If the vessel has bulges or blisters below the waterline, C
M
may be greater than 1.
12.5.3 Waterplane. The waterplane coefficient (C
WP
) is
the ratio of the area of the waterplane (A
WP
) to that of a rectangle of the same length and breadth as the ship:
where:
C
WP
=
A
WP
L
WL
B
A
WP
= area of the waterplane, [length
2
]
B = beam, [length]
L
WL
= length on the waterline, [length]
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12.5.4 Prismatic. The longitudinal prismatic coefficient (C
P
) is the ratio of the immersed volume to the volume of a prism with length equal
to the ship’s and crosssection area identical to the midship section:
where:
C
P
=
∇
A
M
L
=
C
B
C
M
∇ = immersed volume, [length
3
]
A
M
= area of the immersed portion of the midships section, [length
2
]
L = length between perpendiculars, [length]
If length between perpendiculars and length on the waterline are equal (as they are for Navy ships), the prismatic coefficient is equal to the block
coefficient divided by the midships section coefficient. The prismatic coefficient thus indicates the longitudinal distribution of the underwater
volume of a ship’s hull. For a given length, breadth, draft, and displacement, a low (fine) C
P
indicates a hull with fine ends. A large (full) value
for C
P
indicates a hull with relatively full ends. For this reason, the prismatic coefficient is sometimes called the longitudinal coefficient.
The vertical prismatic coefficient (C
VP
) is
Figure 13. Approximate Ship Proportions.
LBP, FT
B
R
E
A
D
T
H
;
D
E
P
T
H
;
D
R
A
F
T
,
F
T
0
450 0 600 750 900
25
50
75
100
125
B
R
E
A
D
T
H
D
E
P
T
H
D
R
A
FT
FROM ELEMENTS OF SHIP DESIGN, R. MUNROSMITH, 1975.
the ratio of the immersed hull volume to
the volume of a prism having a length
equal to the ship’s draft and a cross section
identical to that of the waterplane:
where:
C
VP
=
∇
A
WP
T
∇ = i mme r s e d vol ume ,
[length
3
]
A
WP
= area of the waterplane,
[length
2
]
T = draft, [length]
The vertical prismatic coefficient is equal to
the block coefficient divided by the
waterplane coefficient and indicates the
vertical distribution of the underwater
volume. A full C
VP
indicates a concen
tration of volume near the keel and a fine
C
VP
, a concentration nearer the waterline.
12.6 Ship Proportions. Throughout this
handbook and many naval architecture
texts, relationships and approximations for
various hydrostatic and stability parameters
are given as applicable to ships of ordinary,
or normal form. With the broad range of
ship type, size, and service requirements,
normal form is best defined by a range of
coefficients and dimension ratios. Table
11 gives typical coefficients of form and
Figure 13 shows approximate linear
relationships between length, beam, depth,
and service draft. The relationships given below, adapted from R. MunroSmith’s Elements of Ship Design, and deadweight coefficients (defined
in Paragraph 13.3), are used to estimate ship dimensions during preliminary design and can help to determine whether a hull should be
considered normal.
Dimensional Ratios:
Ship type L/B B/T T/D
General Cargo 6.3 to 6.8 2.1 to 2.8 0.66 to 0.74
Tankers 7.1 to 7.25 2.4 to 2.6 0.76 to 0.78
VLCC 6.4 to 6.5 2.4 to 2.6 0.75 to 0.78
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Maximum block coefficient for service conditions:
where:
C
B
≤ 1.00 0.23
V
k
L
(general cargo ships)
C
B
≤ 1.00 0.19
V
k
L
(tankers, bulk carriers)
C
B
≤ 1.00 0.175
V
k
L
(VLCC)
V
k
= service speed, knots
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
Beam range:
where:
L
9
+ 20 ft ≤ B ≤
L
9
+ 25 ft (cargo ships)
L
9
+ 15 ft ≤ B ≤
L
9
+ 21 ft (tankers, bulk carriers)
L
9
+ 39 ft ≤ B ≤
L
9
+ 50 ft, or
B ≈
L
5
46 ft (VLCC)
B = beam, ft
Beam to length relationship:
B = L
n
where B and L are given in feet and:
n ≈ 0.61 to 0.64 for general cargo ships
≈ 0.66 to 0.68 for VLCC
Lengthbeam product to deadweight relationship:
where:
0.0093LB =
DWT
T
C
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
B = beam, ft
DWT = deadweight, lton
T = draft, ft
C = 0.85 to 2.0 for general cargo ships
= 0.525 to 0.590 for tankers
= 0.446 to 0.459 for VLCC
12.7 Offsets. The hull form can be described in tabular format by a set of measurements known as offsets. Offsets are distances measured
from the centerline to the side of the ship at each station and waterline. Molded offsets are measured to the molded surface (inside of shell
plating for steel surface ships); displacement offsets are measured to the outer hull surface. Offsets define the hull proper, without appendages.
Supplementary appendage offset tables are sometimes available. Molded or displacement offsets are usually presented in a table in the form
feetincheseighths. The table of offsets for an FFG7 Class ship shown in Figure FO1 is typical. The waterline halfbreadth entry for station
4 at the 8' 0" waterline reads 10  2  3 indicating 10 feet, 2
3
⁄ 8 inches. Since the station spacing is given as 20.4 feet on the plan (LBP = 408
feet, 408/20 stations = 20.4), this offset precisely locates the point on the skin of the ship 81.6 feet from the forward perpendicular (4 × 20.4),
eight feet above the baseline and 10 feet 2
3
⁄ 8 inches from the centerline.
Lines drawings can be constructed from tables of offsets. Of more use to the salvor is the fact that offsets can be obtained from body or
halfbreadth plans and used to determine ship volumes and areas by numerical integration (described in Paragraph 14). Offsets can be scaled
from arrangement drawings, or in the worst case, measured on site.
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12.8 Wetted Surface. The area of all or part of a ship’s hull’s wetted surface is important to hydrodynamic resistance and pressure force
calculations. Wetted surface multiplied by average shell thickness calculates shell volume to be added to the molded volume to determine total
displacement. The area of complex hull surfaces can be calculated by numerical integration from offsets or the shell expansion plan, but this
is a tedious and timeconsuming task. Wetted surface can be estimated by one of the following empirical relationships:
DennyMumford Formula:
Table 12. Taylor’s Coefficient.
B/T C
3.5 16.0
4.0 16.5
5.0 17.5
8.0 20.5
9.0 21.3
10.0 22.2
11.0 23.0
12.0 23.8
13.0 24.5
14.0 25.1
16.0 26.3
18.0 27.2
Taylor’s formula:
A
S
= 1.7LT
∇
T
= 1.7LT LBC
B
Haslar formula for finelined ships:
A
S
= C ∆
D
L
where:
A
S
= ∇
2/3
¸
¸
_
,
3.3
L
2.09∇
1/3
A
S
= wetted surface, ft
2
, at mean draft T, ft
L = length between perpendiculars, ft (immersed length)
∇ = displacement volume, ft
3
= C
B
LBT
T = mean draft, ft
B = molded beam, ft
C
B
= block coefficient
∆
D
= displacement, ltons
C = a coefficient, ranging from 15.2 to 16.0 for vessels with 0.8 ≤ C
m
≤ 0.98 and 2.5 ≤ B/T ≤ 3.5. For shallow draft vessels, C is
expressed as a function of B/T in Table 12.
13 DISPLACEMENT AND BUOYANCY
A body immersed in a fluid will experience an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced. This force of buoyancy is
the resultant of the normal pressures exerted by the fluid on each element of the immersed body’s surface. Buoyancy is opposed by the
downward force of gravity, or the object’s weight. In order for equilibrium to exist, the two forces must be balanced. An object heavier than
an equivalent volume of water has negative buoyancy and will sink until it encounters a solid object or denser liquid, where its apparent weight
is decreased by the buoyant force acting on it. Similarly, an object less dense than water will exhibit positive buoyancy and will float with an
immersed volume such that the weight of the displaced water exactly equals the object’s weight. Deeper immersion requires the application
of force. An object whose density equals that of the surrounding water is said to have neutral buoyancy and will float at whatever depth it is
placed. A ship floats by enclosing large volumes of less dense material, principally air, in a watertight skin so that its average density is less
than that of the surrounding water. To be useful, a ship’s effective density must be much less than that of the surrounding water to allow the
ship to support not only its own weight, but also that of crew, cargo, stores, etc.
13.1 Ship’s Weight, Displacement and Capacity. An object’s displacement is the weight of the water it displaces; displacement represents
the force of buoyancy (B) acting on the object. For a ship in static equilibrium, floating free of any solid support, displacement (∆
D
) is equal
to the weight of the ship and everything in it (W), measured in long tons of 2,240 pounds. Displacement is usually given for either the
lightship—the weight of the ship without cargo or stores—or fullload conditions. A ship’s displacement is related to the volume of displaced
water, called the displacement volume or volume of displacement (∇ or V), by the weight density of water (ρg/g
c
).
If mass density is given in slugs per cubic foot, and g in feet per second per second (ft/sec
2
), ρg/g
c
gives weight density in poundsforce per cubic
∆
D
=
∇ρg
g
c
= W
foot. In a standard gravitational field (g = 32.174 ft/sec
2
) poundsmass and poundsforce are numerically equal. Since the worldwide variation
of gravitational acceleration is slight, weight density in poundsforce per cubic foot (γ) can be taken as numerically equal to mass density, in
poundsmass per cubic foot without significant error.
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With weight held constant, the product of displacement volume and water density must also be constant. For a given weight, displacement
volume varies inversely with the density of the surrounding water—displacement volume in water of known density can be related to
displacement volume water of any density:
The density of seawater varies with salinity and temperature, but is approximately 64 pounds per cubic foot; the density of fresh water is about
∇
1
ρ
1
= ∇
2
ρ
2
⇒ ∇
2
=
∇
1
ρ
1
ρ
2
62.4 pounds per cubic foot. It is sometimes more convenient to use the inverse density, or specific volume (δ), of 35 cubic feet per ton of
seawater. The equivalent figure for fresh water is 35.9, commonly rounded to 36.
Care must be exercised not to confuse displacement, measured in long tons, with gross, net, or register tonnage. Tonnage is a measurement
W =
∇
δ
W =
∇
sw
35
=
∇
fw
36
∇
fw
= ∇
sw
¸
¸
_
,
36
35
of the enclosed volume of a ship used to describe her cargo capacity and does not indicate displacement. Register tonnage (gross and net) is
measured according to the rules of the country of registry or international rules, and is used as a basis for port fees, canal tolls, and similar
charges. Measurement tons were formerly equal to 100 cubic feet, but the more recent international rules determine tonnage by formulas that
do not relate volume to tonnage directly. Gross tonnage is a measure of the internal volume of the entire ship—the hull plus enclosed spaces
above the main deck. Net tonnage is derived from a formula based on the molded volume of cargo spaces, the number of passengers carried,
molded depth, and service draft; net tonnage gives an indication of the ship’s earning capacity. Commercial vessels engaged in international
voyages are issued a Tonnage Certificate by the country of registry. Certain special tonnages, such as Suez or Panama Canal tonnages, are
calculated by somewhat different formulae and recorded on separate certificates.
Cargo capacity may also be given in conventional volumetric units. Tank capacities are usually specified in barrels, gallons, or cubic meters.
For petroleum products and other liquids subject to thermal expansion, practical capacity is less than net capacity, to ensure that a tank "filled"
with cold oil will not overflow as the oil warms. U.S. Navy practice sets oil tank operating capacity at 95 percent of net capacity; U.S. Merchant
Marine practice at 98 percent. Dry cargo capacity is specified in cubic feet or cubic meters. Bale capacity is the volume below deck beams
and inboard of cargo battens, that is free for the stowage of bags, barrels, crates, bales, pallets, etc. Grain capacity is the net molded underdeck
volume, after deductions for the volume of frames, floors, and other structure, that is available for the stowage of granular bulk cargo. Capacity
of container ships is expressed as the number of standard 8footwide by 8foothigh containers of specified length that can be carried, often
converted to 20foot equivalent units (TEU), or 40 foot equivalent units (FEU). Capacity for rollon/rolloff (RO/RO) cargo and vehicle carriers
may be expressed as the number of units that can be carried or as the area of the cargo decks, in square feet or square meters.
13.2 Standard Loading Conditions. Displacement and stability characteristics are often referenced to certain standard conditions of loading.
13.2.1 U.S. Navy Ships. Characteristics are usually tabulated for the following standard conditions of loading (from NSTM Chapter 096):
• Condition A  Lightship – The ship complete, ready for service in every respect, including permanent ballast (solid and liquid),
onboard repair parts, aviation mobile support equipment as assigned, and liquids in machinery at operating levels, without any
items of variable load (provisions, stores, ammunition, crew and effects, cargo, aircraft and aviation stores, passengers, saltwater
ballast, fuel and other liquids in storage tanks). Formerly Condition II.
• Condition A1  Lightship – Condition A without permanent ballast. Formerly condition IIA.
• Condition B  Minimum Operating Condition – A condition of minimum stability likely to exist in normal operation (following
the ship’s liquid loading instructions). For warships, Condition B approximates the ship’s condition toward the end of a hostile
engagement following a long period at sea. Liquids are included in amounts and locations that will provide satisfactory stability,
trim, and limitation of list in case of underwater damage. Formerly Condition V.
• Condition C  Optimum Battle Condition – As formerly applied to minor combatants, the ship loaded with full ammunition
allowance and twothirds provisions, fuel, lube oil, etc. Fuel distribution and seawater ballast are in accordance with liquid loading
instructions, except that service tanks are assumed halffull and one pair of storage tanks per machinery box are assumed empty.
Formerly Condition LS. In current practice, this condition applies only to ships with extensive underwater defense systems, such
as aircraft carriers and battleships. Liquids are carried in the amounts and locations that provide the optimum resistance to
underwater damage.
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• Condition D  Full Load – Two different fullload conditions are defined:
(1) Full load (contractual) – The ship complete, ready for service in every respect; Condition A plus authorized complement of
personnel and passengers and their effects, full allowance of ammunition in magazines and ready service spaces, full allowance
of aircraft and vehicles with repair parts and stores, provisions and stores for the periods specified in design specifications,
sufficient fuel to meet endurance specifications, antiroll tank liquid, liquids in tanks to required capacity in accordance with
liquid load instructions, and cargo in the amounts normally carried or a specified portion of full capacity. This condition is
used for weight estimates and reporting.
(2) Full load (departure) – Same as full load (contractual) except that fuel and lube oil tanks are 95percent full, potable and feed
water tanks 100percent full. Formerly Condition VI. This condition is used in inclining experiment reports.
• Condition E  Capacity Load – The ship complete, ready for service in every respect; Condition A plus the maximum number
of crew and passengers that can be accommodated, with their effects, maximum stowage of ammunition in magazines and ready
service spaces, full allowance of aircraft and vehicles with repair parts and stores, maximum amount of provisions and stores that
can be carried in assigned spaces, tanks filled to maximum capacity (95 percent for oil tanks, 100 percent for fresh water),
maximum amounts of cargo and supplies, with the provision that the limiting drafts not be exceeded.
Data is sometimes tabulated for special or unusual loading conditions, such as special ballast conditions for amphibious warfare ships. Details
for each condition of loading are found in the ship’s damage control book. Standard displacement is a condition defined by the Washington
Naval Conference of 1923 as "The displacement of the ship, fully manned, engined, and equipped ready for sea, including all armament and
ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisions and fresh water for the crew, miscellaneous stores and implements of every description that are
intended to be carried in war, but without fuel or reserve feed water on board." Standard displacement was defined primarily as an aid to
ensuring compliance to restriction on warship size and total naval tonnage under international treaties, but provides a convenient means of
comparing warships and is commonly given in published summaries of naval strength, such as Jane’s Fighting Ships. Characteristics for standard
displacement are not normally tabulated in damage control books or similar documents.
13.2.2 Commercial Vessels. Two major conditions of loading are referenced in dealing with commercial vessels:
• Lightship, Lightweight, or Light Displacement – The ship with all items of outfit, equipment, and machinery, including boiler
water and lubricating oil in sumps, but without cargo, provisions, stores, crew, or fuel.
• Fully Loaded – Lightship plus cargo, fuel, stores, etc., to settle the ship to her load line. Also loaded, load, or fullload
displacement. For ships designed to carry different classes of cargo, fullload conditions may be tabulated for each type of cargo.
The trim and stability booklet will normally tabulate stability data for ballasted and partly loaded conditions, and for end of voyage and
intermediate conditions with varying amounts of fuel and stores consumed.
13.2.3 Loading Instructions. Specific loading instructions are provided to help operating personnel avoid loading the ship so that her stability
is dangerously low or the hull girder is overstressed. The most basic instruction is that ships shall not be loaded so heavily that their load line
(merchant) or limiting draft marks (naval) are submerged. Detailed loading instructions are given in the trim and stability booklet for merchant
ships or the damage control book for Navy ships. In certain types of ships, such as container ships, RO/RO ships, barge carriers, and ferries,
improper loading can easily reduce stability to dangerously low levels. In other ships, such as tankers and ore carriers, improper loading can
seriously overstress the hull. Transient conditions created while loading or unloading can also degrade stability or overstress the hull. Load
and stability computers supplement or replace loading instructions on many tankers, bulk carriers, and other large ships or ships with unusual
stability problems. Load computers are briefly described in Paragraph 42.5.3.
13.3 Deadweight. Deadweight (DWT) is the load carried by a ship. It is the difference between the lightship displacement and total
displacement of the ship at any time. Maximum or load deadweight is the carrying capacity of a ship measured in 2,240pound long tons, and
is the difference between the lightweight and fully loaded displacements. Deadweight includes fuel, provisions, munitions, crew and effects,
cargo, or any other weight carried. For a merchant ship, cargo deadweight, paying deadweight, or payload is the part of the deadweight that
is cargo and therefore earning income.
It is not uncommon for the deadweight of a merchant ship to be given, but not its fullload displacement. A deadweight coefficient (C
DWT
) can
be defined as the ratio of fullload displacement to total deadweight:
where:
C
DWT
=
∆
FL
DWT
⇒ ∆
FL
= DWT C
DWT
C
DWT
= deadweight coefficient
∆
FL
= fullload displacement
DWT = total deadweight
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Typical ranges for deadweight coefficient are given by R. MunroSmith (Elements of Ship Design, 1979):
General cargo ship 1.39 – 1.61
Ore carrier 1.30 – 1.39
Bulk carrier 1.19 – 1.28
Oil tanker 1.16 – 1.25
Very large tanker, VLCC 1.28 – 1.32
13.4 Change in Draft. Draft is significant as the only principal dimension that varies routinely, while length and beam remain essentially
constant. Volume of displacement, and therefore draft, will change as a ship’s displacement changes due to loading or discharging cargo,
consuming or loading fuel or stores, or flooding. The new volumes and mean drafts can be computed by using the relationships shown. For
example: a boxshaped lighter 100 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 10 feet in depth, displacing 429 tons of seawater with zero trim. Because
waterplane area is constant at any draft, drafts can be found by:
where:
∇ = δW = 35(429) = 15,015 ft
3
∇ = LBT = 100(30) T = 15,015 ft
3
T =
∇
LB
=
15,015
100(30)
= 5 ft
∇ = displacement volume, ft
3
= LBTC
B
; for boxshaped lighter C
B
= 1.0
W = total weight of the barge, lton
δ = specific volume of seawater = 35 ft
3
/lton
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
B = beam, ft
T = draft, ft
If weight (displacement) is decreased to 350 tons, the new mean draft is given by:
For a complex ship shape, drafts cannot be calculated directly. The change in draft (∆T) can be determined if certain assumptions are made.
∇ = 35W = 35(350) = 12,250 ft
3
T =
12,250
3,000
= 4.08 ft = 4 ft 1 in.
The increase in volume can be considered to be a prism of uniform thickness with vertical sides and horizontal section with area equal to the
waterplane area. For a wallsided vessel (one with vertical sides, like the boxshaped lighter), this is mathematically exact; it is sufficiently
accurate for most ships for small changes in draft. The thickness of the prism is determined by dividing its volume by the area of the
waterplane:
where:
∆T =
∆∇
A
WP
=
∆∇
LBC
WP
=
(15,015) 12,250)
(100)(30)(1.0)
= 0.92 ft = 11 in.
∆T = change in draft, ft
∆∇ = change in displacement volume, ft
3
A
WP
= waterplane area, ft
2
C
WP
= waterplane coefficient
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The salvor may encounter ships in water of varying densities. The waters of harbors and estuaries might be salty, fresh or brackish; the salinity
and density of the water may depend on the state of the tide. The equalities shown can be used to relate displacement volume, draft and
displacement of any ship in water of any known density. Recalling that:
where:
∇
1
ρ
1
= ∇
2
ρ
2
∇
1
δ
1
=
∇
2
δ
2
LBTC
B
1
δ
1
=
LBTC
B
2
δ
2
∇ = displacement volume, ft
3
ρ = water density, lb/ft
3
δ = inverse density or specific volume, ft
3
/lton
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
B = beam, ft
T = draft, ft
C
B
= block coefficient
With length and breadth constant, and C
B
assumed constant for a small change in draft,
and:
T
1
δ
1
=
T
2
δ
2
∴
T
1
T
2
=
δ
1
δ
2
For saltwater and fresh water:
T
2
=
T
1
δ
2
δ
1
and:
δ
SW
δ
FW
=
35
36
The difference between fresh water and seawater drafts may range from 6 inches for an FFG7 to 1.2 feet for a large aircraft carrier, or more
T
FW
= T
SW
¸
¸
_
,
36
35
on a large crude carrier. Differences encountered when dealing with brackish water will be correspondingly less, and may be dealt with by using
values for fresh water and saltwater as upper and lower boundaries if the water density is unknown or variable.
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13.5 Tons per Inch Immersion (TPI). The foregoing analysis can be carried a step further to determine the change in displacement (∆∆
D
)
required to cause a change in draft of one inch. For seawater:
Substituting 1 inch =
1
⁄ 12foot for ∆T:
∆T =
∆∇
A
WP
; ∇ = 35∆
D
⇒ ∆T =
35 ∆∆
D
A
WP
∴ ∆W =
∆T A
WP
35
where:
∆∆
D
=
A
WP
(35)(12)
=
A
WP
420
= TPI
∆
D
= displacement, lton
∇ = displacement volume, ft
3
ρ = water density, lb/ft
3
35 = specific volume, ft
3
/lton
A
WP
= waterplane area, ft
2
TPI = tons per inch immersion, lton/in.
Tons per inch immersion for water of any density can be obtained by a similar calculation.
13.6 Reserve Buoyancy. The watertight volume between the waterline and the uppermost continuous watertight deck provides the reserve
buoyancy to the ship. Although this volume does not actually provide any buoyancy, it is available to enable the ship to take on additional
weight. Freeboard is an indication of the reserve buoyancy remaining. Freeboard and draft can be considered opposite ends of a sliding scale,
with draft representing the buoyancy in use and freeboard the buoyancy remaining.
13.7 Center of Gravity. A homogeneous body’s center of gravity is located at its center of volume, or centroid. The center of gravity of
a ship is not so easily definable, but can be assumed to be located on the centerline near the midship plane in a ship floating without list or trim.
The center of gravity of a ship is a function of weight distribution; its position varies with loading. With all weights stationary, the center of
gravity remains fixed regardless of the movement of the ship. Its position relative to any of the three reference planes along a perpendicular
axis (n) is given mathematically by:
where:
G =
⌡
⌠
n dw
W
=
nw
w
G = position of the center of gravity along any axis
n = distance from the origin to an incremental weight dw, or to an individual weight w
W = total weight = Σw
The location of the center of gravity greatly influences the stability characteristics of a vessel: the vertical location (VCG, or KG) influences
a vessel’s ability to resist heeling forces; the longitudinal location (LCG) relative to the longitudinal location of the center of buoyancy
determines trim; and a transverse location (TCG) off the centerline results in a list.
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13.8 Center of Buoyancy. The force of buoyancy, like gravity, can be resolved to act upwards through a single point. The center of buoyancy
(B) is located at the centroid of the submerged hull form. As the ship inclines, the shape of the underwater volume changes and the center of
buoyancy moves to the new geometric center. When a ship is at rest without list, the center of buoyancy is on the centerline directly below
the center of gravity. The location of the center of buoyancy responds directly to draft changes. As the ship’s displacement is increased or
decreased with a corresponding change in draft, the center of buoyancy will move to the new centroid of the redefined submerged hull form.
13.9 Metacenter. As shown in Figure 1
Figure 14. Relative Positions of M, B, and G During Small Inclinations.
(HEEL ANGLES EXAGGERATED)
B
2
WL
2
WL
2
WL
1
WL
1
WL WL
B
1
B
G
M
4, vertical lines drawn through successive
centers of buoyancy (B
1
, B
2
, and B
3
) as the
ship inclines slightly intersect at an
imaginary point on the centerline called the
metacenter (M). In a stable vessel, M is
located above the center of gravity. The
vertical location of M is one of the most
critical parameters affecting a ship’s initial
stability.
13.10 Center of Flotation. The center of
flotation is the point about which the ship
trims and heels, and is at the geometric
center of the ship’s floating waterplane. It
is usually located aft of midships, although
it may be forward of midships in full
bodied ships.
13.11 Bonjean’s Curves. Bonjean’s
Curves or Curves of Sectional Areas are a
collection of curves plotting sectional area
along the Xaxis against draft on the Yaxis.
The curves are usually presented in one of the two formats shown in Figure FO3. The section area curve may show area for either the whole
section, or for one side only, as noted on the drawing. The areas generally do not account for appendages, but may include shell plating, as
noted on the drawing. Section areas can be taken from the curves for any draft and any condition of trim or hull deflection. Section area is
converted to unit buoyancy by dividing by the specific volume of water (35 cubic feet per long ton per foot of length for seawater). Volume
of displacement and other hydrostatic properties can be determined by integration of section area or derived unit buoyancy ordinates by the
numerical methods described in Paragraph 14.
The rosette arrangement (Figure FO3A), with all the curves drawn to a single set of axes, produces a more compact drawing and is favored
by some designers because lack of fairness in the hull will show itself with the curves lying side by side. Section areas are read from the
intersection of a horizontal line through the station draft on the center scale with the appropriate curve. When calculating buoyancies for varying
waterlines or wave profiles, it is sometimes more convenient to arrange the curves along the ship’s profile, with a vertical axis at each station
as shown in Figure FO3B. With the section area curves arranged in this format, a trimmed waterline can be plotted as a straight line passing
through the forward draft at station zero, and the after draft at the after perpendicular, eliminating the need to determine draft at each station.
Section areas can be picked off by drawing a horizontal line from the intersection of the waterline with each vertical station marker to the
appropriate curves. If the Bonjean’s Curves are not available in this format, the curves and area scale can be traced from the rosette onto a hull
profile drawn on tracing paper. The horizontal length scale for the hull profile is not critical, but should be consistent throughout its length if
buoyancy is to be calculated on waterlines that are not horizontal.
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14 APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
The salvage engineer may be required to calculate hydrostatic data for a casualty when curves of form or other documents are not available;
for a casualty in an unusual condition, such as a ship floated upside down or on its side; or for portions of a ship that has been cut into sections.
A ship’s form consists of a number of intersecting surfaces, usually of nonmathematical form. Areas and volumes enclosed by these surfaces,
as well as moments of areas and volumes, and second moments of area, must be determined to calculate hull hydrostatic characteristics.
For a curve plotted on an xy coordinate system, the area under the curve and moments, second moments (moments of inertia), and location of
the centroid can be expressed as simple integrals. Since hull forms are seldom definable by mathematical equations, areas, moments, and
volumes are calculated by manual integration methods rather than by direct integration. Manual integration methods are also used to evaluate
any parameter that can be expressed as a curve of a function of some variable. For example, the total force, location of the center of effort,
and force moment of an unevenly distributed force (such as current forces) can be determined from a curve showing the force distribution.
Graphical and numerical manual integration methods are described in the following paragraphs.
14.1 Graphical Integration. An obvious way to calculate the area under a curve (or within a shape) is to plot the curve to scale on graph
paper and count the squares under the curve. This method can be extended to calculate the first moment of area, M
y
= ∫xy dx, by multiplying
the height (number of squares, y) in each column by its distance from the origin (x), and summing all such products. In the same way, the
second moment is calculated by multiplying the height of each column by x
2
. By adopting sign conventions and adjusting the location of the
origin, moments can be calculated about any desired axis. Graphical integration of large, complex areas is very tedious, but can be very accurate
for even the most complex or discontinuous curves.
14.2 Numerical Integration. Numerical integration methods, or rules, are based on the same premise as graphical integration; that the area
under a curve can be closely approximated by breaking the area up into smaller shapes whose areas can be calculated or estimated easily, and
summing the areas of these shapes. Most rules depend upon the substitution of a simple mathematical form for the actual curve to be integrated.
The accuracy of the result depends upon the accuracy of the fit between the real and assumed curves.
14.3 Trapezoidal Rule. The trapezoidal
Figure 15. Curvilinear Figure Approximated by Series of Trapezoids.
y
y
1
x
1
y
0
x
0
y
2
x
2
y
n1
x
n1
x
n
y
n
y
3
.........................
x
3
.........................
x
h
rule substitutes a series of straight lines for
a complex curve to allow integration of the
curve in a simple tabular format.
Conceptually, the trapezoidal rule is the
simplest of the numerical integration rules.
A curvilinear shape can be approximated by
a series of n trapezoids bounded by n + 1
equally spaced ordinates, y
0
, y
1
, y
2
, y
3
, ...,
y
n
, (at stations x
0
, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, ..., x
n
) as
shown in Figure 15. If the station spacing
is h, the area (a
0,1
) of the first trapezoid is:
The total area of the shape (A) is approximately equal to the sum of the areas of the trapezoids:
a
0,1
=
y
0
+ y
1
2
h
This expression is called the trapezoidal rule, and can be used to calculate areas of any shape bounded by a continuous curve, simply by dividing
A = a
0, 1
a
1, 2
a
2, 3
... a
n 1, n
=
y
0
y
1
2
h
y
1
y
2
2
h
y
2
y
3
2
h . . .
y
n 1
y
n
2
h
=
h
2
y
0
2y
1
2y
2
2y
3
. . . y
n
= h
¸
¸
_
,
y
0
2
y
1
y
2
y
3
. . .
y
n
2
the shape into a number of equal sections and substituting the ordinate values and the station spacing, or common interval, into the rule. The
common multiplier for the trapezoidal rule is the common interval (h). If the common interval and common multiplier (CM) are separated into
two factors, the common multiplier for the trapezoidal rule is 1.
The factors by which each ordinate is multiplied (
1
⁄ 2, 1, 1, 1, ...,
1
⁄ 2) are the individual multipliers (m). The products of the individual multipliers
and ordinates are called functions of area, ƒ(A). The area under the curve is thus expressed as:
A =
⌡
⌠
y dx = h f (A)
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Because the trapezoidal rule substitutes a series of straight lines for the curve to be integrated, it is best suited for use with smooth, longradius
curves such as the waterlines of a ship. The rule underestimates the area under convex curves, and overestimates the area under concave curves.
Accuracy increases as station spacing is decreased. If greater accuracy is required in regions of considerable curvature, e.g. at the ends of the
ship, stations are taken at halfdivisions. When halfspaced stations are used, the individual multipliers for the halfstations and adjacent stations
must be adjusted. If, for example, a halfstation is inserted between ordinates 1 and 2:
The individual multiplier for the halfstation is
1
⁄ 2, and
3
⁄ 4 for the station on either side of it. A similar analysis will show that if several
A =
y
0
y
1
2
h
y
1
y
1.5
2
h
2
y
1.5
y
2
2
h
2
y
2
y
3
2
h ...
y
n 1
y
n
2
h
=
h
2
y
0
1.5y
1
y
1.5
1.5y
2
2y
3
... y
n
= h
¸
¸
_
,
1
2
y
0
3
4
y
1
1
2
y
1.5
3
4
y
2
y
3
...
1
2
y
n
sequential halfstations are inserted (i.e., 2
1
⁄ 2, 3
1
⁄ 2, 4
1
⁄ 2, etc.) the multipliers for all stations and halfstations between the first and last halfstations
is
1
⁄ 2, and the multiplier for the two outlying whole stations is
3
⁄ 4. It may be more convenient to use the first form of the rule, to avoid divisors
greater than 2, in which case all the individual multipliers are doubled.
14.4 Simpson’s Rules. The replacement
Figure 16. Simpson’s ThreeOrdinate Rule.
h
Y
=
ax
2
+ bx +c
h
x = 0 x = 1 x = 2
y
y
0
y
1
y
2
X
AREA =
h __
3
(y
0
+ 4y
1
+ y
2
)
of a complex or small radius curve by a
series of straight lines limits the accuracy of
calculations, unless a large number of ord
inates are used. Integration rules that re
place the actual curve with a mathematical
curve of higher order are more accurate.
Simpson’s rules assume that the actual curve
can be replaced by a secondorder curve
(parabola). Figures 16 through 18 demon
strate the derivations of Simpson’s rules.
14.4.1 Simpson’s First Rule. Figure 16
shows a curve of the form y = ax
2
+ bx + c.
It is expressed by three evenly spaced
ordinates y
0
, y
1
and y
2
, at x = 0, 1, and 2
(station spacing = 1). The values of the
ordinates are:
The area under the curve is:
y
0
= a(0)
2
b(0) c = c for x = 1
y
1
= a(1)
2
b(1) c = a b c for x = 1
y
2
= a(2)
2
b(2) c = 4a 2b c for x = 2
Now c = y
0
and y
1
= y
0
+ a + b, and y
2
= y
0
+ 4a + 2b. Substituting and solving for a and b:
A =
⌡
⌠
2
0
(ax
2
bx c) dx =
ax
3
3
bx
2
2
cx
2
0
=
8
3
a 2b 2c
y
2
2y
1
= y
0
2b 4a 2y
0
2b 2a = y
0
2a
∴ a =
( y
2
2y
1
y
0
)
2
b = y
1
y
0
a = y
1
y
0
(y
2
2y
1
y
0
)
2
=
3
2
y
0
y
2
2
2y
1
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S0300A8HBK010
Area (A) is expressed as:
For an ordinate spacing of h rather than unity:
A =
8
3
a 2b 2c =
8
3
¸
¸
_
,
y
2
2y
1
y
0
2
2
¸
¸
_
,
3
2
y
0
y
2
2
2y
1
2y
0
= 2y
0
3y
0
y
2
4y
1
4
3
y
2
8
3
y
1
4
3
y
0
=
1
3
y
0
4
3
y
1
1
3
y
2
=
1
3
y
0
4y
1
y
2
This relationship is Simpson’s first rule, or
A =
h
3
( y
0
4y
1
y
2
)
Figure 17. Simpson’s Multipliers for Long Curve.
0
1
1
STATION
3ORDINATE
MULTIPLIERS
SIMPSON’S
MULTIPLIERS
1
4
4
2
1
1
2
3
4
4
4
1
1
2
5
4
4
6
1
1
3ordinate rule, commonly called Simpson’s
rule. The rule calculates correctly the area
under a second order curve and will
approximate the area under any curve that
passes through the same three points. The
accuracy depends on how closely the actual
curve approaches the parabolic form
assumed by the rule. Simpson’s Rule is the
numerical integration rule used most widely
for ship calculations.
The rule can be extended to calculate the area under a long nonparabolic curve such as a ship’s waterline. If the length of the curve is divided
into enough equal parts, as shown in Figure 17, it can be reasonably approximated by a series of parabolic segments. For a curve divided into
n equal parts, the area between the first (0) and third (2) ordinates would be given by:
where:
A
0 2
=
h
3
(y
0
+ 4y
1
+ y
2
)
A
02
= area under the curve between the first and third ordinates
h = distance between ordinates = L/n
L = length of the curve
n = number of sections between ordinates = number of ordinates  1
Similarly, the area between the third (2) and fifth (4) ordinates would be:
The area between the fifth (4) and seventh (6) ordinates:
A
2 4
=
h
3
(y
2
+ 4y
3
+ y
4
)
and so on.
A
4 6
=
h
3
(y
4
+ 4y
5
+ y
6
)
The total area is the sum of all the two section areas:
This is the general form of Simpson’s rule. Since the rule consists of a summation of areas over two sections of a curve divided into a number
A = A
0 2
A
2 4
A
4 6
... A
n 2 n
=
h
3
y
0
4y
1
2y
2
4y
3
2y
4
4y
5
2y
6
... y
n
of equal sections, the curve must be divided into an even number of sections (by an odd number of stations) to apply the rule. The common
multiplier (CM) is
1
⁄ 3; the individual multipliers are 1, 4, 2, 4, 2, 4,..., 2, 4, 1. The derivation of the individual multipliers as a tabular summation
of the 3ordinate rule multipliers for each two adjacent sections is shown in Figure 17.
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S0300A8HBK010
In regions where the slope of the curve changes rapidly, the accuracy of the rule can be increased by inserting intermediate (halfspaced) stations.
When halfspaced stations are used, the individual multipliers are modified. For example, a halfstation could be inserted at 2
1
⁄ 2 were there a
rapid change in form between the third and fourth stations of the curve in Figure 17. The area between the first and second stations is
calculated as before:
With the insertion of the halfstation (2
1
⁄ 2), the 3ordinate rule can be applied to the area between the third and fourth ordinates (A
23
), with an
A
0 2
=
h
3
(y
0
+ 4y
1
+ y
2
)
ordinate spacing of h/2:
The area between the fourth and sixth stations (A
34
) is now:
A
2 3
=
h
2
3
y
2
4y
2.5
y
3
=
h
3
¸
¸
_
,
y
2
2
2y
2.5
y
3
2
and so on. The total area is:
A
3 4
=
h
3
(y
3
+ 4y
4
+ y
5
)
Note that unless another halfspaced station is inserted, the number of sections (n) will be even, and the rule unworkable. Intermediate stations
A = A
0 2
A
2 3
A
3 5
... A
n 1 n
=
h
3
¸
¸
_
,
y
0
4y
1
y
2
y
2
2
2y
2.5
y
2y
3
2
y
3
4y
4
y
5
... y
n
=
h
3
¸
¸
_
,
y
0
4y
1
1
1
2
y
2
2y
2.5
1
1
2
y
3
4y
4
2y
5
... y
n
can be inserted at any equal division of the station spacing (thirdstations, quarterstations, etc.) and multipliers deduced in a similar manner.
Intermediate stations can be inserted anywhere along the length of the curve so long as two rules are followed:
• An even number of intermediate stations must be inserted, so that the total number of segments remains even (total number of
ordinates is odd).
• Intermediate stations must be inserted so there are an even number of segments in each group of consecutive whole or partial
segments (each group of whole or partial segments includes an odd number of ordinates).
Intermediate stations are commonly used
Figure 18. Simpson’s Multipliers with HalfSpaced Stations.
0
1
1
STATION
3ORDINATE
MULTIPLIER
SIMPSON’S
MULTIPLIER
1
4
4
2
1
1/2
11/2
21/2
2
2
3
1
1/2
11/2
1
4
4
4
5
1/2
11/2
51/2
2
2
6
1/2
1/2
near the ends of waterlines where the hull
form changes rapidly with respect to length.
The individual multipliers can be quickly
determined by tabulating and summing the
appropriate 3ordinate rule multipliers as
shown in Figure 18.
14.4.2 Simpson’s Second Rule. Rules
can be deduced, in a similar manner, for
areas bounded by different numbers of even
ly spaced ordinates, or by unevenly spaced
ordinates. For four evenly spaced ordinates:
This is Simpson’s second or threeeighths Rule. The general form is:
A =
3h
8
(y
0
+ 3y
1
+ 3y
2
+ y
3
)
Simpson’s second rule can be used with 4 + 3i ordinates, where i is a positive integer (i.e., 4, 7, 10, 13, etc.).
A =
3h
8
(y
0
+ 3y
1
+ 3y
2
+ 2y
3
+ 3y
4
+ 3y
5
+ 2y
6
+... + y
n
)
14.5 Applications. The derivations of Simpson’s rules and the trapezoidal rule were demonstrated with area computations to aid
conceptualization, but the rules can integrate any function that can be plotted on Cartesian coordinates. If, for example, the ordinates represent
sectional areas along a ship’s length for a given waterline, the products of the multipliers and ordinates are functions of volume, ƒ(V), and their
summation (integral of the curve) is the volume of displacement. Calculation of areas, moments, centroids, and second moments of areas by
the are described in the following paragraphs.
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S0300A8HBK010
14.5.1 Moments and Centroids. As
Figure 19. Variables for Moment and SecondMoment Calculations.
yy
AREA a = ydx
FORSHADEDSTRIP: a = ydx
i =
ay
2
___
12
=
y
3
dx
____
12
M
yy
= xa = x(ydx)
I
yy
= x
2
a= x
2
(ydx)
I
xx
=
y
2
__
2
a +i =
y
2
__
2
( ydx) +
y
3
dx _____
12
xx
y
n
1/2 y
n
x
dx
shown in Figure 19, the moment of an
elemental strip of area about some vertical
axis YY is xydx. To determine the moment
of a larger area about the axis, the integral
M = ∫xy dx must be evaluated. Instead of
multiplying the value of y at each station
by the appropriate multiplier, the value xy
is multiplied, where x is the distance from
the station to the reference axis, and dx is
the width of each strip, or the common
interval h. The value y dx = hy
n
is the area
of the strip a
n
; the first moment of this area
about some reference axis YY is:
The total moment is the sum of the
M
YY
= x
n
hy
n
= x
n
a
n
moments of all the strips, that is, the
integral of the incremental moments along
the length:
The integral can be evaluated numerically:
M
YY
=
⌡
⌠
L
0
x
n
a
n
dx
where:
⌡
⌠
x
n
a
n
dx = x
n
CMf (A) = CM x
n
f (A)
CM = common multiplier for the appropriate integration rule
ƒ(A) = function of area = m
n
y
n
m
n
= common multiplier for the appropriate rule and station
If the reference axis is chosen to fall on an ordinate station, then the moment arms have the common interval (h) as a common factor, i.e., x
n
= s
n
h, where x
n
is the moment arm and s
n
is the number of stations from the reference axis to station n. The factor h can be brought outside
the summation:
M
YY
= CMh ∑ s
n
ƒ(A)
The products of the number of stations from the reference axis and the functions of area, s
n
ƒ(A), are the functions of moment ƒ(M):
M
YY
= CMh ∑ ƒ(M)
The distance from the centroid of the shape to the reference axis (x′) is the moment divided by the area:
x =
M
YY
A
=
CMh f (M)
CM f (A)
=
f (M)
f (A)
h
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The centroid of a symmetrical shape lies on the axis of symmetry, and its location can be defined by summing moments about a single axis
perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. To precisely locate the centroid of an asymmetrical shape, moments must be summed about another,
perpendicular, axis. The calculation can be performed by taking ordinates perpendicular to the first set and integrating with respect to y rather
than x. Moments about an axis XX can also be determined using y ordinates, but with slightly less accuracy. Referring again to Figure 19,
the moment about axis XX of the elemental strip dx is:
where y is the height of the strip, and a its area. The total moment is the integral of the incremental moments along the length, and the integral
M
XX
=
¸
¸
_
,
y
2
a =
¸
¸
_
,
y
2
ydx =
¸
¸
_
,
y
2
2
dx
can be evaluated numerically:
The product of the y ordinate and the function of area for each segment can be defined as the function of moment about x, ƒ(M
XX
):
M
XX
=
⌡
⌠
L
0
y
n
2
a
n
dx =
y
n
2
CMf (A)
n
=
CM y
n
f (A)
n
2
where m
n
is the individual multiplier for the nth ordinate. The distance from the centroid of the shape to the axis XX (y’) is the moment divided
f M
XX
= yf (A) = y
2
m
n
M
XX
=
CM
2
f M
XX
by the area:
y =
M
XX
A
=
CM
2
f M
XX
CM f (A)
=
f M
XX
2 f (A)
Moments can be summed about any axis, although it is simplest to sum them about an axis through x
0
so that the number of stations from the
reference axis is simply the station number. For ship calculations, moments are often summed about the midships section to reduce the size
of the products and sums for manual calculation, and because the centers of flotation, buoyancy, and gravity normally lie near midships. When
moments are summed about a station other than an end station, a sign convention must be adopted so that distances to one side of the reference
axis (and therefore moments and functions of moments) are negative.
14.5.2 Second Moments of Area. The second moment of area (moment of inertia, I) of a plane shape about an axis YY parallel to the vertical
ordinates is given by:
I
YY
= ∫
0
L
x
2
y dx
where:
I
YY
= second moment of area about some axis YY
x = distance from axis YY to elemental vertical strip of height y and width dx
L = length of the area whose second moment is desired, measured along an axis perpendicular to YY
An analysis similar to that taken for the calculation of first moments will show that the second moment of the area under a curve is calculated by:
I
YY
= CMh
2
∑ ƒ(I
YY
)
where:
CM = common multiplier
h = common interval
ƒ(I
YY
) = function of second moment about axis YY = s
n
2
m
n
y
n
s
n
= number of stations from axis YY to station n
m
n
= individual multiplier for station n
y
n
= height of the ordinate at station n
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The second moment of an area (moment of inertia) is always smallest about an axis through its centroid, (the neutral axis in bending stress analysis).
If moment of inertia about some axis YY, parallel to the neutral axis is known, the moment of inertia about the neutral axis (I
NA
) is found by the
parallel axis theorem:
where d is the distance from axis YY to the neutral axis, and A is the total area of the section.
I
NA
= I
YY
 Ad
2
The second moment of area about an axis XX perpendicular to axis YY can be calculated by taking ordinates perpendicular to the first set and
integrating twice with respect to y rather than x. To determine the second moment about a horizontal axis of symmetry, such as the moment
of inertia of a waterplane about its centerline, the integration can also be performed using the original set of ordinates. In Figure 19 (Page 1
20), y is the halfordinate of an incremental strip of a waterplane measured from the centerline. The second moment of area of the incremental
strip about the centerline is:
where:
i
xx
=
¸
¸
_
,
y
2
2
a i
0
= ydx
¸
¸
_
,
y
2
2
¸
¸
_
,
1
12
y
3
dx =
¸
¸
_
,
1
3
y
3
dx
i
xx
= second moment of area of incremental strip about the centerline
a = area of the incremental strip
i
0
= second moment of area of the incremental strip about a horizontal centroidal axis
= (
1
⁄ 12)y
3
dx if strip is assumed to be rectangular
dx = width of the incremental strip
The total second moment of halfwaterplane area is:
The second moment of the total area is twice this amount, and this will be the second moment about the centerline, since the waterplane is
I
XX, half
=
⌡
⌠
L
0
¸
¸
_
,
1
3
y
3
dx =
¸
¸
_
,
1
3
⌡
⌠
L
0
y
3
dx
symmetrical about the centerline. The integration ∫y
3
dx can be performed numerically:
where:
I
XX
= 2
¸
¸
_
,
CMh
3
f I
XX
CM = common multiplier
Figure 110. Determination of Volume by Numerical Integration.
y
0
x
0
a
0
x
1
a
1
x
2
a
2
x
3
a
3
y
4
=0
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
ORDINATES
FORAREA
INTEGRATION
ORDINATES
FORVOLUME
INTEGRATION
(AREAS)
4 4
h = common interval
ƒ(I
XX
) = function of second
moment about axis XX =
m
n
y
3
n
m
n
= individual multiplier for
station n
y
n
= height of the halfordinate
at station n
14.5.3 Volumes and Centroids of
Volume. Volumes are calculated by inte
grating a curve of sectional areas. To cal
culate the volume of the tank shown in
Figure 110, the shape is first cut at several
stations to form section outlines. The area
of each section is calculated, and the areas
taken as ordinates along the length of the
tank. Integrating the area ordinates by the
trapezoidal rule:
V = ∫a dx = h ∑ƒ(V)
where:
ƒ(V) = function of volume = m
n
a
n
m
n
= individual multiplier for station n
a
n
= area of section at station n
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S0300A8HBK010
The moment of volume about some axis YY is:
M
YY
= h
2
∑ ƒ(M)
where:
ƒ(M) = function of moment of volume about axis YY = s
n
m
n
a
n
s
n
= number of stations from axis YY to station n
The distance of the centroid from axis YY:
d =
h
2
f (M)
h f (V)
=
f (M)
f (V)
h
These forms are exactly the same as those used to calculate areas and moments and centroids of areas; the only difference is that ordinate values
represent areas rather than linear distances. Integrations can be performed along additional axes to precisely locate the centroid of the shape.
14.5.4 General Forms for Area and Moment Calculations. Calculation of areas, moments, centroids, and second moments of area by
Simpson’s first and second rules can be expressed in general forms:
where:
A = (CM) h f (A)
M
YY
= (CM) h f (M)
M
XX
=
¸
¸
_
,
CM
2
f M
XX
x =
(CM) h f (M)
(CM) f (A)
=
f (M)
f (A)
h
A = area under a curve between selected stations
M
YY
= first moment of area about axis YY
M
XX
= first moment of area about axis XX
x′ = distance from centroid of area to axis YY
y′ = distance from centroid of area to axis XX
I
YY
= second moment of area about axis YY
I
XX
= second moment of area about centerline axis XX
CM = common multiplier for the appropriate rule (1, 1/3, 3/8, etc)
h = common interval
ƒ(A) = function of area = m
n
y
n
ƒ(M) = function of moment about YY = s
n
m
n
y
n
= s
n
ƒ(A)
ƒ(M
XX
) = function of moment about XX = m
n
y
n
2
= y
n
ƒ(A)
ƒ(I
YY
) = function of second moment about YY = s
n
2
m
n
y
n
= s
n
ƒ(M) = s
n
2
ƒ(A)
ƒ(I
XX
) = function of second moment about XX = m
n
y
3
n
s = number of stations from axis YY (or integration start point) to station n
m = individual multiplier for station n for the appropriate rule
y
n
= height of the ordinate at station n (halfordinate for I
XX
)
Examples 11 and 12 demonstrate the use of the trapezoidal rule and Simpson’s rule to calculate waterplane functions for an FFG7 Class ship.
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S0300A8HBK010
EXAMPLE 11
CALCULATION OF WATERPLANE PROPERTIES BY TRAPEZOIDAL RULE
Using 11 and 21ordinate trapezoidal rules, calculate the waterplane area (A
WP
), location of the center of flotation (LCF), moment of inertia of the waterplane
about the centerline (I
CL
) and a transverse axis through the LCF (I
CF
), tons per inch immersion in saltwater (TPI), and waterplane coefficient (C
WP
) for the 16foot
waterline of an FFG7 Class ship. Compare these values with actual data.
Actual Properties:
L = 408 ft
B
max
= 45.6 ft
A
WP
= 13,860 ft
2
LCF = 24.1 ft aft of midships = 228.1 ft from forward perpendicular
I
CF
= 135,888,480 ft
4
I
CL
= 1,664,145 ft
4
TPI = 33 tons/in
C
WP
= 0.745
Since the waterplane is symmetrical about its centerline, areas and moments can be found by integrating one side of the waterplane along the centerline with
halfordinates (halfbreadths) measured from the centerline, and doubling the results. Halfbreadths for the 16foot waterline, in feet, inches, and eighths, are
taken from Figure FO1. The integrations are best performed in a tabular format. To integrate on 11 ordinates, halfbreadths for stations 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,
14, 16, 18, and 20 are used.
Integration on 11 ordinates: Integration on 21 ordinates:
Station Ordinate, Multiplier ƒ(A) Lever ƒ(M) ƒ(I
YY
) ƒ(I
XX
)
y m m × y s s × ƒ(A) s × ƒ(M) m × y
3
ftin1/8 ft ft
2
ft ft
3
ft
4
ft
4
0 0  4  5 0.39
1
⁄ 2 0.19 0 0.0 0.0 0.03
2 6 10  5 6.89 1 6.89 1 6.89 6.89 327.1
4 1211  0 12.92 1 12.92 2 25.84 51.68 2156.7
6 17 9  2 17.77 1 17.77 3 53.31 159.93 5611.3
8 2011  5 20.97 1 20.97 4 83.88 335.52 9221.4
10 22 7  1 22.59 1 22.59 5 112.95 564.75 11527.9
12 22 8  3 22.70 1 22.70 6 136.20 817.20 11697.1
14 21 8  4 21.71 1 21.71 7 151.97 1063.37 10232.4
16 19 7  1 19.59 1 19.59 8 156.72 1253.76 7518.0
18 16 8  6 16.73 1 16.73 9 150.57 1355.13 4682.6
20 12 7  0 12.58
1
⁄ 2 6.29 10 62.90 629.00 995.4
168.34 941.23 6237.65 63969.9
h = 408/10 = 40.8 ft
A
WP
= 2h ∑ƒ(A) = 2(40.8)(168.34) = 13,736.5 ft
2
M
FP
= 2h
2
∑ ƒ(M) = 2(40.8)
2
(941.23) = 3,133,618 ft
3
∑ ƒ(M) 941.23
x′ = ———— h = ———— (40.8) = 228.1 ft from FP = LCF
∑ ƒ(A) 168.34
I
FP
= 2h
3
∑ ƒ(I
YY
) = 2(40.8)
3
(6237.65) = 847,288,842 ft
4
I
CF
= I
FP
 Ad
2
= 847,288,842 13,736.5(228.1)
2
= 132,516,043 ft
4
I
CL
= 2(h/ 3) ∑ ƒ(I
XX
) = 2(40.8/3)(63,969.9) = 1,739,981 ft
4
TPI = A
WP
/ 420 = 13,736.5/420 = 32.7 tons
C
WP
= A
WP
/ (LB) = 13,736.5/(408 × 45.6) = 0.738
Station Ordinate, Multiplier ƒ(A) Lever ƒ(M) ƒ(I
YY
) ƒ(I
XX
)
y m s
ftin1/8 ft ft
2
ft ft
3
ft
4
ft
4
0 0  4  5 0.39 1/2 0.19 0 0.0 0.0 0.03
1 3  7  6 3.65 1 3.65 1 3.65 3.65 48.6
2 6 10  5 6.89 1 6.89 2 13.78 27.56 327.1
3 10 0  2 10.02 1 10.02 3 30.06 90.18 1006.0
4 1211  0 12.92 1 12.92 4 51.68 206.72 2156.7
5 15 6  1 15.51 1 15.51 5 77.55 387.75 3731.1
6 17 9  2 17.77 1 17.77 6 106.62 639.72 5611.3
7 19 6  7 19.57 1 19.57 7 136.99 958.93 7495.0
8 2011  5 20.97 1 20.97 8 167.76 1342.08 9221.4
9 2111  5 21.97 1 21.97 9 197.73 1779.57 10604.5
10 22 7  1 22.59 1 22.59 10 225.90 2259.00 11527.9
11 22 9  4 22.79 1 22.79 11 250.69 2757.59 11836.8
12 22 8  3 22.70 1 22.70 12 272.40 3268.80 11697.1
13 22 3  7 22.32 1 22.32 13 290.16 3772.08 11119.4
14 21 8  4 21.71 1 21.71 14 303.94 4255.16 10232.4
15 20 9  5 20.80 1 20.80 15 312.00 4680.00 8998.9
16 19 7  1 19.59 1 19.59 16 313.44 5015.04 7518.0
17 18 2  1 18.18 1 18.18 17 309.06 5254.02 6008.7
18 16 8  6 16.73 1 16.73 18 301.14 5420.52 4682.6
19 15 1  0 15.01 1 15.01 19 285.19 5418.61 3381.8
20 12 7  0 12.58 1/2 6.29 20 125.80 2516.00 995.4
338.18 3775.54 50052.98 128200.7
h = 408/20 = 20.4 ft
A
WP
= 2h ∑ƒ(A) = 2(20.4)(338.18) = 13,797.5 ft
2
M
FP
= 2h
2
∑ ƒ(M) = 2(20.4)
2
(3775.54) = 3,142,457 ft
3
∑ ƒ(M) 3775.54
x′ = ———— h = ———— (20.4) = 227.8 ft from FP = LCF
∑ ƒ(A) 338.18
I
FP
= 2h
3
∑ ƒ(I
YY
) = 2(20.4)
3
(50,052.98) = 849,865,964 ft
4
I
CF
= I
FP
 Ad
2
= 849,865,964  13,797.6(227.8)
2
= 134,155,856 ft
4
I
CL
= 2(h/ 3) ∑ ƒ(I
XX
) = 2(20.4/ 3)(128,200.7) = 1,743,529 ft
4
TPI = A
WP
/ 420 = 13,797.6/ 420 = 32.9 tons
C
WP
= A
WP
/ (LB) = 13,797.6/ (408 × 45.6) = 0.742
Comparison:
Actual 11 Ordinate 21 Ordinate
Value Error, % Value Error, %
A
WP
, ft
2
13,860.0 13,737.8 0.88 13,797.500 0.45
LCF, ft fm FP 228.1 228.1 0.00 227.800 0.13
I
CF
, ft
4
135,888,480 132,502,924 2.49 134,155,856.000 1.28
I
CL
, ft
4
1,664,145 1,739,981 4.56 1,743,529.000 4.77
TPI, tons/in 33 32.7 0.91 32.900 0.30
C
WP
0.745 0.738 0.94 0.742 0.40
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EXAMPLE 12
CALCULATION OF WATERPLANE PROPERTIES BY SIMPSON’S RULE
Use Simpson’s first rule with 11 ordinates to calculate the waterplane properties that were calculated in Example 11. Compare the results with actual data
and the results by trapezoidal rule.
Ship dimensions and actual waterplane properties are the same as for Example 11. Halfbreadths for stations 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 from
Figure FO1 are used to integrate on 11 stations. Integration:
Station Ordinate, Multiplier ƒ(A7) Lever ƒ(M) ƒ(I
YY
) ƒ(I
XX
)
y m m × y s s × ƒ(A) s × ƒ(M) m × y
3
ftin1/8 ft ft
2
ft ft ft
4
ft
4
0 0  4  5 0.39 1 0.39 0 0.0 0.0 0.06
2 6 10  5 6.89 4 27.56 1 27.56 27.56 1308.3
4 1211  0 12.92 2 25.84 2 51.68 103.36 4313.4
6 17 9  2 17.77 4 71.08 3 213.24 639.72 22445.1
8 2011  5 20.97 2 41.94 4 167.76 671.04 18442.7
10 22 7  1 22.59 4 90.36 5 451.80 2259.00 46111.4
12 22 8  3 22.70 2 45.40 6 272.40 1634.40 23394.2
14 21 8  4 21.71 4 86.84 7 607.88 4255.16 40929.8
16 19 7  1 19.59 2 39.18 8 313.44 2507.52 15036.0
18 16 8  6 16.73 4 66.92 9 602.28 5420.52 18730.4
20 12 7  0 12.58 1 12.58 10 125.80 1258.00 1990.9
508.09 2,833.84 18,776.28 192,702.4
h = 408/10 = 40.8 ft
A
WP
=
2
⁄ 3 h ∑ƒ(A) =
2
⁄ 3 (40.8)(508.09) = 13,820.1 ft
2
M
FP
=
2
⁄ 3 h
2
∑ƒ(M) =
2
⁄ 3 (40.8)
2
(2833.84) = 3,144,882 ft
3
∑ ƒ(M) 2833.84
x′ = ———— h = ———— (40.8) = 227.6 ft from FP = LCF
∑ ƒ(A) 508.09
I
FP
=
2
⁄ 3 h
3
ƒ(I
YY
) =
2
⁄ 3 (40.8)
3
(18,776.28) = 850,156,311 ft
4
I
CF
= I
FP
 Ad
2
= 850,156,311  13,820.1(227.6)
2
= 134,508,685 ft
4
I
CL
=
2
⁄ 3 (h/3) ∑ ƒ(I
XX
) =
2
⁄ 3 (40.8/3)(192,702.4) = 1,747,168 ft
4
TPI = A
WP
/420 = 13,820.1/420 = 32.9 tons
C
WP
= A
WP
/(LB) = 13,820.1/(408 × 45.6) = 0.743
Comparison:
Actual Value 11 Ordinate Simpson’s Rule Trapezoidal Rule Error, %
Value Error, % 11 Ordinate 21 Ordinate
A
WP
, ft
2
13,860 13,820.1 0.29 0.88 0.45
LCF, ft fm FP 228.1 227.6 0.22 0.00 0.13
I
CF
, ft
4
135,888,480 134,508,685 1.02 2.49 1.28
I
CL
, ft
4
1,664,145 1,747,168 4.99 4.56 4.77
TPI, tons/in 33 32.9 0.30 0.91 0.30
C
WP
0.745 0.743 0.27 0.92 0.40
The accuracy of an 11ordinate Simpson’s rule compares favorably with that of a 21ordinate trapezoidal rule. Simpson’s rule with 21 ordinates
is only marginally more accurate than with 11 ordinates for this waterplane shape. Note that Simpson’s rule calculates the moment of inertia
about the centerline with slightly less accuracy than the trapezoidal rule. The derivation of the form: I
CL
= (CM)(h/3) ∑ ƒ(I
XX
) assumes a constant
ordinate over the entire section (see Paragraph 14.3.3). The Simpson’s multipliers do not correct for this assumption. The constantordinate
assumption is essentially correct for very full ships and barges with extensive parallel midbody, and will yield very accurate values for I
CL
.
Accuracy of I
CL
calculations for finelined ships can be increased only by using very close station spacing or integrating along an axis
perpendicular to the centerline. The ± 5 percent accuracy shown here should be sufficiently accurate for most salvage work.
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14.6 Other Simpson’s Rule Forms. Simpson’s rules can be derived for numbers of ordinates for which the first two rules do not apply, and
to determine areas of "left over" segments at the ends of curves.
14.6.1 5, 8, Minus One and 3, 10, Minus One Rules. An additional Simpson’s rule, known as the 5, 8, minus one rule, is used to determine
the area between two ordinates when three consecutive ordinates are known. For ordinates y
0
, y
1
, and y
2
, the area between the first and second
ordinates is given by:
The area between the second and third ordinates can be found by applying the rule backwards:
A
01
=
1
12
h(5y
0
+ 8y
1
 y
2
)
The validity of the 5, 8, minus one rule can be verified by observing that the sum of the expressions for the two sectional areas is the 3ordinate
A
12
=
1
12
h(y
0
+ 8y
1
+ 5y
2
)
rule:
The 5, 8, minus one rule cannot be used for moments. The first moment of the area between the first and second ordinates (A
12
) about the first
A = A
0 1
A
1 2
=
1
12
h 5y
0
8y
1
y
2
y
0
8y
1
5y
2
=
1
3
h y
0
4y
1
y
2
ordinate is given by the 3, 10, minus one rule:
These two Simpson’s rules are at times convenient, but are less accurate than the first and second rules.
M
1
=
1
24
h
2
(3y
0
+ 10y
1
 y
2
)
14.6.2 Simpson’s Rules for Any Number of Ordinates. Simpson’s rules can be combined one with another to derive rules for numbers of
ordinates for which the first two rules do not apply. For example, the first rule can be used for 3, 5, 7, 9, ... ordinates, and the second rule for
4, 7, 10, .... ordinates. A rule can be deduced for six ordinates as shown below:
This is not the only rule suitable for six ordinates. By skillful use of the 5, 8, minus one rule, a rule with less awkward multipliers can be
A
0 3
=
3
8
h y
0
3y
1
3y
2
y
3
A
3 5
=
1
3
h y
3
4y
4
y
5
A = A
0 3
A
3 5
= h
¸
¸
_
,
3
8
y
0
9
8
y
1
9
8
y
2
3
8
y
3
1
3
y
3
4
3
y
4
1
3
y
5
=
1
24
h 9y
0
27y
1
27y
2
17y
3
32y
4
8y
5
deduced:
Substituting the same values for ordinates y
0
through y
5
in each rule will verify that they are equivalent. Rules deduced in this manner can be
A
0 3
=
1
12
h 5y
0
8y
1
y
2
A
1 4
=
3
8
h y
1
3y
2
3y
3
y
4
A
4 5
=
1
12
h y
3
8y
4
5y
5
A = A
0 1
A
1 4
A
4 5
= h
¸
¸
_
,
5
12
y
0
25
24
y
1
25
24
y
2
25
24
y
3
25
24
y
4
5
15
y
5
=
25
24
h 0.4y
0
y
1
y
2
y
3
y
4
0.4y
5
used in the general forms described in Paragraph 14.4.4.
14.7 Other Integration Rules. Simpson’s rules and the trapezoidal rule are satisfactory for most manual calculations. The NewtonCotes’,
Tchebycheff’s, and Gauss’ rules are more accurate, but require more tedious manual calculations. These rules are described in most general naval
architecture texts, such as Basic Ship Theory by K.J. Rawson and E.C. Tupper, or Muckle’s Naval Architecture by W. Muckle and D.A. Taylor.
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14.8 General Notes For Numerical Integration. The numerical integration rules presented have relative advantages and disadvantages. When
time and/or access to highspeed computers permits, the salvage engineer may select the optimum integration rule for a welldefined curve.
For curves where ordinates are tabulated for only certain stations, a rule appropriate to that number and spacing of stations must be adopted.
Some generalizations about the applicability of integration rules are listed below:
• The trapezoidal rule uses constant ordinate spacing and simpler multipliers than the other rules. Any number of ordinates can be
used. The rule can accommodate halfstations at any point, and the multipliers for halfstations are easily derived. For a single
integration (area calculation) of a gentle curve, the trapezoidal rule is nearly as accurate as the Simpson’s rules, but progressively
greater errors are introduced on successive integrations (for moments and moments of inertia).
• Simpson’s rules and the trapezoidal rule include the common interval as part of the common multiplier and can therefore calculate
areas or volumes, moments, centroids, and second moments of area (single, double, and triple integrations) directly.
• Simpson’s rules are the most commonly used integration rules because they are more accurate than the trapezoidal rule, but simpler
to use than the more accurate NewtonCotes’, Tchebycheff’s, and Gauss’ rules.
• Simpson’s rules exactly integrate first, second, and thirdorder curves. Successive integrations produce progressively higher order
curves: the curve of area under a secondorder curve is a third order curve, and the curve of the moment of areas is then a fourth
order curve. Simpson’s rules will therefore exactly calculate the first moment of a secondorder curve, or the second moment of
a firstorder curve. Calculating the second moment of a secondorder or higher curve involves integrating a fourthorder equation,
so some error is introduced even for a parabolic curve. Additional error may arise for an arbitrary curve. Experience has shown
that Simpson’s rule calculates moments and second moments of relatively smooth, continuous curves—such as those describing
ship forms—accurately if a sufficiently close station spacing is used.
• An evenordinate Simpson rule is only marginally more accurate than the next lower oddordinate rule; oddordinate Simpson rules
are therefore preferred, and almost universally used in salvage.
14.9 Integration of Discontinuous Curves. The integration rules discussed are applicable to continuous curves. The area under a
discontinuous curve can be obtained by applying appropriate rules to the portions of the curve between discontinuities and summing the areas.
For curves with large numbers of closely spaced discontinuities, it is simpler to divide the curve into segments at the discontinuities, approximate
each segment by a rectangle, triangle, or trapezoid, calculate the area of each segment, and sum the areas to find the total area. The centroid
of each segment can be calculated or estimated. Moments, second moments, and the centroid of the entire area can be calculated by summing
the products of each area and the lever arm from its centroid to a selected axis in a tabular format. Replacing a segment of the curve between
discontinuities (stations) with a horizontal line at a value equal to the average ordinate creates a rectangle with area equal to the area under the
curve between the two stations. If the curve between stations can be reasonably approximated by a straight line, a horizontal line intersecting
the curve midway between stations has a y value equal to the average ordinate. Repeating this process along the length of the curve creates
a stepped curve. If the discontinuities, and subsequent stations, are evenly spaced, the curve can be integrated by a modification of the
trapezoidal rule:
A =
⌡
⌠
ydx = h
n
1
y
n
M
YY
=
⌡
⌠
xy dz = h
2
n
1
s
n
1/2 y
n
I
YY
=
⌡
⌠
x
2
y dx = h
3
n
1
s
n
1/2
2
y
n
where:
A = area under a curve between stations 0 and n
M
YY
= first moment of area about axis YY
I
YY
= second moment of area about axis YY
h = common interval
s
n
= number of stations from axis YY (or integration start point) to station n
y
n
= height of the midordinate between stations n and n1
Weight distribution curves for ships are usually drawn assuming a constant weight distribution between stations as stepped curves. The addition
of the continuous buoyancy curve and stepped weight curve creates a discontinuous load curve. The load curve is usually stepped as described
above to facilitate integration along its length to define the shear curve. Alternatively, the buoyancy curve can be stepped before summing with
the weight curve. A stepped 10segment (11ordinate) buoyancy curve can be constructed from standard Navy 21station Bonjean’s Curves by
taking unit buoyancy calculated from section areas for odd station as the average unit buoyancy for segments bounded by even stations—unit
buoyancy for segment 0–2 is based on section area for station 1, that for segment 2–4 on the area for station 3, etc. Example 14 includes an
integration of this type.
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14.10 Calculation of Hull Properties. Various integrations of a ship’s hull form are used to determine properties such as displacement,
locations of centers, tons per inch immersion, etc., known collectively as functions of form, hydrostatic functions, or hydrostatic data. Waterlines,
buttocks, and stations of lines drawings are spaced to support numerical integration, usually by Simpson’s or the trapezoidal rules. Halfbreadths
(offsets) taken along the length of a waterline provide ordinate values to define the waterplane shape; halfbreadths taken at different waterlines
at the same station provide ordinate values to define the station shape. Because ships are symmetrical about the centerline, integrations are
customarily performed for one side of the section or waterplane only, and doubled to give the total area or moment.
When working from offsets, sectional areas are usually calculated by vertical integration on horizontal ordinates from the centerline. An
integration up to a waterline gives section area corresponding to that waterline. Integrating the curve of areas along the ship’s length gives
volume of displacement; the centroid of the volume is the center of buoyancy.
Waterlines are integrated along the ship’s length to determine area of the waterplane, location of the centroid of the waterplane (center of
flotation), and moment of inertia of the waterplane about the centerline and about a transverse axis through the center of flotation. From these
properties, tons per inch immersion, location of the metacenter, etc., can be calculated. Displacement volume can be calculated by taking
waterplane areas as ordinates and integrating vertically.
Longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy (LCB) is obtained by longitudinal integration of the sectional areas. Height of the center of
buoyancy (KB) can be obtained by vertical integration of waterplane areas, or by calculating a vertical moment of area for each section. The sum
of all the vertical area moments divided by the sum of the sectional areas gives KB. Integrations of this form are included in Example 14 and
Appendix F.
14.10.1 Functions of Form. Functions of hull form are
Table 13. Appendage Allowances.
Ship Type
Appendage allowance:
∆
APP
/∆
FL
Singlescrew, small combatant with keel sonar dome
1
. . . . . . . . . 0.0167
Twinscrew, small combatant with keel sonar dome
1
. . . . . . . . . . 0.0200
Singlescrew, small combatant with bow sonar dome
1
. . . . . . . . . 0.0049
Twinscrew, small combatant with bow sonar dome
1
. . . . . . . . . . 0.0060
Twinscrew amphibious warfare ships with well decks
1
. . . . . . . . . 0.0106
shell plating only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0057
all other appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0049
Twinscrew LST
1
without bow thruster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0024
with tunnel bow thruster (negative appendage) . . . . . . . . . . 0.0014
Singlescrew merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form,
less than 5,000 tons full load displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0075
shell plating only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0060
all other appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0015
Singlescrew merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form,
5,000 to 15,000 tons full load displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0050
shell plating only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0040
all other appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0010
Singlescrew merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form,
greater than 15,000 tons full load displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0025
Twinscrew merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form . . . . . 0.0081
shell plating only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0035
all other appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0046
VLCC, ULCC, very large bulk carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0015
Source:
1
Jamestown Marine Services, 1990, unpublished; based on data from 22
hull types entered into ship data files for the NAVSEA POSSE Program
usually calculated for each waterline so they can be plotted
as a function of draft as the ship’s Curves of Form, also
called Hydrostatic Curves, or Displacement and Other
Curves (D & O Curves). Figure FO2 is a reproduction of
the curves of form for an FFG7 Class ship. Hydrostatic data
is also recorded in the Functions of Form Diagram (Figure
B1) for Navy ships and Hydrostatic Tables (Figure B2) for
commercial vessels. The salvage engineer may be required
to calculate hydrostatic data when curves of form or other
documents are not available or for a casualty in an unusual
condition. Whether functions of form are calculated for a
complete range of drafts or for only a few selected drafts de
pends on the form of the ship and the nature of information
required by salvors. Manual calculations are best performed
on organized tabular forms called displacement sheets.
14.10.2 Appendage Displacement. Volumes and dis
placements (buoyancies) based on section areas taken from
Bonjean’s Curves do not include appendage volume/ dis
placement, although sectional areas from some Bonjean’s
Curves include shell plating. If known, appendage dis
placements can be added to the integrated displacement; ef
fect on LCB can be determined by moment balance. When
appendage buoyancy is unknown, appendage displacement
can be estimated as a fraction of full load displacement,
called an appendage allowance. Appendage allowances
vary with ship size, type, and configuration. Warships
generally have more and larger appendages than auxiliaries
or commercial vessels. Vessels with high powertosize
ratios have larger screws and rudders than lower powered
vessels; appendage allowance increases with the number of
screws. Large bow sonar domes on combatants are faired
into the hull, and are included in Bonjean’s Curves and offsets; keelmounted domes are appendages. For a given ship type and configuration,
appendage allowance generally increases as size decreases. Approximate appendage allowances for different ship types are given in Table 13.
Appendage displacement is essentially constant with draft, as most appendages (except shell plating) are low on the hull and will be emerged
only by extremely low drafts. Once determined, appendage displacement can be added to the integrated displacement for any draft that covers
the appendages to determine total displacement. Shell plating displacement can be adjusted for drafts less than full load by assuming that one
half of the shell plating volume is concentrated in the bottom third of the draft range, and the remaining volume is evenly distributed over the
upper twothirds of the draft range. It is usually safe to assume that LCB for the displacement with appendages is virtually the same as that
for the integrated (without appendages) displacement.
14.10.3 Station Spacing. In fullbodied ships (lowspeed general cargo, large tankers, bulk carriers, etc.) the lengths of the waterlines between
stations in the midbody are nearly straight lines. In many modern fullbodied ships, the waterlines over the midbody are, in fact, straight lines,
forming a parallel midbody. Integration on 10 equal divisions of length (11 stations, 010) is sufficiently accurate for most purposes. If the
curvature of the waterlines increases sharply near the ends of the ship, halfspaced stations can be inserted to increase accuracy, for example,
at stations
1
⁄ 2, 1
1
⁄ 2, 8
1
⁄ 2 and 9
1
⁄ 2.
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S0300A8HBK010
Accuracy can be increased by reducing the station spacing throughout the length of the curve. This increases the number of calculations to be
performed, but avoids determining additional multipliers and may be simpler to program for computer calculation. For ship calculations, offsets
are usually tabulated for either 11 or 21 basic stations (10 or 20 equal divisions), with halfstations as necessary. Offsets for Navy ships are
normally tabulated for 21 basic stations, although additional tables may be prepared for very close station spacing. Offset tables for 2foot station
spacing are available for the FFG7, for example. Even when 21station offset tables or Bonjean’s Curves are available, integration on 11
stations is sufficiently accurate for most hull volume calculations on any smooth hull form, including finelined warships.
14.10.4 Full Sections. In full, relatively
Figure 111. Calculating Sectional Area Below the Lowest Waterline.
C
L
D
A
B
C
K
flatbottomed sections, special care must be
taken in calculating the area from the base
to the lowest waterline to avoid error.
Figure 111 shows a section near midships
where the turn of the bilge fairs into a
straight line (the rise of floor line) at point
A. If the entire area below CD is
calculated using horizontal ordinates from
the centerline, very close ordinate spacing
must be used to avoid error because of the
rapid change of form in the shell line. The
area below CD can be calculated accurately
using vertical ordinates from CD, with half
spaced ordinates inserted near the outboard
end, or by dividing the area into two
segments, as shown. The area KABC is a
trapezoid whose area can be calculated
accurately when the position of A and rise
of floor can be determined. The area ADB
can be obtained by using Simpson’s rule,
either with horizontal ordinates measured
from AB, or with vertical ordinates
measured from BD.
14.10.5 Lowest Waterlines. When displacement volume is calculated by vertical integration of waterplane areas, the volume under the lowest
one or two waterlines is calculated separately. Since the form of the ship changes so rapidly near the keel, the volume under the lowest one
or two waterlines is calculated by integrating sectional areas along the ship’s length. This volume is added to the volume determined by
integrating waterplane areas from the lower waterlines upward to obtain the total volume of displacement.
14.10.6 Ends of Full Hull Forms. On
Figure 112. Inherent Integration Error in Full Waterlines.
TRAPEZOIDAL RULE
ASSUMED STRAIGHT LINE
SIMPSON’S RULE
ASSUMED PARABOLIC
FORM
WATERPLANE
OUTLINE
2 1 STATIONS FP
very full hulls, such as spoonbowed
barges, large tankers (VLCC, ULCC), and
bulk carriers, the parallel midbody extends
nearly to the ends of the ship, where it
joins to a short forebody or afterbody with
steep or sharply curving lines. The aft ends
of the lower waterlines of many finelined
ships also curve sharply. If the ordinate
adjacent to the end ordinate is some
distance away from the end of the parallel
midbody, the curve from this ordinate to
the end ordinate (which is 0 or very small)
assumed by Simpson’s rules or the
trapezoidal rule will fall well inside the
actual waterline as shown in Figure 112.
This will cause a serious underestimation of
area for the end sections that will lead to even greater errors in calculations of moments and second moments about axes near midships because
of the long lever arms. Intermediate stations should be inserted so that there are ordinates near the ends of the parallel midbody and at least
one or two ordinates in the forebody and afterbody. Alternatively, waterplane areas for the midbody, forebody, and afterbody can be calculated
separately and summed. The midbody area can be treated as a rectangle or integrated by a 3ordinate Simpson or trapezoidal rule; the midbody
and forebody areas can be calculated by any convenient rule with appropriate ordinates.
14.10.7 Tank and Compartment Volumes. A compartment’s molded volume is greater than its floodable volume (the volume of liquid that
can be contained), because of the volume occupied by fittings and structure. Floodable volumes of filled holds, machinery spaces, living spaces,
etc., are estimated from molded volumes by use of permeability factors, as explained in Paragraph 19.1.1. Framing, sounding tubes, sea chests
and similar structures in ordinary skin tanks typically occupy about 2
1
⁄ 4 to 2
1
⁄ 2 percent of the molded volume in doublebottom tanks, about 1
percent in cargo tanks (i.e., permeability of empty tanks is 97
1
⁄ 2 to 97
3
⁄ 4 percent, and 99 percent, respectively). Heating coils, if fitted, usually
occupy an additional
1
⁄ 4 percent of the molded volume. Flush tanks lie entirely within the ship’s framing and are externally stiffened, so flood
able volume, or capacity, is essentially equal to molded volume. To calculate volumes and centroids of flush tanks, offsets are taken to the inner
surface of the tank, rather than the hull molded surface. Bale capacity of holds is calculated from offsets taken from sections showing the line
of cargo battens, line of the bottoms of deck beams, and the top of the hold ceiling (above the inner bottom) including any gratings, with deduc
tions for stanchions and other obstructions. Grain capacity is the molded volume, less the volume of structure, hold ceiling, and shifting boards.
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15 TRANSVERSE STABILITY
Figure 113. Stability of a Floating Object.
W
W
B
B
(a)
(d)
CENTEROF
GRAVITY
Figure 114. Development and Loss of Righting Arm.
G
B
Z
20˚
(a) INCREASINGRIGHTINGARM(GZ)
G
B
Z
37˚
(b) MAXIMUMRIGHTINGARM
G
B
Z
45˚
(c) DECREASINGRIGHTINGARM
B
G Z
80˚
(e) UPSETTINGARM(NEGATIVE GZ)
B
61˚
(d) RIGHTINGARMREDUCED
TOZERO(GZ = 0)
G
W
B
(b)
B
W
(c)
Transverse stability is the measure of a
ship’s ability to resist rotation about its
longitudinal axis and return to an upright
position after being disturbed by an upset
ting force. The following paragraphs define
the elements of transverse stability and
provide methods to calculate the transverse
stability characteristics of a vessel.
15.1 Equilibrium and Stability. A ship
floating at rest, with or without list and
trim, is in static equilibrium; that is, the
forces of gravity and buoyancy are equal
and acting in opposite directions in line
with one another. Stability is the tendency
of a ship to return to its original position
when disturbed after the disturbing force is
removed. Stability can be described as
positive, negative, or neutral.
15.2 Internal Forces. The internal forces
affecting floating bodies are the forces of
gravity and buoyancy. Both of these forces
act at all times on wholly or partially
submerged bodies. Figure 113 illustrates
the relationship between the forces of
buoyancy and gravity. Assuming the prism
floats with half its volume submerged, and
with the center of gravity located as shown,
the prism can come to rest in either
position (a), with the center of gravity
directly above the center of buoyancy, or
(c), with the center of buoyancy above the
center of gravity. In either position, the
forces of buoyancy and gravity act along
the same vertical line. If the prism is
inclined from (a) to (b), or from (c) to (d),
a couple, or righting moment, is developed
between the lines of action of buoyancy
and gravity that tends to move the body
back to its original position, i.e., the body
floats with positive stability in either
position. In position (a), with the center of
gravity above the center of buoyancy,
stability is provided by the body’s shape, or
form, and is termed form stability. If the
width of the prism is reduced while the
center of gravity remains on the centerline
at the same location, a situation arises in
which the center of buoyancy does not
move far enough to be to the right of the
center of gravity as the body is inclined
from (a) to (b). The body can then attain
positive stability only in position (c), with
the center of buoyancy above the center of
gravity. Bodies floating with the center of
buoyancy above the center of gravity
develop positive initial righting moments
regardless of shape. This mode of stability
is called weight stability. Sailing yachts
with deep weighted keels, spar buoys,
conventional ships with very low centers of
gravity, and submarines all exhibit weight
stability. Capsized ships floating upside
down very often have their centers of
gravity below the center of buoyancy, and
operate in a weight stability mode.
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The center of buoyancy of a ship moves as
Figure 115. Stability of a Submerged Object.
W
W
W
W
B
B
B
B
(a) (b)
(d) (c)
Figure 116. Righting Arm (GZ).
RIGHTING
MOMENT
L
W
1
L
1
C
L
W
B
1 B
G
Z
M
Figure 117. Upsetting Arm.
UPSETTING
MOMENT
L
W
1
L
1
W
B
1
B
G
Z
M
θ
θ
θ
C
L
the ship is inclined, in a manner that
depends on the shape of the hull near the
waterline. The center of buoyancy initially
moves away from the centerline as the ship
is inclined, as shown in Figure 114. At
some angle of inclination, the center of
buoyancy begins to move back towards a
vertical reference line drawn through the
original position of the center of buoyancy.
The vertical line of action of the center of
gravity continues to move outward as the
ship is inclined. At some angle of
inclination, the line of action of gravity
moves outboard of the line of action of
buoyancy, creating an upsetting moment.
Ships that have slowly heeled through
progressively greater angles of inclination
will suddenly capsize when this angle of
zero righting moment (angle of vanishing
stability) is passed.
In Figure 115, the prism is assumed to be
neutrally buoyant so that it is wholly
submerged but clear of the bottom. An
inclination from (a) produces an upsetting
moment that tends to rotate the prism away
from its initial position. Conversely, a
inclination from (c) produces a righting
moment. A submerged object clear of the
bottom or other restraints can therefore
have positive stability in only one position,
that is, with the center of buoyancy above
the center of gravity. Submerged objects
therefore operate in a weight stability
mode. The difference in behavior of
floating and submerged objects is due to
the fact that the center of buoyancy of a
submerged object is fixed at the center of
volume of the object, while the center of
buoyancy of a floating object will generally
shift when the object is inclined. Because
the center of buoyancy of a submerged
object is fixed, the righting moment cannot
change to an upsetting moment as the
object inclines unless the position of the
center of gravity shifts. Stability of
submarines and other submerged objects is
discussed more completely in the U.S. Navy
Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 4 (S0300
A6MAN040).
Figure 116 shows how a stable ship
subjected to normal disturbances will
develop moments tending to return the ship
to its original position. A couple is formed
as the lines of action of the opposing forces
of gravity and buoyancy are separated. The
arm of this couple, called the righting arm,
is the lever to which the ship’s weight is
applied to right the ship. Figure 117
shows the upsetting arm developed when
unstable ships are disturbed.
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15.3 External Forces. Ships are inclined by various external forces:
• Wave action,
• Wind,
• Collision,
• Grounding,
• Shifting of onboard weights, and
• Addition or removal of weight.
Any inclination of a ship can be termed heel, but inclinations are broadly defined as heel, list, or roll depending on the duration and nature of
the forces causing the inclination.
• Heel – The term heel is specifically applied to noncyclic, transient inclinations caused by forces that may be removed or reversed
quickly. Such forces include wind pressure, centrifugal force in highspeed turns, large movable weights, etc.
• List – A list is a permanent, or longterm inclination, caused by forces such as grounding or offcenter weight that are not likely
to be removed suddenly.
• Roll – When an inclining force is suddenly removed, a ship does not simply return to its upright position, but inclines to the
opposite side and oscillates, or rolls, about its equilibrium position for some time before coming to rest. The natural rolling period
(period of roll assumed by a ship free of restraints and exciting forces) is a function of weight and buoyancy distribution. Rolling
is cyclic in nature and is induced or aggravated by short duration, repetitive or cyclic forces, such as wave forces.
