Modern Loti n

Thomas E. Skidmore
Professor Emeritus, Bruwtl University
Peter H. Smith
U"iversity oj C"lijomi", S"" Die>;"
James N. Green
Brohln University
New York Oxfunl
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David. ja11lrs, Rolw,.,
Jonat/mll, ,",elcr. Snslw. Amallda
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!.ihraf'}' of Cungrcss Calaloging-in-PlIhlicaliol1 Data
J\lodern L'llin AmericamlOmas E. Skidmore. Peler II. Smith.
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Indlldes bibliographical references :lnd index.
ISDN 978-0·19-537570-1 (pbk.: acid·free paper)
I. L'llin America-l-lisl0'1'. I. Smith. Peler II. II. Green. James
Na)·lor,1951- III. Tit It'.
FI4JJ.S5S 2010
Printing number: 9 !l 7 (, 5 4 J 2
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I'KHA<':t:. xi
Why Latin America? 3
Conlrast ami I\trilclox 5
2 The Colonial Foundations 1'1
Prdude 10 Conquest 14
Colonial Spanish America 16
Portuguese Amcrica: A Different World? 23
Independl'llce for Latin Amcric.l 27
The Pull of the International Ecunomy 40
3 Mexico: The Taming of a Revolution ·15
From Colony tu Nalionhnod 45
The Mexican Revolution 54
Politics and Policy: Patterns of Change 5S
The Contemporary Scelle 75
4 Central America and the Caribbean: Within the
U.S. Orbit 82
World Powers. the United and the Greater Caribbean 82
From Colonies to Nalionhood 86
Overview: Economic Growth and Social Change 91
Polilh::s and Policy: Panama 97
Politics and Policy: Nicnrngun 100
Politics and Policy: EI Salvador 104
Politics nnd Policy: Guatcl113ln 108
Politics nnd Policy: The Dominican Republic III
Politics and Policy: Haiti 113
Politics and Pnlicy: Pucrto Rico 117
Cuba: Key Colony, Socialist State 121
From Colony to Nationhood 121
Overview: Economic Growth and Social Change 124
Politics and Policy: Patterns of Change 128
The CubOln Revolulion 132
I;rmning U.S. Policies 136
Policy Experimentation and Regime Consolidation 140
The Contemporary Scene (t990-present) 146
The Andes: Soldiers, Oligarchs, and
Indians 150
From Colony 10 Nationhood 151
Overview: Economic Growth and Social Change 153
Politics and Policy: Peru 163
Politics and Policy: Bolivi<l 173
Politics and Policy: Ecuador 184
(uII"'"h 1\
10 Chile: Repression and Democracy 27R
From Colony to Nationhood 27R
Ovcrvic\\': Economic Growlh and Social 2HO
Politics and Policy: POltlcrns of C1wnge 2R'1
The COlllemporary Scene (1990-prcselll) .104
11 Brazil: The Awakening Giant Jllr,
From Colony to N<Jlionhood 306
Overview: Economic (irnwth and :-;nlia! Ch.llwr .\1:-
Polilics and Policy: ofCh.llIge .HI·'
The Contemporary Secnl' (1994 I'rc<;rlll) 1,11
12 Strategies for Economic Development J"I
Narrntives of IklCkw<lrdncss 352
The Liheral Era (I R80s-1920s) 353
Import-Subslitulion lndllstrializ<Jtif111 (1(110" 11J7()<') l:-H
The Socialist Alternative 162
Neolihemlism-Oncc Dominant, Ntlw
(1980s-prcscl1t) .loR
7 Colombia: Civility and Violence 191
From Colony to Nationhood 191
Creating Political Parties 194
The Loss or P<lnama 197
Overview: Economic Growth <llld Social Change 198
Politics and Policies: Patterns of Change 203
The Contemporary Scene (1990-presellt) 211
13 Dynamics of Political Transformation
Olig<Jrchic nule and Top 01)\\'11 ndorlll
(1880'-1920,) 377
Populism and Dictalorship (1910s-11J70<;) ;\79
The Rcvolulionary Pnth (1C)50s-19flO,<;) .1R6
A Rencwal of J)cl110Cracy (19ROs-l,re<;cllt) JH9
Explor<tlions in Comparative Analp'i... JIM
Venezuela: The Perils of Prosperity 219
From Colony to Nationhood 220
Gunboats and Diplomacy 224
Overview: Economic Growth and Social Change 226
Politics and Policy: Patterns of Change 230
The Contemporary Scene (1998-present) 236
Argentina: Progress and Stalemate 244
From Colony to Nationhood 244
Overview: Economic Growth and Social Ch<lngc 248
Politics and Policy: Patterns of Change 253
The Conlempor<lry Scene (I 983-present) 271
14 Culture and Society '103
From Colonies 10 Nalions 404
Literature, Art, and New Idc;IS in a \Vodd
Economy 409
Nationalism. Radic<J1 Polilics. <Iud Tllrhlllcnl 'I'illlro; '111
Latin America Cullure Fnlcrs Ol \'Vnrld Mark/'I 42.\
Dict<ltorship, f)emocr<lcy. and New 'social 1\ InvClllcnls '1.\1

hiS edition tuok lIIlIch mort.- work thim Wt: ever illl.lgillt'li. E;lrl)' un, we:
flol unly dcddcd 10 bring the ("ullknls up-Iu-d.tlt', but dl'h.'nnilll'd 10 makt:
the book more accessible and Icuchablt'. 'INc pcdagogi..:al tradl'd
notes 011 classroom experiences, and tried Iu imagilll" ancw the: kiml ofbouk Ih.ll
would best meet the needs uf colleagut's and students.
As our conversations progressed, we Ihal tllis challt'llgc wuuld I t'lluirl'
wholes... le rewriting and ft.'structuring uf Modem Ll'lill America. Tuward this CIUI,
we have
• composed four entirely Ilew chapkf:!o-on lilt' <.:('1l1ral Andl;"s (Chapkr 6).
Venezuela (Chapter 8), economic 3lnlkgit's (Chap,,:r 12), alld cultun: and
soddy (Chapkr 14);
• created two ch3ple:rs oy r"'l..ollluinillg old Ull":!l> -Ull Ce:lltral
America ;'Ind the Caribbean (Chapter 4) .Iml 011 politk.d tl"ul!l>itium ill
comparative (Chapll,.'r 13);
• developed :3 website lor practical usc by sludt'lltS. imtrudors, and the:
geneml reading public
Throughout the text we have added maps and i!lustration:l>. r\.'organizeJ Ih..:
presentation, and done cVl'rything within our powt'rs to t'llhallu· darily and
parsimony of expression. This is a new and different book.
As in the past, l.atin America is now going thruugh a periud great
uncertainty. Over the last quarter century, th..: rc:giull has dispensed wilh didatur·
ship in f,wor of democracy; it has also t'I1lIJfilccd'll'hing ecunomic reforms.
But poverty and inequality nonetheless persist, and widespread popular protest
has emerged-not in the shape of armed uprising!l>, but in the form of electoral
support for 0ppusition candidates and parties. Democracy has thus bcell doing
what it should. And just as economic conditions ill Latin America wen: slarting 10
improve, Ihe globaJ financial crisis of2008-9 look a It'rriblc toll on COlllltries of the
region. What wUl happen in Ihe futurt' is anyone's guess.
xii P I ~ E F A C E
For work Oil this sevenlh edilion. we <Ire ple(lsed to ;lcknowlcdge the very
c;lp;lble ;lSSiSI(lflCC of M;ltthew C. Kearney, Caroline Land<lu, and Tarso Luis
Ramos. Vve Ihnnk Michael Shifter and Douglas Cope, professional colleagues
whose sage advice rescued us from several unseemly errors. And we wish (0
recognize the special role ofFclicity Skidmore, whose editorial guid<lJ1ce, logistical
expertise, <lnd moral encouragement made it possible for us to finish the job.
Lastly. we extend our gratilude and admiration 10 the peoples of Latin
Amcricn. This is their story. As foreign schol:lrs, we cow only hope to hnve done
il justice.
T. E. S.
P. II. S.
I. N. G.
Questions and Contexts
Why Latin America?
"The..' u.s. will do anything lor l..11in AIllc..'rll.. .I, c..'XH'pt h.·,ld .tllI'lll it: wruk
Ihe latl' j;lllll'S for Ill-Ill)' tile kgl'lldary tll·,tll 01 US pulitil"i11
Arc thert' reasoll:. why \V'!: ::.htluld If)' Iv provt' him wrong?
Thert' .Ire ::,\.'vt'ral. Flr:.l. our nalll..lll'::" Cl UllUlllH. Illkl l'::.l::. .In' (\t'cply illv,-,I, ,.:ll in
thl.-" 1''''1)IUII. L.llill AIllt'l'i.:O\ b liliC 01 tlllr 11l.ljur If.ldult) 1'-11 llh· ..... Ill::. till" ::>llt' vi IIlUdl
U.S. inVl:::.II1lI,.'JH and a ::.ouru.' lor oil.llld ulhc:r r.I\\' All 'lLl..d..'I.t
lioll of growth in key J\h:xkn and Br.llil m,IY :'1'UIl produll:'
::.igllitll,Ull IIl:W puwer::. ull the \\'urlll ,)It'lll'.
We h,lVt' duse pulitic.11 linb. upht".,vah alld allii -i\ II h:riGlIl
IllUVl'lllelltS in LUin Allll'riC:1 have fur U.S. loreign
policy. They haw raised serious abuut huw bnl to ddllll', prull"ct, and
prolllote our national U.S, of both poliliLal partks haw
cUllsblt'ntly illknuwkdged ill11'0rl;llJ(l' uf thl' region. Cl'orge
II. W. a Ikpublican, a rd:HiollShip wilh MexIco alld ill
19')0 prOI)osc:d a free [rade agrn'llll'nl I hat wuul<1 tiglltt'll nUJIUlnJ ... bdWCl'!l
all of Lallll AlIIerica and thl' United Hill (:lintoll, a I)l'lllOU,II, folluw....... 1tip in
1994 by hosting a hcmbpheric of tht' (;('org..: W, UlI::.h,
Rq)lIblicall, selected Mexico as the for his fureign visit ill LUOI. And
Oballl3, Delllocrat, hdd ;:1 private IIll'cling Wilh's
chid eXt'culivl' before taking uffice in 2009.
There is anolher (onsiJeri.ltiun hc:n: at hUlIlc. Large ..:tit)ll'" of uur (Ollnlry
have hecume Lutinizcd by the illflUt'lIll' of lIligr.lllb lrum Mexllu, PlIt'rtu Ricu,
Celltnll America. the Curibbe:ln, and even Hrnil. This in addition to the
llisp.anic t1esct:ndants of the uriginal Spanish spe'lking IJOPutltion of what W.IS
once purt of Mexico. Migratiun. both historical :lnd re....cllt. ha::. brought peoples
und custums from Latin Amerk.. to the Amcric.. n (frolll to
Cllifornia), Florida. and New York. M;:my major U.S, cities now h.lVe:' lIlor....
children from Spanish-spt"aking fa mil ic-::. than frolll .111)' otht:r group.
Bilingualbm become: .1 political is::.uc forcing u::. It) rethink tilt' Jileaning uf
Spanish-spt:aking AlI1erica. both wilhin uur burdl'r::. .llId beycJlld.
M0st U.S. citizens (or -North Americans," as we are commonl), called in L"ltin
America) know lillie about our neighboring societies to the south. Man)' helieve
that Ihe United States can impose its will on the region through "hig-stick"
diplomac), or .military might. Others do 1101 even care. Still others entertain
ohsoletc sicreolypes ahout the peoplcs of the region: Ihe -Latin lover." Ihe "Frito
Ikllldito." Ihe soulful Che Guev::Ira. the Bra7.ilian mulatl:l camiv:l1 queens-these
are Ihe images that often first come to mind.
\Vhen we mOve beyond these caricatures. we find Latin America to be a
complex region. It is not an easy place to understand. Geographically. it includes
the !;mcl mass eXlending from the Rio Grande (betwcen Texas and Mexico) 10 the
southern tip of South America. plus a number of Caribhean islands: a tOlal area
two and one-half limes the size of the United Slates. rh)'sical features present
sharp differences: from the Andean mountain range. stretching the full length of
western South America. to the tropical forest of the Ama7.on b"sin. from the arid
deserts ofnorthefll l\'lexico to the fertile grasslands of the Argentine pampa.
It is" land of great ethnic "nd demographic diverSity. The people of Latin
America cOl1t<'tin clements and mixlures of varied r<'tcial groups-native Indians.
U.S. Stereotypes of latin America
Some time ago. a plOminent agency fOI public opinion research conducted a
nationwide poll in which respondents were given a card with nineteen words on
it and asked to indicate which words best described the people of Central and
South America. The results were as follows:
Dark-skinned 80% lm<lginative 23%
Quick-tempered 49% Shrewd 16%
Emotional .,% Intelligent 15%
Religious '5% Honest 13%
Backward ..% Brave 12%
L.", 41% Generous 12%
Ignorant 34% Progressive 11%
Suspidolls 32% Efficient 5%
Friendly 30% No answer 4%
Dirty 28% No opinion 0%
Proud 26%
Since respondents were asked to pick as many descriptive terms as they liked.
percentages add to consider<lbly more than tOO.
From John J. John50n. Lorin Americ(l in Caricature (Austin: Universiry of TeltiU Pless. 1980J. p. 18.
I \Vhr 1.11111 I\In. II. ,I
white Europeans. black Africans, ChinesC'. Jap<'tlle!'e, .ll1d iIll1llIgr.lll1.. hum .111
over the world. Nations differ imporlantl)' in pfll'ul;JI illll .. l.It· (nr;J Iii !lClllg 111".11 h·
five times larger than Argentin:l. for instanc('. ;Jnd Illllre Ihall 1('11 111111'" 1.11):1'1
than Chile). B)' 2007 the tolal pOJlulatinn of I.;llill AIII ('I i,.1 I..llll(' I" 111111<' lh.llI
550 million. compared with 30n million ill Ihe lI"ilcd ..
As an expression of Ihis cultural mosait". b ngU:lg"" .,hnt1llll. .'·"pani"h I" ."1" .I-l·1l
almosl everywhere. one might Ihillk--exCepl ill Brai'i1 (l'IH·lllgllC"t'). p:lll "I lh('
Andes (Quechua. Aymara. ;1I1d 0ther 1.11lJ1,1I"gC")' the (:.11 d,lll·.11l
(French. English. and Dutch). Mexicn kC'h olllldlg(·l\flll"l.uI!:II.I!:'·.j.
and Gilalemal" (over twrnt)' Indian l::Ingll:l){e").
Furthermore, Lalin Amcric;\Il !'oci<'I)' dl"pkly" 1111111",.,,1.. Iwl\\I" 11
rich and poor. between city ;lnt! country. hClwccn Ic;ll'lletl :Ill.! bel\\I'1'1l
the powerful lord of the Imciend" :'111<1 the dclerenli;Jl pt.·,l".lIll, I>CI\\'('('II WI'.1111,,·
entrepreneurs and desperale slreel urchins. 1.11i1l Illlllltle..
twent), n::ltions. large alld whnse re\.('111 ('xpericIHt' 1:I"1:e" lr'llil 1'111,1",\'
dict3torship to electoral (Ielnmracy 10 ;'l <:od:llisl rq:il11l': hnlltllllit ,lily. 1.lIm
America helongs to the v developing w0r1tl. hesel hy 111!>lt 'fit.' I :I,HI , fllllCtl, I'I" ,II \.
obstacles to rapid economic growlh. bUI here 11'0 there i.. divt'I!>lly 11'III,111C' "'l('
crop dependency of tiny Iiollduras 10 Ihe illdllslriall'rtltl1i"l' 01 tll'II.II'lIt Itl.lld
Throughout lhcir model'll history I.alin Amcrit,an<: h.lvt· ""ughI. wilh gn·.11t'1
or lesser zeal, to achieve political alltl ('conllmic ilHkpcnlll'lH t' 11"111 ,11111111,11,
imperial. and neo-imperinl pow('r". Tim". it I" hillcrh' 111.11 lilt' 1,111 ....(·
Lati" Americn was populari7,('cl hy mid Ililleleenih \\hl' lholll:I'1
that since their culture. like Ihat ofSpnnish ,11ll1 P()llllgllt·..., W.l"
(i.e.• Romnllce language-!'peaking). Francf' lonld 11:11111 ""peri.ll lc.ltkl·.hlJ'
throughout the continent.