15.4 Heights of Centers. The relative heights of the centers of gravity and buoyancy and the metacenter govern the magnitude and sense
of the moment arms developed as the ship inclines. They are, therefore, the primary indicators of a ship’s initial stability. Nominally, the
symbols KG, KB, and KM indicate the heights of the centers of gravity and buoyancy and the metacenter above the bottom of the keel, while
the symbols VCG and VCB indicate the vertical positions of the centers of gravity and buoyancy, measured from the baseline. In practice,
KG/KB and VCG/VCB are used almost interchangeably; in steel ships with flat plate keels, the difference in height above baseline and keel for
any point is generally less than two inches and is not significant.
15.4.1 Height of the Center of Gravity. The height or vertical
Table 14. Approximate KG.
Ship Type
KG
(D = depth
at midships)
Merchantmen (KG at lightship)
1
:
Dry Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.68D
Passenger/Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.75D
Insulated Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.72D
CrossChannel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.68D
Oil Tanker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.69D
Naval ships (KG at full load)
2
:
Cruiser/Destroyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.55D
Frigate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.61D
Amphibious Warfare without well decks (LST/LKA/LPH) . . . . 0.63D
Amphibious Warfare with well decks (LSD/LPD/LHA/LHD) . . 0.72D
Fleet replenishment (AE/AOE/AOR/AFS/AO) . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.62D
Tender/Repair Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5D
Source:
1
Applied Naval Architecture, R. MunroSmith, 1967
2
Jamestown Marine Services, 1990
position of the center of gravity above the keel (KG or VCG) is defined
by weight distribution. KG can be varied considerably without change
of displacement by shifting weight up or down in the ship. Conversely,
it is possible to add or remove weight without altering KG. In most
ships, the center of gravity lies between sixtenths of the depth above
the keel and the main deck:
0.6D < KG < D
where:
D = hull depth, keel to main deck
For barges with raked or shipshaped bows and cutup sterns, lightship
KG can be estimated as 0.53D. For tank barges, KG for full load varies
little from the lightship value.
Table 14 gives very approximate values for the height of the center of
gravity for several types of merchant ships at lightship, and for some
naval ship types at full load. Calculation of KG can be a laborious and
timeconsuming process, but ignorance of the height of a ship’s center
of gravity invites disaster. If the height of the ship’s center of gravity
is known for any condition of loading (lightship, for example), and the
location of added or removed weights is known, the new height of the
center of gravity can be calculated‘:
where:
KG
new
=
W
old
KG
old
w(kg)
W
old
w
KG = height of the ship’s center of gravity, G, above the keel
W = total weight of the ship and contents
w = individual weights added (+) or removed ()
kg = height above keel of centers of gravity of added or removed weights, w
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S0300A8HBK010
Height of the center of gravity of cargo can generally be
Table 15. Approximate KG of Cargo in Full Holds.
Hold/Space KG of Cargo (D = depth of hold)
No. 1 0.7D + depth of double bottom
No. 2 0.7D + depth of double bottom
No. 3 0.7D + depth of double bottom
No. 4 0.7D + depth of double bottom
No. 5 0.7D + depth of double bottom
’tween decks
height above keel to half depth of ’tween
deck at mid length of the space
Based on full holds (homogeneous cargo) in general cargo ship with machinery amidships,
three holds forward and two aft. In ships with extensive parallel midbody, it may be more
appropriate to apply the expression for hold No. 3 to all holds in the parallel midbody, with
the expression for No. 1 or No. 2 (depending on fineness of forebody) applied to the
forward most hold. A similar analysis should be applied to holds aft of the machinery
space, if any.
obtained from the ship’s officers, usually the chief mate.
In the absence of better information, the design
estimations proposed by R. MunroSmith (Applied Naval
Architecture, 1967) shown in Table 15 may be helpful.
15.4.2 Height of the Center of Buoyancy. The height
of the center of buoyancy above the keel (KB) is solely
a function of the shape of the underwater volume. As
the centroid of the underwater hull, the center of
buoyancy is lower in flatbottomed, fullbodied ships,
such as tankers and ore carriers, than in finer lined ships
like destroyers or frigates. Disregarding changes in the
shape of the immersed hull due to trim and heel, KB of
any ship is a function of displacement, and therefore of
draft. The height of the center of buoyancy can be
calculated by summing incremental waterplane areas
(a
WP
) multiplied by their heights above the keel (z) and
dividing the result by the displacement volume (∇):
This expression can be evaluated by numerical integration methods if accurate drawings or offsets are available. In practice, KB can be
KB =
1
∇
⌡
⌠
a
wp
z dz
approximated with sufficient accuracy for salvage work as 0.52T for fullbodied ships and 0.58T for finelined ships. At very light drafts, KB
is closer to the given waterline because the lower waterlines are usually much finer than the waterlines in the normal draft range. As a vessel’s
underwater hull form approaches a rectangular prism (C
B
= 1.0), KB approaches 0.5T. The following empirical relationships give estimates for
KB that are very close to calculated values for merchant vessels of ordinary form at normal drafts:
where:
KB =
1
3
¸
¸
_
,
5T
2
∇
A
WP
(Morrish’s Formula)
KB = T
m
A
WP
A
WP
∇
T
m
(Posdunine’s Formula)
T
m
= mean draft, [length]
∇ = displacement volume, [length
3
]
A
WP
= waterplane area, [length
2
]
15.4.3 Metacentric Height. The transverse metacentric height (GM
T
), commonly called the metacentric height, of a ship is the vertical
separation of the center of gravity and the transverse metacenter (see Figure 14) and is a primary indicator of initial stability. A ship with a
positive metacentric height (G below M) will tend to right itself by developing righting arms as soon as an inclining force is applied. A ship
with a negative metacentric height (G above M) will list to either port or starboard with equal facility until the centers of buoyancy and gravity
are on the same vertical line, and thereafter develop positive righting arms. This condition, known as lolling, is a serious symptom of impaired
initial stability. Metacentric height is calculated by subtracting the height of the center of gravity from the height of the metacenter above the
keel:
GM
T
= KM
T
 KG
Transverse Metacentric Radius. The transverse metacentric radius (BM
T
) is the vertical distance between the center of buoyancy and the
metacenter. This distance is termed a radius because for small heel angles, the locus of successive centers of buoyancy approximates a circular
arc, with the transverse metacenter as its center. Metacentric radius is equal to the moment of inertia of the waterplane about its longitudinal
centerline (transverse moment of inertia, I
T
) divided by the underwater volume of the hull (∇):
BM
T
=
I
T
∇
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For a rectangular waterplane, I
T
= LB
3
/12, ∇ = LBT and:
where:
BM
T
=
I
T
∇
=
LB
3
12
LBT
=
B
2
12T
L = length between perpendiculars, [length]
B = beam, [length]
T = mean draft, [length]
If the waterplane shape can be accurately defined, the moment of inertia can be determined by numerical integration. If not, the transverse
moment of inertia of most ships’ waterplanes can be approximated by:
I
T
≈ C
IT
LB
3
where C
IT
is the transverse inertia coefficient and is approximated by C
WP
2
/11.7 or 0.125C
WP
 0.045. These expressions for transverse inertia
coefficient are derived from the analysis of numerous ships, and are reasonable approximations for use in salvage for ships with C
WP
< 0.9.
For ships with C
WP
> 0.9, LB
3
/12 is a closer approximation of the transverse moment of inertia of the waterplane.
Height of the Metacenter. The height of the metacenter above the keel is calculated by adding the metacentric radius to the height of the center
of buoyancy above the keel:
When denoting transverse metacenter, BM, KM, and GM, the subscript "T" is often omitted as understood.
KM = KB + BM
∴ GM = KB + BM KG
Ships with large GM develop large initial righting arms and therefore respond to moderate disturbing forces with sharp, shortperiod rolling.
These ships are said to be stiff. Ships with smaller metacentric heights develop smaller initial righting arms and roll more gently in a seaway.
Ships with small metacentric heights are said to be tender. Insufficient initial stability results in constant rolling in even gentle seas, making
work difficult, and may allow extreme rolling in heavier seas, perhaps causing the ship to take on water or capsize. Excessive initial stability,
or stiffness, is also undesirable because it produces an uncomfortable ride, reduces personnel effectiveness, increases requirements on weapons
stabilization systems, increases lateral acceleration loads on topside cargo and equipment, and increases hull stresses. These matters usually
do not concern the salvage engineer, but very stiff rolling of a casualty under tow may damage sensitive equipment, loosen patches, or place
excessive loads on damaged structure. The term seakindly is used to describe a ship whose metacentric height is great enough to give adequate
stability, but not large enough to cause excessive stiffness.
The natural rolling period is a function of weight and buoyancy distribution and can be expressed as a function of GM and transverse radius
of gyration (k):
where:
T
R
=
2πk
gGM
T
R
= natural rolling period, seconds
k = transverse radius of gyration of the ship mass, [length]
= 0.4 to 0.5 times the beam, depending on depth and transverse weight distribution
GM = transverse metacentric height, [length]
g = acceleration due to gravity, [length/sec
2
]
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S0300A8HBK010
If GM and k are expressed in feet, and g is taken as 32.174 ft/sec
2
, the rolling period formula reduces to:
and:
T
R
=
1.108k
GM
If the natural rolling period is known, GM can be estimated. Taking radius of gyration k as beam (B) multiplied by a coefficient (C), a
GM =
¸
¸
_
,
1.108
k
T
R
2
conservative estimate of GM can be made:
The coefficient C can be taken as 0.4 to 0.5 for naval surface ships (0.44 average), 0.4 to 0.45 for submarine hulls based on bodies of revolution,
GM ≈
¸
¸
_
,
CB
T
R
2
and 0.32 to 0.37 for other submarines. Ships and Marine Engines, Volume IV, The Design of Merchant Ships (Schokker et al, 1953) gives some
experimentally derived values for commercial vessels: 0.425 for large cargo and passenger liners, 0.385 for smaller passenger liners, 0.390 for
a loaded passenger liner, and 0.405 for an ore ship in ballast. This same text references Laursen’s possibly more correct approach of expressing
radius of gyration as a function of both beam and depth:
where the constant C ranges from 0.35 to 0.39 for cargo ships of ordinary form.
k = C B
2
+ D
2
The rolling period formula will not give an accurate estimate of GM for a ship rolling in a seaway because the rolling period is modified by
wave and wind forces. Significant changes in GM will be reflected by marked changes in rolling period; increased rolling period is a sign of
deteriorating stability. An empirically derived relationship holds that stability is adequate when:
where:
T
R
≤ 2 B
B = beam, ft
15.5 Righting Arm. At equilibrium, the forces of gravity and buoyancy act equally in opposition along the vertical centerline. As the center
of buoyancy shifts with a heel, the two opposing forces act along separate and parallel lines. The forces establish the couple which tends to
return a stable ship to the upright position. The distance GZ between the lines of action of the center of gravity and the center of buoyancy,
as shown in Figure 116, is the righting arm. The sine of the angle of inclination (θ) is the ratio of GZ to GM.
This relationship applies for heel angles so small that the waterplane shape is not appreciably changed, usually taken as less than 10 degrees
sinθ =
GZ
GM
∴ GZ = GM sinθ
for wallsided ships and 7 degrees for finelined ships. At greater angles of heel, the metacenter moves away from the centerline and the
relationship between GZ and GM no longer applies.
15.6 Righting Moment. The force applied to a righting arm (GZ) is the ship’s weight. The righting moment (RM) developed at any angle
of heel is given by:
At any angle of heel, the stability of the ship is measured by the righting moment developed. Since the righting moment is equal to the righting
RM = W × GZ
arm times displacement and displacement normally remains constant as the ship heels, the righting arm may also be used to measure stability
for a given condition of loading. This assumption lends itself to the use of the cross curves of stability as discussed in Paragraph 15.9.
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15.7 Change of Displacement. Any change of displacement will affect the righting moments developed by the ship. An increased
displacement increases W in the expression RM = W × GZ, but also affects GZ by:
• Increasing draft and thereby KB.
• Increasing ∇, thereby reducing BM as I will not change significantly (BM = I/∇).
The height of the metacenter is normally reduced as displacement increases because the increase in KB is usually less than the reduction in BM.
The opposite effects will be noted when displacement is decreased. Additionally, the location of the added weight will affect the location of
the center of gravity and therefore GM and GZ. These effects are simultaneous but not normally compensatory. The net effect of a change
in displacement may be either an increase or a decrease in righting moments. In general, the addition of low weight or removal of high weight
will increase stability, but each change of displacement must be carefully analyzed to determine its exact effect.
15.8 List. List, a longterm inclination of
Figure 118. Typical Stability Curves.
INCLINATION, DEGREES
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G
A
R
M
S
,
F
E
E
T
1
1
1
0
10 0 10 0 20 20 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 60 70 70 80 80 90 90
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8
RO/RO LCC
AOR ARS
CV DD
the ship to one side or the other, is caused
by:
• Offcenter weight.
• Negative GM.
• A combination of offcenter
weight and negative GM.
Before attempting to correct a list on a
ship, the cause must be determined.
Inappropriate corrective measures will only
aggravate the situation.
A list caused by offcenter weight is
identified by the ship’s tendency to return
to its listing condition when an external
force is applied temporarily and then
removed. A list caused by negative GM is
identified by the ship’s tendency to loll, or
list to either side with equal facility, when
disturbed. A list caused by a combination
of offcenter weight and negative GM is
identified by the ship’s tendency to list with
equal facility to either side, but with a
greater degree of list to one side. Negative
GM is the most serious condition that
causes a list and should be corrected first.
Paragraph 19.4 discusses the effects of
negative GM in greater detail.
15.9 The Stability Curve. The righting
arm GZ is the distance between the lines of
action of buoyancy and gravity at any
angle of heel. Since the expression GZ =
GM sinθ cannot be used at larger angles of
heel, the righting arm for a given heel
angle is determined by accurately locating
the centers of gravity and buoyancy, and
measuring the separation between their
lines of action. If movable weights within the ship can be neglected, the center of gravity can be assumed to be fixed. As the ship heels, the
center of buoyancy will move to the new center of the underwater volume, which can be determined by numerical integration or graphical means.
As a ship heels, it also changes its trim to some extent to maintain constant displacement. This small change in trim can usually be disregarded
when calculating righting arms. Centers of buoyancy for various inclinations, and the resulting righting arms are determined by numerical
integration. These computations can be shortened somewhat by the methods described in Paragraph 15.11. A plot of righting arm against heel
angle is variously called a curve of statical stability, stability curve, righting arm curve, or GZ curve. Figure 118 shows typical stability curves
for various ship types.
136
S0300A8HBK010
15.9.1 Cross Curves of Stability. As a
Figure 119. FFG7 Class Cross Curves of Stability.
DISPLACEMENT IN SALTWATER  TONS
3,000
0
1
2
3
4,000
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G
A
R
M

F
E
E
T
SHIP WATERTIGHT TO MAIN DECK
CENTER OF GRAVITY ASSUMED 19.00’ ABOVE
BOTTOM OF KEEL AMIDSHIPS
45˚
60˚
70˚
30˚
20˚
10˚
ship’s displacement is variable, the
designers prepare stability curves for a
range of displacements. It is customary to
plot righting arm values against
displacement for each of a number of
angles of inclination to create a group of
curves known as cross curves of stability.
By entering the cross curves with the
displacement of the ship and reading the
righting arms for each angle of heel, a
stability curve for any displacement can be
developed. Since height of the center of
gravity varies with loading, an assumed
position of the center of gravity was used
by the designer to develop the cross curves
of stability. Once the stability curve has
been corrected for the true location of the
center of gravity, the following stability
data can be obtained:
• Range of stability.
• Righting arm and moment at
any angle of inclination.
Figure 120. Statical Stability Curve.
DEGREES OF INCLINATION
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G
A
R
M
S
I
N
F
E
E
T
5
4
3
2
1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
KG ASSUMED AT 19’
DISPLACEMENT = 3200 TONS
RANGE OF STABILITY
• Maximum righting arm and
moment.
• Angle of the maximum right
ing arm and moment.
• Metacentric height.
• Angle of deck edge im
mersion.
The following examples use the FFG7
Class cross curves of stability from Figure
119 to develop the initial and corrected
stability curves. Figure 120 is the stability
curve as taken from the cross curves for a
displacement of 3,200 tons.
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15.9.2 Correction for Actual KG. If the
Figure 121. Assumed KG for Stability Curve.
L W
B
G
1
G
G
2
Z
1
Z
Z
2
M
G
1
Z
1
= GZ  GG
1
SIN
G
2
Z
2
= GZ + GG
2
SIN
0
0
0
0
0
C
L
W
1
L
1
Figure 122. Correction to Stability Curve, G Two Feet Higher Than Assumed.
DEGREES OF INCLINATION
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G
A
R
M
S

F
E
E
T
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
DEGREES OF INCLINATION
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G
A
R
M
S

F
E
E
T
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
KG = 21’
DISPLACEMENT = 3200 TONS
LOSS IN RIGHTING ARMS
DUE TO RISE IN G
GG
1
sinθ = 2sinθ
G
1
Z
1
= GZ  GG
1
sinθ
GZ for KG = 19
1
, ∆ = 3200 TONS
RANGE OF STABILITY
actual center of gravity lies above the
assumed center of gravity, the metacentric
height is decreased and the ship is less
stable; conversely, if the actual center of
gravity is below the assumed center, the
metacentric height is increased and the ship
is more stable.
Figure 121 shows that the actual righting
arm, G
n
Z
n
is equal to the assumed righting
arm plus or minus the vertical distance
between the actual and assumed KG,
multiplied by the sine of the angle of heel:
G
n
Z
n
= GZ ± GG
n
sinθ
The actual, or corrected, stability curve can
be constructed graphically as a sine curve
correction.
The GG
n
sinθ curve is plotted to the same
scale as the curve of statical stability as
shown in Figure 122. The ordinates of the
corrected curve are the differences between
the ordinates of the two curves and can be
picked off and plotted using dividers, as
shown, or determined by tabular
calculation.
If the actual height of the center of gravity
is less than the assumed height, the
correction curve is plotted below the
horizontal axis.
The assumed KG is sometimes called pole
height. It is a common practice, especially
with European designers, to develop cross
curves based on an assumed pole height of
zero. Since the assumed position of the
center of gravity coincides with the keel,
the resulting cross curves are termed KN
curves.
15.9.3 Range of Stability. The range of
stability—the range of inclinations through
The new stability curve is again the dif
ference between the two curves.which the
ship develops positive righting arms—is in
dicated by the intersections of the stability
curve with the horizontal axis. For the
corrected stability curve in Figure 122, the
range of stability is from 0 to 75 degrees.
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15.9.4 Righting Arm and Righting Moment. The righting arm at any inclination is read directly from the curve. Because each stability curve
applies only to a specific displacement and KG, the righting moment can be obtained directly for any angle by multiplying the righting arm by
the displacement. Maximum righting arm, maximum righting moment, and angle of maximum righting moment can be determined by inspection
of the stability curve. From the corrected stability curve in Figure 122, maximum righting arm is approximately 1.1 feet at 51 degrees of
inclination, giving a maximum righting moment of 3,520 foottons (1.1 ft × 3,200 tons). Maximum righting arm and the angle at which it occurs
are important parameters when an upsetting moment is applied gradually or statically. Once the upsetting moment exceeds the maximum righting
moment, the ship will list past the angle of maximum righting arm. If the upsetting moment is not immediately removed, the ship will capsize,
because as the ship heels to progressively greater angles, righting moment, already less than the upsetting moment, will steadily decrease. How
ever, ships can, and do, safely roll past their angle of maximum righting arm in response to shortterm or cyclic upsetting forces.
15.9.5 Metacentric Height. GM is the measure of the slope of the GZ curve at the origin. The metacentric height is equal to the height of
the intersection of a tangent to the statical stability curve at the origin with a perpendicular to the horizontal axis at 57.3 degrees (one radian).
Although metacentric height can be approximated from a stability curve by this means, it is more common that GM is known and the intercept
is sketched to help draw the initial part of the stability curve. The corrected stability curve in Figure 122 indicates a GM of approximately
1.2 feet.
15.9.6 Angle of Deck Edge Immersion. For most hull forms, an inflection point in the curve corresponds roughly to the angle of deck edge
immersion. This point is not necessarily at or near the angle of maximum righting arm. The inflection results from the abrupt change in the
shapes of the waterplane and underwater volume as the deck edge is immersed. The rate of increase in righting arm has changed from positive
to negative—i.e., righting arms are still increasing, but at a slower rate. The angle of deck edge immersion varies along the length of the ship,
but lies within a relatively narrow range for the large midbody sections that have the greatest influence on the stability curve. The stability curve
in Figure 122 shows the angle of deck edge immersion to be about 38 degrees.
15.9.7 Righting Energy. The area under
Figure 123. Effects of Changing Hull Form.
INCREASED BEAM
TUMBLEHOME AND FLARE
INCREASED DEPTH
FINING THE BILGES
LOCAL INCREASE IN IMMERSED VOLUME
LOCAL LOSS IN IMMERSED VOLUME
the stability curve, (footdegrees, meter
radians), is a measure of the ship’s dynamic
stability—its ability to absorb energy
imparted by winds, waves or other external
forces. A ship with very little area
(righting energy) under its stability curve
could be rolled past its range of stability
and capsized by even a momentary
disturbance.
15.10 Effects of Hull Form on the
Stability Curve. While initial stability
(righting arms at small angles of heel)
depends almost entirely on metacentric
height, the overall shape of the stability
curve is governed by hull form. Figure 1
23 shows how changing hull form increases
or decreases righting arm by altering the
position and movement of the center of
buoyancy. Figure 124 (Page 140)
illustrates how altering hull form affects the
stability curve as described in the following
paragraphs.
15.10.1 Beam. Of all the hull dimensions
that can be varied by the designer, beam
has the greatest influence on transverse
stability. Metacentric radius (BM) was
shown to be proportional to the ratio B
2
/T
in Paragraph 15.4.3. BM, and therefore
KM, will increase if beam is increased
while draft is held constant. If freeboard is
held constant while beam is increased, the angle of deck edge immersion is decreased; righting arms at larger angles and the range of stability
are reduced. If the depth remains constant, overall stability will be reduced because KB decreases, increasing BG, although this will be offset
at small angles by the increase in BM.
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15.10.2 Length. If length is increased
REFERENCE
STABILITY CURVE
REFERENCE
STABILITY CURVE
INCREASED BEAM
INCREASED
DISPLACEMENT
FLARE
INCREASED FREEBOARD
EXTREME TUMBLEHOME
AND/OR DEADRISE
INCREASED LENGTH
DECREASED DRAFT
INCREASED LENGTH
DECREASED BEAM
Figure 124. Influence of Hull Form on Stability.
FROM STABILITY AND TRIM OF FISHING VESSELS, J. ANTHONY HIND, 1982.
proportionally to displacement, with beam
and draft held constant, KB and BM are
unchanged. In practice, increasing length
usually causes an increase in KG, reducing
initial stability. If length is increased at the
expense of beam, righting arms are reduced
over the full range of stability. If length is
increased at the expense of draft, righting
arms will be increased at small angles, but
decreased at large angles.
15.10.3 Freeboard. Increasing freeboard
increases the angle of deck edge
immersion, increasing righting arms at
larger angles and extending the range of
stability. If draft is held constant,
increasing freeboard causes a rise in the
center of gravity, mitigating the benefits of
increased freeboard to some extent.
15.10.4 Draft. Reduced draft
proportional to reduced displacement
increases initial righting arms and the angle
of deck edge immersion but decreases
righting arms at large angles.
15.10.5 Displacement. If length, beam,
and draft are held constant, displacement
can be increased only by making the ship
fuller. The filling out of the waterline will
usually compensate for the increased
Figure 125. Residuary Righting Arm.
L
G
Z
M
S
B
GZ = MS+GMsinθ
B
1
W
C
L
W
1
L
1
θ
volume of displacement, and BM, as a
function of I/∇, will increase. Height of
the center of gravity will also be decreased
by filling out the ship’s form below the
waterline. These changes will enhance
stability at all angles.
15.10.6 Side and Bottom Profile. As
can be seen in Figures 113 and 125, the
increase in waterplane breadth and area
caused by inclining a wallsided ship can
be calculated by simple geometry. The
stability curve develops good early righting
arms and range of stability. Extreme dead
rise (fining the bilges) or tumblehome in
the vicinity of the inclined waterline re
duces the increase in waterplane area and
outward shift of the center of buoyancy, re
sulting in a shallow stability curve. Ships
with flaring sides develop large righting
arms because of the rapid increase in water
plane area and large shift of the center of buoyancy as the ship is inclined. A roundbottomed ship with vertical sides beginning somewhat above
the water line, such as a tug or icebreaker, will roll easily to small angles of inclination but develop strong righting moments at large angles.
In the same way, flare or watertight sponsons some distance above the water line will have no effect on initial stability, but will cause a sharp
upward turn in the stability curve at larger angles of heel.
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15.11 Prohaska’s Method. As shown in Figure 125, the righting arm at large heel angles can be thought of as consisting of two parts:
GZ = MS + GMsinθ
The distance from the upright metacenter to the line of action of buoyancy (MS) is called the residuary stability lever. The GMsinθ term depends
principally on KG, while MS is essentially a function of hull form. For inclinations up to about 30 degrees in merchant hulls of ordinary beam
to draft ratio, MS can be approximated as:
where:
MS =
BM
2
tan
2
θsinθ
BM = metacentric radius of the upright ship
A more accurate approach is to define a residuary stability coefficient (C
RS
):
where :
C
RS
=
MS
BM
BM = metacentric radius of the upright ship, [length]
GZ can now be defined in terms of GM, BM, and C
RS
:
GZ = (BM)C
RS
+ GMsinθ
Using this basic approach, a regression analysis was performed using data from 31 warship hulls to obtain expressions for C
RS
in terms of other
hull parameters. The following expressions give reasonable estimates for C
RS
at 30 degrees of heel for finelined ships:
where:
C
RS
= 0.8566 1.2262
KB
T
0.035
B
T
C
RS
= 0.1859 0.0315
B
T
0.03526C
M
KB
T
= 0.8109 0.2536C
M
KB = height of the center of buoyancy above the keel, ft
T = mean draft, ft
B = beam, ft
C
M
= midships section coefficient
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16 LONGITUDINAL STABILITY
Longitudinal stability is the measure of a ship’s ability to resist rotation about a transverse axis and to return to its original position.
Longitudinal stability is particularly important when refloating stranded ships. The effects of weight shifts, additions, and removal may not be
apparent since a grounded ship is restrained from responding as a floating ship would. The effects must be calculated to ensure that the salvor
can accurately predict trim and longitudinal stability of the vessel when afloat.
16.1 Trim. Because the angles of inclination about transverse axes are quite small compared to typical angles of heel about a longitudinal
axis, trim is defined as the difference between the forward and after drafts:
where:
t = T
aft
T
fwd
t = trim
Regardless of the difference between forward and after drafts, if a ship’s waterline is parallel to the design waterline, it has zero trim. Most
ships are designed with equal forward and after drafts. Some ships are designed with a deeper draft aft, called keel drag, to keep the propellers
adequately submerged in all operating conditions, or with a slightly deeper forward draft. Drag or other designed differences in fore and aft
draft should not be confused with trim. For ships with drag, trim is defined as:
Trim greater than one percent of the ship’s length is usually considered excessive. Excessive trim significantly alters the shape of the underwater
t = T
aft
T
fwd
drag
volume and can adversely affect transverse stability.
16.2 Longitudinal Stability Parameters. The longitudinal positions of centers of buoyancy, gravity, and flotation and their movements
influence the longitudinal stability characteristics of a ship. The height of the longitudinal metacenter, similar in concept to the transverse
metacenter, is the other major parameter of longitudinal stability.
16.2.1 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Gravity. The longitudinal position of the center of gravity (LCG) is determined by summing
weight moments about a vertical transverse reference plane, normally through one of the perpendiculars or the midship section.
16.2.2 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Buoyancy. The
Table 16. Longitudinal Position of the Center of Buoyancy.
C
B
LCB Relative to the Midship Section
0.60 0.016L aft to 0.002L forward
0.65 0.011L aft to 0.009L forward
0.70 0.002L aft to 0.020L forward
0.75 0.010L forward to 0.027L forward
0.80 0.015L forward to 0.030L forward
From Ships and Marine Engines, Volume IV, Design of Merchant Ships,
Schokker et al, 1953
longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy (LCB) is the longi
tudinal location of the centroid of the underwater hull. For most hull
forms, LCB lies near the midships section. For lowspeed, fullbodied
cargo vessels, the optimum position of the center of buoyancy (from a
hull resistance standpoint) is about 0.02LWL forward of midships. As
speed increases, the optimum position moves aft. At a speedtolength
ratio (V
k
/ √L) of 1.0 the optimum position is 1 to 2 percent of LWL aft
of midships and about 4 percent aft of midships for V
k
/ √L = 2. Table
16 gives approximate ranges for the longitudinal position of the center
of buoyancy as a function of the block coefficient.
In a ship at rest, the longitudinal positions of the centers of gravity and
buoyancy lie on the same vertical line. LCB and LCG are therefore the
same distance from the midship section in a ship floating on an even
keel. In a ship with trim, there is a small difference in the distances of
B and G from midships due to their vertical separation, but this
difference is so small that it can usually be ignored.
16.2.3 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Flotation (LCF). The center of flotation is the geometric center of the ship’s waterplane.
The ship trims about a transverse axis through the LCF. The location of the center of flotation is required to calculate final drafts after a change
in trim. This can be calculated if the shape of the waterplane is known. In ships of normal form, the center of flotation may lie either slightly
forward or slightly aft of midships. The center of flotation of finelined ships is usually about five percent of the ship’s length aft of midships.
A broad transom increases the relative proportion of waterplane area aft of midships and will tend to shift LCF aft. If unknown, the center of
flotation can be assumed to be amidships without introducing significant error to most salvage calculations.
16.2.4 Longitudinal Metacenter. The longitudinal positions of the centers of buoyancy and gravity are simply projections of these centers
onto the vertical centerplane. The longitudinal metacenter, in contrast, is a point distinct from its transverse counterpart. Its height is an
indication of the ship’s ability to resist trimming forces.
Longitudinal Metacentric Radius. The longitudinal metacentric radius (BM
L
) is the vertical distance between the center of buoyancy and the
longitudinal metacenter. The longitudinal metacentric radius is calculated by:
BM
L
=
I
L
∇
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If the waterplane shape is defined by ordinate stations, the moment of inertia can be determined numerically. If not, the longitudinal moment
of inertia of most ships’ waterplanes can be approximated by:
where C
IL
= tegression analysis derived longitudinal inertia coefficient, approximated by 0.143C
WP
 0.0659. For a rectangular barge, I
L
=
I
L
≈ B L
3
C
I L
B(L
3
)/12; the value of C
IL
for a rectangular waterplane (the limiting value) is 1/12 or 0.0833.
Because the longitudinal moment of inertia is proportional to the cube of the ship’s length rather than beam, the longitudinal moment of inertia
and longitudinal metacentric radius are much greater than their transverse counterparts.
Height of the Longitudinal Metacenter. The height of the longitudinal metacenter (KM
L
) is given by:
Longitudinal Metacentric Height. The longitudinal metacentric height (GM
L
) is the distance between the center of gravity and the longitudinal
KM
L
= KB + BM
L
metacenter.
16.3 Trimming Arms and Moments. If
GM
L
= KM
L
 KG
= KB + BM
L
 KG
Figure 126. Trim due to Shift in LCG.
L
L
W
W
G
1
G
1
B
B B
1
G LCF
LCF
W
1
L
1
the center of gravity is displaced from its
longitudinal position in vertical line with
the center of buoyancy, as shown in Figure
126, a trimming moment (M
T
) equal to
GG
1
(W) tends to rotate the ship about a
transverse axis through the center of flo
tation. As the ship inclines, the shape of
the underwater volume changes and the
center of buoyancy moves until it is again
in line with the center of gravity. Simul
taneously, the projection of the position of
the center of gravity onto a horizontal plane
moves towards the high end of the ship.
For small trim angles, the horizontal trans
lation of the position of the center of
gravity can be neglected. The trim result
ing from a known trimming moment could
Figure 127. Trimming Moments and Longitudinal Metacenter.
L
M
L
α
α
L
1
W
W
1
B B
1
LCF G
Z
L
M
T
be determined precisely by iterative
numerical integration, but this would be a
tedious process. Simple methods to
estimate trim with reasonable accuracy are
described in the following paragraphs.
A ship trims about an axis through its
center of flotation because LCF lies at the
centroid of the waterplane. The moments
of volumes of the wedges immersed and
emerged as the ship trims are equal,
although the volumes are not. Because the
volumes are not equal, the ships will settle
or rise slightly as it trims to maintain
constant displacment. LCF also shifts
slifhtly as the ship trims and changes draft.
16.4 Moment to Change Trim One Inch (MT1). A trimming moment applied to the ship in Figure 127 causes a longitudinal inclination
or trim angle, α. The immersion and emergence of the two wedges of buoyancy causes the center of buoyancy to move forward a distance BB
1
.
A longitudinal righting arm GZ
L
develops. Because the small vertical separation between B and G is much less than the longitudinal metacentric
height, GZ
L
and BB
1
are approximately equal. The moment arm GZ
L
can be related to the longitudinal metacentric height as in transverse
inclinations:
where:
sinα =
GZ
L
GM
L
, GZ
L
= GM
L
sinα ⇒ M
t
= W GM
L
sinα
GZ
L
= longitudinal righting arm, [length] M
t
= trimming moment, [lengthforce]
GM
L
= longitudinal metacentric height, [length] W = ship’s weight, [force]
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By similarity of triangles:
where:
sinα =
∆t
L
∆t = change of trim, [length] = ∆T
f
± ∆T
a
L = length between perpendiculars, [length]
Setting change in trim equal to one inch or
1
⁄ 12foot:
where:
M
t
=
W(GM
L
)
12L
GM
L
= longitudinal metacentric height, ft
M
t
= trimming moment, fttons
W = ship’s weight, lton
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
This moment is called the moment to change trim one inch (MT1); in metric units, a moment to trim one centimeter (MTCM) is similarly defined.
MT1 is useful for evaluating the effect of trimming moments so long as the change in trim is not great enough to change the waterplane area
or shape appreciably:
If longitudinal metacentric height (GM
L
) is unknown, MT1 can be closely approximated by using metacentric radius (BM
L
), since the difference
∆t =
M
t
MT1
between GM
L
and BM
L
is small a percentage of their values:
This value is known as the approximate moment to trim one inch. MT1 can also be approximated less accurately by an empirical relationship:
MT1 ≈
(BM
L
) W
12L
=
I
L
∇
∇
35
12L
=
I
L
420L
(seawater)
where:
MTl =
30(TPI)
2
B
TPI = tons per inch immersion, lton/in
B = ship’s beam, ft
16.5 Drafts After a Change in Trim. As a ship trims about the center of flotation, the change in draft at the bow is proportional to the ratio
of the distance between the forward perpendicular and the center of flotation to the length of the ship:
Likewise, the change in draft aft:
∆T
f
=
∆t d
f
L
New T
f
= T
f
±∆T
f
where:
∆T
a
=
∆td
a
L
New T
a
= T
a
± ∆T
a
∆T
f
= change in draft forward
∆t = change of trim
d
f
= distance from forward perpendicular to LCF
L = length between perpendiculars
∆T
a
= change in draft aft
d
a
= distance from after perpendicular to LCF
and distance, draft, trim, and length are measured in like units.
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S0300A8HBK010
16.6 Movement of LCB and LCG with Change of Trim. As discussed in Paragraph 15.3, movements of LCB and LCG accompany changes
of trim. From Figures 126 and 127:
where:
BB
1
BM
L
=
GG
1
GM
L
= tanα =
∆t
l
∴ BB
1
=
BM
L
t
L
, and GG
1
=
GM
L
t
L
BM
L
= longitudinal metacentric radius
GM
L
= longitudinal metacentric height
∆t = change of trim
L = length between perpendiculars
α = trim angle
and trim and length are measured in like units.
The shift of LCG or LCB with a change in trim can be closely approximated by:
where:
BB
1
or GG
1
=
∆t (MT1)
W
∆t = change of trim, in.
MT1 = moment to trim one inch, lton/in.
W = ship’s weight, lton
17 PARAMETRIC DETERMINATION OF HULL CHARACTERISTICS
The hull characteristics of a ship are determined and tabulated when the ship is designed and verified following construction. This information
is contained in a number of different documents, described in detail in Appendix B. The two most useful documents are the previously discussed
cross curves of stability and curves of form. In the absence of detailed stability information or the precise mapping of the hull form necessary
to develop hydrostatic characteristics by numerical integration, hull characteristics must be estimated. Methods of estimating some of the
required parameters have been presented in the previous sections. When information is extremely limited, an analytical method, based on a
parametric hull model, can be employed. This method has been shown to yield results within 10 percent of rigorously determined values for
most ship forms. The parametric method has its inception in a regression analysis of 31 commercial hull types published by Joseph D. Porricelli,
J. Huntly Boyd, Jr., and Keith E. Schleiffer in the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Transactions, Vol.91, pp. 307327, August
1983. Many of the relationships were subsequently refined though further regression analysis by Herbert Engineering Corporation as part of
the NAVSEA Program of Ship Salvage Engineering (POSSE) development work in 1990 (use of POSSE is detailed in Volume 2 of the Salvage
Engineer’s Handbook). At the same time, relationships for stability parameters and weight distributions applicable to warships and other fine
lined ships were developed. The parametric factors for warships and naval auxiliaries were derived from analysis of U.S. Navy hulls and may
not apply precisely to ships of other navies. This is particularly true of amphibious warfare ships and fleet replenishment auxiliaries. U.S. Navy
amphibious warfare ships and replenishment auxiliaries are designed for a 20knot service speed and are correspondingly finer than slower
auxiliaries and bowdoor LSTs with typical speeds in the 10 to 16knot range.
17.1 Parametric Model. The method creates a baseline parametric model of the hull, consisting of the following parameters for the fullload
condition:
Coefficients of form, C
B
, C
WP
, C
P
, C
M
Displacement and weight, ∆
D
, W
Height of the center of buoyancy, KB
Height of the Metacenter, KM
Height of the Center of Gravity, KG
Metacentric radius, BM
Metacentric Height, GM
Tons per Inch Immersion, TPI
Moment to Trim One Inch, MT1
Longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy, LCB
Longitudinal position of the center of flotation, LCF
Longitudinal position of the center of gravity, LCG
Parameters for other conditions are extrapolated from the baseline, or fullload model.
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17.1.1 Required Information. This method requires only limited information:
Length between perpendiculars, L
Breadth, B
Depth, D
Maximum summer draft amidships, T
Design sea speed at normal service draft, V
k
This information is available from sources such as the ABS Record, Jane’s Shipping Registry, Lloyds Register of Shipping, etc., or may be
compiled from other sources, including the ship’s crew or agents.
17.1.2 Displacement and Coefficients of Form. To determine the necessary hydrostatic characteristics of a ship, the coefficients of form
are first estimated, starting with the block coefficient:
where:
C
B
= f
1
¸
1
1
1
]
1.10736 0.550401
¸
¸
_
,
V
k
L
V
k
= design sea speed at service draft, knots
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
f
1
= 1.61 for destroyer type hulls (including cruisers based on destroyer hulls, such as CG16, CG26, CG47, etc.)
1.41 for frigates
1.28 for cruisers
1.08 for bulk carriers
1.06 for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) carriers
1.04 for liquid natural gas (LNG) carriers
1.03 for orebulkoil (OBO) carriers
1.03 for lumber ships
1.025 for product tankers/chemical carriers
1.01 for crude carriers
1.00 for breakbulk freighters and most barges with rake*
0.98 for cargo liners (1618 kts)
0.97 for container ships
0.96 for Navy replenishment oilers (V
k
≥ 20 kts, AO/AOE/AOR)
0.95 for RO/RO ships
0.93 for Navy replenishment vessels other than oilers (V
k
≥ 20 kts, AE/AFS)
0.91 for amphibious warfare ships (LSD/LPD/LPH/LKA/LST)
0.89 for barge carriers, Navy repair ships/tenders (AR/AD/AS)
* In the context of the following discussions, the phrase "barges with rake" refers to ocean going barges with raked, shipshaped or
spoonshaped bows, and cutup sterns, usually with skegs. It does not apply to boxshaped lighters or to barges designed for harbor
use with identical flat rake at bow and stern.
Waterplane coefficient:
where:
C
WP
= k
1
0.702C
B
k
1
= 0.360 for barge carriers and barges with rake
0.325 for container ships
0.336 for RO/RO ships
0.339 for naval repair ships/tenders
0.387 for destroyers, frigates, and cruisers
0.370 for well deck type amphibious warfare ships (LSD/LPD)
0.316 for Navy replenshishment ships and fast LKA, LST (20 kts)
0.306 for other merchant ship types and slowspeed naval auxiliaries
Longitudinal prismatic coefficient:
where:
C
P
= 0.917C
B
+k
2
k
2
= 0.073 for merchant ships and naval auxiliaries
0.075 for barges with rake
0.147 for destroyers, frigates, and cruisers
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Midships coefficient:
With an estimate for block coefficient, displacement volume and displacement can be estimated:
C
M
=
C
B
C
P
where:
∇ = LBTC
B
∆ =
LBTC
B
δ
= W
∇ = displacement volume at full load δ = specific volume of water = 35 ft
3
/lton for seawater
∆
D
= fullload displacement W = ship’s weight at full load
17.1.3 Heights of Centers. Height of the center of buoyancy (KB) is estimated by a form of Posdunine’s formula:
where:
KB =
C
WP
C
B
+ C
WP
T
C
WP
= waterplane coefficient T = mean draft
C
B
= block coefficient
Metacentric radius is equal to the transverse moment of inertia of the waterplane (I
T
) divided by the displacement volume (∇):
I
T
can be expressed as:
BM =
I
T
∇
where C
IT
is the transverse inertia coefficient and is a function of waterplane shape. C
IT
is determined from the waterplane coefficient (C
WP
):
I
T
= L B
3
C
IT
Transverse metacentric height for the fullload departure condition (corrected for free surface) is correlated to beam, or beam to depth ratio,
C
I T
= 0.125C
WP
0.045 for ships
= 0.125C
WP
0.043 for barges with rake
depending on ship type:
where:
GM = 2.816
¸
¸
_
,
B
D
 1.88 for cargo liners and container ships
= 15.86
¸
¸
_
,
B
D
 19.62 for tankers in general
= 0.714
¸
¸
_
,
B
D
+ 2.2 for cargo ships in general
= f
2
B for other merchant ship types
= f
3
¸
1
1
]
T
2
+
B
2
12T
 0.53D for barges
f
2
= 0.055 for barge carriers and RO/RO ships f
3
= 1.18 for barges with rake
0.065 for bulk carriers = 1.00 for barges without rake
0.075 for OBO carriers
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From the estimates for KB, BM, and GM, KM and KG can be estimated:
KM = KB + BM
KG = KM  GM
Since the estimate for KG is based on the parameterized GM estimate, the value returned is the virtual, or effective KG (corrected for free
surface).
GM does not parameterize well for U.S. Navy hulls because Navy stability standards (described in Appendix C) do not include minimum GM
requirements. Uncorrected fullload KG does parameterize well, as a function of depth:
KG = f
4
D (Navy hulls)
where:
f
4
= 0.55 for cruisers and destroyers
= 0.61 for frigates
= 0.63 for amphibious warfare ships without well decks
= 0.72 for amphibious warfare ships with well decks (LSD/LPD)
= 0.62 for fleet replenishment auxiliaries
= 0.50 for repair ships/tenders
For Navy hulls, GM (uncorrected for free surface) is calculated from the estimates for KB and KG. The parametric factors were derived from
an analysis of U.S. Navy hulls and may not apply precisely to ships of other navies.
17.1.4 Tons Per Inch Immersion. TPI is calculated directly, using the estimated waterplane coefficient to estimate waterplane area:
where L and B are measured in feet.
TPI =
LBC
WP
420
17.1.5 Moment to Trim One Inch. A value for MT1 is found using estimates for longitudinal metacentric height or radius:
where BM
L
is given by:
MT1 =
GM
L
W
12L
≈
BM
L
W
12L
The longitudinal moment of inertia, I
L
, of a shipshaped waterplane can be expressed as:
BM
L
=
I
L
∇
=
I
L
35W
⇒ MT1 =
I
L
420L
where the longitudinal inertia coefficient, C
IL
, is given by:
I
L
= B L
3
C
I L
where:
C
IL
= 0.143C
WP
 k
3
k
3
= 0.0659 for merchant ships and slowspeed auxiliaries
0.0664 for replenishment auxiliaries
0.0643 for amphibious warfare ships
0.0634 for destroyers, frigates, and cruisers
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17.1.6 Longitudinal Positions of Centers. The distance from the forward perpendicular to LCF, LCB, and LCG can be estimated as follows.
LCF is estimated as a function of speed (V
k
) and length (L):
LCF = 0.5L
¸
¸
_
,
V
k
160
+ 0.914 for tankers
= 0.485L
¸
¸
_
,
V
k
100
0.9 for bulk carriers
= 0.5
¸
¸
_
,
V
k
135
0.924 for singlescrew cargo ships and naval auxiliaries
= 0.5L
¸
¸
_
,
0.95
V
k
1.03 for twinscrew cargo ships with transom sterns
= L
¸
1
1
1
]
0.5
¸
¸
_
,
V
k
135
0.924 0.23 for twinscrew cargo ships with cruiser sterns
= 0.5L
¸
¸
_
,
V
k
135
0.95 for barges with rake
where V
k
is given in knots and L in feet.
LCB at full load and zero trim is approximated as a function of length (L) and prismatic coefficient (C
P
):
where:
LCB = L 0.5  0.175C
P
 k
4
k
4
= 0.125 for merchant ships and slowspeed auxiliaries
0.111 for replenishment auxiliaries
0.117 for amphibious warfare ships
0.126 for destroyers, frigates, and cruisers
0.146 for barges with rake
To estimate the longitudinal position of the center of gravity, trim must be known or estimated. If unknown, trim can be estimated from similar
ships as a percentage of length. Multiplying trim (t) in inches by MT1 gives the trimming moment M
t
:
Trimming moment divided by weight (W) gives the trim arm or lever (GZ
L
):
MT1(t) = M
t
Since the trim arm is the horizontal separation between LCB and LCG prior to trimming:
M
t
W
= GZ
L
Upon trimming, LCB will relocate to a position in vertical line with LCG. LCG can be assumed to be directly above the estimated LCB for
LCB ± GZ
L
= LCG
a ship with zero trim at normal fullload departure condition.
17.2 Changes. The values calculated are for the fullload departure conditions, and must be corrected for other conditions. Floating or grounded
drafts can be observed on site. New floating displacement, drafts and location of center of gravity are determined by evaluating the effects of all
weight changes from the normal fullload departure condition. Hydrostatic properties are assumed to vary linearly with draft according to:
Where the subscript 1 denotes the fullload condition and the subscript 2 the new condition. The drafts T
1
and T
2
are taken at the LCF for each
TPI
2
= TPI
1
TPI
1
0.0075 T
1
 T
2
MT1
2
= MT1
1
MT1
1
0.025 T
1
 T
2
LCB
2
= LCB
1
LCB
1
0.002 T
1
 T
2
LCF
2
= LCF
1
LCF
1
0.004 T
1
 T
2
condition.
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Longitudinal locations are referenced to the
Figure 128. Calculation Hierarchy.
V
k
B L
C
B
K
B
C
T
I
T
TPI
KM
KG
BM
T
B
B
T
B
L GM
L
∆
∆
L
C
WP
D
∆ C
B
C
P
C
M
C
WP
KB TPI
I
L
BM
L
MTI M
T
GZ
L
LCG LCB I
T
BM KM KG
LCF
T L B
W,
V
k
forward perpendicular. These relationships
apply only so long as the change in draft or
trim does not cause a significant change in
the shape of the underwater hull form. KM
does not vary significantly with draft until
draft is dramatically decreased, to
approximately twothirds fullload draft,
after which it increases.
17.3 Calculation Hierarchy. Only C
B
,
GM (or KG), and LCF are calculated
directly from the basic input data (L, B, T,
D, V
k
). Because other parameters are
successively calculated from previously
calculated parameters, basic data, and
empirically derived factors, there is a
hierarchy of accuracy among the calculated
parameters. This hierarchy is shown in the
two panels of Figure 128. Two panels are
used to reduce the complexity of the
diagram. The basic input parameters are
listed across the top of each of the two
panels.
17.4 Cautions. The parametric method
described in this paragraph was developed
through regression analysis of typical,
conventional hull forms. The less typical a
particular hull, compared to ships of the
same type, the greater the error introduced
by use of the relationships given.
As this method is based primarily on
analysis of the speedtolength ratio, errors
will be larger for an underpowered
hull—for example, a hull designed for 20
knots but actually powered for only 16
knots.
Because of the interdependence among various parameters, changing any parameter (except LCF) creates a ripple effect that necessitates
recalculation of other parameters. Mixing bits of actual data with data calculated by the analytical method in a set of salvage calculations
without recalculating lower precedence parameters tends to give poorer results than complete sets of either calculated or actual data. Specifically,
hydrostatic properties and coefficients of form must be compatible.
Within the framework of these limitations, the parametric method yields results sufficiently accurate for salvage work, and provides a means
to evaluate a casualty’s condition when only limited information is available.
17.5 Applications to Salvage Calculations. The nature of the relationships in the analytical method dictates the methodology of their use.
From the input data, the method calculates parameters and creates a baseline ship model in the fullload condition. From the base condition,
parameters at other conditions are calculated by one of two approaches.
• The new condition is defined by drafts (for example, drafts on departure from last port). Change in block coefficient is calculated
first. With the new block coefficient, mean draft and trim, a new set of parameters is calculated. The difference between old and
new displacements gives the required weight change between the fullload and new condition. If the change in draft results from
stranding, the difference between old and new displacements is the ground reaction. This approach can also be used to determine
the amount and LCG of weight that must be added or removed to reach a desired draft and trim.
• The new condition is defined by change in weight (consumption of fuel and consumables, flooding, cargo discharge, etc.). The
sum of weight change and old displacement gives the new displacement. Change in draft is calculated from the total weight
change and TPI. For large weight changes, the change in draft is calculated incrementally, recalculating TPI for each intermediate
draft. Shift of LCG is calculated by moment balance. A new block coefficient is calculated from the new displacement and mean
draft. With the new block coefficient and mean draft, a new set of parameters is calculated as for the fullload condition, except
that the new LCB is calculated from the new LCG.
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18 WEIGHT AND STABILITY
The salvage engineer must fully appreciate the relationship between weight and ship stability. The addition and removal of weight is the most
common evolution affecting a ship’s stability and can be the result of onloading and offloading cargo and equipment, refueling, consuming stores
or fuel, ballasting, etc. Weight additions and removals have three effects:
• Change of displacement with attendant change of draft.
• Movement of the center of gravity.
• Development of trimming or inclining moments.
Displacement changes cause draft
Table 17. Effect of Weight Movements.
ACTION STABILITY
CENTER OF
GRAVITY
CENTER OF
BUOYANCY
METACENTER*
Weight shift up
Weight shift down
Weight shift transverse
Decrease
Increase
Decrease
Up
Down
Port/Starboard
No change
No change
To low side
No change
No change
No change
Weight added at G
Weight added above G
Weight added below G
Decrease
Decrease
Increase
No change
Up
Down
Up
Up
Up
Down
Down
Down
Weight removed at G
Weight removed above G
Weight removed below G
Increase
Increase
Decrease
No change
Down
Up
Down
Down
Down
Up
Up
Up
*Relative movement of metacenter is based on the relationship BM = I /∇ and assumption that
waterplane shape and area do not change appreciably for moderate changes of draft and
displacement. As draft increases with added weight, the reduction in BM [I /∇] is greater than
the rise of B. Conversely, as draft and displacement decrease, the increase of BM is greater
than the lowering of B.
changes and changes in the hull
characteristics. The change in the
transverse metacentric radius is
particularly important because of its
potential effect on stability. Both
weight additions and removals may
change the moment of inertia of the
waterplane. Weight additions will
increase and weight removals will
decrease displacement volume. Table
17 illustrates the general effect of
weight changes on an intact ship. To
evaluate a weight change, it is
simplest to assume that the weight is
added or removed at the center of
gravity (G) for the purpose of
calculating the effect on mean draft,
and then moved to its final location
in a series of steps to account for the
effects of its vertical, transverse, and
longitudinal moments.
18.1 Weight Shifts. When weights
are moved about the ship,
displacement and mean draft remain constant; stability parameters that are functions of displacement or draft, such as height of metacenter, are
therefore unaffected. The distance the center of gravity moves when a weight is shifted is the product of the weight (w) times the distance
moved (d), divided by the total weight of the ship (W):
This distance can be resolved into vertical, transverse, or longitudinal components. A single weight shift can cause any combination of
GG
1
=
wd
W
transverse, vertical, or longitudinal shifts of the center of gravity with attendant effects on longitudinal and transverse stability. Although they
occur simultaneously, each effect can be assumed to occur independently; the effects can be calculated separately as though they were occurring
sequentially. Change of KG alters GM and righting arms as discussed in Paragraph 15. The effects of longitudinal and transverse weight shifts
are discussed in the following paragraphs.
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18.1.1 Longitudinal Effects of Weight
Figure 129. List Due to Transverse Shift of G.
L W
B
G
θ
G
1
Z
M
0
C
L
W
1
L
1
Shifts. When a weight movement has a
longitudinal component, LCG shifts and the
ship’s weight acting through the new center
of gravity and buoyancy acting through the
old center of buoyancy form a couple, or
trimming moment, as shown in Figure 126.
The magnitude of the trimming moment is:
where:
M
t
= W GG
1
W = ship’s weight
M
t
= trimming moment
GG
1
= longitudinal distance from
the old LCG to the new
LCG
The trimming moment is also equal to the
product of the weight moved (w) and the
longitudinal distance moved (d).
M
t
= wd
18.1.2 Offcenter Weight. The effect of
Figure 130. Reduced Righting Arm due to Transverse Shift of G.
L W
B
G
T
G
1
Z
1
Z
M
0
0
C
L
W
1
L
1
θ
offcenter weight is to create an inclining
moment. This effect can be evaluated by
calculating the lateral movement of the
ship’s center of gravity off the centerline.
The magnitude of the inclining moment is:
M
I
= W(GG
1
)
where:
GG
1
= lateral (horizontal) shift
of center of gravity,
[length]
M
I
= inclining moment, [force
length]
W = ship’s weight (including
the offcenter weight),
[force]
since:
where:
GG
1
=
wd
W
d = lateral (horizontal) distance
that the weight w is moved,
[length]
then:
W GG
1
= wd = M
I
The inclining moment will cause the ship to list to an angle where the center of buoyancy is again in vertical line with the center of gravity.
The angle of list becomes the new equilibrium position; when disturbed, the ship will roll about the angle of list. The effect of a permanent
list is to reduce the righting arms and range of stability when the ship rolls towards the list, and increase them when the ship rolls away from
the list. For small angles of inclination (less than 7 to 10 degrees), list can be found by reference to the metacentric height. From Figure 129,
the list due to an offcenter weight can be seen to be:
tanθ =
GG
1
GM
∴ θ = tan
1
¸
1
1
]
wd
WGM
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18.1.3 Stability Curve Correction for Offcenter Weight. Figure 130 shows a ship whose center of gravity has moved from G to G
1
. When
inclined towards G
1
to some angle θ, the righting arm developed is not GZ, but a smaller arm, G
1
Z
1
. The reduction in righting arm (GT) is:
GT = GG
1
cosθ
As with the sine correction for actual KG, the offcenter weight correction, as a cosine curve, is plotted to the same scale as the curve of statical
stability as shown in Figure 131. The corrected stability curve is the difference between the two curves. The angle at which the corrected curve
crosses the horizontal axis is the angle of list caused by the offcenter weight. Extending the curve to the left of the origin shows the increased
righting arms developed on the side away from the list. In dynamic situations, the increase in righting energy on the side away from the list
does not increase stability because the ship will roll about the angle of list. If the ship is subjected to a constant upsetting force, such as a steady
beam wind, the increased righting arms provide additional stability if the ship is oriented so that the upsetting force heels the ship away from
the list, towards its strong side. The increased righting arms and energy must also be overcome if the salvage plan calls for the ship to be heeled
away from the list by external forces. It should also be remembered that if the ship is heeled towards its strong side, the area under the curve
from the point where the curve crosses the axis to the angle of heel represents stored energy. If this area is larger than the area under the
stability curve on the weak side, the ship could capsize if suddenly released.
Figure 131. Correction to Statical Stability Curve for Transverse Shift of G.
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G
A
R
M
S
I
N
F
E
E
T 2
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
0
0
ANGLE OF INCLINATION, θ
ANGLE OF INCLINATION, θ
0
0
10
10
10
10
20
20
20
20
30
30
30
30
40
40
40
40
50
50
50
50
60
60
60
60
70
70
70
70
80
80
80
80
90
90
90
90
INITIAL STABILITY CURVE
WITH KG OF 21’
COSINE
CORRECTION
CURVE FOR
OFFCENTER
WEIGHT
LOSS IN RIGHTING ARMS DUE
TO OFFCENTER WEIGHT
R
I
G
H
T
I
N
G
A
R
M
S
I
N
F
E
E
T
ANGLE OF LIST
GG
1
COSθ
RANGE OF STABILITY
ROLLS TO PORT
RANGE OF STABILITY
ROLLS TO STBD
CORRECTED
STABILITY CURVE
POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS, STBD POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS, PORT
18.2 Weight Additions and Removals. Weight addition or removal at the center of gravity changes displacement without introducing
trimming or inclining moments. The increase or decrease in mean draft in inches (∆T) is approximately equal to the weight added or removed
(∆w) in tons divided by the tons per inch immersion (TPI):
∆T =
∆w
TPI
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18.2.1 Weight Changes Away From the Center of Gravity. When weights are added or removed at some distance from the center of gravity,
the center of gravity moves toward the added weight, or away from a removed weight, to a new position determined by the size and location
of the weight. The weight change can be treated as an addition (or removal) at the center of gravity, followed by a shift to the location where
the weight is added:
where:
GG
1
=
(Gg) (w)
(W
1
)
GG
1
= shift of ship’s center of gravity, [length]
Gg = distance between ship and added weight centers of gravity, [length] = the distance d that the weight is "shifted"
W
1
= new total weight of ship, [force] = W ± w
w = weight added (+) or removed (–)
The new vertical, transverse, and longitudinal positions of the center of gravity can also be calculated directly, by summing moments. Height
of the center of gravity is given by:
where:
KG
1
=
W(KG) ± w(kg)
W ± w
KG
1
= height of the ship’s center of gravity after weight change, [length]
W = original weight (displacement) of the ship, [force]
KG = original height of the ship’s center of gravity, [length]
w = weight added (+) or removed (), [force]
kg = height of the center of gravity of the added or removed weight above the keel, [length]
New transverse and longitudinal positions of the center of gravity can be determined by the same method.
A longtitudinal moment caused by weight addition or removal will not necessarily trim the ship. Most ships are not symmetrical about a
transverse axis; as a ship settles or rises, the change in buoyancy is weighted towards one end, causing LCB to shift towards the fuller end.
If the buoyancy moment generated by the shift in LCB equals the trimming moment, the ship will not trim. Conversely, a weight added directly
above or below the center of gravity may cause the ship to trim to keep the centers of buoyancy and gravity in vertical line. For any weight
addition or removal, a ship will assume the trim that brings the center of buoyancy directly under the new center of gravity. The trim resulting
from a weight change can be determined very precisely by calculating LCB for trimmed waterlines at the new displacement until a trim is found
that brings LCB under LCG. Simpler approximate methods to determine trim resulting from weight changes can be derived by determining
where weights must be added or removed from a ship to change draft without changing trim. These methods are described in the following
paragraphs, and are sufficiently accurate for virtually all situations.
18.2.2 Weight Changes Without Change of Trim. If a weight is to be added to a ship without changing trim, it must be added at a location
that will be in vertical line with the resultant upward force of the added buoyancy. If the rise or sinkage is parallel, the added buoyancy results
from the immersion of a layer of uniform thickness between the old and new waterplanes. The center of buoyancy of this layer is very close
to the midpoint of a line connecting the centroids (centers of flotation) of the old and new waterplanes.
For small draft changes through a ship’s normal range of drafts, the old and new waterplanes are very nearly the same size and shape. The line
connecting the centroids is therefore essentially vertical and the center of buoyancy of the immersed layer is in line with the centroid of the old
waterplane, or center of flotation. For moderate weight changes, causing small changes in draft, at locations other than the center of flotation,
trim can be closely approximated by:
a. Taking the distance from the added or removed weight to the LCF as the trimming arm,
b. Multiplying the trimming arm by the weight to determine trimming moment, and
c. Dividing the trimming moment by MT1 to find the resulting trim.
For larger weights whose addition or removal causes draft changes large enough to appreciably change hydrostatic functions, the trimming arm
is taken as the distance from the new LCG to the LCB at the new waterline. Since TPI varies with draft, an iterative solution is required, as
shown in Example 13.
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EXAMPLE 13
WEIGHT AND TRIM
This example calculates trim resulting from moderate (causing small changes in draft) and large weight additions at various locations on an FFG7 Class ship.
a. Calculate the change of trim when a 100ton weight is added to an
FFG7 Class ship at the following locations:
(1) Center of Flotation.
(2) Center of Gravity.
(3) 50 feet abaft the forward perpendicular.
FFG7 Curves of Form are given in Figure FO2. Initial
drafts are 14 feet, 6 inches, forward and aft, LBP is 408 feet.
From the curves of form:
TPI = 32
LCF = 23.4 feet abaft midships
LCB = LCG = 1.4 feet abaft midships
MT1 = 745 foottons
W = 3,495 tons
Calculate the increase in mean draft:
Calculate the change in trim for 100 tons added at:
∆T =
w
TPI
=
100
32
= 3.125inches ≈ 3inches
T
new
= T
new
∆T = 14feet 6inches 3inches = 14feet 9inches
(1) Center of Flotation
The change in draft is small, so adding the weight at
LCF causes no change of trim. This is verified by
observing that the LCF at the new mean draft of 14 feet
9 inches is 23.5 feet. The center of the new waterplane
(LCF) is only 0.1 foot from the center of the old
waterplane, so the center of buoyancy of the immersed
layer is essentially directly over the old LCF.
(2) Center of Gravity
Trim arm = distance from LCF to added weight
= 23.4  1.4 = 22 feet
M
t
= w(trim arm) = 100(22) = 2,200 foottons
∆t = M
t
/ MT1 = 2,200/745 = 2.95 ≈ 3
inches by the bow
(3) 50 feet abaft the forward perpendicular
50 feet abaft the forward perpendicular is 154 (204 50)
feet forward of midships
Trim arm = 23.4 + 154 = 177.4 feet
M
t
= 100(177.4) = 17,740 foottons
∆t = M
t
/MT1 = 17,740/745 = 23.81 ≈ 23
inches by the bow
b. Calculate the location for the center of gravity of 1,000 tons of weight to
be removed from an FFG7 Class ship with initial drafts of 14 feet 6 inches
forward and aft without changing trim.
First estimate of new mean draft:
∆T = w/TPI = 1,000/32 = 31.25 ≈ 31 inches
T
new
= T
old
 ∆T = 14' 6"  31" = 11 feet 11 inches
Second estimate of new mean draft:
TPI at 11' 11" = 28.5
TPI
avg
= (32 + 28.5)/2 = 30.25
∆T = 1,000/30.5 = 33.06 ≈ 33 inches
T
new
= T
new
 ∆T = 14' 6"  33" = 11 feet 9 inches
LCF at 11' 9" = 14 feet abaft midships
Center of buoyancy of immersed layer (lcb) is approximately midway
between the old and new LCF,
Removing the 1,000 tons so that the center of gravity of the removed
lcb =
(23.4 + 14)
2
= 18.7 feet abaft midships
weight is approximately 19 feet abaft midships will cause no noticeable
trim.
c. Calculate the change in trim for an FFG7 Class ship with initial drafts of
14' 6" forward and aft if 1,000 tons are removed from the following
locations:
(1) LCF.
(2) LCG.
(3) 100 feet forward of midships.
T
new
= 11' 9" (from part b.)
LCB at 11' 9" = 6 feet forward of midships
MT1 at 11' 9" = 565 foottons
MT1
avg
= (745 + 565)/2 = 655
(1) 1,000 tons removed at original LCF
GG
1
= (Gg)(w)/(W + w)
Gg = 23.4 1.4 = 22 feet
GG
1
= (22)(1,000) / (3,495  1,000) = 8.8 feet forward
LCG
1
= 1.4 feet (aft) + 8.8 feet (forward) = 7.4 feet
forward of midships
trim arm = distance from new LCG to new LCB
= 7.4  6 = 1.4 feet (LCG is forward of LCB)
M
t
= 1,000(1.4) = 1,400 foottons
∆t = M
t
/MT1 = 1,400/655 ≈ 2 inches by the bow
(2) 1,000 tons removed at original LCG
GG
1
= 0
LCG
1
= 1.4 feet abaft midships
trim arm = 6 + 1.4 = 7.4 feet (LCG is aft of LCB)
M
t
= 1,000(7.4) = 7,400 foottons
∆t = M
t
/ MT1 = 7,400/655 ≈ 11 inches by the stern
(3) 1,000 tons removed 150 feet forward of midships
Gg = 150 + 1.4 = 151.4 feet
GG
1
= (151.4)(1,000)/(3,495  1,000) = 60.7 feet aft
LCG
1
= 1.4 feet (aft) + 60.7 feet (aft) = 62.1 feet abaft
midships
trim arm = 62.1 + 6 = 68.1 feet (LCG is aft of LCB)
M
t
= 1,000(68.1) = 68,100 foottons
∆t = M
t
/MT1 = 68,100/655 ≈ 104 inches by the stern
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18.2.3 Point of Constant Draft. When a weight is added at some point away from the LCF, the ship trims as it sinks to a new mean draft.
Drafts on the opposite side of the LCF are reduced by the effect of trim, but increased by parallel sinkage. At some point the reduction in draft
caused by trim equals the increase in draft caused by parallel sinkage:
∆T due to parallel sinkage = ∆T due to change of trim
where:
∆T
parallel sinkage
=
w
TPI
∆t =
wd
1
MT1
⇒ ∆T
trim
=
wd
1
MT1
¸
1
1
1
]
d
2
L
w
TPI
=
wd
1
d
2
MT1(L)
∆t = change of form, in.
d
1
= distance from the LCF to the added or removed weight, ft
MT1 = moment to change trim one inch, ftton/in
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
TPI = tons per inch immersion, lton/in
d
2
= distance from the point of constant draft to the LCF, ft
w = weight added or removed, lton
The relationship can be solved to determine the point of constant draft for weight added or removed at a known location. It is generally more
useful to solve for d
1
to find the point where weight must be added or removed to keep draft constant at some point:
Note that w cancels out of the equation. So long as the weight change is not large enough to significantly alter MT1, TPI, or the position of
d
1
=
(MT1) (L)
(TPI) (d
2
)
LCF, the amount of weight added or removed does not affect the location of the point where weight must be added or removed to keep draft
constant at another point.
18.3 Inclining Experiment. The predictable and measurable effects of offcenter weight are used to determine height of center of gravity in
an inclining experiment. By shifting a known weight a specified distance, the movement of the center of gravity can be determined. The
resulting inclination (heel) observed and the tangent formula (see Paragraph 18.1.2):
is solved for the as inclined, or effective metacentric height, GM
eff
:
tanθ =
GG
1
GM
eff
=
wd
W(GM)
Inclining experiment reports are an important source of data for ship characteristics, especially a baseline vertical position for the center of
GM
eff
=
GG
1
tanθ
=
wd
Wtanθ
gravity.
18.4 Sallying Ship. Sallying ship is a procedure in which the ship is rocked, or sallied, by rapidly shifting weights back and forth, by
rhythmically heaving on the deck edge with a crane, or by personnel running back and forth. If, after inducing rolling, all exciting forces are
removed, the ship will roll with the time of roll equal to her natural rolling period. It is impossible to remove all exciting forces, but if the ship
is sallied in calm water, is clear of the bottom throughout her roll, the number of mooring lines has been reduced to the minimum acceptable
and those remaining are slack, and the ship is free of any other significant restraints, her rolling period will closely approximate the natural
rolling period, T
R
. GM can be estimated by means of the rolling period formula:
GM =
¸
¸
_
,
1.108k
T
R
2
≈
¸
¸
_
,
CB
T
R
2
≈
¸
¸
_
,
0.44B
T
R
2
To determine the rolling period accurately, the ship should be timed through several rolls and the result divided by the number of rolls to find
the average rolling period. A derivation of the rolling period formula, with constants for various ship types, is given in Paragraph 15.4.3.
Sallying ship is often performed in conjunction with an inclining experiment as a check on the accuracy of the experiment or to provide a means
to calculate an initial estimate of GM. The accuracy of the procedure is degraded by the influences of offcenter weights, free surfaces, and
exciting or restraining forces, such as personnel moving about the ship, unslackened crane hoists or mooring lines, hydrodynamic effects of water
entrained by the moving hull surface in confined basins, etc.
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18.5 Ballast. A ship’s loading varies considerably during a voyage as fuel and stores are consumed, and for merchant ships and auxiliaries,
from one leg of a voyage to another as cargo is taken on and discharged. Ballast, liquid or solid, is carried to maintain stability or seakindliness.
As fuel is consumed from doublebottom tanks, the ship’s center of gravity rises and metacentric height is reduced. Saltwater ballast taken into
low tanks restores metacentric height to a safe value. All ships require certain drafts, displacement, and trim for seakindliness, propulsion
efficiency, and steering control. Discharge of cargo from forward holds and tanks trims the ship by the stern. A light draft forward causes
pounding and slamming in a seaway, reduces visibility from the bridge, and makes steering difficult in beam winds. Fuel and cargo oil tanks
were formerly used alternately as sea water ballast tanks in most ships. Environmental protection standards now prohibit discharge of oily water
in most areas, so modern ships are usually designed with dedicated or segregated ballast tanks (SBT). Normal practice is to provide ballast
capacity such that the ship’s displacement in ballast is 40 to 60 percent of the fullload displacement. Cargo tanks are often piped for ballast;
if the tanks have been cleaned prior to taking ballast, the ballast is clean and can be discharged overboard; otherwise the ballast is dirty and
is discharged to receiving facilities ashore. Ballast tanks are distributed over the length of the ship to provide flexibility in controlling trim and
hull bending moments. In general cargo ships, the combined center of the ballast tanks is usually near or below the combined center of the fuel
tanks. Ships designed to carry dense cargo, such as stone and ore carriers, have an excess of volume that is taken up by wing ballast tanks.
Some of these vessels are very stiff in light condition, so high ballast tanks are fitted to reduce metacentric height. Fuel tanks are still commonly
piped for saltwater ballast for emergency use. Many warships are fitted with compensating fuel tanks that admit seawater through openings in
the bottom of the tanks as fuel is drawn off the top, maintaining nearly constant weight and center of gravity in the tank.
Solid ballast, usually consisting of loose stone or sand, river mud, or other dredge spoil, is sometimes carried by cargo ships. Decomposing
organic material in mud ballast can produce flammable and toxic gases, such as methane or hydrogen sulfide. Solid ballast, carried in holds
or ’tween decks, can degrade stability by shifting, as explained in Paragraph 19.3.
Fixed solid ballast is sometimes fitted, particularly after conversions involving addition of high weight and in submarines. Ordinary concrete
or special heavy aggregate concrete is commonly used. The U.S. Navy has used cast iron ingots or lead pigs weighing about 60 pounds each.
The cast iron ingots are sometimes covered with a layer of 3 to 4 inches of cement mortar. High density drilling mud stowed in doublebottom
tanks is also used as ballast.
Ballasting instructions, where applicable, are included in the damage control book for Navy ships, and in the trim and stability booklet or loading
instructions for commercial vessels.
19 IMPAIRED STABILITY
A ship’s afloat stability can be impaired or otherwise changed by any of the following:
• Addition, removal, or shift of weight, changing KG,
• Change in the shape of the submerged hull from grounding or battle damage changing KM,
• Free surface effect of loose liquids (FS), causing a virtual rise of G,
• Free communication with the sea (FC), causing a virtual rise of G, or
• Any combination of the above.
The first three conditions affect stability of the intact ship as well. Only free communication with the sea is predicated on damage to the hull.
As the primary indicator of initial stability, GM can be expressed as a function of the above effects:
The following paragraphs demonstrate the methods to calculate and apply the effect of these conditions on stability.
GM = KM KG FS FC
19.1 Flooding. Flooding can be caused by breaches in the hull, accumulating firefighting water, damaged saltwater systems, or any other
condition that admits uncontrolled amounts of liquid into the watertight envelope of the ship. Seawater flooding increases displacement and
reduces reserve buoyancy. Offcenter flooding causes list and reduces transverse stability. Major flooding towards the ends of the ship reduces
longitudinal stability, and in extreme cases may result in the loss of the ship by plunging. The effects of added weight on stability and trim
are addressed in Paragraph 18. In addition to the increased weight, loose water causes other serious consequences discussed in the following
paragraphs.
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19.1.1 Permeability. The effects of flooding are mitigated
Table 18. Selected Permeability Factors.
Miscellaneous Spaces on Naval and Commercial Ships
1
:
Space
Permeability, µ
Full Load Minimum Operating
Condition
Engine rooms (steam turbine)
fully flooded 0.85 0.85
above mid height 0.90 0.90
below mid height 0.75 0.75
lower third 0.70 0.70
Engine rooms (diesel and gas turbine) 0.85 0.85
Firerooms 0.90 0.90
Auxiliary machinery spaces 0.85 0.85
Pump rooms 0.90 0.90
Steering gear rooms 0.850.90 0.850.90
Shops 0.90 0.90
Offices, electronics spaces 0.95 0.95
Living spaces 0.95 0.95
General stores 0.800.90 0.95
Magazines
Powder 0.60 0.95
Small arms 0.80 0.80
Small arms ammunition 0.60 0.95
Rocket stowage 0.80 0.95
Torpedo stowage 0.70 0.95
Handling rooms 0.80 0.95
Chain locker 0.65 0.65
Cargo Spaces:
Space Permeability, µ
Tanks, empty, on molded volume
2
Doublebottom tanks 0.97
Cargo tanks 0.99
Tanks of known capacity
Empty 1.00
With liquid contents 1  percent full
Bulk and breakbulk cargo (average)
3
0.600.80
Container holds
3
0.70
RO/RO holds (average)
4
0.85
Liquids in cans or barrels
1
0.40
Notes:
1
From Naval Ship Engineering Center Design Data Sheet, DDS 0791, Aug 75
2
See Paragraph 14.10.7 for discussion.
3
See Appendix E, U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300A6MAN010) for
discussion of how to calculate permeability/volume of floodwater from cargo stowage
factor/density.
4
Permeability of hold around containers; does not include space inside containers/
trailers.
by the contents of the flooded compartment. The space
occupied by solid objects or watertight volumes cannot be
occupied by floodwater, so total volume and weight of flood
water admitted is reduced. This effect is called permeability,
and a permeability factor, or ratio of the volume of
floodwater to the total volume of the space, can be defined:
The volume of the water entering a flooded space can be
µ =
available volume
total volume
determined by calculating the volume of the space and
multiplying by an appropriate permeability factor. The
permeability of tanks can usually be taken as the percentage
of full capacity to which they are filled to calculate the
amount of floodwater admitted. Not using a permeability
factor will result in overestimating the amount of water a
space contains. If the exact quantity of floodwater cannot be
determined, it is usually safest to err on the high side by
disregarding permeability. Permeability for cargo can be
calculated from cargo density or stowage factor, as explained
in Appendix E, U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1
(S0300A6MAN010); the appendix includes an extensive
list of material densities and cargo stowage factors.
Permeabilities calculated from cargo stowage factors or cargo
densities may not be entirely accurate for breakbulk cargo in
rigid watertight packaging (cans, steel boxes, etc.) as water
will not be able to enter all void spaces in the cargo.
Permeability factors for some typical spaces and cargoes are
given in Table 18.
19.1.2 Downflooding. Downflooding occurs when a ship
heels sufficiently to immerse an opening above the normal
waterline, such as an open door or holed shell plating. This
angle of heel is defined as the downflooding angle. Righting
arms are reduced as the water accumulates on the low side,
and as an offcenter weight creates an additional upsetting
moment. A ship rolling so that it cyclically immerses a shell
opening may assume a permanent list or increase the period
and angle of roll due to the free surface effect described in
the next paragraph. As roll angle and period increase, the
time the opening is immersed increases, admitting greater
amounts of water.
19.1.3 Flooding into Liquidfilled Spaces. Tanks often
contain immiscible liquids, such as fuel or cargo oil, with
densities different from seawater. If an oil tank is holed,
there may be either a net inflow or outflow of liquid. There
may be an inflow even if the liquid level in the tank is above
sea level. If the density of the oil in the tank is low enough
that its head pressure at the hull penetration is less than the
seawater head pressure, water will flow into the tank. Head
pressure is a function of liquid depth and density:
where:
P
h
= γh =
h
δ
P
h
= head pressure
γ = liquid weight density
δ = liquid specific volume = 1/γ
h = liquid depth at point in question
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The equilibrium liquid level in the tank is the level that will give the same head pressure as the seawater. When there is an outflow of liquid
from the tank, the equilibrium level can be determined simply:
γ
1
h
1
= γ
sw
h
sw
h
1
=
¸
¸
_
,
γ
sw
γ
i
h
sw
where the subscripts i and sw denote properties of the liquid inside the tank and of the seawater outside the hull, respectively. Since specific
gravity γ is directly related to density γ, the ratio of seawater to product specific gravities can be substituted for the density ratio. The outflow
of liquid lightens the ship, and may trim or heel it, varying h
sw
, so an iterative solution is required.
When there is an inflow of seawater into the tank, a water bottom forms. If the tank is holed at its bottom, h
i
remains essentially constant, but
lies over the water bottom of depth h
sw,i
. Equilibrium head pressure at the hull penetration is now expressed:
γ
i
h
i
+ γ
sw
h
sw, i
= γ
sw
h
sw
The inflow of seawater adds weight and may trim or heel the ship. It is possible that the liquid level will reach the tank top before equilibrium
is reached; the block of oil is held in place by sea pressure, and there can be no further weight addition, even if the ship continues to settle,
unless oil escapes through tank vents or other avenues.
Tankers carrying light oils that have suffered severe bottom damage may float in this manner, with much of the ship’s weight transmitted from
the tank tops to the water through the oil mass, rather than through the sides of the hull to the bottom structure. Since the lower level of the
liquid mass is above the hull penetration, and separated from it by a water bottom, there is little leakage in calm seas.
If the side of a tank is holed at a height such that the internal head pressure is less than the seawater head pressure, water will flow into the
tank. If the hole is low enough that it is covered by the water bottom, the situation is identical to that described above. If the hole is above
the top of the initial water bottom, there will be an ongoing oilseawater exchange until the water bottom covers the opening.
The local seawater depth over a hull opening can vary with time as the ship rises, settles, trims, or lists in response to weight changes, or as
tide rises and falls around a stranded or sunken ship. Tanks may be subject to either inflow or outflow at different times. Heavily damaged
tanks will normally reach equilibrium in 20 minutes or less, although significant leakage will continue from casualties that strand at a tide that
is higher than subsequent low tides.
It is not always necessary to discharge a damaged tank completely to stop oil or other light liquids from leaking into the sea. The water bottom
formed when a tank is damaged near its bottom can prevent further discharge of liquids lighter than water. For example, in a tanker with a 50
foot molded depth and a 30foot draft, there is a 20foot difference in head between sea level and oil level in full cargo tanks. If a full tank
is breached through its bottom plating, oil leaks out until the internal oil head balances the external seawater head. The depth of oil is
determined by converting the water head to an oil head. For the tanker described, and an oil specific gravity of 0.8:
h
i
=
γ
g, sw
γ
g, i
h
sw
=
1.025
0.8
30 = 38.44 ft
where:
h
sw
= depth to tank penetration = local draft for bottom rupture = 30 ft
h
i
= oil depth with head equivalent to seawater head, ft
γ
g, sw
= seawater specific gravity = 1.025
γ
g, i
= oil specific gravity = 0.8
For fresh water, specific gravity is taken as 1.0, and oil depth is found by dividing the draft or penetration depth by specific gravity; for the case
described above, the equivalent oil head is 37.5 feet. As a practical matter, the equilibrium oil depth has been reached when the cargo pumps
begin to draw water instead of oil. The thickness of the water bottom can be increased by drawing oil from the top of the tanks with portable
pumps, allowing water to flow in through the breached plating. In the initial stages of a pollution incident, salvors should attempt to create or
increase water bottoms in damaged tanks, especially if pumping or storage capacity is limited and several tanks are leaking. As operations
continue, water bottoms can be systematically increased until the tanks are completely discharged. Liquid and solid pollutants can be removed
by the methods discussed in Paragraphs 33 and 34, and the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 5 (S0300A6MAN050).
The effectiveness of water bottoms is limited for watersoluble liquids or liquids with a specific gravity very near one. Water bottoms cannot
be created at all under liquids with specific gravities greater than one. Many bulk chemicals fall into this category, as well as some crude oils
and bunker fuels. Many chemicals are also highly soluble in water and cannot be contained by water bottoms.
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19.2 Loose Water. Liquid in a partially flooded compartment is free to move as the ship inclines. The adverse effects of loose water result
from the unrestrained movement of masses of water. The movement of significant weights causes the ship’s center of gravity to move off the
centerline as the ship inclines.
19.2.1 Free Surface Effect. The
Figure 132. Free Surface Effect.
L W
G
G
2
B
W
G
v
g
g
Z
M
0
0
0
C
L
W
1
L
1
movement of the ship’s center of gravity
caused by loose water movement can be
related to the width of the free surface and
the angle of inclination. The loss of
righting arm results from the weight of a
wedge of water transferred from the high to
the low side, as shown in Figure 132. For
small angles, the volume of the wedge in a
rectangular tank can be calculated:
where:
V
wedge
=
⌡
⌠
l
0
y(ytanθ)
2
dl =
⌡
⌠
l
0
y
2
tanθ
2
dl
l = length of the tank
y = halfwidth of the tank
(from its centerline)
θ = angle of inclination
For a rectangular tank, the centroids of the wedges are at
2
⁄ 3y from the centerline of the tank; the plan area of most tanks approximates a
rectangle sufficiently to assume that the centroid of the wedge lies
2
⁄ 3y from the centerline. The centroid of the transferred wedge therefore
moves a total distance of
4
⁄ 3y. The moment of volume of the transferred wedge is:
The integral ∫
0
l 2
⁄ 3y
3
dl is the second moment of area (moment of inertia), i, of the liquid surface (see Paragraph 14.5.2 for a derivation).
moment of volume =
⌡
⌠
l
0
y
2
tanθ
2
dl ×
4
3
y = tanθ
⌡
⌠
l
0
2
3
y
3
dl
Substituting:
The weight moment of the transferred wedge is:
moment of volume = i tanθ
where γ
f
is the weight density of the fluid in the tank.
weight moment = γ
f
i tanθ
The weight shift and accompanying moment will cause a shift of the ship’s center of gravity parallel to the inclined liquid surface (and the
inclined waterline) to a new position G
2
:
Righting arms are reduced by the transverse shift of center of gravity; the transverse component of the shift GG
2
is found by multiplying by
GG
2
=
γ
f
i tanθ
W
=
γ
f
i tanθ
γ
w
∇
the cosine of the angle of inclination:
The righting arm with free surface is found by subtracting the transverse shift of G from the righting arm without free surface:
GG
2 transverse
= GG
2
cosθ =
¸
¸
_
,
γ
f
i tanθ
γ
w
∇
cosθ =
γ
f
i sinθ
γ
w
∇
where:
GZ
corr
= GZ GG
2 transverse
= GZ
γ
f
i sinθ
γ
w
∇
W = weight of the ship
γ
w
= weight density of the water in which the ship is floating
∇ = volume of displacement
GZ
corr
= righting arm corrected for new position of the center of gravity, G
2
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The free surface correction is applied to the basic statical stability curve by graphical or tabular means in the same way the sine correction for
increased KG is applied (see Paragraph 15.10.1). The effect on stability of a free surface can be much greater than the effect of the weight of the
floodwater. The total correction is the sum of the corrections for each free liquid surface.
The component of the weight moment causing the transverse shift of center of gravity, ρ
f
isinθ, is called the moment of transference. For many ships,
moments of transference are tabulated for each tank, with γ
f
expressed in long tons per cubic foot. Moments of transference are normally calculated
for a slack condition (50 percent full) and a full condition (100 percent for water tanks, 95 percent for Navy fuel tanks, 98 percent for commercial
vessel cargo tanks) for a series of heel angles. The free surface correction for each tank at each angle is obtained by dividing the moment of
transference by the ship’s displacement. Tabulated moments of transference are included in the damage control books of newer Navy ships.
Approximate moments of transference can be calculated by assuming a rectangular free surface:
where:
moment of transference
rectangle
= γ
f
i sinθ = γ
f
l b
3
12
sinθ =
¸
¸
_
,
1
δ
f
l b
3
12
sinθ
Figure 133. Pocketing.
L
L
W
W
W
1
W
1
L
1
L
1
l = compartment length
b = compartment width
For seawater flooding, where δ
f
is 35 cubic
feet per long ton, the expression reduces to:
where l and b are measured in feet.
moment of transference
sw
=
l b
3
sinθ
420
If a tank or flooded space is nearly full or
nearly empty, the liquid pockets when the
ship heels; that is, the liquid moves to
expose the deck or to cover the overhead, as
shown in Figure 133. Once the liquid
begins to pocket, the center of gravity, g, of
the liquid mass moves very little as heel
angle increases. The reduction in righting
Figure 134. Pocketing Angle.
d
a
b_
2
tan θ = h
y
C
L
w
1
w l
l
1
θ
b
arm is simply that of an offcenter weight of
known location. Model tests have shown
that pocketing normally decreases free
surface effect by approximately 25 percent.
The angle at which pocketing occurs can be
predicted by geometry. As the tank shown
in Figure 134 is inclined, a wedge of liquid
shifts from the high side to the low side.
The increase in water level on the low side
is equal to the decrease on the high side.
This distance (h) can be expressed as a
function of the tank breadth (b) and the
angle of inclination, θ:
Pocketing occurs at angles of inclination
h =
¸
¸
_
,
b
2
tanθ
where h is equal to or greater than the
liquid depth in the tank (d) or the overhead
clearance (a) as shown in Figure 134.
Solving for θ:
where:
θ
p
= tan
1
¸
¸
_
,
2h
p
b
θ
p
= angle of inclination where
pocketing begins
h
p
= a or d, whichever is less
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Tabulated moments of transference
Table 19. Transference Factor – Tanks 50 Percent Full.
Ratio of
depth to
breadth
Angle of inclination, deg
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
0.13
0.17
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.14
0.21
0.27
0.31
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.14
0.21
0.27
0.34
0.40
0.50
0.57
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.12
0.19
0.26
0.33
0.40
0.53
0.65
0.74
0.83
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.11
0.16
0.23
0.30
0.37
0.51
0.66
0.80
0.94
1.06
1.16
1.24
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
0.09
0.14
0.20
0.26
0.33
0.47
0.63
0.79
0.96
1.13
1.30
1.47
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.21
0.27
0.41
0.56
0.74
0.92
1.12
1.34
1.56
2.0
2.7
3.7
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
0.04
0.07
0.11
0.16
0.21
0.33
0.47
0.65
0.85
1.06
1.30
1.56
2.1
3.1
5.0
9.3
13.4
16.2
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
0.02
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.14
0.24
0.38
0.54
0.74
0.96
1.22
1.50
2.2
3.4
6.0
13.5
24.0
37.0
54.0
73.0
96.0
121.0
150.0
Table 110. Transference Factor – Tanks 95 Percent Full.
Ratio of
depth to
breadth
Angle of inclination, deg
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.22
0.25
0.30
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.20
0.24
0.28
0.35
0.46
0.53
0.57
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.24
0.29
0.38
0.52
0.64
0.74
0.80
0.85
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.24
0.29
0.38
0.56
0.71
0.85
0.97
1.09
1.16
1.22
1.27
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.23
0.29
0.38
0.58
0.78
0.96
1.14
1.30
1.46
1.6
1.7
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.22
0.28
0.39
0.62
0.87
1.12
1.36
1.6
1.9
2.1
2.3
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.23
0.31
0.45
0.77
1.12
1.5
1.9
2.3
2.7
3.2
3.6
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.18
0.23
0.28
0.41
0.64
1.14
2.6
4.6
7.1
10.3
14.0
18.2
23.0
28.5
account for pocketing and tank shape.
When using approximate moments, a
statical stability curve can be constructed
by applying a free surface correction for
angles up to θ
p
, and an offcenter weight
(cosine) correction for larger angles.
Alternatively, the gradual diminishment
of the moment of transference can be
evaluated by defining the moment of
transference as the product of γ
f
i and
some factor C that is less than sinθ:
where:
moment of transference = ρ
f
i C
γ
f
= fluid density (tank contents),
lton/ft
3
i = moment of inertia of the
free surface, ft
4
C = transference factor from
Table 19, 110, or 111
The moment of transference factor C
depends on the degree of fullness, ratio of
depth to breadth of the compartment, and
the angle of inclination. To simplify
evaluation of the factor C, tanks or flooded
spaces are assumed to be full or empty (no
free surface), halffull (worst case) or 95
percent full in naval practice or 98 percent
full in merchant practice (normal operating
condition). Tables 19 through 111,
reproduced from the Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers’
Principles of Naval Architecture, give
factors for 50, 95, and 98 percent full
tanks. These tables have been derived for
rectangular tanks but will provide
sufficient accuracy for most tanks if certain
adjustments are made to the entering
parameters of breadth and depth.
Tanks with substantial variation in
breadth, such as those that are
approximately trapezoidal in plan view,
usually have a small free surface effect;
the breadth at the narrow end should
generally be used to determine the depth
to breadth ratio. If greater accuracy is
required, breadth can be taken as:
b =
3
12i
l
For tanks not rectangular in transverse section, the depth should normally be taken as the greatest depth. Accuracy can be increased by taking
depth as n times the distance from the free surface to the tank top, where n is 2 for tanks 50 percent full, 20 for tanks 95 percent full, or 50
for tanks 98 percent full. The tables should be entered with the next larger value for depth to breadth ratio unless interpolations are made. The
increase in accuracy gained by interpolation is usually insignificant.
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Computing moments of transference may
Table 111. Transference Factor – 98 Percent Full.
Ratio of
depth to
breadth
Angle of inclination, deg
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.16
0.22
0.27
0.30
0.33
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.17
0.24
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.44
0.48
0.51
0.54
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.13
0.17
0.24
0.31
0.38
0.44
0.49
0.55
0.60
0.64
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.16
0.24
0.31
0.38
0.46
0.52
0.59
0.65
0.71
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.15
0.22
0.30
0.38
0.46
0.54
0.62
0.70
0.78
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.13
0.22
0.30
0.38
0.48
0.58
0.67
0.77
0.87
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.14
0.23
0.34
0.45
0.58
0.70
0.84
0.98
1.12
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.17
0.27
0.47
1.06
1.9
2.9
4.2
5.8
7.5
9.5
11.8
be timeconsuming and tedious. Figure
132 shows that an equivalent righting
arm G
v
Z can be developed by extending
the line of action of gravity back through
the ship’s centerline. Raising the ship’s
center of gravity to G
v
has the same
effect on stability as shifting it to G
2
.
The virtual rise in the center of gravity
can be related to the actual transverse
shift:
At small angles (less than 7 to 10
GG
2
= GG
v
sinθ
degrees), GZ = GMsinθ; the reduction in
righting arm is approximately GG
v
sinθ:
Setting the two expressions for GZ
corr
GZ
corr
= GMsinθ GG
v
sinθ
equal:
Noting that GMsinθ = GZ and canceling
GMsinθ GG
v
sinθ = GZ
γ
f
i sinθ
γ
w
∇
common terms:
For flooding from the sea, the density ratio becomes one, and:
Virtual rise of G = FS = GG
v
=
γ
f
i
γ
w
∇
=
δ
w
i
δ
f
∇
=
γ
f
i
∆
=
i
δ
f
∆
where:
GG
v
=
i
∇
GG
v
= virtual rise of the center of gravity from free surface effect
i = transverse moment of inertia of the free surface
∇ = volume of displacement
If free surface exists in several tanks or compartments, the virtual rise of G is calculated separately for each compartment and the results summed
to determine the total virtual rise. The virtual position of the center of gravity is then used to develop a corrected stability curve, as described
in Paragraph 15.9.1.
Treating free surface effect as a virtual rise of the center of gravity provides a relatively quick and easy estimate of the reduction in initial
stability. The method overestimates the reduction in righting arm at larger angles because it does not account for pocketing or the reduction
in lever arms of the transferred wedge as heel angle increases, but is acceptably accurate if the sum of i for all slack tanks in ft
4
is less than
twenty times the displacement in long tons. When virtually all free liquid surfaces are subject to pocketing at small angles, as in ships with
nearly full fuel load or cargo tanks, it is common practice to determine the reduction in righting arm (by transference) at an arbitrarily selected
angle of 5 or 10 degrees, and translate the reduction in righting arm into loss of metacentric height by dividing by the sine of the angle.
Equipment, cargo, or stores that pierce the floodwater surface reduce the area and effect of the free surface; this effect is called surface
permeability. The surface permeability factor is the moment of inertia of the actual free surface divided by the moment of inertia of an unpierced
plane surface with the same outer perimeter. Surface permeability is very difficult to estimate accurately. An error in estimation can cause the
salvor to believe the ship is more stable than it actually is. If, on the other hand, surface permeability is neglected, the calculations will indicate
less stability than the ship actually possesses, erring on the safe side for the salvor.
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19.2.2 Crossflooding. Situations exist where, by design or damage, liquids can freely transfer, or crossflood, between athwartships tanks:
• Damaged longitudinal bulkheads.
• Crossflooding ducts fitted between shaft alleys, voids, and similar spaces in small ships to prevent the large offcenter weight
moments that would result if only one side flooded.
• Faulty or inadvertently opened valves or valve manifolds, especially those connecting deep tanks where the liquid surface is above
the level of the valve.
• Antiroll tanks consisting of two tanks, normally carried about halffull, on opposite sides of the ship connected by relatively small
diameter sluice pipes.
The shift of liquid from one space to another is treated as a moment of transference between the two tanks to determine reduction in righting
arm. The effect on initial stability, as a loss of metacentric height, is calculated for each tank separately.
19.2.3 Liquids of Different Densities. A tank may contain two different liquids—one of them is usually seawater. Examples include ruptured
cargo or fuel tanks and compensating tanks with water bottoms. Even if the tank is filled with liquid, there is a free surface at the interface
between the two liquids that will remain parallel to the inclined waterline. There will be a wedge of volume on the low side where the denser
liquid displaces the less dense, and a corresponding wedge on the high side where the less dense liquid displaces the denser, causing the center
of gravity of the tank to shift. This effect can be evaluated by using the difference in densities for the value γ
f
in the expressions for moment
of transference and virtual rise of G.
19.2.4 Bulk Cargoes. Bulk cargoes, such as grain and ore, and loose solid ballast, can produce an effect similar to that of free surface, but
the effect is modified by friction and inertia of the individual particles. In general, bulk cargo will begin to shift when the angle of inclination
is approximately equal to the angle of repose of the cargo. This is the angle between the horizontal and the slope of a granular bulk material
that is freely poured onto a horizontal surface. However, violent or cyclic ship motions or vibration can cause the cargo to shift at smaller
angles. A cargo that shifts during a heavy roll to one side will not necessarily shift back when the ship rolls to the opposite side. The tendency
to roll to greater angles on the low side can cause progressive cargo shifting that can lead to capsize. Some cargoes, especially certain ores,
may act like semiliquid slurries in the presence of even a small amount of moisture, and shift readily when inclined.
Ships designed to carry bulk cargo, such as grain, are fitted with permanent or temporary longitudinal bulkheads in their holds that may be
supplemented with shifting boards to limit cargo movement. The cargo is normally pressed up to the tops of the holds and between the overhead
deck beams. If the cargo is not large enough to fill the hold, a portion of the grain is bagged and laid over the bulk grain to prevent shifting.
The cargo may also be tommed down by placing tomming boards, held in place by shores extending to the deck above, over the leveled cargo.
19.2.5 Free Communication Effect. A partially flooded, noncenterline space open to the sea introduces the effects of both offcenter weight
and free surface. In addition, floodwater is free to enter or leave the space as the ship inclines. The distribution and weight of floodwater varies
with time as the ship inclines. This creates virtual rise in the center of gravity, in addition to that caused by free surface:
where:
Virtual rise of G = FC = GG
c
=
A y
2
∇
1
A = plan area of the flooded compartment
y = transverse distance from the center of the flooded compartment to the ship’s centerline
∇
1
= volume of displacement to the after flooding to the waterline
Free communication exists only when the water level inside the damaged compartment remains the same as the sea level outside the hull. This
occurs only when the hull opening is relatively large compared to the volume of the space, and the compartment is vented.
19.3 Icing. Ice accumulation in freezing weather steadily adds high weight, increasing displacement and raising center of gravity. In severe
conditions, ice thicknesses of six inches or more can collect on weather decks in a short time. Ice builds up as spray or precipitation freeze
onto abovewater structures. The rate of accumulation is therefore influenced by relative direction of winds and seas, and is seldom uniform
on both sides of the ship. The offcenter weight of accumulated ice will cause list that may cause increased ice accumulation on the low side,
especially if the primary source of ice is winddriven spray.
High winds often accompany icing conditions; ice loading can severely degrade the ship’s ability to withstand heeling moments from beam
winds. As an example, a destroyer that has adequate stability for a 100knot beam wind without ice meets the wind heel criterion (see Appendix
D) for only 80 knots with 200 tons of accumulated ice. The 200ton ice accumulation corresponds to an average ice thickness of 5 to 6 inches
over those areas subject to icing. The effect is more severe on smaller vessels; 50 tons of topside ice on a 140foot minesweeper reduces
maximum righting arm from 1.2 feet to 0.7 feet, and reduces maximum allowable beam wind from 85 to 40 knots.
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S0300A8HBK010
Once ice has started to form, it will continue to form as long as conditions favor icing. The only recourse is to remove the ice or leave the area
where ice formation is likely. Frequent heading changes can help prevent the accumulations of large weights of offcenter ice. Icing presents
particular difficulties to ships that are not free to maneuver, such as strandings and vessels under tow. The effects of accumulated weights of
ice (and snow) must be evaluated before refloating a heavily coated stranding. Removing ice from an unmanned vessel under tow may be
difficult or impossible; conditions favorable to icing are often also unfavorable for atsea personnel transfers. At slow towing speeds, the time
needed to reach an area where conditions are significantly less favorable to icing may be considerable. Offcenter ice accumulation is likely on
towed vessels because tows follow a relatively steady course. It is important to ensure that a casualty has adequate stability under icing
conditions, or that heaters or other means to prevent icing be installed, if the casualty is to be towed through areas where icing is likely.
The U. S. Department of Commerce Publication Climatological and Oceanographic Atlas for Mariners provides guidance for expected winds and
icing conditions. In general, heavy to severe icing will occur when wind speed is greater than 30 knots and air temperature less than 28 degrees
Fahrenheit. Icing predictions can also be provided by Fleet Weather Centers and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Damage control books for some Navy ships
Figure 135. FFG7 Class Ship Limiting Winds for Icing Conditions.
FUEL BALLAST SEQUENCE NUMBER
9" ICE ON FOREDECK
W
I
N
D
S
P
E
E
D
(
K
N
O
T
S
)
85
90
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
5320W
51160W
52501&2F
51003&4F
53261&2W
include icing studies and limiting wind
velocity curves for various thicknesses of
accumulated ice. Figure 135 is the
limiting wind curve for an FFG7 Class
ship with 9 inches of ice on the foredeck;
there are also curves for 6 inches and 12
inches of ice. The fuelballast sequence
numbers refer to steps in the prescribed
tank emptying and ballasting sequence.
The plot is entered by reading vertically
from the appropriate fuelballast sequence
number to the solid wind heel curve, and
then horizontally to the maximum wind
speed for which the ship meets the Navy
wind heel criteria. The dashed lines show
the increase in allowable wind that can be
gained by ballasting the indicated tanks.
For example, at fuel sequence 6, the ship
has adequate stability to withstand 58knot
beam winds with 9 inches of ice on the
foredeck. Continuing vertically along the
sequence 6 line shows that the limiting
wind can be increased to 62 knots by
ballasting tank 5320W, or 72 knots by
ballasting 5320W, 51160W, and 5
3261 and 2W. If necessary, fuel tanks 5
2501 and 2F, which are emptied by
Table 112. Added Weight Versus Lost Buoyancy.
Item Added Weight Lost Buoyancy
Change in displacement
Change in volume of displacement
Change in draft, trim, and list
Shift of center of gravity
Shift of center of buoyancy
Shift of metacenter
Free surface correction required
Free communication correction required
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
sequence 4, can be ballasted to increase
limiting wind to 83 knots.
Limiting wind curves from damage control
books are based on specific loading
conditions, and the assumption that the
prescribed tank emptying/ballasting
sequence has been followed. They are not
valid for conditions that differ significantly
from these assumptions.
19.4 Added Weight Versus Lost
Buoyancy. The foregoing discussions have
assumed that flooding, with or without free
communication, increases the weight of the
ship by the weight of the floodwater. This
method, called the added weight method, as
sumes that none of the hull surface exposed
to the buoyant force of the water is lost.
An alternative method, called the lost buoyancy method, can be used where floodwater in free communication with the sea is assumed to remain
part of the sea, and the flooded portion of the ship no longer contributes buoyancy. The vertical pressure forces about the flooded compartment
are assumed to act on the sea rather than on the ship.
Flooding in free communication with the sea can be assessed by either method, but the two methods cannot be mixed during calculations. Table
112 itemizes the important points of the two methods.
The method used is a matter of personal preference, although the added weight method is more commonly used. Unless otherwise specified,
hydrostatic and stability calculations in this book are made by the added weight method. A more complete discussion of the lost buoyancy
calculation method can be found in the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers’ Principles of Naval Architecture.
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19.5 Loss of GM. Loss of GM can result
Figure 136. Stability Curve Showing Range of Instability (Lolling).
LOLLING RANGE
ANGLE
OF LIST
NEGATIVE
GM
57.3˚
57.3˚
POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS, STBD
POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS, PORT
from added high weight (raised G) or in
creased displacement (lowered M), or both.
New initial righting arms are calculated
using the new value for GM. The stability
curve can be corrected for the new KG with
a sine curve correction as described in Par
agraph 15.9. A ship with a very low
metacentric height will roll sluggishly. If
GM is negative, the ship is initially un
stable and will loll to some angle where the
center of buoyancy has moved sufficiently
to begin to develop positive righting arms.
The ship will settle with equal facility to
the same angle of loll on either side. The
angle of loll may be estimated by:
Where GM is the absolute value of GM.
θ = tan
1
2 GM
BM
When GM is negative, the corrected stability curve will indicate the list or angle of loll and a measure of the stability remaining beyond the
angle of loll as shown in Figure 136.
A warship or laden merchant vessel with negative metacentric height is in a very dangerous condition. A positive metacentric height should
be restored immediately. In general, negative metacentric height is dealt with by one of three methods:
• Suppressing free surface to lower virtual height of the center of gravity,
• Shifting weight downward in the ship, removing high weight or adding low weight to lower the center of gravity, or
• Recovering lost waterplane to increase the transverse metacentric radius.
Free surface is suppressed by pumping from slack tanks directly overboard or by consolidating the contents of slack tanks to press up as many
tanks as possible. Partially flooded spaces should be dewatered if they can be made tight and pumped, or allowed to flood to the overhead.
When there are several slack tanks or partially flooded spaces, judicious selection of spaces to be pumped down can result in a simultaneous
suppression of free surface and a lowering of G. The effects of both the reduction of free surface and loss of low weight should be calculated
before emptying low tanks or spaces. In some cases, the net effect of pumping out is to raise the center of gravity unacceptably—flooding the
space from the sea would be more effective. The dewatering sequence should be arranged to avoid reducing GM dangerously while pumping
out. In ships with marginal stability, the transient free surface created while pumping down solid flooded spaces can cause loss of GM.
Shifting weights transversely to correct a list caused by negative GM will only aggravate an already dangerous situation. If enough weight is
shifted or added to bring the ship upright, it will list to the opposite side to an angle approximately twice that of the original list; the loll angle
is now added to the list due to offcenter weight.
19.6 Drydocking. A ship being drydocked is subject to an unusual loading situation; part of the ship’s weight is supported by keel blocks,
part by the surrounding water. This condition is complicated by changes in the size and shape of the submerged hull form as draft changes while
the dock is pumped out. This situation is analogous in many ways to that of a grounded ship, where part of the ship’s weight is supported by
the ground and part by water, and hull form changes with the state of the tide or passage of waves. The fundamental stability problem is to
determine whether the ship will remain stable from the time it first touches the blocks until it has completely settled, or landed, on them. On
undocking, the problem is whether the ship will be stable from the time it begins to leave the blocks until it is completely afloat. Positive GM
is taken as the indicator of adequate stability. The following discussion of docking stability is summarized from NAVSHIPS Technical Manual
(NSTM) 997, Docking Instructions and Routine Work in Drydock.
19.6.1 Block Reaction and Residual Buoyancy. When the keel of a ship begins to land on the blocks in a drydock, it pushes down with
an initial force w, causing a block reaction, P. A ship with trim, t, by the stern, will contact the aftermost keel block first. This block is called
the knuckle block because the ship pivots
Figure 137. Drydocking Forces.
G
v
G
B
1
W L
P
W
1
L
1
r
r
1
on it. Strictly speaking, the knuckle re
action is not the entire block reaction, but
can be assumed to be in most cases. The
block reaction has two effects: a virtual
weight removal at the keel and a long
itudinal trimming moment. As the ship set
tles on the blocks, P increases from zero
and is distributed over all the blocks. As
the water level falls, the distributed block
reaction increases until it equals the ship’s
weight, W. The actual or residual
buoyancy, B, is equal to W  P. It is the
residual buoyancy that determines the
ship’s hydrostatic characteristics. Figure 1
37 diagrams the forces on a ship during
drydocking.
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19.6.2 Docking Stability. Stability while
Figure 138. Drydocking Plots.
M
E
A
N
D
R
A
F
T
,
F
E
E
T
M
E
A
N
D
R
A
F
T
,
F
E
E
T
11
11
2.5
5
3.0
6
3.5
7
MOMENT, FOOTTONS x 10
5
MOMENT, FOOTTONS x 10
4
4.0
8
DRAFT AT LANDING
≈ 14.9 FEET
KM
1
B
1
WEIGHT MOMENT, Wr
= 3,769(118.4)
≈ 446,250 FOOTTONS
DRAFT AT INSTABILITY
≈ 13.25 FEET
4.5
9
5.0
10
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
W(KG)=
=3,769(18)
=67,842
FOOTTONS
DRAFT AT LANDING
DRAFT AT INSTABILITY
RESIDUAL BUOYANCY
MOMENT B
1
r
1
docking is analyzed either by evaluating the
effect of weight removal at the keel, or by
balancing moments about the point of first
contact. Draft at landing and draft at
instability (GM = 0) are determined and
compared. Figure 138 shows sample plots
for an FFG7 Class ship.
Draft at Landing. Summing longitudinal
moments about the knuckle block:
where:
M
L
= Wr B
1
r
1
W = ship’s weight
r = distance from knuckle block to
LCG, as shown in Figure 138
B
1
= residual buoyancy of the ship
at current draft
r
1
= distance from knuckle block to
LCB, as shown in Figure 138
The weight moment (Wr) is constant while
the residual displacement and LCB vary
with draft. The draft at landing is the draft
where M
L
is zero with the keel parallel to
the tops of the keel blocks; that is, where
the weight and buoyancy moments are
equal, with B
1
and r
1
determined for the ship
with her keel parallel to the keel blocks.
Buoyancy moments can be calculated for a
range of drafts and plotted as shown in
Figure 138. The draft at landing is
indicated by the intersection of the weight
moment and buoyancy moment curves.
Draft at landing can be estimated by:
where:
T
1
= T
m

P
12(TPI)
T
l
= draft at landing, ft TPI = tons per inch immersion, lton/in
T
m
= mean draft on entering the dock, ft
The block reaction at landing, P
L
, is given by:
where:
P
L
=
t (MT1)
h
t = trim on entering the dock, in h = distance from application of P (knuckle block) to LCF, ft
MT1 = moment to trim one inch, ftlton/in
A rule of thumb for estimating draft at landing is:
where T
max
is the deepest draft on entering the dock, and T
max
and t are given in consistent units.
T
1
= T
max

2
3
(t)
Draft at Instability. After touching the keel blocks, GM is given by:
where:
GM
1
= KM
1
 KG
v
GM
1
= metacentric height after touching blocks KG
v
= virtual height of the center of gravity
KM
1
= height of the metacenter after touching blocks
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The center of gravity undergoes a virtual rise due to the addition of negative weight at the keel. The height of the virtual center of gravity is:
It is useful to plot GM
1
for various drafts to visualize the relationship between the metacentric height and draft while the ship is on the blocks.
KG
v
=
w(kg)
w
=
W(KG) ( P) (0)
W P
=
W(KG)
B
1
The draft at instability is found by setting GM
1
equal to zero:
0 = KM
1
KG
v
= KM
1
W(KG)
B
1
KM
1
=
W(KG)
B
1
KM
1
(B
1
) = W(KG)
By considering the products as moments and plotting moments against drafts as shown in Figure 138, the draft at instability is shown by the
intersection of the two curves. If this draft is less than the draft at landing by a comfortable margin, the ship should remain stable until firmly
supported by the keel blocks, or when it begins to leave the blocks on refloating. Example 14 illustrates the stability calculations for an FFG7
Class ship entering drydock.
EXAMPLE 14
An FFG7 Class ship with initial conditions as shown is to be drydocked.
Determine draft at landing and whether the ship will remain stable
throughout the docking.
Initial conditions:
L = 408 ft
T
f
= 14 ft 3 in
T
a
= 16 ft 1 in
T
m
= 15 ft 2 in
W = 3,769 tons
LCG = 7.6 ft abaft midships
KG = 18 ft
The knuckle block will contact the keel at a point 330 feet abaft the forward
perpendicular.
From the Curves of Form (FO2):
LCB = 3.2 ft abaft midships
LCF = 23.8 ft abaft midships
MT1 = 773 fttons
TPI = 32.5 tons
a. Initial estimates for draft at landing:
or
h = 330
¸
¸
_
,
408
2
23.8 = 102.2ft
P =
t (MT1)
h
=
22(773)
102.2
= 166.4
T
1
= T
m
P
12(TPI)
= 15.17
166.4
12(32.5)
= 14.74 ft
T
l
= T
max
 2/3(t)
t = 22 in = 22/12 ft
T
l
= 16.08  [2/3(22/12)] = 14.86 ft
b. Draft at landing by plotting:
M
l
= Wr  B
1
r
1
r = 330  [408/2  (7.6)] = 118.4
Wr = 3769(118.4) = 446,249.6 ≈ 446,250 foottons
B
1
r
1
as a function of draft:
r
1
= 330  [408/2  LCB*]
T
m
B
1
LCB* r
1
B
1
r
1
ft ltons ft ft fttons
15.17 3,769 3.18 122.82 462,909
15.0 3,660 2.6 123.42 451,644
14.0 3,290 0.08 125.92 414,277
13.0 2,910 2.6 128.6 374,226
12.0 2,550 5.32 131.32 334,866
11.0 2,210 8.1 134.1 296,361
* from midships, negative values aft and positive forward
Wr and B
1
r
1
are plotted as functions of draft in Figure 138, showing a
draft at landing of approximately 14.9 feet.
c. Draft at instability:
KM
1
(B
1
) = W(KG)
W(KG) = 3769(18) = 67,842 foottons
KM
1
(B
1
) as a function of draft:
T
m
B
1
KM
1
KM
1
B
1
ft ltons ft fttons
15.17 3,769 122.82 84,049
15.0 3,660 123.42 81,764
14.0 3,290 125.92 73,992
13.0 2,910 128.6 65,882
12.0 2,550 131.32 58,089
11.0 2,210 134.1 50,609
W(KG) and KM
1
(B
1
) are plotted as functions of draft in Figure 138,
showing a draft at instability of approximately 13.25 feet.
d. Margin between draft at landing and draft at instability:
Draft at landing  Draft at instability = 14.9  13.25 = 1.65 feet
Draft at landing exceeds draft at instability by 1.65 feet; the ship will be
completely settled on the docking blocks well before the residual
buoyancy ceases to provide adequate stability.
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110 SHIP CONSTRUCTION
INNER BOTTOM
CENTER
GIRDER
(KEEL) MARGIN PLATE
Figure 139. Longitudinal Framing.
CONTINUOUS LONGITUDINAL
AT WATERTIGHT FLOOR
SHORT
LENGTH
FLOOR
LONGITUDINAL CUT AT
WATERTIGHT FLOOR
LONGITUDINAL
THROUGH
BRACKET
FLOOR
BOTTOM DETAIL:
LONGITUDINALS AT NONWATERTIGHT FLOOR
FLAT
BAR
SLOT
FLOOR
Vessels are built to construction
specifications based on intended service.
Publicly owned vessels (Navy, Coast
Guard, etc.) are built to government
specifications. Most Navy ships are built to
General Specifications for Ships
(GENSPECs), although some auxiliaries are
built to commercial specifications.
Construction rules for commercial vessels
are established by classification societies
and government regulations for the country
of registry; the American Bureau of
Shipping (ABS) and United States Coast
Guard (USCG) establish construction rules
for the United States.
The hull structure consists of a watertight
grillage of stiffened plates supported by a
framework of mutually supporting
longitudinal and transverse members. The
framework and shell plating work together
to carry imposed loads. The framework
carries imposed loads and stiffens the shell
plating to allow it to function effectively as
a strength member under edge and lateral
loading. The arrangement of the structural
members is dictated by the framing system.
Structural members, with the exception of
shell plating and stanchions, are categorized
as either longitudinal, with their long axes
approximately parallel to the ships
centerline, or transverse, with their long
axes athwartships or vertical, approximately
perpendicular to the longitudinal members.
In a general context, any structural stiffener
can be called a frame, although the term is
usually reserved for the transverse frames
described in Paragraph 110.3.1.
110.1 Framing Systems. While ships
vary considerably in the details of their
construction, most conform to one of two
basic framing systems. Some reflect a
combination of the two systems. With
longitudinal and transverse structural
members crossing at right angles, only one
can be continuous. In the longitudinal
system, shown in Figure 139, this conflict
is resolved by the use of closely spaced
continuous longitudinal members with
intercostal transverses. The transverse
system, shown in Figure 140 (Page 170),
uses closely spaced continuous transverse
members with intercostal longitudinals.
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In wooden ships and riveted steel
Figure 140. Transverse Framing.
TANK
SIDE
BRACKET
FRAMES
BEAM
KNEE
SHEER
STRAKE
GUNWALE
ANGLE
BRACKET
FLOOR
BRACKET BRACKET REVERSE BAR
PLATE
FLOOR
FRAME BAR
FLOOR
LIGHTENING HOLE
AIR HOLE
LIMBER HOLE
MARGIN PLATE SIDE GIRDER CENTER
GIRDER
INNER BOTTOM
’TWEEN
DECK
DECK
BEAMS
MAIN DECK
STRINGER
STANCHION
WATER
TIGHT
FLOOR
DECK GIRDER
WATERTIGHT
BULKHEAD
WATERTIGHT
BULKHEAD
construction, continuity of the intercostal
members depends on the strength of the
joining connections; the intercostal
members contribute less direct strength to
the framing grillage and serve primarily to
stiffen the longitudinal members and shell
plating. With good alignment and modern
welding practices, full strength can be
maintained, regardless of the previous
assembly continuity of members. In
modern, weldedconstruction ships, framing
systems are distinguished by the relative
size, number, and spacing of transverse and
longitudinal members. Longitudinally
framed ships have many small, closely
spaced longitudinals, with fewer, larger,
and more widely spaced transverses;
transversely framed ships have many small,
closely spaced transverses, with fewer,
larger, and more widely spaced
longitudinals. For average merchant ships,
typical close spacing is 2 to 4 feet, typical
wide spacing is 10 to 15 feet.
Merchant ships and naval auxiliaries may
use either longitudinal or transverse
framing, depending on the service of the
ship. Generally, the same system is used
throughout the ship. Most naval
combatants (except submarines) are
longitudinally framed, with transverse
framing near the bow and stern. Because
naval ships require a greater reserve of
strength to provide damage resistance, their
frame members are generally deeper and/or
more closely spaced than those of similarly
sized merchant vessels. Appendix B
descri bes t he const ruct i on and
characteristics of different types of ships.
110.1.1 Longitudinal Framing. Longi
tudinal framing systems (Figures 139A and
139B) are more efficient structurally, pro
viding greater strength for the same weight; they are, however, less efficient in the use of internal space because of the deep web frames
supporting the longitudinals. Longitudinal framing has been widely used in tankers and bulk carriers where the disruption of internal spaces
caused by the web frames is unimportant. Modern practice tends increasingly towards longitudinal framing, or a combination system, in most
types of ships.
110.1.2 Transverse Framing. Transverse framing (Figure 140) is most often found in dry cargo vessels where deep web frames would
interfere with cargo stowage. Wooden ships are transversely framed. Given the loadcarrying capacity of wood, the lack of longitudinal strength
of this system limits the maximum length of wooden vessels. Conversely, this system provides good resistance to racking stresses caused by
lateral forces that tend to distort a vessel’s cross section.
110.1.3 Combination Systems. There are framing systems that combine elements of both longitudinal and transverse framing. Figure 141
shows two common combination framing systems. The combination framing system was introduced to overcome the disadvantages of
longitudinal framing for dry cargo vessels. Longitudinal strength is provided by longitudinal framing in the double bottom and under the strength
deck; transverse framing is used along the side plating where longitudinal bending stresses are smaller. Plate floors and heavy transverse beams
are fitted at intervals to support the main deck and bottom longitudinals and increase transverse strength.
Cantilever framing is a modification of the combination framing system with some special features. It was developed to facilitate the building
of ships with very long and wide hatchways where the remaining deck structure provides insufficient transverse and longitudinal strength.
Transverse strength is maintained by the use of special web frames, or cantilevers, at frequent intervals abreast the hatchways. The ship is
strengthened longitudinally by heavier than normal sheerstrakes and deck stringer plates. The side plating may be extended upward at the
sheerstrake as a heavy bulwark, in place of the usual light bulwark or rails. Hatch side coamings are deep and may be continuous through the
length of the hatch deck. If the ship has two hatches abreast, a deck girder or longitudinal bulkhead is fitted on the centerline.
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110.1.4 Connections. In riveted
Figure 141. Combination Framing Systems.
LONGITUDINALS
LONGITUDINALS
LONGITUDINAL
FRAMING
IN BOTTOM
TRANSVERSE
BEAM
COMBINATION SYSTEM CANTILEVER FRAMING
CANTILEVER
HATCH COAMING
STRONG BEAM BETWEEN HATCHWAYS
TRANSVERSE
SIDE FRAME
BEAM
construction, a variety of plates, angles, and
scarfs were used to create strong and rigid
joints between structural members. In
welded construction, most connections
between plates and shapes are made
directly through butt or fillet welds,
although brackets and angle bars are used
in some joints for extra stiffness.
110.2 Longitudinal Members.
Longitudinal structural members resist
bending about athwartships axes.
110.2.1 Keel. The keel is a major
longitudinal member that runs the length of
the ship’s bottom along the centerline. In
large ships, the keel normally consists of an
outer flat keel, the inner (plate) keel, a
vertical keel (sometimes called the center
vertical keel, or CVK), and a horizontal top
flange called the keel rider plate. In small
vessels, the outer keel, vertical keel, and rider plates may consist of an I or Hbeam, while in large vessels, the keel is a builtup section. Duct
keels are flatplate keels with two center girders, instead of one, on either side of the keel plates. Duct keels are commonly used forward of
propulsion machinery spaces to provide a pipe tunnel. The keel usually varies in cross section along the length of the ship. Some newer vessels
have no distinct keel. Instead, there is a cellular double bottom consisting of a grillage of heavy stiffeners plated over top and bottom. In this
system, the center girder is generally distinguishable from the side girders only by location. In very large, broad vessels, specially strengthened
longitudinals, called docking keels, are fitted at some distance to either side of the center keel. The docking keels help distribute docking loads
as the ship rests on three rows of keel blocks. In smaller vessels and some older merchant vessels, an outer vertical keel or bar keel is fitted.
In wooden vessels, the keel is usually a large timber, or series of timbers scarfed together. A timber keelson may be fixed atop the keel to
increase strength. In glassreinforced plastic (GRP) vessels, the keel may be a wooden or metal member firmly bonded to the GRP skin, or may
consist of a multiplefiber layup.
110.2.2 Other Longitudinal Members. Structural members that run the length of the vessel along shell plating or decks are variously termed
stringers, girders, or longitudinals. These members stiffen the entire structure against longitudinal bending loads, and reinforce shell and deck
plating against local loads. They may be builtup sections or standard structural sections. In the U.S. Navy, longitudinal members along the
side plating are called stringers; those along the bottom plating, longitudinals; and those under decks, girders. In large ships, heavy, deep, bottom
longitudinals may be fitted at some distance to either side of the keel. These members are often sized and located to carry the vertical loads
imposed by side blocks when dry docking. The heavy longitudinals are variously called sidegirders, keelsons, or docking keels.
Bilge keels may be fitted externally at the turn of the bilge to improve seakeeping by resisting rolling. Bilge keels are not usually structural
members; if they are attached by load carrying connections and extend for a significant length of the ship, they may contribute to the ship’s
longitudinal strength.
110.3 Transverse Structural Members. Transverse members are fitted primarily to stiffen the hull and enable it to resist shear and torsional
loads.
110.3.1 Frames. Transverse frames are analogous to ribs extending from the backbone of the keel inside the shell plating. They may continue
to the upper decks in their full cross section or be reduced in size at some height above the keel. Frame spacing and dimensions often vary
throughout the length of the ship to compensate for variations in loading. Intermediate partial frames may be added for local strengthening.
Web frames—deeperthannormal frames with heavy flanges—are often placed at intervals of several frame spaces, to stiffen and strengthen
the hull. Frames connect the longitudinal members and maintain spatial relationships in the face of shear and torsion. They also strengthen
the plating against bending under hydrostatic and dynamic loads or buckling under hull shear and bending, and act as ring stiffeners. U.S. Navy
practice is to number frames from the forward perpendicular (frame 0) aft; most foreign and many U.S. commercial vessels number frames from
aft forward. Frames forward of the forward perpendicular are designated by letters or negative numbers.
110.3.2 Floors. The portion of the frame from the keel to the turn of the bilge is a floor. Floors that do not continue into frames are
sometimes used for local strengthening or machinery foundations. Deep floors—deeper than the standard floors—are used at the ends of the
ship and in highload areas.
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110.3.3 Beams. Athwartships deck
Figure 142. Stems
CASTING
BULBOUS BOW
BAR STEM
(OLDER, RIVETED, CONSTRUCTION)
FLAT
PLATE
KEEL
SCARF FOR
KEEL PLATE
SCARF
STEM
BAR
RABBET
FORE
FOOT
CASTING
GARBOARD
STRAKE
PLATE STEM
WRAPPER
PLATES
COLLISION
BULKHEAD
BREASTHOOK
SHELL PLATING
WEB
stiffeners are called beams. They
strengthen the deck against local loads,
including hydrostatic loads for weather
decks, and contribute to overall ship
strength by increasing rigidity. Deck beams
normally join directly to frames at their
outboard ends, forming a continuous frame
ring. Triangular brackets, called beam
brackets or beam knees, are fitted to stiffen
the joint, or the beam is faired in to the
frame in a smooth arc to form a continuous
structure, as shown in Figures 139, 140,
and 141.
110.4 Shell Plating. Shell plating is the
side and bottom plating; i.e., those portions
of the ship’s skin that hold back the sea.
Bottom plating extends from the keel to the
turn of the bilge, side plating from the turn
of the bilge to or slightly beyond the upper
or main deck edge. Shell and deck plating
is arrayed in longitudinal strips called
strakes.
The strake adjacent to the keel is called the
garboard strake. The outer keel may be
incorporated into a keel strake. Strakes are
lettered from the keel outboard, starting
with the garboard strake as A. The strake
at the turn of the bilge is the bilge strake.
The uppermost strake, which joins to the
strength deck plating, is the sheer strake.
The keel, garboard, bilge, and sheer strakes
contribute significantly to longitudinal
strength, and are usually constructed of
heavier or stronger plate.
110.5 Decks. Decks subdivide the vessel
into horizontal levels; weather decks also
close the top of the hull and maintain the
ship’s watertight integrity. Decks add
significant strength and rigidity to the
structure as a whole and limit the extent of
flooding after damage, provided they are or
can be made watertight. Decks may be steel or aluminum plating or wooden planking, and may be covered or sheathed with wood, tile,
linoleum, or other materials. The main deck is the highest continuous watertight deck and is usually the strength deck or upper flange of the
hull girder. Because of the main deck’s significance to hull strength and watertight integrity, it is used as the reference for numbering other
decks. The outboard strake of main deck plating is normally designated the main deck stringer and is either heavier or reinforced to provide
longitudinal strength. The connection of the deck to the sheer strake is critical to hull strength. Deck to sheer strake connections are often made
by means of a welded Tjoint which may be backed up with an angle called the deck stringer angle or gunwale bar. Alternatively, the
connection may be made by means of a riveted gunwale bar, or the sheer strake may be rounded and buttwelded to the deck stringer. The U.S.
Navy uses the following definitions:
• Platform or Platform Deck – Deck extending less than the full length of the ship below the lowest complete deck; sometimes
called an orlop deck.
• Flats – Noncontinuous platforms between deck levels.
• HalfDeck – A partial deck above the lowest complete deck and below the main deck.
• Forecastle Deck – A partial deck above the main deck at the bow.
• Poop Deck – A partial deck above the main deck at the stern.
• Upper Deck – A partial deck above the main deck in the midships region, or one extending from the waists to either bow or stern.
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Decks above the main deck are called superstructure decks and may be referred to as levels. The term level also refers to nonwatertight
horizontal subdivision, usually by gratings of very deep compartments; for example, the upper level of a machinery space. In merchant ships
and auxiliaries, ’tween decks are often fitted to provide one or two levels above the hold bottom to allow cargo to be subdivided or carried high
to prevent stiff rolling.
110.6 Bulkheads. Bulkheads further subdivide levels or decks into compartments of varying size. Bulkheads may extend through one or several
decks and may be classed as structural, watertight, or joiner (also called partition or screen) bulkheads. Structural bulkheads are those that, by
design, contribute significantly to the ship’s strength. They stiffen the hull by resisting racking and torsional stresses and distribute vertical loads.
Watertight bulkheads are designed to withstand significant hydrostatic loads and are installed to increase the ship’s resistance to damage by
containing flooding. Transverse watertight bulkheads extend upward to a specified deck called the bulkhead deck. Bulkheads are strengthened
by angle or bar stiffeners where necessary, or are constructed of corrugated plate. Joiner or partition bulkheads separate and subdivide living,
working, storage or other spaces, but impart no watertight integrity or significant strength to the ship’s structure. Bulkheads often fit into more
than one class, although all bulkheads act as partitions. In practice, watertight bulkheads are almost always structural, while structural bulkheads
are often watertight.
110.7 Other Structural Members. The Stem Assembly (Figure 142) forms the bow of the ship. In its original and simplest form, still used
in wooden ships and boats, the stem or stem post consisted of a heavy, rectangular timber which is, in essence, an upward continuation of the
keel to which the side planking was attached. In ships of iron or steel construction, the stem was a rectangular forged bar attached at its base
to the keel, usually through a forefoot casting. This type of bar stem has been largely superseded by the plate stem, built up of curved wrapper
plates, although bar or heavy pipe stems are still commonly used on Great Lakes bulk carriers. The sharper portions of the stem are formed
by welding the side plates to an ordinary stem bar or length of round bar or tube, or by buttwelding the plates together. The entire assembly
is reinforced by a closely spaced network of deep floors, frames, stringers, and horizontal plate breasthooks. Vertical centerline stiffeners are
fitted in stems of large radius and bulbous bows.
Stern Assemblies, seen in Figure 143, close
Figure 143. Stern Assemblies.
CRUISER STERN
SIDE
GIRDER
STERN
FRAME
STERN CANT FRAMES
FRAME
CRUTCH
STIFFENERS
RUDDER
TRUNK
CENTER
GIRDER
FLOORS
TRANSOM
FLOOR
TRANSOM
PLATE
FLOOR
TRANSOM STERN
the aft end of the hull and must accom
modate propeller shafts and rudder as
semblies, as well as resist the dynamic
loads imposed by the rudders. In single
rudder ships, a stern post or frame is fitted
at the aft end of the keel. It is generally
constructed of castings and forgings ar
ranged to allow for the propeller shaft and
rudder stock bosses. The upper part of the
stern which extends past the rudder post is
supported by a special arrangement of
framing. This framing is carried by the
transom consisting of a deep, heavy tran
som floor in conjunction with a transverse
transom frame and beam. In counter sterns
(also called ordinary, overhanging, or el
liptical sterns), which may be found in
older merchant vessels, a system of cant
framing radiates from the center of the tran
som like the spokes of a wheel. Cruiser
sterns have a system of transverse frames
and longitudinal girders with a number of
cant frames fitted abaft the aftermost trans
verse frame. Transom sterns are similar to
cruiser sterns, but end in a flat plate, called
the transom, and have no cant frames. In
twinrudder vessels, the stern post is
omitted and the reinforced stern structure
extends forward of the rudder posts.
A double bottom may be fitted to increase
strength and resistance to underwater
damage. The inner bottom plating is laid
over the grillage of floors and longitudinals,
forming spaces often used as tankage for
bunker fuel or other liquids. The outer
strake of the inner bottom is called the
margin plate, which may extend in a
horizontal line to the side plating, or be
inclined downward near the turn of the
bilge to form the side of the double bottom. The double bottom may or may not be continuous over the length of the ship. Large combatants
such as aircraft carriers and battleships may have more than one inner bottom.
Stanchions or pillars are used to support decks, distribute vertical loads, and stiffen the hull structure between bulkheads.
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110.8 Superstructures and Deckhouses. The term superstructure is applied to a portion of a ship’s structure above the main or upper deck
extending the width of the ship and forming an integral part of the main hull. A deckhouse is a lighter structure, usually not extending the width
of the ship, that is placed on the hull rather than forming a part of it. In practice, the two terms are often confused or used interchangeably.
In naval combatants and passenger liners, deckhouses or superstructures may extend for most of the vessel’s length; in most other types, they
occupy a small portion of the ship’s length. These structures generally house accommodation, communications, navigational, or control spaces.
They may house workshops or specialized machinery; in warships, weapons control spaces and weapons mounts are often located on or in the
superstructure or deckhouse. Deckhouses are not normally designed to contribute to overall hull girder strength, but being rigidly attached to
the hull, they carry some stresses. Superstructures, as an integral part of the hull, are normally designed to carry hull stresses.
110.9 Damageresistant Features of Ships. While the entire structure of a ship is designed to resist some damage, certain features are
incorporated into ships specifically to prevent loss of the ship when damaged. Loss may result from flooding or structural failure of the hull
girder. Features enhancing a ship’s ability to resist damage are described in the following paragraphs.
110.9.1 Subdivision. Subdivision, or compartmentation, is a ship’s primary means of resisting damage. A system of watertight decks,
bulkheads, and an inner bottom limits the spread of flooding, fire, blast effects, weapon fragments, and fumes or gases. Extensive subdivision
is an inconvenience to everyone; production cost is increased, cargo storage is complicated, access and movement around the ship is hampered.
The degree of subdivision is therefore a compromise between safety and other requirements. Factors considered include the following:
• Ability to resist battle damage.
Table 113. Standards of Subdivision.
Type Ship Standard of Subdivision
Navy Ships (without side protection systems)
1
Seagoing craft under 100 ft in length 1 compartment
Ships 100300 ft in length 2 compartments
Ships over 300 ft in length:
Combatants and Personnel
Carriers, such as Hospital Ships
and Troop Transports
Withstand rapid flooding from a shell opening equal
to 15% of length between perpendiculars at any
point fore or aft
All other ships Withstand flooding from an opening equal to 12.5%
of the length between perpendiculars
Coast Guard Standards for Commercial Vessels
2
Tankers over 738 ft in length Withstand solid flooding from a shell opening with
length equal to the lesser of 0.495L
2/3
or 47.6 ft,
width equal to the lesser of B/5 or 37.74 ft, from the
keel upwards without limit, at any point between
perpendiculars
Tankers between 492 and 738 ft in length Withstand flooding from damage described above at
any point except at an aft machinery room bulkhead
Tankers less than 492 ft in length Withstand flooding from damage described above at
any point between main transverse bulkheads,
except to an aft machinery room
Great Lakes dry bulk carriers Withstand solid flooding from a shell opening with
length equal to the lesser of 0.495L
2/3
or 47.6 ft,
width of 4.2 ft, from the keel upwards without limit,
between any two main transverse bulkheads
Barges carrying very hazardous materials Withstand flooding from damage with length of 6 ft,
width of 30 in, from the keel upwards without limit,
at any point, including the intersection of a
transverse and longitudinal bulkhead
Barges carrying moderately hazardous
materials
Withstand flooding from damage described above at
any point, except on a transverse watertight bulkhead
1
Naval Ship Engineering Center Design Data Sheet, DDS0791, Stability and Buoyancy of
U.S. Naval Surface Ships, 1 Aug 75
2
Title 46, US Code of Federal Regulations (46 CFR), Subchapter S. Requirements have
been simplified. Additional definitions and exceptions apply. Subdivision requirements
for passenger ships are especially diverse.
• Ability to survive underwater damage.
• Ability to resist bow collision damage.
• Ability to resist damage from stranding.
• Protection of vital spaces against flooding.
• Ability to resist spread of fire, smoke, and
airborne contaminants.
• Interference of subdivision with arrangements.
• Interference of subdivision with access and
systems.
• Provisions for carrying liquids.
110.9.2 Flooding. A principal concern in many casualty
situations is limiting flooding. Floodwater may be admitted
to the ship by collision, grounding, weapons strike,
firefighting, or other means. However flooding occurs, it
is necessary to limit its extent to minimize the following:
• Loss of transverse and longitudinal stability.
• Loss of reserve buoyancy.
• Damage to cargo and ship systems.
Ideally, a ship should be able to sustain increasing amounts
of flooding until it founders from loss of reserve buoyancy.
Loss of transverse or longitudinal stability can cause a ship
to capsize or plunge, even when a sizable reserve buoyancy
remains. Offcenter flooding and its serious effects on
transverse stability can be avoided by using transverse
subdivision only. Complete avoidance of longitudinal
watertight boundaries is not always possible or advisable,
but most modern ships follow a general pattern of transverse watertight subdivision, at the expense of admitting a larger volume of floodwater.
Some longitudinal subdivision is necessary to reduce free surface effect, especially in tanks. This subdivision normally takes the form of a
centerline bulkhead dividing the inner bottom into port and starboard tanks, or use of wing tanks smaller than the adjacent centerline tanks.
Sills, seen in Figure 144, or baffle plates are sometimes used to reduce the free surface effects of rolling or shallow flooding but are ineffective
against unchecked flooding. Transverse watertight bulkheads near the extremities of the ship limit flooding, and prevent the large and dangerous
trims that large amounts of floodwater at the ends of the ship would produce. Additional transverse watertight bulkheads are spaced to permit
the ship to remain afloat after a specific number of adjacent compartments, usually 1, 2, or 3, are flooded. The number of compartments that
can be flooded without causing foundering is the ship’s standard of subdivision or standard of flooding. For example, the FFG7 Class frigate
shown in Figure 145 can remain afloat if any 3 of its 13 major watertight compartments are flooded—it is said to be a 3compartment ship.
Progressive flooding is defeated by carrying each watertight bulkhead intact from the bottom plating to a height above the expected flooding
water level. Watertight bulkheads are normally carried watertight to a specified deck, called the bulkhead deck. The bulkhead deck on most
designs is the main or weather deck and may be either a continuous or stepped deck. For the FFG7 Class ship shown in Figure 145, the main
deck is the bulkhead deck. Standards of subdivision for Navy and commercial ships are given in Table 113.
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Ships are assigned a minimum freeboard based on the reserve buoyancy required to sustain flooding to their standard of subdivision without
foundering. This freeboard is measured from a margin line that represents the highest allowable waterline in a damaged condition. The margin
line is usually established near the bulkhead deck or a designated freeboard deck. Load lines for cargo ships and tankers or limiting draft marks
for warships are marked at a distance below the margin line corresponding to the required freeboard. If the load line or limiting draft mark is
not immersed before damage, and flooding is equal to or less than the standard of subdivision, the ship will remain afloat at a waterline at or
below the margin line after damage. Salvors may not be able to restore a ship’s required minimum freeboard; reduced freeboard must be
recognized as a loss of reserve buoyancy and damage resistance. This is particularly important if the casualty is to be towed some distance to
safe haven. In such a case, a salvage engineer may wish to calculate the standard of subdivision for the ship in its actual condition.
110.9.3 Likely Damage. Certain features
Figure 144. Effects of a Sill.
are incorporated into ships to isolate
common or likely forms of damage.
Because the ends of the ship are more
vulnerable to damage from collision or
grounding, a collision bulkhead is required
at about five percent of the ship’s length
from the bow, along with an afterpeak
bulkhead near the stern, enclosing the
propeller shaft penetration into the hull. A
second collision bulkhead may be required
in large ships. Watertight double bottoms
are required in some classes of vessels to
provide protection against grounding and
limited protection against underwater
weapons. Machinery spaces are segregated
Figure 145. FFG7 Transverse Subdivision.
MAINDECK
(BULKHEADDECK)
AP 368 328 292 250 212 180 140 100
84
64 20 FP 32
SECONDDECK(DCdk)
from the rest of the ship by watertight bulk
heads that (1) protect the ship from intense
machinery space fires, and (2) protect vital
equipment located in the machinery spaces
from flooding in other parts of the ship.
Sheer can prevent or delay progressive
flooding through deck openings when trim
is extreme, as shown in Figure 146.
Wing tanks, common in tankers, ore
carriers, and large combatants, limit flood
ing from damage to the sides. The effect
of offcenter flooding can be mitigated by
constructing the wing tanks with volumes
Figure 146. Sheer Defeating Progressive Flooding.
SHIP WITHOUT SHEER
SHIP WITH SHEER TRIMMED TO SAME DEGREE
that are small compared to the center tanks
or holds, or by keeping wing tanks filled at
least to the waterline. A system of wing
tanks combined with a double bottom
produces, in effect, a double hull.
110.9.4 Structural Damage. Structural
failure is resisted by the use of materials of
consistent and known strength, and by build
ing in reserve strength. Ships’ scantlings are
selected to result in bending stresses on the
order of 15,000 to 22,000 pounds per square
inch, considerably less than the yield stress
of shipbuilding steels (32,000 psi or greater).
This stress level is often contingent on
specified loading sequences and conditions,
particularly in very large tankers or bulk
carriers. Hull strength is addressed in greater
detail in Paragraph 111.
110.9.5 Additional Features of Naval Ships. Both naval and merchant ships use the damageresistant features previously described. Naval ships,
intended to go "in harm’s way," incorporate additional damageresistant features in their construction. Naval ships will usually have more extensive
subdivision than merchant vessels, although some naval auxiliaries are built to classification society standards. Combatants are built with a much
greater degree of subdivision and greater reserve of strength than auxiliaries or merchant ships of the same size. Naval vessels often have multiple
machinery spaces segregated by watertight bulkheads, as well as auxiliary machinery spaces located remotely from the main machinery rooms.
Additional vital spaces, such as ship control stations or weapons spaces, are designated and protected by watertight subdivision. In all commissioned
vessels of the U.S. Navy, a damage control (DC) deck is designated. The DC deck, on which damage control equipment and stations are located,
is considered a vital space and is made watertight where feasible. Remote operators for certain vital piping and electrical systems are located on
the DC deck. The damage control deck is located high in the ship and is usually covered; fore and aft access is provided through watertight openings
in the main transverse bulkheads. Doors and nonwatertight fittings in main transverse bulkheads are not permitted below the DC deck. Doors
through transverse bulkheads into shaft alleys are not allowed; no penetrations are allowed through the collision bulkhead. In addition to armored
decks and side armor, large combatants, such as aircraft carriers and battleships, are fitted with underwater defense systems (also called side protective
or torpedo protection systems) consisting of layered wing and bottom tanks. These are alternately empty or liquidfilled to absorb the shock of
underwater explosions. The tank boundaries form a series of barriers that must be breached before major spaces are flooded.
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111 SHIP STRENGTH
111.1 Stresses in Ships. Ships, like all
Figure 147. Deflections from Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Stresses.
PRIMARY
SECONDARY
TERTIARY
structures, are subject to loadinduced stress
and the resulting strains. Simple beam
theory is employed to predict ship
responses to various conditions of loading
by treating assuming the ship’s structure as
a builtup box girder bearing an distributed
load (weight of the ship and contents) and
supported by a distributed reaction
(buoyancy). Of principal concern are the
compound bending and shear stresses
resulting from the ship’s loading and wave
action. Torsional stresses are also
important, and can be severely aggravated
by grounding in large ships. Stresses may
be divided into three groups:
• Primary or Structural –
Affecting the hull girder.
• Secondary or Local –
Affecting major substructures
or definable areas of the hull,
such as a hold or bulkhead.
• Tertiary – Very localized,
Figure 148. Hull Girder Bending.
SAGGING
HOGGING
BUOYANCY
BUOYANCY
WEIGHT
WEIGHT
affecting small areas of
plating or single stiffeners.
The distinctions among primary, secondary,
and tertiary stresses are illustrated by the
character of the accompanying structural
deflections, as shown in Figure 147. The
total stress on any portion of structure is
the sum of primary, secondary and tertiary
stresses that may tend to either reinforce or
cancel one another.
111.1.1 Structural Stresses. The
principal structural stresses are caused by
the following conditions:
• Weight and Buoyancy Distri
bution. Differences in buoy
ancy and weight distribution
cause longitudinal bending
stresses and accompanying
shear stresses. An excess of
buoyancy in the midships
region with an excess of
weight near the ends of the
ship places the deck in ten
sion and the keel in compres
sion. The resulting convex
deflection is called hog or
hogging. An excess of
weight in the midships region
and excess buoyancy near the
ends places the deck in com
pression and the keel in ten
sion. The concave deflection is called sag, or sagging. Long waves can impose hogging or sagging conditions as shown in Figure
148. Bending stresses are resisted by the longitudinal strength members, particularly those of the strength deck, sheer strake and
bottom. Bending stresses are normally greatest in the midships region of an intact ship, while maximum shear stresses occur in
the quarter length regions.
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• Water Pressure. The dis
Figure 149. Water Pressure.
WATER PRESSURE
WEIGHT LOADS
DEFLECTION
(EXAGGERATED)
Figure 150. Racking.
WATER
PRESSURE
DEFLECTION
(EXAGGERATED)
WAVE
PROFILE
tributed force of buoyancy, as
water pressure, is resisted by
the side and bottom plating
stiffened by a network of
frames, floors, longitudinals,
etc. All weight loads are
ultimately transmitted through
the ship structure to be borne
by water pressure. The dif
ferences in weight and water
pressure distribution produce
varying loads as shown in
Figure 149.
• Racking. Transverse waves
alter the water pressure dis
tribution around the ship, as
shown in Figure 150. The
unequal pressure distribution
tends to bend side plating and
transverse frames about a
horizontal longitudinal axis.
The transverse distortion is
called racking and is resisted
by shear stresses in the ship’s
structure. Racking stresses
are highest on the corners of
a ship’s cross section.
Racking is resisted by trans
verse bulkheads and frame
ring, particularly the corner
brackets.
• Drydocking. Ships supported
by a single line of drydock
keel blocks will hog trans
versely. A cellular double
bottom stiffens the hull
against such hog, but ad
ditional lines of side blocks
are more effective.
• Stranding. Stranding
changes the bending stress
distribution in the hull girder
by altering the buoyancy dis
tribution and introducing con
centrated loading along the
bottom. Point loads similar
to those caused by docking
blocks, but naturally much
less predictable, result if the
ship strands on uneven or
rocky ground. Large ships
may sag transversely if
stranded over a narrow width
near the centerline.
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111.1.2 Local Stresses. Secondary and tertiary stresses result from localized loads such as the following:
• Panting. Panting is an oscillatory motion of the shell plating, principally near the bow and stern of a ship, caused by uneven water
pressure as the ship passes through waves. The foreend (and sometimes the after) structure is reinforced with a system of panting
beams, panting stringers, panting frames, breasthooks, and deep floors to withstand panting loads.
• Pounding or slamming. Pounding occurs when the bows of a pitching ship clear the water and come down heavily. Pounding
is most severe in fullbowed ships in the bottom structure in the forward quarter length of the ship. In this pounding region,
plating and bottom stiffeners are often heavier and/or more closely spaced than in the rest of the ship.
• Local Loads. Local strengthening enables the ship structure to carry loads caused by large local weights, such as machinery or
cargo. Similar measures are used to strengthen structure in way of fittings that transmit high loads, such as padeyes, winch
mounts, and kingpost foundations. The geometry of portions of the hull or fittings may cause stress raisers, requiring local
reinforcement to increase loadcarrying capacity. Figure 151 shows some forms of local reinforcement.
• Vibration. Vibration from engines, propellers, etc., causes stresses in various parts of the ship. Vibrationinduced stresses are
resisted by local stiffening of areas in way of vibration sources.
111.1.3 Weapons Effects. Impact and
Figure 151. Local Strengthening.
FREEEDGE STIFFENING
PLATE STIFFENING
FACE STRAP
GUSSET
DOUBLER PLATE
MACHINERY
FOUNDATION
DEEP
FRAME
BILGE
KEEL
TRIPPING
BRACKETS
shock effects of airborne, underwater, and
contact explosions can cause severe and not
wholly predictable loads on ship structure.
Warships are constructed with this kind of
loading in mind, and are therefore strength
ened to withstand blast and impact loads
over much of their structure. The exact
nature of this strengthening varies from
ship to ship but generally consists of closer
stiffener and bulkhead spacing than would
be found in an equivalentsized merchant
ship or auxiliary. Weapons effects are
discussed in greater detail in the U.S. Navy
Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 3 (S0300
A6MAN030).
111.2 Longitudinal Bending Stress. The
magnitude of the longitudinal bending
stresses in the hull girder is a function of the
total bending moment, crosssectional area
distribution. The bending moment is a
function of the shear force distribution along
the ship’s length, which is in turn a function
of the ship’s load distribution. The hull is
assumed to be a statically loaded beam that
behaves in accordance with the theory of
flexure (see Paragraph 23). The downward
loads on the beam are the weights of the
component parts of the ship and any weights
carried on the ship. Upward loads are the
forces of buoyancy (and ground reaction or
block reaction for stranded, beached, or dry
docked ships). Bending moment is
calculated by a double integration of the
static load curve. The steps in the
longitudinal stress calculation are:
• Determine longitudinal
wei ght and buoyancy
distributions.
• Statically balance the ship on
still water or a wave.
• Develop the longitudinal load
distribution or curve.
• Integrate the load curve to give shear forces.
• Integrate the shear curve to give bending moments.
• Determine which structure in sections of interest is effective.
• Determine moment of inertia, section modulus and location of the neutral axis for sections of interest.
• Calculate bending and shear stresses in sections of interest.
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These steps are examined separately in the following paragraphs. Amplifying information can be found in the Naval Ship Engineering Center
Design Data Sheet DDS 1006, or any good naval architecture text. Examples 15, F3, and F5 demonstrate longitudinal strength calculations.
111.2.1 Load Curve. The load on the hull girder at any point is the difference between the buoyant force and weight at that point. This is
graphically represented by superimposing buoyancy and weight curves. The areas under the curves represent total buoyancy and total weight.
For a floating ship, the two areas must be equal, with their geometric centers in vertical line. Figure 161 shows the load curve developed for
Example 15. For the shear and bending moment integrations to close properly, the ship must be statically balanced; that is, weight and
buoyancy, as calculated by integration of the respective curves, should be within 0.5 percent, and LCB and LCG should be within one foot of
each other.
It is important to adopt sign conventions for the directions of forces and distances, and carry them through subsequent calculations. The
calculations in this handbook follow the intuitive convention that downward forces (weight) are negative and upward forces (buoyancy) are
positive, resulting in load curves that are predominantly positive over the middle portion for hogging hulls, and predominantly positive at the
ends for sagging hulls.
111.2.2 Buoyancy Curve. The magnitude of the buoyant force at any point is a function of the crosssectional area below the water line and
the water density. The buoyancy curve will therefore follow the curve of areas. Areas of sections are most easily obtained from Bonjean’s
Curves, shown in Figure FO3 and described in Paragraph 13.11. Lines drawings, offsets, or general plans can also be used to determine
sectional areas by numerical integration. The still water buoyancy curve is developed by dividing sectional areas by 35 (cubic feet per long
ton of seawater) to convert to unit buoyancy (tons per foot) and plotting these values as ordinates.
A buoyancy curve based on ordinates taken from Bonjean’s Curves will not include appendage buoyancy. If known, appendage buoyancies
can be added to the basic curve as rectangles or trapezoids. When appendage buoyancy is unknown, a simpler and generally adequate solution
is to assume that an appropriate appendage allowance (a fraction of fullload displacement) is distributed over the length of the ship. Final buoy
ancy ordinates are determined by an appendage allowance adjusted for the ship’s condition, i.e., the appendage allowance divided by actual dis
placement. Buoyancy ordinates multiplied by the adjusted appendage allowance plus one give adjusted buoyancy ordinates. Integrating the
adjusted buoyancy ordinates should give a correct total buoyancy equal to total weight. Appendage allowances are discussed in Paragraph
14.10.2.
As part of the regression analysis described
Figure 152. Approximate Buoyancy Curve for FullBodied Ship.
L
ab
= = = B
pmb
/L
pmb
L
pmb
= = C
B
y
3
L
ab
 b
5
= = 0.08y
3
0.2L
b
3
y
3
y
3
y
3
L  L
pmb
 L
fb
L
pmb
= = = 0.04y
3
(0.61  0.615 C
B
)L b
1
y
1
y
1
(1.74C
B
 1.002)L
B
pmb
=
b
4
y
4
y
4
b
5
y
5
y
5
L
pmb
B T
m
C
m
35
L
fb
= = = C
B
y
3
L
fb
 b
1
b
2
y
2
y
2
(1.186  1.17C
B
)L
AP FP
b b
4 5
L
ab
b
3
L
pmb
L
fb
b b
2 1
in Paragraph 17, Porricelli, Boyd, and
Schlieffer developed a method of
approximating the buoyancy curve for
merchant and auxiliary hulls with a series
of trapezoids. The method is reasonably
accurate for fullbodied ships (C
B
> 0.6).
The ship is first divided into three
segments: the parallel midbody (pmb), the
forebody (fb), and the afterbody (ab). The
forebody and afterbody are then divided
into two sections each. A uniform
buoyancy distribution is assumed for the
parallel midbody and represented by a
rectangle. Ordinates are plotted at the
forward and after perpendiculars and the
boundaries of the sections of the hull and
connected by straight lines to form the
buoyancy curve. Buoyancy of the parallel
midbody (B
pmb
), lengths of sections (L
n
, b
n
)
and heights of ordinates (y
n
) are calculated
as shown in Figure 152.
To facilitate summing weight and buoyancy
curves to develop the load curve, the
buoyancy curve is often stepped, that is,
approximated by a series of horizontal segments at a height corresponding to the mean buoyancy ordinate for that segment. The procedure for
stepping a curve is described in Paragraph 14.9. It is not necessary for the buoyancy curve to have the same number of segments as the weight
curve, although it is convenient for all of the bounding stations for the curve with fewer segments to coincide with stations on the other curve.
The load curve resulting when the two curves are summed will have the same number of segments as the curve with the most segments.
111.2.3 Weight Curve. Weight distribution tables or curves are often difficult to obtain, even though they are developed during the design
of the hull girder. For U.S. Navy ships, a Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections drawing is prepared, showing weight distribution, usually
for full load. A portion of the longitudinal strength drawing for FFG7 Class ships is reproduced in Figure FO4. The complete drawing in
cludes section scantlings, similar to Figure 158, for a number of stations along the ship’s length. Format and content of longitudinal strength
drawings for Navy ships are more completely described in Appendix B.
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S0300A8HBK010
Weight distributions for Navy ships are tabulated or drawn for 20 standard ship segments between perpendiculars, plus one segment forward
of the forward perpendicular and one aft of the after perpendicular (22 segments). The segments forward and aft of the perpendiculars extend
from the perpendiculars to the ends of the ship and are not necessarily the same length as the segments between perpendiculars. Segments are
identified by the stations that bound them, numbered from 0 at the forward perpendicular to 20 at the after perpendicular. Weight distribution
is assumed to be uniform within each segment, producing a stepped curve. For cargo ships, tankers, etc., where loading may vary by
compartment, it may be more convenient to segment the ship by compartments. Weight distributions for a number of Navy ships are given in
Appendix B.
The weight curve from a longitudinal strength drawing or other source must be corrected for the ship’s actual weight distribution, including any
major alterations (SHIPALTS). Often this information is not available and weight change estimates must be made until the weight distribution
sums to the known ship displacement. If detailed weight curves are not available, weight distribution can be estimated by one of the methods
described in Paragraph 111.13.
111.2.4 Shear and Bending Moment Curves. A fundamental principle of beam theory is that at any point in an elastic beam:
where:
P =
dS
dx
=
d
2
M
dx
2
S =
⌡
⌠
Pdx and M =
⌡
⌠
Sdx =
⌡
⌠
⌡
⌠
Pdx
P = load
S = shear
M = bending moment
Vertical shear at any section is the sum of
Figure 153. Load, Shear, Bending Moment Curve Relations and Conventions.
W>B
W>B
B>W
B>W
SAGGING SHIP
HOGGING SHIP
B>W
B>W
AP
AP
FP
FP
S = 0, M AT
LOCAL MAX
P = 0, S = LOCAL
MAX/MIN, M AT
INFLECTION
P AT MAX,
S AT INFLECTION
SHEAR, S
LOAD, P
MOMENT, M
the vertical forces to one side of the
section; the shear curve is therefore
developed by integrating the load curve (the
sum of the weight and buoyancy curves)
along its length, starting from either end of
the ship. The total positive area under the
shear curve should equal the total negative
area for static equilibrium. Shear is zero at
the ends of the ship; for most ships, shear
will be maximum near the quarterlengths
and change signs near midships.
Bending moment at any section is the sum
of force moments about the section. The
bending moment curve is developed by
integrating the shear curve along its length.
Bending moment is zero at the ends of the
ship, and is maximum where shear changes
sign. The load and shear curves cannot be
defined mathematically, so graphical or
numerical methods are used to perform the
integrations, as shown in Paragraph 14 and
Appendix F. Several important relation
ships between the load, shear and bending
moment curves, illustrated in Figure 153,
act as checks on the completed curves:
• When P is 0, S is a maximum or
minimum and M is at an
inflection point.
• When P is a maximum, S is at an
inflection point.
• When S is 0, M is a maximum or minimum.
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The load and shear curves can be integrated from either end. Each integration should close to zero at the end opposite the beginning. Small
errors in closing are unavoidable if the areas under the weight and buoyancy curve are not precisely equal, and LCG and LCB are not coincident.
It is sometimes useful to integrate each curve twice, once in each direction, and compare the results. If the integrations close to zero, integrating
in the opposite direction will reverse the sign of the ordinate at each station, but will not change the magnitude. If the integrations do not close
precisely, integrating in the opposite direction will change the magnitude of the shear and moment ordinates at each station, and is a means of
estimating the error range of the calculated values. If the shear curve does not close, the sections of maximum shear and bending moment will
also shift somewhat when integrating in the opposite direction. For small errors in closing, the magnitude of the shear and bending moment
ordinates in the middle portion of the curve will be fairly reliable, but the ordinates near the ends of the ship should not be trusted.
A useful convention is to integrate the load curve from left to right (from aft forward) to develop the shear curve, and the shear curve from right
to left (from forward aft) to develop the moment curve. Following this convention, along with taking downward forces as negative, will result
in shear and moment curves with the features shown in Figure 153:
• For sagging hulls:
(1) Positive shear on the left side of the plot (aft).
(2) Negative shear on the right side of the plot (forward).
(3) Negative (convex downwards) bending moment.
• For hogging hulls:
(1) Negative shear on the left side of the plot (aft).
(2) Positive shear on the right side of the plot (forward).
(3) Positive (convex upwards) bending moment.
This convention is useful because the bending moment curves superficially resemble a sagging or hogging hull, as appropriate. Other
conventions may be encountered in ship design data. Shear curves that are the mirror image of the convention described above are common
and result when both shear and moment integrations are run in the same direction. U.S. Navy longitudinal strength drawings disregard the sign
of bending moments and shear forces and show all curves above the axis to save space. Example 15 calculates still water bending moment
and shear curves for an FFG7 hull; the curves are illustrated in Figures 162.
111.3 Variations in Loading. Any change in weight or buoyancy distribution will alter the load curve.
111.3.1 Changes in Weight Distribution. Changes in weight distribution generally result from deliberate actions, such as taking on or
discharging cargo, ballasting, launching or recovering aircraft and boats, use of fuels or other consumables, or shifting weights. Weight
distribution can also be changed in a casualty by:
• Flooding.
• Major fires which consume flammable materials.
• Spilled cargo.
• Loss of structure or fittings.
Weight additions or removals change total weight, and therefore affect total buoyancy and buoyancy distribution. Weight shifts that significantly
alter trim also affect the buoyancy distribution.
Buoyancy distribution can change without an accompanying change in weight distribution. Such changes result from:
• Waves.
• Grounding.
• Drydocking.
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111.3.2 Waveinduced Buoyancy
Figure 154. WaveInduced Buoyancy.
DECREASED BUOYANCY
INCREASED BUOYANCY
WAVE PROFILE
WAVE PROFILE SECTIONAL AREAS
STILL WATERLINE
BONJEAN’S CURVES
Distribution. In all but the stillest water,
buoyancy distribution changes constantly in
proportion to the variations in draft along
the ship’s length as successive wave trains
pass. A waveinduced buoyancy curve is
developed by superimposing a wave profile,
or series of profiles, on the ship profile,
instead of using a horizontal waterline, to
determine drafts at stations. An infinite
number of waves are possible; in practice,
it is usually sufficient to examine only
worstcase situations. Maximum midships
bending moments result from the two
situations shown in Figure 148. Ships are
designed to carry the stresses imposed by
these conditions, based on a trochoidal or
sinusoidal wave form with length equal to
the ship’s length (L). Standard wave
heights were formerly taken as L/20, and
then 1.1 √L as ship size increased, but with
steady increases in ship length, these
formulae yield unrealistically large waves.
More recent ABS construction rules specify
different formulae for different ranges of
Figure 155. Trochoidial Wave Form.
L
EQUAL AREAS
INITIAL PLACEMENT OF WAVE ON HULL PROFILE
LINE OF
CENTERS
STILL
WATER
LINE
r
2
2R
r
2
2R
R
r
h
length, although Navy design practice still
uses the 1.1 √L wave. Although artificial,
these assumed conditions have proven
adequate for design work; they are used
here to illustrate the procedures for
analyzing waveinduced stresses in ships.
The salvage engineer who finds it necessary
to evaluate the strength of a casualty
exposed to wave action should base his
worst cases on observed or expected waves
and the actual loading and structural
condition of the casualty.
Total bending moment is sometimes spoken
of as the sum of a still water bending
moment and a waveinduced bending
moment. The total bending moment is
simply the bending moment resulting from
the load distribution at that instant. The
bending moment can be evaluated by
adding to or subtracting from the still water
buoyancy curve or by starting from scratch
by superimposing a wave profile over the
Bonjean’s curves to develop the buoyancy
curve, as shown in Figure 154. As before,
the area under the buoyancy curve must
equal the area under the weight curve.
To ensure that shear and bending moment
integrations close, the ship must be
statically balanced on the wave; that is, the waterline must be adjusted until weight equals buoyancy and the center of buoyancy is in vertical
line with the center of gravity. When using Bonjean’s Curves in the profile format, this is most easily accomplished by plotting the wave profile
to the same vertical and horizontal scales as the Bonjean’s Curves on a piece of tracing paper. The wave profile is laid over the Bonjean’s
Curves, with either the crest or trough at the midship station, as appropriate. Section areas are picked off as ordinates to a trial buoyancy curve,
which is integrated to determine buoyancy and LCB. If the first guess does not match buoyancy and weight within limits, successive calculations
are made, moving the wave up and down and trimming it until a position is found where buoyancy is within one percent of weight, and LCB
is within one foot of LCG. When the final position of the ship on the wave is determined, the section areas are converted to unit buoyancies
to plot a precise buoyancy curve that is used to determine the mean unit buoyancy over each segment of the ship’s length. Buoyancy and weight
curves are then summed to calculate the load curve; shear and bending moment integrations are conducted as for the still water condition. When
the rosette format Bonjean’s Curves are used, drafts at each station must be determined by interpolation so the section areas can be read from
the curves. Alternatively, rosette format curves can be traced onto a profile of the ship. The horizontal scale of the ship profile (not the same
as the Bonjean’s Curve area scale) is not critical, but should not be more than twice the vertical scale; if the horizontal scale is too great, portions
of the wave profile will be steep enough that small errors in plotting will cause significant errors in reading sectional areas.
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A trochoid is the curve traced by a point inside a circle as the circle rolls along a horizontal line, as shown in Figure 155. Coordinates for the
trochoidal wave form are developed from the relationships:
The relationships are not linear, so there is no fixed φ interval that will match the x interval to station spacing; x and y coordinates are
x = L
φ
360
+ h
sinφ
2
y = h
1 cosφ
2
determined for values of φ from 0 to 360 at convenient increments, such as 30 degrees. Because the ordinates to the trochoidal wave do not
fall on Bonjean’s stations, it is important to plot the curve carefully to minimize error. The area under a sagging trochoid is less than the length
multiplied by half the height, so the line of centers (see Figure 155) must be placed above the still water line for buoyancy to equal ship’s
weight (for a hogging wave, the line is placed below the still waterline). The area under a trochoid is equal to that of a rectangle with the same
length and an upper boundary formed by a line r
2
/2R below the line of centers. Since the circle describing the trochoid makes one revolution
in the ship’s length, L = 2πR, and 2R = L/π. For an L/20 wave, r = L/40, and:
As an initial estimate, the line of centers of the trochoidal wave should be placed 0.00196L above the still waterline.
r
2
2R
=
¸
¸
_
,
L
40
2
L
π
=
L
2
1,600
π
L
=
πL
1,600
= 0.00196L
¸
¸
_
,
L
20
wave
If r is expressed as 0.55 √L, L will cancel out of the ratio, giving no solution. For a 1.1 √L wave, r is expressed as h/2, and:
For manual calculations, it is often simpler to use sinusoidal waves (y = Lsinφ), as they are not horizontalscale dependent. The full wave form
r
2
2R
=
¸
¸
_
,
h
2
2
L
π
=
πh
2
4L
=
0.785h
2
L
1.1 L wave
is developed in 180 degrees, and ordinates calculated at even increments of φ are plotted at evenly spaced stations. If increments of φ are set
equal to 180 divided by the number of segments, the wave ordinate stations correspond to the Bonjean’s curve stations, simplifying determination
of section areas. Sinusoidal waves are somewhat steeper than trochoidal waves. For finelined ships, maximum hogging moments will be lower
and maximum sagging moments higher than moments based on trochoidal waves of the same length and height. For fullbodied ships, both
hogging and sagging moments will be higher when based on sinusoidal waves. For a ship with block coefficient of 0.46, the standard 1.1 √L
sine wave bending moment is 6 percent less than trochoidal for hogging and 2 percent higher for sagging. For a block coefficient of 1.0, the
standard sine wave bending moment is 11 percent higher for hogging and 9 percent higher for sagging.
111.4 Curve Scales. It is sometimes convenient to draw the load, shear, and bending moment curves on the same plan. To standardize
drawing size and simplify manual integration, the U. S. Navy has adopted the following scaling criteria for longitudinal strength drawings like
that shown in Figure FO4.
• Base length for all curves is 20 units. Base length corresponds to the length between perpendiculars, so the horizontal scale is
one unit = L/20 feet.
• The mean heights of the weight and buoyancy curves are three units for the full load condition. Vertical scale for weight,
buoyancy, and load curves is one unit = W/3L tons per foot of length.
• One square unit of area under the weight, buoyancy, or load curves represents L/20 × W/3L = W/60 tons.
• The shear curve is drawn so that one unit of ordinate represents two square units of area under the load curve; the vertical shear
scale is one unit = W/30 tons.
• One square unit of area under the shear curve represents L/20 × W/30 = WL/600 foottons.
• The bending moment curve is drawn so that one unit of ordinate represents three square units under the shear curve; the vertical
moment scale is one unit = WL/200 foottons.
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Navy drawings use one inch as the base unit, but any convenient unit or multiple can be used. When there is no requirement to plot curves
on the same plan, it is more convenient to make all the integration calculations in the base units without scale conversions.
111.5 Section Modulus. From beam
Figure 156. Ineffective Shadow Zones at Discontinuities.
LONGITUDINAL BULKHEAD
BELOW
PLAN VIEW
SECTION AA
A A
1:4 SLOPE
TRANSVERSE BULKHEAD BELOW
DECK OPENING
SHADOW
IN DECK
SHADOW
IN DECK
TRANSVERSE BULKHEAD
NONSTRENGTH DECK
STRENGTH DECKS
BRACKET
SHADOW IN
BULKHEAD
1:4 SLOPE
EFFECTIVE
BULKHEAD
DECK
OPENING
theory, the bending stress (σ) at any point
is given by:
where:
σ =
My
I
M = bending moment at the
section in question
y = vertical distance from the
neutral axis to the fiber
(element) in question
I = moment of inertia of the
section in question about the
neutral axis
This relationship shows that the maximum
tensile and compressive stresses will occur
in the beam elements furthest from the
neutral axis. The distance from the neutral
axis to the outer fibers is designated c. The
term I/c is sometimes calculated separately
and called the section modulus (Z or SM).
Substituting:
If, as is common, bending moment is ex
σ
max
=
Mc
I
=
M
Z
pressed in foottons, moment of inertia in
in
2
ft
2
, and distances from the neutral axis
in feet, the calculation yields bending stress
in long tons per square inch. It is best to
convert tons per square inch to pounds per square inch for comparison with material strengths (normally tabulated in psi) and to avoid confusion
between long, short, and metric tons.
111.5.1 Effective Structure. Calculating the moment of inertia for a simple girder is straightforward; the relatively complex cross section
of a ship is another matter. Judgement must be used to determine which elements of the ship’s structure effectively contribute to longitudinal
strength. Elements that are subject to buckling, tripping and other forms of load shirking, or that are inadequately joined to the overall structure,
cannot be assumed to contribute to longitudinal strength. As load shirking by panels with a widthtothickness ratio greater than 70 is likely,
contribution of unsupported plating panels should be limited to 70 times the thickness. Material not structurally continuous for at least 40 percent
of the length of the ship about the section being examined is assumed to be ineffective.
Only the net crosssectional area of longitudinally continuous components of longitudinal strength members, excluding openings and ineffective
shadow areas forward and aft of openings or other discontinuities, are included when calculating the moment of inertia. The shadow area of
an opening is the area forward and aft of the opening between converging lines drawn tangent to the radiused corners at a slope of one transverse
unit to four longitudinal units, as shown in Figure 156. All structures, including longitudinal framing and other connected structures within
this area, are considered ineffective. For openings caused by damage or with sharp corners, lines bounding shadow areas should be drawn
tangent to points outside the area of wrinkled or upset plating, or at a distance equal to 30 times the plating thickness from the edge of the
opening, whichever is greater. Shadow areas adjacent to discontinuities such as the ends of longitudinal bulkheads, strength decks, and inner
bottoms, are bounded by lines with a 1:4 slope, as shown in Figure 156.
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111.5.2 Calculating Section Modulus. After the elements to be included have been selected, moment of inertia, I, is calculated by summing
second moments of area (ay
2
) of individual elements about an arbitrary axis. It is most convenient to sum moments about the keel (some
authorities prefer to use an assumed neutral axis). Moments of inertia (i) of elements with significant vertical dimensions are added to the
summed second moments of elemental areas. Moment of inertia about the keel (I
K
) is then:
where:
I
K
= (ay
2
) (i)
I
K
= moment of inertia of section about the keel, in
2
ft
2
a = area of individual section element, in
2
y = height of centroid of section element above the keel, ft
ay
2
= second moment of area of individual section element, in
2
ft
i = moment of inertia of individual section elements, in
2
ft
2
Measuring areas in square inches and vertical distances from the axis in feet gives second moments of area (moments of inertia) in in
2
ft
2
, rather
than the in
4
, ft
4
, cm
4
, etc., customarily used in other branches of engineering. Moment of inertia of a rectangle is equal to bh
3
/12, where h is
the height and b the breadth of the rectangle:
If area is given in square inches, and height
i =
bh
3
12
=
(bh) h
2
12
=
ah
2
12
Figure 157. Moment of Inertia for Inclined Plates.
REFERENCE AXIS
y
h
y
h
g
g
k
2
=
h
2
12
i = ak
2
in feet, the units of moments of inertia of
individual elements are consistent with the
units of ay
2
.
Individual moments of inertia for inclined
or curved plates with significant vertical
dimensions are determined by calculating
the square of the radius of gyration (k) as
shown in Figure 157. Moment of inertia
can then be calculated from the definition
of radius of gyration.
i = ak
2
To obtain i in in
2
ft
2
, a must be given in
square inches, and k in feet. If the
inclined flatplate section shown in
Figure 158 is
5
⁄ 8inch thick, 54 inches
wide, and inclined so that h is 40 inches,
then:
k
2
=
h
2
12
=
40
2
12
= 133.33 in
2
=
133.33
144
= 0.926 ft
2
i = ak
2
=
¸
¸
_
,
54 ×
5
8
(0.926) = 31.25 in
2
ft
2
Since the neutral axis of the ship’s section passes through the centroid of the section, height of the neutral axis above the keel is found by
dividing the first moment of areas by the sum of areas of the section. The moment of inertia about the neutral axis is found by the parallel axis
theorem:
where:
I
NA
= I
K
Ad
2
I
NA
= moment of inertia about the neutral axis, in
2
ft
2
I
K
= moment of inertia about the keel, in
2
ft
2
= Σ(ay
2
) + Σ(i)
A = total area of individual section elements, in
2
= Σ(a)
d = height of the neutral axis above the keel, ft = Σ(ay
2
)/Σ(a)
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S0300A8HBK010
Once I
NA
and height of the neutral axis are known, section modulus (I
NA
/c) is easily calculated. The neutral axis is not usually equidistant from
the top and bottom flanges of the hull girder (strength deck and keel), so each flange has its own value for c and therefore Z. The summations
required to find height of the neutral axis and moment of inertia can be methodically performed in a tabular format. Table 114 is a sample
section modulus calculation for the ship section shown in Figure 158.
In an intact ship of uniform cross section, maximum bending stress occurs at the location of maximum bending moment. A vessel’s cross section
is not normally uniform throughout its length, but the scantlings at each section are selected by the designer to keep bending stresses within
acceptable limits based on the anticipated bending moment.