As observations sugge!'t. L.1lin America resi"ls f,llilc 1;l1('l!flrii'atillll 11 1".1
region rich in paradox. This insight yields a numher of ill"tl'lIt.1lVC due"
First. Latin America is hOlh young ;md nld. RCl!inning ill I/IQ?,. il:o- I 1>\
the Spanish and Portuguese cre41ted a lotally new SIt( i.ll ordcr l).l!'cd Con donllll.,
tion. hierarchy. and the intermingling of European. AfriL.III. alHI indigellous
elements. The European intrusion profoull<lI)' ancl incl":ldiL.lhl)' ... llclcti
communities. Compared with the ancienl civilin!if'lll" of Affit.l ;lntl A"i.I. 111"""
Latin American societif's arc rclOllively young. On the nllH'r hnlld. 11111.;1 n:llioll" "I
Latin America obtained political indepcndellcc--froll1 Spain .llld I'nrlllj.;.d IlIlh('
early nineteenth century. more Ihan IOf) ye;'lrs hefmc .l:l1nt'ssfld .lllii. nlflill.d
• This is a conservalivc cOllnl. 11 Itllof''' nnl ind",lf' Itl·h1('. Frf'lIc-h (,111.1',",. \'''IOll.IlIW. I .","trl''''I····
Martiniquc. English-spt'''king isbmls o( Ihe C"Jihh(';m, nr lhf' Itlllllllnn\\·r.lhh "I I'"r,lo Ill... Ih,
orticiall"lly o(all enlities ill 1'''lin AlTIcr;l" ;,ntllhr (:·l/ihl'('.HI to, '11
(19 J 0), Bolivia (!lJS2), alld Cuha (I ')5'), 1Il:llly as1'0: b 01 II aditiollal SU\. id)'
While the advent ufpulillGd dCIlHICI"h:Y in r..· ell! }' ...·df... Jllighlluuk lik...,
<Ill ahrllpt dq)arlun.: from the past, underlying (')lllilltlilil"s [
TIll' pull of history continues III bt' slrung.
Third, Latin Amcril"a has bt'l'lI both indepcndcllt and dl'j!l'IHklll, alllullO
IIUlllS alld subordinate. The adIk'Vl'1 Ill'lll of lJatiilllhoud l>y J ill ;111 hllt pariS 01'
tIlt' Carillbl'all ba:.ill rqJJ"l'sclilct! all a:.serliull 01" slIvcflJignl)' r(Jt)ktl ill
Elllighknment though!. Yd a nL'W lofln 01 flclLL'ir,llioll by l:Xll'rll,d jl\l\'Jers-llrst
Britaill alld Frann', tllt.'11 United Statl's-;l'op'lrdil'.t:d thb nationhood.
El:ullollliL and political \wakllL'ss vb:'1 vis Lurul'l' and Nnnh '\1l1<:rka
frcqucJltly lilllited Ill .... ch\lkes available 10 I.atin Alllt'/itan Wilhill
Latin AllIl'rica, 110wer is irunic.lIly ;Llllbiguous: it is tht' SllPI'l'IIll' nllllllludity, bUI it
has ulll)' a Iimih:d dft'("!.
Fourth, LatlLl J\mcrka is bUill ,If HI pllU'-. I:vl'r Sillu: Iht,
Conqm:st, till' n:gioll has bl'l'll .1::'.1 LlIHdotis In:a::.llrl' IhlIlSt' 01 ll,ltural
rl'sourn.'s. r.irst callie the Eurulw,lll 11I::.t Itolr ::.ilvn guld. TuddY Ihe urgl: Illay
be lor pt:'lruleulll, gas, (Uppl'r, irun urt:, cullct', ::'llgar, \lr luI' expandt'd
Iradt.' ill gt.'llt.'ral. but thl' image uf endlt.'::.::. wt'ahh rl'lll;tilb, III ::.I;lrtlillg u)lltrasl,
Ihat.' is also the pk-ture o(povt'rty: p,,-'asillits wurker::. wilhuut jub.\,
<'."Ilildrell withollt food, 11Iothl:'r::. withuut hopl:'. All 'lpllorisJlI \Ill rq)t'atl'll ill I.atin
AJllt'riL.l ::'lJlIllllarizcs this Sll'lll:': i\111I:rk.l i.\ a hegg.H ;,tup a JlIOllllt;lillOI
t)IlV l:'lll t'asily Ihlllk uf additiullal t.ulltr.t::.IS, but illuslrate tilt'
dirtkult)'- fa::.cinatiull -ill Iryillg Iu ("UIlIt' lu grip::. wilh .\llt·11 LUlliplex and
cuntradktof)' rt'alities. Tu uJldl:'r.\laJld Latin i\lllerit"all hbtury alld so;,:kty n:<.juirt·s
a tlvxiblc, broad gaugt' appruach, and thb b wlwi we liner ill this I>uuk. \,Vt' draw
Oil tIlt' work uj many scholars, prl·.\l'lltillg uur OWll illtt'q)rl'l;llioll, bUI also
alllu;,lilllillg thc rt:alier willi .dtl.:.'fll.llive vit'w.\,
Interpretations of Latin America
I'or gellt'[,llitlll::' lllu::.t ;lnal>,::.I::. 1.11' IllOt!l'l"Il I,alill /\lllt'l"Il,l tIlt" area'.\
I'ulitkal instability, Hlarked In,.'qUl:lltly Ly dictalur::.hip. Nurth '\IIH:fit,1l1 and
Ell ropean obst'fvt.'l"s were fasci n;lted by til rl:'C qucst iUJl.\: Why
ships? \-Vh)' not dl:'JI1uuacy? \'\/lly ::.0 IJlUC!l di::.urdl'l"? III 1 a prulllilll'lJt
Alilnicall sudal sdelltist ubservl:'d, ycar::. rull (Ill and Ihal: aris(' thl'
anxidies anJ disappuilltJllellts uf all ill-t'<.juippnl pl'uple: altefllJlting It) I:sl;lolish
trUt' republicaJl furms of goveflllllt"lll." i\ Britbli st.-hular also nutt::d tllat
puliticaillistury of tile re:pubJics has be:cll a n,:'("urd ofalternatillg periods ulliberty
and despotism." Implicitly assuming or explicitl)' asse:rting that thdr style: of
delllocracy is superior to all otlli:r models of politkal orgallizatioll, foreign
writers freljuelltly asked what was wilh Latin AJllerlt.;1. Or with Latin
Amcricans theillsdves.
What passed fur answers was fur mallY yt"ars a .juIllblt· uf racbl 1'l'ithds,
PS)'dlOlogical simpliflcatiuns, geugraphic;l! platilllllt·S, and ulltural dislonhllis.
l ... '.ll.d. • .. Iv""'.... liUYANA

Ill ...,;h...
l'AKALiU,\ Y

o •. 11"111
1l"Y'Pc.' l)UA \,,;. HuMIN" "N kU'UUUl
/ / l'Ul:kTVI<l\""
1:\ lIAIJOI(
",,11 11'/' '11( 'J'A,!,'
- -------T----------
M,"A'''' l Ity",
.... 11 ..\. 1·t\lAI ,\
!VIaI' I .. pordry latin AII1l;.'rkd
in "I!ll'l tkvt.'lupillg arC.I:>, By lilt' .\Ialldard of natiunhuud, thereforl',
I:> ld.lli\'dy uld,
I ,Itlll i\IOt·rk.l tllluUg!LOUt ib hi!>tury bl:l:1I bUlh tUIllUltuuuS
,llltl.\I.lIJIt-. 'I !It'l \IIHpll'SI hcgan a If.ldiliull nfpoJitkal vioknce that has crupted
III anlle:d IIlUVt'lliellb, military intcrventions, and (more
1.ll'l'ly) lde:ulugical ell":Olllllt'rS bl'lween liberalism, positi-
\'1'>11), allarlhblll, sucialislll, ":UllIllllJllislll, fascism, and religious
hlllg'> lit VVl'l")' dOl"Il"ill,t1 hue havt.' sh.lrpt'llnl tht'}' of struggle.
I k:>jlllt' tlH' dilft.·rillg flll"lll:> tlf pulitil;d conJlict, uld sucial <lnd economit: struc-
Illl ,''> 1I""t' 1':vl'l1 wllt'rt' IIIUtkrll have struck, as in t\J1cxico
According to such views, L.,tin Amcrica could not achicve democracy because
dark-skinned peoples (I ndians and blacks) were unsuited for it; because passionate
Lalintempers would not stand it; hecause tropical climates somehow prevented it;
or because Roman Catholic doctrines inhibited it.
E.,ch charge had its refutation: dictatorial rule nourished in predominantly
white countries. such as Argentina, as well as among mixed-blood societies. such as
Mexico; it appeared in temperate climes, such as Chile. not only in the tropics, such
as Cuha; it gained support from non·Catholics and non practicing Catholics, while
Illany fervent worshippers fought for liberty; and, as shown by authoritarian
regimes outside Latin America, such as Hitler's Germany or Stalin's Soviet
Union. dictatorship is not restricted to any single temperament. Such explanations
did not merely prove to be inadequate. When carried to extremes, they helped
justify rapidly increasing U.S. and European penetration-financial, cultural.
military-of the '"backward" repuhlics 10 the south.
Th" scholarly scene improved in the late 1950s and early 1960s, when North
Americ"n social scientists formulated "modernization theory." As applied to Latin
America. this approach held that economic growth would generate the social
change that would in turn make possible more ·developed" politics. The transition
from a rural to an urban society would bring a change in values. People would
begin to relate to and participate in the voluntary organizalions that authentic
(.lemocracy requires. Most important, a middle class would emerge-to play both a
progressive and moderating role. L.,tin America and its citizenries were not so
inherently from Europe and North America. Instead they were simply

Modernization adepts thought the historical record showed this process was
well under wa), in Latin America. One optimistic U.S. scholar maintained in the
1950s that the "middle sectors" had "bccome stabilizers and harmonizers and in
the process have learned the dangers of dealing in nbsolutc postulates." Similarly.
the ;luthor of a latc 1970s history textbook saw "I.atin Amcrican history since
independence as moderni7,ation growing slowly against thc resistance of old
in."tilutions and
Reality, however. proved harsher. Instead of spreading general prosperity,
economic growth in the 1960s and 1970s generally made income distribution more
lInequnl. The gap in living standards lJetween city and countryside grew. The
middle strata, relatively privileged, forged a sense of "class consciousness" which,
in crilicalmoments of decision. led them to join the ruling classes in opposition to
the popular masses. Politics took an authoritarian turn, producing military
governments. And in stark contradiction of modernization theory. these patterns
emerged in the Inost developed-and most rapidly developing-countries of the
continent. What had gone wrong?
Two sets ofnnswers came forlh. One group ofscholars focused on the cultural
traditions of Latin America and their Spanish and Portuguese origins. These
analysts argued, in effect. that antidemocratic politics was a product of a Roman
Catholic and Mediterranean worldview thaI stressed the need for harmony. order,
I" \Vhyl.llI1lAIIWI!t.I
and Ihe elimination of conniel. I.atin Alllrric;l's Cflll ... lillllil'II'" WI'It' IUT('I .1'.
demncnltic as they appeared. parly politics wns nol ;1" rt'l'n'''clll.ltin' :1" it IIlIgh!
have looked. The North !\mcriC;1n and Ellrnpc;11l nculcllli(. (1l1l1l11111l1ty, :1(111\ It'd
hy its own myopia and bi;1ses, hnd simpl)' misrcad Ihl' sot·i;1ll.h I...
A second group of scholars accepled lllodC'rnizat i(11l thel u'y· .. lillk ing III ""N I"
economic causes wilh polilk";11 oulcomes hl11 turncd the ;111"",n l1p..idc d"wl1
I.atin Amcrica's economic devel0plllC'llt W;1" <Jlmlit:llivd)' tlirklTlI1 fl"IH Ih.II 01
North America and West Europe, and Ihcrdf)rr il pmdllt I'll tlifkn'nl pohll<.11
results. Specifically, these scholars nrgll("(1, l.;1tin Allwrio·" nl't'til'tllI' W.I" .11"11'1
Illincd hy the pervasive ("cl o(its et"(ll1(llllk 11("1'C'I1II("nll'. "H\ (!cpellllnu \', •.''''1'11''
exponent of Ihis viewpoil1t h;1" expl.lined,
we mC;Jn;J situation in wh1f..h Ihc ('lOIlOIll\' of (1"'11:1111' "Imlnl"''' ... , "11111111'1\1"'.111\
Ihe de\'elopmcnl and ('xpano;:;oll IIf ;1llullH'1' ('.lIlIOI1l\' In wh .. h lilt' (IHIIII'I I',
suhjeclcd. Thc rciatiOil nf inlcn1('IWIUI('n\c Il('lwCCII ('I' 111"1(' 1'\.1'11'111111'''.
and betwecn thelic :lIu1 world 11:J(Ic. a.... mll('.. 1111' j'lrin .,1 ,kll('lI,IcIl'I' wh,,,
sollle cOllnlries (Ih(' <lom"':!ll1 f"l11(.' .. 1 '.lll ('\I'and and hI"' ..t·ll "".. I.lIIll11g. h'llIlt
olher COUlllries (the t1cl1<'mlcnl nIlC<;) \",11I tl.. Iii ... nnl)' ,I" ,1 ,rlk, 11"11 .. r lh."
cxp.u1sion, which ("an h:l\'(' I"'if!l('r a 1'1''''11\'1' HI a lII'ga I1",' r1lc\ I "II IIlf'll 11ll11\f',II,II,
By ill' intrinsic charadeI', gell(,I.lle,l"p'I>lllllf'ljlll
ties, :lllocating benefits to sectors p,lrticil',lIing inlhc gloh;11 ,HHI
them 10 other groups. !n a cnunlr)' wilh ahlllld,lIli 1,lI1d, Inr c\,lIlll'k. the 111'1""
class elite might reap Inrgc prnfits from agricullnr.d export;.. while work(.·r...IlId
peasants would gain or nothing al ;111. Ikt ,llI"'C 01 their illlerc.. t III
the st;ltuS quo, Iandowilers wnuld have liltle IcnSlln In invest ill di\'{·r.. itlt alion .. I
Ihe loenl economy-thus trc:lting:l Sitll;llil'",hl('ri/l'(1 .1" "glll\\'til \\'111i"lll
When growth hl.:(Urfet!, 11I0reover. it ',\'0111<1 10(' Vulllel',lhll' In ,,"h
stantia I risk: if overseas lll;1rkets (ont rnclcd or I'ril'('s tI('dillcd, 1h(' ('1\t in' ('t 011(111)
would suffer. In other words. prll'ipcl'i!y wa." depclHlclll 111\ 1'.1,1(11''' :lIld dt'( Iw,n...
well be}'ond the control of nati(ln;11 ;1l1lhnriries.
The proponents of a... it quickly 1,1111l' III h(' knllwll.
maint;1inecl that economic del'endency led I,) pnlili(al ;Hllhlllit ......
According to this view, Ihe Inl;1tion Ilf 1.;1lin ,\mclit',I's ('(11l1ll1111'"
placed inherent limitations on the reginn's capacity for grllwlh, t'spe< i:llly ill
industry. The surest sign of Ihis eCClllomil Irnuhle W:1." a (ri"i ... n Ihe fllll"'lj..:1l
"ccollnls-the coulllry's ahilil)' to pa}' for ncctletl illlpprt'i. Expoll" I.Igget!
behind imports, and the difference could nnl}' he IlI,U!c up h}' (.apital inn.,\\. Ihlt
the foreign banks. inlernatinnni ;1gencic:- such .IS the \VllIl.1
Bank-denied the necessary exira financing hecause they hdic\'cd th(' gm'ernllll 'lll
could not impose the necessary "s;\criliccs.
Politic;11 str;11egy fell hn"tagr III th.·
need to convince the foreign creclilors.
The most frequenl solution in the )lJ611s ;lIlt! !lJ70.. wa".1 lIlilll.lf)' <nil I' '1 ht'
resulting diclatorship coulcllhcll lake it" t1eCl"ion.., mll.llly highl}' tllll'"I'1I1.1I
1\1 1'.\1<1 tiNt .. (}lJl. ... ·JIt)N...
,1111. 11111.111011 lIh.'.I:.t1ll·:'. hit Wl'rt' the lower c1asst":.. 11lIpkillentation of such
pUhl..ll::' tlll'ldwl' 'l'lillircd a ht''lvy h.tIId owr till: pupular se..::ton•. Thus. the ..::uups
,!llli rqllt.·...:'>ivt, aUlhorilarian rt'gillles that t.·1I1l·rgt'd in BnlZii. Argt.'ntina, and ChiJe
l.lllll· alltllit lltll III :.pitc ul i.1 Alllt:>rka's ecunolllic dcvdopmcnt, bUI because of it.
Within thb uwr;dl l'unkxt, thc cycle of democratization
lhrlluglh.ut thl' rq;,iull 1..:.1lIght many experienced scholars-by sur-
I)' ':'l·. LII tlll'I.IIt.' J97U:., Ctllintry .IftlT (tH'lltfy replan'd authoritarian regimes
w.tll l iVI!I,I11 Il·,llk.:'> .Jlld dntnl gU\ .... nllllellb. Explalhltiuns lor this trend look llIany
!t'IIII:.. <. >.Ill' hJ hI;." dominanl and 'lIunulithic. authoritarian regimes GlmC to
dl:'I'I.I)' .1 llt-.II ul illluht.·r.... lIl..L' .lIld Iragility. Everyday citizens ro:.(" up ill protest
,,\1,\ ..:I.WIII.... 10' 111l'l1 l iV11..: urg.llliz.ltHJlb, ,Ind demallded popuJar elections.
C.. 1I11101l1nl Ill' .... \'t're el..:CJnullliL crisis, peuplt' Irum Argentina and Chile to Central
AIIll·fh...1 l')"pre:.:. their polilical right:.. Whether or not these new electoral
IlIlIy MdemlX.·r.ltk," a point thai led to much debate, they represenled
I.1I ... idl·r.lhk Implovl'lI1etlt O\'el" Ihe hlatantl)' dictatorial jXHterns of previous eras.
SI..IIIII .. I'> .11)!)nlOll..lll'd tlh."Sl.' devdopllll'IlIS with intellectual caution. Instead of
1.1I11l lulIg gr.lIIl! Ihl'orilAs, :.udl .IS 1II0dc:rlliz.ltiun ur dependency. analysts
... 1I l· nl till' role HI bdid:.. idl·3:., ;llld hllllhill (OllVit·lion. Some interpreted the turn
10w,IIli dl· .. ItJ......a...), III I..llin J\lIlt.·rk.J and a:. a glubal triulllph of U.S.
V.dtll·... ...,d.lIly III light 01 Ille (ullap:.e ul the Suvil't Union (and the discrediting
1I11\"i .. 1 idl·ulogy). Uthl'l:' .... Illph.l:.iznlthe impurtance of leadership and la(tical
111.1.ll·lIVl·'", .11 lIlt' dill' Il:'vd. Stili olher:. the I..'mergl..'nce of Mdvil society."
e:,pl'll,dly Illl' I1l't wurk:. of urgallizul ions that gavl.' shape and coherence
It ••Illli·i.lll And il null'd, 100, that ideological traditions
11,... 1 eVl'r .. HI...·l' lhl' IH2U:. emhrined till' ideal of demucracy as a widespread
a,,/llfflfllJ11 1..1Iin AlIleril'''1, I..'WIl if it had been systelllatkally denied
luI' .ll·l..hl .. ·... 1111 l·lId.
1·: ...·.. J1]lIl1l1l IJI\/:'>PL'l·1:. bnghll'lled a:. \\'eli. Under pressure from international
IllllJllgholit tILe !YXU:.. l.alin AIllf'rkan Il'aders imposed far-reaching
.lniglll'd tll -IiIJer.t1izl.·" their nalitllwl ecoJlullIir.:s-rcdudng lariffs and
b.1l1 kl:. 10 tr.Ldl:, :.cllilig :.Ialc suppurted l'olilpanies 10 private investors. and
dllt.lilillg ddil'it Inllatiull dedilll'li alld foreign investment incrt.'ased. As
:L rC"'lIlt, in Lalill America rOSt' from a scant 1.5 percent per year in
19M:' 10 3.2 pl.·l ... enl ill the !lJ9Us. BlIttlte ullexpected Ollset offiunncial crisis in
tvkxi...u ill l.lll' JYl).J and ill Brazil ill l'ady and Argentina's disastrous
l'lunlllllic lllllal':>c ill 20tJl, led tll dbendl<.lntlllt'nt ami confusion. Hopes for
l"\..UlllIlllIl. dn'dupllll;."111 pkkl'llup !rOIil 2U04 thruugh 2007. ",hell overall growth
l·;\l'l·.... ded 51'1..'1'0.:\.'111, but the glubal el'onolllic crisis of 2008-09 brought this
jlo:.itivc ph.ISl' to;1 and sudden t'nd. Once again, the economic outlook for
L.ltill Alllt'r1l';1 W.I:. plagued by Illlo;.>rtaiJlty and doubt.
Wnhin el'onolllil' realm. SOllll' expl'rt:. rt'garded Ihe growth spurt of the
l'.I.I}' I"Nth ,I:. Vi'hlil.ltiull 11)1' rree-market 1>oliC}' reforms. Others
Ilokl! th.11 the :.urge tellded to rdlect Ihe ebb and flow of international invest-
IlIl'lIb, .1lIl! l'apital promptl)' vanbhed ill the fact' of crisis-leaving Latin
1 • Why Lilm AlIl..-rica? II
AlIlerica ;ust as "dependent" as before. lJl (tllliinttilig I..UII(l·l'II, for lllan)'. was thl'
probklliatic relationship between l."COIIUIllk ;Ind poliliGl1 tr.lll:.ltlrllwtiun. Dul;.":'
economic liberalization lead to political JemocraC)'? Or 'Hight it be tilt: otht."r \"ay
around? Recent developnll'llb in AlIll'fil:a thu:. r;lIse new qUl'stiuliS alld POSl'
t."Olitilluing intellectual challenges.
Analytical Themes in This Book
Thb book i:. a survey 01 Latin /\II1"'l'Il,11I hi:.tory. IIl1t ,I lonllul.II.011 ul :'Ul i.1I
theury, but we cannot t"SGlpC thl' Ilel'd lUI .1 LlIIH.l.'l'tual 11.11lIework ill
approaching our malt"na!. Froll! llludl..'llli,.tIIUIl lhl'ul)' \\t.' born.>\-.' 1\"'0 (t.·ntr.1I
• the causal premise that CCOIlOllll( tr..lII:.ltu intluu;, l'hange..
which. in turn. lead to polilicall..:unsc<llll'IlU·S; and
• the related idea that shifting alli.lnCt."s alllung SOl.i.11 d.lss group:. giVt.'
to changing pallcms of politKal (olllll( t OWl' lillil'.
I'or Ihes.... reasons, each of our CiIM' :.ludy l .111 U\ el vil'w :.edion un
Me(onomic growth and sodul chang.... • Ihat prt'l..edn till' db(Il:. ... lllll 01 !,ulilk:.:
While till' original depcmlclIlia ;Ippro.ldl has long :.illl'l' dbapp....lrcd Inull
;Kudl'mk fashion, we still regar<1 it:. f.alll .... work a... ,I u...dul heuristi\. devkl·.
Accurdingly. we adopt tht" notions 111.11'
• a country's place in the inlel"llatillll;l! divbJoll til I.tllol' ddim"s till' :.hapl' ul
availablt' paths to economic gruwth;
• functional location on the Mpt'riphery· vf till' world :I:. dist ilKl frU.ll
the commercial-industrial \."elltcr." alld dl'vd")IUllI'1l1 al a :.I.lgl· whell the
Nurlh Atlanlic was already f,lr advillll:wl, 1I1t';tlll that l'... Ollomic
transfurmations in Lalin i\u1l'rio..a wlIu[.1 !II' dilll.'I ...·ul trom pattern:.
travt=rsc:d earlit:r in Europe.: alld Nvrth Amcllca;
• these differences in t:conolllic would produce dincrl.·llt lorlll:. t)1
su...·ial change-with fur example, to the nalure of Iht'
classes,· Iht urban and rural wurking and th.... rt.·latiunship alllong
these classes;
• this combination of sucial alld et.onul1Ii ... lon.:e:. would ddllll' the uption:.
available to politiGlllcadt'rs .lntl hl'ip expl.lin the ;;lller,lliOli of dl'moaatic
and authoritarian regimes;
• within these constwint:., some Latin }\111.... lilall Llluntrit.':'llJd much bdtcr
than others in C'xpluiling thl'ir UWII f'e.)UlIru:. (nped.llly ... gricultural) for
economic development.
'Our 300lc exception IS MexII.\) (eh,ll'lel J), ",llel ..· Ille lle\'ululll/1l ui 1<)10 cxcllcJ 30udl a 3otfOll!)
IllOllen....: 011 lhe llation's development .11,11 Wl' dUJM" 'v cllll'luy OJ Jllkrl'nl fUrlllJI
12 1'1\ In ONE • AND I .. \\'Il\' 1.111'1 1\111' II,,'
1 ,
In this l...onlexl. it is essenli;llto (he great varialinns in rCSOllrces.
capacities. and circulllstances or nations in the region. Those with large popula-
tions :01(1 diversifie(l natur;11 resnurces (Mexico and llrnil) were eventually ahle to
llndert;1kC' suhSI;1nti;1\ progr;1l1lS Clr industri;1!iz.lIion, Those with essential raw
nwteri:ds. such ;IS petroleum (Vellewela) an<l natural gas (Rolivia). managed at
limcs 10 henefil rrom rising priccs on world markets. Elsewhere. lhe presence or
copper anel other induslri;11 mel;1ls (Chile and Peru) led rordgn companies to
eSlahli<:h large-scale mining operations, And in lropical ;1nd scmitropical areas.
wndil i'lns or c1imatc and soil cncouragccllhe cultivalion or sugar (especially in the
Cnrihhe;ln) Ihat rise 10 whal we rdel" tn as "planlation A key
challenge ror all countries or the region has heen how 10 trOl., ... fol'ln Ihe earnings
fr<,llll commodity exports inlo processes or economic diversification "nd sdr-
sllst"illing devehllHllCnl.
111 olher words. we intend to examine Ihe relationship hetween sociely.
culturc. economics. and polilics within ;lIl inlernational cOlltexL We helieve Ih:ll
this :lpproach call he applied to the clltire modern era. We shall he looking for "uch
COlllleclions Ihroughout the honk,
We limilation!' in Ihis (or ;1ny) approach. We helieve Ihat
hi< arc cOlllplex proces!'e!". and to under!'tand Ihem we
need tll adopl a Idea... and ideology. for example. not
merely adornment ... or superstruclure!"; they importMlt efrects on the
perceplion", attitude!'. and action!' or lhe people wh(l m;tke history, Anyollc
who has ever tried 10 compMC the polilicallraditions nr Argentina ancl Brai"i1
can vouch for this truth. Demographic factors, such ;1S rapid population
growth. also have rar-ranging social and political dfecls, In om porlrait or
Latin American society. we hope 10 integrale an "inlel'llational political
eCOIlOlll)'" "pproach with consideration or cultural and other noneconomic
Our nnrrativi,' begins hy descrihing flrstthc Conquest and Ihe colonial p<"riod,
1492-UU:'. when L.1Lin America entered Ihe periphery or the capit;1list world·
syslcm through suhordination to Spain and Portugal. \,\'e then descrihe how the
(lisnlption or Ihis connection led 10 independence. rollowed by a phase or ecn-
nomic "nd politinll consolidation hetween 1830 and 1880,
The core or the book presents in-depth case studies or long-Ierm transit ions
rWIll the nineteenth century Lo the present. \Ve have dcliherately adoptet'l a
longiludinal focus on individual nations (or cluster!' or nOll ions) in order to
facilitate Ihe detection and ;lnalysis or historical over time. In addition.
the maleri,,1 in this section provides empiric;1\ evidence for testing. evalualing.
and crealing hroad conceptu;ll frameworks (an)' theoretical framework.
we insist. not only Ihe ones that we employ here), C.haplers appear in the
rollowing order:
to Mexico. a close neighhor 10 the Uniled States. the scene of a majnr popular
I1phc;,w:l1 ill 1910;
• Central America :lnd Ihe (:al'ihl1(':lII. ,lle,I" lh.I',I<lnl/c,1 1,I.Inl,"I"11
economics and American domination II geogl ,Iphll .11 111111... ,II"
properly reg,lrtled as "itll(" WC' l.ltf·11 Idn I,. ,III ,.1 1.,1111
America OlS a
• Cuha. an isl;1lld so dependelll on sugar :lnd III Ille 1·1,'1111.1 ... 1.. " ,', II"
one l.<ttin American !'ncit'ly lhat h,l" undngllllt' ,I lull IInlgctl ...." 1,111""
revolill ion;
• The central Andes (Holivi.!. l'elll, h'l.ltlnt), ,I \\'1111 ... 11"'11:
indigenous tradilion:- and 1111<.crl;,in <;.Iep<: 10W,ll' I ... , ,II.d IIy .111' I 11.111' .nIH"" I.
• Colomhi:l. a 1l.llioll whel"!""\lnlililal IIc'lll" I,ll r l.w\i ... l... \·.111l /'\1"11""\'" ,1111):
I rarricking ill an al Illmp!lere of "ystetlli( vi, Ikl1l c;
• Velle7.uela. a wllrld-cl:lss l'fl1l1111.-l'r lit "ii willI ,1 "11 tlli'l I\' ... 1.ll,k Iw" 1',111\·
democracy Ihal h:ls given \\'a}' Itl :\lIt!lnrilal.... 11 nde":
• Argenlina. a t:/llllIII'Y hy I"erlil(' '1I11ll'llldllllt\"t' 1',11"1'.1<,. wl,,,1 ,·t!I,\
internal strire alld mililary inll'rvl'tlll"n hd"I" Illl' rl', f'll1 r'· ... lr'III'II.III .,1
• Chile.:I leading "Ollrle or IIl1r,lIl'''' ,mol ,111'1,,'1 ,11111 Ih.· ",1,' "I ,HI ,11-"",\,
sod"li"t experimenl, allli
• Hrai"i1. all expan<:ive n,llil)n <:CI well klHHVtl IIII II .. It.I.11I",tl.II 1'1111'11,1"'" ,'1'
(olTce and, 1110re re\,.('nll)', II,> 1,11'"1 mlltl ... IIl,11 .. n"h ,1111'.1 ., ,I, Ill'" ,_,I"
\Vc give rull considcralinn III <:Oli.ll and plllllh.d Ih("IHC... III ,'\n\, "lie 01 Ill/' • ,I·'
studies. and each chapler t:;11l he re.IlI11Hlcl'clIl!clllly
1\ suhsequent "rrefS an,ll}'l i, 011 ")'lllhC'<:e<: ,111.1 ( hIe t 11"1'1"1
reviews econolllic sl nile! pnlil ic,,; .lnlliller Ill•.11 C'" 1',lllelll'" "I I" ,I,t" .11
Ir:l1lsrnnnalion within comparal ive \If'r,pc, t i\'c; I he IhI I'd "lid 1111.11 (' ...... 1\' , "Ill Illd,",
1he h"ok wil h an CX;llllinal i, III of IInl illn,11 ,-, ill IIt c' .... illlcllc, 111,11 t lCll' k ,I tI, I j, II 11" ."
artislil expression.
hook orrer." :1 pictllre or I ,al in 1\ l11el"l,':111 "'4 'l 1<'1 \'. lH11 .1 llelllllI1"" , ,11.11, 'J: ,,j
raCI<:. Our goal is 10 Ir:lce paltern" .llul IrcIlIl .. lh.l1 Iwll' II'" II' IIIUlf'l<,I,11111 Ill,'
(omplcxilies and varialions in I.alin Amcri... a'!, p.llb... III the 1'lr""1l1 \\',' h"I'''- "III
preselllat ion will stilllulate ,Iisnl<:<:illll .Ind tkhall' ..llltl Wt' c"lwll I h,lt c;1 'II knl ... ,lIlt I
colleagues will disagree wilh mallY of nllr illterprdnlilln... Aho\'(' ,III. \\T \\,1111 I"
introduce our readers to tile excitC'lllenl and r:l"dn:lli')l1 of Ih,' hi,lnl)' ,,1.111,111'.1
thnl is intriguing in its own and h,l<::l vitnllolc III I,I.IY "" Ihe \\'"dol ... L'f·'
The Colonial Foundations
l"hlll\..d Il·.L1nll..·...I ltllllllll":>1 .llld have
... h.ld.. \\., UVl'r lJlodt'lll !..llill j\lllt'ril,..l. I hrec (,.{'IlIUrlC::. of IInperl;l1 rull'
llllill kd lit'l'l' .11uIIMIIIIIlI wlIund:. 011 Lull tlf Ih,,-' region, hierarchical
t l,l.lll. HI,IIII'" \ II dlll.J(HHI .llld dl'I'l:lldI:"IH::y. "'he power ofcAternal alilhorit y-
Jlllll.III)' IUll'lll', 1'lll'l Ulllh,'d tu be ar..cepkd .Iml n:jcclt'd.