Figure 158. Frigate Hull Section at Station 10.
C
L
30.0’ ABV BL
15.3#
SHADOW
SHADOW SHADOW
L 20
L 19
L 18
L 17
L 12
L 11
L 10
L 5
L 9
L 8
L 7
L 6
B
L
L 4
L 3
L 1
L 2
25.5# PL HY80
6 x 6 1/2 x 13.0#T
7 x 6 3/4 x 15#T
35.7# PL F.K.
2’ 9" x 0.75 PL M.S.
SHELL DOUBLER
18 x 7 1/2 x 50#IT
8 x 7 x 22.5#T
9 x 7 1/2 x 25#T
"D"12.75# PL
"B"20.4# PL
"A"38.25# PLHY80
"C"15.3# PL HY80
"E"20.4PL
HY80#
2’ 6"x0.75"
PL HY80
SHELL
DOUBLER
6 x 6 1/2 x 13.0#T
5 x 4 x 6.00#T
5 x 5 3/4 x 13.0#T
2’ 71/2" x
.500 PL HY80
SHELL
DOUBLER
25 x 13 x 162#
IT CVK
7.65#
10.2# PL L 16
L 15
L 14
L 13
6 x 4 x 7#T
6 x 4 x 8.00#T
21.0’ ABV BL
5 x 4 x 6.00#T
4 x 4 x 5.00#T
20.5’
5.75’
8’
0
5
10
15
F
E
E
T
20
25
30
NOTE:
I  T SHAPES ARE FORMED FROM W SHAPES BY
CUTTING LOWER FLANGE FROM WEB, USUALLY
WITH TWO VERTICAL CUTS
CUTS
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S0300A8HBK010
Table 114. Section Modulus for FFG7, Station 10.
Component Dimensions a
(in
2
)
y
(ft)
ay
(in
2
ft)
ay
2
(in
2
ft
2
)
h or k*
(ft)
i = ah
2
/12
or ak
2
*
(in
2
ft
2
)
Mn Dk Girders, Inbd (7)  T 5 × 4 × 6# 12.39 29.613 366.91 10865.16
Mn Dk Grdrs, Outbd (4)  T 5 × 5.75 × 13# 15.24 26.613 405.58 10793.76
2nd Dk Girders, (10)  T 4 × 4 × 5# 14.80 20.746 307.04 6369.87
Mn Dk Plating, Inbd, less shadow zones (246  75) × 0.375 64.13 30.000 1923.75 57712.50
Mn Dk Plating, Outbd 84 × .625 52.50 30.000 1575.00 47250.00
2nd Dk Plating, Inbd, less shadow zones (225  90) × .25 25.31 21.000 531.56 11162.81
2nd Dk Pltg, Outbd 51 × .25 12.75 21.000 267.75 5622.00
"E" Strake 93 × .3125 29.06 17.875 519.49 9285.92 7.75 145.45
"D" Strake 162 × .3125 50.63 16.500 835.31 13782.66 12.50 659.18
"C" Strake 84 × .375 31.50 7.000 220.50 1543.50 1.88* 111.33*
"B" Strake 93.25 × .5 46.63 3.000 139.88 419.63 0.42* 8.23*
"A" Strake 96 × .75 72.00 0.875 63.00 55.13 0.26* 4.87*
"E" Doubler, upper 31.5 × .5 15.75 28.000 441.00 12348.00 2.63 9.04
"E" Doubler, lower 30 × .75 22.50 26.500 596.25 15800.63 2.50 11.72
"A" Doubler 33 × .75 24.75 0.500 12.38 6.19
Side Stringers
L20  T 6 × 6 × 13# 3.82 28.000 106.96 2994.88
L19  T 6 × 6 × 13# 3.82 26.500 101.25 2682.60
L18  T 5 × 4 × 6# 1.77 24.500 43.37 1062.44
L17  T 5 × 4 × 6# 1.77 22.750 40.27 916.09
L16  T 6 × 4 × 7# 2.08 19.250 40.04 790.77
L15  T 6 × 4 × 7# 2.08 17.500 36.40 637.00
L14  T 6 × 4 × 8# 2.36 16.000 37.76 604.16
L13  T 6 × 4 × 8# 2.36 14.750 34.81 513.45
L12  T 6 × 6.5 × 13# 3.82 12.500 47.75 596.88
L11  T 6 × 6.5 × 13# 3.82 11.750 44.89 527.40
L10  T 6 × 6.5 × 13# 3.82 9.000 34.38 309.42
L9  T 6 × 6.5 × 13# 3.82 7.500 28.65 214.88
L8  T 6 × 6.5 × 13# 3.82 6.250 23.88 149.22
Bottom Longitudinals
L7  T 7 × 6.75 × 15# 4.42 5.500 24.31 133.70
L6  T 7 × 6.75 × 15# 4.42 4.500 19.89 89.51
L5  I  T 18 × 7.5 × 50# 10.60 4.25 45.05 191.46 1.33* 18.75*
L4  T 8 × 7 × 22.5# 6.63 2.750 18.23 50.14
L3  T 8 × 7 × 22.5# 6.63 2.000 13.26 26.52
L2  T 9 × 7.5 × 25# 7.33 1.500 11.00 16.49
L1  T 9 × 7.5 × 25# 7.33 1.000 7.33 7.33
CVK (1/2) I  T 25 × 13 × 162# 16.38 1.500 24.57 36.85 2.08 3.18‡
Flat Keel (1/2) 14 × .875 6.13 0.073 0.45 0.03
Totals 598.95 8989.85 215549.69 971.75
d = Σ(ay)/Σa = 8,985.85/598.95 = 15.01 ft
I
K
for halfsection = Σ(ay
2
) + Σi = 215,549.69 + 971.75 = 216,521.44 in
2
ft
2
I
NA
for halfsection = I
K
 Ad
2
= 216,521.44  (598.95 × 15.01
2
) = 81,577.95 in
2
ft
2
I
NA
for full section = 2I
NA
for halfsection = 2(81,577.95) = 163,155.90 in
2
ft
2
c
DK
= Depth  d = 30  15.01 = 14.99 ft
Z
DK
= I
NA
/c
t
= 163,155.90/14.99 = 10,884.32 in
2
ft
c
K
= d = 15.01 ft
Z
K
= I
NA
/c
b
= 163,155.90/15.01 = 10,869.81 in
2
ft
Notes: Areas and centroids for Tshapes taken from AISC Manual for Steel Construction, 8th Edition.
‡ i of vertical web only
187
S0300A8HBK010
Figure 159. Shear Stress in the Hull Girder.
CROSSSECTION
SHEAR STRESS
DISTRIBUTION
b = TOTAL THICKNESS OF HULL PLATING AND
EFFECTIVE LONGITUDINAL BULKHEADS
I
NA
= MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT NEUTRAL AXIS
S = SHEAR ON SECTION
τ
τ
MAX
Q = FIRST MOMENT OF AREA OF STRUCTURE OUTSIDE
AXIS WHERE STRESS IS DESIRED
B B
NEUTRAL
AXIS VERTICAL SHEAR
HORIZONTAL SHEAR
τ =
SQ
I
NA
b
τ
MAX
=
SQ
MAX
I
NA
b
111.6 Shear Stress. Shear stresses result from vertical shear, caused by the uneven force distribution along the ship’s length, and horizontal
shear, caused by longitudinal bending and racking, as shown in Figure 159. The shear force is distributed over the section, each element
contributing to the total. Shear stress distribution can be modeled by the theory of thinwalled sections, as explained in the Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers’ Principles of Naval Architecture, but this method requires the evaluation of indefinite line integrals, and may
be too tedious for field calculations. For salvage calculations, shear stress, τ, along any horizontal axis BB can be adequately approximated by
the expression:
where:
τ =
SQ
I
NA
b
τ = shear stress
S = shear at the section in question
Q = first moment of area about the neutral axis of the area of effective structure above axis BB
= ∑ay
a = area of individual structural element
y = vertical distance of individual structural elements from neutral axis
I
NA
= moment of inertia of the section about the neutral axis
b = total width of material resisting shear along axis BB, in
Moment of inertia is obtained as part of the section modulus calculation. The first moment of area, Q, is determined by summing the products
of areas and their distances from the neutral axis in the same manner that Σay about the keel is determined in the section modulus calculation.
The material width, b, is normally twice the shellplating thickness (to account for both sides), plus the thickness of effective longitudinal
bulkheads, i.e., those that extend from the strength deck to the bottom of the ship and are firmly anchored at both top and bottom. Consistent
units must be used, along with appropriate conversion factors. If moment of inertia and first moment of area are in the customary units of in
2
ft
2
and in
2
ft, a conversion factor of 12 must be applied to obtain stress in units of force per square inch:
τ =
SQ
12 I
NA
b
188
S0300A8HBK010
TRANSVERSE
FRAMES
SHEAR STRESSES
LONGITUDINALS
SHEAR WRINKLES IN PLATE PANELS
SHEAR
ELEMENT
SHEAR
STRESSES
SHEAR
FORCE, S
Figure 160. Shear Stress.
Shear is normally determined in long tons, giving shear stress in long tons per square inch; shear stress, like bending stress, is converted to
pounds per square inch by multiplying by 2,240 pounds per long ton.
Shear stresses act in pairs, are equal on all four faces of a plane element, and are maximum on planes parallel and perpendicular to the shear
force, as shown in Figure 160. Because the paired stresses tend to change the angle between faces of an element and lengthen the diagonal,
shear yield in plating panels is evidenced by diagonal wrinkles.
The form of the expression implies that shear stress in any section is zero at the deck and keel and maximum at the neutral axis, where Q is
maximum:
τ
max
=
SQ
max
12I
NA
b
where:
Q
max
= first moment of the area above neutral axis about the neutral axis
Although shear stress in the deck is very low, and may approach zero near the centerline, shear stress is not usually zero at the deck edge; the
expression does estimate shear stress in the middle portion of the side shell (where it is normally of greatest concern) accurately.
189
S0300A8HBK010
EXAMPLE 15
STILL WATER BENDING MOMENT CALCULATION
This example illustrates the detailed still water strength calculations for an
FFG7 Class ship, including steps to reconcile inconsistent data, and to
balance weight and buoyancy. Examples 45 through 412 in the U.S. Navy
Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300A6MAN010) illustrate simplified
calculations for a simple barge.
For an FFG7 Class ship in the 1/3 Consumed Stores loading condition,
calculate:
Deck and keel bending stresses for stations 3 through 17
Maximum shear stress
From the Damage Control Book (DC Book) loading summary (Appendix F):
1/3 Consumed Stores, Sequence 6 Fuel/Ballast:
T
f
= 14' 8"
T
a
= 15' 8"
T
LCF
= 15.23' (LCF 23.79 ft abaft midships)
W = 3748.15 tons
LCG = 5.53 ft abaft midships
LCB = 3.06 ft abaft midships
MT1′ = 769.01 fttons
Fullload Displacement = 3,951.79 tons
From Curves of Form (FO2) for T
LCF
= 15.23':
W = 3,750 tons
LCB = 3.1 ft abaft midships
LCF = 23.8 ft abaft midships
MT1" = 770 fttons
From Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections Drawing (FO4):
W = 4,224.83 tons
Scale Factors:
Length 1 in. = 408/20 = 20.4 ft
Weight Ordinates 1 in. = 4,224.83/3L = 3.45 tons/ft
Weight Area 1 in
2
= 4,224.83/60 = 70.41 tons
Shear Ordinates 1 in. = 4,224.83/30 = 140.83 tons
Shear Area 1 in
2
= 4,224.83(408)/600 = 2,872.88 fttons
Moment Ordinates 1 in. = 4,224.83(408)/200 = 8,618.65 fttons
a. Resolution of discrepancies in raw data
The data from the DC Book and Curves of Form are in good agreement.
However, at equilibrium, LCB and LCG must be aligned vertically. The
Curves of Form give LCB for the ship with 0 trim. Assuming the same to be
true for the DC Book, the initial trim arm (BG
L
) is 2.47 feet (5.53  3.06).
The resulting trim would be:
t = W(BG
L
)/MT1 = 3,748.15(2.47)/769.01 = 12.04 in by the stern
This is consistent with the tabulated drafts. In constructing the weight and
buoyancy curves, it will be assumed that the actual centers of gravity and
buoyancy are on a vertical line 5.53 feet aft of midships.
There is a discrepancy of 273 tons between the fullload weights as given
by the DC Book (3,951.79 tons) and the longitudinal strength drawing
(4,224.83 tons). This discrepancy must be resolved as completely as
possible before proceeding. The longitudinal strength drawing is prepared
for the most extreme loading conditions. It is therefore likely that items of
weight were included that are not included in the operating fullload
departure condition described in the DC Book. The most probable items
that would be included for the longitudinal strength drawing but deleted from
the operational full load are saltwater ballast and wasteholding tanks that
would be presumed empty for the departure condition. An examination of
the fullload condition and tank capacity tables from the DC Book reveals the
following potential weights.
Tank Weight lcg fm Comments
midships
tons ft
Clean Ballast: Saltwater ballast tanks listed
5340W 32.04 161.8 as empty for full load
51160W 53.56 80.0
53281W 19.62 141.1
53282W 19.62 141.1
Oily Ballast: Fuel/ballast tanks, filled with fuel
51003F 9.47 92.3 for departure full load. Listed weights
51004F 9.47 92.3 are differences between weights of equal
52501F 9.9 59.8 volumes of fuel and seawater
52502F 9.9 59.8
Miscellaneous Holding Tanks:
51320F 19.21 68.4 Contaminated Oil Settling Tank
51640F 44.00 36.9 Waste Oil Retention Tank
51700F 16.31 29.0 Oily Waste Water Holding Tank
41700W 11.84 29.7 Sewage Collection, Holding and Transfer
(CHT) Tank
Total 254.94 tons
W = 4,224.83  254.94 = 3,969.89
The difference between the corrected longitudinal strength drawing
displacement and the fullload departure displacement from the DC Book is:
3,969.89  3,951.79 = 18.1 tons
or 4.6 percent. The discrepancy cannot be resolved further without
additional data. It is not necessary to constuct a corrected fullload curve
that would then be corrected for the actual loading condition. The two
corrections can be made simultaneously.
b. Initial Weight Curve for 1/3 Consumed Stores condition (3,748.15 tons)
The weight curve is created by deducting the weight differences between the
fullload condition and the actual condition from the fullload curve at their
locations. The corrections to the fullload curve described in Paragraph a.
above are deducted at the same time. Examination of the DC Book loading
summaries for the full load and 1/3 consumed stores conditions reveals the
following weight differences:
Item Full Load 1/3 Consumed Difference lcg from
Weight Weight Midships
tons tons tons ft
Provisions and Stores
Dry provisions 13.95 9.29 4.66 9.0 fwd
Frozen 4.84 3.23 1.61 20.0 fwd
Chill 4.79 3.19 1.60 20.0 fwd
Clothing, Small Stores 0.31 0.21 0.10 145.5 fwd
Ship Stores 3.49 2.33 1.16 4.0 fwd
General Stores
Deck Gear 2.37 1.58 0.79 81.3 fwd
Flammable Liq & Paints 3.77 2.51 1.26 115.5 fwd
Bosun Storeroom 4.13 2.75 1.38 137.1 fwd
Medical Stores 1.00 0.67 0.33 176.0 aft
Misc Storerooms 7.46 4.98 2.48 68.5 aft
Potable Water
52923W 8.73 8.71 0.02 94.4 aft
53081W 7.88 2.37 5.51 115.8 fwd
53082W 7.88 2.37 5.51 115.8 fwd
190
S0300A8HBK010
Item Full Load 1/3 Consumed Difference lcg from
Weight Weight Midships
tons tons tons ft
Lubricating Oil
32722F 3.50 2.35 1.15 70.7 aft
32782F 4.00 2.68 1.32 77.9 aft
32862F 2.75 1.84 0.91 85.0 aft
32084F 0.95 0.63 0.32 6.0 aft
32361F 1.05 0.70 0.35 33.9 aft
32362F 1.05 0.70 0.35 33.9 aft
32928F 0.92 0.61 0.31 89.3 aft
Fuel Oil, Storage
51003F 32.12 0.00 32.12 92.3 fwd
51004F 32.12 0.00 32.12 92.3 fwd
51161F 65.69 63.60 2.09 75.5 fwd
51401F 28.43 22.21 6.22 51.8 fwd
52501F 33.60 0.00 33.60 59.8 aft
52501F 33.60 0.00 33.60 59.8 aft
Fuel Oil, Service
52042F 46.47 23.18 23.29 4.0 aft
32402F 2.54 0.53 2.01 40.9 aft
32926F 1.21 0.25 0.96 89.3 aft
52013F 1.33 0.28 1.05 1.7 fwd
JP5
53440J 29.81 8.54 21.27 150.9 aft
Miscellaneous Tanks
51320F 0.00 9.61 9.61 68.4 fwd
51700F 0.00 4.08 4.08 29.0 fwd
51640F 0.00 2.12 2.12 37.0 fwd
Total: 203.64
W
1/3
= 3,951.79  203.64 = 3,748.15
The ordinates for the weight curve are calculated by consolidating the
differences by weight segments, distributing the weight difference over the
length of the segment, and dividing the distributed weight difference by the
scale factor (3.45). The new weight curve ordinates are calculated in the
following table:
Segment Old Weight Dist Load Ordinate New Ordinate
Ordinate Difference wt diff/20.4 Difference Old ord  diff
dl/3.45
in. tons tons/ft in. in.
1.40 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15
01 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62
12 1.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.37
23 2.05 32.14 1.58 0.46 1.59
34 2.95 1.38 0.07 0.02 2.93
45 3.29 12.28 0.60 0.17 3.12
56 4.29 83.18 4.08 1.18 3.11
67 4.50 66.04 3.24 0.94 3.56
78 2.95 6.22 0.30 0.09 2.86
89 2.95 65.95 3.23 0.94 2.01
910 3.90 10.08 0.49 0.14 3.76
1011 4.10 23.61 1.16 0.34 3.76
1112 3.50 0.70 0.03 0.01 3.49
1213 3.25 89.01 4.36 1.26 1.99
1314 4.28 4.95 0.24 0.07 4.21
1415 3.58 2.20 0.11 0.03 3.55
1516 2.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.57
1617 2.96 39.24 1.92 0.56 2.40
1718 2.18 21.27 1.04 0.30 1.88
1819 2.35 0.33 0.02 0.00 2.35
1920 1.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.95
2020.6 0.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.49
The weight curve is integrated on these ordinates to determine total area
(weight) and longitudinal position of the centroid (center of gravity). The
integration is carried out in a tabular format:
Segment Ordinate Length Area lcg from FP Moment
y l y × l at midordinate lcg × area
in. in. in
2
in. in
2
1.40 0.15 1.40 0.21 0.70 0.15
01 0.62 1.00 0.62 0.50 0.31
12 1.37 1.00 1.37 1.50 2.06
23 1.59 1.00 1.59 2.50 3.98
34 2.93 1.00 2.93 3.50 10.26
45 3.12 1.00 3.12 4.50 14.04
56 3.11 1.00 3.11 5.50 17.11
67 3.56 1.00 3.56 6.50 23.14
78 2.86 1.00 2.86 7.50 21.45
89 2.01 1.00 2.01 8.50 17.08
910 3.76 1.00 3.76 9.50 35.72
1011 3.76 1.00 3.76 10.50 39.48
1112 3.49 1.00 3.49 11.50 40.14
1213 1.99 1.00 1.99 12.50 24.88
1314 4.21 1.00 4.21 13.50 56.84
1415 3.55 1.00 3.55 14.50 51.48
1516 2.57 1.00 2.57 15.50 39.84
1617 2.40 1.00 2.40 16.50 39.60
1718 1.88 1.00 1.88 17.50 32.90
1819 2.35 1.00 2.35 18.50 43.48
1920 1.95 1.00 1.95 19.50 38.03
2020.6 0.49 0.60 0.29 20.30 5.97
Totals 53.58 557.59
W = area × scale factor = 53.58(70.41) = 3772.85 tons
centroid = moment/area = 557.59/53.58 = 10.41 in fm FP
LCG = centroid × scale factor = 10.41(20.4) = 212.28 ft fm FP
= 212.28  204 = 8.28 ft aft of midships
LCG of the curve is more than one foot from the known LCG (5.53 ft aft of
midships), so the curve must be adjusted to move the LCG forward. The
initial buoyancy curve is developed for comparison before correcting the
weight curve.
c. Initial Buoyancy Curve for 1/3 Consumed Stores condition (3,748.15
tons)
The buoyancy curve ordinates are calculated by determining section areas
for each station from the Bonjean’s Curves (FO3), dividing the area by 35
to convert to unit buoyancy (tons per foot), and dividing the unit buoyancy
by the scale factor (3.45). Drafts at each station are calculated assuming
no hog or sag. Before calculating ordinates from the section areas, the area
curve is integrated to compare total buoyancy and LCB with total weight and
LCG from the weight curve. The integration is performed by Simpson’s rule
on 21 stations:
Station Draft Ordinate Multiplier f(V) Lever f(M)
T (Section Area)
y m y × m s s × ƒ(V)
ft ft
2
ft
3
ft ft
4
0 14.67 2 1 2 0 0
1 14.72 55 4 220 1 220
2 14.77 131 2 262 2 524
3 14.82 205 4 820 3 2,460
4 14.87 270 2 540 4 2,160
5 14.92 326 4 1,304 5 6,520
6 14.97 379 2 758 6 4,548
7 15.02 428 4 1,712 7 1,1984
8 15.07 471 2 942 8 7,536
9 15.12 499 4 1,996 9 1,7964
10 15.17 515 2 1,030 10 10,300
11 15.22 519 4 2,076 11 22,836
12 15.27 500 2 1,000 12 12,000
13 15.32 470 4 1,880 13 24,440
14 15.37 418 2 836 14 11,704
15 15.42 357 4 1,428 15 21,420
16 15.47 285 2 570 16 9,120
17 15.52 215 4 860 17 14,620
18 15.57 153 2 306 18 5,508
19 15.62 95 4 380 19 7,220
20 15.67 41 1 41 20 820
Sums 18,963 193,904
h = 20.4
V = (h/3) × ƒ(V) = (20.4/3)(18,963) = 128,948.4 ft
3
W = V/35 = 128,948.4/35 = 3684.24 tons
LCB = h∑ƒ(M)/∑ƒ(V) = 20.4(193,904)/(18,963) = 208.6 ft fm FP
= 208.6  204 = 4.6 ft aft of midships
191
S0300A8HBK010
d. Adjusting Weight and Buoyancy Curves
The weight and buoyancy curves disagree by 88.61 tons on total area. This
error is undesirable, but probably tolerable. The 3.68foot separation
between the centers of gravity and buoyancy is excessive and must be
corrected. The ordinates of both curves must be adjusted to bring the
centers of gravity and buoyancy to within one foot of each other and within
one foot of the point 5.53 feet abaft midships.
Total buoyancy is corrected first by gradually increasing the area curve
ordinates until the buoyancy (area under the curve divided by 35) equals
total weight. There is a greater probability of error in reading the section
areas for the middle stations because the Bonjean’s Curves for the middle
stations slope more gently than those near the ends. The corrections are
therefore weighted towards the center of the curve. LCB is then moved aft
by transferring a strip of uniform thickness from the forward half of the curve
to the aft half. The thickness of the strip is determined by trial and error.
After several iterations, the following section areas were determined:
Station Ordinate Multiplier f(V) Lever f(M)
(Section Area)
y m y × m s s × ƒ(V)
ft
2
ft
3
ft ft
4
0 0 1 0 0 0
1 54 4 216 1 216
2 134 2 268 2 536
3 204 4 816 3 2,448
4 274 2 548 4 2,192
5 329 4 1,316 5 6,580
6 379 2 758 6 4,548
7 430 4 1,720 7 12,040
8 475 2 950 8 7,600
9 510 4 2,040 9 18,360
10 524 2 1,048 10 10,480
11 524 4 2,096 11 23,056
12 509 2 1,018 12 12,216
13 479 4 1,916 13 24,908
14 429 2 858 14 12,012
15 369 4 1,476 15 22,140
16 299 2 598 16 9,568
17 229 4 916 17 15,572
18 167 2 334 18 6,012
19 109 4 436 19 8,284
20 59 1 59 20 1,180
Sums 19,387 199,948
h = 20.4
V = (h/3) ƒ(V) = (20.4/3)(19,387) = 131,831.6 ft
3
W = V/35 = 131,831.6/35 = 3,766.62 tons
LCB = h∑ƒ(M)/∑ƒ(V) = 20.4(199,948)/(19,387) = 210.4 ft fm FP
= 210.4  204 = 6.4 ft abaft midships
Now that the total buoyancy and location of LCB are both acceptably near
the known values, the buoyancy curve ordinates are calculated:
Section Unit Buoyancy Ordinate
Station Area B = A/35 B/3.45
ft
2
tons/ft in.
0 0 0.00 0.00
1 54 1.54 0.45
2 134 3.83 1.11
3 204 5.83 1.69
4 274 7.83 2.27
5 329 9.40 2.72
6 379 10.83 3.14
7 430 12.29 3.56
8 475 13.57 3.93
9 510 14.57 4.22
10 524 14.97 4.34
11 524 14.97 4.34
12 509 14.54 4.22
13 479 13.69 3.97
14 429 12.26 3.55
15 369 10.54 3.06
16 299 8.54 2.48
17 229 6.54 1.90
18 167 4.77 1.38
19 109 3.11 0.90
20 59 1.69 0.49
LCG of the initial weight curve is moved forward by transferring strips of
uniform thickness from segments in the after half of the curve to the
corresponding segments in the forward half, and by reducing some
ordinates in the after half to lower total weight slightly. The thickness of the
strips are determined by trial and error. After several iterations, ordinates
were determined and integrated as follows:
Segment Ordinate Length Area lcg from FP Moment
y l y × l at lcg × Area
Midordinate
in. in. in
2
in. in
2
1.40 0.15 1.40 0.21 0.70 0.15
01 0.66 1.00 0.66 0.50 0.33
12 1.41 1.00 1.41 1.50 2.12
23 1.63 1.00 1.63 2.50 4.08
34 2.97 1.00 2.97 3.50 10.40
45 3.16 1.00 3.16 4.50 14.22
56 3.15 1.00 3.15 5.50 17.33
67 3.60 1.00 3.60 6.50 23.40
78 2.90 1.00 2.90 7.50 21.75
89 2.05 1.00 2.05 8.50 17.42
910 3.80 1.00 3.80 9.50 36.10
1011 3.72 1.00 3.72 10.50 39.06
1112 3.45 1.00 3.45 11.50 39.68
1213 1.95 1.00 1.95 12.50 24.38
1314 4.17 1.00 4.17 13.50 56.30
1415 3.51 1.00 3.51 14.50 50.90
1516 2.53 1.00 2.53 15.50 39.22
1617 2.36 1.00 2.36 16.50 38.94
1718 1.82 1.00 1.82 17.50 31.85
1819 2.29 1.00 2.29 18.50 42.37
1920 1.86 1.00 1.86 19.50 36.27
2020.6 0.49 0.60 0.29 20.30 5.97
Totals 53.49 551.90
W = area × scale factor = 53.49(70.41) = 3766.51 tons
centroid = moment/area = 551.90/53.49 = 10.32 in fm FP
LCG = centroid × scale factor = 10.32(20.4) = 210.53 ft fm FP
= 210.53  204 = 6.53 ft aft of midships
The adjusted weight and buoyancy curves are shown in Figure 161.
e. Shear and Bending Moment Curves
Ordinates to the load shear and bending moment curves are determined by
a continuous tabular calculation. Curve segments are identified by the
bounding stations in the first column. The weight ordinates are written in the
second column. The mean buoyancy ordinates for each segment are
written in the third column. The load ordinate in the fourth column is found
by subtracting the weight ordinate (column 2) from the mean buoyancy
ordinate (column 3). The load curve is integrated along its length by
keeping a running total of the area under the load curve in the fifth column.
In keeping with the convention of integrating the load curve from left to right,
the area total is run from bottom to top in this table. The area for each
segment is the ordinate multiplied by the segment length (1 inch for all but
the two end segments). The area total is the area up to the forward station
of the segment. The shear ordinates in the sixth column are determined by
dividing the areas in column 5 by two. The shear curve defined by these
ordinates is shown in Figure 162.
The shear ordinates are carried into the following table and written in the
second column, next to the appropriate station (column 1). It is necessary
to interpolate the x intercept (station 10.41) to properly integrate the curve
and to determine the section of maximum bending moment. The mean
shear ordinate for each segment is written in the third column. The shear
curve is integrated along its length from forward aft (top to bottom); the
running total is written in the fourth column. The shear areas are divided by
3 and written in the fifth column as the moment ordinates. The resulting
bending moment curve is shown in Figure 162. Bending moments for use
in the bending stress calculations are determined by multiplying the moment
ordinate by the scale factor, 8,618.65 fttons/in.
192
S0300A8HBK010
1 2 3 4 5 6
Segment Weight
Ordinate
w
in.
Mean
Buoyancy
Ordinate
b
in.
Load
Ordinate
b  w
in.
Cum. Area
under
Load
Curve
in2
Shear
Ordinate
Area/2
in.
1.40 0.15 0.00 0.15 0.02 0.012
01 0.66 0.23 0.43 0.19 0.093
12 1.41 0.78 0.63 0.62 0.308
23 1.63 1.40 0.23 1.25 0.623
34 2.97 1.98 0.99 1.48 0.738
45 3.16 2.49 0.67 2.47 1.233
56 3.15 2.93 0.22 3.14 1.568
67 3.60 3.35 0.25 3.36 1.678
78 2.90 3.75 0.85 3.61 1.803
89 2.05 4.07 2.02 2.76 1.378
910 3.80 4.28 0.48 0.74 0.368
1011 3.72 4.34 0.62 0.26 0.128
1112 3.45 4.28 0.83 0.36 0.182
1213 1.95 4.09 2.14 1.19 0.597
1314 4.17 3.76 0.41 3.33 1.667
1415 3.51 3.31 0.20 2.92 1.462
1516 2.53 2.77 0.24 2.72 1.362
1617 2.36 2.19 0.17 2.96 1.482
1718 1.82 1.64 0.18 2.79 1.397
1819 2.29 1.14 1.15 2.61 1.307
1920 1.86 0.69 1.17 1.46 0.732
2020.6 0.49 0.00 0.49 0.29 0.147
Figure 161. Buoyancy, Weight, and Load Curves for FFG7.
STATIONS
AP 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 FP
1 1
0 0
1 1
2 2
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
S
C
A
L
E
I
N
I
N
C
H
E
S
BUOYANCY
WEIGHT
LOAD
1 2 3 4 5 6
Station
Shear
Ordinate
in.
Mean
Shear
Ordinate
in.
Area
under
Shear
Curve
in
2
Moment
Ordinate
Shear
Area/3
in.
Moment
Mom. Ord
x 8618.65
fttons
1.4 0.120 0 0.00 0
0.41
0 0.093 0.57 0.19 1,629
0.62
1 0.308 1.19 0.40 3,407
0.47
2 0.623 1.65 0.55 4,745
0.68
3 0.738 2.33 0.78 6,700
0.99
4 1.233 3.32 1.11 9,531
1.40
5 1.568 4.72 1.57 13,554
1.62
6 1.678 6.34 2.11 18,217
1.74
7 1.803 8.08 2.69 23,217
1.59
8 1.378 9.67 3.22 27,787
0.87
9 0.368 10.55 3.52 30,295
0.18
10 0.128 10.73 3.58 30,823
0.06
10.4 0.000 10.76 3.59 30,899
0.09
11 0.182 10.70 3.57 30,744
0.39
12 0.597 10.31 3.44 29,625
1.13
13 1.667 9.18 3.06 26,373
1.56
14 1.462 7.62 2.54 21,879
1.41
15 1.362 6.20 2.07 17,822
1.42
16 1.482 4.78 1.59 13,737
1.44
17 1.397 3.34 1.11 9,601
1.35
18 1.307 1.99 0.66 5,717
1.02
19 0.732 0.97 0.32 2,788
0.44
20 0.147 0.53 0.18 1,526
0.07
20.6 0.000 0.46 0.15 1,314
STATIONS
AP 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10
10.4
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 FP
5 5
1 1
4 4
3 3
2 2
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
Figure 162. Still Water Load, Shear, and Bending Moment Curves for FFG7.
S
C
A
L
E
I
N
I
N
C
H
E
S
MOMENT
SHEAR
LOAD
f. Bending Stresses
Bending stresses are calculated using the tabulated moments of inertia from
the Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections Drawing (FO4):
Station Moment I
NA
c
deck
σ
deck
c
keel
σ
keel
M Mc/I Mc/I
fttons in
2
ft
2
ft tons/in
2
ft tons/in
2
3 6,700 110,681 15.09 0.91 20.58 1.25
4 9,531 112,994 15.68 1.32 18.84 1.59
5 13,554 102,384 14.18 1.88 19.27 2.55
6 18,217 136,770 15.32 2.04 17.23 2.29
7 23,217 130,123 15.37 2.74 16.38 2.92
8 27,787 138,267 15.53 3.12 15.59 3.13
9 30,295 159,477 15.36 2.92 15.21 2.89
10 30,823 170,416 14.62 2.64 15.45 2.79
10.4 30,899 161,280 14.90 2.85 15.02 2.88
11 30,744 167,165 14.16 2.60 15.51 2.85
12 29,625 156,553 14.27 2.70 15.10 2.86
13 26,373 135,444 15.00 2.92 14.27 2.78
14 21,879 110,066 12.87 2.56 15.29 3.04
15 17,822 89,467 11.70 2.33 14.83 2.95
16 13,737 69,084 10.12 2.01 14.32 2.85
17 9,601 57,188 9.46 1.59 13.07 2.19
Since the ship is hogging, the deck is in tension and the keel in
compression. All weight and buoyancy forces were given in long tons, so
the stresses are in long tons per square inch. Stresses are converted to psi
by multiplying by 2,240. Deck and keel bending stresses are plotted in
Figure 163 (Page 194). Note that the maximum bending stresses do not
occur at the section of maximum bending moment.
g. Maximum Shear Stress
Shear stress is a function of shear force (S), moment of inertia (I), and plat
τ =
S( Q)
12 I
NA
b
ing thickness (b), and is maximum at the neutral axis for any section. Maxi
mum shear occurs at station 7. Moments of inertia for adjacent stations and
other stations of high shear are equal to or greater than that for station 7.
Sideplating thickness at the neutral axis is constant between stations 3 and
17 (information taken from the section drawings of the Longitudinal Strength
and Inertia Sections drawing  not reproduced in this handbook). Maximum
shear stress can therefore be assumed to occur at or near station 7 at the
neutral axis. The first moment of area about the neutral axis and shear
stress for station 7 are calculated in a tabular format as shown on the
following page.
193
S0300A8HBK010
Q
halfsection
= ∑ay = 2,856.2 in
2
ft
Component Dimensions a y ay
in. in
2
ft in
2
ft
Mn Dk Girders
(12)
5 x 4 x 6# 15.93 15.100 240.54
2nd Dk
Girders (11)
4 x 4 x 5# 10.66 6.062 64.61
Mn Dk Plating,
Inbd
192 x .25 48.00 15.370 737.76
Mn Dk Plating,
Outbd
84 x .375 31.50 15.370 484.16
2nd Dk
Plating, Inbd
202.5 x .1875 37.97 6.312 239.66
2nd Dk Pltg,
Outbd
52.5 x .25 13.13 6.312 82.85
"D" Strake 105 x .375 39.38 10.995 432.93
"C" Strake
above N.A.
(16.33')
84 x .3125 26.25 3.500 91.88
"D" Doubler
Side Stringers
30 x .75 22.50 11.750 264.38
L20 6 x 4 x 7# 1.67 13.625 22.77
L19 6 x 4 x 7# 1.67 11.750 19.64
L18 5 x 4 x 6# 1.33 9.875 13.11
L17 5 x 4 x 6# 1.33 8.125 10.79
L16 6 x 4 x 7# 1.67 4.625 7.73
L15 6 x 4 x 7# 1.67 2.875 4.80
L14 6 x 4 x 8# 1.96 1.250 2.45
Totals 270.5 2856.2
Figure 163. Still Water Bending Stresses for FFG7.
STATIONS
MAIN DECK
STATIONS
S
T
R
E
S
S
,
T
O
N
S
/
I
N
2
S
T
R
E
S
S
,
T
O
N
S
/
I
N
2
KEEL
17
17
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
16
16
15
15
14
14
13
13
12
12
11
11
10
10
10.4
10.4
9
9
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
Q
whole section
= 2(2,856.2) = 5,712.4 in
2
ft
I
NA
= 130,123 (from Longitudinal Strength
and Inertia Sections drawing)
b = 2 × plate thickness @ NA = 0.625 in.
S = 1.803 x 140.83 = 255.61 tons
τ = S(Q)/12I
NA
b = 1.5 tons/in
2
= 1.5 × 2,240 = 3,360 psi
111.7 Bending Stress in Inclined Ships.
Figure 164. Stresses in Inclined Ships.
X
X
C
L
HORIZONTAL
N
N
E
U
T
R
A
L A
X
IS
O
L
D
N
E
U
T
R
A
L
A
X
IS
N
O
0
P
Y
Y
θ
If a ship is inclined, as shown in Figure 1
64, the depth of sections is increased and
bending stresses at the "corners" may be
increased. For a ship heeled to an angle θ,
the new axis of bending is parallel to the
water line. The bending moment, M, can
be resolved into Mcosθ about the old
(horizontal) neutral axis and Msinθ about
the centerline of the ship. Each component
produces stress as if it acted independently,
and the total stress at some point P, with
coordinates (x,y), is:
where:
σ
t
=
Mycosθ
I
NA
Mxsinθ
I
CL
σ
t
= total bending stress at (x,y)
y = distance from the old
neutral axis to the point in
question
x = distance from the center
line to the point in
question
I
NA
= moment of inertia about the old neutral axis
I
CL
= moment of inertia about the centerline
194
S0300A8HBK010
Since the section is not symmetrical about its new bending axis, the neutral axis is not parallel to the waterline (horizontal) but is inclined to
it by some angle φ, as shown in Figure 164. The angle, φ, between the new neutral axis and the horizontal can be found from:
If the point farthest from the neutral axis has coordinates (x
1
, y
1
) referenced to the centerline and the old neutral (horizontal) axis, maximum
I
NA
I
CL
tanθ = tanφ
bending stress in the section is:
Tabulated section moments of inertia about the centerline are not normally available to the salvage engineer, and must be calculated. Calculating
σ
max
=
My
1
cosθ
I
NA
Mx
1
sinθ
I
CL
I
CL
is somewhat simpler and shorter than calculating I
NA
because the incremental second moments are taken about a known axis (the centerline).
There is therefore no need to sum first moments about an arbitrary axis to locate the neutral axis. For intact sections, only the incremental
second moments of area for one side need be summed; the moment of inertia is twice the sum for one side. Distances from the centerline are
scaled from section drawings.
Maximum bending stresses in an inclined ship may be 20 percent greater than when the ship is upright.
111.8 Combined Stresses. The bending (tensile or compressive) and shear stresses in a ship or other beam combine to form the principal
stress at any point. It can be shown that:
where:
s(s σ) = τ
2
s = principal stress at any point
σ = simple tensile or compressive stress at the point in question
τ = shear stress at the point in question
This relationship does not solve for s so iterative or trial and error methods are used to determine principal stress.
The presence of shear in the hull girder distorts the sections so that the conditions on which simple beam theory are based are not strictly
fulfilled (see Chapter 2 for an explanation of basic beam theory). This alters bending stress distribution across the section from that predicted
by beam theory. Analysis of this problem is beyond the scope of this book, but the general effect is to increase bending stress at the corners
of the section, i.e., the deck edges and the bilge, and reduce bending stresses at the center of the deck and bottom. This effect is appreciable
only when the ratio of length to depth is small.
111.9 Acceptable Stress Levels. The stress that any material can withstand without failure is a function of the properties of that material and
the definition of failure. Fracture is an obvious and final form of failure. Permanent or plastic deformation, or unacceptable extents of deflection
or elastic deformation can also be considered failure.
111.9.1 Failure Definition. In many engineered systems, deflection or deformation of a component in excess of certain limits interferes with
the operation of the mechanism and is considered failure. Plastic deformation is often considered failure because of the discontinuous behavior
of the material as it yields. Plastic behavior may be acceptable in components subjected to inline, tensile loading where elongation will not
cause interference with any other components. The deformation may render the component unsuitable for continued use, but many salvage
evolutions are onetime events. Plastic behavior or excessive deflection/deformation should be carefully examined, as such deformation in
components can alter stress levels in other components in unforeseen or unpredictable ways. Plastic failure in ship hulls is unacceptable because
it unpredictably alters load responses.
Failure of a given component must be defined accurately, so that limiting stress values for that component can be set. The limiting stress values
define limiting loads for components; the degree of load sharing among components will define system load limits.
111.9.2 Factors of Safety. Use of an appropriate factor of safety keeps stresses well below the failure point and allows for manufacturing
defects and inconsistencies in loading. Safety factors are specified by various regulatory agencies, depending on intended use of systems and
components. In salvage it is not always possible to use a standard safety factor, so reduced factors of safety must often be accepted. This does
not mean that salvors can disregard safety factors. Each situation must be examined to determine acceptable stresses and loads. A reduced
safety factor represents an increased chance of failure. The consequences of failure must be considered and precautions taken.
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111.9.3 Common Materials. The most commonly used shipbuilding materials are:
• Steel and Iron.
• Aluminum.
• Wood.
• Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP).
• Copper and Copper Alloys.
In addition to encountering these as components of a ship, the salvor may use any of them in onsite repairs or fabrication of salvage systems,
along with concrete or other materials. The ultimate or yield stresses of many materials vary depending on whether tensile, compressive or shear
stress is experienced. This is an important factor in salvage operations, where components may be loaded in ways other than those anticipated
by the designer. The mechanical properties of commonly used materials are given in Appendix E.
Steel, in the form of rolled plate, rolled or forged structural shapes, or complex castings, is the most commonly used shipbuilding material.
Shipbuilding steel meeting ABS and Navy specifications has a yield stress of not less than 32,000 psi and an ultimate stress of 58,000 70,000
psi. In the United States, structural shapes and plates for general use are usually manufactured to American Society for Testing of Materials
(ASTM) Standard A36, requiring a tensile yield strength of not less than 36,000 psi. Unless otherwise specified, mild steel can be assumed to
have a yield strength of about 30,000 psi, although some alloys have yield strengths as low as 20,000 psi.
Plating thickness is often specified by weight per square foot. Steel weighs approximately 490 pounds per cubic foot, so a 40.8pound plate
is approximately 1inch thick. Iron weighs 480 pounds per cubic foot, so 1inch iron plate weighs exactly 40 pounds per square foot. In
common usage, the decimal fraction is often dropped when naming steel plate; 1inch steel plate is called 40pound plate, quarterinch steel plate
is called 10pound plate, etc. This practice can sometimes lead to confusion—steel plate and shapes are sometimes fabricated to dimensions
specified by weight per area or linear dimension. The thickness of plate so manufactured will be slightly less than assumed by dividing the
weight by 40. Table E15 correlates steelplate thickness to weight per square foot.
Major loadbearing members, such as sheer and garboard strakes, main deck stringers and bottom girders, etc., and submarine pressure hulls
are frequently fabricated of highstength steels. Highstrength steels are designated by an "HY" (high yield), "HSLA" (highstrength, lowalloy)
or number, i.e., HY80, HSLA80, HY100, HY140, etc.; the number specifying the nominal yield stress in thousands of pounds per square inch.
Highstrength steels are difficult to weld and cut. Intermediatestrength steels, with yield stresses in the 35,000  45,000 psi range, are often
used for the major strength members of larger merchant hulls to provide the required strength with lighter scantlings. These steels have been
called hightensile (HTS) or higher strength steels by classification societies to avoid confusion with truly highstrength steels.
Corrosionresistant steels (CRES), sometimes called stainless steels, are used extensively where corrosion or appearance are important factors.
Strength and other properties vary widely, depending on composition. Because of their resistance to oxidation, corrosionresistant steels are
considered nonferrous metals, and are difficult to cut with oxygenfuel or oxygenarc cutting equipment. Low magnetic signature alloys are
sometimes used on mine countermeasures ships.
Cast iron is used occasionally for complex shapes not subject to tensile loads. Wrought iron is more malleable and corrosionresistant than mild
steel, and nearly as strong. Wrought iron is no longer produced in the United States, but was formerly used in place of steel in ship
construction, and may be encountered in older ships. Wrought iron studlink chain is found occasionally.
Aluminum is used extensively in small ships, boats, and landing craft. The yield stress of pure aluminum is about 5,000 psi, but some alloys
have yield stresses as high as 78,000 psi. Aluminum alloys used in shipbuilding have yield stresses in the range of 12,000  20,000 psi. Because
of aluminum’s low density, aluminum alloy members are lighter, but bulkier, than steel members of the same strength; aluminum is often used
in superstructures to reduce topside weight.
Wood is used in the construction of mine countermeasures ships and small craft. The hardness and density of wood vary with species and water
content. Green wood contains varying amounts of water as sap; wood absorbs water in humid climates or when immersed. The strength
characteristics of wood vary with species and type of stress; all species are much stronger against normal stresses than against shear; most are
stronger in tension than in compression.
Glass Reinforced Plastic is used in the hulls of small craft and some mine countermeasures ships, in piping systems, as sheathing over wooden
hulls and in joiner bulkheads. It is also frequently used as a patching material for other materials. Strength varies depending on the orientation
of the glass fibers and plastic resins used.
Copper and its alloys, such as brass, bronze, monel, and coppernickels, are used in piping systems, propellers, and fittings where corrosion
resistance or low magnetic signature are required. Although certain copper alloys are very strong, they are seldom used as structural members
or fittings, except on mine countermeasures ships, because of their high cost.
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111.10 Hull Girder Deflection. Hull
Figure 165. Hull Girder Deflection Determination.
AP FP B
DEFLECTION AT B
DEFLECTION AT B
M __
EI
SECOND
INTEGRAL
FIRST
INTEGRAL
x
B
girder deflection is a function of the fourth
integral of the load curve with respect to
ship length, and girder stiffness, indicated
by the product of moment of inertia (I) and
modulus of elasticity (E). Deflection is
determined by double integration of the
curve of bending moment divided by EI.
Since I, and sometimes E vary along a
ship’s length, M/EI is calculated at several
stations to construct an M/EI curve. The
curve is integrated from left to right to
determine the ordinates to the first integral
curve, which is again integrated from left to
right to determine ordinates to the second
integral curve. A straight line is drawn
between the ends of the second integral
curve, as shown in Figure 165. The
vertical separation between the straight line
and the second integral curve at any station
is the deflection at that station. As shown
in Figure 165, the straight line in the
deflection plot corresponds to a straight line
connecting forward and after drafts in a
floating ship, i.e., deflection is assumed
zero at the fore and after perpendiculars.
Table 115. Hull Deflection.
Ship Type: FFG7 TAO 187 VLCC
CONTAINER SHIP
(1400 TEU)
Characteristics:
C
B
046 0.56 0.87 0.49
LBP, ft 408 650 1050 673
Beam, ft 47 97.5 175.9 105.7
Depth, ft 30 50 90.5 66.5
Deflection conditions: Stresses and Deflections:
Full Load
Maximum stress, ksi 5.6 3.4 15.6 4.3
Maximum deflection, in. 2.4 2.5 6.2 1.1
Ballast
Maximum stress, ksi 5.5 11.1 13.0 10.3
Maximum deflection, in. 2.3 5.9 5.3 8.1
Full load w/hogging wave
Maximum stress, ksi 17.8 18.7 29.3 23.4
Maximum deflection, in. 7.2 10.6 17.7 11.2
Stranded on one pinnacle (hogging) – deflection at 34 ksi 10.6 14.0 17.7 11.0
Stranded on two pinnacles (sagging) – deflection at 34 ksi 20.3 27.2 42.3 20.4
Note: Positive stresses indicate tension, negative stresses compression
From Hull Deflection Versus Bending Moment Study for Supervisor of Salvage, U.S. Navy, Herbert Engineering
Corporation, 5 March 1991
The hull deflection of a stranded or
damaged casualty is readily observable; a
salvage engineer does not usually calculate
hull deflection unless unusually extreme
loadings are contemplated and the degree of
hull deflection may affect salvage work or
conditions. Observed deflection is a rough
indicator of hull stress; a first estimate of
stress can be obtained by comparing a
casualty’s deflection with the stress
corresponding to similar deflections in ships
of similar form and size. Table 115 gives
stresses and deflections calculated for four
different ships in various conditions.
111.11 Approximate Strength Cal
culations. Lack of detailed ship data or
time for rigorous calculations may
necessitate the approximation of all or part
of the strength calculations. The following
paragraphs describe methods to estimate
weight distribution, section properties, and
still water or wave bending moment.
111.12 Weight Curve Approximations.
There are a number of empirically derived
approximations for weight distribution,
none of which is equally applicable to all
ship types. The station coefficient method,
presented below, is probably the most
accurate, but is applicable to only three
ship types at present. Less accurate, but
more generally applicable methods are
presented in the following paragraphs.
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111.12.1 Station Coefficient Method.
Table 116. Station Coefficients, C
SN
.
Station
C
SN Station
C
SN
A B C A B C
AFT AFT
20.521 0.006303 1010.5 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942
2020.615 0.015807 9.510 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942
2020.5 0.012377 0.010676 99.5 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942
19.520 0.014333 0.015049 0.01793 8.59 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942
1919.5 0.022157 0.017975 0.021114 88.5 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942
18.519 0.020875 0.020387 0.034267 7.58 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942
1818.5 0.020875 0.022831 0.038513 77.5 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942
17.518 0.020875 0.02476 0.039536 6.57 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942
1717.5 0.021516 0.028169 0.034267 66.5 0.022157 0.022542 0.024942
16.517 0.022157 0.029616 0.025321 5.56 0.021516 0.022542 0.024942
1616.5 0.023472 0.025243 0.025321 55.5 0.020875 0.022542 0.024942
15.516 0.032612 0.025243 0.025321 4.55 0.020201 0.022542 0.023199
1515.5 0.033252 0.038845 0.024942 44.5 0.019560 0.022542 0.022668
14.515 0.041076 0.038845 0.024942 3.54 0.018919 0.021834 0.021606
1414.5 0.053453 0.040774 0.024942 33.5 0.018245 0.021352 0.021114
13.514 0.055409 0.042736 0.024942 2.53 0.017604 0.022349 0.020052
1313.5 0.052172 0.043701 0.024942 22.5 0.016963 0.021834 0.019522
12.513 0.028025 0.022542 0.024942 1.52 0.016289 0.021352 0.018991
1212.5 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942 11.5 0.015142 0.020387 0.01793
11.512 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942 0.51 0.014333 0.017493 0.017399
1111.5 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942 00.5 0.013692 0.016496 0.016338
10.511 0.023068 0.022542 0.024942 0.550 0.013051
FWD FWD
Ship A – Breakbulk cargo ship  engine room and accommodations threequarters aft from FP
Ship B – Container ship with forward and aft accommodations
Ship C – Tanker with engineroom aft
This method was developed as part of the
PouricelliBoydSchleiffer regression
analysis discussed in Paragraph 17 and
provides a means to approximate lightship
weight distribution of three types of
merchant hulls:
• Breakbulk (general) cargo
ship with engine room
and accommodations
threequarters aft of the
forward perpendicular.
• Container ship with
forward and aft accommo
dations.
• Tanker with engine room
and accommodations aft.
The length between perpendiculars (LBP) is
divided into 20 basic segments. The break
bulk cargo ship has a segment forward of the
forward perpendicular and the tanker and
container ship each have segments aft of the
aft perpendicular. Station coefficients (C
SN
)
Figure 166. Station Coefficient Weight Curves.
BREAKBULK CARGO SHIPENGINE ROOM AND ACCOMMODATIONS
THREEQUARTERS AFT FROM FP
AP
O
s
n
FP
CONTAINERSHIP WITH FORWARD AND AFTER ACCOMMODATIONS
TANKER WITH AFT ENGINEROOM
AP
AP
O
s
n
O
s
n
FP
FP
from Table 116 for the appropriate ship type
are used to determine the weight ordinate
(O
SN
) for each half segment:
where:
O
SN
= C
SN
W
1s
W
ls
= lightship weight
The weight ordinates are plotted as shown
in Figure 166 to develop the lightship
weight curve. Variable weights (cargo,
flooding, etc.) are added as rectangles or
trapezoids at the appropriate station for the
ship’s actual load condition.
111.12.2 Bare Hull Estimates. For ship
types other than the three mentioned above,
the lightship weight curve is approximated
in three steps:
• The hull steel weight is
calculated or estimated by
deducting weights of
machinery, propellers, and
superstructure from the
lightship weight, or by the
methods described below.
• The bare hull weight dis
tribution is estimated by
one of the methods de
scribed in the following
paragraphs.
• The deducted items are
added at their locations to
complete the lightship
weight curve.
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After the distribution of the hull weight of
Figure 167. Machinery Weight.
4
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
P
O
W
E
R
D
E
N
S
I
T
Y
L
B
/
S
H
P
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
6 8 10 12 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42
SHP RATING OF PROPULSION PLANT (THOUSANDS)
COMPILED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, INCLUDING SHIPS AND SHIPBUILDING OF TOMORROW,
SCHÖNKNECKT, LÜSCH, SCHELZEL & OBENHAUS, 1983; SHIP DESIGN AND CONSTUCTION,
TAGGART, 1980; MARINE ENGINEERING, HARRINGTON, 1955 AND MANUFACTURERS DATA
DIRECT DRIVE DIESEL
NUCLEAR
REHEAT STEAM TURBINE
STEAM TURBINE
GEARED DIESEL
COMBINED DIESEL AND
GAS TURBINE
GAS TURBINE
REGENERATIVE
the ship has been estimated, the variable
weights of fuel, stores, cargo, boats,
aircraft, ballast, ammunition, crew and
effects, etc., are added by superimposing
rectangles or trapezoids on the curve at
their locations.
Hull steel weight for commercial vessels
can be estimated by the two relationships
shown below:
where:
W
H
≈ LBDk
1
, or,
W
H
≈ L(B 2D) k
2
W
H
= hull weight, ltons
L = length between perpendicu
lars, feet
B = molded beam, feet
D = molded depth, feet
k
1
= weight coefficient
= 0.0027 for welded con
struction
= 0.0030 for riveted con
struction
k
2
= weight coefficient
= 0.0433 for welded con
struction
= 0.0558 for riveted con
struction
Weights of machinery and outfits can
sometimes be obtained from the ship’s
information book (SIB), operating and
technical manuals, or manufacturers’ data.
Machinery weight for commercial vessels
can be estimated very approximately by use of the "power density" factors taken from Figure 167.
There is no standard definition of what is included in the term machinery weight, so figures given in ship’s data must be investigated to
determine what items are included. Values taken from the curves in Figure 167 include the weight of main propulsion units, shafting, bearings,
propellers, boilers, stacks, condensers, generators, switchboards, and pumps; all piping, floors, ladders and gratings in the machinery spaces;
water in boilers, engines, and piping; and refrigerating and steam heating systems for a normal vessel. Weights of steering gear, deck machinery,
and piping outside the machinery spaces are not included. Machinery weights are subject to variation, depending on the ship type and service.
In ship types that require particularly rugged or reliable machinery, machinery weight will be about 10 percent higher than the values from Figure
167. Different makes of diesel engine of the same horsepower will
Table 117. Machinery Weights for Combatants.
BB, CV
CG, CL, CA
DD, FF
DD, FF, CG (gas turbine)
5060 pounds/SHP
3540 pounds/SHP
2730 pounds/SHP
2025 pounds/SHP
vary in weight by as much as 50 percent. Total machinery weight in
specialized vessels will include items not fitted on ordinary ships, or
larger numbers of common items. Examples are the refrigeration plant
on a refrigerated cargo ship, additional pumps and generators on
salvage and service vessels, dredge machinery, etc.
Because of their high speed and correspondingly powerful machinery,
the weight of machinery of naval combatants is a large portion of the
total weight of the ship. Emphasis on machinery weight savings during
design results in lower weight per horsepower than in the average
commercial vessel. Machinery dry weight for different types of
combatants can be taken from Table 117.
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Table 118 gives weights of bronze propellers as a function of shaft horsepower and rpm. Table 119 gives summarized weight lists for different
types of ships to illustrate general trends in weight distribution. Additional weight summaries are included in Appendix B.
Table 118. Weights of Bronze Propellers (lbs).
Shaft RPM
SHP
500
1,000
2,000
3,000
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
100
3,415
6,545
12,080
17,410
24,905
55,100
62,155
120
2,775
5,270
9,830
14,105
20,495
35,705
50,030
140
2,315
4,475
8,265
11,680
17,190
29,315
40,335
50,910
160
2,030
3,880
7,140
10,360
14,545
24,245
32,400
40,115
180
1,785
3,460
6,350
200
1,585
3,150
5,730
250
1,255
2,445
4,630
300
970
1,915
3,670
350
750
1,520
2,975
From Ships and Marine Engineers, Volume IV, The Design of Merchant Ships, Schokker, Newerburg, Bossnack, and Burghgracf, The Technical Publishing
Company H. Stam, 1953
Table 119. Lightship Weight Summaries.
Ship Type
Item
Mariner
With Added
Features,
1962
General
Cargo Ship
1
Combination
Passenger/
Reefer
Container
Ship
2
Container
Ship
3
Barge
carrying
ship
(LASH)
4
Barge
carrying
Ship
(SEABEE)
5
Tanker
6
Ore Carrier
7 Small
Freighter
8
Passenger
Vessel
9
Container
Ship
Steel 5,115 5,011 5,482 10,282 9,588 12,983 11,519 12,137 2,248 11,850 4,557
Outfit 2,586 2,230 3,959 2,525 2,937 2,979 1,844 1,600 574 6,875 1,739
Machinery
10
1,039 867 982 1,911 1,105 1,421 831 980 398 2,525 837
Fixed Ballast           3,329
Lightship 8,746 8,108 10,4235 14,718 13,630 17,383 14,194 14,717 3,220 21,250 10,452
Weights in Long Tons
From Ship Design and Construction, Amelio M. D’Arcangelo; Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 1969 and Princples of Naval Architecture,
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Second Edition, 1967 and Third Edition, 1988
Notes:
1
573’ LOA, machinery and house
3
⁄ 4 aft, 6 holds, 2 ’tween decks, 24,000 SHP, 23 Kts.
2
574’ LOA, machinery and house midships, 19,800 SHP, 20 Kts.
3
752’ LOA, machinery
3
⁄ 4 aft, house forward, 1,920 TEU, 60,000 SHP, twin screw, 27 Kts.
4
820’ LOA, machinery
3
⁄ 4 aft, house forward, 79 LASH barges, 32,000 SHP, 27.5 Kts.
5
824’ LOA, machinery
3
⁄ 4 aft, house forward, 38 SEABEE barges, 36,000 SHP, 20 Kts.
6
810’ LOA, machinery and house aft, single bottom, 5 center and 8 wing tanks, 19,000 SHP, 17 Kts.
7
765’ LOA, machinery and house aft, 7 holds, 19,000 SHP, 16.5 Kts.
8
390’ LPB, two deck, threeisland design, 3,150 SHP, 13 Kts.
9
661’ LPB, ten deck, 1,200 passenger, 650 crew, 30,000 SHP, 20 Kts.
10
Steam turbine plants in all cases, single screw unless otherwise noted.
Table 120. Prohasha’s Ordinates for the Coffin Diagram.
Type of Ship Prohaska’s ordinates Type of Ship Prohaska’s ordinates
a & c b a & c b
Tanker 0.75W
H
/ L 1.125W
H
/ L Finelined cargo ships with erections 0.45W
H
/ L 1.275W
H
/ L
Fullbodied cargo ships w/o erections 0.65W
H
/ L 1.175W
H
/ L Small passenger ships 0.40W
H
/ L 1.30W
H
/ L
Finelined cargo ships w/o erections 0.60W
H
/ L 1.20W
H
/ L Large passenger ships 0.30W
H
/ L 1.35W
H
/ L
Fullbodied cargo ships with erections 0.55W
H
/ L 1.225W
H
/ L
where: W
H
= Hull weight, ltons (less propelling machinery)
L = Length overall, ft
Reproduced from Applied Naval Architecture, R. Munro, 1967
1100
S0300A8HBK010
111.12.3 Coffin Diagram. Bare hull
Figure 168. Coffin Diagram.
BILES METHOD ORDINATES
WHERE W
H
= HULL WEIGHT (LESS MACHINERY)
a = 0.566
W
H __
L
b = 1.195
W
H __
L
c = 0.653
W
H __
L
c
L/3
AP FP
L/3 L/3
b b
a
FROM APPLIED NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, R. MUNROSMITH, 1967.
weight distribution for ships with parallel
midbody can be approximated by a line
diagram, commonly called a coffin
diagram, consisting of a rectangle over the
length of the midbody and trapezoids at the
bow and stern. Three hull weight
distribution methods are based on the coffin
diagram. The Biles and Prohaska methods
each divide the length overall into three
equal segments as shown in Figure 168. A
third method, that may be termed the
general parallel midbody method, divides
the length into three segments based on the
observed length of the parallel midbody.
Biles method ordinates for ordinary cargo
and passenger vessels are shown in the
Figure 168, Prohaska method ordinates for
different ship types are given in Table 120.
The centroid of the Biles diagram is
0.0056L abaft midships. Small adjustments
can be made to the end ordinates so that
the centroid of the diagram corresponds to
the longitudinal position of the center of
gravity of the hull. LCG of the bare hull is
not at the same location as the light ship
Figure 169. Adjusting LCG of the Coffin Diagram.
L/3
G G
1
AP FP
L/3
7 __
9
L
x =
54(W
H
)GG
1 ____________
7L
2
L/3
x x
LCG. The position of the centroid of the
coffin diagram must be chosen so that LCG
will shift to a known or estimated position
as weights are added, corresponding to the
condition where LCG is known.
By shortening one end ordinate and
lengthening the other by an equal amount,
a triangle is transferred from one trapezoid
to the other, as shown by the dotted lines in
Figure 169. The centroid of each triangle
lies onethird of its length from its base:
where L is the length of the diagram, corres
1
3
¸
¸
_
,
L
3
=
L
9
ponding to length overall (LOA) of the ship.
The shift of the centroid of the total area is
therefore (7/9)L. If the base of the triangle
is taken as x, and its height as L/3, then,
The shift of the centroid of the diagram, representing the LCG of the hull is thus:
Area of triangle =
¸
¸
_
,
1
2
¸
¸
_
,
L
3
x =
xL
6
Moment of the shift =
¸
¸
_
,
xL
6
¸
¸
_
,
7L
9
=
7xL
2
54
where W
H
is the bare hull weight. The triangle base, x, required to give the desired shift of LCG is:
Shift of LCG =
¸
¸
_
,
7
54
( x)
L
2
W
H
x =
54(W
H
) (desired shift of LCG)
7L
2
1101
S0300A8HBK010
In the general parallel midbody method, the
Figure 170. General Parallel Midbody Weight Curve.
b
b = b
1
x
W
H __
L
W = Hull Weight
= LENGTH OF TANK SECTIONS
OR PARALLEL MIDDLE BODY
L = LENGTH OF SHIP OVERALL
0.2
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
b
1
l __
L
l
l
FROM PRINCIPLES OF NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, SNAME, 2ND EDITION, 1967.
beginning and end points and length of the
parallel midbody are determined by
inspection. The middle ordinate (b) is
defined as shown in Figure 170. The end
ordinates are chosen so that the centroid of
the entire diagram corresponds to the bare
hull LCG. Figure 171 shows how to select
end ordinates for a trapezoid to place the
center of the trapezoid in a desired location.
111.12.4 Ships Without Parallel
Midbody. An approximate weight curve
for ships without parallel midbody can be
constructed as a parabola over a rectangle,
with the area under each representing half
the bare hull weight (Cole, reproduced in
Applied Naval Architecture, R. Munro
Smith, 1967). The ordinate for the
rectangle is W
H
/2L; the maximum
(midships) ordinate for the parabola is
3W
H
/4L, as shown in Figure 172. LCG of
this figure is amidships. Correction for
LCG lying forward or aft of midships is
made by swinging the parabola.
A line parallel to the base is drawn through
the centroid of the area under the parabolic
curve. A second line is drawn from the
base of the parabola at its midlength to
intersect the first line at a distance from the
midships ordinate equal to twice the desired
shift in LCG. This line is extended beyond
the contour of the parabola. The
intersection of this line with a horizontal
Figure 171. Centroid of a Trapezoid.
= LENGTH OVER WHICH THE WEIGHT IS DISTRIBUTED
x = LONGITUDINAL DISTANCE FROM THE SMALLER
END OF THE TRAPEZOID TO ITS CENTER OF GRAVITY
a = AREA OF THE TRAPEZOID
= TONS FOR WEIGHT AND LOAD CURVES
b1, b2 = END ORDINATES
b
1
b
1
=
2a
l
__
(2 
3x __
l
);
b
2
X
g
b
2
=
2a __
l
(
3x __
l
1)
l
l
l l l l
line drawn from the center of the parabolic
curve defines one point on the new curve.
Parallel lines drawn at other ordinates
define other points on the new curve, as
shown in Figure 172.
For ships without parallel midbody, a bare
hull weight curve can also be generated by
assuming that twothirds of the hull weight
follows the still water buoyancy curve and
distributing the remaining onethird in the
form of a trapezoid so arranged that the
center of gravity lies above the center of
buoyancy, as shown in Figure 173. This
method has been found to yield close
approximations to the hull weight
distribution for large warships.
111.13 Wave Bending Moment with
Nonstandard Waves. The salvage
engineer must often assess the ability of a
damaged casualty to withstand wave
bending loads, either during the salvage
operation or during transit to a repair
facility. Because of the tedious nature of
the calculations, the usual first task is to
determine the stresses imposed by a
standard L/20 or 1.1 √L wave with length
equal to ship’s length. If the ship can carry
loads imposed by a standard wave, no further calculations need be performed in most cases. If, however, the stresses imposed by the standard
wave are excessive, calculations must be performed for trial wave heights and lengths until the maximum acceptable wave is determined, unless
bending moment caused by waves with differing length and height can be correlated to those caused by the standard wave.
1102
S0300A8HBK010
A 1991 analysis by Herbert Engineering
Figure 172. Parabolic Weight Curve.
BASE LINE
X = DESIRED SHIFT
OF LCG
ORIGINAL
CURVE
b =
3W
H
4L
2
5
b
X
2X
a =
W
H
2L
CORRECTED
CURVE
FROM APPLIED NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, R. MUNROSMITH, 1967.
a + b = 1.25
W
H
L
Corporation of five hull forms with block
coefficients ranging from 0.46 to 1.0
developed factors that relate nonstandard
wave bending moments to normalized
standard bending moment. The factors are
functions of block coefficient, wavelength,
and wave height.
The analysis revealed that for finelined
ships, maximum wave bending moment
occurs at wavelengths slightly less than the
ship’s length (approximately 0.75L), and
may be as much as 15 percent higher than
bending moment for the standard wave.
Figure 174 shows the relationship between
wavelength and bending moment for an
Figure 173. Alternate Weight Distribution for Ships Without Parallel Midbody.
2
/
3
W
H
1
/
3
W
H
AP FP
PARALLEL TO
STILL WATER
BUOYANCY CURVE
FROM BASIC SHIP THEORY, RAWSON AND TUPPER 3RD EDITION, 1983.
FFG7 Class ship (C
B
= 0.46) for a 1.1 √L
wave height. Figure 175 (Page 1104)
shows the relationship between standard
wave bending moment and maximum wave
bending moment as a function of block
coefficient.
Figure 176 (Page 1104) shows normalized
maximum and standard hogging and
sagging moments as a function of block
coefficient. All curves are based on 1.1 √L
trochoidal waves. The normalized bending
moment is given by:
where:
NBM =
WBM35
L
2
Bh
Figure 174. FFG7 Bending Moment with Varying Wavelength.
LOCATION FROM FP (X/LBP)
N
O
R
M
A
L
I
Z
E
D
M
O
M
E
N
T
V
S
.
W
A
V
E
L
E
N
G
T
H
(
C
b
=
0
.
4
6
)
H
O
G
S
A
G
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
L = 1.0 LBP
L = .75 LBP
L = LENGTH OF TROCHOIDAL WAVE
FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR
OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991
L = 1.0 LBP
L = .75 LBP
L = .50 LBP
L = .25 LBP
L = .50 LBP
L = .25 LBP
NBM = n o r ma l i z e d wa v e
b e n d i n g mo me n t ,
dimensionless
WBM = wave bending moment,
ftlton
35 = s t andar d s eawat er
specific gravity, ft
3
/lton
L = l e n g t h b e t w e e n
perpendiculars, ft
B = beam, ft
h = wave height, ft = 1.1 √L
Figure 176 (Page 1104) can be entered
with block coefficient to get an estimate of
the standard bending moment (waveheight
= 1.1 √L, wavelength = L).
1103
S0300A8HBK010
The plots in Figures 177 and 178 are
Figure 175. Ratio of Maximumto Standard Wave Bending
Moment as a Function of Block Coefficient.
1.16
1.14
1.12
1.1
1.08
1.06
1.04
1.02
1
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
BLOCKCOEFFICIENT HOG SAG
M
O
M
E
N
T
R
A
T
I
O
0.8 0.9 1
FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR
OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991
entered with wavelength expressed as a
function of ship length to determine the
ratio between wave bending moment for the
wavelength and the standard wave bending
moment. The ratio is then applied to wave
bending moment determined from Figure 1
76 or by rigorous calculation to estimate
wave bending moment for the nonstandard
wavelength. Figure 179 (Page 1106)
gives normalized bending moments for
wavelengths equal to L with nonstandard
waveheight.
111.14 Murray’s Method for Approxi
mating Maximum Bending Moment. An
approximation of determining maximum
bending moment has been developed by J.
M. Murray, former Chief Ship Surveyor to
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping. Murray’s
method computes still water bending
moment by taking moments of weight and
buoyancy about midships. Wave bending
moment is calculated by use of empirical
coefficients. The sum of the two gives
total bending moment at midships, which
Figure 176. Normalized Wave Bending Moment as a Function of Block Coefficient.
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
BLOCKCOEFFICIENT
MAX. HOG
STD. HOG
MAX. SAG
STD. SAG
N
O
R
M
A
L
I
Z
E
D
B
E
N
D
I
N
G
M
O
M
E
N
T
0.8 0.9 1
FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR
OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991
can be taken as the maximum bending
moment in most cases. The method is
reasonably accurate for ships floating at a
trim of less than one percent of their
length.
111.14.1 Still Water Bending Moment.
Still water bending moment (SWBM) is
given by:
where:
SWBM = M
W
M
B
M
W
= mean moment of
weight
M
wf
+ M
wa
= __________
2
M
wf
= moment of weight
forward of midships,
ftlton or mtonne
= W
f
(LCG
f
)
M
wa
= moment of weight aft of
midships, ftlton or m
tonne
= W
f, a
(LCGf
a
)
W
f, a
= weight of the forebody or afterbody, lton or mtonne
LCG
f, a
= LCG of the forebody or afterbody, measured from midships, ft or m
M
bf
+ M
ba
M
B
= mean moment of buoyancy = _________
2
M
bf
= moment of buoyancy forward of midships, ftlton or mtonne
= B
f
(LCB
f
)
M
ba
= moment of buoyancy aft of midships, ftlton or mtonne
= B
a
(LCB
a
)
B
f,a
= buoyancy of the forebody or afterbody, lton or mtonne
LCB
f, a
= LCB of the forebody or afterbody, measured from midships, ft or m
1104
S0300A8HBK010
Figure 177. Ratio of Wave Bending Moment to Standard Bending Moment, C
B
= 0.46.
1.25
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
WAVELENGTH/ LBP
W
A
V
E
M
O
M
E
N
T
/
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D
W
A
V
E
M
O
M
E
N
T
SAG
HOG
FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR
OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991
Figure 178. Ratio of Wave Bending Moment to Standard Bending Moment, C
B
= 1.0.
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
WAVELENGTH/ LBP
W
A
V
E
M
O
M
E
N
T
/
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D
W
A
V
E
M
O
M
E
N
T
SAG
HOG
FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR
OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991
1105
S0300A8HBK010
Since total weight and buoyancy moments are mean moments, they are numerically equal to the product of the mean weight or buoyancy and
the mean lever arm:
where:
M
W
=
M
wf
+ M
wa
2
=
¸
¸
_
,
W
f
+ W
a
2
LCG
m
M
B
=
M
bf
+ M
ba
2
=
¸
¸
_
,
B
f
+ B
a
2
LCB
m
Figure 179. Normalized Wave Bending Moment as a Function of Wave Height.
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
WAVE HEIGHT / STANDARDWAVE HEIGHT
N
O
R
M
A
L
I
Z
E
D
B
E
N
D
I
N
G
M
O
M
E
N
T
Cb = 0.46 Cb = 0.58 Cb = 0.78 Cb = 0.84 Cb = 1.0
SAG
HOG
FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR
OF SALVAGE U.S. NAVY, HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP., 20 FEBRUARY 1991
LCG
m
= mean distance from
midships of the centers
of gravity of the fore and
after bodies
LCB
m
= mean distance from
midships of the centers
of buoyancy of the
fore and after bodies
Since the sum of the weights of the fore
and after bodies is equal to the total weight,
which is equal to displacement, which is
similarly equal to the sum of the
buoyancies of the fore and after bodies, still
water bending moment can be expressed:
If the mean of the centers of gravity is
SWBM =
∆
2
(LCG
m
LCB
m
)
greater than the mean of the centers of
buoyancy, the weight levers are longer than
the buoyancy levers, and the net moment is
hogging, as shown in Figure 180. If the
mean of buoyancy centers is greater, the
net moment is negative, and sagging.
Forward and after weight moments are de
termined by summing the moments of
Figure 180. Determination of Still Water Bending Moment by Murray’s Method.
LCB
m
MEAN DISTANCE TO FORE AND AFT LCGs GREATER
THAN MEAN DISTANCE TO LCBs  HOGGING
MEAN DISTANCE TO FORE AND AFT LCBs GREATER
THAN DISTANCE TO LCGs  SAGGING
LCG
m
G
F
G
F
G
A
G
F B
A
B
A
B
F
B
F
individual weights. Weights and centers of
variable weights can be obtained from ship’s
officers or estimated with reasonable ac
curacy. Machinery weight can be approx
imated from the factors given in Paragraph
111.12.2; machinery lcg is determined by
inspection. Hull weight can be estimated as
described in Paragraph 111.12.2. The mean
distance from midships of the centers of
gravity of the forward and after bodies of the
hull can be expressed as a portion of length
between perpendiculars:
mean lcg = aL
where:
a = an empirical coefficient
= 0.223 for a cargo ship with
forecastle and poop; deck
house and machinery
amidships
= 0.24 for a tanker with fore
castle, bridge, and poop
= 0.233 for a cargo ship with
machinery aft
Values of a for different configurations can be estimated from those given above. For example, 0.225 might be used for a cargo ship with
machinery slightly aft of midships.
1106
S0300A8HBK010
Mean buoyancy moment can be estimated as:
Table 121. Coefficient c for Mean LCB in Murray’s Method.
Draft c
0.06L 0.179C
B
+ 0.063
0.05L 0.189C
B
+ 0.052
0.04L 0.199C
B
+ 0.041
0.03L 0.209C
B
+ 0.030
L = length between perpendiculars, block coefficient, C
B
is taken at draft equal to 0.06L
where:
M
B
=
∆
2
cL
∆ = total buoyancy (displacement), lton or tonne
cL = mean position of LCB, ft or m
L = length between perpendiculars, ft or m
c = empirical coefficient based on block coefficient and
draft from Table 121
EXAMPLE 16
CALCULATION OF STILL WATER BENDING MOMENT BY MURRAY’S METHOD
Calculate the still water bending moment for a cargo ship with machinery
and accommodations threequarters aft with the following characteristics:
length between perpendiculars 570 feet
beam 80 feet
molded depth 55 feet
full load draft 35 feet
block coefficient 0.71
displacement 32,400 lton
deadweight 23,800 lton
hull weight 6,250 lton
weight of propulsion machinery 1,200 lton
center of machinery room 145 ft aft of midships
Variable Weight Distribution:
item
Weight
lton
lcg from
midships
ft
Cargo: Hold 1 3000 231 F
Hold 2 4200 142 F
Hold 3 6100 60 F
Hold 4 6800 95 A
Hold 5 3700 250 A
Oil fuel in deep tank 370 200 F
Oil fuel in double bottom tanks 435 85 A
Feed water 20 170 A
Potable water 250 122 A
Crew & effects, stores 75 165 A
Calculation:
Mean distance from midships of centers of buoyancy
The load draft of 35 ft is approximately 0.06L, C
B
= 0.71,
c = 0.179C
B
+ 0.063 = 0.190
cL = 0.19(570) = 108.3 ft = LCB
m
Hull weight moment = W
H
aL (take a to be 0.23)
= 6,250(0.23)(570) = 819,375 ftlton
Weight moments, after body:
item Weight
lton
lcg from
midships
ft
Moment
ftlton
Hold 4 6,800 95 A 646,000
Hold 5 3,700 250 A 925,000
O.F. (double bottom) 435 85 A 36,975
Feed water 20 170 A 3,400
Potable water 250 122 A 30,500
Machinery 1,200 147 A 176,400
Crew & effects, stores 75 165 A 12,370
Total: 12,480 1,830,645
Weight moments, fore body:
item weight
lton
lcg from midships
ft
moment
ftlton
Hold 1 3,000 231 F 693,000
Hold 2 4,200 142 F 596,400
Hold 3 6,100 60 F 366,000
O.F. (deep tank) 370 200 F 74,000
Total: 13,670 1,729,400
Total weight moments:
item weight
lton
moment
ftlton
hull 6,250 819,375
after body 12,480 1,830,645
fore body 13,670 1,729,400
Total: 32,400 4,379,420
Mean distance from midships of centers of gravity:
LCG
m
= Total moment/total weight
= 4,379,420/32,400 = 135.2 ft
Still water bending moment:
SWBM = ∆/2 (LCG
m
 LCB
m
)
= (32,400/2)(135.2  108.3)
= 435,780 ftlton
LCG
m
is greater than LCB
m
; the net moment is positive, or hogging
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111.14.2 Wave Bending Moment. Wave bending moment,
Table 122. Wave Bending Coefficient for Murray’s Method.
Block Coefficient
C
B
Wave bending coefficient
b
Hogging
(wave crest at midships)
Sagging
(wave trough at midships)
0.80 25.00 28.00
0.78 24.25 27.25
0.76 23.55 26.50
0.74 22.85 25.70
0.72 22.10 24.90
0.70 21.35 24.10
0.68 20.65 23.35
0.66 19.90 22.60
0.64 19.20 21.80
0.62 18.45 21.05
0.60 17.75 20.30
C
B
taken at draft = 0.06L
for a standard wave with length equal to the ship’s length,
can be estimated as:
where:
WBM =
bL
3
B
1,000,000
for wave height =
L
20
=
2.2bL
2.5
B
100,000
for wave height = 1.1 L
WBM = wave bending moment, ftlton
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
B = beam, ft
b = empirical coefficient based on block
coefficient and wave position, from Table
122
111.15 Section Property Design Rules. In the absence of
better information, empirical relationships and construction
standards can be used to estimate section modulus or moment
of inertia. The following design rules are taken from Applied
Naval Architecture, R. MunroSmith, 1967.
A first approximation of the midships section moment of
inertia can be made from:
I = cBD
3
where:
I = moment of inertia, ft
4
or m
4
B = molded beam, ft or m
D = depth to strength deck, ft or m
c = empirical coefficient, ranging from 0.14 to 0.16
≈ 0.18 for cargo ships
≈ 0.22 for large tankers
≈ 0.175 to 0.21 for small tankers
An estimate for section modulus and/or moment of inertia can be made by reference to preliminary design expressions for maximum shear force
and bending moment, and assuming the ship was built to withstand that force and moment.
where:
∆
12
≤ S
max
≤
∆
9
M
max
≈
∆L
C
=
LBTC
D
35
L
C
=
L
2
BTC
B
35C
S
max
= maximum shear, lton
∆ = displacement, lton
M
max
= maximum bending moment, ftlton
L = length between perpendiculars, ft
C
B
= block coefficient
C = a constant, generally ranging from 20 to 40
≈ 35 for most auxiliaries, merchant ships, and vessels with large longitudinal prismatic coefficient ⇒ M
max
= LBT/1600 (C
B
taken
as 0.75)
≈ 20 for destroyers, and vessels with small longitudinal prismatic coefficient ⇒ M
max
= LBT/1490 (C
B
taken as 0.47)
These relationships give a good approximation for the fullload condition on a standard hogging wave. For most merchant ships, hogging
moments are greater than sagging moments.
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111.16 By Rule Section Modulus. Classification society rules set minimum standards for midships section modulus. Midships section
modulus of an in class ship will not be lower than the minimum standard, and is unlikely to be much higher. Bending stresses in the midships
region can be roughly estimated without determining section modulus rigorously, provided the following are true:
• The ship was built to classification society standards or other specifications requiring minimum section modulus, and is currently
in class.
• The minimum section modulus standards are known.
• The ship has not suffered damage that will reduce section modulus in the sections where stresses are to be determined.
A summary of section modulus requirements established by the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) is given in Appendic C.
111.17 Strength Considerations in Salvage Operations. A ship is designed and constructed to withstand expected shear forces and bending
moments. In an intact floating ship, maximum bending moment occurs in the midships region and maximum shear near the quarterlength points.
These sections are designed to ensure that stresses remain below acceptable limits. Three conditions common to salvage operations may require
that the stress levels be examined at other points:
• The ship may be loaded in ways not foreseen by the designer. Because of flooding, grounding or other unusual conditions of
loading, maximum bending moment can occur at some section other than midships. Similarly, maximum shear may be at some
point other than at the quarters.
• Damage can alter the stress distribution at a section so that maximum stress can occur in some section other than where maximum
bending moment or shear occurs. Damage, even over a short distance, disrupts the continuity of longitudinal members and reduces
the section modulus for some distance on either side of the damaged section.
• Local damage or distortion can render plating and stiffeners more susceptible to tripping, buckling, or other forms of load shirking,
thereby reducing effective moment of inertia.
The load, shear, and bending moment
Figure 181. Maximum Bending Moment for FFG7.
B
E
N
D
I
N
G
M
O
M
E
N
T
,
F
O
O
T

P
O
U
N
D
S
x
1
0
8
16 17
1
2
3
15 14 13 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
STATIONS
MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENTS BASED ON ASSUMED
MATERIAL YIELD OF 32,000 PSI WITHOUT SAFETY FACTOR
MAXIMUM MOMENT, KEEL
MAXIMUM MOMENT, DECK
curves of a casualty must be carefully
examined:
• Stresses should be determined
wherever shear or bending
moment are maximum or the
effective moment of inertia is
reduced.
• The effects of salvage actions
on load, shear and bending
moment should be examined
before taking the action.
• Accesses should not be cut in
locations that will reduce the
section modulus or strength
member continuity.
A useful salvage technique is to calculate
and plot the maximum acceptable shear and
bending moments along the length of the
ship. The bending moments and shear
resulting from planned actions can be
compared with the allowable limits to
determine if the planned action is safe.
Figure 181 shows maximum acceptable
bending moments for an FFG7 Class ship.
1109 (1110 blank)
S0300A8HBK010
The intersections of the reference planes with specified locations on the hull create additional reference lines and points:
• • • • •
Forward Perpendicular (FP) – A vertical line through the intersection of the stem and the design or load waterline (DWL, LWL). After Perpendicular (AP) – A vertical line at or near the stern of the ship. In naval practice, the after perpendicular passes through the after extremity of the design waterline; in commercial practice, the after perpendicular usually passes through the rudder post, or the centerline of the rudder stock if there is no rudder post. Midship Section ( or MS) – An intersection of the midship plane with the molded hull.
Centerline (C or CL) – The projection of the centerplane in plan or end views of the hull. L Baseline (B or BL) – The projection of the baseplane in the side or end views of the hull. In ships with design drag where the L baseline passes through the intersection of the midships section and the keel, parts of the hull will be below the baseline. For ships with flatplate keels that float on an even keel, the baseline, bottom of the molded surface, and top of the keel plate coincide; if the keel plate is an outside strake (lapped over the adjacent strakes rather than buttwelded to them), the top of the flatplate keel is below the bottom of the molded surface by the thickness of the strakes on each side of it (the garboard strakes). In vessels with hanging bar keels, the top of the keel coincides with the bottom of the molded surface.
12.2 Location of Points. The position of any point in the ship can be described by its:
• • •
Height above the baseplane or keel. Athwartships position relative to the centerplane. Longitudinal position relative to the midship section or to one of the perpendiculars.
12.3 Ship Dimensions. Molded dimensions, lines, etc., describe the fair surface defined by the framing and are principally of use to the shipbuilder. Displacement dimensions and lines describe the surfaces wetted by the sea and are of principal interest to the naval architect and salvage engineer in determining stability and performance characteristics. Extreme dimensions, such as extreme breadth, account for projections such as overhanging decks, fender rails, etc. Molded dimensions differ from displacement dimensions by the plating, planking, or sheathing thickness. In steel ships, this difference usually amounts to less than one percent of the total displacement. Displacement dimensions are not usually tabulated as such; if desired, they are deduced by adding plating thickness to molded dimensions, or deducting appendage measurements from extreme dimensions. The principal dimensions of a ship are length, beam, and depth. Two other important dimensions are draft and freeboard. Figure 11 shows the principal dimensions of a ship.