•1I!JllIll,d .llId k.lll'd. ,Ill .1I11blV.t1l'nt lIb)"'Cl 01 and l..'ono:rl1. At the
.... lllll· 1IIIIt', Il t 'Hlll l'l'i::.II,ll·... 01 11..1 inju::.tkc :lIltl n:bellion again:)t
..11111 h"lltlt'.tlhnll'l'.'>.::.lllIg III pupul..r IJC:lllil)'. persoll:.J1 pnll ......111<.1 col
lnll\\' ..dl \'lllpIIWL"lllh:lll. Anlill ;llld tnumph.·::' or mutual
,1\!J" .. lllWIlI .llId .IHUIIIIlIO\l.ltlull 1II,llk II possible lor European colonizer::., indi-
).:1'1\.111.. I'\'llpl\'", ,lilt! Illlpurkli !\trit,lll ::.1.IVI'::' 10 furgt' (Ulllpll.:X ::.ucielk'::, with
It)hlld Il.I,lll .. m::., \'llUIIHUll::. t'lll'lgy, ,IJld JiJllit!t·s::. ..::;:tpadty fur (h.llIgl.", Althuugh
llldl'l'l'lIllt'llt fl.ttIWI .. would LIlt.:f ::'t'paratl" paths, tht'y all reveal 111 .... lin-
gl'llllf-',dll" h ut Ihl .. tUIUllial ":Xp\'I"lI'IIt"t',!\::' till" ::.lory uf I.atin Ameril.l ullfolds, Wt:
1'llltJllllh'1 I'Jldln.. 1.1I1'S lit' t·rl·aliv.... adaptation 10 illauspidoll::' drClll1lSlalKl'.
t'lIdllllllg .lIld upllllllig tnl.lllll'nb 10 hUl1JaIi lunitude allll
\,'In'll 1.111"1'1',111:' h'.lllJI.-·ll pll-::'1:1l1 d..l)·l..ltiIlAlIlerica.they fuund llirt'\.' important
I.-Ivlli/.ltll,n..: 1\1.1)'.111, Al.k....llld 11ll.J,Il. That w\.' :.huuld ::.till callthl.." native peoples
1,1 1111.. Ill"III:.!,llt"ft' Illdi.lll"· pel pduate::. tile ... rrur of sixlt.'enth-celliliry Spaniards
wh" h.llltnitu Iwilt'W tltl')' h.ld rl'.ldlnl tht' SpIU: rich Indies,
lltl.-' l\1.lY.ln I'l'Upil'. whtJ VI-Clipit'd the Ylicitt:in Penin:.ula, ,:,ollthern Mexico,
.llltllllU:.1 ,,( pi 1.-".. ,'111 d.ty CU.lh:III.d.l. to build their civiIi1.... ·11ion around 500
tH ,I. rhl' 1t .....1 1.llIlOll.:. <llhic"Vl"IIll.-'llb ut tllb gruup wcrt: cultural-nol only the
hlllldlllg ull'xqllblk 11.-'1 II I'le.:. hUI abu l'iolll:t:ring .. l.. ....umpli:.hnwllts ill .Jr.... hilcUure.
"ltdplltlt', I',li II II Ill-), llil'l'ogl),l'hk writing, 11l.ltht:matics, a.:.trulloIllY, and chroll·
"logy (ill\llldlllg thl' lllVl'lltitlll III lall'ndal':"). Nunnally into a seril,s uf
1 • Till' Cululllal FUlllUl.llltlll1> 15
independent dty-states, some with pupulatiuns ul 20U,000 uf Ilion:. tit .... May.lll::'
developed a complex social order. For rcc,,::,oIlS ulliulown, MaY'llI suciety
collapsed. falling victim to domination (972-1200) and thl'lI 'Iusorption (I20U
1540) by Toltec invadt:rs frum the (c;'ntral M .... xi(J,1I highland::.. Yt't. till' direct
descendants of the Molyans haw sUl"viwd in southern Mcxitu illld Guaklll.d.1
down to our own day.
Mexico's spacious central vi.lllt:y ewntually became Ihe :'1::11 of Iht' A7kl
empire, Ollt' of the Chichimcc tribt'::. Ihal Glint' flUIII the IUlllh to subdue Ihe
Toltecs ill the.: lwelfth and thirtee:llth centuries, the Aztl·C:. t'ng.lgcd in comtant waf
wil h their nt'ighbors, nnally construt"ting Ihe c..-ity .lruulld 131') (VII
thl' site of contemporary Mexico City), After gaining (Ol1t rul of th.... elltirt' vall!::)' vI
Me:xico, they created a major empire-une that wa::. just t'l':Khing its peak :I:.
Columbus tOllched shore ill the Ciribbe:lll,
Aztecs were fur th.... ir military urganization alld prOwt'ss at l'erl'lllunial
cit),-building, Their art, exc.... pl fur their haunting puetry, W.IS inkrior ill suhtldY
and aaftsmanship to that of many other ancient tvkxiC:lIl t..ivilizatiolls,
In its final form, Aztec soddy was rigidly stratified. At the hUllolll Wl'rl' slaw::.
anJ .. t the top was a hereditary nobility. Education. rn.lrriag1.:. and labvr wert'
meticulously programmed. Land wa:. OWIlCJ individually by buth c..UIIII110nCfS and
nobles, but communities also shared lhe fruits of laml held cOllllllunally.
Hereditary rulers. such as MuctewllW II. ccxercisl'd illlmen:'l' political power.
Dc-spitl' centralization uf authority. however. conqucrt.'d ::.t:.lks in neighbOring
areas were not incorporatt'd into lhe t'mpire. The)' were treated as trilmk-p.I)'ing
vassals. Smile-notably nearby TlaxGlla-retained tlleir illdl'pt'ndcllCc but kept ull
a perpetual sl.lIe of \Val' with Tcnochtitl:in, Onl' rea:.on fur thi:. w.lrfare was 1hal thl'
Aztec rdigion required human sacrifkt:. and prisuners (If war (nuld bt: sel"vccd Ill'
for bloody ritual::.,
Incas adopted a vcry different p;lttern of organization, Theil' cllIpirt' Slrcl..:hcd
for 3000 miles along the Andt's, from Ilorthern Ecuadur Ihrough Pau to soutlll'rtl
Chill', and into the interior <1::. well. After cunsolidating their hold ill th.... Clll.CV
Valley in Peru, the Incas began expanding their empire ill the l"arly 14UO::. and
continued until the Spanish COllllllcst in 1532. (The tcrnl/lll"fl ruler or king
and abo rcrus to the people of Cuzco.) Once dc:feated, groups became inlt:gr..ll
parts of the empire. To strengthen suppurt for lhe l'mpcror. or Inca. local
from cUll<luered areas were brought to Cuzco tn:";.lLed as roy.ll while
resistant elements in recently conqut:J'l"d zones were trall::.ferre:d to cuntrollell
by loyal followers. Political powc;'r bdonged to a tightly organized. highly disci-
plined bureaucracy. with teams of local official::. on the bOIlOI11 alld a :.ingle
supreme: ruler at the top. Incas wen: thereby able to command ellel..liw authority
over most of the Andes.
Incas were master enginct"rs, building a vast ruOld (fur hUlllall and
3llimaltransit. since they did not ust: the whed). all intricate irrigatiull::'YSIl'Ill, and
impressive terraced agriculture on mountainsides, They maintained vast gwnarit's
thilt supported their armies, as well as local populatiolls ililillll":' 01 failed harwsts,
The Incas ;111'0 excelled in textile design and in treating head injuries, the laller
lllO\d(' possihle hy eXlranrllinary skills at trepanning Ihe human skull.
Aside from the Mayans, A7.lCCS, and Incas, there were many othcr nalive
ndllll'eS, In Ihe nren of modern-day Mexico alone, there werc over 200 dillerent
linguislic groups. Estimates of the si1.e of Latin America's indigenous popul;ltion
h:we v.. ried widely. Olle scholar has set the figure at 90 to 112 million, with .10
million each in cenlral Mexico and Peru. Though this calculation may he too high,
it i .. cleM that by Europc:m stnndards of the I.. tc fifteenth cenlury, indigellous
sodetiC'<; h;ld grown very "H'ge. Then the Spnniards .. rrived.
The EuropeClIl Context
Eun\l\c's of America (lhe Indians presulllnhly knew where they were)
w..... pari t\f lhe remarkahle European expansion in the fiFteenth century. Europe
w.. s coming to know the rest of the world, as its navigators .. nd explorers pmhed
h:1Ck the fmllliers of then-current knowledge of the glohe. Fly Ihe early 1600" Ihe}'
h:HI woven a nelwork of cOllllllunications all the way .. round the earth. and had
e"!;lhli<;hed Ihe economic llolllinance that would shape thc modern worlel.
This hurst of Eurnpenn expnnsion was m.. de possihle hy a combination of
f:HJors. Onc was lechnic;!1 skill. Pilotage and navigation were Ilotahk ex:nl1ples, as
was the <lhilily 10 <lclapl wastal ships 1o Ihe ch<llknges of the open oce:lIl. Another
eX<lnlple was weap{mq'. which was 10 fortify Ihe Europeilils againsl the oc..:.. .<:iol\-
ally Well-<ll'llled nntive peoples. ns in Mexico.
A SCCll11d fnclor was the economic hase, which furnished capital fnl the
maritime ami milital)' ellierprise. Technology alone was not enough. Viking<; hnd
shown Ihe technical ahility to reach America but lacked the resources to carr)' out
selliemcill ilno coloniza!inll, which required men .. nd money. In short. the New
\Vnrlcl WolS not to he hnd hy speClllrllors of small reSOl1J'ces or Iimitcd purpose,
Third, Ihere had to he a European rower inleresled in more than technical
l'xpertise and profit. It h<ld to he ready to purSllC Ihe unknown with exCel'IiOlWI
tIelerrll illal iOl1. and I'ortllgal fit Ihis descript ion. These Cit holic mon;lrchies.
wllh their ide,,1 of converting heathen masses to the Irue religioll. had a
unitl"e motivnlion. in p.. rlicular had come late tn the consolidation of its
tcrritOf)' against the Muslims who had ruled the Iherian Peninsula since the eighth
centur),. Portugal, although earlier rid of Muslim rule, was equally cOlllmitted to
Ihe militanl spread of the Christian faith. Their holdness set a precedellt for
Europe;ln intruders into Latin Americil over the nexl four cenluries. However
much Latin AllleriGl. struggled, it was to remain an extension, al limes a contra-
diclion. of the Europe thai had sailed west in the fifteenlh centlll)'.
It was no ..:oinddence that ColumbllS reached America in the ),ear that thc
Spaniards liquidatcd the lasl Moorish slronghold in Sp.. in. Thc reconquest down
fhe Iherian Peninsula S:l.\V Ihe w<lrring Christian nobles .. cquirillg land ;lnd Ihe
crown slrengthening its politic,,1 cnnlrnl. The l('<;1l1l hy 111')) \V.I":1 llnhiltl\' .l1I,1
would-he nohility for more conqlle<;t". aod a lnlWll re,uly I" ,llln 1,111",1'
suhjecls overseas.
Spaniards therefore reachct.lthe New World in a spinl alre,lll\ well
developet.1 al home. Spain hnd 1l10dCr:l.IC opporlunity ftlr lll'w.lrd ."" I,d
mobility. and there is considerahle evidem:e 10 Sllf*('<;1 Ihat the New \Yfllll! \1111
qllcrors-I-Iern:in Corles, Fr<lndscc, Pi7.arro, ;llltltilcir fl\llowcl<; (;lIIIC III Allleill ,I
in order to win soci:t\ status as wclI as weallh. mOIIY.IIIOIl wa" Un dllll!>1
complex. Ferdinand and Is.,hella alltl !oouLce<;<;ive 1ll0narLh" Ihollghllhe wl'.lllh ,,( Ih,'
New \"'orld could strengthen Iheir hand in FllfllJ1e. ;.. bU)' dCtli, .lled llli ...,IIIn.II .....
hoped to S;lve the souls ofhe:lthen Indians, The umquel"l h.ltl 1Il1111l1'h' pllfp' ,.,,.., 111
mind: as one conquist<ldllr said, •v·/(' l;ltl1e herr III scr"r f ;nd .llld Ill." Kl11g. ,I lid .11'.1>
In get BUI Iheir lellll';lllll.ntive :lpl'ears In haw he('11 Ill(' ,l( hinTlllc1l1 "I 11,,1>1,
rilllk and we;"lth, (Ahoul IIlle thinl of the conql1cllIl <; of !'el'll (.1111(' fillm the 11'''''1"1 "I
·common- nohility: 1\\'(' Ihinl<; werc of plehci.ln '1 he.,,, \"'rIC P("'I,1e- \\1111
10 v.ain.) Thus driven. Ihey ..('I oul fill' thev kncw Ill,t wh.II 111.1 If'\\' ,,111111 \".1' '.
Ihey had lPppled the might)' empire<; ollhe A/I('( .. ,Ind II\(' 111I.1"
Ilow did Ihe)' do il? \Vhen Corti·<; <;el nul fillm (;1Iha low.lId f\ln;u 0111 I ,1'1.
he had onl)' 550 men .. IHI 16 horses. \OVilhill Iwo :llld .1 h,11t yc,lI<;, hI' ,11101 Ill'.
h;ltlered Spmlish cnntillgenl (hplslcred hy !'ocvcr.ll hllndled rcinlnll"lllt"nh)
reduced tn ruhhle Ihe lll;lgnifkclll /\1.Ie<." lapilal "I II'llI'11 1110
c;lpitulalion of the di<;he;lrlenccl alld hewildered ;"!l1llcllllll.l. ,111,1
crushe(1 the fin;ll re<;i<;l.11lle of forLe<; led I,}' Ihe ((llIl".lg<'OIl<' (·Il.111hlt'll\p, f hi"
expl;lnation for their fe;lt wa<; Ihe sllperinrily of Sl'ani"h "Iplll'lllrni .tIld In h
nology-gullpo\\'(lcr (for musket" ;lml .:annpn<:), hor"e". ..llld Ilw
confidence to stay consl .. ntly on Ihe ;llIack: lll.1porl;lnl .11"0 \\'a" the rnk ..1 ""11
/\1.lec peoples. such as Ihe whn I'c"i"lcd ;llltl r('<:Cl1le<l AItC< It. '1lIlll.III' III
and who sl.lpplied Ihe Sp;lllianis wilh lroops and ,l(lviLe 111\ ,lppl'llpll:l.l" 11111,1,11\'
tactics. Finally, and perhap,<; mllst illlp(lrtant. an 1)lllhr(',lk pi 1'l"t'\'lllll"l\'
unknown in the America". ravaged a nativc popllblion I.Kklllg nalllr.11 illHl1l1l11l\
By 1521. Iwo years afler the st;lrl 01 Ihe enrlc'<; call1p:l.ign .lIlt! k<:<: Ihan t hll' \ \ (',lI',
after CoIUl11hu<;'s firsl \'o)'age, Ihc A1tel ellll'ire hatllnllell under .. h '\lllIH.l
CorleS. Inst no time in as<;crling his :Hlthority. lie cxlr:tt le(1 .. I
from neighboring chicft;lins .. nt! directed a vigorous re":OI1<;lrIlCliol1 dlnl'l
Some fadors that !:wored the Spani.. nls in jv1cxkn (Ipcr,llrd al ..o Ill. 1'1'111. 1'111
Pi1..arro's t<lsk was simplified by theciviJ war Ihen wl';lcking Ihe Inl.W elll.pil(,: 1111' III' ,I
Atahualpa. preoccupied by the local cOllflid. never tonk Pi/aTTn ,I. ... ,\.,
",.. rranted. The small Spanish band "cwll.lpli<;hell Ihe takellVCl" hy I 1;\. 'nll')' \ .tIll" I
off as Ihcir hooty a hoard ofgold :t1l(1 silver larp,e 10 fill a 12' ... 17' IIlI'l1l. III Ihl'
height ofa man's cxlcnd('<1 aml. 'I'he dreanl of 1'.1 I)nr;llin h:llil (1111(' Ifll(' ill. Ill,(' 1\1\,1,'"
'11 Iraditionall)' IhollAhl Ihal J\7h" \... w,',I!;'rl ....,1 hr ,I 1.. 11< I 111 ,r 11,," IlU.I.I'''f
were di\'in(' a"d Ihal lhr W"I')lI('I,al, ";Irl ll .... ,·,,1 <. h.. h.
$harpl}' lhallrnr.rd idea
II did 11\'1 I,Ikl'!OJlg lUI 10 re\,.ll',Ill' lilimy oflhdr uWIl
III IIll' Alllcri.. ,I". 'J'lll')' IHll I)'llk,IJly Sp<lnish for cities and cn:ated rkhly
Ullllpk'l( slribn I)evpll: frulll.lll w..lks orlifl' in Spain-
...1111..', ulld..'1 light illlilligl\lliull conlrul. III lilah' their way in Ihe New World.