•
Length between perpendiculars (L, LBP or Lpp), is used for the calculation of hydrostatic properties. Length overall (LOA) is the maximum length of the vessel, including any extensions beyond the perpendiculars, such as overhanging sterns, raked stems, bulbous bows, etc. Length on the waterline (LWL or LWL) may or may not be the same as LBP, depending on the location of the perpendiculars; tabulated LWL is usually taken on the design waterline. Beam or breadth (B) is the width of the ship. Molded beam is measured amidships or at the widest section from the inside surface of the shell plating. Maximum beam or extreme breadth is the breadth at the widest part of the ship, and is equal to the molded breadth plus twice the plating thickness plus the width of fenders, overhanging decks, or other solid projections. Draft (T) is the vertical distance between the waterline and the deepest part of the ship at any point along the length. Drafts are usually measured to the keel and are given as draft forward (Tf), draft aft (Ta) and mean draft (T or Tm). A ship’s forward and after draft marks are seldom at the perpendiculars and mean draft is not necessarily amidships; the slight errors introduced by using drafts at these points can be discounted if trim is not extreme. Molded drafts are measured from the molded baseline, while keel drafts are measured from a horizontal line though the lowest point on the bottom of the keel extended to intersect the forward and after perpendiculars. Navigational or extreme drafts indicate the extreme depth of sonar domes, propellers, pit swords, or other appendages which extend below the keel, and are therefore not used to calculate hydrostatic properties. Draft scales for keel drafts are usually placed on both sides of the ship at each end as near as practical to the respective perpendiculars. The external draft marks are generally Arabic numerals, with height and spacing arranged so that the vertical projection on the vessel of the numeral heights and vertical spacing between numerals are both six inches. The draft figures are placed so that the bottom of the figure indicates the keel draft. Drafts can thus be read to the nearest quarterfoot (3 inches) in relatively calm waters. Freeboard (F) is the vertical distance between the waterline and the uppermost watertight deck. Depth (D) is the vertical distance between the baseline and the uppermost watertight deck and is the sum of freeboard and draft. Molded depth is measured from the top of the outer keel to the underside of the main or freeboard deck at the side. Depending on hull form and ship’s attitude, both freeboard and depth can vary along the length of the ship. Unless otherwise specified, tabulated values for depth and freeboard are usually taken at midships or at the point of minimum freeboard.
• •
• •
12
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12.4 Lines. The shape of a ship is B developed to meet specific requirements of speed, seakeeping ability, and capacity for the intended use of the vessel. The shape MIDSHIPS of the hull is defined by the plan shapes SECTION produced by the intersection of three D families of orthogonal planes and the hull surface. Most hulls are symmetrical about the vertical plane of the centerline. The T intersection of the ship’s molded hull surface with this and parallel planes is called a buttock, or buttock line. The term C L buttock was formerly applied only to the AP FP portions of these lines aft of midships; the DWL forward portions were called bow lines. A plane parallel to the baseplane and LBP perpendicular to the centerline plane is a LOA waterplane. The intersection of waterplanes and the molded hull are called Figure 11. Principal Dimensions. waterlines (WL). The intersection of transverse planes perpendicular to both waterplanes and buttocks are termed sections. The superimposed sections (body plan), waterplanes (halfbreadth plan), and buttocks (sheer plan) form the lines plan or lines drawing for the ship. Like other engineering drawings, the lines plan is composed of views from ahead or astern, from above, and from the starboard side. Figure FO1 is the lines plan for an FFG7 Class ship. The lines plans for steel ships usually show the molded surface. For surface ships, the molded surface is the inside of the shell plating, while the molded surface for submarines is the outside of the hull plating. For vessels with hanging bar keels, the line of the bottom of the keel is shown on the sheer plan to complete the lower contour of the vessel; the keel line is not usually shown for vessels with flatplate keels because it lies so near the line of the bottom of the molded surface. Because of the greater hull thickness, wooden ships may have separate molded and displacement lines drawings. 12.4.1 The Body Plan. The body plan shows the outline of the transverse sections of a ship at equally spaced stations or ordinates along the length of the ship. The distance between perpendiculars is commonly divided into 10 or 20 equal spaces by 11 or 21 stations, including the forward and after perpendiculars. More or fewer stations may be used depending on the complexity of the hull shape. Halfspaced stations may be used when the shape of the hull form changes rapidly, such as near the bow and stern. As the transverse sections are normally symmetrical about the centerline, it is conventional to show only half sections with the forward stations on the right and after stations on the left. Stations are numbered from forward aft, with the forward perpendicular as station zero on U.S. Navy ships. Stations forward of the forward perpendicular (if any) may be designated by negative numbers or letters. Commercial vessels, particularly foreignbuilt vessels, commonly number stations from aft forward, with the after perpendicular as zero. 12.4.2 Halfbreadth Plan. Due to symmetry, it is conventional to show only half of the waterplanes in a halfbreadth plan. Waterlines are designated by their height above the baseline. The waterlines define the shape and area of the waterplane and are spaced closely enough to accurately define the waterplane at any draft. 12.4.3 Sheer Plan. Superimposed buttocks form the sheer plan. They are spaced as necessary to adequately define the ship’s form.
13
highspeed or planing hulls often do not have a rounded bilge. Tumblehome is measured horizontally from the molded breadth line at the deck edge as shown in Figure 12. the form of the hull’s transverse section in the midships region extends without change for some distance fore and aft. Forebody – The portion of the hull forward of the midship section. • • Run – The immersed portion of the hull aft of the section of greatest immersed area or aft of the parallel midbody. After body – The portion of the hull abaft the midship section. or flat of bottom. The lower corners are called the bilges and the shape is often circular. the side and bottom are joined in a chine. The horizontal region of the bottom is called flat of keel. Chine – The line or knuckle formed by the intersection of two relatively flat hull surfaces. such as cargo ships and tankers. The radius of the circular arc is called the bilge radius or turn of the bilge. Where there is rise of floor. Small. Figure 12 illustrates some of the following definitions: ONEHALF OF MOLDED BREADTH CAMBER TUMBLEHOME • Parallel midbody – In many modern ships. In hard chines. Knuckle – An abrupt change in the direction of plating or other structure. Tumblehome was a usual feature in sailing ships and many ships built before 1940. the radius of curvature of the bilge will increase as it approaches the straight plating of the side and bottom. for example). have little or no deadrise. Deadrise – The departure of the bottom from a transverse horizontal line measured from the baseline at the molded breadth line as shown in Figure 12. Entrance – The immersed portion of the hull forward of the section of greatest immersed area (not necessarily amidships) or forward of the parallel midbody. the intersection forms a sharp angle. Bilge radius – The outline of the midships section of very full ships is very nearly a rectangle with its lower corners rounded. Even in ships without parallel midbody. or expressed as a fraction of the ship’s length. Certain other geometric concepts are useful in describing a ship’s form. While any section of the ship can have deadrise. Because it is more expensive to construct a hull with tumblehome. in soft chines. If the shape of the bilge follows some curve other than a circle. continuous over a significant length of the hull. the line of the bottom commonly intersects the baseline some distance from the centerline.4. fullbodied ships.4 Descriptive Terms. the connection is rounded. In these craft.S0300A8HBK010 12. the form of the fullest transverse section changes only slightly for small distances forward or aft. Tumblehome – The inward fall of side plating from the vertical as it extends upward towards the deck edge. this feature is not usually incorporated in modern merchant ship design. This is called parallel midbody and may be described as extensive or short. Deadrise is an indicator of the ship’s form. The turn of the bilge may be described as hard or easy depending on the radius of curvature. tabulated deadrise is normally taken at the midships section. • • • • 14 . producing a small horizontal portion of the bottom on each side of the keel. Destroyers and other highspeed combatants are often built with some tumblehome in their mid and after sections to save topside weight. while finelined ships have much greater deadrise along with a large bilge radius. Hull Form Nomenclature. unless required by operating conditions or service (tugs and icebreaking vessels. Deadrise is also called rise of floor or rise of bottom. SHEER AFT FREEBOARD MOLDED DEPTH DESIGN WATERLINE DESIGN DRAFT MOLDED DRAFT DEADRISE • • • C L MOLDED BASE LINE SHEER FORWARD DEPTH Figure 12.
Deadwood aft is detrimental to speed and quick maneuverability and is minimized by use of cutup sterns in highspeed combatants and by arched keels or sluice keels (with athwartships apertures) in tugs and workboats. For curved stems. Hull Surfaces – Hull surfaces are either warped. Some small craft and racing yachts are given a reverse or hogged sheer to give headroom amidships without excessive depth at bow and stern.2L + 20 sheer aft = 0. Actual sheer often varied considerably from these standard values. i. the deck side line often followed a parabolic profile and sheer was given as its value at the forward and after perpendiculars. • • • • 15 . Sailing craft require deadwood to be able to work to windward efficiently.S0300A8HBK010 • Flare – The outward curvature of the hull surface above the waterline. In older ships. and configuration. Icebreaking vessels often have a cutup forward to allow the ship to ride up on the ice. • Rake – A departure from the vertical or horizontal of any conspicuous line in profile. Cutup – When a keel departs from a straight line at a sharp bend. Camber – The convex upwards curve of a deck. Paragraph 14. consisting of portions of cylinders or cones. particularly at the bow.. or flat. depending on ship size.. Deadwood is included in a hull design principally to increase lateral resistance or enhance directional stability without significantly increasing drag when moving ahead. and helps keep the vessel from shipping water as she moves through rough seas. and the values of sheer forward and aft were varied to suit the particular design. Deadwood – Portions of the immersed hull with significant longitudinal and vertical dimensions. Skegs or fins are fitted on barges to give directional stability. Appendages generally account for 0. can be expressed as the angle between the stem bar and a vertical line for ships with straight stems. shafts. Many modern ships are built without sheer. developed. bilge keels. the sloping portion is called a cutup. sonar domes. Flaring bows are often fitted to help keep the forward decks dry and to prevent "nosediving" in head seas. Standard sheer was given by: sheer forward = 0. for example. but without appreciable transverse dimensions. the decks are flat for some distance fore and aft of midships and then rise in a straight line towards the ends. decrease the underwater volume. the opposite of tumblehome. service. Flared sections cause a commensurately larger increase in local buoyancy than unflared sections when immersed. Not all ships have cambered decks. although camber does slightly increase righting arms at large angles of inclination (after the deck edge is immersed).10. the deck side profile was not always parabolic. Positive appendages. Appendages – Portions of the vessel that extend beyond the main hull outline or molded surface. In section. Rake of stem.2 discusses methods for estimating appendage displacement. Ships designed so that the keel is not parallel to the baseline and DWL when floating at their designed drafts are said to have raked keels. while negative appendages. Sheer – The rise of a deck above the horizontal measured as the height of the deck above a line parallel to the baseline tangent to the deck at its lowest point. Hydroconic construction lowers production costs and may simplify fitting patches to a casualty. bosses. or to have drag by the keel. lying outside the molded surface. Hydroconic hulls are built up of connected flat plates rather than plates rolled to complex curves. such as bow thruster tunnels and other recesses. increase the underwater volume. Standard camber is about onefiftieth of the beam. etc. Highspeed combatants usually have a long cutup aft (extending 13 to 17 percent of LWL) to enhance propeller performance and maneuverability. ships with cambered weather decks and flat internal decks are not uncommon. the camber shape may be parabolic or consist of several straight line segments.6L. complex threedimensional curves. in some. Sheer increases the height of the weather decks above water.e. Also called round up. or round of beam. is normally the largest single appendage. Camber diminishes towards the ends of the ship as the beam decreases. the lowest point of the upper deck was usually at about 0.1L + 10 • • where sheer is measured in inches and L is the length between perpendiculars in feet. a number of ordinates measured from the forward perpendicular are required to define the stem shape. The principal use of camber is to ensure good drainage in calm seas or in port. Shell plating. round down.2 to 2 percent of total immersed hull volume. consisting of smoothly faired. Camber is usually given as the height of the deck on the centerline amidships above a horizontal line connecting port and starboard deck edges. and often accounts for onehalf to twothirds of the total appendage volume. defined by a rake angle or by the distance between the profile line and a reference line at a convenient point. or knuckle. such as rudders.
Length between perpendiculars is most often used. [length] Table 11.910 0. coefficients of form also vary with displacement.992 0.900 0.995 0.724 0.578 0. Code 55W. CM may be greater than 1.3 Waterplane. [length] 16 .585 0.530 0.850 0.770 0. [length] draft.694 0. breadth.980 0.565 0.000ton DWT) VLCC (250. [length] length between perpendiculars.570 0.780 0.997 0. although some designers prefer length on the waterline.600 0.5.850 0.800 0.470 0.874 0.671 0.568 0.883 0.972 0.695 0. [length] = length on the waterline. The coefficients are ratios of areas or volumes for the actual hull form compared to prisms or rectangles defined by the ship’s length.542 Commercial Vessels General Cargo (slowspeed) General Cargo (mediumspeed) General Cargo (highspeed) Tanker (35.950 0. Trawler Offshore Supply Vessel Harbor Tug Ocean Power Yacht (250 ft LWL) 0.550 0. The builder’s hull number or name and type of vessel must be provided to access the data files.576 0.5 Coefficients of Form.810 0. The block coefficient (CB) is the ratio of the immersed hull volume (∇) at a particular draft to that of a rectangular prism of the same length. [length3] beam. and draft.802 0. 12.906 0.833 0.995 0. and draft as the ship: ∇ CB = BTL where: ∇ B T L = = = = immersed volume.916 0. The midship section coefficient (CM) is the ratio of the area of the immersed midship section (Am) at a particular draft to that of a rectangle of the same draft and breadth as the ship: CM = where: AM = B T = = area of the immersed portion of the midships section.978 0.5.972 0.845 0.892 0. Block Coefficient CB Navy Ships Aircraft Carrier (CV59 Class) Battleship (BB61 Class) Cruiser (CGN38 Class) Destroyer (DD963 Class) Frigate (FFG7 Class) Replenishment Ship (AOR1 Class) Salvage Tug (ARS50 Class) 0.808 0. As hull form approaches that of a rectangular barge.800 0. the coefficients approach their maximum value of 1.000 0.S0300A8HBK010 12. [length2] beam.0.530 0. Coefficients for commercial vessels are typical values.996 0.842 0. coefficients for specific ships will vary. usually taken at the waterline.981 0. [length2] = beam. 12.000ton DWT) Large Tanker (76. [length] AM BT If the vessel has bulges or blisters below the waterline.652 0.810 0.984 1.S.970 0.594 0.729 0.000ton DWT) Container Ship RO/RO Ore Carrier Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Passenger Liner Barge Carrier Large Car Ferry Ocean Tug.700 0. Tabulated coefficients are usually based on the molded breadth and draft at designed displacement. Typical Coefficients of Form. Since length and breadth on the waterline as well as draft vary with displacement.750 0.938 0. The following paragraphs describe the most commonly used coefficients. The waterplane coefficient (CWP) is the ratio of the area of the waterplane (AWP) to that of a rectangle of the same length and breadth as the ship: CWP = AWP LWL B where: AWP = B LWL area of the waterplane.892 0. Coefficients for many merchant vessels are available from the National Cargo Bureau.950 0.690 0.880 0.510 0.956 0.760 0. telephone (212) 5715000. Navy ships can be obtained from Naval Sea Systems Command.5. Table 11 gives sample coefficients for different type ships.680 0. Coefficients of form can be used to simplify area and volume calculations for stability or strength analyses.660 0. [length] draft.1 Block.820 0.757 0.908 0.740 0.510 0. Coefficients of form are dimensionless numbers that describe hull fineness and overall shape characteristics.2 Midship Section.777 0. breadth. Coefficients of form for U.791 Midship Coefficient CM Waterplane Coefficient CWP Type Ship 12.
DEPTH. DRAFT. and service draft. [length3] area of the immersed portion of the midships section. The prismatic coefficient thus indicates the longitudinal distribution of the underwater volume of a ship’s hull. 1975.6 2. the prismatic coefficient is sometimes called the longitudinal coefficient. A full CVP indicates a concentration of volume near the keel and a fine CVP. MunroSmith’s Elements of Ship Design. Throughout this handbook and many naval architecture texts.6 Ship Proportions. LBP. are used to estimate ship dimensions during preliminary design and can help to determine whether a hull should be considered normal. the prismatic coefficient is equal to the block coefficient divided by the midships section coefficient. The longitudinal prismatic coefficient (CP) is the ratio of the immersed volume to the volume of a prism with length equal to the ship’s and crosssection area identical to the midship section: CP = C ∇ = B AM L CM where: ∇ = AM = L = immersed volume. ship type.4 to 2. [length] = ∇ AWP T BREADTH. The vertical prismatic coefficient (CVP) is the ratio of the immersed hull volume to the volume of a prism having a length equal to the ship’s draft and a cross section identical to that of the waterplane: CVP = where: ∇ AWP = T immersed volume. [length] If length between perpendiculars and length on the waterline are equal (as they are for Navy ships).8 7. size. For this reason.78 0.1 to 2. 11 gives typical coefficients of form and Figure 13 shows approximate linear relationships between length.4 Prismatic. normal form is best defined by a range of coefficients and dimension ratios. FT 125 100 75 TH AD RE B The vertical prismatic coefficient is equal to the block coefficient divided by the waterplane coefficient and indicates the vertical distribution of the underwater volume.3).5.8 2. [length2] length between perpendiculars. With the broad range of FROM ELEMENTS OF SHIP DESIGN. adapted from R. and service requirements.66 to 0. relationships and approximations for 0 various hydrostatic and stability parameters 0 450 600 750 900 are given as applicable to ships of ordinary. draft.78 17 . a concentration nearer the waterline. [length3] area of the waterplane.6 T/D 0. and displacement. For a given length. Approximate Ship Proportions. FT or normal form.75 to 0. a low (fine) CP indicates a hull with fine ends. depth. The relationships given below. breadth.76 to 0.74 0. beam. MUNROSMITH. R.3 to 6. 50 PTH DE T DRAF 25 12.4 to 2. Dimensional Ratios: Ship type General Cargo Tankers VLCC L/B 6. A large (full) value for CP indicates a hull with relatively full ends.5 B/T 2. [length2] = draft.1 to 7.25 6. Table Figure 13.4 to 6.S0300A8HBK010 12. and deadweight coefficients (defined in Paragraph 13.
7 Offsets. ft Beam to length relationship: B = Ln where B and L are given in feet and: n ≈ ≈ 0.459 for VLCC DWT C T 12.23 Vk L CB ≤ 1.590 for tankers 0.446 to 0. this offset precisely locates the point on the skin of the ship 81. or in the worst case.64 for general cargo ships 0. Offsets are distances measured from the centerline to the side of the ship at each station and waterline. 23⁄ 8 inches.S0300A8HBK010 Maximum block coefficient for service conditions: CB ≤ 1.68 for VLCC Lengthbeam product to deadweight relationship: 0. ft beam. or 46 ft (VLCC) where: B = beam. The hull form can be described in tabular format by a set of measurements known as offsets.85 to 2.0 for general cargo ships 0.525 to 0.4).3 indicating 10 feet. Of more use to the salvor is the fact that offsets can be obtained from body or halfbreadth plans and used to determine ship volumes and areas by numerical integration (described in Paragraph 14).00 0. 408/20 stations = 20. The waterline halfbreadth entry for station 4 at the 8' 0" waterline reads 10 . ft deadweight. The table of offsets for an FFG7 Class ship shown in Figure FO1 is typical.00 0. Molded offsets are measured to the molded surface (inside of shell plating for steel surface ships). ft + 20 ft ≤ B ≤ + 15 ft ≤ B ≤ + 39 ft ≤ B ≤ B ≈ L 9 L 9 L 9 L 5 + 25 ft (cargo ships) + 21 ft (tankers. without appendages.2 . ft 0. Since the station spacing is given as 20.6 feet from the forward perpendicular (4 × 20. eight feet above the baseline and 10 feet 23⁄ 8 inches from the centerline. Lines drawings can be constructed from tables of offsets. bulk carriers) + 50 ft.00 where: Vk = L = Beam range: L 9 L 9 L 9 (general cargo ships) (tankers. Molded or displacement offsets are usually presented in a table in the form feetincheseighths. Offsets define the hull proper. knots length between perpendiculars.0093LB = where: L B DWT T C = = = = = = = length between perpendiculars.66 to 0. displacement offsets are measured to the outer hull surface. lton draft. bulk carriers) 0.175 Vk L (VLCC) service speed. Offsets can be scaled from arrangement drawings. Supplementary appendage offset tables are sometimes available.19 Vk L CB ≤ 1.61 to 0.4 feet on the plan (LBP = 408 feet. 18 . measured on site.4).
7L T T Table 12.5 21. ft (immersed length) displacement volume. The area of complex hull surfaces can be calculated by numerical integration from offsets or the shell expansion plan.7L T Taylor’s formula: A S = C ∆D L Haslar formula for finelined ships: AS = ∇ 3.0 16.0 C 16. or the object’s weight.0 10. ft3 = CB LBT mean draft. cargo. A ship’s displacement is related to the volume of displaced water.2 23.3 22. Since the worldwide variation of gravitational acceleration is slight. but this is a tedious and timeconsuming task. the two forces must be balanced. L B CB B/T 3. Displacement and Capacity.2 L 2.98 and 2. a ship’s effective density must be much less than that of the surrounding water to allow the ship to support not only its own weight. ρg/gc gives weight density in poundsforce per cubic foot.S0300A8HBK010 12. in a watertight skin so that its average density is less than that of the surrounding water.0 where: AS L ∇ T B CB ∆D C = = = = = = = = 16. Deeper immersion requires the application of force.2 to 16.0 9.5. displacement (∆D) is equal to the weight of the ship and everything in it (W). In a standard gravitational field (g = 32.0 8. Buoyancy is opposed by the downward force of gravity.0 5.0 12.5 20. principally air. An object’s displacement is the weight of the water it displaces. ranging from 15. where its apparent weight is decreased by the buoyant force acting on it. by the weight density of water (ρg/gc). ft block coefficient displacement.5 ≤ B/T ≤ 3. and g in feet per second per second (ft/sec2). The area of all or part of a ship’s hull’s wetted surface is important to hydrodynamic resistance and pressure force calculations.0 23.8 Wetted Surface. 13.09 ∇1/3 11.0 wetted surface. Displacement is usually given for either the lightship—the weight of the ship without cargo or stores—or fullload conditions. This force of buoyancy is the resultant of the normal pressures exerted by the fluid on each element of the immersed body’s surface.1 Ship’s Weight. Taylor’s Coefficient. ft2. A ship floats by enclosing large volumes of less dense material.0 for vessels with 0. an object less dense than water will exhibit positive buoyancy and will float with an immersed volume such that the weight of the displaced water exactly equals the object’s weight.174 ft/sec2) poundsmass and poundsforce are numerically equal. C is expressed as a function of B/T in Table 12. stores. Wetted surface multiplied by average shell thickness calculates shell volume to be added to the molded volume to determine total displacement. An object whose density equals that of the surrounding water is said to have neutral buoyancy and will float at whatever depth it is placed. ∆D = ∇ρg gc = W If mass density is given in slugs per cubic foot.0 18.3 2/3 ∇ = 1. displacement represents the force of buoyancy (B) acting on the object. 19 .0 13.5 17. Wetted surface can be estimated by one of the following empirical relationships: DennyMumford Formula: AS = 1.5 25. at mean draft T. ft length between perpendiculars.8 24. Similarly.3 27. ft molded beam. in poundsmass per cubic foot without significant error. etc. measured in long tons of 2.1 26. floating free of any solid support. To be useful. For a ship in static equilibrium. but also that of crew.8 ≤ Cm ≤ 0.0 14. An object heavier than an equivalent volume of water has negative buoyancy and will sink until it encounters a solid object or denser liquid. In order for equilibrium to exist. weight density in poundsforce per cubic foot (γ) can be taken as numerically equal to mass density. For shallow draft vessels.5 4. 13 DISPLACEMENT AND BUOYANCY A body immersed in a fluid will experience an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced. ltons a coefficient.240 pounds. called the displacement volume or volume of displacement (∇ or V).
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With weight held constant, the product of displacement volume and water density must also be constant. For a given weight, displacement volume varies inversely with the density of the surrounding water—displacement volume in water of known density can be related to displacement volume water of any density: ∇1 ρ1 = ∇2 ρ2 ⇒ ∇2 = ∇1 ρ1 ρ2
The density of seawater varies with salinity and temperature, but is approximately 64 pounds per cubic foot; the density of fresh water is about 62.4 pounds per cubic foot. It is sometimes more convenient to use the inverse density, or specific volume (δ), of 35 cubic feet per ton of seawater. The equivalent figure for fresh water is 35.9, commonly rounded to 36. W = ∇ δ ∇sw 35 = ∇fw 36
W =
36 ∇fw = ∇sw 35 Care must be exercised not to confuse displacement, measured in long tons, with gross, net, or register tonnage. Tonnage is a measurement of the enclosed volume of a ship used to describe her cargo capacity and does not indicate displacement. Register tonnage (gross and net) is measured according to the rules of the country of registry or international rules, and is used as a basis for port fees, canal tolls, and similar charges. Measurement tons were formerly equal to 100 cubic feet, but the more recent international rules determine tonnage by formulas that do not relate volume to tonnage directly. Gross tonnage is a measure of the internal volume of the entire ship—the hull plus enclosed spaces above the main deck. Net tonnage is derived from a formula based on the molded volume of cargo spaces, the number of passengers carried, molded depth, and service draft; net tonnage gives an indication of the ship’s earning capacity. Commercial vessels engaged in international voyages are issued a Tonnage Certificate by the country of registry. Certain special tonnages, such as Suez or Panama Canal tonnages, are calculated by somewhat different formulae and recorded on separate certificates. Cargo capacity may also be given in conventional volumetric units. Tank capacities are usually specified in barrels, gallons, or cubic meters. For petroleum products and other liquids subject to thermal expansion, practical capacity is less than net capacity, to ensure that a tank "filled" with cold oil will not overflow as the oil warms. U.S. Navy practice sets oil tank operating capacity at 95 percent of net capacity; U.S. Merchant Marine practice at 98 percent. Dry cargo capacity is specified in cubic feet or cubic meters. Bale capacity is the volume below deck beams and inboard of cargo battens, that is free for the stowage of bags, barrels, crates, bales, pallets, etc. Grain capacity is the net molded underdeck volume, after deductions for the volume of frames, floors, and other structure, that is available for the stowage of granular bulk cargo. Capacity of container ships is expressed as the number of standard 8footwide by 8foothigh containers of specified length that can be carried, often converted to 20foot equivalent units (TEU), or 40 foot equivalent units (FEU). Capacity for rollon/rolloff (RO/RO) cargo and vehicle carriers may be expressed as the number of units that can be carried or as the area of the cargo decks, in square feet or square meters. 13.2 Standard Loading Conditions. Displacement and stability characteristics are often referenced to certain standard conditions of loading. 13.2.1 U.S. Navy Ships. Characteristics are usually tabulated for the following standard conditions of loading (from NSTM Chapter 096):
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Condition A  Lightship – The ship complete, ready for service in every respect, including permanent ballast (solid and liquid), onboard repair parts, aviation mobile support equipment as assigned, and liquids in machinery at operating levels, without any items of variable load (provisions, stores, ammunition, crew and effects, cargo, aircraft and aviation stores, passengers, saltwater ballast, fuel and other liquids in storage tanks). Formerly Condition II. Condition A1  Lightship – Condition A without permanent ballast. Formerly condition IIA. Condition B  Minimum Operating Condition – A condition of minimum stability likely to exist in normal operation (following the ship’s liquid loading instructions). For warships, Condition B approximates the ship’s condition toward the end of a hostile engagement following a long period at sea. Liquids are included in amounts and locations that will provide satisfactory stability, trim, and limitation of list in case of underwater damage. Formerly Condition V. Condition C  Optimum Battle Condition – As formerly applied to minor combatants, the ship loaded with full ammunition allowance and twothirds provisions, fuel, lube oil, etc. Fuel distribution and seawater ballast are in accordance with liquid loading instructions, except that service tanks are assumed halffull and one pair of storage tanks per machinery box are assumed empty. Formerly Condition LS. In current practice, this condition applies only to ships with extensive underwater defense systems, such as aircraft carriers and battleships. Liquids are carried in the amounts and locations that provide the optimum resistance to underwater damage.
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Condition D  Full Load – Two different fullload conditions are defined: (1) Full load (contractual) – The ship complete, ready for service in every respect; Condition A plus authorized complement of personnel and passengers and their effects, full allowance of ammunition in magazines and ready service spaces, full allowance of aircraft and vehicles with repair parts and stores, provisions and stores for the periods specified in design specifications, sufficient fuel to meet endurance specifications, antiroll tank liquid, liquids in tanks to required capacity in accordance with liquid load instructions, and cargo in the amounts normally carried or a specified portion of full capacity. This condition is used for weight estimates and reporting. (2) Full load (departure) – Same as full load (contractual) except that fuel and lube oil tanks are 95percent full, potable and feed water tanks 100percent full. Formerly Condition VI. This condition is used in inclining experiment reports.
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Condition E  Capacity Load – The ship complete, ready for service in every respect; Condition A plus the maximum number of crew and passengers that can be accommodated, with their effects, maximum stowage of ammunition in magazines and ready service spaces, full allowance of aircraft and vehicles with repair parts and stores, maximum amount of provisions and stores that can be carried in assigned spaces, tanks filled to maximum capacity (95 percent for oil tanks, 100 percent for fresh water), maximum amounts of cargo and supplies, with the provision that the limiting drafts not be exceeded.
Data is sometimes tabulated for special or unusual loading conditions, such as special ballast conditions for amphibious warfare ships. Details for each condition of loading are found in the ship’s damage control book. Standard displacement is a condition defined by the Washington Naval Conference of 1923 as "The displacement of the ship, fully manned, engined, and equipped ready for sea, including all armament and ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisions and fresh water for the crew, miscellaneous stores and implements of every description that are intended to be carried in war, but without fuel or reserve feed water on board." Standard displacement was defined primarily as an aid to ensuring compliance to restriction on warship size and total naval tonnage under international treaties, but provides a convenient means of comparing warships and is commonly given in published summaries of naval strength, such as Jane’s Fighting Ships. Characteristics for standard displacement are not normally tabulated in damage control books or similar documents. 13.2.2 Commercial Vessels. Two major conditions of loading are referenced in dealing with commercial vessels:
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Lightship, Lightweight, or Light Displacement – The ship with all items of outfit, equipment, and machinery, including boiler water and lubricating oil in sumps, but without cargo, provisions, stores, crew, or fuel. Fully Loaded – Lightship plus cargo, fuel, stores, etc., to settle the ship to her load line. Also loaded, load, or fullload displacement. For ships designed to carry different classes of cargo, fullload conditions may be tabulated for each type of cargo.
The trim and stability booklet will normally tabulate stability data for ballasted and partly loaded conditions, and for end of voyage and intermediate conditions with varying amounts of fuel and stores consumed. 13.2.3 Loading Instructions. Specific loading instructions are provided to help operating personnel avoid loading the ship so that her stability is dangerously low or the hull girder is overstressed. The most basic instruction is that ships shall not be loaded so heavily that their load line (merchant) or limiting draft marks (naval) are submerged. Detailed loading instructions are given in the trim and stability booklet for merchant ships or the damage control book for Navy ships. In certain types of ships, such as container ships, RO/RO ships, barge carriers, and ferries, improper loading can easily reduce stability to dangerously low levels. In other ships, such as tankers and ore carriers, improper loading can seriously overstress the hull. Transient conditions created while loading or unloading can also degrade stability or overstress the hull. Load and stability computers supplement or replace loading instructions on many tankers, bulk carriers, and other large ships or ships with unusual stability problems. Load computers are briefly described in Paragraph 42.5.3. 13.3 Deadweight. Deadweight (DWT) is the load carried by a ship. It is the difference between the lightship displacement and total displacement of the ship at any time. Maximum or load deadweight is the carrying capacity of a ship measured in 2,240pound long tons, and is the difference between the lightweight and fully loaded displacements. Deadweight includes fuel, provisions, munitions, crew and effects, cargo, or any other weight carried. For a merchant ship, cargo deadweight, paying deadweight, or payload is the part of the deadweight that is cargo and therefore earning income. It is not uncommon for the deadweight of a merchant ship to be given, but not its fullload displacement. A deadweight coefficient (CDWT) can be defined as the ratio of fullload displacement to total deadweight: CDWT = where: CDWT ∆FL DWT = = = deadweight coefficient fullload displacement total deadweight ∆FL DWT ⇒ ∆FL = DWT CDWT
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Typical ranges for deadweight coefficient are given by R. MunroSmith (Elements of Ship Design, 1979): General cargo ship Ore carrier Bulk carrier Oil tanker Very large tanker, VLCC 1.39 1.30 1.19 1.16 1.28 – – – – – 1.61 1.39 1.28 1.25 1.32
13.4 Change in Draft. Draft is significant as the only principal dimension that varies routinely, while length and beam remain essentially constant. Volume of displacement, and therefore draft, will change as a ship’s displacement changes due to loading or discharging cargo, consuming or loading fuel or stores, or flooding. The new volumes and mean drafts can be computed by using the relationships shown. For example: a boxshaped lighter 100 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 10 feet in depth, displacing 429 tons of seawater with zero trim. Because waterplane area is constant at any draft, drafts can be found by: ∇ = δ W = 35 (429) = 15,015 ft3 ∇ = L B T = 100 (30) T = 15,015 ft3 T = ∇ LB = 15,015 = 5 ft 100 (30)
where: ∇ W δ L B T = = = = = = displacement volume, ft3 = LBTCB; for boxshaped lighter CB = 1.0 total weight of the barge, lton specific volume of seawater = 35 ft3/lton length between perpendiculars, ft beam, ft draft, ft
If weight (displacement) is decreased to 350 tons, the new mean draft is given by: ∇ = 35W = 35(350) = 12,250 ft3 T = 12,250 = 4.08 ft = 4 ft 1 in. 3,000
For a complex ship shape, drafts cannot be calculated directly. The change in draft (∆T) can be determined if certain assumptions are made. The increase in volume can be considered to be a prism of uniform thickness with vertical sides and horizontal section with area equal to the waterplane area. For a wallsided vessel (one with vertical sides, like the boxshaped lighter), this is mathematically exact; it is sufficiently accurate for most ships for small changes in draft. The thickness of the prism is determined by dividing its volume by the area of the waterplane: ∆T = ∆∇ ∆∇ (15,015) 12,250) = = AWP L B CWP (100)(30)(1.0)
= 0.92 ft = 11 in. where: ∆T ∆∇ AWP = CWP = = change in draft, ft = change in displacement volume, ft3 waterplane area, ft2 waterplane coefficient
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draft and displacement of any ship in water of any known density. 113 . the salinity and density of the water may depend on the state of the tide. fresh or brackish. or more on a large crude carrier. and may be dealt with by using values for fresh water and saltwater as upper and lower boundaries if the water density is unknown or variable. ft beam. T1 δ1 ∴ T1 T2 = T2 δ2 δ1 δ2 = and: T2 = δSW δFW T1δ2 δ1 = 35 36 For saltwater and fresh water: and: 36 TFW = TSW 35 The difference between fresh water and seawater drafts may range from 6 inches for an FFG7 to 1. Differences encountered when dealing with brackish water will be correspondingly less.S0300A8HBK010 The salvor may encounter ships in water of varying densities. The equalities shown can be used to relate displacement volume. and CB assumed constant for a small change in draft. ft draft.2 feet for a large aircraft carrier. The waters of harbors and estuaries might be salty. Recalling that: ∇1 ρ1 = ∇2 ρ2 ∇1 δ1 L B T CB δ1 where: ∇ ρ δ L B T CB = = = = = = = displacement volume. ft3/lton length between perpendiculars. ft block coefficient 1 = ∇2 δ2 L B T CB δ2 2 = With length and breadth constant. ft3 water density. lb/ft3 inverse density or specific volume.
lton = displacement volume. A homogeneous body’s center of gravity is located at its center of volume. ft2 = tons per inch immersion. Although this volume does not actually provide any buoyancy. AWP ∴ Substituting 1 inch = 1⁄ 12foot for ∆T: ∆ ∆D = AWP (35)(12) = AWP 420 = TPI ∇ = 35∆D ⇒ ∆T = 35 ∆ ∆D AWP ∆W = ∆ T AWP 35 where: ∆D ∇ ρ 35 AWP = TPI = displacement. Its position relative to any of the three reference planes along a perpendicular axis (n) is given mathematically by: n dw = G =⌠ ⌡ W where: G n W = = = position of the center of gravity along any axis distance from the origin to an incremental weight dw. The watertight volume between the waterline and the uppermost continuous watertight deck provides the reserve buoyancy to the ship.6 Reserve Buoyancy. it is available to enable the ship to take on additional weight. but can be assumed to be located on the centerline near the midship plane in a ship floating without list or trim. With all weights stationary. and a transverse location (TCG) off the centerline results in a list. ft3/lton waterplane area. 114 . its position varies with loading. with draft representing the buoyancy in use and freeboard the buoyancy remaining. or to an individual weight w total weight = Σw nw w The location of the center of gravity greatly influences the stability characteristics of a vessel: the vertical location (VCG. The center of gravity of a ship is a function of weight distribution. 13. lb/ft3 = specific volume. the longitudinal location (LCG) relative to the longitudinal location of the center of buoyancy determines trim. The center of gravity of a ship is not so easily definable.S0300A8HBK010 13. lton/in. For seawater: ∆T = ∆∇ . or centroid. ft3 = water density. or KG) influences a vessel’s ability to resist heeling forces. 13.5 Tons per Inch Immersion (TPI). Freeboard is an indication of the reserve buoyancy remaining. Freeboard and draft can be considered opposite ends of a sliding scale.7 Center of Gravity. the center of gravity remains fixed regardless of the movement of the ship. The foregoing analysis can be carried a step further to determine the change in displacement (∆∆D) required to cause a change in draft of one inch. Tons per inch immersion for water of any density can be obtained by a similar calculation.
As shown in Figure 14. The section area curve may show area for either the whole section.11 Bonjean’s Curves. or for one side only. it is sometimes more convenient to arrange the curves along the ship’s profile. M is located above the center of gravity. the curves and area scale can be traced from the rosette onto a hull profile drawn on tracing paper. B. with all the curves drawn to a single set of axes. The areas generally do not account for appendages. 13. can be resolved to act upwards through a single point. the shape of the underwater volume changes and the center of buoyancy moves to the new geometric center. When calculating buoyancies for varying waterlines or wave profiles. Volume of displacement and other hydrostatic properties can be determined by integration of section area or derived unit buoyancy ordinates by the numerical methods described in Paragraph 14. The force of buoyancy. Section area is converted to unit buoyancy by dividing by the specific volume of water (35 cubic feet per long ton per foot of length for seawater). The rosette arrangement (Figure FO3A). like gravity. Section areas can be picked off by drawing a horizontal line from the intersection of the waterline with each vertical station marker to the appropriate curves. As the ship inclines. The vertical location of M is one of the most critical parameters affecting a ship’s initial stability. and is at the geometric center of the ship’s floating waterplane. Section areas are read from the intersection of a horizontal line through the station draft on the center scale with the appropriate curve. the center of buoyancy is on the centerline directly below the center of gravity. eliminating the need to determine draft at each station.9 Metacenter. If the Bonjean’s Curves are not available in this format. and B3) as the ship inclines slightly intersect at an imaginary point on the centerline called the metacenter (M). The curves are usually presented in one of the two formats shown in Figure FO3. B2. Relative Positions of M. with a vertical axis at each station as shown in Figure FO3B. but may include shell plating. the center of buoyancy will move to the new centroid of the redefined submerged hull form. The horizontal length scale for the hull profile is not critical. collection of curves plotting sectional area along the Xaxis against draft on the Yaxis. 13.S0300A8HBK010 13. although it may be forward of midships in fullbodied ships. With the section area curves arranged in this format. As the ship’s displacement is increased or decreased with a corresponding change in draft. (HEEL ANGLES EXAGGERATED) M WL2 WL WL 1 G WL WL1 B2 B1 B WL2 13. but should be consistent throughout its length if buoyancy is to be calculated on waterlines that are not horizontal. and the after draft at the after perpendicular. The center of flotation is the point about which the ship trims and heels.10 Center of Flotation. Bonjean’s Curves or Curves of Sectional Areas are a Figure 14. as noted on the drawing. When a ship is at rest without list. a trimmed waterline can be plotted as a straight line passing through the forward draft at station zero. as noted on the drawing. In a stable vessel. The center of buoyancy (B) is located at the centroid of the submerged hull form. It is usually located aft of midships. The location of the center of buoyancy responds directly to draft changes. produces a more compact drawing and is favored by some designers because lack of fairness in the hull will show itself with the curves lying side by side. 115 . Section areas can be taken from the curves for any draft and any condition of trim or hull deflection. and G During Small Inclinations.8 Center of Buoyancy. vertical lines drawn through successive centers of buoyancy (B1.
. for a casualty in an unusual condition. n y2 y3 h yn .. that the area under a curve can be closely approximated by breaking the area up into smaller shapes whose areas can be calculated or estimated easily. 1 = = y0 y1 2 h y 2 0 a1. Conceptually..... x2. the area (a0.S0300A8HBK010 14 APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS The salvage engineer may be required to calculate hydrostatic data for a casualty when curves of form or other documents are not available. 1. 14. The area under the curve is thus expressed as: A = ⌠y dx = h f (A) ⌡ 116 .. and summing all such products. My = ∫xy dx.. and location of the centroid can be expressed as simple integrals. Most rules depend upon the substitution of a simple mathematical form for the actual curve to be integrated.. An obvious way to calculate the area under a curve (or within a shape) is to plot the curve to scale on graph paper and count the squares under the curve.. yn 2 This expression is called the trapezoidal rule.. . but can be very accurate for even the most complex or discontinuous curves... Numerical integration methods. h yn1 yn x x0 x1 x2 x3 . If the station spacing is h. an 2 2 y3 .. are based on the same premise as graphical integration. ƒ(A). The trapezoidal rule substitutes a series of straight lines for a complex curve to allow integration of the curve in a simple tabular format... location of the center of effort...1 = y0 + y1 2 h y y0 y1 y2 y3 .. 1.. 1. as well as moments of areas and volumes. and force moment of an unevenly distributed force (such as current forces) can be determined from a curve showing the force distribution.. The factors by which each ordinate is multiplied (1⁄ 2. moments can be calculated about any desired axis.. 1... Graphical and numerical manual integration methods are described in the following paragraphs. the common multiplier for the trapezoidal rule is 1.. Since hull forms are seldom definable by mathematical equations..1 Graphical Integration. or for portions of a ship that has been cut into sections.. This method can be extended to calculate the first moment of area. y) in each column by its distance from the origin (x). and summing the areas of these shapes. the total force. must be determined to calculate hull hydrostatic characteristics.3 Trapezoidal Rule. 14. by multiplying the height (number of squares.. . the area under the curve and moments... The common multiplier for the trapezoidal rule is the common interval (h). 1⁄ 2) are the individual multipliers (m). . second moments (moments of inertia). xn) as shown in Figure 15. A ship’s form consists of a number of intersecting surfaces... such as a ship floated upside down or on its side. 2 h 2y1 a2.... yn... 3 y1 y2 2 h .. and can be used to calculate areas of any shape bounded by a continuous curve.. or common interval... the second moment is calculated by multiplying the height of each column by x2.. moments.. . into the rule. Areas and volumes enclosed by these surfaces. x1.. yn 1 yn 2 h 2y2 y = h 0 2 y1 y2 y3 .. By adopting sign conventions and adjusting the location of the origin. Manual integration methods are also used to evaluate any parameter that can be expressed as a curve of a function of some variable. complex areas is very tedious. simply by dividing the shape into a number of equal sections and substituting the ordinate values and the station spacing. x3... The accuracy of the result depends upon the accuracy of the fit between the real and assumed curves.1) of the first trapezoid is: a0.. Graphical integration of large. usually of nonmathematical form.. Curvilinear Figure Approximated by Series of Trapezoids.. In the same way. The total area of the shape (A) is approximately equal to the sum of the areas of the trapezoids: A = a0.. The products of the individual multipliers and ordinates are called functions of area.2 Numerical Integration... y0. For a curve plotted on an xy coordinate system.. x n1 xn Figure 15.. 14. . y1.. and second moments of area.. the trapezoidal rule is the simplest of the numerical integration rules. (at stations x0. y3.... For example. or rules. A curvilinear shape can be approximated by a series of n trapezoids bounded by n + 1 equally spaced ordinates. If the common interval and common multiplier (CM) are separated into two factors.. y2.. areas.. and volumes are calculated by manual integration methods rather than by direct integration.
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Because the trapezoidal rule substitutes a series of straight lines for the curve to be integrated, it is best suited for use with smooth, longradius curves such as the waterlines of a ship. The rule underestimates the area under convex curves, and overestimates the area under concave curves. Accuracy increases as station spacing is decreased. If greater accuracy is required in regions of considerable curvature, e.g. at the ends of the ship, stations are taken at halfdivisions. When halfspaced stations are used, the individual multipliers for the halfstations and adjacent stations must be adjusted. If, for example, a halfstation is inserted between ordinates 1 and 2: A = y0 y1 2 h y1 y1.5 h 2 2 y1.5 y2 h 2 2 y2 y3 2 h ... yn
1
yn
2
h
=
h y 1.5 y1 y1.5 1.5 y2 2y3 ... yn 2 0
3 1 3 1 1 y y y y ... y = h y0 2 4 1 2 1.5 4 2 3 2 n The individual multiplier for the halfstation is 1⁄ 2, and 3⁄ 4 for the station on either side of it. A similar analysis will show that if several sequential halfstations are inserted (i.e., 21⁄ 2, 31⁄ 2, 41⁄ 2, etc.) the multipliers for all stations and halfstations between the first and last halfstations is 1⁄ 2, and the multiplier for the two outlying whole stations is 3⁄ 4. It may be more convenient to use the first form of the rule, to avoid divisors greater than 2, in which case all the individual multipliers are doubled. 14.4 Simpson’s Rules. The replacement of a complex or small radius curve by a series of straight lines limits the accuracy of calculations, unless a large number of ordinates are used. Integration rules that replace the actual curve with a mathematical curve of higher order are more accurate. Simpson’s rules assume that the actual curve can be replaced by a secondorder curve (parabola). Figures 16 through 18 demonstrate the derivations of Simpson’s rules. 14.4.1 Simpson’s First Rule. Figure 16 shows a curve of the form y = ax2 + bx + c. It is expressed by three evenly spaced ordinates y0, y1 and y2, at x = 0, 1, and 2 (station spacing = 1). The values of the ordinates are: y0 = a (0)2 y1 = a (1)2 y2 = a (2)2 The area under the curve is:
2 A = ⌠ (ax 2 ⌡ 0
y
Y = ax
2
+ bx + c
y0
y1
y2
x=0 h
x=1 h
x=2
X h AREA = __ (y0 + 4y1 + y2 ) 3
Figure 16. Simpson’s ThreeOrdinate Rule.
b (0) b (1) b (2)
c = c c = a c = 4a b 2b c c
for x = 1 for x = 1 for x = 2
bx
c) dx =
ax 3 3
bx 2 2
cx
2 0
=
8 a 3
2b
2c
Now c = y0 and y1 = y0 + a + b, and y2 = y0 + 4a + 2b. Substituting and solving for a and b: y2 2 y1 = y0 ∴ a = ( y2 2b 2 y1 2 y0 a = y1 y0 (y2 2y1 2 y0) = 3 y 2 0 y2 2 2 y1 4a y0 ) 2 y0 2b 2a = y0 2a
b = y1
117
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Area (A) is expressed as: A = 8 a 3 2b 2c = 8 y2 3 4 y 3 2 2 y1 2 y0 3 y0 2 2 4 y = 3 0 1 y 3 0 y2 2 2 y1 4 y 3 1 2 y0 1 y 3 2
= 2 y0 = 1 y 3 0
3 y0 4 y1
y2 y2
4 y1
8 y 3 1
For an ordinate spacing of h rather than unity: A = This relationship is Simpson’s first rule, or 3ordinate rule, commonly called Simpson’s rule. The rule calculates correctly the area under a second order curve and will approximate the area under any curve that passes through the same three points. The accuracy depends on how closely the actual curve approaches the parabolic form assumed by the rule. Simpson’s Rule is the numerical integration rule used most widely for ship calculations. h (y 3 0 4 y1 y2 )
6 1 1
5 4 4
4 1 1 2
3 4 4
2 1 1 2
1 4 4
0 1 1
STATION 3ORDINATE MULTIPLIERS SIMPSON’S MULTIPLIERS
Figure 17. Simpson’s Multipliers for Long Curve.
The rule can be extended to calculate the area under a long nonparabolic curve such as a ship’s waterline. If the length of the curve is divided into enough equal parts, as shown in Figure 17, it can be reasonably approximated by a series of parabolic segments. For a curve divided into n equal parts, the area between the first (0) and third (2) ordinates would be given by: A0 where: A02 h L n = = = = area under the curve between the first and third ordinates distance between ordinates = L/n length of the curve number of sections between ordinates = number of ordinates  1
2
=
h (y + 4y1 + y2) 3 0
Similarly, the area between the third (2) and fifth (4) ordinates would be: A2 The area between the fifth (4) and seventh (6) ordinates: A4 and so on. The total area is the sum of all the two section areas: A = A0 =
2 6 4
=
h (y + 4y3 + y4) 3 2
=
h (y + 4y5 + y6) 3 4
A2
4
A4
6
... An
2 n
h y 4y1 2y2 4y3 2y4 4y5 2y6 ... yn 3 0
This is the general form of Simpson’s rule. Since the rule consists of a summation of areas over two sections of a curve divided into a number of equal sections, the curve must be divided into an even number of sections (by an odd number of stations) to apply the rule. The common multiplier (CM) is 1⁄ 3; the individual multipliers are 1, 4, 2, 4, 2, 4,..., 2, 4, 1. The derivation of the individual multipliers as a tabular summation of the 3ordinate rule multipliers for each two adjacent sections is shown in Figure 17.
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In regions where the slope of the curve changes rapidly, the accuracy of the rule can be increased by inserting intermediate (halfspaced) stations. When halfspaced stations are used, the individual multipliers are modified. For example, a halfstation could be inserted at 21⁄ 2 were there a rapid change in form between the third and fourth stations of the curve in Figure 17. The area between the first and second stations is calculated as before: A0
2
=
h (y + 4y1 + y2) 3 0
With the insertion of the halfstation (21⁄ 2), the 3ordinate rule can be applied to the area between the third and fourth ordinates (A23), with an ordinate spacing of h/2: h y h y 2 = y2 4y2.5 y3 = 2 2y2.5 3 32 2 3
A2
3
The area between the fourth and sixth stations (A34) is now: A3 and so on. The total area is: A = A0 = =
2 4
=
h (y + 4y4 + y5) 3 3
A2
3
A3
5
... An
1 n
y2 2y3 h 2 y2.5 y y3 4y4 y5 ... yn y0 4y1 y2 3 2 2 h 1 1 y 4y1 1 y2 2y2.5 1 y3 4y4 2y5 ... yn 3 0 2 2
Note that unless another halfspaced station is inserted, the number of sections (n) will be even, and the rule unworkable. Intermediate stations can be inserted at any equal division of the station spacing (thirdstations, quarterstations, etc.) and multipliers deduced in a similar manner. Intermediate stations can be inserted anywhere along the length of the curve so long as two rules are followed:
• •
An even number of intermediate stations must be inserted, so that the total number of segments remains even (total number of ordinates is odd). Intermediate stations must be inserted so there are an even number of segments in each group of consecutive whole or partial segments (each group of whole or partial segments includes an odd number of ordinates).
Intermediate stations are commonly used near the ends of waterlines where the hull form changes rapidly with respect to length. The individual multipliers can be quickly determined by tabulating and summing the appropriate 3ordinate rule multipliers as shown in Figure 18. 14.4.2 Simpson’s Second Rule. Rules can be deduced, in a similar manner, for areas bounded by different numbers of evenly spaced ordinates, or by unevenly spaced ordinates. For four evenly spaced ordinates:
6 1/2 1/2
51/2 2 2
5 1 1/2 11/2
4 4 4
3 1 1/2 11/2
21/2 2 2
2 1 1/2 11/2
1 4 4
0 STATION 1 3ORDINATE
MULTIPLIER
1 SIMPSON’S
MULTIPLIER
Figure 18. Simpson’s Multipliers with HalfSpaced Stations.
A =
3h (y0 + 3y1 + 3y2 + y3) 8
This is Simpson’s second or threeeighths Rule. The general form is: A = 3h (y0 + 3y1 + 3y2 + 2y3 + 3y4 + 3y5 + 2y6 + ... + yn) 8
Simpson’s second rule can be used with 4 + 3i ordinates, where i is a positive integer (i.e., 4, 7, 10, 13, etc.). 14.5 Applications. The derivations of Simpson’s rules and the trapezoidal rule were demonstrated with area computations to aid conceptualization, but the rules can integrate any function that can be plotted on Cartesian coordinates. If, for example, the ordinates represent sectional areas along a ship’s length for a given waterline, the products of the multipliers and ordinates are functions of volume, ƒ(V), and their summation (integral of the curve) is the volume of displacement. Calculation of areas, moments, centroids, and second moments of areas by the are described in the following paragraphs.
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the moment of an elemental strip of area about some vertical axis YY is xydx.. and dx is the width of each strip. where x is the distance from the station to the reference axis. The value y dx = hyn is the area of the strip an.e. Variables for Moment and SecondMoment Calculations.S0300A8HBK010 14. i. snƒ(A). or the common interval h. the first moment of this area about some reference axis YY is: MYY = xnhyn = xnan The total moment is the sum of the moments of all the strips. the integral of the incremental moments along the length: yy AREA a = ydx x 1/2 yn xx dx FOR SHADED STRIP: a = ydx ay2 y3dx i = ___ = ____ 12 12 Myy = xa = x(ydx) Iyy = x 2a = x2(ydx) 3 y2 y dx y2 Ixx = __ a + i = __ ( ydx) + _____ 2 2 12 yn Figure 19. xn = snh. are the functions of moment ƒ(M): MYY = CMh ∑ ƒ(M) The distance from the centroid of the shape to the reference axis (x′) is the moment divided by the area: x = MYY A = CM h f (M) = CM f (A) f (M) h f (A) 120 . the integral M = ∫xy dx must be evaluated. where xn is the moment arm and sn is the number of stations from the reference axis to station n. Instead of multiplying the value of y at each station by the appropriate multiplier. The factor h can be brought outside the summation: MYY = CMh ∑ snƒ(A) The products of the number of stations from the reference axis and the functions of area. then the moment arms have the common interval (h) as a common factor. As shown in Figure 19.1 Moments and Centroids.5. L MYY = ⌠ xn an dx ⌡ 0 The integral can be evaluated numerically: ⌠x a dx = ⌡ n n where: CM ƒ(A) mn = = = common multiplier for the appropriate integration rule function of area = mnyn common multiplier for the appropriate rule and station xn CMf (A) = CM xn f (A) If the reference axis is chosen to fall on an ordinate station. that is. the value xy is multiplied. To determine the moment of a larger area about the axis.
and because the centers of flotation.2 Second Moments of Area. although it is simplest to sum them about an axis through x0 so that the number of stations from the reference axis is simply the station number. a sign convention must be adopted so that distances to one side of the reference axis (and therefore moments and functions of moments) are negative. The second moment of area (moment of inertia. but with slightly less accuracy. buoyancy. For ship calculations. To precisely locate the centroid of an asymmetrical shape. measured along an axis perpendicular to YY An analysis similar to that taken for the calculation of first moments will show that the second moment of the area under a curve is calculated by: IYY = CMh2 ∑ ƒ(IYY) where: CM h ƒ(IYY) sn mn yn = = = = = = common multiplier common interval function of second moment about axis YY = sn2mnyn number of stations from axis YY to station n individual multiplier for station n height of the ordinate at station n 121 .5. and a its area. The distance from the centroid of the shape to the axis XX (y’) is the moment divided by the area: MX X A CM f MXX f MXX 2 = CM f (A) 2 f (A) y = = Moments can be summed about any axis. Referring again to Figure 19. I) of a plane shape about an axis YY parallel to the vertical ordinates is given by: L IYY = ∫0 x2y dx where: IYY = x = L = second moment of area about some axis YY distance from axis YY to elemental vertical strip of height y and width dx length of the area whose second moment is desired. When moments are summed about a station other than an end station. and the integral can be evaluated numerically: MX X ⌠ Ly ⌡ n an dx = = 0 2 yn 2 CM f (A)n = CM yn f (A)n 2 The product of the y ordinate and the function of area for each segment can be defined as the function of moment about x. perpendicular. The total moment is the integral of the incremental moments along the length. the moment about axis XX of the elemental strip dx is: y y2 y MX X = a = y dx = dx 2 2 2 where y is the height of the strip. axis.S0300A8HBK010 The centroid of a symmetrical shape lies on the axis of symmetry. moments must be summed about another. 14. and its location can be defined by summing moments about a single axis perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. The calculation can be performed by taking ordinates perpendicular to the first set and integrating with respect to y rather than x. ƒ(MXX): f MX X = y f (A) = y 2 mn MX X = CM 2 f MX X where mn is the individual multiplier for the nth ordinate. and gravity normally lie near midships. Moments about an axis XX can also be determined using y ordinates. moments are often summed about the midships section to reduce the size of the products and sums for manual calculation.
(the neutral axis in bending stress analysis).3 Volumes and Centroids of Volume. since the waterplane is symmetrical about the centerline. such as the moment of inertia of a waterplane about its centerline. parallel to the neutral axis is known. y is the halfordinate of an incremental strip of a waterplane measured from the centerline. and the areas taken as ordinates along the length of the tank. If moment of inertia about some axis YY. The second moment of area about an axis XX perpendicular to axis YY can be calculated by taking ordinates perpendicular to the first set and integrating twice with respect to y rather than x. The area of each section is calculated.S0300A8HBK010 The second moment of an area (moment of inertia) is always smallest about an axis through its centroid. To calculate the volume of the tank shown in Figure 110. the integration can also be performed using the original set of ordinates. Volumes are calculated by integrating a curve of sectional areas.5. the moment of inertia about the neutral axis (INA) is found by the parallel axis theorem: INA = IYY . Determination of Volume by Numerical Integration. the shape is first cut at several stations to form section outlines. In Figure 19 (Page 120). and this will be the second moment about the centerline. The second moment of area of the incremental strip about the centerline is: y 2 ixx = a 2 where: ixx a i0 dx = = = = = second moment of area of incremental strip about the centerline area of the incremental strip second moment of area of the incremental strip about a horizontal centroidal axis (1⁄ 12)y3dx if strip is assumed to be rectangular width of the incremental strip y 2 i0 = y dx 2 1 3 1 3 y dx = y dx 3 12 The total second moment of halfwaterplane area is: L 1 1 L IXX. and A is the total area of the section. half = ⌠ y 3dx = ⌠ y 3dx ⌡ 3 0 0 3 ⌡ The second moment of the total area is twice this amount. To determine the second moment about a horizontal axis of symmetry. The integration ∫y3dx can be performed numerically: CM h IX X = 2 3 where: CM h ƒ(IXX) = = = common multiplier common interval function of second moment about axis XX = mnyn3 individual multiplier for station n height of the halfordinate at station n f IX X y0 0 1 2 3 4 y4 = 0 ORDINATES FOR AREA INTEGRATION ORDINATES FOR VOLUME INTEGRATION (AREAS) 0 1 2 3 4 x0 x1 x2 x3 mn yn = = 14.Ad 2 where d is the distance from axis YY to the neutral axis. Integrating the area ordinates by the trapezoidal rule: V = ∫a dx = h ∑ƒ(V) where: ƒ(V) mn an = = = a0 a1 a2 a3 Figure 110. function of volume = mnan individual multiplier for station n area of section at station n 122 .
123 . 3/8.5. and second moments of area by Simpson’s first and second rules can be expressed in general forms: A = (CM) h f (A) MYY = (CM) h f (M) CM MXX = f MXX 2 x = where: A MYY MXX = x′ y′ IYY IXX CM h ƒ(A) ƒ(M) ƒ(MXX) ƒ(IYY) ƒ(IXX) s m yn = area under a curve between selected stations = first moment of area about axis YY first moment of area about axis XX = distance from centroid of area to axis YY = distance from centroid of area to axis XX = second moment of area about axis YY = second moment of area about centerline axis XX = common multiplier for the appropriate rule (1. etc) = common interval = function of area = mnyn = function of moment about YY = snmnyn = snƒ(A) = function of moment about XX = mnyn2 = ynƒ(A) = function of second moment about YY = sn2mnyn = snƒ(M) = sn2ƒ(A) 3 = function of second moment about XX = mnyn = number of stations from axis YY (or integration start point) to station n = individual multiplier for station n for the appropriate rule = height of the ordinate at station n (halfordinate for IXX) (CM) h f (M) = (CM) f (A) f (M) h f (A) Examples 11 and 12 demonstrate the use of the trapezoidal rule and Simpson’s rule to calculate waterplane functions for an FFG7 Class ship. Integrations can be performed along additional axes to precisely locate the centroid of the shape. the only difference is that ordinate values represent areas rather than linear distances.4 General Forms for Area and Moment Calculations. 1/3. Calculation of areas. centroids.S0300A8HBK010 The moment of volume about some axis YY is: MYY = h2 ∑ ƒ(M) where: ƒ(M) sn = = function of moment of volume about axis YY = snmnan number of stations from axis YY to station n The distance of the centroid from axis YY: d = h 2 f (M) = h f (V) f (M) h f (V) These forms are exactly the same as those used to calculate areas and moments and centroids of areas. moments. 14.
9 tons = 0.4 19.2 10.75 817.5 21.72 15.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6.5 22.6 .4 ft = 2(20.77 20. Compare these values with actual data.31 83.00 338.79 1 22.6 .736. moment of inertia of the waterplane about the centerline (ICL) and a transverse axis through the LCF (ICF).71 19.7 19.56 10.964 ft4 = 849.5(228.865.37 1253.7) TPI = AWP / 420 = 13.8 .68 206.7 5611.1 ft from forward perpendicular ICF ICL TPI CWP = = 135.6(227. 16.4 128200.91 0.500 227.13 1.84 53. % 13.70 21.142.8 .860 ft2 24.155.59 10 225.2 2011 .65 ƒ(IXX) m × y3 ft4 0.34 = 13.8 .00 4680.043 ft4 2(40. calculate the waterplane area (AWP).7 3731.000 1.94 Value 13.0 228.28 4.1 1006. % 0.860.9 11836. 8.4 .29 168.80 15 312.9 7518.23 6.8 . and 20 are used.8 ft from FP = LCF IFP ICF = = 2(40.59 16 313.08 21.797.00 19.65 1 6 10 .480 ft4 = 1.89 12.200.80 2516.62 639.16 20.06 5254.52 15.Ad 2 = 20.65 1 3. tons/in CWP 13.20 1063.5 6.18) = 2(20.8 0.65 3.797. tons per inch immersion in saltwater (TPI).34) 2(40.99 958.888.52 564.8 995.3 .13 629. Halfbreadths for the 16foot waterline.6) = 1.8)(168.73 18 301.4)2(3775.23) 941.0 15.94 4255.516.739.742 ICL = 2(h / 3) ∑ ƒ(IXX) = TPI = AWP / 420 = CWP = AWP / (LB) = Comparison: ICL = 2(h / 3) ∑ ƒ(IXX) = 2(20.4 7518.981 4.18 17 309. ft2 LCF.664.145 ft4 = 33 tons/in 0.02 16.97 22.1 10232.18 3775.77 6 106.03 48.92 4 51.97 22.89 51.9) 13.97 9 197.90 941.6 3381.97 1 22.6) Actual AWP.04 18.16 3772.0 6.981 ft4 = 32.70 12 272.9 . The integrations are best performed in a tabular format.51 5 77.745 Since the waterplane is symmetrical about its centerline.737.6 ft 13.73 12.0 4682.68 159.40 3268.32 13 290.1 0.529 ft4 = 32.7 .19 5418. location of the center of flotation (LCF).93 20.54) 3775.0 9221.76 1355.49 1.51 1 17.57 22.0 3.1 16.7 .54 50052.89 1 10. 12. 10.742 21 Ordinate Error.23 ———— (40.6 327.13.8/3)(63.59 22.57 62.9 11697.4 63969.1 22.5/420 13.736. areas and moments can be found by integrating one side of the waterplane along the centerline with halfordinates (halfbreadths) measured from the centerline.3 7495. 14. 2.4) 338.29 20 125.65 6.4 11527.92 17.90 2259.45 0.54 = ———— (20.2 17. inches.01 12.0 17.0 . ft4 TPI. halfbreadths for stations 0.5 20.865.1 . y ftin1/8 ft 045 0.97 1 2111 .000 32.1 18.57 7 136.9 .4)3(50.56 32.89 12.73 6.1)2 = 132.30 0. 18.19 0 0.58 1/2 ƒ(A) Lever ƒ(M) ƒ(IYY) s ft2 ft ft3 ft4 0.01 19 285.7 tons = 0.8 ft 2(40.743.1 ft from FP = LCF = 227.7 4682.57 1 2011 .88 112.00 6237. Multiplier y m ftin1/8 ft 0 .4 / 3)(128.77 0.155.59 22.0 2156.842 ft4 847.44 5015.0 0.92 1 15. Integration on 11 ordinates: Station Ordinate.743.8 11697.738 IFP ICF = 2(20.71 14 303.7 0.5/(408 × 45.80 22.8)2(941.59 22.58 Multiplier m 1 Integration on 21 ordinates: ƒ(A) m×y ft2 0.5 20.4 22.19 6.and 21ordinate trapezoidal rules.S0300A8HBK010 EXAMPLE 11 CALCULATION OF WATERPLANE PROPERTIES BY TRAPEZOIDAL RULE Using 11.34 Lever ƒ(M) ƒ(IYY) s s × ƒ(A) s × ƒ(M) ft ft3 ft4 0 0.59 1 22. and waterplane coefficient (CWP) for the 16foot waterline of an FFG7 Class ship.738 0.9 Station Ordinate.145 33 0.664. and eighths.70 1 22.3 22.8)3(6237.5 1211 .7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 ⁄2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⁄2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 h = 408/10 AWP = 2h ∑ƒ(A) MFP = 2h 2 ∑ ƒ(M) x′ ∑ ƒ(M) = ———— h ∑ ƒ(A) = 2h 3 ∑ ƒ(IYY) = IFP .73 1 1 15. To integrate on 11 ordinates.924 2.6 12.6 16.1 15.70 21.739.75 17.797.1 135.6 / 420 CWP = AWP / (LB) = 13.0 12.7 .13.3 9221.92 17.6 995.5 11527.0 12.71 19.06 90. ft fm FP ICF.20 151. in feet.7 .9 .856.40 124 .88 228.797.4 10604.00 132.1 2156.97 8 167.14 5420.78 27.3 21.745 11 Ordinate Value Error.0 6008.502. ft4 ICL. and doubling the results. 4.288.800 134.59 16.98) = 849.61 6.08 21.79 11 250.5 ft2 = 3.7 22.98 ƒ(IXX ) ft4 0.Ad 2 = = = 40.457 ft3 = = 228.5 ft2 = 3.02 1 1211 .80 1 19.1 19.8)2 = 134.5 0.95 136.856 ft4 = 1.4)(338.6 / (408 × 45.03 327. are taken from Figure FO1.9 .4 8998.69 2757.1 5611.797.73 1779.97 156.888.736.1 11119.18 = 13.71 1 20.55 387.1 ft aft of midships = 228. 6.77 1 19.59 1 18.842 .052.32 1 21.288.529.89 25.93 335.736.59 16.480 1.7 .18 1 16.89 2 13.65) = 847.4 21.76 1342.8) 168.618 ft3 h = 408/20 AWP = 2h ∑ƒ(A) MFP = 2h2 ∑ ƒ(M) x′ ∑ ƒ(M) = ———— h ∑ ƒ(A) = 2h 3 ∑ ƒ(IYY) = IFP .39 6 10 .39 1/2 3 . Actual Properties: L Bmax AWP LCF = = = = 408 ft 45.72 19.0 0.8 .00 22.1 22.02 3 30.133.4 10232.900 0.77 20.2 .969.8 .7 .964 .72 150.7 .6 3.18 12.
13.Ad2 2 = 2833.52 5420.4 22445.702. and 20 from Figure FO1 are used to integrate on 11 stations.747.49 4.4 19.8 ft ⁄ 3 (40. and will yield very accurate values for ICL.1/420 13.0 ft 0.5 22. ft fm FP ICF. 18.92 12.747.6) = 227. ft4 TPI.311 .58 508. Note that Simpson’s rule calculates the moment of inertia about the centerline with slightly less accuracy than the trapezoidal rule.860 228.30 0.76 451. 4.27 13.73 12. Simpson’s rule with 21 ordinates is only marginally more accurate than with 11 ordinates for this waterplane shape.0 27.94 90.9 tons 0.820.1 ft2 3.8)(508.0 17.8)2(2833.5 1211 . 16.1 227.28 4.311 ft4 134.13 1.84 13.84 ———— (40.40 607. 12. 2.145 33 0.16 2507.4 y ftin1/8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 045 6 10 .04 2259.4) 13.8 15036.9 0.56 103.7 .39 27.91 0.88 313.820.8 .36 639.4 1990.2 2011 . % 11 Ordinate 0.68 213.56 25.30 0.24 167.09) 2 ⁄ 3 (40.39 6.3).743 Trapezoidal Rule Error.6 134.745 The accuracy of an 11ordinate Simpson’s rule compares favorably with that of a 21ordinate trapezoidal rule. The constantordinate assumption is essentially correct for very full ships and barges with extensive parallel midbody.28 ƒ(IXX) m × y3 ft4 0.80 2.8) 508.0 18730.7 .882 ft3 ƒ(IYY) s × ƒ(M) ft4 0.508.664.40 86.888.9 .1/(408 × 45.6 ft from FP 850.7 .28) 850.820. Compare the results with actual data and the results by trapezoidal rule.29 0.S0300A8HBK010 EXAMPLE 12 CALCULATION OF WATERPLANE PROPERTIES BY SIMPSON’S RULE Use Simpson’s first rule with 11 ordinates to calculate the waterplane properties that were calculated in Example 11.685 1.28 125.1(227.776.52 1258.92 21 Ordinate 0. Integration: Station Ordinate.97 22.1 22.59 16.156.18 66.3.84) 2 = = = ∑ ƒ(M) ———— h ∑ ƒ(A) ⁄ 3 h 3 ƒ(IYY) IFP .7 46111.685 ft4 1. Multiplier ƒ(A7) m×y ft2 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 0.59 22. The ± 5 percent accuracy shown here should be sufficiently accurate for most salvage work.00 1634. 10.3 4313.00 2. 8.6 12.84 71.92 17.0 27.72 671.70 21.8)3(18. Ship dimensions and actual waterplane properties are the same as for Example 11.4 23394.3 21. 6.36 45.02 4.480 1.776.702. 125 .22 1. The Simpson’s multipliers do not correct for this assumption.88 0. 14.40 4255. tons/in CWP 13.09 2 ⁄ 3 (40.56 51.09 Lever ƒ(M) s × ƒ(A) ft 0. Halfbreadths for stations 0.508.1 16.1 135.77 0.156.8 .08 41.56 0.06 1308. The derivation of the form: ICL = (CM)(h/3) ∑ ƒ(IXX) assumes a constant ordinate over the entire section (see Paragraph 14. ft2 LCF.80 272.44 602.9 192.89 12.820. ft4 ICL. Accuracy of ICL calculations for finelined ships can be increased only by using very close station spacing or integrating along an axis perpendicular to the centerline.144.2 40929.820.168 32.6)2 2 ⁄ 3 (40. % 0.40 AWP.71 19.77 20.8/3)(192.8 .1 18442.168 ft4 32.99 0.45 0.00 18.833.58 m s ft 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 h AWP = MFP = x′ IFP ICF ICL TPI CWP = Comparison: = 408/10 ⁄ 3 h ∑ƒ(A) 2 ⁄ 3 h2 ∑ƒ(M) 2 = = = 40.84 39.743 = LCF = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ⁄ 3 (h/3) ∑ ƒ(IXX) AWP/420 AWP/(LB) 2 Actual Value 11 Ordinate Simpson’s Rule Value Error.
and to determine areas of "left over" segments at the ends of curves.4 y5 = 24 Substituting the same values for ordinates y0 through y5 in each rule will verify that they are equivalent. The NewtonCotes’. Simpson’s rules and the trapezoidal rule are satisfactory for most manual calculations. 5.1 5. Taylor. a rule with less awkward multipliers can be deduced: 1 h 5y0 8y1 y2 A0 3 = 12 3 h y1 3y2 3y3 y4 A1 4 = 8 1 h y3 8y4 5y5 A4 5 = 12 A = A0 1 A1 4 A4 5 5 25 25 25 25 5 y0 y1 y2 y3 y4 y5 = h 24 24 24 24 15 12 25 h 0. 9.y2) M1 = 24 These two Simpson’s rules are at times convenient.6. the first rule can be used for 3. Tupper. 8.. and Gauss’ rules are more accurate.6. 14. 10. minus one rule. 14. The first moment of the area between the first and second ordinates (A12) about the first ordinate is given by the 3. Rawson and E.6 Other Simpson’s Rule Forms. the area between the first and second ordinates is given by: 1 h (5y0 + 8y1 . 8. Simpson’s rules can be combined one with another to derive rules for numbers of ordinates for which the first two rules do not apply. minus one rule. minus one rule cannot be used for moments. such as Basic Ship Theory by K. . 8. ordinates. These rules are described in most general naval architecture texts.4y0 y1 y2 y3 y4 0. y1. minus one rule: 1 2 h (3y0 + 10y1 .C.4. 7.J. Simpson’s rules can be derived for numbers of ordinates for which the first two rules do not apply. By skillful use of the 5.7 Other Integration Rules.. 8. or Muckle’s Naval Architecture by W.4. Minus One and 3. and the second rule for 4.A. and y2. Rules deduced in this manner can be used in the general forms described in Paragraph 14. is used to determine the area between two ordinates when three consecutive ordinates are known. 126 . Tchebycheff’s. 8. known as the 5. minus one rule can be verified by observing that the sum of the expressions for the two sectional areas is the 3ordinate rule: 1 h 5y0 8y1 y2 A = A0 1 A1 2 = y0 8y1 5y2 12 1 h y0 4y1 y2 = 3 The 5. ordinates. but are less accurate than the first and second rules.2 Simpson’s Rules for Any Number of Ordinates. Muckle and D. but require more tedious manual calculations. 10. An additional Simpson’s rule. ..y2) A01 = 12 The area between the second and third ordinates can be found by applying the rule backwards: 1 h (y0 + 8y1 + 5y2) A12 = 12 The validity of the 5..S0300A8HBK010 14.. 14. For ordinates y0. Minus One Rules. For example. 7. 10. A rule can be deduced for six ordinates as shown below: 3 h y0 3y1 3y2 y3 A0 3 = 8 1 h y3 4y4 y5 A3 5 = 3 3 9 9 3 1 4 1 y1 y2 y3 y3 y4 y5 A = A0 3 A3 5 = h y0 8 8 8 3 3 3 8 1 h 9y0 27y1 27y2 17y3 32y4 8y5 = 24 This is not the only rule suitable for six ordinates.
The numerical integration rules presented have relative advantages and disadvantages. Example 14 includes an integration of this type. and almost universally used in salvage. second. the trapezoidal rule is nearly as accurate as the Simpson’s rules. The addition of the continuous buoyancy curve and stepped weight curve creates a discontinuous load curve. Simpson’s rules are the most commonly used integration rules because they are more accurate than the trapezoidal rule. If the discontinuities. triangle. so some error is introduced even for a parabolic curve. the buoyancy curve can be stepped before summing with the weight curve. but progressively greater errors are introduced on successive integrations (for moments and moments of inertia). a horizontal line intersecting the curve midway between stations has a y value equal to the average ordinate. etc. Simpson’s rules will therefore exactly calculate the first moment of a secondorder curve. The integration rules discussed are applicable to continuous curves. Successive integrations produce progressively higher order curves: the curve of area under a secondorder curve is a third order curve. Simpson’s rules exactly integrate first. or the second moment of a firstorder curve. and sum the areas to find the total area. Moments. and second moments of area (single. the curve can be integrated by a modification of the trapezoidal rule: A = ⌠y dx = h ⌡ n 1 n y MYY = ⌠xy dz = h 2 ⌡ IYY = ⌠x 2y dx = h 3 ⌡ where: A MYY IYY h sn yn = = = = = = n 1 n 1 sn 1/2 yn sn 1/2 2 yn area under a curve between stations 0 and n first moment of area about axis YY second moment of area about axis YY common interval number of stations from axis YY (or integration start point) to station n height of the midordinate between stations n and n1 Weight distribution curves for ships are usually drawn assuming a constant weight distribution between stations as stepped curves. An evenordinate Simpson rule is only marginally more accurate than the next lower oddordinate rule. Replacing a segment of the curve between discontinuities (stations) with a horizontal line at a value equal to the average ordinate creates a rectangle with area equal to the area under the curve between the two stations.S0300A8HBK010 14. The rule can accommodate halfstations at any point. For curves with large numbers of closely spaced discontinuities. and subsequent stations. The centroid of each segment can be calculated or estimated. Calculating the second moment of a secondorder or higher curve involves integrating a fourthorder equation. a rule appropriate to that number and spacing of stations must be adopted. and triple integrations) directly. but simpler to use than the more accurate NewtonCotes’. or trapezoid. 127 . it is simpler to divide the curve into segments at the discontinuities. Additional error may arise for an arbitrary curve.9 Integration of Discontinuous Curves. and thirdorder curves. second moments. calculate the area of each segment. and the curve of the moment of areas is then a fourthorder curve. are evenly spaced. approximate each segment by a rectangle. Simpson’s rules and the trapezoidal rule include the common interval as part of the common multiplier and can therefore calculate areas or volumes. If the curve between stations can be reasonably approximated by a straight line. and Gauss’ rules. For curves where ordinates are tabulated for only certain stations. • • • • 14. centroids. continuous curves—such as those describing ship forms—accurately if a sufficiently close station spacing is used. The load curve is usually stepped as described above to facilitate integration along its length to define the shear curve. The area under a discontinuous curve can be obtained by applying appropriate rules to the portions of the curve between discontinuities and summing the areas. Some generalizations about the applicability of integration rules are listed below: • The trapezoidal rule uses constant ordinate spacing and simpler multipliers than the other rules. Alternatively. Experience has shown that Simpson’s rule calculates moments and second moments of relatively smooth. For a single integration (area calculation) of a gentle curve. that for segment 2–4 on the area for station 3. Repeating this process along the length of the curve creates a stepped curve. Any number of ordinates can be used. moments. When time and/or access to highspeed computers permits. A stepped 10segment (11ordinate) buoyancy curve can be constructed from standard Navy 21station Bonjean’s Curves by taking unit buoyancy calculated from section areas for odd station as the average unit buoyancy for segments bounded by even stations—unit buoyancy for segment 0–2 is based on section area for station 1. the salvage engineer may select the optimum integration rule for a welldefined curve. Tchebycheff’s. and the multipliers for halfstations are easily derived.8 General Notes For Numerical Integration. double. oddordinate Simpson rules are therefore preferred. and the centroid of the entire area can be calculated by summing the products of each area and the lever arm from its centroid to a selected axis in a tabular format.
0057 0. . . . . . Because ships are symmetrical about the centerline. . large tankers. etc. . . with tunnel bow thruster (negative appendage) . . . . . Appendage allowances . or by calculating a vertical moment of area for each section. . etc. .0060 . . . . . . halfspaced stations can be inserted to increase accuracy.. . . . . . . . and stations of lines drawings are spaced to support numerical integration. . . Hydrostatic data is also recorded in the Functions of Form Diagram (Figure B1) for Navy ships and Hydrostatic Tables (Figure B2) for commercial vessels. . appendage allowance increases with the number of screws. . . . . . . . . . . . . halfbreadths taken at different waterlines at the same station provide ordinate values to define the station shape. . . Displacement volume can be calculated by taking waterplane areas as ordinates and integrating vertically. .0025 appendage buoyancy is unknown. . When working from offsets. . . . Halfbreadths (offsets) taken along the length of a waterline provide ordinate values to define the waterplane shape. . . . integrations are customarily performed for one side of the section or waterplane only.0167 0.0106 0. . Ship Type Appendage allowance: ∆APP/∆FL . . bulk carriers. very large bulk carriers . . . . 0. . 1990.. Once determined. 0. . buttocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ULCC. . . . . unpublished.000 tons full load displacement . at stations 1⁄ 2. . Vessels with high powertosize Source: 1Jamestown Marine Services. . . . . . . For a given ship type and configuration. . .0081 can be estimated as a fraction of full load displacement. . . greater than 15. . . usually by Simpson’s or the trapezoidal rules. . . .0014 0. .. . Volumes and dis. . . . . . . . .. 11⁄ 2. . . . tons per inch immersion. . . . all other appendages . . . all other appendages . . the centroid of the volume is the center of buoyancy.10. .0050 placement. . although sectional areas from some Bonjean’s . . .0024 0.0015 vary with ship size. . In many modern fullbodied ships. . . can be calculated. . . . for example. From these properties. . . 0. . . . and are included in Bonjean’s Curves and offsets. . . 0. . . . . . 0. . and doubled to give the total area or moment. . An integration up to a waterline gives section area corresponding to that waterline. . appendage dis. . Singlescrew merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form. . type.0040 Curves include shell plating. . Longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy (LCB) is obtained by longitudinal integration of the sectional areas. . Singlescrew merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form. When . . Various integrations of a ship’s hull form are used to determine properties such as displacement. . . shell plating only . . . . . Table 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . 0. . . . . . If known. . . . . Integrations of this form are included in Example 14 and Appendix F. . small combatant with keel sonar dome1 . Approximate appendage allowances for different ship types are given in Table 13. . location of the centroid of the waterplane (center of flotation). . Height of the center of buoyancy (KB) can be obtained by vertical integration of waterplane areas. . . . . all other appendages . . also called Hydrostatic Curves. . . . Appendage Allowances. Whether functions of form are calculated for a complete range of drafts or for only a few selected drafts depends on the form of the ship and the nature of information required by salvors. The salvage engineer may be required to calculate hydrostatic data when curves of form or other documents are not available or for a casualty in an unusual condition. . Twinscrew. 010) is sufficiently accurate for most purposes. . Manual calculations are best performed on organized tabular forms called displacement sheets. . Warships generally have more and larger appendages than auxiliaries or commercial vessels. . . . . . .0049 0. . . . Twinscrew LST1 without bow thruster . .0010 placements can be added to the integrated displacement. . . .0200 0.000 tons full load displacement . . etc. effect on LCB can be determined by moment balance. . . . . 81⁄ 2 and 91⁄ 2. . VLCC. all other appendages . . . . . . less than 5. .10. . appendage displacement . .0049 0. . . 128 . and configuration. . Integrating the curve of areas along the ship’s length gives volume of displacement. known collectively as functions of form. . . Twinscrew merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form . . . . . . . Functions of hull form are usually calculated for each waterline so they can be plotted as a function of draft as the ship’s Curves of Form. . . . . . . .0075 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . small combatant with keel sonar dome1 . . . .0035 . . . . . . . . . 0. location of the metacenter. . based on data from 22 ratios have larger screws and rudders than lower powered hull types entered into ship data files for the NAVSEA POSSE Program vessels. . . . . . . Shell plating displacement can be adjusted for drafts less than full load by assuming that onehalf of the shell plating volume is concentrated in the bottom third of the draft range. . shell plating only . . Appendage displacement is essentially constant with draft. shell plating only . . . . Waterlines. In fullbodied ships (lowspeed general cargo. . Twinscrew amphibious warfare ships with well decks1 .000 tons full load displacement . 0. . . . . Twinscrew.000 to 15. 0. . . . . . It is usually safe to assume that LCB for the displacement with appendages is virtually the same as that for the integrated (without appendages) displacement. . . .0060 0. . . ... . as most appendages (except shell plating) are low on the hull and will be emerged only by extremely low drafts. . . . hydrostatic functions. . . .3 Station Spacing. . . . Singlescrew merchant ships and auxiliaries of ordinary form. . in fact. . Singlescrew. the waterlines over the midbody are. . .10 Calculation of Hull Properties. .0015 placements (buoyancies) based on section areas taken from Bonjean’s Curves do not include appendage volume/ dis. . . 0. shell plating only . . . . . . . . Waterlines are integrated along the ship’s length to determine area of the waterplane. appendage allowance generally increases as size decreases. . If the curvature of the waterlines increases sharply near the ends of the ship. . sectional areas are usually calculated by vertical integration on horizontal ordinates from the centerline. . . . . 5. . . . . . Large bow sonar domes on combatants are faired into the hull. . . . or Displacement and Other Curves (D & O Curves). . . .S0300A8HBK010 14.. .1 Functions of Form.10. . . . . . appendage displacement can be added to the integrated displacement for any draft that covers the appendages to determine total displacement. straight lines. . . . small combatant with bow sonar dome1 . .2 Appendage Displacement. . tons per inch immersion. locations of centers. Figure FO2 is a reproduction of the curves of form for an FFG7 Class ship. . . keelmounted domes are appendages. Singlescrew. and moment of inertia of the waterplane about the centerline and about a transverse axis through the center of flotation. . . . .. and the remaining volume is evenly distributed over the upper twothirds of the draft range. . . . . . 0.) the lengths of the waterlines between stations in the midbody are nearly straight lines.0046 called an appendage allowance. . . 14. . . The sum of all the vertical area moments divided by the sum of the sectional areas gives KB. . . . . small combatant with bow sonar dome1 . . Integration on 10 equal divisions of length (11 stations. forming a parallel midbody. . or hydrostatic data. . . . . . . . . .
waterplane areas for the midbody. either with horizontal ordinates measured from AB. This increases the number of calculations to be performed. line of the bottoms of deck beams. Framing. Figure 111 shows a section near midships where the turn of the bilge fairs into a straight line (the rise of floor line) at point A. permeability of empty tanks is 971⁄ 2 to 973⁄ 4 percent. On SIMPSON’S RULE very full hulls. the midbody and forebody areas can be calculated by any convenient rule with appropriate ordinates.10.4 Full Sections. machinery spaces. and 99 percent. very close ordinate spacing must be used to avoid error because of the rapid change of form in the shell line. less the volume of structure. the volume under the lowest one or two waterlines is calculated separately. and FORM bulk carriers. relatively flatbottomed sections. A compartment’s molded volume is greater than its floodable volume (the volume of liquid that can be contained).5 Lowest Waterlines. If the entire area below CD is calculated using horizontal ordinates from the centerline. The midbody area can be treated as a rectangle or integrated by a 3ordinate Simpson or trapezoidal rule. living spaces. For ship calculations. including finelined warships. Offset tables for 2foot station spacing are available for the FFG7. Floodable volumes of filled holds. 129 . actual waterline as shown in Figure 112. rather than the hull molded surface. offsets are taken to the inner surface of the tank. 14. When displacement volume is calculated by vertical integration of waterplane areas.10. Offsets for Navy ships are normally tabulated for 21 basic stations. the parallel midbody extends WATERPLANE nearly to the ends of the ship.. hold ceiling. Since the form of the ship changes so rapidly near the keel. usually occupy an additional 1⁄ 4 percent of the molded volume. C L D B C K A Figure 111. forebody. The area below CD can be calculated accurately using vertical ordinates from CD. To calculate volumes and centroids of flush tanks. because of the volume occupied by fittings and structure. although additional tables may be prepared for very close station spacing. and shifting boards.. about 1 percent in cargo tanks (i. Calculating Sectional Area Below the Lowest Waterline. and afterbody can be calculated separately and summed. so floodable volume. the curve from this ordinate to TRAPEZOIDAL RULE ASSUMED STRAIGHT LINE the end ordinate (which is 0 or very small) assumed by Simpson’s rules or the trapezoidal rule will fall well inside the Figure 112.1.10. respectively). The aft ends of the lower waterlines of many finelined ships also curve sharply. Inherent Integration Error in Full Waterlines. large tankers (VLCC. Flush tanks lie entirely within the ship’s framing and are externally stiffened. The area ADB can be obtained by using Simpson’s rule. Even when 21station offset tables or Bonjean’s Curves are available. as shown. or capacity. Heating coils.6 Ends of Full Hull Forms. and the top of the hold ceiling (above the inner bottom) including any gratings. the volume under the lowest one or two waterlines is calculated by integrating sectional areas along the ship’s length. Alternatively. with deductions for stanchions and other obstructions. Grain capacity is the molded volume. with halfstations as necessary. such as spoonbowed ASSUMED PARABOLIC barges. is essentially equal to molded volume. 14.10. where it OUTLINE joins to a short forebody or afterbody with steep or sharply curving lines. ULCC). sea chests and similar structures in ordinary skin tanks typically occupy about 21⁄ 4 to 21⁄ 2 percent of the molded volume in doublebottom tanks. are estimated from molded volumes by use of permeability factors. or with vertical ordinates measured from BD. Intermediate stations should be inserted so that there are ordinates near the ends of the parallel midbody and at least one or two ordinates in the forebody and afterbody.7 Tank and Compartment Volumes. with halfspaced ordinates inserted near the outboard end. for example.e. In full. If the ordinate adjacent to the end ordinate is some 2 1 FP STATIONS distance away from the end of the parallel midbody. or by dividing the area into two segments. 14. integration on 11 stations is sufficiently accurate for most hull volume calculations on any smooth hull form. This volume is added to the volume determined by integrating waterplane areas from the lower waterlines upward to obtain the total volume of displacement. 14. The area KABC is a trapezoid whose area can be calculated accurately when the position of A and rise of floor can be determined. offsets are usually tabulated for either 11 or 21 basic stations (10 or 20 equal divisions).1. special care must be taken in calculating the area from the base to the lowest waterline to avoid error. but avoids determining additional multipliers and may be simpler to program for computer calculation. Bale capacity of holds is calculated from offsets taken from sections showing the line of cargo battens.S0300A8HBK010 Accuracy can be increased by reducing the station spacing throughout the length of the curve. sounding tubes. if fitted. This will cause a serious underestimation of area for the end sections that will lead to even greater errors in calculations of moments and second moments about axes near midships because of the long lever arms. as explained in Paragraph 19. etc.