Ml'll d\Illlilwll'd Ihis ACt,.-nnJillg 10 a siudy on Peru, fur instance,
\\'Illk lll.d.. tlutllllJllbl'rl.'d while hy ,II Il',lSI 10 one, This IIOt only
'll',t1l,.. lor 111l: h,llids vi Sp.lIlbh WOllh'n; il also led
10, Indl.1l1 WUlll ..'1l ,I:. thl'ir l'ulborb, TIll'ir childn:n. often illegi-
llllldh". 1..,11 Ill' til bl' klluwn a:.lIIl.'\/lZII:;. In 111111.:, thl:" mestiz() !"<lce would become (he
dOlllill,lll1 l"Ihllil ,tlllIl'0lll'nl til 11Ill.. h ul Sp.ltlbh AllIt'rk,l. illdudlng tVlexko.
I \'Illl.d I\tlll'li.. a, ,11Id tILt'
Tlt l, 1I11Wll MltHl tl',diznl it had .. cunllici 01 inkre:.t wilh thl' inde-
!,"IHlt-llt alld promplly l,.'rt:illl:d all e1aborale bUl"e<lucn.l":Y.
\k"ll',IJ\'\1 t'l knV III,' Nl'W \\lvlld l,.. unlllllY alHi slIckty under 1IJ'll1 conlrol. In
... ".1111 tIll' kl'y luI' N\:\V \,Vorld W.lS Ihe: Cuuncil nf Ihe
till' IllJil1 L1111( ul Ilrgalli/.lllun the vin'ruy... lty, hCo.ldcd by a viceroy
c\ I\l' ,IPllUillkd by Ihe king, Till:" fir:.t vl\,.cruyahy was l'siablished in Mexico
(tll\'ll kIlU\\lI .1,> Nl'W ill Ic;'lS, thc in PdU in 1544; Iwo olht'rs
wi up III til,' l'lght"'\'nlh cenlury, Till' dHlrdl h,ld led by Ihl'
.lldlhl'<llllp ,II1d by (h\, ollkiab 01 11l1.' Ilt\luisilioll,
III 1".JdIU', ,hi .. hurl',HKlacy I,'d Iv lOIlIlil.:1 OVl'r mailers of
11\.11, lflll till' gl'lliu.. t)ltlH' 1II,It Ihl'y d('vdnpnl, could
,11\\"1)'> lit' tr.lll:'I11111\'tll<I.l high\'l ;llililorit)'. :.u..:h as thl' viceroy or Ihl.' Council of
thl' Indll'''_ I hi" ll\,'.1 II I llhll th\'" would a:. watchdogs over
l'.ll.h Ullin Irum pl'!"iodil fl'views ,lIlJ invcsligations of performance in
ullkl"). t\llllthcl k.llull' of thl' W,I,>. its n\'xibility,
.tli gluul' .. lc.rd oj 10 Ihl' burl'allcn,Ky, And though the crown
1.'1;11111'11 llllllll,tt\' .l11111\lril)/, 100di ulfi(iab aUIOllOl1lY,
.. lInwlI hy Ihdr 1"1'Sp\)II:.\':. Iu IVy;l1 fJl:ro fit) (lI/11p}!)
-1 .1\1..'"\11 )'11111 .llIthOltt)' but \"ill rIot eXl'cule Ihis 1<1\'/"), Despite ils
w\,.'udllg IdIU... yIII r.l .. Ilh' 1J1lr\,allcr,I\'Y ratht'r well in the N\'w
\Vwld, kn·plllg thl' under rult: fvr lll'arly )00 )'ears.
lJndl'rpillllillg Ihb rtKI IIrl' W'I:' a Set of valut's and assulllpl ions thai
Iq;llllllll'l'\1 I1lt.J1l;lr\ Imal. ditbl rule, 'I ht')' sklll/llcd from thl' fundament;.!) Roman
<. ',llhnill.. pI\'mbl', 1110:.( ..:-k.III)' arlldtlatt'd by Thomas AqUinas. th<lt there were
Ihrn' killd" 01 1,1\\1: divine 1,1\". is. OWll hl'awl1ly will; natural law, ;l
pl'l k\ I rdl"llivn or t'ITlhudimt'lit ul divil1l' law in till' world uf nature; and human
1.1\'/, Ihoruughly illlpt:rfl"(I,lllelllpt to approximate God's will within society,
Burn ill sin, hUlll,wily W.1S fallible by definition, and it was only by the
\II <. ;I.d pl'lIph: wert:: 11'SS f.lllilJk Ihan olhers, The goal of polilical
l'lg,lllll.1I1UIl, tht:ld'Jll', W.IS (u dt'V,lk Ihl' Il':'ls fa!liblt: to power so tht'y could
Illkl Jlrl'l .llu!l'xe..:-uk will ill a way, And Ihe ruler, OIlCt' in power,
I'l':'POll .. ibll· t\l Ill ... HI' own and 10 God-not to Ihe will of Ihe
This ralionale pruvidnl convincing lor Ilie.-' ul Ihe
Sp<lnbh monarch, Its Iheolugic;ll origin I'l'vl'alt'd ;,ami fortified links bdWt'l'll
dlurch alld slate, Resuscitated in Ihe poskololliall'ra, a:. il has unell been, Ihl' codl'
also furnisIH:d, as we shall see. ;,l dev;.lstal ing Cl'il itJllC uf dellllH. ralh.· Ihcory. III tinlt' •
polilical rulers would thus legilimiza;' Iheir power Ihrough residual asp\,.'clS of
tmdilional Roman ClIholic dOl'lrint',
The e.-'mpire':.t:conomic slruclure: rell",ctt'd the prt:\,;.liling lllt:l\,."'llilisl theOlY
that activity enhance the pmwr .lIld pn::.tigt' vi 11ll' IIll'.l-
surcd on lhe basis or gold Of silva bullion. Tht: guod mcrcalllilisl was Supposed 10
run a r,lVorablt' balan(t' of Irade. Ihll:' acquiring or bullion in payllll'nt.
folluwing Ihis logic. Spain ;'lllemptcd 10 lllunopolizl' tht' tu Wl';.dlh
ered in lht: New World, Tht (argel mining. 01 gold and Ihen lll:1illl)' uf
silver. Anolher go.1I W:lS 10 mninlain complcl'" cUlltrol uvt:r romlllerCt:,
Agriculturt', by cOlllrnsl, initial .1Ilcntion from l.'roWI1 offlciab
(ex(ept for expori produrb). and manulacturing. when later l'unsidercd,
aelivdy discouraged,
TIll" (l:'ntral foundation lor lhb econumy ludlan 1.lbol". obl<lllll'd Irum the
llalive.-·::, by one [orlll of coercion or another, Thl'y paid Iribult: lu 111\· crown and ib
appointt:d t:mis:'ilril's. Since chenp labor W<lS so critical. Iht' cruwn, lolo
llists, and clerics fought bittt.:r1y fvr (onll'ul 01 Ihe Indians. III 15/12, :'\,,·\,,'king to
..:urtail Ihl' eolouisb, Ihl' king (il'..:rcnl till' YNl'w uimt.:d at prulecling Ihe
native:. b)' removing Ihelll from dirt.:t:lluldagl' urllll' .1lId bringing
Ilwl11 under the dir\'ci jurisdiction of the nown. By 160U tht' cruwn h,ld lilrgdy
sllccet'l!l'l! in Ihis lask. al le.lsl in Ie-gal Icrms, In rl';llily. hO\\''''·\'l'I". these change::.
altl'fed only the legallorlll of opprl:'ssion; 1I1l' tlet of pcrsi:.ted.
For the Indian:., Ihe Illeanl above <III ,I draslic rail ill pupulalion,
St:holars have argut:d long and hard about size vf the populalion
\"hen lhe Spaniards arrived, Thl' most n'liabll' 01 i..L·lllml rvlexi<.u pl.lCl' the
pre-Conquesl populations. as or 15IY,:l1 16 tu I milliun; lor the IIgurl' is Jml
1.9 million. and for 1605 it is I million-a lot'll dedil1t' 0195 pt"rct:lll! Data Oil I't'ru
are I,.omplett'. but they abo shuw continuing dedlll\"·, Irulil 1,3 million ill 157U
(forty )'l'ar:. afta the Conquest) 10 less than 60U.UOO ill 1620, a drop of lllore Ih,lll
SO percent. However unct:rtain Ihe-exact magnitudes, the clearly rcsulted
in demographic calamity, largl'ly alll'ibulable to such smallpox,
measlt:s. and influenza,
The Indian survivors S<lW their social order unde.-'rlllined nnd dislvrted. Forced to
give their labor and tributes to Ihe Spaniards, Ihe natives struggled Itl maint<lin llidr
IradilionaJ social nc1works, Most of Ihem lived in thdr uwn vilIagl's. guwrlll't1 by
indigenous elites; in Mex.ico. these cOllul1l1nities kept eXlemivc wrillell
records. ranging frolll annals 10 real estate tmnsactions tu wills. which have Ixen a vit,t1
SOlun: lor modern historians, The most f(·rtilt: land was by Iht: cunqucrurs-
who. in Illany cases, cOllwrted thc lalld to r.lbing Jive:.I()(.'k.llllli.lllS Iht:: symbols of
their old religion deslroyed. and tJll:y clung 10 such syncrdbtk .. tht'"y ('Quid
The construction of this sixteenth-century Dominican monastery in south-
central Mexico aptly illustrates the alliance of church and crown in the conquest of New
Spain_ (Courtesy of the library of Congress.)
devise. took a heavier loll on men Ihan on women. and the resulting gender
imhalance furl her di!'rupled marriage patterns and fanlily
Tn Ihe decline in Indian popul:'lliol1. especially ill tropical lowland
regions, began imporling black slaves from Africa-n prnctice nlready
familiar in Spain and Portugal and their Atlnntic islands. Between 1518 and 1870.
Spnnish America imporled more th:m 1.5 million slaves-over 16 percent of the
entire Atlantic shwe trade-mostly through Cuba and the northern tip of South
America. destined for ktbor in Ihe 10wianJ coastal areas. Braz.i1, with its eXlensive
sugar plantations. brought in ahout 3.7 million.
As we shnll sec bter, Latin America produced largely multiracial socielies. in
conLrilsl to the highly polarized biracial society that developed in North America.
The Ihree ethnic components of colonial Sp.mish American population-
Europeans, Africnns-fit together in a social structure that divided itself
along lines of r;lce and function. The while sector, which included less than 2
percent of the sixteenth-cenlUry population, was the most powerful and presti-
giolls. In Ihe same period Ihe mixed bloods included free blacks. mestizos. and
n1Ulnlloes-nll l(lld, less than 3 percent of the tOlal. IndigenoHs peoples, over 95
percent of the population. were placed in a unique posilion carcfull)' limited and
prolcclccl hy a halleq' of ro)'allaws,
In the first yeMs aner Ihe Conqucst. displllt'\ aro"c hel\V('f'1l Ihe 01'):111.• 1
conquerors find their descendants, on Ihe one haml. <lnd. 1111 lite Illllt·I.llClll,k "j
nohle birth who nrrived l<ller and cI<lil11c(\ spccial privilege.... (.,\11'("." ill lhe t 1111""
rind the army. or Occup<ltions such as merchant. miner, :Inti IMlltt'!' ,II ....
determined one's social rank. Overlapping social calcv,nries prndlll cd a u'III('II,'\
system in which social was the major pri7C. The I..onlinllll\l<; \\,:1\'1''' "I
Spanish newcomers onen sought through ll1:lrriag<' wilh IOtal f,1I1l;lle...
in order to integrnte themselves inlolhc social antleconom;t f..hrit. 111 lhc ('1,:1\1
centh century, dislinclions and rivalries (lcvelnpl.:d hdwccl\ IW111,II' III 1"11"1'('·"1
desccnt horn in the Ncw World (rri(1l1os or creole<;) nnt! .c. ("lIllr ,11 d\CtI prlll'l,
from Sp;lin (pcflitlsuhlrcs). These conOilis :lm\ rc,,('ntIl\Cllt ... Wlllild ",·rnll •. dh
sh:lpe the struggles thai led 10 independence from Eunll'c.• 1l tltlc.
Interaction hetween thc r<H..i::'11 groupings W,t" less ICI\\IIII1 f.lled. hUI \,frll
tenuous. Though interracial cOllcuhin:lge witlesl're:ul, inlcrr:u i,lI 111,11"1",',:"
was prohably rare. and even Ihen it followed gr:ldations. while<; lllighl 111.11 Iy
mestizos, :lud mestizO,( mighl Illarry Intlinns, hUl whites st'ldllll\ lnarri("tl 11,,1;,111".
Since civil an(1 religious consecration W;lS cxlclHletl In inl("',11 i,tl li,li"oll". (""Ilt'
cially those involving thC)' tended 10 hlur SlIcinl hllundarie... Iq:ilillll/i'
aspirations for mobil it)'. <lnd foment uncertainl}' :thlHlt thc ")'o;lelll III "I •. tl illt .111' III
Movement definitely existed. hoth sociaII)' and v,eograllhicllly, ,tllli in.lh 1I1 ... d..
could experience cOl1sidcl':.lhlc chnngc dllring their Iifclil1lc".
Mctrriage and family generally Ill,tlc d'1I11il1:Jl;I'1l ,II It'111,II(\
The Clilt of masculine superiority (machimlll) :lIlI'C:ll'cd t';\r!y in I ,11m AI1\Cl'lt .1. \\".Ihlll
;l broad range of social ;lnd ethnic strata. anel mall}' ,t'Olllell lett rc\lrliled 11\".·.. Hili
contrary to lhe stereotypical image. the Sl:llld;lrd fnlllil)' \\';l" nnl :llwa)'.. hC,Hled !Iv .1
male patriarch presiding over :l large hrood of children. "lorc oll('n th:ln .HII, I.lll1.h,'"
consisted of Ill:lrried couples reasonahly close ill age with hvn 1<1 lour t lllldrl'll
But not all women married, and those who did nften did nnl relll.lill .11:11 IIt·d
for life. D;ll:l on the sixteenth centu ry :lI"C sp:Hse. hUI hy 1XI I, :H (ol'd ing III • ("11\11\
results, only 44 percent of the adult females ill Mexico Cit)' W('fe Il\;lll'i<'li. i\ 1.1 Il\'
women were widows. :l.Ild approximatel)' nne-third flf Ihe htH...c1wld.. in i\ leXltl'
Cit)' were headed by women. This W;lS due in (':"Irl In the 10\\"Cl hlt,
expectancy for men. For whatcver reason. man)' "lexican wnlllCI1 <;I'cnl IlHl\ II
of their lives as single women.
Spanish AmeriC:lil underwent profound t:hallgcs hy the c.lll\,
seventeenth century. The first impetus C;lme from Europc. where
to lose the power it once had in the !:lte fifteenth rind sixtccnlh C('l\tlll·ie<;:. ,\(1,'1
the defeat of the armada hy the in 15RR. Ihe ro)':tltrC':\sllT)' rqU':tlcdh
went bankrupt, the nobles challenged the crown, f:at;lloni;l cmplct! III 1'(·voll.
and in 1640 15RO governed hy Ihe ... h monan.h - "lien'"''
fully reasserted its in(lependence. At Ihc lime, Sp:lin :\1111 beg.1I1
their monopolies on Ihe New World. The English, 11111("1\. ;'In(1 1:,('1,,11
established selllements in Nonh America :lnd nlsn gaincd fOOII1"ld .... n lh,'
I) 1'.'\ll!IINI l]tJl. ... ntlN... '\Ntl( llNII·X·I")
Elite Women and Economic Power
IhI.' illlilgt:'" from latin Amenca is one of violent men,
WOlllt.. 'Il. -.Iud d strICtly patriarchal society. It is often summed up 1Il the word
IIl"llmtrlu Yt.'t tht'le Wd'> a cateqolY of women which contradicted thIS image:
Wlduw:. lIum pIOp"'IIl",d ... 01 <.01011131 SOCiety enJoyt:d the
lll.".dutlllll ..1 1l1l1l ..lId palltupdted rnu:.t t:xtenw"ely in the colonial econolHy.ln
d wtdow full c:ontlOl ovel hel dowry and lht: atras, If
l.lUVtdl:"d I)y lilt:: huslJ..l1d; III adUtllon, she It::ceived hdlf 01 all w<:dlill acqutled
dUllll1j III,· IIl<lrH"gt:'. <l WIdow silt:' usually also administered her c:hildlen's
whllt:: Ihey wele Om.' of the most lenhllkable of these
Vlutllt:1I w.. DOn.1 Jl:"rotlttna de Penalosa, widow of a wealthy and powerful
I"wyl.'. Will) In lit", century as a Judge and adVIser to the
..I Pew Olltt: widowt:d, DOll'" Jelonim3 managed the family's vasl ecollon"c
tlhll llH..Iudl'd f':lIms, mines, and <l sugM mill In
..ddtllull 10 plupo::r1Y til Spatn. Silo.:: no::vt:'1 It::m..ffled, choostng 10 malldge, t.'ven
Ih.... fdmlly':. wO::dllh. When sho:: d.ed ho.::I eldesl son inhellted <Ill fdllillled
",,1,,1....1I1t! 011'0::' <hlldrel' wele plovlded fOl, with three sons sent 10 Spaliliol
.' t'ducalton dnd anolher put III the Church; hel daughlel was pro-
v•.It'd willi" 1Ic11 dowly ul }:),()(X)
I'Vltl A Burkholdel dnd lyrndn LJohnson, ColonlOl LarlflAmt'flnl, 5th ed. J
II__H-.I'"W (ull, O,,(utl..l Utl.v.... rslty PleSS, 20tl'l), pp, 229-30.
\Vtlll :-'I',UII'" ,I.-dllll.", ot Europe tu (OUlI-
l"II,.ll.tll".I'.,llIl.t', lll"'>' II, .. pUWt'l. 'rht: Nl'w World b"c<lllll' a vital dt:lllt:nt
It I tit,· I tltlJl't.",1l1 \lOW!:"1 t::'lu,lliun. hel".II11t.' dear ill the \,Var of tht:: Spanish
'JUl I.l"....... "ll (17UU 1713), whil h .. lll·d the Bourbons 011 Iht.' Spanish III rone and
gaw till.' Blilbllillt' ":UlltJ(lct (asiell/v) lor the slave trade to tht: Sp:lnish colonies.
F.II 11.·.h.. hillg were also laking plac,," within thL' Tht' ethllic
til ullderwt:nt prulound transitioll. COJltinued illlllligration
,llId 1l,llUl,d illln.:,l:.e lurned the mainly creoles, into a segment of
tllt"l'tlpul.ttinll, 20 pcrl.·t'nl by IM25. Much moft: dramatit: was the
\l\\'lh 01 tltl.· III .... )tizv and llIixcJ-bloud catc:gory.. from less Ihan 3 percent around
1',70 It) ,llipluxilll.llt:ly 1M p<:fLellt b}' IM25. The shift in the Indhlll population was
t"WIl grl.·,lll.'r, JI.·:.plk a rc:l."ovc:ry in terms-down frolll over 95
PI.'Il.l'1I1 lu h,'l"Co-'ly tl2 pcrcc1\1. In tht: lllt:antime. !.>Iacks had comc to .lCcount for
11 pl.· ...:t.·nt ul th" American population.
Tilt' l. ft:olt:s began to assume: active rules in key sectors ufthe economy. such as
llIilllllg ,1I1l1 t:UllllIll·rc". EspeciaUy striking waS their increasing ownership of land
hllllH.tlllll14 tlit." t.'".trly Sp,U1ish lllonarchs had discouraged) and, in some areas. the
,11'!ll',II"ln... t.' til glC<lt landed Of haciendas. by vasl territorial
.11Id ddl! pl'ullage, Ihe.' haciendas often became Virtually autonomous
I ur.d '.Ullllllllllltil.':" guvt'I"Ilt."l1 by Iht: Qwnt'l'S or lhdr rorem.HI. I.and litles were
1. • The CulOlli,tl I:OIlIlt!..lllllll,\ 13
hl"feJitary, and wcrl' held by By tht: Illid-t:ighteellth Cl.."IlI11ry, tilL'
crown confronting a proud Ncw \'Yulld nobility.
Tht.' political role of the creoles was Icss obvious. In the late ,lIld
early eighteenth centuries, they held 1ll.IIlY important political posts, mainly 011 Ihe
local or regional level. sudl as in tOWII councils or fludie"cills (t.·ourb). Uppe:l-levd
wen: still reserved for pe"itl:i11lures. With the: dt.'c1ine uf Spain
imperial power, however, politi(al 10 function <IS bdt..lre.
The hblury of PurlUgllCSt: AlIlcrica (oilirasts with lIlt.' siury uf .... oltlnial Spanbh
Anlt'rka. Undl'r tht' royal Iluuse or" Aviz., Porlugal had establbht:d a far.f1ung
empire wilh outposts ill Africa, India, China, and SUllie Atlanti( III fad.
Portugal had !.>('COlnl' Ih\.' European 1L'<lder in \.'xploration hy :.hrt'wd usc uf its
superior Ie:ehnical skills in cartugraphy and navigation. In Itll)·1 tht' Treaty of
bdwecn Spain and Porlllgal granted Spain all l'IlHls 370 leagu...s tll
th... oflhe Capt: Verlle Islamls olllh,,: 01 Afrie.l. Parillgal rto'Cl'ive:d all the:
lamb of that dividing Iinc.. In 1500 Pedro Cabral. a
captain, landed along the coast of whal is tOOJy Brazil ;lIld c1 .. imnl Ihal
tt:rritor), for his monarch.
This Ne:w World incursion difft.'"l"ed frum Spain\ ill two
tht're 110 n<ttiv\..· civilizatiun in Brazil I."omparabk to the or the
The Ihe largt.'st l,Illguagc: group. IIvcd along th\.' frulll
whal is now Venezuda into Brazil <Iud Paraguay, .md Tapuias
the interior. SOIllt.' Indians wt'rt: cannibalistic, and mosl wt::re
which tllt.'"anl that Brazil would havt.' Iv bc st.'tlkd gradllall}', ralhl'r than laken al
<l single blow. More itllporlant, it Int:ant that tht: unlikt: lht.' Spanbh,
did not face a highly organized, st.·ttled civilization.
Plirthcl'lllOre, there was no trace of silvt:f or guld, and t:oIlSl'quL'lltly no
palh to Clbulous wealth, The impurl<lllt eCollomil: ;l(livily the L'Xport vI
brazil wood (henet' the counlry's currcnt name), priud ill Europe fur its qU:llitks as
a of dyt:. And in tilllt:, contrasting sharply with llloSt of (olullial
America. agriculture. especially Gille sugar clIltiv"lliun, prcoominakd in tht.'"
HraziJian colunial economy.
The: scarcil y (compared 10 Spain) of human and millt:ral resourCeS forced thL'
Portuguese crown to resort to unusual means in trying tu persuadL' or entice ils
subjects to occupy Ihe New World holdings. In the: 1530s Iht: kings started making
massive: grants of effective power over (almost totally unexplored) land, usually to
military men with prior experience in India or Africa or to handpicked personal
favorites, and in eilher instance to llle:1l ·of gentlt: blood." The hind donations weft.'
huge. averaging about 130 miles along Ihe cuastline: and running all the way
much as 500 miles or more) to Ihc: imaginary Line of Ot'lliarcation thai divided
Portuguese from Spanish America.
"] • The I ..I"lI1.111 "1111.1,1111"1'.
Not unlil 1549 did the crown hegin to el'tahlish an effective imperial
hure::lIIcracy-hlll the purpOI'C wal' to protect the area from French and British
intru<:ions and Ilf)t. as in the casc ofSpanish America. to reco!1(lucr the
Map 2 Colonia/latin America: Political Organization
(rom the conquerors. On Ihe conI r::lry. il \\':l<: Ihe l:lck (II .1 1'Illlllglw,e 1" t'';I'lh " I h.ll
forced Lisbon 10 acl.
Partly because in its first lelliury Ufa1il f('ct'ivell a 1,1\\'('r plll1fll)" 111.111
other flollIininn<: (which wen.: mort' prnflLlhld. lIIe1l1,'Io Illc ,.I
control out l1luch l<ltlS('r Ihan in AlIH'l"it.1. EVf'll when Illl'
crown tightencd III' :lfter 15'19. Ihe rt 1)'01 I in:-Illillinn... \\t'I(' 1.111:d\
limited to the Atl:lntk CO:lst. where the taxC's on exporl" nlulcll'e e.l<;ilv CIlllnll·d
Power on the loc:lllevcl n.::-ted with Ihe lanelnwncrs ;Jnd Ih(' tt'WII "llllllll ... I \e'll
the church was weak in sixlcenlh C('nlury Hla1il, {.Imp.llcd III il.kXlt" .IIHII·nl'
During the l::lte sixtc('nlh rtnd carly :-evcll(('enth c('lllllri!'<;. l,l1Ic!OWllCI'" de,,·I, 'I't' I
::l lucrative sug::lr industry in Ihc Hr,11.ilian Nelllht':l ... I. IlavIIIg c,lllln 111.1,lt· 11'\1111"1,,
gical breakthroughs in sligar prtKcssillg in their Albntit i... land". "'11, h ,1\ Illl' "''lI,t·,.
the Portuguese had COllle 10 I'd)' tllllhe I1l1lLh III relaillilc plUdll\ t ill bll"t 'pc. I" gil '11
sugilr in Americ<1. however, required ::lhtlllc!:llll lahor. The I'nrltlglw...C l:ltuII1WTlC'I·.lil'.1
turned 10 the Brazilian Indian", 1\1' in Mexico :llld PCI u, hnwcvl'r. lhe n.ll"·(· ... ""U'll 11'11
victim 10 dcvastating Europeall di"<'a<:e!l.. The .... lrvivOls "ftC'1l lied illin Ihe' 11I1f'111I1
Although Ihe Portuguc!'C l.nntinlled 10 exploil the Indi:lll<; unlil wdl iul .. Ih,' t"lJ'.hl
eenth c'Cllluf)'. they h:ld to look e1sewhcre for a sali<;(at.lnrr lahlll '1I1'pl)"
The ohvious source wa<; Africa. H}' the carl)' Ic;Oflo; Ihc !-.1',llIi ... h .md I'.. II ..,:W·... ,·
alre:ld)' h:ld a half centtlf)' o( ('xperienu' wilh Aflit.lIl ,,1.l\'('I.lhol, buth allllllllt' .11111
in their Allanlic isl:lnds. SUth :l!l. Ihc <:;II1:lflc'; (!-.I,.mi ... h) :111,1 Ihc "'I.HI'·II.I'.
(Portuguese). It was not unlil Iht" I C\XOs Ihill Ihc I'nrltlglle"'t' !I.,IW ("llllugh !,,,It·tlll.1I
profll tn warranl Idri(-an sl:wc..· .... H)" Ih';U, III,Wt"'('I. IlnrllH'., ... tc"1I 1:',1/11
h:ld hceome Ihe worle!'1' greate"t SllllrlC of(allC ';llg::ll. pn,(hu ('II pledllllllll.1111 It- \\'1111
African slave l:.lhnr. Sligar exporl" wcre {'!<OI imalc(1 :11 l.25 million :1 )"".11. \\'hit h 1Il.loI,·
Bmzil's coast::ll Norlheasl prnhahly the ric!w"l rcgil.n III Ill(' ellill" 1\ 111,'11, .....
Olher European powers wantcd in 011 IhC' hlllllll. '1 he I lull II tlll-.I,ktl
Brilzil itself in 1624 and «Illtrnllcd Ihe sligar rich IlIllil ,Ill ,tlll.ll1' C "I
Portuguese planters, mcn.hanls. :lnel mixed,blond InUIJl" pll"hctl thelJl h'1\ k 1111"
the ocean in 1654. The Dutch then tll0V('t! lnlhe (,:lllhlw,lt1 wilh lIew 1{'1 hll",..g\',
in the l:lle seventeenth <lnd eighle\'lll h l ('l1ll1l'ic:-. SIlI-:'1 r lull i\"IIl! ,n WlIlll,1 11.111 ... 10 " III
this region, making it Ihe «('Iltel of Ihe Atlanlk Ir,l(ling 'plelll The 1'''1 11I1:"('<"C
were never again toduplic:lte the ne:lr monopoly 1111 N('\\' \V"tld <:ug.n !,t"dlll II""
they h::ld enjo}'ed earlier in thc lClllury.
In the central and Stluthelll regions of Bra1iJ. the ec..IIIHllll)' IlI .. t l('lllt"lnl "II
callie raising and. more imporlantl}'. 011 sl::l\'c ... t Ihl' Indian' (whll \\Clt'
often shipped to the Northeast), Carric(! nut hl' Ihe blllulrllflllll·'. wh.....(" Icgnltl'll\
status in national history mixture oflhe C:llifnrnia gnld prtl<:pCllI II'" .111,1
the American backwoodslllen. these forays extended Porluguese lnntrol lI\'I'r Iht'
Brazilian interior. Furthermore, they led to the discclVcry of mincr:ll \\,('.llth, whit II
had so long eluded the Portuguese. In the 1690s gold W:lS fOl1nel in I"-'lina... (;l'I,li ...
CGener::l1 Mines"). and people no(kec! In thc :lrea. I )iamnncl, werc loc alec! ill l72
Mining reachcd its peak in 1750. wilh::l yearly output of l. \.(. Itlillinll. allhl'IlJ:1t tltl'
low level oftechnologicill expertil'e conlrihuled 10;l dec JiIH' ill 11111lillg 111'.11 Ihc' 1,11,'
'''94 I inl"
Effective Fronlier

1''' 1111 (H.fol, \'
D Spanid' "llIl"d.. ;\; Vin· ..
(i;1 AllIel i, a
Olf Ilralil): ca, 17RO
Thl" 01 Ih(' Rio r\(' I" 1'1:11" lll1l1 ew
.. b oriJ:::in:dlr tl.(' "i, l"royallr of

4), r 1.... I...rt·ll
Vi ... fir Nt'w Sp;\in and I',....
1,II(h. I al ...." <I hnd export OUOlll illl.:ottUIl, but Ur.lzil would have to
.1\\'.111 1111l('h::elldl-n_'lllllrY cutIn' boolll lJdorl.' reg.lining lIluch prosperity.
had bl'l'll creah:·d Jor expor!. The resulting social
:-.11 n·tkCIl'd thl' Purtuguese crown had made. The
1111111/fl,11I1 ... il'gk hU111<l11 .. wa.) Ih(' pervasive pr('senc(' of African slaves.
)wr 25 lllillion had to Bmzil by nearly one-third of
i\ 11.1111 10.. Ir;JlI\," in Ihul I:'r;\. Blacb were a major component of Portuguese
Allll:IIL.L11 111":t)1l1raSI to lIIU.)( ufSpallish Americu.
A...... IIUWII ill T.lbk I-I, amuunled to nearly ont'-half of Rrazil's tOlal
111/llul.Ltiull aruund IH25, with 12 per..:ent in Spanish America, and Ille
llllxnl hllllld gruup. mainl)' Illulalloes, ••dded allolher percellt. All ill all,
....... lllW.. h ,IS lwo-Ihirds of Ihe entire Brazilian population in the early
11i1It'kclllh WerL' oj partial or total African ancestry,
Illllllir.ln.d colonial Brazilian suciely was highly stratified. Racial inter-
111.Lfll.lgt' h"I:. r.In:, .. (cuunling fiJI' nu more than 10 pcrcent of all marriages, and, .IS
ill Sllalli:.ll /\ IIIL'riLa, it followed lines of graduliun-whil\'"s might Hlarry Inulatloes,
I>llt 11It.:y .IIIIlII:.t never llmrriL-d hhlCks. Concubinage and cOllllllon-law relalioll-
,11'1" WI·l'· 'Ihillent aillolig bl.u.:ks than whiles. As in Mexico City, about one-
Illlrd til the 1.lluil}' ill it :..Il11 1'1t' ofl..olonial Braz.ilian were headed
,\ :.ntlud llla;1I1 01 thc :.ucial SlniL'lurc wus internal division within th....
lulllig, parti<.ul.lrly bt.:twt't'n Braziliall·born lalldownt·r:. alld
I'I.llllglll·... e hl)r11 lIlVlThanls. This dilfcrcn..:t: r('sembled the crcole-pcnirlsuhlr con-
nl' t in America. anti il had polential for leading to all independence
T<obiI..' 1. t U<oClat Composition of Early latin American Population

1570 ('to) 1825 (%) 1570 (%1 1825 (%)
Wtlllt:'" (t''Y<llly 1.3 18.2 2.4 23.4
lJ.... llled 01 by",uel",1
MIAt:tl IS 28.3 3.5 17.8
11ll.. UI lItul.llh»
Iitol ...... tUldulJclJ 1I.') (included wllh 49.8
with ImllelJ IJ\lxed-bloods)

h 96.3 41.7 94.1 9.1
Julttl 100.1 100.1 100.0 100.1
',""'''' Ad"I'I ...,1 tIUlll!iIl!,,,,d M .... "Iii ... H... 'II<lg" ull.. WI III lOl,Jh H<llll. ed., TIlt' FQundmg 01 New
..., {New yu,k t-t .. t(OI,JII, 8IM-" & Wurld. 1'J641. p. l]lJ.