The body can then attain positive stability only in position (c). 130 . and with the center of gravity located as shown. Stability can be described as positive. a couple.e. or (c). Assuming the prism floats with half its volume submerged. In position (a). Stability of a Floating Object. and is termed form stability. negative. The internal forces affecting floating bodies are the forces of gravity and buoyancy. Capsized ships floating upside down very often have their centers of gravity below the center of buoyancy. i. is in static equilibrium.. This mode of stability is called weight stability. with the center of buoyancy above the center of gravity. a situation arises in which the center of buoyancy does not move far enough to be to the right of the center of gravity as the body is inclined from (a) to (b). B 20˚ G Z B (a) INCREASING RIGHTING ARM (GZ) 37˚ G B Z 45˚ G Z B (b) MAXIMUM RIGHTING ARM (c) DECREASING RIGHTING ARM 80˚ 61˚ G Z G B B (e) UPSETTING ARM (NEGATIVE GZ) (d) RIGHTING ARM REDUCED TO ZERO (GZ = 0) Figure 114. A ship floating at rest. The following paragraphs define the elements of transverse stability and provide methods to calculate the transverse stability characteristics of a vessel. with the center of buoyancy above the center of gravity. stability is provided by the body’s shape. and operate in a weight stability mode. 15. 15. is developed between the lines of action of buoyancy and gravity that tends to move the body back to its original position.S0300A8HBK010 15 TRANSVERSE STABILITY W Transverse stability is the measure of a ship’s ability to resist rotation about its longitudinal axis and return to an upright position after being disturbed by an upsetting force. Bodies floating with the center of buoyancy above the center of gravity develop positive initial righting moments regardless of shape. the body floats with positive stability in either position. or form. or righting moment. the prism can come to rest in either position (a). Sailing yachts with deep weighted keels. with the center of gravity directly above the center of buoyancy.2 Internal Forces. or from (c) to (d). or neutral. In either position. that is. B B (a) CENTER OF GRAVITY W W W (c) (b) B (d) Figure 113. spar buoys. Development and Loss of Righting Arm. and submarines all exhibit weight stability. conventional ships with very low centers of gravity. Both of these forces act at all times on wholly or partially submerged bodies. the forces of gravity and buoyancy are equal and acting in opposite directions in line with one another. Figure 113 illustrates the relationship between the forces of buoyancy and gravity. Stability is the tendency of a ship to return to its original position when disturbed after the disturbing force is removed. If the width of the prism is reduced while the center of gravity remains on the centerline at the same location. with or without list and trim. If the prism is inclined from (a) to (b). with the center of gravity above the center of buoyancy.1 Equilibrium and Stability. the forces of buoyancy and gravity act along the same vertical line.
S. while the center of buoyancy of a floating object will generally shift when the object is inclined. At some angle of inclination. W W B (a) B (b) B B W (c) W (d) Figure 115. Upsetting Arm. as shown in Figure 114. An inclination from (a) produces an upsetting moment that tends to rotate the prism away from its initial position. A submerged object clear of the bottom or other restraints can therefore have positive stability in only one position. called the righting arm. is the lever to which the ship’s weight is applied to right the ship. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. the center of buoyancy begins to move back towards a vertical reference line drawn through the original position of the center of buoyancy. that is. The vertical line of action of the center of gravity continues to move outward as the ship is inclined. Figure 116 shows how a stable ship subjected to normal disturbances will develop moments tending to return the ship to its original position. creating an upsetting moment. Figure 117 shows the upsetting arm developed when unstable ships are disturbed. Righting Arm (GZ). Submerged objects therefore operate in a weight stability mode. Stability of submarines and other submerged objects is discussed more completely in the U. Conversely. with the center of buoyancy above the center of gravity. the line of action of gravity moves outboard of the line of action of buoyancy. Because the center of buoyancy of a submerged object is fixed. Volume 4 (S0300A6MAN040).S0300A8HBK010 The center of buoyancy of a ship moves as the ship is inclined. The arm of this couple. 131 . Stability of a Submerged Object. In Figure 115. At some angle of inclination. the prism is assumed to be neutrally buoyant so that it is wholly submerged but clear of the bottom. Ships that have slowly heeled through progressively greater angles of inclination will suddenly capsize when this angle of zero righting moment (angle of vanishing stability) is passed. The difference in behavior of floating and submerged objects is due to the fact that the center of buoyancy of a submerged object is fixed at the center of volume of the object. M RIGHTING MOMENT θ W1 W B1 Z G L θ B L1 C L Figure 116. the righting moment cannot change to an upsetting moment as the object inclines unless the position of the center of gravity shifts. The center of buoyancy initially moves away from the centerline as the ship is inclined. UPSETTING MOMENT G Z W1 W B1 M L θ B L1 C L Figure 117. a inclination from (c) produces a righting moment. A couple is formed as the lines of action of the opposing forces of gravity and buoyancy are separated. in a manner that depends on the shape of the hull near the waterline.
. . . .72D 0. but ignorance of the height of a ship’s center of gravity invites disaster. . . . . KG for full load varies little from the lightship value. . . . . transient inclinations caused by forces that may be removed or reversed quickly. . . . .69D Source: 1 Applied Naval Architecture. . . . . . . Ships are inclined by various external forces: • • • • • • Wave action. . . . and KM indicate the heights of the centers of gravity and buoyancy and the metacenter above the bottom of the keel. They are. . lightship KG can be estimated as 0. . . and the location of added or removed weights is known. . . . . . . . . . . . . repetitive or cyclic forces. The height or vertical position of the center of gravity above the keel (KG or VCG) is defined by weight distribution. .53D. Oil Tanker . . . . KG/KB and VCG/VCB are used almost interchangeably. . large movable weights. Such forces include wind pressure. . . Any inclination of a ship can be termed heel. . . . In practice.4. . CrossChannel . . . .63D 0. . . . for example). . . . . . . . . . . . . . KG (D = depth at midships) Ship Type Merchantmen (KG at lightship)1: Dry Cargo . For tank barges. . about its equilibrium position for some time before coming to rest. . . . . . . . . . .72D 0. . . . . . . Amphibious Warfare with well decks (LSD/LPD/LHA/LHD) .6D < KG < D where: D = hull depth. . and Addition or removal of weight. . . . . 15. . . .S0300A8HBK010 15. .3 External Forces. . . . . . . . but inclines to the opposite side and oscillates. . . . . . . . . Tender/Repair Ship . KB. G. . the primary indicators of a ship’s initial stability. and for some naval ship types at full load. . . . . . Shifting of onboard weights. . . . . the new height of the center of gravity can be calculated‘: KGnew = where: KG W w kg = = = = height of the ship’s center of gravity. . . . . . in steel ships with flat plate keels. or longterm inclination. . . or rolls. . . . . . . . . . . a ship does not simply return to its upright position. . 15. .68D 0. .55D 0.5D 0. . . . Passenger/Cargo . . . . Insulated Cargo . . . . . . centrifugal force in highspeed turns. . . . . . . Approximate KG.62D 0. . . . . . .61D 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In most ships. . . 1990 132 . MunroSmith. . Frigate . . . . . . . . .4 Heights of Centers. . . Fleet replenishment (AE/AOE/AOR/AFS/AO) . . . . KG can be varied considerably without change of displacement by shifting weight up or down in the ship. Calculation of KG can be a laborious and timeconsuming process. . . Naval ships (KG at full load)2: Cruiser/Destroyer . . . . . . therefore. . . .75D 0. . or roll depending on the duration and nature of the forces causing the inclination. . . . . . . . . . . . the center of gravity lies between sixtenths of the depth above the keel and the main deck: 0. . .68D 0. . . . . . . . Rolling is cyclic in nature and is induced or aggravated by short duration. . measured from the baseline. . . . the difference in height above baseline and keel for any point is generally less than two inches and is not significant. . 0. .1 Height of the Center of Gravity. Roll – When an inclining force is suddenly removed. 1967 2 Jamestown Marine Services. . . The natural rolling period (period of roll assumed by a ship free of restraints and exciting forces) is a function of weight and buoyancy distribution. keel to main deck For barges with raked or shipshaped bows and cutup sterns. the symbols KG. above the keel total weight of the ship and contents individual weights added (+) or removed () height above keel of centers of gravity of added or removed weights. w Wold KGold Wold w (kg) w Table 14. . Amphibious Warfare without well decks (LST/LKA/LPH) . List – A list is a permanent. . . . Wind. . . . . . . . . . it is possible to add or remove weight without altering KG. . . caused by forces such as grounding or offcenter weight that are not likely to be removed suddenly. . The relative heights of the centers of gravity and buoyancy and the metacenter govern the magnitude and sense of the moment arms developed as the ship inclines. . . Grounding. . . Table 14 gives very approximate values for the height of the center of gravity for several types of merchant ships at lightship. . . . . but inclinations are broadly defined as heel. . . . etc. . . . . If the height of the ship’s center of gravity is known for any condition of loading (lightship. . . . . list. Conversely. . . R. Collision. such as wave forces. • • • Heel – The term heel is specifically applied to noncyclic. . . . . . . Nominally. . . . . . . while the symbols VCG and VCB indicate the vertical positions of the centers of gravity and buoyancy.
As the centroid of the underwater hull. KB is closer to the given waterline because the lower waterlines are usually much finer than the waterlines in the normal draft range. The transverse metacentric height (GMT). A ship with a negative metacentric height (G above M) will list to either port or starboard with equal facility until the centers of buoyancy and gravity are on the same vertical line. 4 No. the center of buoyancy is lower in flatbottomed. three holds forward and two aft.7D + depth of double bottom 0. fullbodied ships. A ship with a positive metacentric height (G below M) will tend to right itself by developing righting arms as soon as an inclining force is applied. The height of the center of buoyancy can be calculated by summing incremental waterplane areas (aWP) multiplied by their heights above the keel (z) and dividing the result by the displacement volume (∇): KB = 1⌠ a z dz ∇ ⌡ wp Table 15.58T for finelined ships.7D + depth of double bottom height above keel to half depth of ’tween deck at mid length of the space Based on full holds (homogeneous cargo) in general cargo ship with machinery amidships.5T. KB can be approximated with sufficient accuracy for salvage work as 0. is a serious symptom of impaired initial stability. of a ship is the vertical separation of the center of gravity and the transverse metacenter (see Figure 14) and is a primary indicator of initial stability. [length3] waterplane area.7D + depth of double bottom 0. with the transverse metacenter as its center. At very light drafts. IT) divided by the underwater volume of the hull (∇): BMT = IT ∇ 133 . The following empirical relationships give estimates for KB that are very close to calculated values for merchant vessels of ordinary form at normal drafts: KB = 1 5T 3 2 ∇ AWP AWP AWP where: Tm ∇ AWP = = mean draft. it may be more appropriate to apply the expression for hold No.7D + depth of double bottom 0. This expression can be evaluated by numerical integration methods if accurate drawings or offsets are available.52T for fullbodied ships and 0. and thereafter develop positive righting arms. 3 No. MunroSmith (Applied Naval Architecture. A similar analysis should be applied to holds aft of the machinery space. 1967) shown in Table 15 may be helpful. usually the chief mate. than in finer lined ships like destroyers or frigates. Metacentric radius is equal to the moment of inertia of the waterplane about its longitudinal centerline (transverse moment of inertia. KB of any ship is a function of displacement. [length] = displacement volume. commonly called the metacentric height.4. the locus of successive centers of buoyancy approximates a circular arc.4. 2 (depending on fineness of forebody) applied to the forward most hold.S0300A8HBK010 Height of the center of gravity of cargo can generally be obtained from the ship’s officers. Hold/Space No. if any. 5 ’tween decks KG of Cargo (D = depth of hold) 0. 1 No. 2 No. As a vessel’s underwater hull form approaches a rectangular prism (CB = 1. KB approaches 0. 3 to all holds in the parallel midbody. In ships with extensive parallel midbody. The transverse metacentric radius (BMT) is the vertical distance between the center of buoyancy and the metacenter. This condition. Metacentric height is calculated by subtracting the height of the center of gravity from the height of the metacenter above the keel: GMT = KMT . known as lolling.2 Height of the Center of Buoyancy. 15. [length2] ∇ Tm (Morrish’s Formula) KB = Tm (Posdunine’s Formula) 15. In the absence of better information. Disregarding changes in the shape of the immersed hull due to trim and heel. This distance is termed a radius because for small heel angles.KG Transverse Metacentric Radius. 1 or No. In practice.0).7D + depth of double bottom 0. and therefore of draft. Approximate KG of Cargo in Full Holds. such as tankers and ore carriers.3 Metacentric Height. with the expression for No. the design estimations proposed by R. The height of the center of buoyancy above the keel (KB) is solely a function of the shape of the underwater volume.
[length] 0. increases requirements on weapons stabilization systems. or place excessive loads on damaged structure. These expressions for transverse inertia coefficient are derived from the analysis of numerous ships. [length] If the waterplane shape can be accurately defined. and are reasonable approximations for use in salvage for ships with CWP < 0. perhaps causing the ship to take on water or capsize. [length] beam. Ships with smaller metacentric heights develop smaller initial righting arms and roll more gently in a seaway. but very stiff rolling of a casualty under tow may damage sensitive equipment. These matters usually do not concern the salvage engineer.4 to 0. or stiffness. the subscript "T" is often omitted as understood. KM. If not. Insufficient initial stability results in constant rolling in even gentle seas.9. the transverse moment of inertia of most ships’ waterplanes can be approximated by: IT ≈ CIT LB3 where CIT is the transverse inertia coefficient and is approximated by CWP2/11. [length] mean draft.9. loosen patches. increases lateral acceleration loads on topside cargo and equipment. reduces personnel effectiveness. These ships are said to be stiff. For ships with CWP > 0.5 times the beam. Ships with small metacentric heights are said to be tender. but not large enough to cause excessive stiffness. shortperiod rolling. The natural rolling period is a function of weight and buoyancy distribution and can be expressed as a function of GM and transverse radius of gyration (k): TR = where: TR k = = = GM = g = natural rolling period. making work difficult. ∇ = LBT and: IT ∇ LB 3 12 LBT B2 12T BMT = = = where: L B T = = = length between perpendiculars. Height of the Metacenter. and GM. seconds transverse radius of gyration of the ship mass. BM.0. depending on depth and transverse weight distribution transverse metacentric height. LB3/12 is a closer approximation of the transverse moment of inertia of the waterplane.045.S0300A8HBK010 For a rectangular waterplane.125CWP .7 or 0. [length/sec2] 2πk g GM 134 . The term seakindly is used to describe a ship whose metacentric height is great enough to give adequate stability. is also undesirable because it produces an uncomfortable ride. [length] acceleration due to gravity. Excessive initial stability. the moment of inertia can be determined by numerical integration. and may allow extreme rolling in heavier seas. IT = LB3/12. The height of the metacenter above the keel is calculated by adding the metacentric radius to the height of the center of buoyancy above the keel: KM = KB + BM ∴ GM = KB + BM KG When denoting transverse metacenter. Ships with large GM develop large initial righting arms and therefore respond to moderate disturbing forces with sharp. and increases hull stresses.
S0300A8HBK010 If GM and k are expressed in feet. An empirically derived relationship holds that stability is adequate when: TR ≤ 2 B where: B = beam. 15. the two opposing forces act along separate and parallel lines.385 for smaller passenger liners. 0. Ships and Marine Engines. the stability of the ship is measured by the righting moment developed.4 to 0.4 to 0. As the center of buoyancy shifts with a heel.44 average). the metacenter moves away from the centerline and the relationship between GZ and GM no longer applies. Significant changes in GM will be reflected by marked changes in rolling period.405 for an ore ship in ballast. The distance GZ between the lines of action of the center of gravity and the center of buoyancy. and 0.35 to 0.5 for naval surface ships (0.390 for a loaded passenger liner. and g is taken as 32. ft 15.174 ft/sec2. the forces of gravity and buoyancy act equally in opposition along the vertical centerline. as shown in Figure 116.9. The sine of the angle of inclination (θ) is the ratio of GZ to GM. is the righting arm. 135 . GM can be estimated. The righting moment (RM) developed at any angle of heel is given by: RM = W × GZ At any angle of heel.425 for large cargo and passenger liners.39 for cargo ships of ordinary form.108 k GM If the natural rolling period is known.32 to 0. The rolling period formula will not give an accurate estimate of GM for a ship rolling in a seaway because the rolling period is modified by wave and wind forces. 1953) gives some experimentally derived values for commercial vessels: 0. The Design of Merchant Ships (Schokker et al. sinθ = ∴ GZ GM GZ = GM sinθ This relationship applies for heel angles so small that the waterplane shape is not appreciably changed. 0. Taking radius of gyration k as beam (B) multiplied by a coefficient (C).37 for other submarines.5 Righting Arm. Volume IV. a conservative estimate of GM can be made: GM 2 CB ≈ T R The coefficient C can be taken as 0. the righting arm may also be used to measure stability for a given condition of loading. At greater angles of heel. This same text references Laursen’s possibly more correct approach of expressing radius of gyration as a function of both beam and depth: k = C B2 + D2 where the constant C ranges from 0. The force applied to a righting arm (GZ) is the ship’s weight.108 TR 1. The forces establish the couple which tends to return a stable ship to the upright position. This assumption lends itself to the use of the cross curves of stability as discussed in Paragraph 15. the rolling period formula reduces to: TR = and: 2 k GM = 1. increased rolling period is a sign of deteriorating stability.6 Righting Moment. At equilibrium. usually taken as less than 10 degrees for wallsided ships and 7 degrees for finelined ships.45 for submarine hulls based on bodies of revolution. and 0. Since the righting moment is equal to the righting arm times displacement and displacement normally remains constant as the ship heels. 0.
The righting 2 arm GZ is the distance between the lines of 1 action of buoyancy and gravity at any 0 angle of heel. These computations can be shortened somewhat by the methods described in Paragraph 15. The net effect of a change in displacement may be either an increase or a decrease in righting moments. but with a greater degree of list to one side. Since the expression GZ = 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 GM sinθ cannot be used at larger angles of INCLINATION. This small change in trim can usually be disregarded when calculating righting arms. A list caused by negative GM is identified by the ship’s tendency to loll. the cause must be determined. the centers of gravity and buoyancy. A list caused by a combination of offcenter weight and negative GM is identified by the ship’s tendency to list with equal facility to either side. 136 .11. Typical Stability Curves. The height of the metacenter is normally reduced as displacement increases because the increase in KB is usually less than the reduction in BM.7 Change of Displacement. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ARS AOR 8 7 6 5 4 3 LCC RO/RO 15. it also changes its trim to some extent to maintain constant displacement. Negative GM is the most serious condition that causes a list and should be corrected first. Increasing ∇. when disturbed. or GZ curve. Centers of buoyancy for various inclinations. the location of the added weight will affect the location of the center of gravity and therefore GM and GZ. or list to either side with equal facility. Negative GM. A list caused by offcenter weight is identified by the ship’s tendency to return to its listing condition when an external force is applied temporarily and then removed. and measuring the separation between their lines of action. but also affects GZ by: • • Increasing draft and thereby KB. As the ship heels. Figure 118 shows typical stability curves for various ship types. the center of gravity can be assumed to be fixed. but each change of displacement must be carefully analyzed to determine its exact effect. An increased displacement increases W in the expression RM = W × GZ. Inappropriate corrective measures will only aggravate the situation. the center of buoyancy will move to the new center of the underwater volume. a longterm inclination of the ship to one side or the other. DEGREES heel.4 discusses the effects of negative GM in greater detail. and the resulting righting arms are determined by numerical integration. A combination of offcenter weight and negative GM. FEET Before attempting to correct a list on a ship.8 List. 15.9 The Stability Curve. The opposite effects will be noted when displacement is decreased. the righting arm for a given heel angle is determined by accurately locating Figure 118. righting arm curve. which can be determined by numerical integration or graphical means.S0300A8HBK010 15. These effects are simultaneous but not normally compensatory. As a ship heels. Additionally. Any change of displacement will affect the righting moments developed by the ship. is caused by: 8 7 DD CV • • • Offcenter weight. the addition of low weight or removal of high weight will increase stability. thereby reducing BM as I will not change significantly (BM = I/∇). A plot of righting arm against heel angle is variously called a curve of statical stability. Paragraph 19. If movable weights within the ship can be neglected. stability curve. In general. List. 6 5 4 3 2 1 RIGHTING ARMS.
FEET 70˚ 2 30˚ 60˚ 20˚ 1 10˚ 0 3.TONS • • • • • • Range of stability. the designers prepare stability curves for a range of displacements. an assumed position of the center of gravity was used by the designer to develop the cross curves of stability. 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 DEGREES OF INCLINATION RANGE OF STABILITY Figure 120. Figure 120 is the stability curve as taken from the cross curves for a displacement of 3. a stability curve for any displacement can be developed.000 DISPLACEMENT IN SALTWATER . By entering the cross curves with the displacement of the ship and reading the righting arms for each angle of heel. 5 KG ASSUMED AT 19’ DISPLACEMENT = 3200 TONS 4 RIGHTING ARMS IN FEET 3 2 The following examples use the FFG7 Class cross curves of stability from Figure 119 to develop the initial and corrected stability curves. 137 . Angle of deck edge immersion. Statical Stability Curve. Righting arm and moment at any angle of inclination. the following stability data can be obtained: SHIP WATERTIGHT TO MAIN DECK CENTER OF GRAVITY ASSUMED 19.200 tons.S0300A8HBK010 15. Figure 119.9. It is customary to plot righting arm values against displacement for each of a number of angles of inclination to create a group of curves known as cross curves of stability.1 Cross Curves of Stability. Since height of the center of gravity varies with loading. As a ship’s displacement is variable.000 4. Metacentric height. Once the stability curve has been corrected for the true location of the center of gravity. FFG7 Class Cross Curves of Stability. Maximum righting arm and moment. Angle of the maximum righting arm and moment.00’ ABOVE BOTTOM OF KEEL AMIDSHIPS 3 45˚ RIGHTING ARM .
For the corrected stability curve in Figure 122. G1 Z1 = GZ . It is a common practice. If the actual center of gravity lies above the assumed center of gravity. GnZn is equal to the assumed righting arm plus or minus the vertical distance between the actual and assumed KG. conversely. The range of stability—the range of inclinations through The new stability curve is again the difference between the two curves. Assumed KG for Stability Curve. the resulting cross curves are termed KN curves. the metacentric height is increased and the ship is more stable. or corrected. 5 RIGHTING ARMS . stability curve can be constructed graphically as a sine curve correction.9. if the actual center of gravity is below the assumed center.FEET 4 GZ for KG = 191. 15.2 Correction for Actual KG. If the actual height of the center of gravity is less than the assumed height. The GGn sinθ curve is plotted to the same scale as the curve of statical stability as shown in Figure 122.FEET 4 3 2 G1Z1 = GZ . especially with European designers.G G1SIN0 G2 Z2 = GZ + G G2SIN0 0 Z1 Z W1 W Z2 0 0 M G1 G G2 L L1 B C L Figure 121. G Two Feet Higher Than Assumed. The assumed KG is sometimes called pole height. to develop cross curves based on an assumed pole height of zero. multiplied by the sine of the angle of heel: GnZn = GZ ± GGn sinθ The actual.9. 138 .S0300A8HBK010 15.3 Range of Stability. Correction to Stability Curve. Figure 121 shows that the actual righting arm. The ordinates of the corrected curve are the differences between the ordinates of the two curves and can be picked off and plotted using dividers. as shown.GG1 sinθ 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 DEGREES OF INCLINATION RANGE OF STABILITY Figure 122. the metacentric height is decreased and the ship is less stable. ∆ = 3200 TONS 3 GG1sinθ = 2sinθ 2 1 LOSS IN RIGHTING ARMS DUE TO RISE IN G 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 DEGREES OF INCLINATION 70 80 90 0 5 KG = 21’ DISPLACEMENT = 3200 TONS RIGHTING ARMS . Since the assumed position of the center of gravity coincides with the keel. the correction curve is plotted below the horizontal axis. the range of stability is from 0 to 75 degrees.which the ship develops positive righting arms—is indicated by the intersections of the stability curve with the horizontal axis. or determined by tabular calculation.
1 Beam. because as the ship heels to progressively greater angles. the righting moment can be obtained directly for any angle by multiplying the righting arm by the displacement. If the upsetting moment is not immediately removed. is a measure of the ship’s dynamic stability—its ability to absorb energy imparted by winds. The metacentric height is equal to the height of the intersection of a tangent to the statical stability curve at the origin with a perpendicular to the horizontal axis at 57. Maximum righting arm. already less than the upsetting moment. righting moment. although this will be offset at small angles by the increase in BM.10 Effects of Hull Form on the Stability Curve.e. Metacentric radius (BM) was LOCAL LOSS IN IMMERSED VOLUME shown to be proportional to the ratio B2/T in Paragraph 15. beam LOCAL INCREASE IN IMMERSED VOLUME has the greatest influence on transverse stability. increasing BG. the overall shape of the stability curve is governed by hull form. and therefore Figure 123.1 feet at 51 degrees of inclination.200 tons). GM is the measure of the slope of the GZ curve at the origin. Maximum righting arm and the angle at which it occurs are important parameters when an upsetting moment is applied gradually or statically. ships can. 15. overall stability will be reduced because KB decreases. The inflection results from the abrupt change in the shapes of the waterplane and underwater volume as the deck edge is immersed.1 ft × 3. Although metacentric height can be approximated from a stability curve by this means.6 Angle of Deck Edge Immersion. For most hull forms. While initial stability (righting arms at small angles of heel) depends almost entirely on metacentric height. but lies within a relatively narrow range for the large midbody sections that have the greatest influence on the stability curve. maximum righting moment. 15.10. The area under the stability curve. meterradians). righting arms at larger angles and the range of stability are reduced. the angle of deck edge immersion is decreased. and angle of maximum righting moment can be determined by inspection of the stability curve. Once the upsetting moment exceeds the maximum righting moment. INCREASED BEAM INCREASED DEPTH TUMBLEHOME AND FLARE FINING THE BILGES 15.2 feet..9. safely roll past their angle of maximum righting arm in response to shortterm or cyclic upsetting forces. The righting arm at any inclination is read directly from the curve.3. However. The stability curve in Figure 122 shows the angle of deck edge immersion to be about 38 degrees. BM. (footdegrees. From the corrected stability curve in Figure 122. it is more common that GM is known and the intercept is sketched to help draw the initial part of the stability curve.4. The angle of deck edge immersion varies along the length of the ship. but at a slower rate. will increase if beam is increased while draft is held constant. Of all the hull dimensions that can be varied by the designer. Figure 124 (Page 140) illustrates how altering hull form affects the stability curve as described in the following paragraphs.7 Righting Energy. and do. giving a maximum righting moment of 3.4 Righting Arm and Righting Moment.3 degrees (one radian). an inflection point in the curve corresponds roughly to the angle of deck edge immersion.520 foottons (1. Effects of Changing Hull Form.9. KM. If freeboard is held constant while beam is increased. A ship with very little area (righting energy) under its stability curve could be rolled past its range of stability and capsized by even a momentary disturbance. waves or other external forces.S0300A8HBK010 15. The corrected stability curve in Figure 122 indicates a GM of approximately 1.9. righting arms are still increasing.9. the ship will list past the angle of maximum righting arm. Because each stability curve applies only to a specific displacement and KG. If the depth remains constant. will steadily decrease. 15. maximum righting arm is approximately 1. Figure 123 shows how changing hull form increases or decreases righting arm by altering the position and movement of the center of buoyancy. 139 . the ship will capsize.5 Metacentric Height. The rate of increase in righting arm has changed from positive to negative—i. This point is not necessarily at or near the angle of maximum righting arm. 15.
KB and BM are unchanged. 15. increasing freeboard causes a rise in the center of gravity. In the same way. resulting in a shallow stability curve. 1982. flare or watertight sponsons some distance above the water line will have no effect on initial stability.10. 15. If length. with beam and draft held constant. will roll easily to small angles of inclination but develop strong righting moments at large angles.4 Draft.5 Displacement. The stability curve develops good early righting B1 B arms and range of stability.10. reducing initial stability. A roundbottomed ship with vertical sides beginning somewhat above the water line. INCREASED BEAM INCREASED LENGTH DECREASED DRAFT INCREASED FREEBOARD REFERENCE STABILITY CURVE INCREASED LENGTH DECREASED BEAM FLARE REFERENCE STABILITY CURVE INCREASED DISPLACEMENT EXTREME TUMBLEHOME AND/OR DEADRISE FROM STABILITY AND TRIM OF FISHING VESSELS.10. Height of the center of gravity will also be decreased by filling out the ship’s form below the waterline. ANTHONY HIND. and BM. will increase. displacement can be increased only by making the ship fuller.3 Freeboard. and draft are held constant. but will cause a sharp upward turn in the stability curve at larger angles of heel. Influence of Hull Form on Stability. L 140 . Extreme deadGZ = MS+GMsinθ rise (fining the bilges) or tumblehome in the vicinity of the inclined waterline reC duces the increase in waterplane area and L outward shift of the center of buoyancy. These changes will enhance stability at all angles.10. such as a tug or icebreaker.S0300A8HBK010 15. the θ increase in waterplane breadth and area L W caused by inclining a wallsided ship can Z G W1 be calculated by simple geometry. as a function of I/∇. Increasing freeboard increases the angle of deck edge immersion. mitigating the benefits of increased freeboard to some extent.10. As M can be seen in Figures 113 and 125.6 Side and Bottom Profile. If draft is held constant. Ships Figure 125. with flaring sides develop large righting arms because of the rapid increase in waterplane area and large shift of the center of buoyancy as the ship is inclined. The filling out of the waterline will usually compensate for the increased volume of displacement. If length is increased at the expense of draft. righting arms are reduced over the full range of stability. Reduced draft proportional to reduced displacement increases initial righting arms and the angle of deck edge immersion but decreases righting arms at large angles. righting arms will be increased at small angles. J. 1 S 15. increasing length usually causes an increase in KG. Residuary Righting Arm. but decreased at large angles. If length is increased proportionally to displacement. If length is increased at the expense of beam. increasing righting arms at larger angles and extending the range of stability. 15. Figure 124. In practice. beam.2 Length.
a regression analysis was performed using data from 31 warship hulls to obtain expressions for CRS in terms of other hull parameters. The GMsinθ term depends principally on KG. ft mean draft.1859 KB = 0. [length] GZ can now be defined in terms of GM. while MS is essentially a function of hull form. As shown in Figure 125.035 B T MS BM BM 2 tan θ sinθ 2 CRS = 0. The following expressions give reasonable estimates for CRS at 30 degrees of heel for finelined ships: CRS = 0.0315 0. For inclinations up to about 30 degrees in merchant hulls of ordinary beam to draft ratio.11 Prohaska’s Method.2536 CM 141 .8566 1. the righting arm at large heel angles can be thought of as consisting of two parts: GZ = MS + GMsinθ The distance from the upright metacenter to the line of action of buoyancy (MS) is called the residuary stability lever. ft beam. BM.2262 KB T B T 0.S0300A8HBK010 15.8109 T where: KB T B CM = = = = height of the center of buoyancy above the keel. MS can be approximated as: MS = where: BM = metacentric radius of the upright ship A more accurate approach is to define a residuary stability coefficient (CRS): CRS = where : BM = metacentric radius of the upright ship.03526 CM 0. and CRS: GZ = (BM)CRS + GMsinθ Using this basic approach. ft midships section coefficient 0.
The longitudinal positions of the centers of buoyancy and gravity are simply projections of these centers onto the vertical centerplane. similar in concept to the transverse metacenter. trim is defined as: t = Taft Tfwd drag Tfwd Trim greater than one percent of the ship’s length is usually considered excessive. the optimum position of the center of buoyancy (from a hull resistance standpoint) is about 0. Design of Merchant Ships.S0300A8HBK010 16 LONGITUDINAL STABILITY Longitudinal stability is the measure of a ship’s ability to resist rotation about a transverse axis and to return to its original position.2. but this difference is so small that it can usually be ignored. there is a small difference in the distances of B and G from midships due to their vertical separation. Table 16. The longitudinal metacenter. Because the angles of inclination about transverse axes are quite small compared to typical angles of heel about a longitudinal axis. If unknown. This can be calculated if the shape of the waterplane is known. For lowspeed.0 the optimum position is 1 to 2 percent of LWL aft √ √ of midships and about 4 percent aft of midships for Vk/L = 2. In ships of normal form. CB 0.2. Table 16 gives approximate ranges for the longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy as a function of the block coefficient. trim is defined as the difference between the forward and after drafts: t = Taft where: t = trim Regardless of the difference between forward and after drafts.027L forward 0. 16. the center of flotation can be assumed to be amidships without introducing significant error to most salvage calculations.4 Longitudinal Metacenter.2 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Buoyancy. in contrast. gravity. Longitudinal Position of the Center of Buoyancy. LCB lies near the midships section. the longitudinal positions of the centers of gravity and buoyancy lie on the same vertical line. Longitudinal stability is particularly important when refloating stranded ships. In a ship with trim.1 Trim.65 0. Schokker et al. is a point distinct from its transverse counterpart.60 0.002L aft to 0.02LWL forward of midships. The ship trims about a transverse axis through the LCF. Most ships are designed with equal forward and after drafts. Drag or other designed differences in fore and aft draft should not be confused with trim.70 0. Some ships are designed with a deeper draft aft.80 LCB Relative to the Midship Section 0. The location of the center of flotation is required to calculate final drafts after a change in trim. the center of flotation may lie either slightly forward or slightly aft of midships. The longitudinal position of the center of gravity (LCG) is determined by summing weight moments about a vertical transverse reference plane. additions.2. The longitudinal metacentric radius is calculated by: BML = IL ∇ 142 . to keep the propellers adequately submerged in all operating conditions. Its height is an indication of the ship’s ability to resist trimming forces.030L forward From Ships and Marine Engines. if a ship’s waterline is parallel to the design waterline. At a speedtolength ratio (Vk/L) of 1. The height of the longitudinal metacenter. For ships with drag. The effects must be calculated to ensure that the salvor can accurately predict trim and longitudinal stability of the vessel when afloat. 16. As speed increases. In a ship at rest.002L forward 0. The center of flotation is the geometric center of the ship’s waterplane.011L aft to 0.2 Longitudinal Stability Parameters. normally through one of the perpendiculars or the midship section. and removal may not be apparent since a grounded ship is restrained from responding as a floating ship would. Volume IV. 16. The center of flotation of finelined ships is usually about five percent of the ship’s length aft of midships.020L forward 0.3 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Flotation (LCF).015L forward to 0.016L aft to 0. fullbodied cargo vessels. A broad transom increases the relative proportion of waterplane area aft of midships and will tend to shift LCF aft. and flotation and their movements influence the longitudinal stability characteristics of a ship. The effects of weight shifts.009L forward 0. the optimum position moves aft. For most hull forms. The longitudinal metacentric radius (BML) is the vertical distance between the center of buoyancy and the longitudinal metacenter.2. or with a slightly deeper forward draft. The longitudinal positions of centers of buoyancy. is the other major parameter of longitudinal stability. Excessive trim significantly alters the shape of the underwater volume and can adversely affect transverse stability. LCB and LCG are therefore the same distance from the midship section in a ship floating on an even keel. Longitudinal Metacentric Radius. 16.75 0.1 Longitudinal Position of the Center of Gravity. The longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy (LCB) is the longitudinal location of the centroid of the underwater hull. 1953 16.010L forward to 0. it has zero trim. called keel drag. 16.
GZL = GML sin α ⇒ Mt = W GML sin α GML where: GZL = GML longitudinal righting arm. Trim due to Shift in LCG. as shown in Figure 126. [force] 143 . GZL and BB1 are approximately equal. the projection of the position of the center of gravity onto a horizontal plane moves towards the high end of the ship. Trimming Moments and Longitudinal Metacenter. Height of the Longitudinal Metacenter. the value of CIL for a rectangular waterplane (the limiting value) is 1/12 or 0. The immersion and emergence of the two wedges of buoyancy causes the center of buoyancy to move forward a distance BB1. Simultaneously. A longitudinal righting arm GZL develops. ML α MT LCF G B ZL B1 α L1 L W W1 Figure 127. Simple methods to estimate trim with reasonable accuracy are described in the following paragraphs.3 Trimming Arms and Moments.143CWP . the horizontal translation of the position of the center of gravity can be neglected. For a rectangular barge. α. the longitudinal moment of inertia of most ships’ waterplanes can be approximated by: IL ≈ B L 3 CIL where CIL = tegression analysis derived longitudinal inertia coefficient. GML = KML . 16. If not. the longitudinal moment of inertia and longitudinal metacentric radius are much greater than their transverse counterparts. IL = B(L3)/12. If the center of gravity is displaced from its longitudinal position in vertical line with the center of buoyancy. approximated by 0. but this would be a tedious process. although the volumes are not. a trimming moment (MT) equal to GG1(W) tends to rotate the ship about a transverse axis through the center of flotation.S0300A8HBK010 If the waterplane shape is defined by ordinate stations.4 Moment to Change Trim One Inch (MT1). [length] Mt = trimming moment. [lengthforce] W = ship’s weight. the shape of the underwater volume changes and the center of buoyancy moves until it is again in line with the center of gravity. The moment arm GZL can be related to the longitudinal metacentric height as in transverse inclinations: GZL sin α = . [length] = longitudinal metacentric height. For small trim angles. The longitudinal metacentric height (GML) is the distance between the center of gravity and the longitudinal metacenter.KG 16. LCF also shifts slifhtly as the ship trims and changes draft. A trimming moment applied to the ship in Figure 127 causes a longitudinal inclination or trim angle.KG = KB + BML .0659. the ships will settle or rise slightly as it trims to maintain constant displacment.0. The height of the longitudinal metacenter (KML) is given by: KML = KB + BML Longitudinal Metacentric Height.0833. A ship trims about an axis through its center of flotation because LCF lies at the centroid of the waterplane. Because the longitudinal moment of inertia is proportional to the cube of the ship’s length rather than beam. The moments of volumes of the wedges immersed and emerged as the ship trims are equal. Because the volumes are not equal. the moment of inertia can be determined numerically. The trim resulting from a known trimming moment could be determined precisely by iterative numerical integration. As the ship inclines. W LCF G B G1 L W LCF W1 B G1 B1 L1 L Figure 126. Because the small vertical separation between B and G is much less than the longitudinal metacentric height.
MT1 can also be approximated less accurately by an empirical relationship: MT l = where: TPI = B = tons per inch immersion. MT1 is useful for evaluating the effect of trimming moments so long as the change in trim is not great enough to change the waterplane area or shape appreciably: Mt ∆t = MT1 If longitudinal metacentric height (GML) is unknown. MT1 can be closely approximated by using metacentric radius (BML). ft 30 (TPI)2 B 16. ft W (GML ) 12 L This moment is called the moment to change trim one inch (MT1). the change in draft aft: L New Ta = Ta ± ∆Ta where: ∆Tf ∆t df L ∆Ta da = = = = = = change in draft forward change of trim distance from forward perpendicular to LCF length between perpendiculars change in draft aft distance from after perpendicular to LCF ∆ Ta = ∆ tda and distance. lton length between perpendiculars. draft. the change in draft at the bow is proportional to the ratio of the distance between the forward perpendicular and the center of flotation to the length of the ship: ∆ Tf = ∆ t df L New Tf = Tf ± ∆ Tf Likewise. [length] ∆t L Setting change in trim equal to one inch or 1⁄ 12foot: Mt = where: GML Mt W L = = = = longitudinal metacentric height. fttons ship’s weight.5 Drafts After a Change in Trim. As a ship trims about the center of flotation. in metric units. trim. 144 . a moment to trim one centimeter (MTCM) is similarly defined. ft trimming moment. lton/in ship’s beam. and length are measured in like units. [length] = ∆Tf ± ∆Ta length between perpendiculars.S0300A8HBK010 By similarity of triangles: sinα = where: ∆t L = = change of trim. since the difference between GML and BML is small a percentage of their values: IL ∇ (BML ) W IL ∇ 35 = (seawater) MT1 ≈ = 12 L 420 L 12 L This value is known as the approximate moment to trim one inch.
hull characteristics must be estimated. CWP. Porricelli. relationships for stability parameters and weight distributions applicable to warships and other finelined ships were developed. ship’s weight.. 17. lton/in. Navy hulls and may not apply precisely to ships of other navies. in.to 16knot range. KG Metacentric radius. Navy amphibious warfare ships and replenishment auxiliaries are designed for a 20knot service speed and are correspondingly finer than slower auxiliaries and bowdoor LSTs with typical speeds in the 10. Huntly Boyd. The parametric factors for warships and naval auxiliaries were derived from analysis of U. BM Metacentric Height. 145 . This method has been shown to yield results within 10 percent of rigorously determined values for most ship forms. 307327. an analytical method. and GG1 = GML t L and trim and length are measured in like units.S. This information is contained in a number of different documents.3. From Figures 126 and 127: BB1 GG1 ∆t = = tanα = BML GML l ∴ BB1 = where: BML GML ∆t L α = = = = = longitudinal metacentric radius longitudinal metacentric height change of trim length between perpendiculars trim angle BML t L . LCF Longitudinal position of the center of gravity.91. As discussed in Paragraph 15. lton 17 PARAMETRIC DETERMINATION OF HULL CHARACTERISTICS The hull characteristics of a ship are determined and tabulated when the ship is designed and verified following construction. pp. Many of the relationships were subsequently refined though further regression analysis by Herbert Engineering Corporation as part of the NAVSEA Program of Ship Salvage Engineering (POSSE) development work in 1990 (use of POSSE is detailed in Volume 2 of the Salvage Engineer’s Handbook). Jr. LCG Parameters for other conditions are extrapolated from the baseline. GM Tons per Inch Immersion. KB Height of the Metacenter. Schleiffer in the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Transactions. The method creates a baseline parametric model of the hull. W Height of the center of buoyancy. CP.6 Movement of LCB and LCG with Change of Trim.S0300A8HBK010 16. LCB Longitudinal position of the center of flotation. CB. ∆D.S. CM Displacement and weight. KM Height of the Center of Gravity. based on a parametric hull model. At the same time. can be employed. The shift of LCG or LCB with a change in trim can be closely approximated by: ∆ t (MT1) BB1 or GG1 = W where: ∆t MT1 W = = = change of trim. or fullload model. moment to trim one inch. J. and Keith E. consisting of the following parameters for the fullload condition: Coefficients of form. This is particularly true of amphibious warfare ships and fleet replenishment auxiliaries. The two most useful documents are the previously discussed cross curves of stability and curves of form. MT1 Longitudinal position of the center of buoyancy. The parametric method has its inception in a regression analysis of 31 commercial hull types published by Joseph D. In the absence of detailed stability information or the precise mapping of the hull form necessary to develop hydrostatic characteristics by numerical integration. described in detail in Appendix B. U. August 1983. TPI Moment to Trim One Inch.1 Parametric Model. movements of LCB and LCG accompany changes of trim. Methods of estimating some of the required parameters have been presented in the previous sections. When information is extremely limited. Vol.
00 for breakbulk freighters and most barges with rake* 0.073 for merchant ships and naval auxiliaries 0.91 for amphibious warfare ships (LSD/LPD/LPH/LKA/LST) 0. L Breadth.339 0.387 0.075 for barges with rake 0. T Design sea speed at normal service draft.360 0. It does not apply to boxshaped lighters or to barges designed for harbor use with identical flat rake at bow and stern.702 CB Waterplane coefficient: where: k1 = 0.325 0.03 for lumber ships 1.1 Required Information.) 1. LST (20 kts) other merchant ship types and slowspeed naval auxiliaries CP = 0.1. usually with skegs. Navy repair ships/tenders (AR/AD/AS) * In the context of the following discussions.61 for destroyer type hulls (including cruisers based on destroyer hulls. etc.06 for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) carriers 1.03 for orebulkoil (OBO) carriers 1. CG47.306 for for for for for for for for barge carriers and barges with rake container ships RO/RO ships naval repair ships/tenders destroyers.41 for frigates 1.08 for bulk carriers 1.28 for cruisers 1.10736 0. such as CG16. or may be compiled from other sources.96 for Navy replenishment oilers (Vk ≥ 20 kts. starting with the block coefficient: V CB = f1 1. This method requires only limited information: Length between perpendiculars.89 for barge carriers. frigates. the phrase "barges with rake" refers to ocean going barges with raked. 17.370 0.S0300A8HBK010 17.93 for Navy replenishment vessels other than oilers (Vk ≥ 20 kts. ft 1.147 for destroyers. the coefficients of form are first estimated. B Depth. Lloyds Register of Shipping.917 CB + k2 where: k2 = 0. etc.04 for liquid natural gas (LNG) carriers 1. AO/AOE/AOR) 0. CWP = k1 0.01 for crude carriers 1. Vk This information is available from sources such as the ABS Record.336 0.95 for RO/RO ships 0. knots length between perpendiculars.. To determine the necessary hydrostatic characteristics of a ship.550401 k L where: Vk L f1 = = = design sea speed at service draft. Jane’s Shipping Registry. D Maximum summer draft amidships. frigates. and cruisers Longitudinal prismatic coefficient: 146 .2 Displacement and Coefficients of Form. and cutup sterns. shipshaped or spoonshaped bows. and cruisers well deck type amphibious warfare ships (LSD/LPD) Navy replenshishment ships and fast LKA. AE/AFS) 0. including the ship’s crew or agents.97 for container ships 0.025 for product tankers/chemical carriers 1.98 for cargo liners (1618 kts) 0. CG26.1.316 0.
or beam to depth ratio. CIT is determined from the waterplane coefficient (CWP): CIT = 0.055 for barge carriers and RO/RO ships 0.62 D B = 0. displacement volume and displacement can be estimated: ∇ = L B T CB ∆ = where: ∇ = ∆D = displacement volume at full load fullload displacement δ = W = specific volume of water = 35 ft3/lton for seawater ship’s weight at full load L B T CB δ = W 17.1. Height of the center of buoyancy (KB) is estimated by a form of Posdunine’s formula: KB = where: CWP = CB waterplane coefficient = block coefficient T = mean draft CWP CB + CWP T Metacentric radius is equal to the transverse moment of inertia of the waterplane (IT) divided by the displacement volume (∇): BM = IT can be expressed as: IT = L B 3 CIT where CIT is the transverse inertia coefficient and is a function of waterplane shape.816 .3 Heights of Centers.19.18 for barges with rake 1.125 CWP = 0.065 for bulk carriers 0. depending on ship type: B for cargo liners and container ships GM = 2.075 for OBO carriers f3 = = 1.53 D 12 T 2 where: f2 = 0.2 D = f2 B B2 T = f3 + .00 for barges without rake for tankers in general for cargo ships in general for other merchant ship types for barges 147 .043 for ships for barges with rake IT ∇ Transverse metacentric height for the fullload departure condition (corrected for free surface) is correlated to beam.045 0.714 + 2.S0300A8HBK010 Midships coefficient: CM = CB CP With an estimate for block coefficient.0.1.86 .125 CWP 0.88 D B = 15.
62 0.143 CWP .0659 0.63 0. is given by: CIL = 0.1. BM. Navy hulls because Navy stability standards (described in Appendix C) do not include minimum GM requirements. GM does not parameterize well for U.0634 for for for for merchant ships and slowspeed auxiliaries replenishment auxiliaries amphibious warfare ships destroyers. TPI is calculated directly.GM Since the estimate for KG is based on the parameterized GM estimate. GM (uncorrected for free surface) is calculated from the estimates for KB and KG. 17. The parametric factors were derived from an analysis of U. and cruisers 148 .61 0.1.k3 where: k3 = 0. CIL. of a shipshaped waterplane can be expressed as: IL = B L 3 CIL where the longitudinal inertia coefficient. or effective KG (corrected for free surface). using the estimated waterplane coefficient to estimate waterplane area: L B CWP TPI = 420 where L and B are measured in feet.55 0.72 0. Uncorrected fullload KG does parameterize well.4 Tons Per Inch Immersion.S. and GM. Navy hulls and may not apply precisely to ships of other navies.5 Moment to Trim One Inch. KM and KG can be estimated: KM = KB + BM KG = KM .0643 0.0664 0. 17. as a function of depth: KG = f4D where: f4 = = = = = = 0. the value returned is the virtual.S0300A8HBK010 From the estimates for KB. IL.50 for for for for for for cruisers and destroyers frigates amphibious warfare ships without well decks amphibious warfare ships with well decks (LSD/LPD) fleet replenishment auxiliaries repair ships/tenders (Navy hulls) For Navy hulls. A value for MT1 is found using estimates for longitudinal metacentric height or radius: GML W 12 L where BML is given by: BML = IL ∇ = IL 35 W ⇒ MT1 = IL 420 L ≈ BML W 12 L MT 1 = The longitudinal moment of inertia.S. frigates.
6 Longitudinal Positions of Centers. If unknown.0.95 0.1.914 160 V = 0.5 L V k V = L 0.T2 LCB1 0.004 T1 .002 T1 .924 1. Hydrostatic properties are assumed to vary linearly with draft according to: TPI2 = TPI1 MT12 = MT11 LCB2 = LCB1 LCF2 = LCF1 TPI1 0.025 T1 . The distance from the forward perpendicular to LCF. New floating displacement.111 0. LCB will relocate to a position in vertical line with LCG.146 for for for for for merchant ships and slowspeed auxiliaries replenishment auxiliaries amphibious warfare ships destroyers. and cruisers barges with rake 0.k4 where: k4 = 0.485 L k 100 V = 0. 17. The values calculated are for the fullload departure conditions. drafts and location of center of gravity are determined by evaluating the effects of all weight changes from the normal fullload departure condition.924 0. frigates.126 0. and LCG can be estimated as follows. LCF is estimated as a function of speed (Vk) and length (L): V LCF = 0.T2 MT11 0.2 Changes. LCB. LCG can be assumed to be directly above the estimated LCB for a ship with zero trim at normal fullload departure condition. and must be corrected for other conditions.03 0.T2 LCF1 0. trim can be estimated from similar ships as a percentage of length.5 k 135 0. LCB at full load and zero trim is approximated as a function of length (L) and prismatic coefficient (CP): LCB = L 0.T2 Mt Where the subscript 1 denotes the fullload condition and the subscript 2 the new condition. Multiplying trim (t) in inches by MT1 gives the trimming moment Mt: MT 1 (t) = Mt Trimming moment divided by weight (W) gives the trim arm or lever (GZL): = GZL W Since the trim arm is the horizontal separation between LCB and LCG prior to trimming: LCB ± GZL = LCG Upon trimming.0075 T1 .5 L k 135 where Vk is given in knots and L in feet. trim must be known or estimated.125 0.117 0.23 for singlescrew cargo ships and naval auxiliaries for twinscrew cargo ships with transom sterns for twinscrew cargo ships with cruiser sterns for barges with rake To estimate the longitudinal position of the center of gravity.5 k 135 V = 0.95 = 0. 149 .5 .5L k + 0.175CP . Floating or grounded drafts can be observed on site. The drafts T1 and T2 are taken at the LCF for each condition.S0300A8HBK010 17.9 for tankers for bulk carriers 0.
For large weight changes. Two panels are used to reduce the complexity of the diagram. The difference between old and new displacements gives the required weight change between the fullload and new condition. changing any parameter (except LCF) creates a ripple effect that necessitates recalculation of other parameters. the greater the error introduced by use of the relationships given. As this method is based primarily on analysis of the speedtolength ratio. to approximately twothirds fullload draft. the difference between old and new displacements is the ground reaction. Vk L CB B T B L GM D Vk LCF KM KG . flooding. basic data. the change in draft is calculated incrementally. T. This hierarchy is shown in the two panels of Figure 128. after which it increases. The parametric method described in this paragraph was developed through regression analysis of typical. Change in draft is calculated from the total weight change and TPI. B. and LCF are calculated directly from the basic input data (L. The sum of weight change and old displacement gives the new displacement. KG B T L CM LCB LCG GZL MT MTI Figure 128. drafts on departure from last port).5 Applications to Salvage Calculations. there is a hierarchy of accuracy among the calculated parameters. The less typical a particular hull. Mixing bits of actual data with data calculated by the analytical method in a set of salvage calculations without recalculating lower precedence parameters tends to give poorer results than complete sets of either calculated or actual data. the parametric method yields results sufficiently accurate for salvage work. compared to ships of the same type. From the base condition.3 Calculation Hierarchy. and empirically derived factors. Within the framework of these limitations. The nature of the relationships in the analytical method dictates the methodology of their use. recalculating TPI for each intermediate draft. A new block coefficient is calculated from the new displacement and mean draft. conventional hull forms. The basic input parameters are listed across the top of each of the two panels. mean draft and trim. parameters at other conditions are calculated by one of two approaches.4 Cautions.). The new condition is defined by change in weight (consumption of fuel and consumables. With the new block coefficient and mean draft. Shift of LCG is calculated by moment balance. If the change in draft results from stranding. ∆ CB CP TPI IL CWP IT KB BM BML ∆ Longitudinal locations are referenced to the forward perpendicular. Because other parameters are successively calculated from previously calculated parameters. Vk). errors will be larger for an underpowered hull—for example. • 150 ∆ W. With the new block coefficient. a hull designed for 20 knots but actually powered for only 16 knots. These relationships apply only so long as the change in draft or trim does not cause a significant change in the shape of the underwater hull form. except that the new LCB is calculated from the new LCG. GM (or KG). hydrostatic properties and coefficients of form must be compatible. This approach can also be used to determine the amount and LCG of weight that must be added or removed to reach a desired draft and trim. Specifically. Calculation Hierarchy. a new set of parameters is calculated. • The new condition is defined by drafts (for example. 17. Because of the interdependence among various parameters. D. a new set of parameters is calculated as for the fullload condition.S0300A8HBK010 T CWP KB CT B L IT BM KM B TPI L 17. cargo discharge. etc. the method calculates parameters and creates a baseline ship model in the fullload condition. 17. From the input data. KM does not vary significantly with draft until draft is dramatically decreased. Only CB. Change in block coefficient is calculated first. and provides a means to evaluate a casualty’s condition when only limited information is available.
18. each effect can be assumed to occur independently.S0300A8HBK010 18 WEIGHT AND STABILITY The salvage engineer must fully appreciate the relationship between weight and ship stability. consuming stores or fuel. stability parameters that are functions of displacement or draft. refueling. and longitudinal moments. and then moved to its final location in a series of steps to account for the effects of its vertical. the increase of BM is greater than the lowering of B. A single weight shift can cause any combination of transverse. Table 17 illustrates the general effect of weight changes on an intact ship. as draft and displacement decrease. transverse. To evaluate a weight change. Conversely. The change in the transverse metacentric radius is particularly important because of its potential effect on stability. 151 .1 Weight Shifts. Movement of the center of gravity. When weights are moved about the ship. Displacement changes cause draft changes and changes in the hull characteristics. or longitudinal components. the reduction in BM [I /∇] is greater than the rise of B. The distance the center of gravity moves when a weight is shifted is the product of the weight (w) times the distance moved (d). Effect of Weight Movements. Both weight additions and removals may change the moment of inertia of the waterplane. CENTER OF GRAVITY Up Down Port/Starboard No change Up Down No change Down Up CENTER OF BUOYANCY No change No change To low side Up Up Up Down Down Down ACTION Weight shift up Weight shift down Weight shift transverse Weight added at G Weight added above G Weight added below G Weight removed at G Weight removed above G Weight removed below G STABILITY Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase Increase Increase Decrease METACENTER* No change No change No change Down Down Down Up Up Up *Relative movement of metacenter is based on the relationship BM = I /∇ and assumption that waterplane shape and area do not change appreciably for moderate changes of draft and displacement. Although they occur simultaneously. are therefore unaffected. divided by the total weight of the ship (W): wd GG1 = W This distance can be resolved into vertical. Weight additions and removals have three effects: • • • Change of displacement with attendant change of draft. displacement and mean draft remain constant. etc. such as height of metacenter. The addition and removal of weight is the most common evolution affecting a ship’s stability and can be the result of onloading and offloading cargo and equipment. or longitudinal shifts of the center of gravity with attendant effects on longitudinal and transverse stability. ballasting. As draft increases with added weight. it is simplest to assume that the weight is added or removed at the center of gravity (G) for the purpose of calculating the effect on mean draft. vertical. transverse. Weight additions will increase and weight removals will decrease displacement volume. Change of KG alters GM and righting arms as discussed in Paragraph 15. the effects can be calculated separately as though they were occurring sequentially. Development of trimming or inclining moments. The effects of longitudinal and transverse weight shifts are discussed in the following paragraphs. Table 17.
[force] wd GG1 = W where: d = lateral (horizontal) distance that the weight w is moved. The effect of a permanent list is to reduce the righting arms and range of stability when the ship rolls towards the list. Mt = wd 18.1. The magnitude of the inclining moment is: MI = W(GG1) where: GG1 MI W = = = lateral (horizontal) shift of center of gravity.S0300A8HBK010 18. [length] W GG1 = wd = MI C L Figure 129. as shown in Figure 126. [forcelength] ship’s weight (including the offcenter weight). The inclining moment will cause the ship to list to an angle where the center of buoyancy is again in vertical line with the center of gravity.1.2 Offcenter Weight. The magnitude of the trimming moment is: Mt = W GG1 where: W Mt GG1 = = = ship’s weight trimming moment longitudinal distance from the old LCG to the new LCG W1 W M 0 L θ Z G1 B G L1 The trimming moment is also equal to the product of the weight moved (w) and the longitudinal distance moved (d). or trimming moment. From Figure 129. This effect can be evaluated by calculating the lateral movement of the ship’s center of gravity off the centerline. the list due to an offcenter weight can be seen to be: GG1 tanθ = GM ∴ wd θ = tan 1 W GM 152 . the ship will roll about the angle of list. For small angles of inclination (less than 7 to 10 degrees). list can be found by reference to the metacentric height.1 Longitudinal Effects of Weight Shifts. The angle of list becomes the new equilibrium position. When a weight movement has a longitudinal component. List Due to Transverse Shift of G. LCG shifts and the ship’s weight acting through the new center of gravity and buoyancy acting through the old center of buoyancy form a couple. Reduced Righting Arm due to Transverse Shift of G. when disturbed. The effect of offcenter weight is to create an inclining moment. and increase them when the ship rolls away from the list. [length] inclining moment. M 0 W1 W Z Z1 B T 0 L θ G L1 since: G1 C L then: Figure 130.
Extending the curve to the left of the origin shows the increased righting arms developed on the side away from the list. towards its strong side. the increased righting arms provide additional stability if the ship is oriented so that the upsetting force heels the ship away from the list. It should also be remembered that if the ship is heeled towards its strong side. the offcenter weight correction. The increase or decrease in mean draft in inches (∆T) is approximately equal to the weight added or removed (∆w) in tons divided by the tons per inch immersion (TPI): ∆w ∆T = TPI 153 .3 Stability Curve Correction for Offcenter Weight. 3 RIGHTING ARMS IN FEET 2 1 0 1 2 3 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 GG1 COSθ COSINE CORRECTION CURVE FOR OFFCENTER WEIGHT INITIAL STABILITY CURVE WITH KG OF 21’ LOSS IN RIGHTING ARMS DUE TO OFFCENTER WEIGHT 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ANGLE OF INCLINATION. 18. as a cosine curve. PORT RANGE OF STABILITY ROLLS TO PORT CORRECTED STABILITY CURVE ANGLE OF LIST Figure 131. Figure 130 shows a ship whose center of gravity has moved from G to G1. is plotted to the same scale as the curve of statical stability as shown in Figure 131. The corrected stability curve is the difference between the two curves.2 Weight Additions and Removals. The increased righting arms and energy must also be overcome if the salvage plan calls for the ship to be heeled away from the list by external forces. The reduction in righting arm (GT) is: GT = GG1cosθ As with the sine correction for actual KG.S0300A8HBK010 18. If this area is larger than the area under the stability curve on the weak side. G1Z1. Weight addition or removal at the center of gravity changes displacement without introducing trimming or inclining moments. Correction to Statical Stability Curve for Transverse Shift of G. the ship could capsize if suddenly released. but a smaller arm. the area under the curve from the point where the curve crosses the axis to the angle of heel represents stored energy. STBD 3 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ANGLE OF INCLINATION. When inclined towards G1 to some angle θ. θ RANGE OF STABILITY ROLLS TO STBD 3 RIGHTING ARMS IN FEET 2 1 0 1 2 POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS. the righting arm developed is not GZ. In dynamic situations.1. The angle at which the corrected curve crosses the horizontal axis is the angle of list caused by the offcenter weight. the increase in righting energy on the side away from the list does not increase stability because the ship will roll about the angle of list. If the ship is subjected to a constant upsetting force. such as a steady beam wind. θ POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS.
The weight change can be treated as an addition (or removal) at the center of gravity. an iterative solution is required. When weights are added or removed at some distance from the center of gravity. [force] original height of the ship’s center of gravity. If the rise or sinkage is parallel. at locations other than the center of flotation. the ship will not trim.S0300A8HBK010 18. [length] New transverse and longitudinal positions of the center of gravity can be determined by the same method. the old and new waterplanes are very nearly the same size and shape. transverse. [length] weight added (+) or removed (). [length] = the distance d that the weight is "shifted" new total weight of ship. the center of gravity moves toward the added weight.2. 154 . Conversely. Multiplying the trimming arm by the weight to determine trimming moment. 18. Since TPI varies with draft. it must be added at a location that will be in vertical line with the resultant upward force of the added buoyancy. as a ship settles or rises. [force] = W ± w weight added (+) or removed (–) The new vertical. Height of the center of gravity is given by: W (KG) ± w (kg) KG1 = W ± w where: KG1 W KG w kg = = = = = height of the ship’s center of gravity after weight change. For any weight addition or removal. and c. The center of buoyancy of this layer is very close to the midpoint of a line connecting the centroids (centers of flotation) of the old and new waterplanes. causing small changes in draft. Taking the distance from the added or removed weight to the LCF as the trimming arm. causing LCB to shift towards the fuller end. as shown in Example 13. the added buoyancy results from the immersion of a layer of uniform thickness between the old and new waterplanes. Most ships are not symmetrical about a transverse axis. The trim resulting from a weight change can be determined very precisely by calculating LCB for trimmed waterlines at the new displacement until a trim is found that brings LCB under LCG. followed by a shift to the location where the weight is added: (Gg) (w) GG1 = (W1) where: GG1 Gg W1 w = = = = shift of ship’s center of gravity.2. trim can be closely approximated by: a. Simpler approximate methods to determine trim resulting from weight changes can be derived by determining where weights must be added or removed from a ship to change draft without changing trim. These methods are described in the following paragraphs. by summing moments.2 Weight Changes Without Change of Trim.1 Weight Changes Away From the Center of Gravity. [force] height of the center of gravity of the added or removed weight above the keel. a weight added directly above or below the center of gravity may cause the ship to trim to keep the centers of buoyancy and gravity in vertical line. Dividing the trimming moment by MT1 to find the resulting trim. and are sufficiently accurate for virtually all situations. For moderate weight changes. to a new position determined by the size and location of the weight. [length] original weight (displacement) of the ship. the change in buoyancy is weighted towards one end. A longtitudinal moment caused by weight addition or removal will not necessarily trim the ship. For larger weights whose addition or removal causes draft changes large enough to appreciably change hydrostatic functions. or center of flotation. a ship will assume the trim that brings the center of buoyancy directly under the new center of gravity. [length] distance between ship and added weight centers of gravity. The line connecting the centroids is therefore essentially vertical and the center of buoyancy of the immersed layer is in line with the centroid of the old waterplane. If the buoyancy moment generated by the shift in LCB equals the trimming moment. and longitudinal positions of the center of gravity can also be calculated directly. For small draft changes through a ship’s normal range of drafts. or away from a removed weight. b. If a weight is to be added to a ship without changing trim. the trimming arm is taken as the distance from the new LCG to the LCB at the new waterline.
forward and aft.4 + 154 = 177. a.4)(1.7 feet abaft midships lcb = 2 Removing the 1.4) = 7.000 tons removed at original LCG GG1 LCG1 trim arm Mt ∆t = = = = = 0 1.) 6 feet forward of midships 565 foottons (745 + 565)/2 = 655 (1) 1.200/745 = 2. Calculate the change of trim when a 100ton weight is added to an FFG7 Class ship at the following locations: (1) Center of Flotation. Calculate the location for the center of gravity of 1.740 foottons Mt/MT1 = 17. LBP is 408 feet. so the center of buoyancy of the immersed layer is essentially directly over the old LCF.400/655 ≈ 2 inches by the bow (2) 1.31" = 11 feet 11 inches b.4 feet 100(177.4 + 14) = 18.4 .4 1.400 foottons Mt/MT1 = 1.000/32 = 31.7 feet aft 1.000/30. Initial drafts are 14 feet.4) = 17. Tnew LCB at 11' 9" MT1 at 11' 9" MT1avg = = = = 11' 9" (from part b.7 feet (aft) = 62.000(68. (3) 50 feet abaft the forward perpendicular.100 foottons Mt/MT1 = 68.1 feet abaft midships 62.000 tons removed 150 feet forward of midships Gg GG1 LCG1 trim arm Mt ∆t = = = = = = 150 + 1.1 feet (LCG is aft of LCB) 1. 6 inches.000 tons removed at original LCF Mt ∆t GG1 Gg GG1 LCG1 trim arm = = = = = = = = (3) 50 feet abaft the forward perpendicular 50 feet abaft the forward perpendicular is 154 (204 50) feet forward of midships Trim arm Mt ∆t = = = 23.000) = 60.4 feet (aft) + 8.1.5)/2 = 30.400/655 ≈ 11 inches by the stern (3) 1.000 tons of weight to be removed from an FFG7 Class ship with initial drafts of 14 feet 6 inches forward and aft without changing trim.4 . (23.81 ≈ 23 inches by the bow Mt ∆t (Gg)(w)/(W + w) 23. Calculate the increase in mean draft: ∆T = Tnew w 100 = 3.4 feet (LCG is aft of LCB) 1. = Second estimate of new mean draft: TPI LCF LCB MT1 W = = = = = 32 23. This is verified by observing that the LCF at the new mean draft of 14 feet 9 inches is 23.8 feet (forward) = 7. The change in draft is small.1.000)/(3.5 = 33.400 foottons Mt / MT1 = 7.95 ≈ 3 inches by the bow (3) 100 feet forward of midships. (2) Center of Gravity Trim arm = = = = distance from LCF to added weight 23.4 feet (LCG is forward of LCB) 1.∆T = 14' 6" . First estimate of new mean draft: (2) Center of Gravity.1 foot from the center of the old waterplane.4) = 1.4 = 151.000) = 8.4 = 22 feet w(trim arm) = 100(22) = 2.25 1.740/745 = 23.1) = 68. The center of the new waterplane (LCF) is only 0.8 feet forward 1.1 + 6 = 68.4 = 7. FFG7 Curves of Form are given in Figure FO2.1.495 . Calculate the change in trim for an FFG7 Class ship with initial drafts of 14' 6" forward and aft if 1.000(7.495 .125 inches ≈ 3 inches = TPI 32 = Tnew ∆T = 14 feet 6 inches 3 inches = 14 feet 9 inches Calculate the change in trim for 100 tons added at: (1) Center of Flotation (2) LCG.33" = 11 feet 9 inches 14 feet abaft midships Center of buoyancy of immersed layer (lcb) is approximately midway between the old and new LCF.4 = 22 feet (22)(1.000 tons so that the center of gravity of the removed weight is approximately 19 feet abaft midships will cause no noticeable trim. so adding the weight at LCF causes no change of trim.4 feet forward of midships distance from new LCG to new LCB 7.000 tons are removed from the following locations: (1) LCF.4 feet (aft) + 60.∆T = 14' 6" .495 tons TPI at 11' 11" TPIavg ∆T Tnew = LCF at 11' 9" = = = Tnew = 28.06 ≈ 33 inches .000(1.5 (32 + 28.4 feet abaft midships LCG = 1.25 ≈ 31 inches Told .4 feet abaft midships 745 foottons 3.000) / (3.100/655 ≈ 104 inches by the stern 155 . c.4 feet abaft midships 6 + 1.200 foottons Mt / MT1 = 2.6 = 1.5 feet.4 feet (151. From the curves of form: ∆T Tnew = w/TPI = 1.S0300A8HBK010 EXAMPLE 13 WEIGHT AND TRIM This example calculates trim resulting from moderate (causing small changes in draft) and large weight additions at various locations on an FFG7 Class ship.
and the ship is free of any other significant restraints. the ship should be timed through several rolls and the result divided by the number of rolls to find the average rolling period.1. especially a baseline vertical position for the center of gravity. all exciting forces are removed. It is generally more useful to solve for d1 to find the point where weight must be added or removed to keep draft constant at some point: (MT1) (L) d1 = (TPI) (d2) Note that w cancels out of the equation. her rolling period will closely approximate the natural rolling period. unslackened crane hoists or mooring lines. hydrodynamic effects of water entrained by the moving hull surface in confined basins. lton The relationship can be solved to determine the point of constant draft for weight added or removed at a known location. is clear of the bottom throughout her roll.3 Point of Constant Draft.S0300A8HBK010 18. Drafts on the opposite side of the LCF are reduced by the effect of trim. ft tons per inch immersion. 156 . after inducing rolling.3. such as personnel moving about the ship. the number of mooring lines has been reduced to the minimum acceptable and those remaining are slack.2): GG1 wd tanθ = = GMeff W (GM) is solved for the as inclined. with constants for various ship types. free surfaces. ft moment to change trim one inch. The accuracy of the procedure is degraded by the influences of offcenter weights. or by personnel running back and forth. but if the ship is sallied in calm water. By shifting a known weight a specified distance. by rapidly shifting weights back and forth. Sallying ship is often performed in conjunction with an inclining experiment as a check on the accuracy of the experiment or to provide a means to calculate an initial estimate of GM. At some point the reduction in draft caused by trim equals the increase in draft caused by parallel sinkage: ∆T due to parallel sinkage = ∆T due to change of trim w ∆ Tparallel sinkage = TPI wd1 wd1 d2 ⇒ ∆ Ttrim = ∆t = MT 1 MT 1 L wd1d2 w = TPI MT 1 (L) where: ∆t d1 MT1 L TPI d2 w = = = = = = = change of form. ftton/in length between perpendiculars. the movement of the center of gravity can be determined. 18. ft weight added or removed.44B 2 ≈ ≈ GM = T T T R R R To determine the rolling period accurately.3 Inclining Experiment. or the position of LCF. Sallying ship is a procedure in which the ship is rocked.2. When a weight is added at some point away from the LCF. 18. A derivation of the rolling period formula. in. the ship will roll with the time of roll equal to her natural rolling period. GM can be estimated by means of the rolling period formula: 1. TPI. distance from the LCF to the added or removed weight. or sallied. lton/in distance from the point of constant draft to the LCF. by rhythmically heaving on the deck edge with a crane. The predictable and measurable effects of offcenter weight are used to determine height of center of gravity in an inclining experiment. is given in Paragraph 15. the ship trims as it sinks to a new mean draft. but increased by parallel sinkage. It is impossible to remove all exciting forces.108 k 2 C B 2 0.4. TR. etc. If. the amount of weight added or removed does not affect the location of the point where weight must be added or removed to keep draft constant at another point.4 Sallying Ship. GMeff: GMeff = GG1 tanθ = wd W tanθ Inclining experiment reports are an important source of data for ship characteristics. and exciting or restraining forces. So long as the weight change is not large enough to significantly alter MT1. The resulting inclination (heel) observed and the tangent formula (see Paragraph 18. or effective metacentric height.
the ballast is clean and can be discharged overboard. propulsion efficiency.S0300A8HBK010 18. so modern ships are usually designed with dedicated or segregated ballast tanks (SBT).5 Ballast. and steering control. liquid or solid. Solid ballast. the combined center of the ballast tanks is usually near or below the combined center of the fuel tanks. reduces visibility from the bridge. carried in holds or ’tween decks. so high ballast tanks are fitted to reduce metacentric height. 19 IMPAIRED STABILITY A ship’s afloat stability can be impaired or otherwise changed by any of the following: • • • • • Addition.1 Flooding. and in the trim and stability booklet or loading instructions for commercial vessels. Cargo tanks are often piped for ballast. The U. Free communication with the sea (FC). Saltwater ballast taken into low tanks restores metacentric height to a safe value. such as methane or hydrogen sulfide. Free surface effect of loose liquids (FS). Offcenter flooding causes list and reduces transverse stability. GM can be expressed as a function of the above effects: GM = KM KG FS FC The following paragraphs demonstrate the methods to calculate and apply the effect of these conditions on stability. Ballast. or other dredge spoil. In general cargo ships. loose water causes other serious consequences discussed in the following paragraphs. Only free communication with the sea is predicated on damage to the hull. damaged saltwater systems. Many warships are fitted with compensating fuel tanks that admit seawater through openings in the bottom of the tanks as fuel is drawn off the top.3. particularly after conversions involving addition of high weight and in submarines. Ballasting instructions. Discharge of cargo from forward holds and tanks trims the ship by the stern. In addition to the increased weight. from one leg of a voyage to another as cargo is taken on and discharged. Seawater flooding increases displacement and reduces reserve buoyancy. and in extreme cases may result in the loss of the ship by plunging. Fuel and cargo oil tanks were formerly used alternately as sea water ballast tanks in most ships. such as stone and ore carriers. the ship’s center of gravity rises and metacentric height is reduced. Navy has used cast iron ingots or lead pigs weighing about 60 pounds each. Ordinary concrete or special heavy aggregate concrete is commonly used. is carried to maintain stability or seakindliness. and for merchant ships and auxiliaries. Environmental protection standards now prohibit discharge of oily water in most areas. or shift of weight. High density drilling mud stowed in doublebottom tanks is also used as ballast. accumulating firefighting water. The first three conditions affect stability of the intact ship as well. or Any combination of the above.S. where applicable. river mud. Ballast tanks are distributed over the length of the ship to provide flexibility in controlling trim and hull bending moments. As fuel is consumed from doublebottom tanks. 157 . can degrade stability by shifting. have an excess of volume that is taken up by wing ballast tanks. as explained in Paragraph 19. Change in the shape of the submerged hull from grounding or battle damage changing KM. All ships require certain drafts. The cast iron ingots are sometimes covered with a layer of 3 to 4 inches of cement mortar. Major flooding towards the ends of the ship reduces longitudinal stability. 19. or any other condition that admits uncontrolled amounts of liquid into the watertight envelope of the ship. displacement. and makes steering difficult in beam winds. removal. Ships designed to carry dense cargo. and trim for seakindliness. usually consisting of loose stone or sand. Some of these vessels are very stiff in light condition. changing KG. are included in the damage control book for Navy ships. maintaining nearly constant weight and center of gravity in the tank. A light draft forward causes pounding and slamming in a seaway. Fuel tanks are still commonly piped for saltwater ballast for emergency use. Solid ballast. otherwise the ballast is dirty and is discharged to receiving facilities ashore. causing a virtual rise of G. is sometimes carried by cargo ships. Normal practice is to provide ballast capacity such that the ship’s displacement in ballast is 40 to 60 percent of the fullload displacement. if the tanks have been cleaned prior to taking ballast. Flooding can be caused by breaches in the hull. Fixed solid ballast is sometimes fitted. Decomposing organic material in mud ballast can produce flammable and toxic gases. A ship’s loading varies considerably during a voyage as fuel and stores are consumed. causing a virtual rise of G. The effects of added weight on stability and trim are addressed in Paragraph 18. As the primary indicator of initial stability.
600. µ 0. The effects of flooding are mitigated by the contents of the flooded compartment.95 0. water will flow into the tank. This angle of heel is defined as the downflooding angle.1.95 0.75 0.70 0. as explained in Appendix E.85 0.65 0.1 Permeability.850. the appendix includes an extensive list of material densities and cargo stowage factors. and as an offcenter weight creates an additional upsetting moment. There may be an inflow even if the liquid level in the tank is above sea level. such as fuel or cargo oil. µ Space Full Load Minimum Operating Condition Engine rooms (steam turbine) fully flooded above mid height below mid height lower third Engine rooms (diesel and gas turbine) Firerooms Auxiliary machinery spaces Pump rooms Steering gear rooms Shops Offices.95 0.) as water will not be able to enter all void spaces in the cargo. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. Volume 1 (S0300A6MAN010) for discussion of how to calculate permeability/volume of floodwater from cargo stowage factor/density.70 0. If an oil tank is holed.800.10.90 0. 19.85 0. or ratio of the volume of floodwater to the total volume of the space.99 1. U.95 0. Volume 1 (S0300A6MAN010).S. As roll angle and period increase.85 0. Head pressure is a function of liquid depth and density: Ph = γh = where: Ph γ δ h = = = = head pressure liquid weight density liquid specific volume = 1/γ liquid depth at point in question h δ Table 18.95 0. 19. Tanks often contain immiscible liquids. the time the opening is immersed increases.95 0. 4 Permeability of hold around containers.70 0.70 0. empty. on molded volume2 Doublebottom tanks Cargo tanks Tanks of known capacity Empty With liquid contents Bulk and breakbulk cargo (average)3 Container holds3 RO/RO holds (average)4 Liquids in cans or barrels1 Permeability.90 0. steel boxes. A ship rolling so that it cyclically immerses a shell opening may assume a permanent list or increase the period and angle of roll due to the free surface effect described in the next paragraph.80 0.85 0. U.95 0. Permeability factors for some typical spaces and cargoes are given in Table 18. etc.1. Permeability for cargo can be calculated from cargo density or stowage factor.80 0. can be defined: available volume µ = total volume The volume of the water entering a flooded space can be determined by calculating the volume of the space and multiplying by an appropriate permeability factor. Selected Permeability Factors. does not include space inside containers/ trailers.S.60 0.3 Flooding into Liquidfilled Spaces.90 0. so total volume and weight of floodwater admitted is reduced.1. with densities different from seawater.90 0. Aug 75 See Paragraph 14.60 0. and a permeability factor.95 0. If the exact quantity of floodwater cannot be determined. Downflooding occurs when a ship heels sufficiently to immerse an opening above the normal waterline.90 0.850. Righting arms are reduced as the water accumulates on the low side. Permeabilities calculated from cargo stowage factors or cargo densities may not be entirely accurate for breakbulk cargo in rigid watertight packaging (cans.S0300A8HBK010 19.90 0. 158 . If the density of the oil in the tank is low enough that its head pressure at the hull penetration is less than the seawater head pressure.80 0. 3 See Appendix E. there may be either a net inflow or outflow of liquid.7 for discussion.00 1 . it is usually safest to err on the high side by disregarding permeability.85 0. admitting greater amounts of water. such as an open door or holed shell plating.95 0.80 0.percent full 0. This effect is called permeability. Miscellaneous Spaces on Naval and Commercial Ships1: Permeability.85 0.90 0.40 Notes: 1 2 From Naval Ship Engineering Center Design Data Sheet. The space occupied by solid objects or watertight volumes cannot be occupied by floodwater.65 Cargo Spaces: Space Tanks.80 0.90 0.75 0.90 0. Not using a permeability factor will result in overestimating the amount of water a space contains.90 0.2 Downflooding. DDS 0791.97 0.85 0.90 0.95 0. electronics spaces Living spaces General stores Magazines Powder Small arms Small arms ammunition Rocket stowage Torpedo stowage Handling rooms Chain locker 0. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. The permeability of tanks can usually be taken as the percentage of full capacity to which they are filled to calculate the amount of floodwater admitted.
for the case described above.0. The local seawater depth over a hull opening can vary with time as the ship rises.44 ft 0. there is a 20foot difference in head between sea level and oil level in full cargo tanks.5 feet. i hsw = 1. water bottoms can be systematically increased until the tanks are completely discharged.i. Tankers carrying light oils that have suffered severe bottom damage may float in this manner. i = = = = depth to tank penetration = local draft for bottom rupture = 30 ft oil depth with head equivalent to seawater head. as well as some crude oils and bunker fuels. but lies over the water bottom of depth hsw. and oil depth is found by dividing the draft or penetration depth by specific gravity. although significant leakage will continue from casualties that strand at a tide that is higher than subsequent low tides. respectively. When there is an inflow of seawater into the tank. and the U.8: hi = where: hsw hi γg. As a practical matter. a water bottom forms. water will flow into the tank. specific gravity is taken as 1.025 oil specific gravity = 0. hi remains essentially constant. It is possible that the liquid level will reach the tank top before equilibrium is reached. or as tide rises and falls around a stranded or sunken ship. It is not always necessary to discharge a damaged tank completely to stop oil or other light liquids from leaking into the sea. As operations continue. the equivalent oil head is 37. Water bottoms cannot be created at all under liquids with specific gravities greater than one.S0300A8HBK010 The equilibrium liquid level in the tank is the level that will give the same head pressure as the seawater. If the tank is holed at its bottom. the equilibrium level can be determined simply: γ1 h1 = γsw hsw γ h1 = sw hsw γ i where the subscripts i and sw denote properties of the liquid inside the tank and of the seawater outside the hull. settles. allowing water to flow in through the breached plating. the situation is identical to that described above. the ratio of seawater to product specific gravities can be substituted for the density ratio. and there can be no further weight addition. Many chemicals are also highly soluble in water and cannot be contained by water bottoms. The depth of oil is determined by converting the water head to an oil head.025 30 = 38. If the side of a tank is holed at a height such that the internal head pressure is less than the seawater head pressure. there is little leakage in calm seas. the block of oil is held in place by sea pressure. in a tanker with a 50foot molded depth and a 30foot draft. Since the lower level of the liquid mass is above the hull penetration. Many bulk chemicals fall into this category.8 For fresh water. Equilibrium head pressure at the hull penetration is now expressed: γi hi + γsw hsw. or lists in response to weight changes. The effectiveness of water bottoms is limited for watersoluble liquids or liquids with a specific gravity very near one. 159 . If a full tank is breached through its bottom plating. unless oil escapes through tank vents or other avenues. and separated from it by a water bottom. rather than through the sides of the hull to the bottom structure. trims. salvors should attempt to create or increase water bottoms in damaged tanks. Tanks may be subject to either inflow or outflow at different times. there will be an ongoing oilseawater exchange until the water bottom covers the opening. with much of the ship’s weight transmitted from the tank tops to the water through the oil mass. oil leaks out until the internal oil head balances the external seawater head. If the hole is low enough that it is covered by the water bottom. ft seawater specific gravity = 1. the equilibrium oil depth has been reached when the cargo pumps begin to draw water instead of oil. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. The thickness of the water bottom can be increased by drawing oil from the top of the tanks with portable pumps. sw γg. and may trim or heel it. sw γg. Since specific gravity γ is directly related to density γ. For the tanker described.S. i = γsw hsw The inflow of seawater adds weight and may trim or heel the ship. In the initial stages of a pollution incident. If the hole is above the top of the initial water bottom. even if the ship continues to settle. The outflow of liquid lightens the ship. and an oil specific gravity of 0. Liquid and solid pollutants can be removed by the methods discussed in Paragraphs 33 and 34. so an iterative solution is required. varying hsw. Heavily damaged tanks will normally reach equilibrium in 20 minutes or less. especially if pumping or storage capacity is limited and several tanks are leaking. Volume 5 (S0300A6MAN050). When there is an outflow of liquid from the tank.8 γg. For example. The water bottom formed when a tank is damaged near its bottom can prevent further discharge of liquids lighter than water.
of the liquid surface (see Paragraph 14. The adverse effects of loose water result from the unrestrained movement of masses of water. The moment of volume of the transferred wedge is: l y 2 tanθ l 2 4 d l × y = tanθ ⌠ y 3 dl moment of volume = ⌠ ⌡ 3 ⌡ 0 0 2 3 The integral ∫0l 2⁄ 3y3 dl is the second moment of area (moment of inertia). the plan area of most tanks approximates a rectangle sufficiently to assume that the centroid of the wedge lies 2⁄ 3y from the centerline. For a rectangular tank.2. Substituting: moment of volume = i tanθ The weight moment of the transferred wedge is: weight moment = γf i tanθ where γf is the weight density of the fluid in the tank.2 for a derivation).5. G2 160 . The centroid of the transferred wedge therefore moves a total distance of 4⁄ 3y. The movement of the ship’s center of gravity caused by loose water movement can be related to the width of the free surface and the angle of inclination. Liquid in a partially flooded compartment is free to move as the ship inclines. the transverse component of the shift GG2 is found by multiplying by the cosine of the angle of inclination: γ i tanθ γf i sinθ GG2 transverse = GG2 cosθ = f γ ∇ cosθ = γ ∇ w w The righting arm with free surface is found by subtracting the transverse shift of G from the righting arm without free surface: γf i sinθ GZcorr = GZ GG2 transverse = GZ γw ∇ where: W γw ∇ GZcorr = = = = weight of the ship weight density of the water in which the ship is floating volume of displacement righting arm corrected for new position of the center of gravity. For small angles.S0300A8HBK010 19. the volume of the wedge in a rectangular tank can be calculated: y (y tanθ) dl = ⌠ Vwedge = ⌠ ⌡ ⌡ 0 0 2 l l B M W1 W 0 Gv 0 Z G2 W g 0 G g L L1 y tanθ dl 2 2 where: l y θ = = = length of the tank halfwidth of the tank (from its centerline) angle of inclination C L Figure 132. The movement of significant weights causes the ship’s center of gravity to move off the centerline as the ship inclines.2 Loose Water. Free Surface Effect. The loss of righting arm results from the weight of a wedge of water transferred from the high to the low side. i. as shown in Figure 132.1 Free Surface Effect. the centroids of the wedges are at 2⁄ 3y from the centerline of the tank. The weight shift and accompanying moment will cause a shift of the ship’s center of gravity parallel to the inclined liquid surface (and the inclined waterline) to a new position G2: γf i tanθ γf i tanθ = GG2 = W γw ∇ Righting arms are reduced by the transverse shift of center of gravity. 19.
Moments of transference are normally calculated for a slack condition (50 percent full) and a full condition (100 percent for water tanks. Approximate moments of transference can be calculated by assuming a rectangular free surface: moment of transference rectangle = γf i sinθ = γf where: l b = = compartment length compartment width W W1 3 lb 3 1 lb sinθ = δ 12 sinθ 12 f L1 L For seawater flooding. The increase in water level on the low side is equal to the decrease on the high side. 98 percent for commercial vessel cargo tanks) for a series of heel angles.S0300A8HBK010 The free surface correction is applied to the basic statical stability curve by graphical or tabular means in the same way the sine correction for increased KG is applied (see Paragraph 15. is called the moment of transference. of the liquid mass moves very little as heel angle increases. whichever is less L1 W W1 L Figure 133.1). For many ships. Model tests have shown that pocketing normally decreases free surface effect by approximately 25 percent. The effect on stability of a free surface can be much greater than the effect of the weight of the floodwater. 95 percent for Navy fuel tanks. moments of transference are tabulated for each tank.10. The angle at which pocketing occurs can be predicted by geometry. the center of gravity. as shown in Figure 133. The free surface correction for each tank at each angle is obtained by dividing the moment of transference by the ship’s displacement. a wedge of liquid shifts from the high side to the low side. The component of the weight moment causing the transverse shift of center of gravity. θ: b h = tan θ 2 Pocketing occurs at angles of inclination where h is equal to or greater than the liquid depth in the tank (d) or the overhead clearance (a) as shown in Figure 134. C L b l1 a b tan θ = h _ 2 y w θ l d w1 Figure 134. the expression reduces to: l b 3 sinθ moment of transference sw = 420 where l and b are measured in feet. Once the liquid begins to pocket. As the tank shown in Figure 134 is inclined. Solving for θ: 2h θp = tan 1 p b where: θp hp = = angle of inclination where pocketing begins a or d. Tabulated moments of transference are included in the damage control books of newer Navy ships. This distance (h) can be expressed as a function of the tank breadth (b) and the angle of inclination. 161 . Pocketing Angle. g. The reduction in righting arm is simply that of an offcenter weight of known location. that is. where δf is 35 cubic feet per long ton. the liquid moves to expose the deck or to cover the overhead. ρf isinθ. The total correction is the sum of the corrections for each free liquid surface. with γf expressed in long tons per cubic foot. Pocketing. the liquid pockets when the ship heels. If a tank or flooded space is nearly full or nearly empty.
78 0.45 0. deg 10 0.08 0.0 10.09 0.6 1.0 Angle of inclination.18 0.09 0.27 0.0 3.6 4.9 1.2 2.18 0.79 0. or 111 Table 19.18 0. Ratio of depth to breadth 0.87 0.0 10.36 0.3 0.58 0.4 0.01 0.56 2.56 0.11 0.20 0.58 0.74 0.50 0.31 1. give factors for 50.02 0.36 0.07 0.7 2.5 80 0.8 16.06 0.02 0.36 0.14 0. the breadth at the narrow end should generally be used to determine the depth to breadth ratio.14 0.18 20 0.36 0.17 0.7 3.03 0.57 0. deg 10 0.0 6.63 0.05 0.2 2.02 0.0 9.6 1.09 0.18 0.15 0.31 1.0 96.2 2.06 0.38 0. the gradual diminishment of the moment of transference can be evaluated by defining the moment of transference as the product of γf i and some factor C that is less than sinθ: moment of transference = ρf i C where: γf i C = = = fluid density (tank contents).27 60 0.87 0.18 0.5 b = 12 i l For tanks not rectangular in transverse section.18 0.18 0.58 0.03 0.46 1.03 0.06 0.0 2.24 0.14 0.10 0.24 1.30 0.13 0.3 80 0.23 0.2 1.8 0.04 0.80 0.05 0.0 54.29 0.18 0.2 3.02 0.17 0.12 1.05 0.1 10.58 0.11 0.87 0.26 0.0 121.22 1.35 0.64 1.74 0.6 90 0.12 0.2 0.87 0.13 0.21 0. lton/ft3 moment of inertia of the free surface.26 0.18 0.0 4.87 0.06 0. a statical stability curve can be constructed by applying a free surface correction for angles up to θp.2 2.80 0.15 0.3 0.14 0.52 0.04 0.09 1.18 0.96 1.83 0.41 0.58 0.54 0.0 8.24 0.2 23.18 0.1 2.2 0.58 40 0.7 4. Ratio of depth to breadth 0.18 0.25 0.14 1.96 1.14 2.30 1.3 2.58 0.09 0.0 18.18 0. 110.29 0.6 0.62 0.04 0.16 0.15 0. and an offcenter weight (cosine) correction for larger angles.36 0.08 0.19 0.46 0.39 0.02 0.31 0.23 0.16 0.64 0.4 0.11 0.5 4.13 0.13 1.58 0.04 0.06 0.13 0. Transference Factor – Tanks 50 Percent Full. the depth should normally be taken as the greatest depth.3 14.21 0.0 1.5 0.16 0.18 0.2 2.34 1.24 0.87 50 0.2 16.11 0.38 0.20 0.28 0.0 3.65 0.18 0. 20 for tanks 95 percent full.58 0.9 1.11 0. If greater accuracy is required.12 1.18 0.0 9.30 1. Tanks with substantial variation in breadth.6 0.01 0. or 50 for tanks 98 percent full. Transference Factor – Tanks 95 Percent Full. usually have a small free surface effect.18 0.14 0.87 0.03 0.31 1.7 0. tanks or flooded spaces are assumed to be full or empty (no free surface).14 0.56 0.58 0.16 1.06 0.22 0.20 0.05 0.40 0.07 0.01 0.5 24.S0300A8HBK010 Tabulated moments of transference account for pocketing and tank shape.87 0.28 0.87 0.36 0.21 0.16 1.11 0.28 0.58 0.11 0.37 0.36 0.85 0.13 0.0 6.0 5.87 0.96 1.7 3.07 0.17 0.66 0.3 13.6 7.36 0.18 0.38 0.1 0.0 28.06 1.40 0.03 0.36 0.36 0.18 0.58 0.58 0. 95.1 5.31 1.36 0.36 0.58 0.05 0.35 0.2 2. Tables 19 through 111.09 0.4 6.5 4.58 0.53 0.58 0.14 0.30 1.15 0.85 1.36 30 0. reproduced from the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers’ Principles of Naval Architecture.27 0.7 70 0.31 1.01 0.58 0.29 0.18 0.13 0.03 0.06 1.14 0.25 0.12 0.33 0.23 0.0 7.58 40 0.22 0.13 0.18 0.02 0.17 0.87 0.0 Angle of inclination.02 0.15 0.18 0.58 0.14 0.04 0.36 0.07 0.97 1.8 16.19 0.8 0.23 0.18 0.0 7.0 The moment of transference factor C depends on the degree of fullness. ratio of depth to breadth of the compartment.7 0.8 16.10 0.0 5. where n is 2 for tanks 50 percent full.2 2.85 0.36 0.18 20 0.38 0.18 0.2 3.15 0.51 0.18 0.5 2.36 0.5 2.0 73.02 0.41 0.04 0.87 0.0 37.16 0.0 9.0 4.5 0.31 1.87 0.87 0. such as those that are approximately trapezoidal in plan view. The increase in accuracy gained by interpolation is usually insignificant. and 98 percent full tanks.87 50 0.5 4.10 0.50 2. When using approximate moments.56 2.57 0.18 0.2 2.53 0.71 0.36 0. Accuracy can be increased by taking depth as n times the distance from the free surface to the tank top.31 1.8 16.0 150.16 0.5 1. Alternatively.0 13.04 0.9 2.0 1.36 30 0.09 0.36 0.10 0.74 0.04 0.06 0.18 0.00 0.8 90 0.36 0.47 1.07 0.27 0.58 0.18 0.03 0.12 0.1 0.16 0.12 0. breadth can be taken as: 3 Table 110.31 0.36 0.77 1.20 0.33 0.10 0.12 1.14 0.18 0.58 0.31 1.36 0.06 0.07 0.4 16.94 1.19 0.74 0. 162 . To simplify evaluation of the factor C.36 0.92 1.03 0. ft4 transference factor from Table 19.16 0.47 0.31 60 0.02 0.21 0.05 0.0 8.33 0.5 4.0 2.87 0.01 0.36 0.87 0.17 0.22 1.25 0.07 0.9 2.1 3.24 0. and the angle of inclination.2 1.5 4.11 0.31 1.36 0.18 0.34 0.04 0.5 4.08 0.18 0.30 0.06 0.5 4.36 0.31 1.01 0.09 0.2 70 0.18 0.58 0.02 0. The tables should be entered with the next larger value for depth to breadth ratio unless interpolations are made. halffull (worst case) or 95 percent full in naval practice or 98 percent full in merchant practice (normal operating condition).05 0.18 0.18 0.65 0.36 1.87 1. These tables have been derived for rectangular tanks but will provide sufficient accuracy for most tanks if certain adjustments are made to the entering parameters of breadth and depth.47 0.16 0.
8 7.30 0. The virtual rise in the center of gravity can be related to the actual transverse shift: GG2 = GGv sinθ At small angles (less than 7 to 10 degrees).04 0.44 0. Raising the ship’s center of gravity to Gv has the same effect on stability as shifting it to G2.01 0.01 0.98 1.30 0. When virtually all free liquid surfaces are subject to pocketing at small angles. as in ships with nearly full fuel load or cargo tanks.01 0.09 0.9 2.4 0.47 1.2 1.05 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.59 0. Figure 132 shows that an equivalent righting arm Gv Z can be developed by extending the line of action of gravity back through the ship’s centerline.1.02 0.33 0.5 2.09 0.03 0.07 0.14 0.31 0.01 0.02 0.18 20 0.10 0.01 0.22 0.10 0.10 0.02 0. and translate the reduction in righting arm into loss of metacentric height by dividing by the sine of the angle.62 0.06 0.03 0.13 0.36 0.01 0.38 0.08 0.22 0.07 0. Equipment.10 0.00 0.25 0.03 0.70 0.01 0.17 0.01 0.70 0.08 0.03 0. Transference Factor – 98 Percent Full.78 70 0.05 0. it is common practice to determine the reduction in righting arm (by transference) at an arbitrarily selected angle of 5 or 10 degrees.05 0.0 9.02 0.12 0.03 0.5 11.51 0. Treating free surface effect as a virtual rise of the center of gravity provides a relatively quick and easy estimate of the reduction in initial stability.38 0.03 0.09 0.02 0.36 30 0.02 0.06 0.6 0.0 10.01 0.34 0.27 0.48 0.35 0.01 0.07 0.58 0.03 0. surface permeability is neglected.15 0.07 0.01 0.05 0. on the other hand.05 0.24 0.08 0.13 0.45 0.0 4.13 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.18 0. An error in estimation can cause the salvor to believe the ship is more stable than it actually is.67 0.02 0.09 0.08 0.05 0.01 0.18 0.12 0. the virtual rise of G is calculated separately for each compartment and the results summed to determine the total virtual rise.8 Virtual rise of G = F S = GGv = γf i γw ∇ γf i ∆ = = δw i δf ∇ i δf ∆ = For flooding from the sea.09 0. but is acceptably accurate if the sum of i for all slack tanks in ft4 is less than twenty times the displacement in long tons.16 0.13 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.11 0. as described in Paragraph 15.22 0.31 0.24 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.08 0.05 0.06 1.16 0.84 0.02 0.55 0.02 0. Ratio of depth to breadth 0.04 0.02 0.12 90 0.7 0.58 0.0 Angle of inclination.18 0.46 0.01 0.04 0. 163 .0 3.40 0.48 0.9 4. the reduction in righting arm is approximately GGvsinθ: GZcorr = GM sinθ GGv sinθ Setting the two expressions for GZcorr equal: γf i sinθ GM sinθ GGv sinθ = GZ γw ∇ Noting that GMsinθ = GZ and canceling common terms: Table 111.04 0.1 0.13 0.36 0.06 0.07 0. this effect is called surface permeability.0 8. cargo.17 0.60 0.18 0.17 0. Surface permeability is very difficult to estimate accurately.04 0.05 0.38 0.09 0.54 0.18 0.35 0. The virtual position of the center of gravity is then used to develop a corrected stability curve.07 0.9 1. erring on the safe side for the salvor. GZ = GMsinθ.08 0.54 40 0.23 0.38 0.49 0.16 0.03 0.65 0.3 0.04 0.11 0.07 0.04 0.0 5.17 0.46 0.00 0.0 6.8 0. or stores that pierce the floodwater surface reduce the area and effect of the free surface.03 0.30 0.02 0.30 0.2 5.5 9.27 0.03 0. the density ratio becomes one.02 0.06 0.11 0.07 0. and: GGv = where: GGv i ∇ = = = virtual rise of the center of gravity from free surface effect transverse moment of inertia of the free surface volume of displacement i ∇ If free surface exists in several tanks or compartments.02 0.5 0.01 0. The method overestimates the reduction in righting arm at larger angles because it does not account for pocketing or the reduction in lever arms of the transferred wedge as heel angle increases. If.01 0.01 0. the calculations will indicate less stability than the ship actually possesses.64 50 0.0 7.11 0.04 0.0 1.08 0.9.04 0.06 0.01 0.S0300A8HBK010 Computing moments of transference may be timeconsuming and tedious.08 0. deg 10 0.06 0.77 0.87 80 0.15 0.2 0.44 0.05 0.02 0.07 0. The surface permeability factor is the moment of inertia of the actual free surface divided by the moment of inertia of an unpierced plane surface with the same outer perimeter.24 0.52 0.03 0.71 60 0.
High winds often accompany icing conditions. causing the center of gravity of the tank to shift. The cargo may also be tommed down by placing tomming boards. In severe conditions. 50 tons of topside ice on a 140foot minesweeper reduces maximum righting arm from 1. and the compartment is vented. 19. 19. noncenterline space open to the sea introduces the effects of both offcenter weight and free surface. If the cargo is not large enough to fill the hold. there is a free surface at the interface between the two liquids that will remain parallel to the inclined waterline.4 Bulk Cargoes. and shift readily when inclined. As an example. Bulk cargoes. The 200ton ice accumulation corresponds to an average ice thickness of 5 to 6 inches over those areas subject to icing.3 Icing. liquids can freely transfer. bulk cargo will begin to shift when the angle of inclination is approximately equal to the angle of repose of the cargo. Crossflooding ducts fitted between shaft alleys.2. by design or damage. increasing displacement and raising center of gravity.2 Crossflooding. violent or cyclic ship motions or vibration can cause the cargo to shift at smaller angles. Some cargoes.2 feet to 0. This effect can be evaluated by using the difference in densities for the value γf in the expressions for moment of transference and virtual rise of G. ice thicknesses of six inches or more can collect on weather decks in a short time. over the leveled cargo. and loose solid ballast. There will be a wedge of volume on the low side where the denser liquid displaces the less dense. A cargo that shifts during a heavy roll to one side will not necessarily shift back when the ship rolls to the opposite side. in addition to that caused by free surface: Virtual rise of G = F C = GGc = where: A = y = ∇1 = plan area of the flooded compartment transverse distance from the center of the flooded compartment to the ship’s centerline volume of displacement to the after flooding to the waterline Ay2 ∇1 Free communication exists only when the water level inside the damaged compartment remains the same as the sea level outside the hull. The rate of accumulation is therefore influenced by relative direction of winds and seas. as a loss of metacentric height.2. and similar spaces in small ships to prevent the large offcenter weight moments that would result if only one side flooded. This creates virtual rise in the center of gravity. or crossflood. 164 . is calculated for each tank separately. such as grain. especially if the primary source of ice is winddriven spray. 19. such as grain and ore. between athwartships tanks: • • • • Damaged longitudinal bulkheads. can produce an effect similar to that of free surface. may act like semiliquid slurries in the presence of even a small amount of moisture.2. The offcenter weight of accumulated ice will cause list that may cause increased ice accumulation on the low side. Examples include ruptured cargo or fuel tanks and compensating tanks with water bottoms. and a corresponding wedge on the high side where the less dense liquid displaces the denser. However. Ice accumulation in freezing weather steadily adds high weight. A partially flooded. held in place by shores extending to the deck above. This occurs only when the hull opening is relatively large compared to the volume of the space.S0300A8HBK010 19. on opposite sides of the ship connected by relatively smalldiameter sluice pipes. especially those connecting deep tanks where the liquid surface is above the level of the valve. and is seldom uniform on both sides of the ship. The shift of liquid from one space to another is treated as a moment of transference between the two tanks to determine reduction in righting arm. and reduces maximum allowable beam wind from 85 to 40 knots. Antiroll tanks consisting of two tanks. The effect is more severe on smaller vessels. Faulty or inadvertently opened valves or valve manifolds. voids. The tendency to roll to greater angles on the low side can cause progressive cargo shifting that can lead to capsize. The cargo is normally pressed up to the tops of the holds and between the overhead deck beams. This is the angle between the horizontal and the slope of a granular bulk material that is freely poured onto a horizontal surface.7 feet. Ice builds up as spray or precipitation freeze onto abovewater structures. In general. floodwater is free to enter or leave the space as the ship inclines. ice loading can severely degrade the ship’s ability to withstand heeling moments from beam winds. but the effect is modified by friction and inertia of the individual particles.5 Free Communication Effect. Even if the tank is filled with liquid. a destroyer that has adequate stability for a 100knot beam wind without ice meets the wind heel criterion (see Appendix D) for only 80 knots with 200 tons of accumulated ice. a portion of the grain is bagged and laid over the bulk grain to prevent shifting. The effect on initial stability. normally carried about halffull. are fitted with permanent or temporary longitudinal bulkheads in their holds that may be supplemented with shifting boards to limit cargo movement. The distribution and weight of floodwater varies with time as the ship inclines. Ships designed to carry bulk cargo. A tank may contain two different liquids—one of them is usually seawater. 19.3 Liquids of Different Densities. In addition.2. especially certain ores. Situations exist where.
S. Figure 135 is the limiting wind curve for an FFG7 Class ship with 9 inches of ice on the foredeck. The method used is a matter of personal preference. Damage control books for some Navy ships include icing studies and limiting wind velocity curves for various thicknesses of accumulated ice. called the lost buoyancy method. Flooding in free communication with the sea can be assessed by either method. can be used where floodwater in free communication with the sea is assumed to remain part of the sea. The fuelballast sequence numbers refer to steps in the prescribed tank emptying and ballasting sequence. The effects of accumulated weights of ice (and snow) must be evaluated before refloating a heavily coated stranding. Frequent heading changes can help prevent the accumulations of large weights of offcenter ice. Removing ice from an unmanned vessel under tow may be difficult or impossible. The dashed lines show the increase in allowable wind that can be gained by ballasting the indicated tanks.4 Added Weight Versus Lost Buoyancy. and list Shift of center of gravity Shift of center of buoyancy Shift of metacenter Free surface correction required Free communication correction required Added Weight yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes Lost Buoyancy no no yes no yes yes no no An alternative method. 9" ICE ON FOREDECK 90 85 80 WIND SPEED (KNOTS) 51003&4F 52501&2F 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 51160W 53261&2W 5320W 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 FUEL BALLAST SEQUENCE NUMBER Figure 135. increases the weight of the ship by the weight of the floodwater. Table 112 itemizes the important points of the two methods. They are not valid for conditions that differ significantly from these assumptions. such as strandings and vessels under tow. conditions favorable to icing are often also unfavorable for atsea personnel transfers. The vertical pressure forces about the flooded compartment are assumed to act on the sea rather than on the ship. At slow towing speeds. with or without free communication. although the added weight method is more commonly used. Icing presents particular difficulties to ships that are not free to maneuver. and the assumption that the prescribed tank emptying/ballasting sequence has been followed. A more complete discussion of the lost buoyancy calculation method can be found in the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers’ Principles of Naval Architecture. Offcenter ice accumulation is likely on towed vessels because tows follow a relatively steady course. The only recourse is to remove the ice or leave the area where ice formation is likely. Department of Commerce Publication Climatological and Oceanographic Atlas for Mariners provides guidance for expected winds and icing conditions. the time needed to reach an area where conditions are significantly less favorable to icing may be considerable. Continuing vertically along the sequence 6 line shows that the limiting wind can be increased to 62 knots by ballasting tank 5320W. For example. there are also curves for 6 inches and 12 inches of ice. The U. Unless otherwise specified. called the added weight method. Icing predictions can also be provided by Fleet Weather Centers and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In general. at fuel sequence 6. trim. Table 112. and 53261 and 2W. fuel tanks 52501 and 2F. The foregoing discussions have assumed that flooding. if the casualty is to be towed through areas where icing is likely. or 72 knots by ballasting 5320W. hydrostatic and stability calculations in this book are made by the added weight method. If necessary. 165 . and the flooded portion of the ship no longer contributes buoyancy. Item Change in displacement Change in volume of displacement Change in draft. heavy to severe icing will occur when wind speed is greater than 30 knots and air temperature less than 28 degrees Fahrenheit. which are emptied by sequence 4. Limiting wind curves from damage control books are based on specific loading conditions.S0300A8HBK010 Once ice has started to form. assumes that none of the hull surface exposed to the buoyant force of the water is lost. 19. but the two methods cannot be mixed during calculations. it will continue to form as long as conditions favor icing. can be ballasted to increase limiting wind to 83 knots. or that heaters or other means to prevent icing be installed. This method. and then horizontally to the maximum wind speed for which the ship meets the Navy wind heel criteria. The plot is entered by reading vertically from the appropriate fuelballast sequence number to the solid wind heel curve. 51160W. FFG7 Class Ship Limiting Winds for Icing Conditions. It is important to ensure that a casualty has adequate stability under icing conditions. Added Weight Versus Lost Buoyancy. the ship has adequate stability to withstand 58knot beam winds with 9 inches of ice on the foredeck.
or landed. In ships with marginal stability. the loll angle is now added to the list due to offcenter weight. W. If enough weight is shifted or added to bring the ship upright. This condition is complicated by changes in the size and shape of the submerged hull form as draft changes while the dock is pumped out. causing a block reaction.S0300A8HBK010 19. 19.P. When the keel of a ship begins to land on the blocks in a drydock. the ship is initially unstable and will loll to some angle where the center of buoyancy has moved sufficiently to begin to develop positive righting arms. part of the ship’s weight is supported by keel blocks. Positive GM is taken as the indicator of adequate stability. 37 diagrams the forces on a ship during drydocking. negative metacentric height is dealt with by one of three methods: Recovering lost waterplane to increase the transverse metacentric radius. judicious selection of spaces to be pumped down can result in a simultaneous suppression of free surface and a lowering of G. The fundamental stability problem is to determine whether the ship will remain stable from the time it first touches the blocks until it has completely settled. When there are several slack tanks or partially flooded spaces. by the stern.9. Figure 1Figure 137. The actual or residual buoyancy. If GM is negative. Stability Curve Showing Range of Instability (Lolling). The Gv block reaction has two effects: a virtual W L weight removal at the keel and a longG B1 W1 L1 itudinal trimming moment. will contact the aftermost keel block first. The effects of both the reduction of free surface and loss of low weight should be calculated before emptying low tanks or spaces. The ship will settle with equal facility to the same angle of loll on either side. This situation is analogous in many ways to that of a grounded ship. The stability curve can be corrected for the new KG with a sine curve correction as described in Paragraph 15. and hull form changes with the state of the tide or passage of waves. In general. on them. A ship with a very low metacentric height will roll sluggishly. or allowed to flood to the overhead. Where GM is the absolute value of GM. A warship or laden merchant vessel with negative metacentric height is in a very dangerous condition. it pushes down with an initial force w. The following discussion of docking stability is summarized from NAVSHIPS Technical Manual (NSTM) 997. or both.6.3˚ 57. the problem is whether the ship will be stable from the time it begins to leave the blocks until it is completely afloat. B. but r can be assumed to be in most cases. It is the residual buoyancy that determines the ship’s hydrostatic characteristics. the corrected stability curve will indicate the list or angle of loll and a measure of the stability remaining beyond the angle of loll as shown in Figure 136.6 Drydocking. part by the surrounding water. t. it will list to the opposite side to an angle approximately twice that of the original list. Shifting weights transversely to correct a list caused by negative GM will only aggravate an already dangerous situation. the transient free surface created while pumping down solid flooded spaces can cause loss of GM. is equal to W . A ship being drydocked is subject to an unusual loading situation. PORT NEGATIVE GM 2 GM BM Figure 136. P increases from zero and is distributed over all the blocks. The dewatering sequence should be arranged to avoid reducing GM dangerously while pumping out. Docking Instructions and Routine Work in Drydock. This block is called the knuckle block because the ship pivots on it. Strictly speaking. Drydocking Forces. • • • Suppressing free surface to lower virtual height of the center of gravity.3˚ ANGLE OF LIST POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS. On undocking. the knuckle rer1 action is not the entire block reaction. In some cases. Shifting weight downward in the ship. the distributed block reaction increases until it equals the ship’s weight. As the water level falls. The angle of loll may be estimated by: θ = tan 1 POSITIVE RIGHTING ARMS. or 166 . Partially flooded spaces should be dewatered if they can be made tight and pumped. STBD LOLLING RANGE 57. Free surface is suppressed by pumping from slack tanks directly overboard or by consolidating the contents of slack tanks to press up as many tanks as possible. P. A ship with trim.5 Loss of GM. A positive metacentric height should be restored immediately. When GM is negative. the net effect of pumping out is to raise the center of gravity unacceptably—flooding the space from the sea would be more effective.1 Block Reaction and Residual Buoyancy. removing high weight or adding low weight to lower the center of gravity. Loss of GM can result from added high weight (raised G) or increased displacement (lowered M). where part of the ship’s weight is supported by the ground and part by water. New initial righting arms are calculated using the new value for GM. As the ship setP tles on the blocks. 19.
T1 = Tm where: Tl Tm = = draft at landing. in moment to trim one inch.5 4.9 FEET MOMENT. ft P 12(TPI) TPI = tons per inch immersion. PL. FOOTTONS x 10 5 DRAFT AT LANDING 17 MEAN DRAFT.0 4. FOOTTONS x 10 DRAFT AT INSTABILITY Figure 138. Draft at landing and draft at instability (GM = 0) are determined and compared. as shown in Figure 138 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 2.S0300A8HBK010 MEAN DRAFT. ftlton/in h = distance from application of P (knuckle block) to LCF. where the weight and buoyancy moments are equal.4) ≈ 446.6. Drydocking Plots. Draft at landing can be estimated by: ≈ 13. FEET 19.5 5. Draft at Landing. as shown in Figure 138 residual buoyancy of the ship at current draft distance from knuckle block to LCB. ft t (MT1) h A rule of thumb for estimating draft at landing is: T1 = Tmax 2 (t) 3 where Tmax is the deepest draft on entering the dock. GM is given by: GM1 = KM1 . FEET 16 15 14 13 12 11 5 W(KG)= =3. lton/in The block reaction at landing.769(118. Draft at Instability. is given by: PL = where: t MT1 = = trim on entering the dock.25 FEET 6 7 8 9 4 DRAFT AT INSTABILITY 10 MOMENT.2 Docking Stability.0 RESIDUAL BUOYANCY MOMENT B1 r1 DRAFT AT LANDING ≈ 14.250 FOOTTONS 3.5 WEIGHT MOMENT. The draft at landing is indicated by the intersection of the weight moment and buoyancy moment curves.0 3. with B1 and r1 determined for the ship with her keel parallel to the keel blocks. Wr = 3. or by balancing moments about the point of first contact. that is. Stability while docking is analyzed either by evaluating the effect of weight removal at the keel. The draft at landing is the draft where ML is zero with the keel parallel to the tops of the keel blocks. Buoyancy moments can be calculated for a range of drafts and plotted as shown in Figure 138.KGv where: GM1 KM1 = = metacentric height after touching blocks height of the metacenter after touching blocks KGv = virtual height of the center of gravity 167 . and Tmax and t are given in consistent units. Summing longitudinal moments about the knuckle block: ML = Wr B1r1 where: W r B1 r1 = = = = ship’s weight distance from knuckle block to LCG. After touching the keel blocks. Figure 138 shows sample plots for an FFG7 Class ship. ft mean draft on entering the dock.842 FOOTTONS KM1 B 1 The weight moment (Wr) is constant while the residual displacement and LCB vary with draft.769(18) =67.
6 0.764 73.65 feet Draft at landing exceeds draft at instability by 1.226 334.0 13.42 125. Initial conditions: B1r1 as a function of draft: r1 Tm ft = 330 .0 12.5) 12 (TPI) or KM1(B1) as a function of draft: Tm ft 15.86 ft W(KG) and KM1(B1) are plotted as functions of draft in Figure 138. c.08 2.049 81.9 feet.6 ≈ 446.0 12.769 tons 7.1 B 1r 1 fttons 462.17 15.210 KM1 ft 122.660 3. Determine draft at landing and whether the ship will remain stable throughout the docking.6 ft abaft midships 18 ft 15.25 = 1.18 2.82 123. d. The height of the virtual center of gravity is: KGv = w(kg) W(KG) ( P) (0) W(KG) = = W P B1 w It is useful to plot GM1 for various drafts to visualize the relationship between the metacentric height and draft while the ship is on the blocks.0 The knuckle block will contact the keel at a point 330 feet abaft the forward perpendicular.32 134.6 131. or when it begins to leave the blocks on refloating.08 .6 131. negative values aft and positive forward Wr and B1r1 are plotted as functions of draft in Figure 138.361 L Tf Ta Tm W LCG KG = = = = = = = 408 ft 14 ft 3 in 16 ft 1 in 15 ft 2 in 3. the ship should remain stable until firmly supported by the keel blocks.9 .290 2. If this draft is less than the draft at landing by a comfortable margin.5 tons KM1(B1) = W(KG) = W(KG) 3769(18) = 67. From the Curves of Form (FO2): * from midships.17 15.250 foottons 168 .909 451.92 128. showing a draft at instability of approximately 13.910 2.4) = 446.(7.0 14.644 414.2/3(t) 22 in = 22/12 ft 16. = = = = 3.8 ft abaft midships 773 fttons 32.4 3769(118.25 feet.32 8.2ft 2 t (MT1) 22 (773) P = = = 166. Margin between draft at landing and draft at instability: Draft at landing .[2/3(22/12)] = 14.0 11.13.550 2. the draft at instability is shown by the intersection of the two curves. the ship will be completely settled on the docking blocks well before the residual buoyancy ceases to provide adequate stability.0 13.LCB*] B1 ltons 3.[408/2 .249.1 r1 ft 122.882 58. Draft at landing by plotting: Ml = r = Wr = Wr B 1r 1 330 .550 2.0 11.2 ft abaft midships 23.4 102.769 3.Draft at instability = 14.82 123. The draft at instability is found by setting GM1 equal to zero: 0 = KM1 KGv = KM1 KM1 = W(KG) B1 W(KG) B1 KM1 (B1) = W(KG) By considering the products as moments and plotting moments against drafts as shown in Figure 138.17 12 (32.769 3.290 2. EXAMPLE 14 An FFG7 Class ship with initial conditions as shown is to be drydocked.910 2.210 LCB* ft 3.74 ft = 15.1 KM1B1 fttons 84.992 65.42 125.277 374.0 B1 ltons 3.660 3. Draft at instability: LCB LCF MT1 TPI a.8 = 102.0 14.[408/2 .6)] = 118.6 5.609 Tl t Tl b.S0300A8HBK010 The center of gravity undergoes a virtual rise due to the addition of negative weight at the keel.4 T1 = Tm = 14. = = = Tmax .2 h P 166.842 foottons Initial estimates for draft at landing: 408 h = 330 23.65 feet.32 134.92 128. Example 14 illustrates the stability calculations for an FFG7 Class ship entering drydock. showing a draft at landing of approximately 14.866 296.089 50.
Coast Guard.S0300A8HBK010 110 SHIP CONSTRUCTION Vessels are built to construction specifications based on intended service. most conform to one of two basic framing systems.3. 110.) are built to government specifications. only one can be continuous. any structural stiffener can be called a frame. with their long axes approximately parallel to the ships centerline. In the longitudinal system. Publicly owned vessels (Navy. etc. The transverse system. The framework and shell plating work together to carry imposed loads. INNER BOTTOM MARGIN PLATE CENTER GIRDER (KEEL) BOTTOM DETAIL: SLOT FLOOR FLAT BAR LONGITUDINALS AT NONWATERTIGHT FLOOR FLOOR THROUGH BRACKET SHORT LENGTH FLOOR LONGITUDINAL CONTINUOUS LONGITUDINAL AT WATERTIGHT FLOOR LONGITUDINAL CUT AT WATERTIGHT FLOOR Figure 139. With longitudinal and transverse structural members crossing at right angles. 169 . Some reflect a combination of the two systems. with the exception of shell plating and stanchions. shown in Figure 140 (Page 170). although the term is usually reserved for the transverse frames described in Paragraph 110. While ships vary considerably in the details of their construction. the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) and United States Coast Guard (USCG) establish construction rules for the United States.1 Framing Systems. uses closely spaced continuous transverse members with intercostal longitudinals. Construction rules for commercial vessels are established by classification societies and government regulations for the country of registry. Most Navy ships are built to General Specifications for Ships (GENSPECs). approximately perpendicular to the longitudinal members. The arrangement of the structural members is dictated by the framing system. shown in Figure 139. this conflict is resolved by the use of closely spaced continuous longitudinal members with intercostal transverses. The framework carries imposed loads and stiffens the shell plating to allow it to function effectively as a strength member under edge and lateral loading. Structural members. are categorized as either longitudinal. The hull structure consists of a watertight grillage of stiffened plates supported by a framework of mutually supporting longitudinal and transverse members. Longitudinal Framing. with their long axes athwartships or vertical. or transverse. In a general context.1. although some auxiliaries are built to commercial specifications.
Most naval combatants (except submarines) are longitudinally framed. framing systems are distinguished by the relative size. Merchant ships and naval auxiliaries may use either longitudinal or transverse framing. 110. typical wide spacing is 10 to 15 feet. The side plating may be extended upward at the sheerstrake as a heavy bulwark. in most types of ships. transverse framing is used along the side plating where longitudinal bending stresses are smaller. depending on the service of the ship.1. Figure 141 shows two common combination framing systems. MAIN DECK STRINGER GUNWALE ANGLE WATERTIGHT BULKHEAD ’TWEEN DECK DECK BEAMS SHEER STRAKE WATERTIGHT BULKHEAD DECK GIRDER STANCHION INNER BOTTOM BEAM KNEE FRAMES WATERTIGHT FLOOR TANK SIDE BRACKET CENTER GIRDER PLATE FLOOR SIDE GIRDER LIGHTENING HOLE FLOOR MARGIN PLATE AIR HOLE LIMBER HOLE BRACKET BRACKET FLOOR FRAME BAR REVERSE BAR BRACKET 110. tudinal framing systems (Figures 139A and 139B) are more efficient structurally. or a combination system. Given the loadcarrying capacity of wood. transversely framed ships have many small. larger. they are. Longitudinal framing has been widely used in tankers and bulk carriers where the disruption of internal spaces caused by the web frames is unimportant. the same system is used throughout the ship.1. With good alignment and modern welding practices. Appendix B describes the construction and characteristics of different types of ships. Transverse strength is maintained by the use of special web frames. less efficient in the use of internal space because of the deep web frames supporting the longitudinals. a deck girder or longitudinal bulkhead is fitted on the centerline.1. with fewer. continuity of the intercostal members depends on the strength of the joining connections. in place of the usual light bulwark or rails. Transverse framing (Figure 140) is most often found in dry cargo vessels where deep web frames would interfere with cargo stowage. providing greater strength for the same weight. the lack of longitudinal strength of this system limits the maximum length of wooden vessels. The combination framing system was introduced to overcome the disadvantages of longitudinal framing for dry cargo vessels. Wooden ships are transversely framed. closely spaced transverses.2 Transverse Framing. Modern practice tends increasingly towards longitudinal framing. Hatch side coamings are deep and may be continuous through the length of the hatch deck. For average merchant ships. Plate floors and heavy transverse beams are fitted at intervals to support the main deck and bottom longitudinals and increase transverse strength. number. LongiFigure 140. Longitudinal strength is provided by longitudinal framing in the double bottom and under the strength deck. at frequent intervals abreast the hatchways.3 Combination Systems. Transverse Framing. 170 . with transverse framing near the bow and stern. with fewer. their frame members are generally deeper and/or more closely spaced than those of similarly sized merchant vessels. 110. this system provides good resistance to racking stresses caused by lateral forces that tend to distort a vessel’s cross section. It was developed to facilitate the building of ships with very long and wide hatchways where the remaining deck structure provides insufficient transverse and longitudinal strength.S0300A8HBK010 In wooden ships and riveted steel construction. Because naval ships require a greater reserve of strength to provide damage resistance. however. Generally.1 Longitudinal Framing. larger. There are framing systems that combine elements of both longitudinal and transverse framing. Longitudinally framed ships have many small. If the ship has two hatches abreast. and more widely spaced longitudinals. The ship is strengthened longitudinally by heavier than normal sheerstrakes and deck stringer plates. Cantilever framing is a modification of the combination framing system with some special features. weldedconstruction ships. regardless of the previous assembly continuity of members. full strength can be maintained. In modern. and more widely spaced transverses. closely spaced longitudinals. the intercostal members contribute less direct strength to the framing grillage and serve primarily to stiffen the longitudinal members and shell plating. Conversely. or cantilevers. typical close spacing is 2 to 4 feet. and spacing of transverse and longitudinal members.
there is a cellular double bottom consisting of a grillage of heavy stiffeners plated over top and bottom. These members stiffen the entire structure against longitudinal bending loads. and scarfs were used to create strong and rigid joints between structural members. angles. instead of one. Longitudinal structural members resist bending about athwartships axes. girders. a variety of plates. although brackets and angle bars are used in some joints for extra stiffness. In small vessels. on either side of the keel plates. those along the bottom plating.2 Floors. most connections between plates and shapes are made directly through butt or fillet welds. They may be builtup sections or standard structural sections. and act as ring stiffeners. Transverse members are fitted primarily to stiffen the hull and enable it to resist shear and torsional loads. or may consist of a multiplefiber layup. In smaller vessels and some older merchant vessels. Frames forward of the forward perpendicular are designated by letters or negative numbers. Deep floors—deeper than the standard floors—are used at the ends of the ship and in highload areas. 110.4 Connections.2. the keel normally consists of an outer flat keel. Web frames—deeperthannormal frames with heavy flanges—are often placed at intervals of several frame spaces. Duct keels are commonly used forward of propulsion machinery spaces to provide a pipe tunnel. The docking keels help distribute docking loads as the ship rests on three rows of keel blocks. commercial vessels number frames from aft forward. or longitudinals. specially strengthened longitudinals. they may contribute to the ship’s longitudinal strength. keelsons. Some newer vessels have no distinct keel.2 Longitudinal Members. They also strengthen the plating against bending under hydrostatic and dynamic loads or buckling under hull shear and bending.S. Duct keels are flatplate keels with two center girders. a vertical keel (sometimes called the center Figure 141. In wooden vessels. Floors that do not continue into frames are sometimes used for local strengthening or machinery foundations. In this system. the keel is usually a large timber. In CANTILEVER FRAMING COMBINATION SYSTEM large ships.3 Transverse Structural Members.1 Keel.S0300A8HBK010 110. and those under decks. Instead. 171 . Intermediate partial frames may be added for local strengthening. the keel may be a wooden or metal member firmly bonded to the GRP skin. These members are often sized and located to carry the vertical loads imposed by side blocks when dry docking. Navy practice is to number frames from the forward perpendicular (frame 0) aft.1 Frames.or Hbeam. while in large vessels. Frame spacing and dimensions often vary throughout the length of the ship to compensate for variations in loading. most foreign and many U. longitudinals. LONGITUDINALS HATCH COAMING STRONG BEAM BETWEEN HATCHWAYS TRANSVERSE BEAM CANTILEVER BEAM TRANSVERSE SIDE FRAME LONGITUDINALS LONGITUDINAL FRAMING IN BOTTOM 110. The keel is a major longitudinal member that runs the length of the ship’s bottom along the centerline. The heavy longitudinals are variously called sidegirders. In large ships. the inner (plate) keel. an outer vertical keel or bar keel is fitted. to stiffen and strengthen the hull.3. are fitted at some distance to either side of the center keel. or docking keels. U. or series of timbers scarfed together. girders. A timber keelson may be fixed atop the keel to increase strength. They may continue to the upper decks in their full cross section or be reduced in size at some height above the keel.2 Other Longitudinal Members. bottom longitudinals may be fitted at some distance to either side of the keel. or CVK). deep. and reinforce shell and deck plating against local loads.S. In very large. called docking keels. the center girder is generally distinguishable from the side girders only by location. Navy. Structural members that run the length of the vessel along shell plating or decks are variously termed stringers. vertical keel. longitudinal members along the side plating are called stringers. Combination Framing Systems. 110. and a horizontal top flange called the keel rider plate. Bilge keels are not usually structural members. broad vessels. In the U. Bilge keels may be fitted externally at the turn of the bilge to improve seakeeping by resisting rolling. In welded construction.S. Transverse frames are analogous to ribs extending from the backbone of the keel inside the shell plating. 110.1. vertical keel.2. Frames connect the longitudinal members and maintain spatial relationships in the face of shear and torsion. 110. the keel is a builtup section. The keel usually varies in cross section along the length of the ship. the outer keel. 110. and rider plates may consist of an I. The portion of the frame from the keel to the turn of the bilge is a floor. In glassreinforced plastic (GRP) vessels. if they are attached by load carrying connections and extend for a significant length of the ship.3. In riveted construction. heavy.
sometimes called an orlop deck. or one extending from the waists to either bow or stern. are fitted to stiffen the joint. weather decks also close the top of the hull and maintain the ship’s watertight integrity.3. Decks subdivide the vessel into horizontal levels. RIVETED. i. The strake adjacent to the keel is called the garboard strake. garboard.4 Shell Plating. . The uppermost strake.3 Beams.S. those portions of the ship’s skin that hold back the sea.5 Decks. Flats – Noncontinuous platforms between deck levels. Bottom plating extends from the keel to the turn of the bilge. linoleum. Decks add Figure 142. The main deck is the highest continuous watertight deck and is usually the strength deck or upper flange of the hull girder. and contribute to overall ship strength by increasing rigidity. or the beam is faired in to the frame in a smooth arc to form a continuous structure. The outer keel may be incorporated into a keel strake. bilge. The keel. They strengthen the deck against local loads. or other materials. provided they are or can be made watertight. The outboard strake of main deck plating is normally designated the main deck stringer and is either heavier or reinforced to provide longitudinal strength. Decks may be steel or aluminum plating or wooden planking. starting with the garboard strake as A. called beam brackets or beam knees. Strakes are lettered from the keel outboard. Upper Deck – A partial deck above the main deck in the midships region. and may be covered or sheathed with wood. Navy uses the following definitions: • • • • • • 172 Platform or Platform Deck – Deck extending less than the full length of the ship below the lowest complete deck. Athwartships deck stiffeners are called beams. Shell plating is the side and bottom plating. HalfDeck – A partial deck above the lowest complete deck and below the main deck. Stems significant strength and rigidity to the structure as a whole and limit the extent of flooding after damage. or the sheer strake may be rounded and buttwelded to the deck stringer. it is used as the reference for numbering other decks. The U. Shell and deck plating is arrayed in longitudinal strips called strakes.. tile. which joins to the strength deck plating. Deck to sheer strake connections are often made by means of a welded Tjoint which may be backed up with an angle called the deck stringer angle or gunwale bar. The connection of the deck to the sheer strake is critical to hull strength. CONSTRUCTION) BULBOUS BOW 110.S0300A8HBK010 110. Because of the main deck’s significance to hull strength and watertight integrity. is the sheer strake. 140. including hydrostatic loads for weather decks. side plating from the turn of the bilge to or slightly beyond the upper or main deck edge. forming a continuous frame ring. the connection may be made by means of a riveted gunwale bar. FOREFOOT CASTING WEB SHELL PLATING COLLISION BULKHEAD BREASTHOOK RABBET WRAPPER PLATES STEM BAR PLATE STEM SCARF SCARF FOR KEEL PLATE GARBOARD STRAKE FLAT PLATE KEEL CASTING BAR STEM (OLDER. Poop Deck – A partial deck above the main deck at the stern. The strake at the turn of the bilge is the bilge strake. as shown in Figures 139. Alternatively. Deck beams normally join directly to frames at their outboard ends. and sheer strakes contribute significantly to longitudinal strength. Forecastle Deck – A partial deck above the main deck at the bow. 110. and are usually constructed of heavier or stronger plate.e. and 141. Triangular brackets.
Vertical centerline stiffeners are fitted in stems of large radius and bulbous bows. while structural bulkheads are often watertight. Watertight bulkheads are designed to withstand significant hydrostatic loads and are installed to increase the ship’s resistance to damage by containing flooding. or joiner (also called partition or screen) bulkheads. although all bulkheads act as partitions. 110. watertight bulkheads are almost always structural. Stern Assemblies.S0300A8HBK010 Decks above the main deck are called superstructure decks and may be referred to as levels. usually through a forefoot casting. overhanging. In merchant ships and auxiliaries. or be inclined downward near the turn of the bilge to form the side of the double bottom. watertight. Large combatants such as aircraft carriers and battleships may have more than one inner bottom. Bulkheads further subdivide levels or decks into compartments of varying size. heavy transom floor in conjunction with a transverse transom frame and beam. the stern post is omitted and the reinforced stern structure extends forward of the rudder posts. Stanchions or pillars are used to support decks. and horizontal plate breasthooks. The inner bottom plating is laid over the grillage of floors and longitudinals.6 Bulkheads. which may extend in a Figure 143. Bulkheads are strengthened by angle or bar stiffeners where necessary. In its original and simplest form. In counter sterns (also called ordinary. STERN CANT FRAMES SIDE GIRDER TRANSOM FLOOR FLOORS STERN FRAME CRUISER STERN RUDDER TRUNK CENTER GIRDER TRANSOM PLATE FRAME CRUTCH STIFFENERS A double bottom may be fitted to increase FLOOR strength and resistance to underwater damage. or are constructed of corrugated plate. and stiffen the hull structure between bulkheads. or by buttwelding the plates together. and have no cant frames. contribute significantly to the ship’s strength. a stern post or frame is fitted at the aft end of the keel. although bar or heavy pipe stems are still commonly used on Great Lakes bulk carriers. but end in a flat plate. an upward continuation of the keel to which the side planking was attached. seen in Figure 143. Transverse watertight bulkheads extend upward to a specified deck called the bulkhead deck. for example. in essence. Stern Assemblies. In singlerudder ships. The sharper portions of the stem are formed by welding the side plates to an ordinary stem bar or length of round bar or tube. still used in wooden ships and boats. built up of curved wrapper plates. They stiffen the hull by resisting racking and torsional stresses and distribute vertical loads. Bulkheads often fit into more than one class. It is generally constructed of castings and forgings arranged to allow for the propeller shaft and rudder stock bosses. Transom sterns are similar to cruiser sterns. The upper part of the stern which extends past the rudder post is supported by a special arrangement of framing. working. by design. close the aft end of the hull and must accommodate propeller shafts and rudder assemblies. rectangular timber which is. as well as resist the dynamic loads imposed by the rudders. Bulkheads may extend through one or several decks and may be classed as structural. distribute vertical loads. The term level also refers to nonwatertight horizontal subdivision. the upper level of a machinery space. The entire assembly is reinforced by a closely spaced network of deep floors. Cruiser sterns have a system of transverse frames and longitudinal girders with a number of cant frames fitted abaft the aftermost transverse frame. which may be found in older merchant vessels. usually by gratings of very deep compartments. stringers. The Stem Assembly (Figure 142) forms the bow of the ship. a system of cant framing radiates from the center of the transom like the spokes of a wheel. Joiner or partition bulkheads separate and subdivide living. This framing is carried by the transom consisting of a deep. The outer strake of the inner bottom is called the margin plate. but impart no watertight integrity or significant strength to the ship’s structure. ’tween decks are often fitted to provide one or two levels above the hold bottom to allow cargo to be subdivided or carried high to prevent stiff rolling. storage or other spaces. horizontal line to the side plating. or elliptical sterns).7 Other Structural Members. frames. called the transom. In twinrudder vessels. The double bottom may or may not be continuous over the length of the ship. 110. the stem or stem post consisted of a heavy. This type of bar stem has been largely superseded by the plate stem. In practice. 173 . forming spaces often used as tankage for TRANSOM STERN bunker fuel or other liquids. the stem was a rectangular forged bar attached at its base to the keel. In ships of iron or steel construction. Structural bulkheads are those that.
but being rigidly attached to the hull. Subchapter S. Extensive subdivision is an inconvenience to everyone. the two terms are often confused or used interchangeably. Interference of subdivision with access and systems. bulkheads.5% of the length between perpendiculars Coast Guard Standards for Commercial Vessels2 Tankers over 738 ft in length Withstand solid flooding from a shell opening with length equal to the lesser of 0. Transverse watertight bulkheads near the extremities of the ship limit flooding.6 ft. between any two main transverse bulkheads Withstand flooding from damage with length of 6 ft. Barges carrying moderately hazardous Withstand flooding from damage described above at materials any point. and prevent the large and dangerous trims that large amounts of floodwater at the ends of the ship would produce.S0300A8HBK010 110. Additional definitions and exceptions apply. This subdivision normally takes the form of a centerline bulkhead dividing the inner bottom into port and starboard tanks. fire. Loss may result from flooding or structural failure of the hull girder. or baffle plates are sometimes used to reduce the free surface effects of rolling or shallow flooding but are ineffective against unchecked flooding. watertight boundaries is not always possible or advisable. While the entire structure of a ship is designed to resist some damage. at the expense of admitting a larger volume of floodwater. The bulkhead deck on most designs is the main or weather deck and may be either a continuous or stepped deck. weapons strike. certain features are incorporated into ships specifically to prevent loss of the ship when damaged. they carry some stresses.2 ft. from the keel upwards without limit. as an integral part of the hull. and fumes or gases. 2. width of 4. such as Hospital Ships and Troop Transports All other ships Withstand rapid flooding from a shell opening equal to 15% of length between perpendiculars at any point fore or aft Withstand flooding from an opening equal to 12. Protection of vital spaces against flooding. width equal to the lesser of B/5 or 37. Standards of subdivision for Navy and commercial ships are given in Table 113. A deckhouse is a lighter structure. at any point. from the keel upwards without limit. navigational. except to an aft machinery room Withstand solid flooding from a shell opening with length equal to the lesser of 0. production cost is increased. at any point between perpendiculars Withstand flooding from damage described above at any point except at an aft machinery room bulkhead Withstand flooding from damage described above at any point between main transverse bulkheads. Great Lakes dry bulk carriers Barges carrying very hazardous materials Damage to cargo and ship systems. even when a sizable reserve buoyancy Naval Ship Engineering Center Design Data Sheet. Requirements have transverse stability can be avoided by using transverse been simplified. 110. For the FFG7 Class ship shown in Figure 145. it is necessary to limit its extent to minimize the following: • • • Loss of transverse and longitudinal stability. smoke.1 Subdivision. firefighting. Ability to resist bow collision damage. Ability to resist spread of fire. or control spaces. communications. Offcenter flooding and its serious effects on 2 Title 46. Loss of reserve buoyancy. or use of wing tanks smaller than the adjacent centerline tanks. are normally designed to carry hull stresses. in most other types. including the intersection of a transverse and longitudinal bulkhead 1 compartment 2 compartments 110. grounding. deckhouses or superstructures may extend for most of the vessel’s length. Stability and Buoyancy of U. Subdivision requirements subdivision only. Additional transverse watertight bulkheads are spaced to permit the ship to remain afloat after a specific number of adjacent compartments. Ideally. Type Ship Standard of Subdivision Navy Ships (without side protection systems)1 Seagoing craft under 100 ft in length Ships 100300 ft in length Ships over 300 ft in length: Combatants and Personnel Carriers. in warships. especially in tanks. Deckhouses are not normally designed to contribute to overall hull girder strength.8 Superstructures and Deckhouses. weapon fragments. Ability to survive underwater damage. 110. but most modern ships follow a general pattern of transverse watertight subdivision. they occupy a small portion of the ship’s length. Tankers between 492 and 738 ft in length Tankers less than 492 ft in length Table 113. Ability to resist damage from stranding. In practice. Sills. For example. US Code of Federal Regulations (46 CFR). except on a transverse watertight bulkhead Loss of transverse or longitudinal stability can cause a ship 1 to capsize or plunge. and an inner bottom limits the spread of flooding. a ship should be able to sustain increasing amounts of flooding until it founders from loss of reserve buoyancy. The number of compartments that can be flooded without causing foundering is the ship’s standard of subdivision or standard of flooding. weapons control spaces and weapons mounts are often located on or in the superstructure or deckhouse. usually 1. Progressive flooding is defeated by carrying each watertight bulkhead intact from the bottom plating to a height above the expected flooding water level. Interference of subdivision with arrangements. is a ship’s primary means of resisting damage. They may house workshops or specialized machinery.495L2/3 or 47. Superstructures. from the keel upwards without limit.S. blast effects. or 3. the FFG7 Class frigate shown in Figure 145 can remain afloat if any 3 of its 13 major watertight compartments are flooded—it is said to be a 3compartment ship. or other means.74 ft. access and movement around the ship is hampered. Standards of Subdivision. that is placed on the hull rather than forming a part of it. and airborne contaminants. However flooding occurs. The degree of subdivision is therefore a compromise between safety and other requirements. 174 . called the bulkhead deck. A principal concern in many casualty situations is limiting flooding. The term superstructure is applied to a portion of a ship’s structure above the main or upper deck extending the width of the ship and forming an integral part of the main hull. Watertight bulkheads are normally carried watertight to a specified deck. Provisions for carrying liquids. are flooded. Features enhancing a ship’s ability to resist damage are described in the following paragraphs. Naval Surface Ships. Factors considered include the following: • • • • • • • • • Ability to resist battle damage. Subdivision. the main deck is the bulkhead deck. 1 Aug 75 remains. width of 30 in. In naval combatants and passenger liners. Complete avoidance of longitudinal for passenger ships are especially diverse. or compartmentation. Floodwater may be admitted to the ship by collision. cargo storage is complicated.9. These structures generally house accommodation. usually not extending the width of the ship.9. DDS0791.495L2/3 or 47.2 Flooding. A system of watertight decks.6 ft. seen in Figure 144. Some longitudinal subdivision is necessary to reduce free surface effect.9 Damageresistant Features of Ships.
and flooding is equal to or less than the standard of subdivision. intended to go "in harm’s way. on which damage control equipment and stations are located.S0300A8HBK010 Ships are assigned a minimum freeboard based on the reserve buoyancy required to sustain flooding to their standard of subdivision without foundering. The effect of offcenter flooding can be mitigated by constructing the wing tanks with volumes that are small compared to the center tanks or holds. as shown in Figure 146. This freeboard is measured from a margin line that represents the highest allowable waterline in a damaged condition. Sheer Defeating Progressive Flooding. along with an afterpeak bulkhead near the stern. These are alternately empty or liquidfilled to absorb the shock of underwater explosions. such as ship control stations or weapons spaces. no penetrations are allowed through the collision bulkhead. Sheer can prevent or delay progressive flooding through deck openings when trim is extreme. Doors and nonwatertight fittings in main transverse bulkheads are not permitted below the DC deck.4 Structural Damage. are designated and protected by watertight subdivision. Hull strength is addressed in greater detail in Paragraph 111.9. Watertight double bottoms are required in some classes of vessels to provide protection against grounding and limited protection against underwater weapons.000 pounds per square inch. 110. Naval ships. Additional vital spaces. Figure 144. reduced freeboard must be recognized as a loss of reserve buoyancy and damage resistance. is considered a vital space and is made watertight where feasible. Naval ships will usually have more extensive subdivision than merchant vessels. In such a case. 175 . Navy. FFG7 Transverse Subdivision. Load lines for cargo ships and tankers or limiting draft marks for warships are marked at a distance below the margin line corresponding to the required freeboard. Salvors may not be able to restore a ship’s required minimum freeboard. 110. and large combatants. The margin line is usually established near the bulkhead deck or a designated freeboard deck." incorporate additional damageresistant features in their construction. Doors through transverse bulkheads into shaft alleys are not allowed. Both naval and merchant ships use the damageresistant features previously described. The tank boundaries form a series of barriers that must be breached before major spaces are flooded.000 psi or greater). Certain features are incorporated into ships to isolate common or likely forms of damage. Effects of a Sill. In addition to armored decks and side armor. the ship will remain afloat at a waterline at or below the margin line after damage. SHIP WITHOUT SHEER SHIP WITH SHEER TRIMMED TO SAME DEGREE Figure 146. This stress level is often contingent on specified loading sequences and conditions. a collision bulkhead is required at about five percent of the ship’s length from the bow. Machinery spaces are segregated from the rest of the ship by watertight bulkheads that (1) protect the ship from intense machinery space fires. ore carriers. a salvage engineer may wish to calculate the standard of subdivision for the ship in its actual condition. Structural failure is resisted by the use of materials of consistent and known strength. a double hull. in effect.000 to 22. are fitted with underwater defense systems (also called side protective or torpedo protection systems) consisting of layered wing and bottom tanks. a damage control (DC) deck is designated. Remote operators for certain vital piping and electrical systems are located on the DC deck. A system of wing tanks combined with a double bottom produces. enclosing the propeller shaft penetration into the hull. and by building in reserve strength.9. This is particularly important if the casualty is to be towed some distance to safe haven. large combatants. such as aircraft carriers and battleships. or by keeping wing tanks filled at least to the waterline. If the load line or limiting draft mark is not immersed before damage. particularly in very large tankers or bulk carriers. Naval vessels often have multiple machinery spaces segregated by watertight bulkheads. common in tankers. although some naval auxiliaries are built to classification society standards. Wing tanks. A second collision bulkhead may be required in large ships.9.3 Likely Damage.S. Because the ends of the ship are more vulnerable to damage from collision or grounding. considerably less than the yield stress of shipbuilding steels (32. The damage control deck is located high in the ship and is usually covered. Ships’ scantlings are selected to result in bending stresses on the order of 15. as well as auxiliary machinery spaces located remotely from the main machinery rooms.5 Additional Features of Naval Ships. and (2) protect vital equipment located in the machinery spaces from flooding in other parts of the ship. The DC deck. fore and aft access is provided through watertight openings in the main transverse bulkheads. In all commissioned vessels of the U. limit flooding from damage to the sides. Combatants are built with a much greater degree of subdivision and greater reserve of strength than auxiliaries or merchant ships of the same size. MAIN DECK (BULKHEAD DECK) SECOND DECK (DC dk) AP 368 328 292 250 212 180 140 100 84 64 32 20 FP Figure 145. 110.
particularly those of the strength deck. Of principal concern are the compound bending and shear stresses resulting from the ship’s loading and wave action. as shown in Figure 147. or sagging. affecting small areas of plating or single stiffeners. Torsional stresses are also important. Differences in buoyBUOYANCY ancy and weight distribution cause longitudinal bending stresses and accompanying shear stresses. such as a hold or bulkhead.1 Stresses in Ships. Figure 147. Bending stresses are resisted by the longitudinal strength members. The concave deflection is called sag. – TERTIARY Secondary or Local – Affecting major substructures or definable areas of the hull. 176 . The resulting convex deflection is called hog or SAGGING hogging. secondary and tertiary stresses that may tend to either reinforce or cancel one another.1 Structural Stresses.1. Long waves can impose hogging or sagging conditions as shown in Figure 148. Deflections from Primary. • BUOYANCY The distinctions among primary. Bending stresses are normally greatest in the midships region of an intact ship. and Tertiary Stresses. Stresses may be divided into three groups: PRIMARY SECONDARY • • Primary or Structural Affecting the hull girder. like all structures. Hull Girder Bending. ends places the deck in compression and the keel in tension. 111. Ships.S0300A8HBK010 111 SHIP STRENGTH 111. The principal structural stresses are caused by the following conditions: HOGGING WEIGHT • WEIGHT Weight and Buoyancy Distribution. An excess of buoyancy in the midships region with an excess of weight near the ends of the ship places the deck in tension and the keel in compression. Secondary. The total stress on any portion of structure is the sum of primary. sheer strake and bottom. are subject to loadinduced stress and the resulting strains. and tertiary stresses are illustrated by the character of the accompanying structural deflections. Tertiary – Very localized. and can be severely aggravated by grounding in large ships. while maximum shear stresses occur in the quarter length regions. secondary. Simple beam theory is employed to predict ship responses to various conditions of loading by treating assuming the ship’s structure as a builtup box girder bearing an distributed load (weight of the ship and contents) and supported by a distributed reaction (buoyancy). An excess of weight in the midships region and excess buoyancy near the Figure 148.
etc.S0300A8HBK010 • Water Pressure. as shown in Figure 150. The distributed force of buoyancy. Racking stresses are highest on the corners of a ship’s cross section. floors. WATER PRESSURE • WEIGHT LOADS DEFLECTION (EXAGGERATED) • Figure 149. result if the ship strands on uneven or rocky ground. particularly the corner brackets. Racking is resisted by transverse bulkheads and frame ring. The unequal pressure distribution tends to bend side plating and transverse frames about a horizontal longitudinal axis. Large ships may sag transversely if stranded over a narrow width near the centerline. Racking. is resisted by the side and bottom plating stiffened by a network of frames. Water Pressure. DEFLECTION (EXAGGERATED) WATER PRESSURE WAVE PROFILE • Figure 150. Stranding changes the bending stress distribution in the hull girder by altering the buoyancy distribution and introducing concentrated loading along the bottom. Stranding. The transverse distortion is called racking and is resisted by shear stresses in the ship’s structure. Drydocking. but additional lines of side blocks are more effective. Transverse waves alter the water pressure distribution around the ship. Ships supported by a single line of drydock keel blocks will hog transversely. Racking. All weight loads are ultimately transmitted through the ship structure to be borne by water pressure. 177 . as water pressure. A cellular double bottom stiffens the hull against such hog. but naturally much less predictable. longitudinals. The differences in weight and water pressure distribution produce varying loads as shown in Figure 149. Point loads similar to those caused by docking blocks.
and contact explosions can cause severe and not wholly predictable loads on ship structure. Figure 151 shows some forms of local reinforcement. and kingpost foundations. such as padeyes. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. Bending moment is calculated by a double integration of the static load curve. breasthooks. Vibration from engines. Figure 151.1.. and are therefore strengthened to withstand blast and impact loads over much of their structure. Determine which structure in sections of interest is effective. Integrate the load curve to give shear forces. Secondary and tertiary stresses result from localized loads such as the following: • • • • Panting. Vibration. Statically balance the ship on still water or a wave. panting stringers. Similar measures are used to strengthen structure in way of fittings that transmit high loads. The hull is assumed to be a statically loaded beam that behaves in accordance with the theory of flexure (see Paragraph 23). 111.1. . Vibrationinduced stresses are resisted by local stiffening of areas in way of vibration sources. plating and bottom stiffeners are often heavier and/or more closely spaced than in the rest of the ship. such as machinery or cargo. In this pounding region. Impact and shock effects of airborne.3 Weapons Effects. beached. requiring local reinforcement to increase loadcarrying capacity. Local Strengthening.S0300A8HBK010 111. etc. Volume 3 (S0300A6MAN030). caused by uneven water pressure as the ship passes through waves. The geometry of portions of the hull or fittings may cause stress raisers. Pounding occurs when the bows of a pitching ship clear the water and come down heavily. winch mounts. Calculate bending and shear stresses in sections of interest. or dry docked ships). Local strengthening enables the ship structure to carry loads caused by large local weights.2 Longitudinal Bending Stress. The bending moment is a function of the shear force distribution along the ship’s length. 111. section modulus and location of the neutral axis for sections of interest. Integrate the shear curve to give bending moments. underwater.S.2 Local Stresses. Weapons effects are discussed in greater detail in the U. and deep floors to withstand panting loads. The downward loads on the beam are the weights of the component parts of the ship and any weights carried on the ship. Upward loads are the forces of buoyancy (and ground reaction or block reaction for stranded. The steps in the longitudinal stress calculation are: FREEEDGE STIFFENING FACE STRAP PLATE STIFFENING TRIPPING BRACKETS GUSSET DOUBLER PLATE MACHINERY FOUNDATION DEEP FRAME BILGE KEEL • • • • • • • • 178 Determine longitudinal weight and buoyancy distributions. Warships are constructed with this kind of loading in mind. The exact nature of this strengthening varies from ship to ship but generally consists of closer stiffener and bulkhead spacing than would be found in an equivalentsized merchant ship or auxiliary. principally near the bow and stern of a ship. Local Loads. Determine moment of inertia. which is in turn a function of the ship’s load distribution. crosssectional area distribution. causes stresses in various parts of the ship. Develop the longitudinal load distribution or curve. propellers. Pounding or slamming. Panting is an oscillatory motion of the shell plating. The foreend (and sometimes the after) structure is reinforced with a system of panting beams. panting frames. The magnitude of the longitudinal bending stresses in the hull girder is a function of the total bending moment. Pounding is most severe in fullbowed ships in the bottom structure in the forward quarter length of the ship.
It is not necessary for the buoyancy curve to have the same number of segments as the weight curve. the forebody (fb). shown in Figure FO3 and described in Paragraph 13.04y3 y2 = CB y3 y3 = Bpmb /Lpmb y4 = CB y3 y5 = 0.Lfb Lpmb B Tm Cm B pmb = 35 To facilitate summing weight and buoyancy Figure 152. This is graphically represented by superimposing buoyancy and weight curves. 111. Buoyancy ordinates multiplied by the adjusted appendage allowance plus one give adjusted buoyancy ordinates. Appendage allowances are discussed in Paragraph 14. offsets.1. The ship is first divided into three segments: the parallel midbody (pmb).S.08y3 = L . and carry them through subsequent calculations. that is.1 Load Curve. The complete drawing includes section scantlings.2. that is. or general plans can also be used to determine sectional areas by numerical integration. 179 .2L 5 b2 Lfb b1 FP AP L pmb = (1. When appendage buoyancy is unknown. appendage buoyancies can be added to the basic curve as rectangles or trapezoids. the ship must be statically balanced.6). curves to develop the load curve.002)L Lfb Lab = (1. The calculations in this handbook follow the intuitive convention that downward forces (weight) are negative and upward forces (buoyancy) are positive.b1 b3 = Lpmb b4 = Lab . Lines drawings. The areas under the curves represent total buoyancy and total weight. usually for full load. and Schlieffer developed a method of approximating the buoyancy curve for merchant and auxiliary hulls with a series of trapezoids. Format and content of longitudinal strength drawings for Navy ships are more completely described in Appendix B. and LCB and LCG should be within one foot of each other.2.3 Weight Curve.b5 b = 0.17CB)L y1 = 0.S0300A8HBK010 These steps are examined separately in the following paragraphs. A buoyancy curve based on ordinates taken from Bonjean’s Curves will not include appendage buoyancy. Navy ships.615 CB)L b2 = Lfb . Approximate Buoyancy Curve for FullBodied Ship. For U. similar to Figure 158. the buoyancy curve is often stepped. weight and buoyancy.5 percent. A uniform buoyancy distribution is assumed for the parallel midbody and represented by a rectangle.2. resulting in load curves that are predominantly positive over the middle portion for hogging hulls. As part of the regression analysis described in Paragraph 17. The load curve resulting when the two curves are summed will have the same number of segments as the curve with the most segments. 111. For the shear and bending moment integrations to close properly.11. The buoyancy curve will therefore follow the curve of areas.74CB . although it is convenient for all of the bounding stations for the curve with fewer segments to coincide with stations on the other curve. Figure 161 shows the load curve developed for Example 15. even though they are developed during the design of the hull girder. Amplifying information can be found in the Naval Ship Engineering Center Design Data Sheet DDS 1006. should be within 0.9. or any good naval architecture text. Buoyancy of the parallel midbody (Bpmb). The load on the hull girder at any point is the difference between the buoyant force and weight at that point.Lpmb . Boyd.186 . It is important to adopt sign conventions for the directions of forces and distances. as calculated by integration of the respective curves. for a number of stations along the ship’s length. Weight distribution tables or curves are often difficult to obtain. For a floating ship.2. Areas of sections are most easily obtained from Bonjean’s Curves. The magnitude of the buoyant force at any point is a function of the crosssectional area below the water line and the water density. A portion of the longitudinal strength drawing for FFG7 Class ships is reproduced in Figure FO4. bn) and heights of ordinates (yn) are calculated as shown in Figure 152. The still water buoyancy curve is developed by dividing sectional areas by 35 (cubic feet per long ton of seawater) to convert to unit buoyancy (tons per foot) and plotting these values as ordinates. The procedure for stepping a curve is described in Paragraph 14.61 . i. and predominantly positive at the ends for sagging hulls. Integrating the adjusted buoyancy ordinates should give a correct total buoyancy equal to total weight. and the afterbody (ab)..e. with their geometric centers in vertical line. approximated by a series of horizontal segments at a height corresponding to the mean buoyancy ordinate for that segment. y3 y4 y5 y3 y2 y1 b5 b4 Lab b3 L pmb b1 = (0. showing weight distribution. the appendage allowance divided by actual displacement. Final buoyancy ordinates are determined by an appendage allowance adjusted for the ship’s condition. the two areas must be equal. lengths of sections (Ln.0.10. and F5 demonstrate longitudinal strength calculations. F3. If known.1.2 Buoyancy Curve. 111. Porricelli. The method is reasonably accurate for fullbodied ships (CB > 0. a Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections drawing is prepared. Ordinates are plotted at the forward and after perpendiculars and the boundaries of the sections of the hull and connected by straight lines to form the buoyancy curve. a simpler and generally adequate solution is to assume that an appropriate appendage allowance (a fraction of fullload displacement) is distributed over the length of the ship. The forebody and afterbody are then divided into two sections each. Examples 15.
where loading may vary by compartment. The weight curve from a longitudinal strength drawing or other source must be corrected for the ship’s actual weight distribution. Segments are identified by the stations that bound them. for most ships. shear and bending moment curves. M AT LOCAL MAX B >W LOAD. If detailed weight curves are not available. When S is 0. plus one segment forward of the forward perpendicular and one aft of the after perpendicular (22 segments). A fundamental principle of beam theory is that at any point in an elastic beam: P = dS dx = d 2M dx 2 S = ⌠ Pdx and M = ⌠ Sdx = ⌠ ⌠ Pdx ⌡ ⌡ ⌡⌡ where: P S M = = = load shear bending moment W >B SAGGING SHIP B >W S = 0. The segments forward and aft of the perpendiculars extend from the perpendiculars to the ends of the ship and are not necessarily the same length as the segments between perpendiculars. S P AT MAX. Figure 153. . For cargo ships. The bending moment curve is developed by integrating the shear curve along its length. Weight distributions for a number of Navy ships are given in Appendix B. numbered from 0 at the forward perpendicular to 20 at the after perpendicular. The load and shear curves cannot be defined mathematically. and is maximum where shear changes sign. Several important relationships between the load. Shear is zero at the ends of the ship. act as checks on the completed curves: AP FP SHEAR. Bending moment is zero at the ends of the ship. it may be more convenient to segment the ship by compartments. the shear curve is therefore developed by integrating the load curve (the sum of the weight and buoyancy curves) along its length. Shear.. starting from either end of the ship. S is at an inflection point.13. M AT INFLECTION AP FP B >W HOGGING SHIP W >B B >W • • • 180 When P is 0. etc. tankers.2. Load. P Vertical shear at any section is the sum of the vertical forces to one side of the section. When P is a maximum. Weight distribution is assumed to be uniform within each segment. M P = 0. producing a stepped curve. including any major alterations (SHIPALTS). shear will be maximum near the quarterlengths and change signs near midships. so graphical or numerical methods are used to perform the integrations. 111. illustrated in Figure 153.S0300A8HBK010 Weight distributions for Navy ships are tabulated or drawn for 20 standard ship segments between perpendiculars. S = LOCAL MAX/MIN. Bending Moment Curve Relations and Conventions. S AT INFLECTION MOMENT. weight distribution can be estimated by one of the methods described in Paragraph 111. Often this information is not available and weight change estimates must be made until the weight distribution sums to the known ship displacement. S is a maximum or minimum and M is at an inflection point. M is a maximum or minimum.4 Shear and Bending Moment Curves. Bending moment at any section is the sum of force moments about the section. The total positive area under the shear curve should equal the total negative area for static equilibrium. as shown in Paragraph 14 and Appendix F.
For small errors in closing. use of fuels or other consumables. If the integrations close to zero. Following this convention. the sections of maximum shear and bending moment will also shift somewhat when integrating in the opposite direction. Other conventions may be encountered in ship design data. such as taking on or discharging cargo. but will not change the magnitude. once in each direction.S. and compare the results. along with taking downward forces as negative. Grounding. Navy longitudinal strength drawings disregard the sign of bending moments and shear forces and show all curves above the axis to save space. U.3. ballasting. Major fires which consume flammable materials. as appropriate. (3) Negative (convex downwards) bending moment.1 Changes in Weight Distribution. integrating in the opposite direction will reverse the sign of the ordinate at each station. Example 15 calculates still water bending moment and shear curves for an FFG7 hull.S0300A8HBK010 The load and shear curves can be integrated from either end. Such changes result from: • • • Waves. If the shear curve does not close. and LCG and LCB are not coincident. A useful convention is to integrate the load curve from left to right (from aft forward) to develop the shear curve. launching or recovering aircraft and boats. and is a means of estimating the error range of the calculated values. If the integrations do not close precisely. Weight shifts that significantly alter trim also affect the buoyancy distribution. 111. Changes in weight distribution generally result from deliberate actions. and the shear curve from right to left (from forward aft) to develop the moment curve. Spilled cargo.3 Variations in Loading. integrating in the opposite direction will change the magnitude of the shear and moment ordinates at each station. or shifting weights. It is sometimes useful to integrate each curve twice. Small errors in closing are unavoidable if the areas under the weight and buoyancy curve are not precisely equal. (2) Negative shear on the right side of the plot (forward). 181 . Any change in weight or buoyancy distribution will alter the load curve. Shear curves that are the mirror image of the convention described above are common and result when both shear and moment integrations are run in the same direction. Loss of structure or fittings. (2) Positive shear on the right side of the plot (forward). will result in shear and moment curves with the features shown in Figure 153: • For sagging hulls: (1) Positive shear on the left side of the plot (aft). Buoyancy distribution can change without an accompanying change in weight distribution. Weight additions or removals change total weight. but the ordinates near the ends of the ship should not be trusted. Each integration should close to zero at the end opposite the beginning. • For hogging hulls: (1) Negative shear on the left side of the plot (aft). and therefore affect total buoyancy and buoyancy distribution. 111. the magnitude of the shear and bending moment ordinates in the middle portion of the curve will be fairly reliable. Drydocking. Weight distribution can also be changed in a casualty by: • • • • Flooding. the curves are illustrated in Figures 162. This convention is useful because the bending moment curves superficially resemble a sagging or hogging hull. (3) Positive (convex upwards) bending moment.
Section areas are picked off as ordinates to a trial buoyancy curve. The total bending moment is simply the bending moment resulting from the load distribution at that instant. it is usually sufficient to examine only worstcase situations. portions of the wave profile will be steep enough that small errors in plotting will cause significant errors in reading sectional areas. The bending moment can be evaluated by adding to or subtracting from the still water buoyancy curve or by starting from scratch by superimposing a wave profile over the Bonjean’s curves to develop the buoyancy curve. STILL WATERLINE DECREASED BUOYANCY INCREASED BUOYANCY WAVE PROFILE SECTIONAL AREAS BONJEAN’S CURVES WAVE PROFILE Figure 154. Maximum midships bending moments result from the two situations shown in Figure 148. Alternatively. The wave profile is laid over the Bonjean’s Curves.1L wave. if the horizontal scale is too great. with either the crest or trough at the midship station. When the final position of the ship on the wave is determined. To ensure that shear and bending moment integrations close. based on a trochoidal or sinusoidal wave form with length equal to the ship’s length (L).S0300A8HBK010 111. successive calculations are made. The horizontal scale of the ship profile (not the same as the Bonjean’s Curve area scale) is not critical. Trochoidial Wave Form. although Navy design practice still uses the 1. Ships are designed to carry the stresses imposed by these conditions. they are used here to illustrate the procedures for analyzing waveinduced stresses in ships. Standard wave heights were formerly taken as L/20. An infinite number of waves are possible. and LCB is within one foot of LCG. When using Bonjean’s Curves in the profile format. 182 . but should not be more than twice the vertical scale. as shown in Figure 154. that is. the ship must be statically balanced on the wave. moving the wave up and down and trimming it until a position is found where buoyancy is within one percent of weight. buoyancy distribution changes constantly in proportion to the variations in draft along the ship’s length as successive wave trains pass.2 Waveinduced Buoyancy Distribution. to determine drafts at stations. Although artificial. R h r L r2 2R EQUAL AREAS LINE OF CENTERS r2 2R STILL WATERLINE INITIAL PLACEMENT OF WAVE ON HULL PROFILE Figure 155. or series of profiles. shear and bending moment integrations are conducted as for the still water condition. WaveInduced Buoyancy. but with √ steady increases in ship length. √ these assumed conditions have proven adequate for design work. these formulae yield unrealistically large waves. the waterline must be adjusted until weight equals buoyancy and the center of buoyancy is in vertical line with the center of gravity. as appropriate. and then 1. The salvage engineer who finds it necessary to evaluate the strength of a casualty exposed to wave action should base his worst cases on observed or expected waves and the actual loading and structural condition of the casualty. Total bending moment is sometimes spoken of as the sum of a still water bending moment and a waveinduced bending moment.3. If the first guess does not match buoyancy and weight within limits. on the ship profile. the section areas are converted to unit buoyancies to plot a precise buoyancy curve that is used to determine the mean unit buoyancy over each segment of the ship’s length. drafts at each station must be determined by interpolation so the section areas can be read from the curves. which is integrated to determine buoyancy and LCB. Buoyancy and weight curves are then summed to calculate the load curve. More recent ABS construction rules specify different formulae for different ranges of length. A waveinduced buoyancy curve is developed by superimposing a wave profile. In all but the stillest water. As before.1L as ship size increased. When the rosette format Bonjean’s Curves are used. in practice. this is most easily accomplished by plotting the wave profile to the same vertical and horizontal scales as the Bonjean’s Curves on a piece of tracing paper. rosette format curves can be traced onto a profile of the ship. instead of using a horizontal waterline. the area under the buoyancy curve must equal the area under the weight curve.
it is important to plot the curve carefully to minimize error. both hogging and sagging moments will be higher when based on sinusoidal waves.4 Curve Scales. For a 1. r is expressed as h/2. For a block coefficient of 1. the vertical moment scale is one unit = WL/200 foottons.1L √ sine wave bending moment is 6 percent less than trochoidal for hogging and 2 percent higher for sagging.46. S. and ordinates calculated at even increments of φ are plotted at evenly spaced stations. L = 2πR. Navy has adopted the following scaling criteria for longitudinal strength drawings like that shown in Figure FO4. If increments of φ are set equal to 180 divided by the number of segments. shear. the line of centers of the trochoidal wave should be placed 0. For a ship with block coefficient of 0. the standard sine wave bending moment is 11 percent higher for hogging and 9 percent higher for sagging. r = L/40. 111. the line is placed below the still waterline). and 2R = L/π. The area under a sagging trochoid is less than the length multiplied by half the height.0.785 h 2 L 1. so the horizontal scale is one unit = L/20 feet. giving no solution. Vertical scale for weight.1L wave. The shear curve is drawn so that one unit of ordinate represents two square units of area under the load curve. the vertical shear scale is one unit = W/30 tons. The mean heights of the weight and buoyancy curves are three units for the full load condition. maximum hogging moments will be lower and maximum sagging moments higher than moments based on trochoidal waves of the same length and height. as they are not horizontalscale dependent. It is sometimes convenient to draw the load. For an L/20 wave. and load curves is one unit = W/3L tons per foot of length. so there is no fixed φ interval that will match the x interval to station spacing.600 L wave 20 r 2R 2 = = = = 0.1 L wave For manual calculations. For fullbodied ships. The bending moment curve is drawn so that one unit of ordinate represents three square units under the shear curve. The full wave form is developed in 180 degrees. and: L 2 40 L π L2 π 1. buoyancy. the U.00196 L As an initial estimate. buoyancy. L will cancel out of the ratio. and: √ √ 2 r 2R = h 2 2 L π = πh 2 4L = 0. The area under a trochoid is equal to that of a rectangle with the same length and an upper boundary formed by a line r2/2R below the line of centers. 183 .55L. such as 30 degrees. One square unit of area under the weight. Base length corresponds to the length between perpendiculars. simplifying determination of section areas. Sinusoidal waves are somewhat steeper than trochoidal waves. and bending moment curves on the same plan. the wave ordinate stations correspond to the Bonjean’s curve stations. Coordinates for the trochoidal wave form are developed from the relationships: x = L φ sinφ + h 360 2 1 cosφ 2 y = h The relationships are not linear. as shown in Figure 155. To standardize drawing size and simplify manual integration. • • • • • • Base length for all curves is 20 units. If r is expressed as 0.600 L πL 1. One square unit of area under the shear curve represents L/20 × W/30 = WL/600 foottons.S0300A8HBK010 A trochoid is the curve traced by a point inside a circle as the circle rolls along a horizontal line. the standard 1. For finelined ships.00196L above the still waterline. x and y coordinates are determined for values of φ from 0 to 360 at convenient increments. so the line of centers (see Figure 155) must be placed above the still water line for buoyancy to equal ship’s weight (for a hogging wave. Since the circle describing the trochoid makes one revolution in the ship’s length. or load curves represents L/20 × W/3L = W/60 tons. it is often simpler to use sinusoidal waves (y = Lsinφ). Because the ordinates to the trochoidal wave do not fall on Bonjean’s stations.