W"I '>"lIll· IndY 1101 ..lid up 10 100 lx.c.. ot lOundmg
!. • Till' Lululll.J1 FlIlllld,lI11lll' 27
As it tUnled out. Europc,ln politic.) thc III allY
thc looser crown conlrul uf Urazil had gt;'lI('rakti Ie!>.) n:scllllllL',1I ,\IlIOn!; the
Ctl!Lll1ists than in IIIOSI Amcrica.
Purtuguesc Aillerica's intcgratioll into tht' Wesh::f11 L'(unuflI)' .IS a j>criplh:ral
area resembled that of Spall ish Amcrica, but with notable fur lwO
UraziJ lacked the guld and silver the Spaniards in tvkxico
and Pt:ru; second, Brazil's 1I1•• ill contribution until the l'ightet."llih century w..
agriculture, nul mining; third, and pL'rhaps mO.)1 impurtanl, Purlug.d had dL'vd
oped a simpler system for ensuring rcvenues from its prize coluny. Unlih' Spain,
Purtugal did nut devdop a vast bureaUl..'r'llic netwurk 'Iimed 1;lxing alld (011-
trolling Iht.' dumestic markcl. Instead, il concentr.lled entird)' un 1.IXilig
Urazil's ('xporI5. As a result, Brazil offcrcd SI>.lui.)h Alllerii...1 lor
breeding a powerful alliance of colonial ink·rt'.){.) whkh might fl'bcl agailbt the
political aUlhorit y of tht:: mother country.
The intlcpentlcncc muvemcnls that led to the of llIuSI uf
Lalin America\ 1I.1tion·!>talc.) owed their to ill l\lost
were nut radical, and brought L·.ttad)'.)luic III the !>\ldal
Much of the illlpduS proved to be COJlServut I hL'rd»' !>hapi ng I he ilil t'l tlOt I
of the yOllng /'cpul>li(s in tht' early ct..·llIury. ()Ul siury begin:. hal'k ill
The Bourbon monarchs of Spain, whose: family had SlIci..'eedcd to the cruwn ill
1713,had .)ought 10 reverst:: Spain's declinc, both III Eurupe anti Ilopillg
10 shore up Nt'''' World ag.linsl riv;J1 EUrOpL'.11I pU\'I'l'rs \\hilt' abo
int..reasing revenues for the crown, the Uourbllll king.) impost'd
ildminislralivt' and polilic.d relorllls. known as Iltc Uourboll reforms. OtiC W;IS 10
":/'t'a1e llew al New Granada (fil ill 1717, thell III 1759) ill
llorthl:'flI Suuth Alilerlla, (orrespolH:lillg lllaillly 10 mOdL'rll P,lllalll.l, Culumbia,
Ecuador, and Venezuela, anti anothcr al BUL'IIO$ (177(1). l.dled Ihc
Viceroyalt)' of the Rio de b Plata, ('orrespunding Itl lllodt'rIl-d;J)' Bolivl.l.
Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina.
III addition, Charles III (1759-88) replaced the
arrangemcllt of the Hapsburgs with the intelldallcy In dfnl, litis It·d It)
tht· rt'placemenl of thc !Jakd curre,gidores (lO(:al adminislralivi' and judicial uffi-
cials) in Spanish Alllcrica with "intendanls·-Iocal governor!> direcll)'
to tht' crown, not to the viceroy. Almost all lhe intcndunb Wefe
petlitlSularcs, rather than American creoles, presumably thereby assuring lo),alty to
the monarch. The intendants greatly strengthened crown l.:olltrul over govern
menl, but also collided with prosperoll') creoles, 1Il<l1l)' of whum had laken <ldV.11I
lage of the relaxed administralion.
This In:nd could be seen ill the administration of lucal courb. lJespl'rald)'
needing funds, the late sevt'ntet'uth-ccntury I Japsburg pUI COUI t
appointments up for sale. as had Philip IV earlier in the century. It was creoles who
bought ... nd by 1750. fifty-one out of ninety-three judges were American born. The
Bourbon Illon.. rchs reversed this trend. and by 1807 only twelve out of ninety-nine
judges were creoles. Ullim.. tel}'. creoles would decide to look elsewhere for posi·
tions of authority and prestige.
One pl.. ce they looked w.. s to the town councils, or cabi/dos. which were harely
functioning hy the early eighteenth century. Cabildo offices did not always find
eager buyers. With the arrival of the intendants, however, more erricient taxation
g:lVC Ihe cahi!dos increased revenues-and the}' reasserted their role ns local
councils. The thus became institutional bases of creole authority.
Charles III also sought to increase royal power by tightening crown control of
the church. The most dramal ie step wns the expulsion of the Jesuit order from all of
Spanish America in 1767. Charles S<lW the Jesuits as a state within a stnte. a riv<ll
source of power and wealth. The best properties of the Jesuits were auel ioned off.
:lIld the proceeds, of course. went to the crown.
The milit:'lry was another power source. To ward off outside thre<lts and to
nush any potential rebellion, the king decreed the establishmcnt of colonial
militias, an excellent source of prestige for status.hungry creoles. But it also :tltered
Ihe Illilitnry balance. By I for instance. there were only 6000 members of the
regular Spanish army in the viceroyalty of New Spnin-compared to 23.000
American-born memhers of the colonial militia. This was the foundntion of the
pntriol "TIll)' that would later fight for independence.
The .spanish Bourhons wanted especially to promote colonial c..:onomic
development in OHler to strengthen their hand in Europe. In 177R Charles III
Celibacy and Anticlericalism
Parish priests in colonial Pelll were enjoined by their superiors to lake good C<lre of
their flocks. Such care also had ils dangers. One was intimacy with their female
pilrishioners. As sons of the Roman Catholic Church, the priests were bound by the
pledge of celibacy, on which they were often sorely tested. In response to a wave of
reports about priests having entire families, the crown in 1727 ordered church
authorities in Peru to crack down. They ruled that any servant of a priest be more
thiln forty i1nd have a perfect reputation. Their advice: ,he best way to overcome
the temptations of the flesh is to nee them; he who courts danger will perish in it:
By the end of the colonial era in both Spanish and Portuguese America, more than
a few priests had succumbed. The ensuing scandals did much to undermine public
support for the church and feed the anticlericalism that was to dominate nine-
teenth-century Spanish American politics.
Quotation from William B. Taylor. Magistrares of the Sacred: Priests and
Parishioners in fighteenrfl-Cenrury Mexico (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University
Pres'i, 1996), p. 621.
prolllulg:'lled .. of Fn'e Trn<lc. whilh me;lIll Ih.II Ihl' Iwt'lIl\" 1t'"1 1'''1 I... "I
Spanish America could now Irnde dirCllly with .111)' 1'011 in :-'pain t\r \\ III. (',It II
other (hut 1101 with any pori outside Ihe Spani"h re:llm). ("tllllIllC'1 I' w"uld II"
longer be reslricted 10 fOllr colllllial ports (VNnl I Inl.l!e .111.lI ' ..11111
Pan<tma) or lied 10 the C:1di7.lllol1opoly in Spain. 1\\I(.'l1oe; I\il(·... Illul1cdi,tlrly
to profit from the measllre.ln fa(l. (onlrahandlrad(' h.IIII"I1): Ilflml ... h(·llolllhl·"l
formed}' forhidden routes. Hill the If(l\\,n inll"e.I ii' 11,...1"11,... It·tnl'I .... '01111 " II
({ndel nO\\l place 100xes on Ihe goods th;lt wcre ont c
Partly for Ihis many <l:-pects of Iht: (oltHlI.d el I'11' ,11\\ 11",11 I... Ilt'd IIndn
the I\ollrhons. The porI of Ih,enoe; Aires.:l sl1l:lII.1Ild I.H kll .... lcl 11''''11 III 1-'-(" ':'1"\1
to a cit y of 50,000 by the year 1ROO. Mexi(-tJ \\',1'<; 1111111 ing I hr1'1' 11111(,'" ,I" IIUll II "I1\TI
alldgold in Ihe 17tJOsasii h:ld hecn inlht' 17;lf"'. ('llll1I1\('I't' \\'.1'" 11111\'111,:1,\ Iht
turn (If Ihe cenlur)'.
'rhe Bourbon policies .. ppenred to he a su<-<-c,<; .... I\lllnlni ... ll .It i( ,11 be, .11111' 111'11"
effkient. elcfcnscs improved. COmll1enT s\\'l"llc(1, .Inll g'\VCIUIIl(,I1I,d leU'llUl'
inl.reascd. But creoles \\'ere npsel hy mall)' (If Ih(' ... (' 111.1111:(' .... wllilll 11'11·.III·n,·,1
(and often managed) 10 redtu e Iheir $1;1111<; :lndmlllll'Iu I' II W.I" Ilw, 1I.lllin,".!" ",
creole st:tlu". more Ih:'lll Ihe innllell(C llf Enlighlclllnelll Ihi IllglII 1'1 lilt" ex.• nll,ll· I ,I
Rrilish coloniC's in North I\merk.l. Ihal Illtin.;1!el\ p'I'1111'1c1I 1111' "'1,.IIII·.1i
I\mcric:tn (lnnlinions 10 (Ipl I/lr ilHlqlellllclu c.
There hnd heen colonial re"i"l:tntl'. 10 Spani ... h 1'\lle III ht' .... 1It". III 1111""
i\ Illnnl II. d:'lillling to he ;t lineal (Ie"l elltl::ml III lilt' 1m .1 11111·, .... leI I .11t IIlIII.I I' 1"\, ,II
wilh.m arm)' of Ile:trl)' RO.OOO men. II lonk ne.H"lr IWII \('.11'" III hllll-lll1ghl"'!: /"
stamp out the insurreclions th:tl "wepl over e;olllhcJ'n 1'('1'11 .lIltl gllh\ i,1 III I -S I Ill<"
nfSocorrn, in New (;rnn:ld.l. vlolenllr pn,Ie... lcd ,lg.Iin...1.11.n Ill( I.""'" .111,1
thc disruplion spread Illtllh 01 the \·iLcrn)'.dl\". I\llh"lIgh 1,.11'11'11, 1.11111
t\mericnn historians have llfl('n desnihed ll1e,,(' ('VClll ... ;1<; 'PICI III .... 'r ... • 11' lilt·, It·"I,
led independence oj Ihe ninetccnlh l enl111 y. lId... \\',1'" n,\1 lIlt", \ ... 1,'1
Tllpac Amanl II, sorne strande; ill Ihat in'<;lIrreclit>n I'nilll('d 11)\\'.".1 Intll'l'/'II,lt'l1< ,.
bll1 on leTlns of Indian leadership Ih;lt would ncver g.lin ..."lid \ !"t'nk .... 'Ill1<'11 IlIlllf
t7l{1 rrlwllion in Ne\\' Gmnnt!n.lhe I'rCllc!'olors ditlnol ...ITk indqwlHk'HI" 1'''111 111,
Spanish cl'own. The)' were prolesting wilhin IIll' ,,}' ... ICIll. !lol il
Then how did independencC' come? 011"'(' .lg.lIll 1.1111\ AIlH·rll,I' .. I.llt" \\ .....
eletermincd hy d)'nastic I'0lilils in the ()Id \Norili. 1\lln h.lving 'IICtl .llhl
failed 10 help the French Bourhons snv(' Ihcir HOWIl dmlng Ih.· lit II< II
Revolution, Spain forged all allinnle wilh FI:'lIlIC In 17
lt. ..1 p.lll Ih.11 11,1
directly 10 the annihilation n( the Spanish n:t\)' .tl Ihe Itllilc III ·11.ll.dr·ll
(IROS). Mennwhilc, Napoleon HOllap.lrle. !lOW FI .llli 11111.11'''. III I XII
ordered his troops to occupy Portugal. Engl;lntl'" InnglilHc .1I1}' N.lplll,·lIn·...
armies reached the hills ;lhnve Ihe c:tpilal cily of I ishnn i""l :1" Ihe l"ngl .... h
roynl navy was whisking the Portuguese royal III ,lIlil
court off to Brazil. Napoleon's fOfces then tl1rnl'd In :-'p.lln. III lXOX 111<"\
occupiecl Madrid, planting Napoleon's hrolher, Joscph. on the ;"'1,·1111'.11
Ihronc. This W<lS the :tcl lhat prompted Ihe colnnil'''' In 11'\'011
\\'.1:> Sll,lllisll 10 Jost"ph, as supporters ofl:t'rdinand VII held
II)' Naplll,'on r;dlit'd \0 Ihl' caust', A junta \v;lS sci up in Sl'villc lu rule in
[11 IHIO llu:n: li,lltJ\wd a parliament, VI' cortes, dominated b}'
lihl'I'.Lb wh\) had llltlwd illto th\.' vacuulII created by the monarch's
.. III IHI2 it proliaillll'd a thai a:o;scrtnlthe authority of
J'.tr!i.Lllll·lLt, Iht' Inquisition. and restricted the rok uflhe king.
The Cololliol Response
\Vhl'll N,IJlulcull I'IlI hi" brolhl'rvllllll.' Sp,tllish throlll', tht' LTeules rt'jeckd him as
.lll ju:-t Sp;llliards had dunl'. Since Spain no longer had a
Ihl" ... lll.lllisb 'Irgul'll. n:vl:rted to tIll' peopll'. Cvuld this
lu}!... II...· l'''klldt'd 10 all arguIIIl'l\1 lor llldl"pendt:1Ke?
y", thne W.IS ,wthing llll'vitabic about the.:: train of events that overtook
Allll'l L... ;1. Nl'iIlI"-'1 Ihl' European EnlightcnllH:llt nor thl' example of the
k.lll 1{l"vvlutiuLl aiulle wUllld havt: IOllll"ntcd rl'bdlions in Spanish America.
\V111H,ut intLTVl'llliolL, Spanish Ame.::ric<.tn colonies nlight all have
Il·lLl.llllnl lllLtil wdl illiu till' lIillelt't:llth century, as did Cuba.
Uti .... ultlL"-'li",.'11 PVillls ot 10 N;lpuleun was ilucnos Air\;,s, the seat of
llll' Ill·W"-· ... t vi.l"rlJ>,.tlt y, whll:'>\: l t/lJi!du Ilad alr\.'ady acquired remarkable aut hurlt),. In
IHOt, .Ill '>ljuadrOll LllOlpinl tht:' city of Buenos Aires, sending the vicc:roy
III 111l' ill,,",1 iur tity of<'\'lrdoba. 1\ Litizcn's arlll}' drove tht' British out, and in
IXUi' II IIIOIll...- .'>Iltln .'>llrill Ilf .. .'>l·l.Olld atl'u.:k. So it was the creoks, nol till'
Vlll·lq.,:,d ,Iullturitil·.'>, h,h" dt'knded Buenos Airt's frolll Invasion. This
dCIIIlJlI ... 1rakd b(ltll tilt' wl'aklll'SS olthe crown and the capacity of the local citizenr}'.
'\lIotla'r lingl'ring ill 11ll.' Rio de.:: la Plata region was frc:e trade, Tht'
l\ll"I.LIII.lli.,11 Ill" l77H had parliall}' upt'llt'd up trade for Buenos Aires, which
Ullrlt! IIUW '>llip glJud-; to Spain-rathtT than along the lung, lortuou:'>
r"ull' 0\ ,,-·r1,lIld 10 1'<l1l;lllia alld lillally thl' Atlanllt'. it wa:'> England, not
:--'1'.1111,111.11 ,,fklnlthl' IllO:'>1 pnllllbing 1ll.Irkd for hides and saltt'd bed. A cuntra-
11,lllt! ll.llk llll'rdllll' ;lIal Argl'ntim: for open COlllllll'I'Ce with
"tlll'r l:llfOpl'.llt lIllllllrh:,:,>
III lHU'), ;Ilkr N.lpul,:oll had uush... d Spallbh King h::rdinand V[I, a young
I'l\\'>,t:f lL,lllll't! Marianu /'vlor"-'I\o frull! BUl'IlOS Airt:s called for a two-year experiment
WIth hlt.tll>, Irel' lrade. MorellO argucd that a stcp would !:ilrt:ngthen loyalties tu
llll' S!I.LILbllll'llWLI alld Ilnlvidt: illCfeased rl.'vt:nut:s-sillCe dutks could be charged
IJU kg,d but llot till \.'onlrab,lIld traffic. La(t: in the year the viceroy granted
Hlll'no,> lilnill'd lfet'dOlll oflradt: with II;\(iOIlS allied to Spain or .. utral ill the
N.lpuk·OlLk War'.'>. Onel' again, Ihe dill.' of BuellOS Aires tasted political success.