111. The shadow area of an opening is the area forward and aft of the opening between converging lines drawn tangent to the radiused corners at a slope of one transverse unit to four longitudinal units.S0300A8HBK010 Navy drawings use one inch as the base unit. whichever is greater. From beam theory. or at a distance equal to 30 times the plating thickness from the edge of the opening. are considered ineffective. As load shirking by panels with a widthtothickness ratio greater than 70 is likely. lines bounding shadow areas should be drawn tangent to points outside the area of wrinkled or upset plating. excluding openings and ineffective shadow areas forward and aft of openings or other discontinuities. strength decks. Shadow areas adjacent to discontinuities such as the ends of longitudinal bulkheads. and distances from the neutral axis Figure 156. including longitudinal framing and other connected structures within this area. moment of inertia in in2ft2. Only the net crosssectional area of longitudinally continuous components of longitudinal strength members. 111. All structures. The distance from the neutral axis to the outer fibers is designated c. the relatively complex cross section of a ship is another matter. It is best to convert tons per square inch to pounds per square inch for comparison with material strengths (normally tabulated in psi) and to avoid confusion between long. and metric tons. cannot be assumed to contribute to longitudinal strength. as shown in Figure 156. or that are inadequately joined to the overall structure.1 Effective Structure. are included when calculating the moment of inertia. and inner bottoms. bending moment is exSECTION AA pressed in foottons. The term I/c is sometimes calculated separately and called the section modulus (Z or SM). tripping and other forms of load shirking. it is more convenient to make all the integration calculations in the base units without scale conversions. Ineffective Shadow Zones at Discontinuities. 184 . When there is no requirement to plot curves on the same plan. as shown in Figure 156. Calculating the moment of inertia for a simple girder is straightforward.5. Judgement must be used to determine which elements of the ship’s structure effectively contribute to longitudinal strength. short. the bending stress (σ) at any point is given by: My σ = I where: 1:4 SLOPE A LONGITUDINAL BULKHEAD BELOW DECK OPENING A M y = = I = bending moment at the section in question vertical distance from the neutral axis to the fiber (element) in question moment of inertia of the section in question about the neutral axis TRANSVERSE BULKHEAD BELOW PLAN VIEW SHADOW IN DECK DECK OPENING SHADOW IN DECK This relationship shows that the maximum tensile and compressive stresses will occur in the beam elements furthest from the neutral axis. contribution of unsupported plating panels should be limited to 70 times the thickness. are bounded by lines with a 1:4 slope. Substituting: σmax = Mc M = I Z EFFECTIVE BULKHEAD SHADOW IN BULKHEAD STRENGTH DECKS 1:4 SLOPE BRACKET NONSTRENGTH DECK TRANSVERSE BULKHEAD If. For openings caused by damage or with sharp corners. as is common. but any convenient unit or multiple can be used. Material not structurally continuous for at least 40 percent of the length of the ship about the section being examined is assumed to be ineffective.5 Section Modulus. in feet. the calculation yields bending stress in long tons per square inch. Elements that are subject to buckling.
etc. Moment of inertia about the keel (IK) is then: IK = where: IK a y ay2 i = = = = = moment of inertia of section about the keel. ft = Σ(ay2)/Σ(a) 185 . then: k2 = = h2 12 = 402 12 = 133. in2ft2 moment of inertia about the keel. in2ft2 area of individual section element. ft4. is calculated by summing second moments of area (ay2) of individual elements about an arbitrary axis. After the elements to be included have been selected. i = ak2 y y h g bh 3 (bh) h 2 = 12 12 = ah 2 12 REFERENCE AXIS To obtain i in in2ft2.926) = 31. the units of moments of inertia of individual elements are consistent with the units of ay2. in2ft moment of inertia of individual section elements. cm4. a must be given in square inches. 133. rather than the in4. Moments of inertia (i) of elements with significant vertical dimensions are added to the summed second moments of elemental areas. Moment of inertia can then be calculated from the definition of radius of gyration. in2ft2 = Σ(ay2) + Σ(i) total area of individual section elements. Moment of Inertia for Inclined Plates.926 ft2 5 i = a k 2 = 54 × (0.S0300A8HBK010 111. customarily used in other branches of engineering. It is most convenient to sum moments about the keel (some authorities prefer to use an assumed neutral axis). moment of inertia. The moment of inertia about the neutral axis is found by the parallel axis theorem: INA = IK Ad 2 where: INA IK A d = = = = moment of inertia about the neutral axis.. I.2 Calculating Section Modulus. in2 = Σ(a) height of the neutral axis above the keel. in2 height of centroid of section element above the keel. and height in feet.33 144 = 0. If the inclined flatplate section shown in Figure 158 is 5⁄ 8inch thick.33 in2 h k2 = 12 h2 g i = ak2 Figure 157.5. ft second moment of area of individual section element.25 in2 ft2 8 Since the neutral axis of the ship’s section passes through the centroid of the section. 54 inches wide. Moment of inertia of a rectangle is equal to bh3/12. in2ft2 (ay 2) (i) Measuring areas in square inches and vertical distances from the axis in feet gives second moments of area (moments of inertia) in in2ft2. Individual moments of inertia for inclined or curved plates with significant vertical dimensions are determined by calculating the square of the radius of gyration (k) as shown in Figure 157. and k in feet. and inclined so that h is 40 inches. where h is the height and b the breadth of the rectangle: i = If area is given in square inches. height of the neutral axis above the keel is found by dividing the first moment of areas by the sum of areas of the section.
0’ ABV BL 6 x 6 1/2 x 13. USUALLY WITH TWO VERTICAL CUTS L4 "B"20. section modulus (INA/c) is easily calculated. A vessel’s cross section is not normally uniform throughout its length.0#T 25 5 x 4 x 6.S0300A8HBK010 Once INA and height of the neutral axis are known. In an intact ship of uniform cross section. 5 x 4 x 6.75’ 15.4 P L HY80# 7.2# P L L 16 L 15 L 14 15 6 x 4 x 8.S.00#T 6 x 6 1/2 x 13.500 P HY80 L SHELL DOUBLER 2’ 6"x0. L SHELL DOUBLER "C"15.5’ 5.75# P L 10 7 x 6 3/4 x 15#T L 10 18 x 7 1/2 x 50#IT 8 x 7 x 22. but the scantlings at each section are selected by the designer to keep bending stresses within acceptable limits based on the anticipated bending moment.5# 30.K.5#T L9 L8 L7 L6 L5 L3 L1 35.00#T 5 x 5 3/4 x 13. The neutral axis is not usually equidistant from the top and bottom flanges of the hull girder (strength deck and keel). Frigate Hull Section at Station 10.75 P M.0’ ABV BL 6 x 4 x 7#T FEET C L 8’ 2’ 71/2" x .3# 30 SHADOW 25.25# P HY80 L NOTE: I . The summations required to find height of the neutral axis and moment of inertia can be methodically performed in a tabular format.00#T 20 21.3# P HY80 L 5 9 x 7 1/2 x 25#T 25 x 13 x 162# IT CVK 0 B L P F.00#T 4 x 4 x 5.4# P L 2’ 9" x 0.65# SHADOW SHADOW 10. L CUTS Figure 158. Table 114 is a sample section modulus calculation for the ship section shown in Figure 158.0#T 20. maximum bending stress occurs at the location of maximum bending moment.7# L2 "A"38. 186 . so each flange has its own value for c and therefore Z.T SHAPES ARE FORMED FROM W SHAPES BY CUTTING LOWER FLANGE FROM WEB.0#T L 13 L 12 L 11 "D"12.75" P HY80 L SHELL DOUBLER L P HY80 L 20 L 19 L 18 L 17 "E"20.
‡ i of vertical web only 187 .23* 4.05 18.25 51 × .82 3.000 21.T L18 .T L5 .50 46.869.13 598.75 × 15# 18 × 7.63 6.000 17.14 26. Outbd 2nd Dk Plating.000 26.T 2nd Dk Girders.96 101.45 596.25 2.d INA/c t d INA/c b = = = = = = = = 8. less shadow zones Mn Dk Plating.13 52.5 30 × .000 3.5 × .577.42 214.155.88 63.16 513.19 2994. Outbd (4) .75 22.33* 18.5# 9 × 7.T L3 .I .500 24.99 15.00 15.60 1062.63 72.92 13782.04 1923.T L14 .000 0. Inbd (7) .T Mn Dk Grdrs.75 6 6 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 × × × × × × × × × × × × × 6 × 13# 6 × 13# 4 × 6# 4 × 6# 4 × 7# 4 × 7# 4 × 8# 4 × 8# 6.38 106.00 531.T L12 .75 3.75 d = Σ(ay)/Σa Σ(ay 2) + Σi IK .00 604.33 24.33 7.31 12.44 916.46 50.88 527.500 6.66 1543.750 2.70 89.33 16.50 47250.37 40.33* 8.T Flat Keel (1/2) Totals 5 × 4 × 6# 5 × 5.26 11.81 47.T CVK (1/2) I .76 6369. (10) .25 43.06 50.5# 8 × 7 × 22.50 419.S0300A8HBK010 Table 114.63 6.75 519.76 34.50 24.5 × 50# 8 × 7 × 22. Inbd.5 × 13# 7.750 19.T L2 .T L11 .T L6 .87* 9.01 163. Section Modulus for FFG7.T L16 .58 307.01 = = = = Notes: Areas and centroids for Tshapes taken from AISC Manual for Steel Construction.03 215549.63 31.45 659.521. upper "E" Doubler.T Bottom Longitudinals L7 .500 16.31 19.5 × 13# 6.75 31.88 2682.69 + 971.25 12.50 145.875 16.49 7.500 1.00 7.63 7.39 15.00 15800.613 20.99 ft 10.375 84 × .40 37.23 13.500 4.884.85 ay2 (in2 ft2) 10865.89 45.38 6.50 25.(598.72 7 × 6.24 14.81 in2 ft IK for halfsection = INA for halfsection = INA for full section = cDK ZDK cK ZK = = = = 215.85 0.T L17 .13 12348.04 36.87 57712.75 33 × .500 28. Station 10.40 309.51 191.25 × .44 .5 × 25# 9 × 7.T L1 .42* 0.3125 162 × .91 405.50 1.18‡ 971.08 2.33 36.577.000 30.549.95 y (ft) 29.04 11.77 637.521.000 1.875 28.88* 0.82 1.Ad 2 2INA for halfsection Depth .88 149.01 ft 216.85/598.57 0.25 93 × .95 = 15.80 64.08 2.375 93.01 ft 163.00 9285.750 9.75 1575.49 835. Component Dimensions a (in2) 12.T L19 .69 h or k* (ft) i = ah2/12 or ak2* (in2 ft2) Mn Dk Girders.T L9 .613 26.5 × 13# 6.500 4.T Mn Dk Plating.000 26.746 30.T L10 .82 4. less shadow zones 2nd Dk Pltg.42 4.000 1.75 × 15# 7 × 6.75) × 0.155.500 11.27 40.82 3.90 in2 ft2 14.000 21. lower "A" Doubler Side Stringers L20 .88 24.500 7.000 7.63 55.250 17.22 133.3125 84 × .875 1.75 29.75 = 216.26* 2.95 in2 ft2 163.52 16.81 5622. 8th Edition.82 3.63 2.95) 30 .56 267.625 (225 . Outbd "E" Strake "D" Strake "C" Strake "B" Strake "A" Strake "E" Doubler.90/15.T L8 .T L15 .38 28.5 × 13# 6.32 in2 ft 10.155.500 0.95 × 15.77 1.T L4 .82 3. Inbd.75 × 13# 4 × 4 × 5# (246 .75 12.77 2.36 3.60 6.08 3.012) = 2(81.36 2.89 34.00 441.500 22.073 ay (in2 ft) 366.90/14.16 10793.09 790.82 3.65 23.00 11162.5 × 13# 6.5 × 25# 25 × 13 × 162# 14 × .75* 2.5 96 × .15.985.50 139.000 14.T L13 .500 0.31 220.90) × .42 10.18 111.44 in2 ft2 81.00 596.250 5.750 12.45 8989.75 44.
along any horizontal axis BB can be adequately approximated by the expression: SQ τ = INA b where: τ S Q a y INA b = = = = = = = = shear stress shear at the section in question first moment of area about the neutral axis of the area of effective structure above axis BB ∑ay area of individual structural element vertical distance of individual structural elements from neutral axis moment of inertia of the section about the neutral axis total width of material resisting shear along axis BB. Q.6 Shear Stress. is normally twice the shellplating thickness (to account for both sides). Shear Stress in the Hull Girder. Shear stresses result from vertical shear. as shown in Figure 159. is determined by summing the products of areas and their distances from the neutral axis in the same manner that Σay about the keel is determined in the section modulus calculation. For salvage calculations. The material width. 111. but this method requires the evaluation of indefinite line integrals. along with appropriate conversion factors. Shear stress distribution can be modeled by the theory of thinwalled sections. those that extend from the strength deck to the bottom of the ship and are firmly anchored at both top and bottom. i. caused by longitudinal bending and racking. If moment of inertia and first moment of area are in the customary units of in2ft2 and in2ft.S0300A8HBK010 Q = FIRST MOMENT OF AREA OF STRUCTURE OUTSIDE AXIS WHERE STRESS IS DESIRED τ B B τMAX NEUTRAL AXIS VERTICAL SHEAR HORIZONTAL SHEAR b = TOTAL THICKNESS OF HULL PLATING AND EFFECTIVE LONGITUDINAL BULKHEADS I NA = MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT NEUTRAL AXIS S = SHEAR ON SECTION CROSSSECTION SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION τ = ISQb NA τMAX = I MAX NAb SQ Figure 159. The first moment of area. each element contributing to the total. τ. shear stress. as explained in the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers’ Principles of Naval Architecture. b. and may be too tedious for field calculations.e. The shear force is distributed over the section. Consistent units must be used. a conversion factor of 12 must be applied to obtain stress in units of force per square inch: τ = SQ 12 INA b 188 .. caused by the uneven force distribution along the ship’s length. and horizontal shear. in Moment of inertia is obtained as part of the section modulus calculation. plus the thickness of effective longitudinal bulkheads.
Shear is normally determined in long tons. shear stress is not usually zero at the deck edge. where Q is maximum: SQmax τmax = 12INAb where: Qmax = first moment of the area above neutral axis about the neutral axis Although shear stress in the deck is very low. as shown in Figure 160. 189 . are equal on all four faces of a plane element. giving shear stress in long tons per square inch. S LONGITUDINALS SHEAR STRESSES SHEAR WRINKLES IN PLATE PANELS Figure 160. shear stress.240 pounds per long ton. Shear stresses act in pairs. the expression does estimate shear stress in the middle portion of the side shell (where it is normally of greatest concern) accurately. The form of the expression implies that shear stress in any section is zero at the deck and keel and maximum at the neutral axis. like bending stress. Shear Stress. and may approach zero near the centerline. shear yield in plating panels is evidenced by diagonal wrinkles. and are maximum on planes parallel and perpendicular to the shear force.S0300A8HBK010 SHEAR STRESSES SHEAR ELEMENT TRANSVERSE FRAMES SHEAR FORCE. is converted to pounds per square inch by multiplying by 2. Because the paired stresses tend to change the angle between faces of an element and lengthen the diagonal.
The resulting trim would be: Provisions and Stores Dry provisions Frozen Chill Clothing.79 0.0 fwd t = W(BGL)/MT1 = 3.3 59.224.748.969.8 ft abaft midships 770 fttons From Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections Drawing (FO4): W = 4. The discrepancy cannot be resolved further without additional data.0 29. The most probable items that would be included for the longitudinal strength drawing but deleted from the operational full load are saltwater ballast and wasteholding tanks that would be presumed empty for the departure condition.3 fwd 115.04 in by the stern This is consistent with the tabulated drafts. Small Stores Ship Stores General Stores Deck Gear Flammable Liq & Paints Bosun Storeroom Medical Stores Misc Storerooms Potable Water 52923W 53081W 53082W 8.748. Holding and Transfer (CHT) Tank Fullload Displacement = 3. There is a discrepancy of 273 tons between the fullload weights as given by the DC Book (3.6 percent.53 ft abaft midships 3. Sequence 6 Fuel/Ballast: Tank Weight tons lcg fm Comments midships ft 161.71 2.10 1.9 9.9 92.75 0. Weight Ordinates 1 in.S0300A8HBK010 EXAMPLE 15 STILL WATER BENDING MOMENT CALCULATION This example illustrates the detailed still water strength calculations for an FFG7 Class ship.60 0.77 4.13 1.0 fwd 145.8 Fuel/ballast tanks.8 59.00 16.83 tons 2. Weight Area 1 in2 Shear Ordinates 1 in.23 3.83 tons Scale Factors: Length 1 in.62 19.62 Oily Ballast: 51003F 51004F 52501F 52502F 9.224.9 29.94 tons W = 4. The longitudinal strength drawing is prepared for the most extreme loading conditions.7 Contaminated Oil Settling Tank Waste Oil Retention Tank Oily Waste Water Holding Tank Sewage Collection.88 7.83/3L 4.33 2.15(2.88 8.23' (LCF 23. It is therefore likely that items of weight were included that are not included in the operating fullload departure condition described in the DC Book.224.89 . It is not necessary to constuct a corrected fullload curve that would then be corrected for the actual loading condition.4 36. Examples 45 through 412 in the U.5 fwd 4.0 141.1 Saltwater ballast tanks listed as empty for full load Clean Ballast: 5340W 51160W 53281W 53282W 32. including steps to reconcile inconsistent data.618.47 feet (5.83 tons). Volume 1 (S0300A6MAN010) illustrate simplified calculations for a simple barge.1 ft abaft midships 23. b.04 53.0 fwd 20.51 94.16 9. Shear Area 1 in2 Moment Ordinates 1 in.872.0 fwd 20.53 .19 0.79 ft abaft midships) 3748.41 tons 140.02 5.83 .84 68.51 5.15 tons 5.1 fwd 176.46 1.S.23': Total 254.83(408)/200 = = = = = = 20.26 1.1 tons or 4.01 = 12.33 4.750 tons 3. a.4 aft 115. above are deducted at the same time.49 9.79 = 18. Navy Ship Salvage Manual.66 1.5 aft 190 .95 4.79 1. Assuming the same to be true for the DC Book.06).53 feet aft of midships. For an FFG7 Class ship in the 1/3 Consumed Stores loading condition.47 9. Listed weights are differences between weights of equal volumes of fuel and seawater Tf Ta TLCF W LCG LCB MT1′ = = = = = = = 14' 8" 15' 8" 15. filled with fuel for departure full load.83/60 4.79 tons From Curves of Form (FO2) for TLCF = 15.951.224.84 4.83/30 4.37 3. calculate: Deck and keel bending stresses for stations 3 through 17 Maximum shear stress From the Damage Control Book (DC Book) loading summary (Appendix F): 1/3 Consumed Stores.89 The difference between the corrected longitudinal strength drawing displacement and the fullload departure displacement from the DC Book is: 3.48 81.06 ft abaft midships 769. LCB and LCG must be aligned vertically.37 2. Initial Weight Curve for 1/3 Consumed Stores condition (3. This discrepancy must be resolved as completely as possible before proceeding.38 0.224.51 2.3 92.951.224.00 7.8 fwd 13. it will be assumed that the actual centers of gravity and buoyancy are on a vertical line 5.83(408)/600 4.73 7.8 80.5 fwd 137.88 fttons 8. 2.969.3.8 fwd 115.47)/769.58 2. The Curves of Form give LCB for the ship with 0 trim.1 141.56 19.3. The corrections to the fullload curve described in Paragraph a.224. = = = = = = 408/20 4.94 = 3.37 0.0 aft 68.31 11.65 fttons The weight curve is created by deducting the weight differences between the fullload condition and the actual condition from the fullload curve at their locations. The two corrections can be made simultaneously.47 9.61 1. In constructing the weight and buoyancy curves.15 tons) W LCB LCF MT1" = = = = 3.21 2.79 tons) and the longitudinal strength drawing (4. However.31 3. and to balance weight and buoyancy. the initial trim arm (BGL) is 2.21 44. at equilibrium.4 ft 3.224.254.98 0.45 tons/ft 70.29 3.01 fttons Miscellaneous Holding Tanks: 51320F 51640F 51700F 41700W 19.951. An examination of the fullload condition and tank capacity tables from the DC Book reveals the following potential weights. Examination of the DC Book loading summaries for the full load and 1/3 consumed stores conditions reveals the following weight differences: Item Full Load Weight tons 1/3 Consumed Weight tons Difference tons lcg from Midships ft Resolution of discrepancies in raw data The data from the DC Book and Curves of Form are in good agreement.67 4.
62 1.00 0.02 0.00 1.21 3.01 3.3 fwd 92.49 1.53 ft aft of midships).64 9.09 6.62 15.56 2.58 0.50 18.99 4.00 1.93 3.428 570 860 306 380 41 Lever f(M) s × ƒ(V) ft4 0 220 524 2. 0.72 39.880 836 1.00 0.3 aft 1.00 0.55 2.50 7.84 51.0 fwd 37.1984 7.52 15.21 0.30 0.12 15.00 1.60 22.00 203.536 1.88 56.620 5.4 fwd 29.21 0.12 32.57 2.9 aft 33.40 1. the area curve is integrated to compare total buoyancy and LCB with total weight and LCG from the weight curve.75 0.47 2.32 15.0 aft 40.46 0.00 32.59/53.4/35 = 3684.33 0.76 3.35 1.55 2.04 0.04 17.diff dl/3. 0.99 4.00 0.27 0.50 13.00 1.98 10.00 1.50 15. and dividing the distributed weight difference by the scale factor (3.05 0.963) = 208.120 14.704 21.95 2.5 fwd 51. and dividing the unit buoyancy by the scale factor (3.62 1.12 65.00 1.0 aft 33.50 12.01 4.49 0.47 15.30 0.95 1.49 f(V) y×m ft3 2 220 262 820 540 1.49 1.00 0. Initial Buoyancy Curve for 1/3 Consumed Stores condition (3.00 1.15 0.00 1.00 1.460 2.49 Length l in.90 43.22 15.60 92.00 0.076 1.40 1.50 17.60 32.12 3.50 5.25 0.836 12.45 in.10 3.748.31 2.963 Miscellaneous Tanks 51320F 51700F 51640F Total: 0.50 11.97 557.11 23.12 68.33 23.95 3.59 Lubricating Oil 32722F 32782F 32862F 32084F 32361F 32362F 32928F Fuel Oil.07 15.28 ft aft of midships LCG of the curve is more than one foot from the known LCG (5.96 2.00 1.00 39.99 4.28 ft fm FP = 212.35 2.04 6.17 15.220 820 193.07 0.60 Area y×l in2 0.3 aft W = area × scale factor = 53.49 1.41 in fm FP LCG = centroid × scale factor = 10.58 = 10.21 3.95 0.14 24.56 0.12 9.59 2.96 1.00 0.7964 10.35 1.92 1.28 83.748.21 1.05 2.48 38.57 2.35 1.40 1.50 4.61 0.03 5.86 2.948.70 0. in2 0.67 14.000 1.50 2.95 0.56 2.49 1.37 1.28 3.21 3.77 14.50 6.76 3.520 4.6 .7 fwd 32.88 2.82 14.60 0.35 1.32 0.00 32.50 9.00 0. so the curve must be adjusted to move the LCG forward.88 2. The integration is performed by Simpson’s rule on 21 stations: Station Draft T ft 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Sums 14.86 2.58 lcg from FP Moment at midordinate lcg × area in.05 1.42 15.35 0.18 2. Drafts at each station are calculated assuming no hog or sag. c.28 23.00 1.00 0.61 4.01 0.0 aft 6.000 24.40 1.00 0.50 3.32 0.87 14.55 2.26 0.9 aft 46.15 tons) The buoyancy curve ordinates are calculated by determining section areas for each station from the Bonjean’s Curves (FO3).02 15.22 65.92 14.93 3.01 1.7 aft 77.4 Difference Old ord .20 0.8 fwd 59.94 0.00 1.00 1.76 3.95 2.4) = 212.00 1.17 1.07 0.18 66.54 21.36 0.50 1.904)/(18.00 0.58 2.50 20.00 0.712 942 1.05 4.00 0. tons tons/ft in.14 21.37 2.951.61 1.9 aft 89.57 15.24 21.45).00 0.95 3.6 Totals Ordinate y in.95 10.00 0. distributing the weight difference over the length of the segment.12 32.43 33.12 3.62 1.60 33.8 aft 59.70 0.34 0.18 0.50 19.29 4.15 0.304 758 1.91 0.29 4. Before calculating ordinates from the section areas.31 70.15 0.30 3.40 01 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 910 1011 1112 1213 1314 1415 1516 1617 1718 1819 1920 2020.67 Ordinate Multiplier (Section Area) y m ft2 2 55 131 205 270 326 379 428 471 499 515 519 500 470 418 357 285 215 153 95 41 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 18.508 7.92 2.93 3.97 15.76 3.11 3.50 14.62 1.68 1.12 3.45).48 39. 1.53 0.15 0.85 tons centroid = moment/area = 557.6 ft aft of midships 191 .27 150.54 1.203.50 2.24 0.29 53.28 .27 15.76 3.11 0.11 3.57 2.11 3.48 40.15 1. Storage 51003F 51004F 51161F 51401F 52501F 52501F Fuel Oil.03 0.948.00 0.204 = 8. The integration is carried out in a tabular format: h V W LCB = = = = = 20.88 2.00 63.25 4. in.6 ft fm FP 208.963) = 128.09 0.41) = 3772.50 4.4/3)(18.08 35.22 33.8 aft 3.9 aft 85.14 0.204 = 4.02 0.69 28.440 11.4 ft3 V/35 = 128.4 (h/3) × ƒ(V) = (20.84 0.00 1.37 15.300 22.45 17.50 16.S0300A8HBK010 Segment Item Full Load Weight tons 1/3 Consumed Difference Weight tons tons lcg from Midships ft 1.4(193.08 23.00 1.08 2.996 1. Service 52042F 32402F 32926F 52013F JP5 53440J 29.12 2.70 89.60 4.08 2.38 12.37 1.18 0.26 14.00 0.00 2.95 0.24 tons h∑ƒ(M)/∑ƒ(V) = 20.00 0.81 8.86 2.420 9.70 0.61 4.3 fwd 75.14 1.94 0.63 0.60 33. The new weight curve ordinates are calculated in the following table: Segment Old Weight Dist Load Ordinate New Ordinate Ordinate Difference wt diff/20.59 2.00 1.40 01 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 910 1011 1112 1213 1314 1415 1516 1617 1718 1819 1920 2020.548 1.0 fwd W1/3 = 3.90 4.95 0.00 1.84 39.79 .15 The ordinates for the weight curve are calculated by consolidating the differences by weight segments.50 8.00 1.37 1.59 2.29 2.904 s ft 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1. dividing the area by 35 to convert to unit buoyancy (tons per foot).56 2.72 14.50 10.64 = 3.58(70.00 0. The initial buoyancy curve is developed for comparison before correcting the weight curve.50 3.57 2.030 2.06 3.03 4.08 3.41(20.16 0.00 0.01 3.24 0.00 1.35 0.9 aft 89.76 3.00 1.160 6.23 0.6 The weight curve is integrated on these ordinates to determine total area (weight) and longitudinal position of the centroid (center of gravity).01 3.
90 0.63 2.83 5.12 4.50 9.480 23.040 1.00 1.30 50.36 1.948)/(19. Curve segments are identified by the bounding stations in the first column.38 0.50 8. 8.50 2.568 15.53 ft fm FP = 210.00 1.51 2.00 1.34 4. The area total is the area up to the forward station of the segment.00 1.4 ft fm FP 210.50 7.95 4.41) = 3766.80 3.83 12.948 s ft 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Sums W = area × scale factor = 53. the following section areas were determined: Station Ordinate Multiplier (Section Area) y m ft2 0 54 134 204 274 329 379 430 475 510 524 524 509 479 429 369 299 229 167 109 59 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 LCG of the initial weight curve is moved forward by transferring strips of uniform thickness from segments in the after half of the curve to the corresponding segments in the forward half.16 3. The shear curve is integrated along its length from forward aft (top to bottom).284 1.54 6. After several iterations.90 2.45 in.4 .00 1.00 1.85 42.49 = 10.49 lcg from FP Moment at lcg × Area Midordinate in.00 1. The area for each segment is the ordinate multiplied by the segment length (1 inch for all but the two end segments).97 3.00 1.29 53.580 4. The thickness of the strip is determined by trial and error.55 3.29 1.204 = 6.45 1.77 3.49 192 .096 1.97 3.32 in fm FP LCG = centroid × scale factor = 10.216 24. LCB is then moved aft by transferring a strip of uniform thickness from the forward half of the curve to the aft half. The shear ordinates in the sixth column are determined by dividing the areas in column 5 by two.36 1.72 3.056 12.4 ft abaft midships Now that the total buoyancy and location of LCB are both acceptably near the known values.54 4.41 1. The load ordinate in the fourth column is found by subtracting the weight ordinate (column 2) from the mean buoyancy ordinate (column 3).831. 0. Shear and Bending Moment Curves Ordinates to the load shear and bending moment curves are determined by a continuous tabular calculation.72 3.831.41 1.45 1.70 0.05 3.37 36.40 10.06 39.40 21. This error is undesirable.54 13.50 19. ordinates were determined and integrated as follows: Segment Ordinate y in.00 1.48 1. Bending moments for use in the bending stress calculations are determined by multiplying the moment ordinate by the scale factor.140 9.53 .75 17. The shear ordinates are carried into the following table and written in the second column.32(20. The load curve is integrated along its length by keeping a running total of the area under the load curve in the fifth column.50 5. The corrections are therefore weighted towards the center of the curve.82 2.40 01 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 910 1011 1112 1213 1314 1415 1516 1617 1718 1819 1920 2020.012 22.387) = 131.29 13.97 551.53 ft aft of midships The adjusted weight and buoyancy curves are shown in Figure 161.00 1. Total buoyancy is corrected first by gradually increasing the area curve ordinates until the buoyancy (area under the curve divided by 35) equals total weight.15 3.57 14.15 0.54 8.68foot separation between the centers of gravity and buoyancy is excessive and must be corrected.33 2.60 Area y×l in2 0.66 1.11 1.34 4.53 2.27 5.22 38.6/35 = 3.42 36. The shear areas are divided by 3 and written in the fifth column as the moment ordinates.15 3.50 3.50 12.86 0.16 3.50 11. The ordinates of both curves must be adjusted to bring the centers of gravity and buoyancy to within one foot of each other and within one foot of the point 5.50 16.11 1.05 3.60 2.97 14.90 f(V) y×m ft3 0 216 268 816 548 1.50 13.180 199.00 0. next to the appropriate station (column 1).86 0.40 14.00 1.00 1.65 fttons/in.69 2.048 2.27 2.97 14.00 1.56 3.45 1.57 14.22 17.49 Length l in.4/3)(19.22 3.53 feet abaft midships. The resulting bending moment curve is shown in Figure 162. 1. e.51 tons centroid = moment/area = 551.448 2.53 2.387) = 210.908 12.40 1. and by reducing some ordinates in the after half to lower total weight slightly.90 39.94 31.50 14.41) to properly integrate the curve and to determine the section of maximum bending moment. There is a greater probability of error in reading the section areas for the middle stations because the Bonjean’s Curves for the middle stations slope more gently than those near the ends.4 (h/3) ƒ(V) = (20.68 24.51 2.72 3.916 858 1.50 18.018 1.29 1.60 2.00 1.50 15. the buoyancy curve ordinates are calculated: Station 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Section Area ft2 0 54 134 204 274 329 379 430 475 510 524 524 509 479 429 369 299 229 167 109 59 Unit Buoyancy B = A/35 tons/ft 0.192 6.90/53.00 1.360 10.90 1. The mean shear ordinate for each segment is written in the third column. It is necessary to interpolate the x intercept (station 10.90 2.69 Ordinate B/3.00 1.040 7.80 3.316 758 1. The shear curve defined by these ordinates is shown in Figure 162.720 950 2.S0300A8HBK010 d.00 1.15 0.572 6.26 10.33 23.17 3.10 39. The thickness of the strips are determined by trial and error.06 2.204 = 6. The 3. Adjusting Weight and Buoyancy Curves The weight and buoyancy curves disagree by 88.38 56.618.49(70. the running total is written in the fourth column. In keeping with the convention of integrating the load curve from left to right.50 17. but probably tolerable.69 12. the area total is run from bottom to top in this table.600 18.22 4.476 598 916 334 436 59 19.00 0.54 3.95 4.6 Totals 0.766.012 8.63 2.93 4. h V W LCB = = = = = 20.14 3.97 3.4) = 210.50 4.50 6.00 1.6 ft3 V/35 = 131.82 2.61 tons on total area.50 1.50 20. 1. After several iterations.00 1.83 9.83 7.00 1.4(199.387 Lever f(M) s × ƒ(V) ft4 0 216 536 2. in2 0. The weight ordinates are written in the second column.30 0.548 12.50 10.17 3.21 0.08 10.66 1. The mean buoyancy ordinates for each segment are written in the third column.62 tons h∑ƒ(M)/∑ƒ(V) = 20.
02 15.90 3.08 1.40 0.02 19 0.373 21.59 ckeel ft 20.17 3.62 0.462 1516 2.19 Since the ship is hogging.32 1.093 0. in2 1.738 45 3.53 2.681 112. and is maximum at the neutral axis for any section.732 2020.49 0.29 14.15 2.11 0.29 1. and Bending Moment Curves for FFG7.77 0.75 0. moment of inertia (I).36 2.717 2.416 161.09 2.10 14. in. so the stresses are in long tons per square inch.787 30.41 0.00 12.93 0.62 1 0.308 23 1.70 0.18 10 0.217 23.59 2.65 0.79 2. 10. and plating thickness (b).55 0.29 2.32 15.128 10.25 3.97 1.41 3.78 0.74 3.42 16 1.397 3.307 1.60 2.S0300A8HBK010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Segment Weight Mean Load Cum.477 170.368 1011 3.33 0.99 1.83 14.18 2.91 1.96 1.19 0.90 14.554 18.4 5 4 3 SCALE IN INCHES MOMENT SHEAR 5 4 3 2 1 0 LOAD 1 2 3 4 5 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 AP 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 STATIONS 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 FP Figure 162.378 9.07 1.36 1.72 1.40 5 1.362 1617 2.26 0.737 9.86 0.879 17.57 0.24 2. Bending stresses are calculated using the tabulated moments of inertia from the Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections Drawing (FO4): Station Moment M fttons 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10.20 1.822 13.601 5.362 6.11 2.737 9.62 6 1.823 30.85 2.788 1.59 3.000 0.97 0.745 6.217 27.52 3.82 1.59 8 1.14 1.00 0 0.63 0.625 26.w Load Area/2 in.233 56 3.879 17.531 13.553 135.568 67 3.629 3.72 4.31 1.994 102.18 1.32 1.15 1.22 3. Area Shear Ordinate Buoyancy Ordinate under Ordinate w Ordinate b .04 2.25 1.368 10.56 2.44 3.16 2.47 1.28 0.28 0.314 5 4 3 SCALE IN INCHES BUOYANCY 5 4 3 2 2 1 0 WEIGHT 1 0 2 1 0 1 AP 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 STATIONS 8 7 LOAD 2 1 0 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 FP Figure 161.678 78 2.58 18. Moments of inertia for adjacent stations and other stations of high shear are equal to or greater than that for station 7.87 11.46 σdeck Mc/I tons/in2 0.29 0.53 0.54 2.280 167.123 138.308 1.88 2.33 1. 193 .35 0. Deck and keel bending stresses are plotted in Figure 163 (Page 194). g.12 9.99 4 1. and Load Curves for FFG7.19 0.482 4.4 0.02 2.43 0.04 2.00 0.267 159.88 2.62 1.59 1.46 0.623 1.58 3.27 15.407 4. the deck is in tension and the keel in compression.64 2.89 2.700 9.147 2 3 4 Shear Mean Area Station Ordinate Shear under Ordinate Shear Curve in.14 1.4 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 6.18 15.33 2. Bending Stresses 1 5 6 Moment Moment Ordinate Mom.73 0. The first moment of area about the neutral axis and shear stress for station 7 are calculated in a tabular format as shown on the following page.554 18.182 10.6 0.744 29.51 3.787 30.92 2. Stresses are converted to psi by multiplying by 2.120 0 0.62 0. Still Water Load.44 17 1. Maximum shear occurs at station 7.899 30.49 0.06 2.601 INA in ft 2 2 cdeck ft 15.92 2.35 18 1.165 156.17 1.32 13.597 1314 4.217 27.56 14 1.19 0.55 2.4 0.98 0.07 2.61 1.084 57.76 1.467 69.85 3.70 2. Sideplating thickness at the neutral axis is constant between stations 3 and 17 (information taken from the section drawings of the Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections drawing .74 0.19 0.15 0.85 2.95 4.21 15.59 15.22 3.07 σkeel Mc/I tons/in2 1.23 0.623 34 2.09 15.41 0 0.378 910 3.667 9.63 1.45 15.531 13.678 6.78 1.18 0.17 2.744 29.597 10.526 1.47 2 0.92 1.09 11 0.128 1112 3.02 0.66 0.23 16.80 4.41 15 1.066 89.462 7.823 30.295 30.00 0.482 1718 1.05 4.12 2.240.51 15.700 9.48 0.182 1213 1.67 2.68 3 0.31 0.667 1415 3.78 1.307 1920 1. All weight and buoyancy forces were given in long tons.6 0. Buoyancy.13 2.49 0.770 130.899 30.67 0.38 15.72 1.70 10.34 1.822 13.06 10.68 14.01 1.86 2.92 3.16 14.012 01 0.625 26.738 2.000 10.45 4. Maximum shear stress can therefore be assumed to occur at or near station 7 at the neutral axis.40 0.397 1819 2.44 20 0. Note that the maximum bending stresses do not occur at the section of maximum bending moment.55 0.69 3.69 1.20 2.76 0.78 3. b in. fttons 0.11 1.57 3.19 0.32 0.732 0.39 12 0. in.60 3.34 0.57 2.803 89 2. Shear.384 136. in2 1.53 15.373 21.07 20.84 19.188 τ = S(Q) 12 INA b Shear stress is a function of shear force (S).37 15. Curve in.76 0.803 8.87 9 0.48 0.15 2. Weight.34 1. Ord Shear x 8618.27 17.85 2.36 0.74 7 1.61 1.444 110.14 1.64 0.40 0.95 2.62 14.66 0. Maximum Shear Stress 110.23 1.217 23.25 0.not reproduced in this handbook).568 4.83 0.27 15.46 f.79 1.99 1.233 3.093 12 1.295 30.65 Area/3 in.15 0.13 13 1.147 0.36 14.
52.875 1.S0300A8HBK010 Component Dimensions in.97 6.96 270. the depth of sections is increased and bending stresses at the "corners" may be increased.125 4.67 1.25 3.85 39. Stresses in Inclined Ships.712. TONS/IN2 Qhalfsection = Qwhole section = INA b S τ ∑ay = 2.5 13. as shown in Figure 164.370 737.11 10.33') "D" Doubler 30 x . Still Water Bending Stresses for FFG7.66 13.875 8.1875 Plating.A.750 264.79 7.33 1.856.4 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 7 6 5 4 3 STRESS. a in2 y ft ay in2ft Mn Dk Girders 5 x 4 x 6# (12) 2nd Dk 4 x 4 x 5# Girders (11) Mn Dk Plating.67 1. can be resolved into Mcosθ about the old (horizontal) neutral axis and Msinθ about the centerline of the ship.45 2856.67 1.4 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 17 16 15 14 13 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 7 6 5 4 3 STRESS.25 Inbd Mn Dk Plating.123 (from Longitudinal Strength and Inertia Sections drawing) = 2 × plate thickness @ NA = 0.360 psi 11 10 9 STATIONS KEEL Figure 163.375 Outbd 2nd Dk 202.38 1.66 6. INA = ICL = 194 .2) = 5.312 239.995 432.33 1. Each component produces stress as if it acted independently.375 "C" Strake above N. and the total stress at some point P.856.76 31. with coordinates (x.500 91. 192 x .77 19.3125 (16.7 Bending Stress in Inclined Ships. TONS/IN2 11 10 9 STATIONS MAIN DECK 10. 84 x .625 2.5 tons/in2 = 1.312 82.250 22. The bending moment.5 x .25 Outbd "D" Strake 105 x .y) distance from the old neutral axis to the point in question distance from the centerline to the point in question moment of inertia about the old neutral axis moment of inertia about the centerline My cosθ INA Mx sinθ ICL Y X P Y N NEU T AXI RAL S HORIZONTAL X θ O 0 D OL RAL UT IS NE AX N C L Figure 164. M.61 48.2 in2ft 2(2.83 = 255. is: σt = where: σt y x = = = total bending stress at (x.93 26.y).370 484.5 x .4 in2ft = 130.93 15. For a ship heeled to an angle θ.73 4.16 37.13 6.625 in.00 15.54 10. the new axis of bending is parallel to the water line. 111.80 2.625 11. If a ship is inclined.750 9.75 Side Stringers L20 6 x 4 x 7# L19 6 x 4 x 7# L18 5 x 4 x 6# L17 5 x 4 x 6# L16 6 x 4 x 7# L15 6 x 4 x 7# L14 6 x 4 x 8# Totals 15. 84 x .062 64. Inbd 2nd Dk Pltg.803 x 140. = 1.38 10.67 1.100 240.5 × 2.64 13.240 = 3.2 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 17 16 15 14 13 12 10.61 tons = S(Q)/12INAb = 1.88 22.50 11.50 15.
The stress that any material can withstand without failure is a function of the properties of that material and the definition of failure.1 Failure Definition. as shown in Figure 164. as such deformation in components can alter stress levels in other components in unforeseen or unpredictable ways. φ. the degree of load sharing among components will define system load limits.9. but many salvage evolutions are onetime events. The limiting stress values define limiting loads for components. Plastic behavior may be acceptable in components subjected to inline. so reduced factors of safety must often be accepted. and reduce bending stresses at the center of the deck and bottom. Use of an appropriate factor of safety keeps stresses well below the failure point and allows for manufacturing defects and inconsistencies in loading. Each situation must be examined to determine acceptable stresses and loads. There is therefore no need to sum first moments about an arbitrary axis to locate the neutral axis. tensile loading where elongation will not cause interference with any other components. 111.2 Factors of Safety.8 Combined Stresses. the deck edges and the bilge.9. Plastic deformation is often considered failure because of the discontinuous behavior of the material as it yields. The bending (tensile or compressive) and shear stresses in a ship or other beam combine to form the principal stress at any point.S0300A8HBK010 Since the section is not symmetrical about its new bending axis. but the general effect is to increase bending stress at the corners of the section. Safety factors are specified by various regulatory agencies. Fracture is an obvious and final form of failure. or unacceptable extents of deflection or elastic deformation can also be considered failure. The presence of shear in the hull girder distorts the sections so that the conditions on which simple beam theory are based are not strictly fulfilled (see Chapter 2 for an explanation of basic beam theory). so that limiting stress values for that component can be set. The consequences of failure must be considered and precautions taken. It can be shown that: s (s σ) = τ2 where: s σ τ = = = principal stress at any point simple tensile or compressive stress at the point in question shear stress at the point in question This relationship does not solve for s so iterative or trial and error methods are used to determine principal stress. This does not mean that salvors can disregard safety factors. The angle. Calculating ICL is somewhat simpler and shorter than calculating INA because the incremental second moments are taken about a known axis (the centerline). In salvage it is not always possible to use a standard safety factor. i. 195 .9 Acceptable Stress Levels. and must be calculated. This effect is appreciable only when the ratio of length to depth is small. y1) referenced to the centerline and the old neutral (horizontal) axis. Distances from the centerline are scaled from section drawings. the neutral axis is not parallel to the waterline (horizontal) but is inclined to it by some angle φ. 111. Analysis of this problem is beyond the scope of this book. Plastic behavior or excessive deflection/deformation should be carefully examined. only the incremental second moments of area for one side need be summed.e. A reduced safety factor represents an increased chance of failure. 111. 111. In many engineered systems. Plastic failure in ship hulls is unacceptable because it unpredictably alters load responses. between the new neutral axis and the horizontal can be found from: INA ICL tanθ = tan φ If the point farthest from the neutral axis has coordinates (x1. maximum bending stress in the section is: σmax = My1 cos θ INA Mx1 sinθ ICL Tabulated section moments of inertia about the centerline are not normally available to the salvage engineer. This alters bending stress distribution across the section from that predicted by beam theory. deflection or deformation of a component in excess of certain limits interferes with the operation of the mechanism and is considered failure. Failure of a given component must be defined accurately. depending on intended use of systems and components.. The deformation may render the component unsuitable for continued use. Maximum bending stresses in an inclined ship may be 20 percent greater than when the ship is upright. the moment of inertia is twice the sum for one side. Permanent or plastic deformation. For intact sections.
Wrought iron is no longer produced in the United States. lowalloy) or number. with yield stresses in the 35. Corrosionresistant steels (CRES). Copper and its alloys. Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP). or complex castings. Highstrength steels are difficult to weld and cut. propellers.000 psi. Aluminum. Table E15 correlates steelplate thickness to weight per square foot. because of their high cost. Wrought iron is more malleable and corrosionresistant than mild steel. The hardness and density of wood vary with species and water content. are often used for the major strength members of larger merchant hulls to provide the required strength with lighter scantlings. mild steel can be assumed to have a yield strength of about 30. Unless otherwise specified. Shipbuilding steel meeting ABS and Navy specifications has a yield stress of not less than 32. and submarine pressure hulls are frequently fabricated of highstength steels. Because of their resistance to oxidation.20. Strength varies depending on the orientation of the glass fibers and plastic resins used. Because of aluminum’s low density. The thickness of plate so manufactured will be slightly less than assumed by dividing the weight by 40. as sheathing over wooden hulls and in joiner bulkheads. are used in piping systems. corrosionresistant steels are considered nonferrous metals.S0300A8HBK010 111. Iron weighs 480 pounds per cubic foot. Wrought iron studlink chain is found occasionally. Glass Reinforced Plastic is used in the hulls of small craft and some mine countermeasures ships. etc. Wood is used in the construction of mine countermeasures ships and small craft.000 psi. The ultimate or yield stresses of many materials vary depending on whether tensile. although some alloys have yield strengths as low as 20. This is an important factor in salvage operations.000 psi. depending on composition. the salvor may use any of them in onsite repairs or fabrication of salvage systems. Although certain copper alloys are very strong. in the form of rolled plate. HSLA80. aluminum alloy members are lighter. It is also frequently used as a patching material for other materials. monel. is the most commonly used shipbuilding material.45. are used extensively where corrosion or appearance are important factors. Steel weighs approximately 490 pounds per cubic foot.. but was formerly used in place of steel in ship construction. Plating thickness is often specified by weight per square foot. Green wood contains varying amounts of water as sap. than steel members of the same strength. quarterinch steel plate is called 10pound plate. compressive or shear stress is experienced. In addition to encountering these as components of a ship. 196 .3 Common Materials.000 .. and landing craft. the number specifying the nominal yield stress in thousands of pounds per square inch. most are stronger in tension than in compression. the decimal fraction is often dropped when naming steel plate.000 psi. Copper and Copper Alloys. main deck stringers and bottom girders. 1inch steel plate is called 40pound plate. wood absorbs water in humid climates or when immersed. such as brass. i. where components may be loaded in ways other than those anticipated by the designer. and coppernickels. Intermediatestrength steels. HY140. Steel. aluminum is often used in superstructures to reduce topside weight.e. In the United States. and nearly as strong. sometimes called stainless steels. along with concrete or other materials. such as sheer and garboard strakes. so a 40. The mechanical properties of commonly used materials are given in Appendix E. Aluminum alloys used in shipbuilding have yield stresses in the range of 12.000 70. The yield stress of pure aluminum is about 5. in piping systems.000 psi. and may be encountered in older ships. structural shapes and plates for general use are usually manufactured to American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) Standard A36. so 1inch iron plate weighs exactly 40 pounds per square foot.9. except on mine countermeasures ships. The most commonly used shipbuilding materials are: • • • • • Steel and Iron. HY80. Strength and other properties vary widely.000 psi. These steels have been called hightensile (HTS) or higher strength steels by classification societies to avoid confusion with truly highstrength steels. but bulkier. etc. boats. rolled or forged structural shapes. etc. "HSLA" (highstrength.000 psi range. Low magnetic signature alloys are sometimes used on mine countermeasures ships. Aluminum is used extensively in small ships. they are seldom used as structural members or fittings. This practice can sometimes lead to confusion—steel plate and shapes are sometimes fabricated to dimensions specified by weight per area or linear dimension.8pound plate is approximately 1inch thick.000 . The strength characteristics of wood vary with species and type of stress. HY100. Highstrength steels are designated by an "HY" (high yield).000 psi and an ultimate stress of 58. but some alloys have yield stresses as high as 78.000 psi. and fittings where corrosion resistance or low magnetic signature are required.. bronze. Wood. In common usage. Major loadbearing members. and are difficult to cut with oxygenfuel or oxygenarc cutting equipment. requiring a tensile yield strength of not less than 36. all species are much stronger against normal stresses than against shear. Cast iron is used occasionally for complex shapes not subject to tensile loads.
4 3.. The station coefficient method. in.1 5.3 17. ksi Maximum deflection. Deflection is determined by double integration of the curve of bending moment divided by EI. Stranded on one pinnacle (hogging) – deflection at 34 ksi Stranded on two pinnacles (sagging) – deflection at 34 ksi 046 408 47 30 0. Lack of detailed ship data or time for rigorous calculations may necessitate the approximation of all or part of the strength calculations.3 11. Navy.7 66. CONTAINER SHIP (1400 TEU) Ship Type: FFG7 TAO 187 VLCC Characteristics: CB LBP. A straight line is drawn between the ends of the second integral curve. ft Deflection conditions: Full Load Maximum stress.3 1.9 90. a salvage engineer does not usually calculate hull deflection unless unusually extreme loadings are contemplated and the degree of hull deflection may affect salvage work or conditions. The curve is integrated from left to right to determine the ordinates to the first integral curve.6 14. Hull Girder Deflection Determination. and still water or wave bending moment.1 5.4 2.7 17. i. Hull Deflection.4 Note: Positive stresses indicate tension. in. SECOND INTEGRAL DEFLECTION AT B FIRST INTEGRAL AP xB B __ M EI FP DEFLECTION AT B Figure 165.6 20. Herbert Engineering Corporation.8 7. negative stresses compression From Hull Deflection Versus Bending Moment Study for Supervisor of Salvage. 5 March 1991 197 .3 23.6 2. and sometimes E vary along a ship’s length. ksi Maximum deflection.9 13. Less accurate. 111.e. Table 115 gives stresses and deflections calculated for four different ships in various conditions.10 Hull Girder Deflection. Since I.0 5.3 18. ft Depth.7 42. The following paragraphs describe methods to estimate weight distribution. as shown in Figure 165. but is applicable to only three ship types at present.12 Weight Curve Approximations. The vertical separation between the straight line and the second integral curve at any station is the deflection at that station. deflection is assumed zero at the fore and after perpendiculars. Ballast Maximum stress.1 17.7 10. ft Beam. ksi Maximum deflection.87 1050 175. There are a number of empirically derived approximations for weight distribution.11 Approximate Strength Calculations. is probably the most accurate. none of which is equally applicable to all ship types.5 50 0.5 Stresses and Deflections: 5.0 27. and girder stiffness. 111.3 8.2 10.4 11. which is again integrated from left to right to determine ordinates to the second integral curve. U. Hull girder deflection is a function of the fourth integral of the load curve with respect to ship length. Full load w/hogging wave Maximum stress.S.2 29.5 2.0 20. but more generally applicable methods are presented in the following paragraphs.5 0.56 650 97. Table 115.5 15. section properties.6 6.2 11.49 673 105. in.S0300A8HBK010 111. the straight line in the deflection plot corresponds to a straight line connecting forward and after drafts in a floating ship.2 4. indicated by the product of moment of inertia (I) and modulus of elasticity (E). The hull deflection of a stranded or damaged casualty is readily observable. a first estimate of stress can be obtained by comparing a casualty’s deflection with the stress corresponding to similar deflections in ships of similar form and size. Observed deflection is a rough indicator of hull stress. presented below.3 10. As shown in Figure 165. M/EI is calculated at several stations to construct an M/EI curve.
01793 8. Station Coefficients.51 0.021114 0.5 0.022542 0.5 0.025243 0.021352 0.023068 0.54 0.022542 0.5 0. Variable weights (cargo.5 0.023472 0. This method was developed as part of the PouricelliBoydSchleiffer regression analysis discussed in Paragraph 17 and provides a means to approximate lightship weight distribution of three types of merchant hulls: Table 116.024942 0.024942 44.58 0.020387 0.022542 0.021114 88.024942 0.018245 0.010676 99.518 1717.020201 0.022542 0.022542 0.023068 0.521 2020.12.015142 0.023068 0.5 12.5 0.022542 0.016963 0.038513 77.5 0.022542 0.024942 0.57 0.025321 4.038845 0.055409 0.020052 0.56 0.engine room and accommodations threequarters aft from Ship B – Container ship with forward and aft accommodations Ship C – Tanker with engineroom aft FP Osn AP FP BREAKBULK CARGO SHIPENGINE ROOM AND ACCOMMODATIONS THREEQUARTERS AFT FROM FP • The hull steel weight is calculated or estimated by deducting weights of machinery.021352 0.020875 0. CSN.016496 C 0.024942 0.512 1111.012377 0.59 0.615 2020. Station Coefficient Weight Curves.53 0.5 14.550 0.024942 0. The bare hull weight distribution is estimated by one of the methods described in the following paragraphs.018919 0.5 11.023068 0. Station coefficients (CSN) from Table 116 for the appropriate ship type are used to determine the weight ordinate (OSN) for each half segment: OSN = CSN W1s where: Wls = lightship weight The weight ordinates are plotted as shown in Figure 166 to develop the lightship weight curve.032612 0. 111.021516 0.025321 5.511 0.024942 0. propellers.028169 0.S0300A8HBK010 111.052172 0.021834 0.024942 0.025243 0. Tanker with engine room and accommodations aft.022157 0.022542 0.014333 0.017493 0.510 0. The breakbulk cargo ship has a segment forward of the forward perpendicular and the tanker and container ship each have segments aft of the aft perpendicular.020875 0.023068 0.1 Station Coefficient Method.5 0.039536 6.5 0.520 1919.033252 0.022542 0.01793 0. • • The length between perpendiculars (LBP) is divided into 20 basic segments.023199 0.513 1212.014333 0.018991 0. Station A AFT 20.02476 0.023068 0.022349 0.022668 0.022831 0.022542 0.5 0.519 1818.55 0.515 1414.019522 0.038845 0.024942 2.022542 0.2 Bare Hull Estimates. Container ship with forward and aft accommodations.022542 0.013051 FWD FWD Ship A – Breakbulk cargo ship .5 18.015049 0.514 1313.023068 0.023068 9.023068 0.5 13.024942 0.022157 0. and superstructure from the lightship weight. flooding.024942 0.021516 0.5 0.021606 0.022542 0.024942 11.024942 0.017975 0.028025 0.5 15.021834 0.016338 • Breakbulk (general) cargo ship with engine room and accommodations threequarters aft of the forward perpendicular.053453 0.5 16. For ship types other than the three mentioned above. The deducted items are added at their locations to complete the lightship weight curve.12.5 19.024942 22.024942 3.024942 33.5 10.016289 0.5 17.041076 0. etc.024942 0. Osn AP FP CONTAINERSHIP WITH FORWARD AND AFTER ACCOMMODATIONS • Osn AP • FP TANKER WITH AFT ENGINEROOM Figure 166.022157 0.022542 0.022542 0.) are added as rectangles or trapezoids at the appropriate station for the ship’s actual load condition.020875 0.040774 0. 198 .017604 0.015807 CSN B C AFT Station A CSN B 0.025321 55.023068 0.024942 00.022542 0.516 1515.517 1616.022542 0.023068 0.023068 0.019560 0.017399 0.5 0.034267 66. the lightship weight curve is approximated in three steps: 1010.52 0.024942 0.013692 0.020875 0.022542 0.024942 0.043701 0. or by the methods described below.024942 1.006303 0.029616 0.042736 0.034267 7.020387 0.
1955 AND MANUFACTURERS DATA Weights of machinery and outfits can sometimes be obtained from the ship’s information book (SIB). Machinery weight for commercial vessels can be estimated very approximately by use of the "power density" factors taken from Figure 167. condensers. the variable weights of fuel. stores. boilers. CV 5060 pounds/SHP Because of their high speed and correspondingly powerful machinery. ballast.. CA DD. POWER DENSITY LB/SHP 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 DIRECT DRIVE DIESEL NUCLEAR STEAM TURBINE REHEAT STEAM TURBINE GEARED DIESEL COMBINED DIESEL AND GAS TURBINE GAS TURBINE REGENERATIVE 2D) k2 k2 = = = 20 4 6 8 10 12 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 SHP RATING OF PROPULSION PLANT (THOUSANDS) COMPILED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES. etc. Machinery Weight. Values taken from the curves in Figure 167 include the weight of main propulsion units. Total machinery weight in Table 117. HARRINGTON. all piping. generators. the weight of machinery of naval combatants is a large portion of the total weight of the ship. etc. operating and Figure 167.S0300A8HBK010 After the distribution of the hull weight of the ship has been estimated. BB. propellers. bearings. Machinery dry weight for different types of combatants can be taken from Table 117. stacks. MARINE ENGINEERING. CL. TAGGART. switchboards. water in boilers. Weights of steering gear. ladders and gratings in the machinery spaces. SCHÖNKNECKT. technical manuals. and piping. specialized vessels will include items not fitted on ordinary ships. FF. There is no standard definition of what is included in the term machinery weight.0027 for welded construction 0. and pumps. Machinery Weights for Combatants.0558 for riveted construction or. deck machinery. engines. dredge machinery. aircraft. so figures given in ship’s data must be investigated to determine what items are included. INCLUDING SHIPS AND SHIPBUILDING OF TOMORROW. shafting. machinery weight will be about 10 percent higher than the values from Figure 167. 1980. are added by superimposing rectangles or trapezoids on the curve at their locations. boats. feet weight coefficient 0. and piping outside the machinery spaces are not included. cargo. LÜSCH. Examples are the refrigeration plant on a refrigerated cargo ship.0433 for welded construction 0.0030 for riveted construction weight coefficient 0. ltons length between perpendiculars. CG. WH ≈ L (B where: WH = L = B D k1 = = = = = hull weight. CG (gas turbine) 3540 pounds/SHP 2730 pounds/SHP 2025 pounds/SHP 199 . Hull steel weight for commercial vessels can be estimated by the two relationships shown below: W H ≈ L B D k 1. crew and effects. additional pumps and generators on salvage and service vessels. Emphasis on machinery weight savings during design results in lower weight per horsepower than in the average commercial vessel. floors. In ship types that require particularly rugged or reliable machinery. Different makes of diesel engine of the same horsepower will vary in weight by as much as 50 percent. feet molded depth. and refrigerating and steam heating systems for a normal vessel. feet molded beam. 1983. SCHELZEL & OBENHAUS. Machinery weights are subject to variation. or manufacturers’ data. FF DD. depending on the ship type and service. or larger numbers of common items. ammunition. SHIP DESIGN AND CONSTUCTION.
360 14.875 2.495 35. 9 661’ LPB. 13 Kts.150 SHP. D’Arcangelo. 16.40WH / L 1. 2 ’tween decks.746 5.282 2. Stam.200 passenger.000 SHP.421 17.255 2. 1.190 29. 20 Kts.415 6. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.545 12.55WH / L 1.000 SHP.520 2. Table 119 gives summarized weight lists for different types of ships to illustrate general trends in weight distribution. ltons (less propelling machinery) L = Length overall. 1988 Notes: 1 573’ LOA. house forward.000 SHP. 19. 7 holds. single bottom.125WH / L 0.000 20. 1953 Table 119.680 17.225WH / L Type of Ship Finelined cargo ships with erections Small passenger ships Large passenger ships Prohaska’s ordinates a&c b 0. The Technical Publishing Company H.105 13.844 831 14.150 5.60WH / L 1. Additional weight summaries are included in Appendix B. Bossnack.245 32.630 12. threeisland design.410 24.937 1.630 300 970 1.785 3.730 250 1. machinery 3⁄ 4 aft.315 40.030 140 2.739 837 3. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.100 62.030 3. machinery 3⁄ 4 aft. Second Edition.115 SHP 500 1.557 1.000 2.717 Small Freighter8 2. Newerburg. 79 LASH barges.155 120 2. 6 holds. machinery and house 3⁄ 4 aft.983 2.039 8.30WH / L 1.920 TEU. single screw unless otherwise noted.588 2. Cargo Ship1 1962 5.250 4.5 Kts. machinery and house aft. Lightship Weight Summaries.452 Weights in Long Tons From Ship Design and Construction.383 Item Steel Outfit Machinery10 Fixed Ballast Lightship Container Ship3 10. house forward. ft Reproduced from Applied Naval Architecture.000 3.670 350 750 1. 20 Kts.329 10. machinery and house aft.194 Ore Carrier7 12. 1967 and Third Edition.445 4. machinery and house midships.011 2.75WH / L 1.000 SHP.105 20. 5 center and 8 wing tanks.137 1.905 55.248 574 398 3.800 SHP.175WH / L 0. ten deck.911 14. Schokker.4235 BargeBargecarrying carrying ship Ship (LASH)4 (SEABEE)5 9. Shaft RPM 160 2.525 1.705 50.775 5. 8 390’ LPB.975 From Ships and Marine Engineers. Munro. Type of Ship Tanker Fullbodied cargo ships w/o erections Finelined cargo ships w/o erections Fullbodied cargo ships with erections Prohaska’s ordinates a&c b 0. 30.108 Combination Passenger/ Reefer Container Ship2 5. 27.000 15. 2 574’ LOA.585 3. Amelio M.35WH / L where: WH = Hull weight.S0300A8HBK010 Table 118 gives weights of bronze propellers as a function of shaft horsepower and rpm. 3 752’ LOA. Ship Type Mariner With Added General Features. Prohasha’s Ordinates for the Coffin Diagram. 3. 24.525 21.000 10.979 1.5 Kts.265 11.959 982 10.270 9.915 3. 60. The Design of Merchant Ships. two deck.000 SHP. 1. 7 765’ LOA. 17 Kts.545 24. Volume IV. 23 Kts. 1969 and Princples of Naval Architecture.30WH / L 0.115 2. 5 824’ LOA.45WH / L 1. 20 Kts. 10 Steam turbine plants in all cases.830 14.600 980 14.482 3. house forward. R.000 100 3.275WH / L 0.315 4. 32. 38 SEABEE barges. twin screw.475 8.400 40.140 10. 4 820’ LOA.850 6.220 Passenger Container Ship Vessel9 11. Weights of Bronze Propellers (lbs).65WH / L 1. machinery 3⁄ 4 aft. 1967 1100 . 27 Kts. Table 118.080 17.718 Tanker6 11.000 SHP. 19.519 1.880 7. 19.460 6.230 867 8. Table 120.350 200 1. 6 810’ LOA.20WH / L 0.586 1.000 SHP. 36.335 50.000 5. and Burghgracf.910 180 1. 650 crew.
Prohaska method ordinates for different ship types are given in Table 120. Small adjustments can be made to the end ordinates so that the centroid of the diagram corresponds to the longitudinal position of the center of gravity of the hull.3 Coffin Diagram. If the base of the triangle is taken as x. as shown by the dotted lines in Figure 169. x. consisting of a rectangle over the length of the midbody and trapezoids at the bow and stern. a triangle is transferred from one trapezoid to the other. Biles method ordinates for ordinary cargo and passenger vessels are shown in the Figure 168.195 __ L L/3 FP WH c = 0. required to give the desired shift of LCG is: x = 54 (WH) (desired shift of LCG) 7L 2 1101 . corresponding to the condition where LCG is known. 1967. Figure 169. Three hull weight distribution methods are based on the coffin diagram. A third method. divides the length into three segments based on the observed length of the parallel midbody. 1 L Area of triangle = x = 2 3 xL 7L Moment of the shift = = 6 9 The shift of the centroid of the diagram. The triangle base. By shortening one end ordinate and lengthening the other by an equal amount. Coffin Diagram. MUNROSMITH. LCG of the bare hull is not at the same location as the light ship LCG. The centroid of the Biles diagram is 0. The Biles and Prohaska methods each divide the length overall into three equal segments as shown in Figure 168. The position of the centroid of the coffin diagram must be chosen so that LCG will shift to a known or estimated position as weights are added. then. and its height as L/3. __ L 7 9 x G G1 x L/3 AP L/3 54(WH )GG1 x = ____________ 7L2 L/3 FP where L is the length of the diagram. Figure 168. that may be termed the general parallel midbody method. Bare hull weight distribution for ships with parallel midbody can be approximated by a line diagram. representing the LCG of the hull is thus: L2 7 Shift of LCG = ( x ) WH 54 xL 6 7xL 2 54 where WH is the bare hull weight. R.566 __ L WH b = 1.0056L abaft midships. The shift of the centroid of the total area is therefore (7/9)L.12. The centroid of each triangle lies onethird of its length from its base: 1 L = 3 3 L 9 b b c a L/3 AP L/3 BILES METHOD ORDINATES WH a = 0. commonly called a coffin diagram. corresponding to length overall (LOA) of the ship.653 __ L WHERE WH = HULL WEIGHT (LESS MACHINERY) FROM APPLIED NAVAL ARCHITECTURE.S0300A8HBK010 111. Adjusting LCG of the Coffin Diagram.
no further calculations need be performed in most cases. The intersection of this line with a horizontal line drawn from the center of the parabolic curve defines one point on the new curve. R.6 0. The end ordinates are chosen so that the centroid of the entire diagram corresponds to the bare hull LCG. however. 2ND EDITION. LCG of this figure is amidships. Centroid of a Trapezoid.3 WH __ L W = Hull Weight b = b1 x l = LENGTH OF TANK SECTIONS OR PARALLEL MIDDLE BODY b1 1.1L wave with length equal to ship’s length. General Parallel Midbody Weight Curve. as shown in Figure 173. √ standard L/20 or 1. b2 = END ORDINATES g b2 b1 X 111. 1. with the area under each representing half the bare hull weight (Cole. This method has been found to yield close approximations to the hull weight distribution for large warships.3 0. If the ship can carry loads imposed by a standard wave.12. If.S0300A8HBK010 In the general parallel midbody method. 1102 .7 Figure 170. l = LENGTH OVER WHICH THE WEIGHT IS DISTRIBUTED x = LONGITUDINAL DISTANCE FROM THE SMALLER END OF THE TRAPEZOID TO ITS CENTER OF GRAVITY a = AREA OF THE TRAPEZOID = TONS FOR WEIGHT AND LOAD CURVES b1. as shown in Figure 172.13 Wave Bending Moment with Nonstandard Waves. MunroSmith.4 Ships Without Parallel Midbody. Correction for LCG lying forward or aft of midships is made by swinging the parabola. calculations must be performed for trial wave heights and lengths until the maximum acceptable wave is determined.2 0.2 L = LENGTH OF SHIP OVERALL 1. 1967. either during the salvage 2a 3x operation or during transit to a repair __ __ b1 = 2a (2 . the beginning and end points and length of the parallel midbody are determined by inspection. Because of the tedious nature of the calculations. 111. 1967). The salvage engineer must often assess the ability of a damaged casualty to withstand wave l bending loads.1 1. as shown in Figure 172. unless bending moment caused by waves with differing length and height can be correlated to those caused by the standard wave.0 0. 0. Figure 171 shows how to select end ordinates for a trapezoid to place the center of the trapezoid in a desired location. SNAME. A line parallel to the base is drawn through the centroid of the area under the parabolic curve.5 0.4 b l 1. An approximate weight curve for ships without parallel midbody can be constructed as a parabola over a rectangle.4 l __ L FROM PRINCIPLES OF NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. reproduced in Applied Naval Architecture. b2= __ ( __ 1) l l l l facility.3x ). The middle ordinate (b) is defined as shown in Figure 170. the stresses imposed by the standard wave are excessive. Parallel lines drawn at other ordinates define other points on the new curve. the usual first task is to determine the stresses imposed by a Figure 171. The ordinate for the rectangle is WH/2L. A second line is drawn from the base of the parabola at its midlength to intersect the first line at a distance from the midships ordinate equal to twice the desired shift in LCG. the maximum (midships) ordinate for the parabola is 3WH/4L. For ships without parallel midbody. a bare hull weight curve can also be generated by assuming that twothirds of the hull weight follows the still water buoyancy curve and distributing the remaining onethird in the form of a trapezoid so arranged that the center of gravity lies above the center of buoyancy. This line is extended beyond the contour of the parabola.
8 0.1L √ 0.2 0. Parabolic Weight Curve. NORMALIZED MOMENT VS. WAVELENGTH (Cb = 0. RAWSON AND TUPPER 3RD EDITION.6 0.015 0. 20 FEBRUARY 1991 Figure 174.S. 1967.75L).25 WH L b= 3WH 4L 2 b 5 BASE LINE X a= WH 2L X = DESIRED SHIFT OF LCG FROM APPLIED NAVAL ARCHITECTURE.1L.015 0.7 0. wavelength = L). MUNROSMITH.3 0.. The factors are functions of block coefficient.0 LBP L = .01 HOG where: NBM = normalized wave bending moment. The analysis revealed that for finelined ships. The normalized bending moment is given by: NBM = WBM 35 L 2Bh ORIGINAL CURVE CORRECTED CURVE 2X a + b = 1. wavelength.5 0.1L √ wave height.4 LOCATION FROM FP (X/LBP) 0. FFG7 Bending Moment with Varying Wavelength.005 0 0. NAVY. Alternate Weight Distribution for Ships Without Parallel Midbody.75 LBP L = .1L √ trochoidal waves.50 LBP L = . and wave height.25 LBP L = LENGTH OF TROCHOIDAL WAVE FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR OF SALVAGE U. All curves are based on 1. and may be as much as 15 percent higher than bending moment for the standard wave. ft3/lton length between perpendiculars. ft wave height. 1983. Figure 173. Figure 176 (Page 1104) shows normalized maximum and standard hogging and sagging moments as a function of block coefficient.01 0.1 Figure 176 (Page 1104) can be entered with block coefficient to get an estimate of the standard bending moment (waveheight = 1. 1103 . √ L = 1.25 LBP L = 1.005 WBM = 35 L B h = = = = SAG 0.50 LBP L = .46) for a 1. ftlton standard seawater specific gravity. ft beam.02 0. PARALLEL TO STILL WATER BUOYANCY CURVE 2/ W 3 H 1/ W 3 H AP FP FROM BASIC SHIP THEORY.0 LBP L = .S0300A8HBK010 A 1991 analysis by Herbert Engineering Corporation of five hull forms with block coefficients ranging from 0.46 to 1.75 LBP L = . R. HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP. Figure 174 shows the relationship between wavelength and bending moment for an FFG7 Class ship (CB = 0. dimensionless wave bending moment. Figure 175 (Page 1104) shows the relationship between standard wave bending moment and maximum wave bending moment as a function of block coefficient.46) 0.9 0. maximum wave bending moment occurs at wavelengths slightly less than the ship’s length (approximately 0. Figure 172. ft = 1.0 developed factors that relate nonstandard wave bending moments to normalized standard bending moment.
1 1. HOG STD.7 BLOCK COEFFICIENT 0.01 0. The sum of the two gives total bending moment at midships.02 1 0.7 2 BLOCK COEFFICIENT MAX.02 Mwf + Mwa 0. Murray’s method computes still water bending moment by taking moments of weight and buoyancy about midships.12 MOMENT RATIO 1. NAVY. 111.S. a = weight of the forebody or afterbody.04 1. ft or m Mbf + Mba MB = mean moment of buoyancy = _________ 2 Mbf = moment of buoyancy forward of midships.025 = __________ 0. HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP. Normalized Wave Bending Moment as a Function of Block Coefficient. a = LCB of the forebody or afterbody.S0300A8HBK010 The plots in Figures 177 and 178 are entered with wavelength expressed as a function of ship length to determine the ratio between wave bending moment for the wavelength and the standard wave bending moment. HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP. The ratio is then applied to wave bending moment determined from Figure 176 or by rigorous calculation to estimate wave bending moment for the nonstandard wavelength. SAG forward of midships.8 0.08 1. ft or m 1104 .015 mean moment of weight 0.14 Murray’s Method for Approximating Maximum Bending Moment. Murray. measured from midships.4 0.a = buoyancy of the forebody or afterbody. Wave bending moment is calculated by use of empirical coefficients. M.9 1 0. which can be taken as the maximum bending moment in most cases. HOG MAX.5 0. An approximation of determining maximum bending moment has been developed by J.02 NORMALIZED BENDING MOMENT 0.005 0.. Still water bending moment (SWBM) is given by: SWBM = MW where: MW = MB 1. a = LCG of the forebody or afterbody.005 0 0. The method is reasonably accurate for ships floating at a trim of less than one percent of their length. NAVY.6 0.14. 111..4 HOG 0.14 1. ftlton or mFigure 176.01 0.16 1.9 1 SAG FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR OF SALVAGE U.5 0. former Chief Ship Surveyor to Lloyd’s Register of Shipping. a(LCGfa) Wf.S. lton or mtonne LCBf. measured from midships. lton or mtonne LCGf.06 1. Figure 179 (Page 1106) gives normalized bending moments for wavelengths equal to L with nonstandard waveheight.1 Still Water Bending Moment. 0.6 0. ftlton or mtonne FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR OF SALVAGE U. Ratio of Maximum to Standard Wave Bending Moment as a Function of Block Coefficient. 20 FEBRUARY 1991 Figure 175. ftlton or mtonne = B f (LCBf ) Mba = moment of buoyancy aft of midships. ftlton or mtonne = Ba(LCBa) Bf. 20 FEBRUARY 1991 = Wf(LCGf) Mwa = moment of weight aft of midships.025 0.8 0.015 0. SAG Mwf = moment of weight STD. tonne = Wf.
WAVE MOMENT / STANDARD WAVE MOMENT 1 0. HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP.S.5 0. CB = 0. CB = 1.8 0.25 1 0. NAVY. HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP.4 HOG 0. Ratio of Wave Bending Moment to Standard Bending Moment.5 2 WAVELENGTH / LBP HOG FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR OF SALVAGE U..25 SAG 0. 20 FEBRUARY 1991 Figure 177.75 0.5 1 0.5 2 1.S0300A8HBK010 WAVE MOMENT / STANDARD WAVE MOMENT 1..S.5 1 0.6 0.0.5 2 WAVELENGTH / LBP FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR OF SALVAGE U.8 1 2 1.2 0 0. NAVY.75 1 1.5 0 0.5 1 1. 20 FEBRUARY 1991 Figure 178.46.25 1.5 0.25 0 0.2 SAG 0.5 1 1. Ratio of Wave Bending Moment to Standard Bending Moment.6 0.4 0.5 0 0. 1105 .
NAVY. For example.6 0.015 0.78 Cb = 0. If the mean of buoyancy centers is greater.S.S0300A8HBK010 Since total weight and buoyancy moments are mean moments.01 0. HERBERT ENGINEERING CORP. machinery lcg is determined by inspection.HOGGING BA GA GF BF MEAN DISTANCE TO FORE AND AFT LCBs GREATER THAN DISTANCE TO LCGs . Determination of Still Water Bending Moment by Murray’s Method.4 0. Normalized Wave Bending Moment as a Function of Wave Height. Weights and centers of variable weights can be obtained from ship’s officers or estimated with reasonable accuracy.58 Cb = 0.223 for a cargo ship with forecastle and poop..12.0 LCBm Since the sum of the weights of the fore and after bodies is equal to the total weight. 0. and the net moment is hogging. still water bending moment can be expressed: SWBM = ∆ (LCGm 2 LCBm) If the mean of the centers of gravity is greater than the mean of the centers of buoyancy. The mean distance from midships of the centers of gravity of the forward and after bodies of the hull can be expressed as a portion of length between perpendiculars: mean lcg = aL where: a = = an empirical coefficient 0. which is equal to displacement. the weight levers are longer than the buoyancy levers.025 1 0.01 0. deckhouse and machinery amidships 0. the net moment is negative. LCGm GF BA BF GF LCBm MEAN DISTANCE TO FORE AND AFT LCGs GREATER THAN MEAN DISTANCE TO LCBs . Hull weight can be estimated as described in Paragraph 111.8 0.005 0.005 HOG 0 SAG 0. = = Values of a for different configurations can be estimated from those given above. and sagging.2.2 0 0. Forward and after weight moments are determined by summing the moments of individual weights.025 0.24 for a tanker with forecastle. which is similarly equal to the sum of the buoyancies of the fore and after bodies. Machinery weight can be approximated from the factors given in Paragraph 111.02 0.015 0.6 0.8 1 WAVE HEIGHT / STANDARD WAVE HEIGHT Cb = 0.02 NORMALIZED BENDING MOMENT 0.84 Cb = 1. 1106 .233 for a cargo ship with machinery aft FROM WAVEHEIGHT AND WAVELENGTH VERSUS BENDING MOMENT STUDY FOR SUPERVISOR OF SALVAGE U. and poop 0.46 Cb = 0. they are numerically equal to the product of the mean weight or buoyancy and the mean lever arm: MW = Mwf + Mwa 2 Mbf + Mba 2 W + Wa = f LCGm 2 B + Ba = f LCBm 2 MB = where: LCGm = mean distance from midships of the centers of gravity of the fore and after bodies = mean distance from midships of the centers of buoyancy of the fore and after bodies 0.12.2 0. as shown in Figure 180.225 might be used for a cargo ship with machinery slightly aft of midships. bridge.2.SAGGING Figure 180.4 0. 20 FEBRUARY 1991 Figure 179.
Coefficient c for Mean LCB in Murray’s Method.189CB + 0. stores Total: 6.400 = 135.000 Hold 2 4. the net moment is positive.780 ftlton LCGm is greater than LCBm.05L 0.670 Total weight moments: item hull after body fore body Total: lcg from midships ft 231 F 142 F 60 F 200 F moment ftlton 693.04L 0.830.71 displacement 32.700 435 20 250 1. (double bottom) Feed water Potable water Machinery Crew & effects.LCBm) = (32.645 1.729.379.71.200 lton center of machinery room 145 ft aft of midships Variable Weight Distribution: item Cargo: Hold 1 Hold 2 Hold 3 Hold 4 Hold 5 Oil fuel in deep tank Oil fuel in double bottom tanks Feed water Potable water Crew & effects.000 36.480 13.179CB + 0.S0300A8HBK010 Mean buoyancy moment can be estimated as: MB = where: ∆ cL L c = = = = total buoyancy (displacement).480 lcg from midships ft 95 A 250 A 85 A 170 A 122 A 147 A 165 A Moment ftlton 646.2 ft c = 0. ft or m empirical coefficient based on block coefficient and draft from Table 121 ∆ cL 2 Table 121.420 Mean distance from midships of centers of gravity: LCGm = Total moment/total weight = 4.3 ft = LCBm Hull weight moment = WHaL (take a to be 0. Weight lton 3000 4200 6100 6800 3700 370 435 20 250 75 lcg from midships ft 231 F 142 F 60 F 95 A 250 A 200 F 85 A 170 A 122 A 165 A Weight moments.063 = 0.209CB + 0.06L.23)(570) = 819.370 1.19(570) = 108.800 3.000 925.200 75 12. ft or m length between perpendiculars.100 O.379.F.400 moment ftlton 819.2 .400 weight lton 6.400 30. fore body: item weight lton Hold 1 3. stores Calculation: Mean distance from midships of centers of buoyancy The load draft of 35 ft is approximately 0.199CB + 0.190 Still water bending moment: cL = 0.000 1.729.000 74.F.500 176.400 4.400 lton deadweight 23.800 lton hull weight 6. lton or tonne mean position of LCB.400 366. block coefficient.375 ftlton SWBM = ∆/2 (LCGm .3) = 435. Draft 0.000 596.06L EXAMPLE 16 CALCULATION OF STILL WATER BENDING MOMENT BY MURRAY’S METHOD Calculate the still water bending moment for a cargo ship with machinery and accommodations threequarters aft with the following characteristics: length between perpendiculars 570 feet beam 80 feet molded depth 55 feet full load draft 35 feet block coefficient 0.063 0. (deep tank) 370 Total: 13.400/2)(135.645 Weight moments.06L 0. CB is taken at draft equal to 0.23) = 6.400 12. after body: item Weight lton Hold 4 Hold 5 O.179CB + 0.03L c 0.052 0.830.108. or hogging 1107 .670 32.375 1.250(0.030 L = length between perpendiculars.250 lton weight of propulsion machinery 1.975 3. CB = 0.250 12.041 0.420/32.200 Hold 3 6.
ft = block coefficient CB C = a constant. can be estimated as: WBM = bL 3B 1. lton ∆ = displacement.85 22.18 for cargo ships 0. ∆ 12 ≤ Smax ≤ ∆ 9 Mmax ≈ ∆L C = LBTCD 35 L C = L 2BTCB 35C where: Smax = maximum shear.000 2.35 20.10 21. ftlton L = length between perpendiculars. For most merchant ships.65 19.74 0. ftlton length between perpendiculars.S0300A8HBK010 111.60 25.80 0.25 23.10 23.64 0.80 21. generally ranging from 20 to 40 ≈ 35 for most auxiliaries.90 19. 1108 .68 0. ft or m depth to strength deck.62 0.70 24. ft or m empirical coefficient.75 28.15 Section Property Design Rules. hogging moments are greater than sagging moments.05 20. ft4 or m4 molded beam.70 0. for a standard wave with length equal to the ship’s length.000 for wave height = L 20 Table 122.20 18. Wave Bending Coefficient for Murray’s Method.22 for large tankers 0. MunroSmith. Wave bending moment.00 27.06L An estimate for section modulus and/or moment of inertia can be made by reference to preliminary design expressions for maximum shear force and bending moment. ranging from 0.35 22.30 CB taken at draft = 0. and vessels with large longitudinal prismatic coefficient ⇒ Mmax = LBT/1600 (CB taken as 0. Wave bending coefficient b Block Coefficient CB Hogging (wave crest at midships) Sagging (wave trough at midships) = where: WBM L B b for wave height = 1.000.2 b L 2. ft beam. empirical relationships and construction standards can be used to estimate section modulus or moment of inertia.66 0. from Table 122 111. A first approximation of the midships section moment of inertia can be made from: I = where: I B D c = = = = ≈ ≈ ≈ moment of inertia.16 0.78 0.47) These relationships give a good approximation for the fullload condition on a standard hogging wave.55 22. In the absence of better information.2 Wave Bending Moment. 1967. and assuming the ship was built to withstand that force and moment.75) ≈ 20 for destroyers. R.175 to 0.21 for small tankers cBD3 0.72 0. merchant ships. lton Mmax = maximum bending moment.00 24. and vessels with small longitudinal prismatic coefficient ⇒ Mmax = LBT/1490 (CB taken as 0.90 24.14.50 25. ft empirical coefficient based on block coefficient and wave position.60 21. The following design rules are taken from Applied Naval Architecture.14 to 0.76 0.45 17.5 B 100.1 L = = = = wave bending moment.25 26.
17 Strength Considerations in Salvage Operations. Midships section modulus of an in class ship will not be lower than the minimum standard. and is currently in class. buckling. even over a short distance. Because of flooding. maximum shear may be at some point other than at the quarters. Damage. DECK • Stresses should be determined wherever shear or bending moment are maximum or the effective moment of inertia is reduced. Local damage or distortion can render plating and stiffeners more susceptible to tripping. shear and bending moment should be examined before taking the action. Classification society rules set minimum standards for midships section modulus. Bending stresses in the midships region can be roughly estimated without determining section modulus rigorously. The minimum section modulus standards are known. Similarly. maximum bending moment can occur at some section other than midships. shear. The ship has not suffered damage that will reduce section modulus in the sections where stresses are to be determined. 1109 (1110 blank) . Damage can alter the stress distribution at a section so that maximum stress can occur in some section other than where maximum bending moment or shear occurs. 111. provided the following are true: • • • The ship was built to classification society standards or other specifications requiring minimum section modulus. A summary of section modulus requirements established by the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) is given in Appendic C. disrupts the continuity of longitudinal members and reduces the section modulus for some distance on either side of the damaged section. In an intact floating ship. BENDING MOMENT. The load. thereby reducing effective moment of inertia. The effects of salvage actions on load. Maximum Bending Moment for FFG7. These sections are designed to ensure that stresses remain below acceptable limits. Figure 181 shows maximum acceptable bending moments for an FFG7 Class ship.000 PSI WITHOUT SAFETY FACTOR Figure 181. or other forms of load shirking. KEEL • 1 A useful salvage technique is to calculate and plot the maximum acceptable shear and bending moments along the length of the ship. and bending moment curves of a casualty must be carefully examined: MAXIMUM MOMENT. 17 16 15 14 13 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 STATIONS MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENTS BASED ON ASSUMED MATERIAL YIELD OF 32. The bending moments and shear resulting from planned actions can be compared with the allowable limits to determine if the planned action is safe. maximum bending moment occurs in the midships region and maximum shear near the quarterlength points. grounding or other unusual conditions of loading.16 By Rule Section Modulus.S0300A8HBK010 111. and is unlikely to be much higher. Accesses should not be cut in locations that will reduce the section modulus or strength member continuity. Three conditions common to salvage operations may require that the stress levels be examined at other points: • • • The ship may be loaded in ways not foreseen by the designer. A ship is designed and constructed to withstand expected shear forces and bending moments. FOOTPOUNDS x 10 8 3 • 2 MAXIMUM MOMENT.
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