\'Vltl'll Napnkon's furces seized tIll.' (t::nlers of Bourbon resistance in Spain in
IH10, kalling citi/Xl1S liid alld dt:ddt:d 10 (Teutt: a "provisional junta of the Provinces
IIIIIle I{LO dl·la I'bta,guvt'fnillg luI' Ft:rdilland VJI.
Although it was not until 1816 d uILIgn.::'>S tUrln"ll)' tlt:dared illdependl'IKt', the pattern had been set.
III IH [0 a sinlibr IllOVt'lIlellt t:llltrged in Canlcas, where lhe municipal cabildo
dl'!,o:ll'd tile ,,-.Ll'taill gl'IH."nd and organizc:d a junta to guvern in the name
or Ferdinand VII. As ill Buenos Aires, the insurgent group cOllsisted llwinJ}' 01
weahhy creoles. Its leaders had mort.' dt:cisiw views. The lliost SillllHl
Bolivar, from the beginllillg wanled independellce for Alllerica.
Born into a wealthy creoll' in Cilracas ill 17HJ, Buliv'lr was orpllalled al
lhe age of nine. lie was Ihell St:llt to Spain to complcte his educatiun, "11<..1 aftt'r
three years he returned to Caracas with a young Spanish hridt', who withill 11l01lths
died of yellow fever. Bollv"lr was devastated and remarried. (lIt' did not
deprive hilllself of It'lllale companionship. 1I0wt:\'l'I'.) vVilh hi:; llIagllelk.
charming, pt'rsllasive personality, he inspired luyalty ,lnd cOllfidew,:t' alllolig hb
followers, r:amilbr wilh the ideas of the Elllightenlllt'lIt, 111;' vO\\'l,d ill to rrl'c.::
his homeland from Spanish rult:. [n Jlll}' 1811 the lhal cunvt.'lled 10 govern
VcnczlIel;l responded tu his \'ision by declaring
But the pro-Ferdinand regl'llCY in Seville provt'd more rl'silil-llt thall had uel'lI
expected, sending troul-'s to crush this upstart rebellion. Togl'lher Ilrst with blacks,
then with lIwu:rus (cowboys) of tilt' Vellezuelan intaiur plaills, Spanish linn's
defeatt'd colonial troops ul1llt::r Francisco de Miranda, Bolivar himself 10
es(ape to New Granada. In IMI3 hl' rdtlrned III Vellezuela alld WOIl a st'ries of
startling military victories.
Ewnts in Europe again intrlllleJ. In 1814. ... Napoll·un.... dt'kat. Fl'l'dilland
VII rl'lurned 10 the Spanish Ihronl.', anllulled the liberal t:Ullslitlllioll uf IHI2, and
restored himself in all absolult' monarchy. Many creoles that sinn' tilt'
king was back, there was no re;lSOIl to continue thl'ir lllohiliz;llion.
Brimming with self-confidence. Simon Bolivar assumed military command of pro-
independence forces around the precocious age of thirty. (Courtesy of the library of
Rolivar now saw his men and munilions dwindle. Afler a series of defeats, he
was obliged in 1814 to nee again to New Granada and then to the English island of
jamaica. He hoped that Spanish America might become a single nation. but knew
the odds were low. Ilere he waS much influenced by the recent failures to establish
republican government in Venezuela, His advice was concise: "Do not adopt the
hest systelll of governmcnt, hut the olle which is most likely 10 succeed,"
In New Spain, evenls look a different course. In a prcemplive slrike
creole patriots. pell;1I$1lIarc,( ollsled the viceroy lose de Iturrigamy in 1808 and
prompll}' recognized Ihe regency in Seville, Mexico City was firmly in royalist
h,lI1ds unlil 1821.
The provinces of New Spain, particularly nOl'th of the capital. were .lIwlher
stOTY· By 1810 a group of prominenl creoles. including a priest named Miguel
llidalgo y Costilla. were planning to seize authority in Ferdinand's name. When
the plot was discovered, I-Jid;llgo decided to act. On Seplember 16, 1810. in the
lillie lown of Oolores, he gave an impassioned call to arms. Ane!. curiously, it was
1101 the loc;ll not<\hles who rallied, bill ralher Ihe long-suffering mixed-bloods ami
Indinns. The}' flocked to the banner of the Virgin of Gu<\d;llupe. whom ther had
long <\go appropriated as their own. This "colored plebe" now formed a massive.
angry, undisciplined nrmy-"n horde," in the e}'es of the starlled creole e1ile.
I-Iidalgo's men stormed into the city of Gunnajuato. where they massncred 500
Spallish soldiers and civilians, including the intendant. in an nil-out assaull on the
municipnl grnnary. Afler looting freely. they headed toward Mexico Cit},. llidalgo
struggled to maintain control.
By November 1810. Ili(blgo was 011 the outskirts of Mexico Cit}' wilh nhout
50,000 men in arms. In a decision that hns prompted dehate and speculation ever
since. he Ihell pulled bnck from the city. Surel}' he could have taken the capital.
Wh}' did he wilhdraw? Was he afraid of his own follOWing? Instcnd Hidalgo moved
norlh. Afler <l defeat ncar GU;ldalajara in early 1811, he went on to Coahuila where
he was caplmed and subsequently executed by a firing squad at Chihuahu;l.
I.eadership of the ramshnckle insurgency now passed to Jose Maria Morelos,
another priesl. Like Hidalgo. MoreJos supported the abolit ion of Indian tribute and
slavery nnd even proposed agrarian reform, The laller was an explosive issue
among the colonial elite. He insisted, too. that citizens had the right to choose
their own form of government. Ultimately. Morclos envisioned "a new govern-
ment, by which all inhabitants, except pe"imulares. would no longer be designated
as Indians. mulattoes, or mestizos, but all would be known as Americans." Thus
Morclos combined nationalism with a commitment to social and racial equality.
In 1813 the Congress ofChilpancingo declared Mexico's independence from
Spain (although it is Seplember 16, Ihe anniversary of Hidalgo's speech, Ihat is
celehrated as the country's independence day). The congress also decreed that
slavery should be abolished nnd that Roman Catholicism should be the slate
religion. The constitution, adopted the following year. affirmed the ideal or
popular sovereignty, created a system of indirect elections, and designed a
powedullegislalUre ;llongside a weak Ihrcc·pen;;on executive.
Meanwhile the Spaniards werc winning mililary vktorit·... ()nc 01 Ihe' ...h
cOlllmanders was the young Agustin de Iturhide. laler In I,I.I)' .1 letllr .• l 1111,' III
Mexican independence. In IRIS Morelos wa.. c:lpillred.tricel (hy II1IfI,i'lli.'n .1'.
well as by secular ;luthorilies). nnd exeollcd. Olhcr<; lonlillll1'll 1" ligllr I"r Ih,·
cause. htlt Spaniards now held Ihe upper hnnc!.
Thus ended the first phase of Ihe Spanish Amcrk.lIl indl'flcnolcrHl' 11l"\"I'
menls. New Spain's Morelos and' Iidnlgo wcrC' hOlh dcad. Holivnr 1.1Ilglli .. !l(',1 ;11
exile in Jamaica. Thc junla in Ihe Rio de 1.1 Plata In 11I,linl..ill lHlll\' ,10.1
h;ld yet to call for indcpendelllc. B}' wllh Ferdin;ll1d halk fllIthc Il1rl'II\.II11
Spnnish crown appe;lred to h.l\'e sllllffee! (Ilrt its colonialichellloll
Achieving Independence
The Spanish military advanl;lge in Snulh Amcrica did 1101 In"l long. III IS 1(, \:,,11\.\1
returned 10 Venezuela and hegan his cnrlier vicll,rje... Hili 1I0W 111'
allied with lose Antonio l':iC7, Ihe hrilli;lnl lender of rhe k.II!c.."II./,/n,,', ",11.,1 •. 1,1
earlier lought for thc royalists. NtlW 1':1('1 wns fighting 1"1 illdcl'Clldl'IH " Irl>ll1
Spain. Bol1vnr's cause wns fmllier bolstered hy Ihe ard";ll ,Ii I L'illlnl \ ,'rHCll'" II "111
Engl;'llld, which b)' IRI9 llumbered over '1{)OO, 'I'hu!'o .. rIC'Il,I:Illcrw,t. l-:oIIV.I' ,'''; .• 1,
lished firm control of VCllczucl:l h}' early IHI!J.
After defeating Spanish fol'ces in New (;r.lIl:lda, Hnli\'.11 .11It'lIlpICt! III IX'I I..
crealc a IlCW stale of Corml Cnlomhi;'l. ulliting VCllezuel:l. Ncw (01,111,101.1 ••111.1
Ecuador. It gained lillie supporl. so lIlarl hcd ..lIlIlh\\.IHI. hllllll1lg '''1
more fO}'alists and Spaniards 10 (lefeal.
Me:"ll1while. jose de S;'ln Martin was cllndtlcting .111 exl/.I,lldlll.II\' 1111111,1/\
campaign in the sOllth. The son of a Sp:tni<;h officer. horn I>n IIll' llullhCI II IHllltll'1
of presellt.da)' Argentina. he hegan a milil;lr}' C:lre('T at thc .1}.:C 01 l'!c\'cn. III IS I.., Ill"
offered his services 10 the juntn in Huell(ls Aires. h:lVillg dt'ddl'll III I.w'" 01
independence for the colonies. A soldier hy tr:lining :tnd oul1l1"I-. hI' ,trd 11,,1
hnve Ihe political acumen of Bolivar or Ihc sod... I comlllit'llC'l1t of i\llllf·I ..... hill
he was a skillful milil;lry slrategist.
As commander of the rehel fllrces, :-;an Maltin \\1.1" rl'.I,I}' II\' ("III)' I,l<l t"
attempt one of the most daring exploits nrlhis Cfa: le;lchng .111 .11 III V III ,;oon.1t r' .....
the Andes for a surprise altack on royaiisl tfl)()P" in Chile. I k I .llight Ihe do.
completely orf guard. won a major victory in thc h... llir nl (-h.h.lhlhll. ,llltl
triumphantly entered the cit)' ofSantiagn. San Marlin now !,I('pared 1111 III\' 111\/
step in his campaign, the liberation of Peru.
By 1820 San Martin rcached the Peruvian coasl. Liul.l \\'.1', l"vcn 11I01" 1lI"".H
chistthan Mexico City. All hough the c!evnlion of Bueno.-. A;re" In" vl\·e'·II},.1I1\· III
the Bourbon era had hurt Lima cconomically, its monarchist scnliment wa .. ,1111
strong. Creoles and PCllifJ5l1larcs both tencled to favor the continuation nt
Ferdinand VII's rule. S<l1l Martin wilhheld his altack, Yr dn tIlIi ..('ck
milit<lry glory. nor nm I amhitiolls for Ihe title 01 cnn<IIICI"lIl" fll I'CIII: I ,1111\· \\1.. 11
10 free it fr0111 oppression. Whal gond would do Ille il il" inhahll.1l1t .. \\,,'11
hostile polilic:llly?"
H 1'.\lilt'NI ... 1.'PI"'IIP ... ,\NIH IINI 1<' I'"
I kll', lilli, 1.... lll,d ill l;ltal)'z,.'d l·Vt.:nl:>. Whcn Ferdin:tnd VII
"'U,LUlllIl"d 11111lllitiL,d amI el1dorsl·d th,·liberal \,.'llllStitlitiOll of
IX I ..!. Illl' IllIll.lhuUI II II lll·d hi:,> LiIll.1 They wcre ..:ially dbl
<I\'l'l Illl' .• hllllli"l1 "I Ihl' Inl(lIbitloll .lIld Ihe challl'ngl.' to the dignity of
1\1.111)' lllllld UII IIlllll; authorily. bUI 1101 Ull Ihl' role .tnd
I'IIWl'l III Ihl' dHlllh,
'1111'" 111111 III l'vl'nl-. ill SI'.lill altered Iht.: dim:!l\:' 01 opinion In
:'ll.Xhl' ( Ily .• lld I llll." Illdq)l'lldl·llll:.' 1111111 SI1aili 110 l,-mgl'l .1 ladit::,d Ill"
1'\ l'll .1 111"'1..1 I..WW r-Juw it \\',1 j tJII:>t', "alive goal, .1 01 uphnlding
II,Hlllh'lhd \'.IIlIl'" .llld ::'UlI.d llllk fh if .Ilknuwll;'dgllig 1.lI.."t, tile (lilJl!do 01
[1111,1 ill\ill'll I\l.lrllll III l'nll'r Ill..: dly ill mid 1X21. 011 July 2M ht' lonnully
III I'll-linlnl I hI' 1":1' vi I'l·rtl.
Alll'r 1111 tlU:l .. wilh rtl)' • San Marlin wl'nl ltl for
.• Ill .. Wllh SilllUll Bullvar. EX:lllly what happl'lled Ihl.'re ha.... IH.·vcr
l,t.t.lIl..... I.tltll ... Buhl' •• r 11M)' h.IVl· :-,:1 11ll: IUlIl' wh":ll he ollcrnl a to the two
•. II-,llnt HIl'1I III AIlll'lll.l, 1VI.lrtin and himsdf. Apparently Uolivar.
..... 111 IlIUll.IILh)' ill Pl'ru, un Ihe uniun 01
(II.L11 ( III0lllbl.l .•Illd dl'lltllnl San ulkr to SCI'Vl' llllckr lib UllIllIHllld, In
•lllY ";.111 1\1,lllill lllt'lI <III his ulfkt:s and .... uon wt'1l1 to Enrop", whl.'re
III 1.lll· IX:! \ Bullv.1I II Hwnl to I'l'ru, wlll'rl' Iii ... 1I1aint ... illl'd
,Ill 1111I"".lng Itlill', III IX}·I tht' 11I)••di .... b wac d"'lbivdy dl'feated by l·ulonial
lil/"p'" III lilt' ballk III Ay.ll'udlu. III 11:)25 Bolivar t'nlcrl'd Uppa Pcru
d,ty Bulivi,l) ill Iltl' lltlp": Ihal I'eru and Uppa P..... u mighl form a
:>lllgk 11.1111111. hut hl' W.I::' tUII 1.llI:. Thl;' rl;'gional leaders 01 Upper Pl'nl Wcrl'
;,d 1111 Lft'.lting Ihelr IH"n repuh!ll,.. Thl'y pnullplly did naming it lor
HlIll\.ll .lIltl 1l1.Ikllig hUll I'm Iik,
,\lll'l lI.:IUIllillg 10 Lilli••• Uvlil';'lr \"'l'lll un Iv (..;r'lll Culumhi.t. hoping to patdl
Ul' Ihl' I.tlilng ulliull. By nuw hc h,ld grUWII hilli..'r and vindktivl'. Ihal his
,lll.·.L1I1" h.ld latlnlill 1ll.Ih:ri.dizl'. In Ix3U huth Venczuela ;and Et:lIadur withdrew
1l"/Ill,r.llll \llulIlhi.l. Sul"krillg lrum tuben:ulosb. 13ollv"r looked b.lCk in
r\ Illl'nl .1," Ill' -b unguvt"rnahle. whu served revoluliun hav,·
ptllwnl Illl' Un l)eu:lIlb... r 17, at thl' :Igt: uf unly the Liber"tur
I!.• ",:wtl .IW.I)'.
In 1\ k,'(Il,.\ I Iill' ddi:.11 ul ill IXI5 stallt:d the illdc:pl'lldt:IKt: lllUVI'-
IlIl'lIl ulItll h'flhll.llld VII deducd tu the uf 1812, thus
111I .. l'III::>I',-'llllb .llld pruinilll'nt l tu thc sidl;' of independ"ncc, 'rhl'
\\".. Inl by the Agu.... tin dl' Iturhidc who had led the: royalists
till' imk·pl·lIdellt.:t.' l1luVClllcnt aCljuired:1 tinge.
Till' IIlljHllllllli.;tit !turhidl' the viceroy 10 giw him cOllllll:Jnd of
1<1)'.111 ... 1 ill IhI:.' I Ie 111 ... 11 IlI:lrlhnl ag.linst il n:bd ll'adcl' with whom hl'
1IIIIIII'' ",Iftll,.k .III ;dIJ.Uh.C lur Illc .....tkl· uf inJcpt'ndcllL'e, In 1H21 hl.:
L.i11 1111 tllrc..T "; ul religlun (the Catholic faith 10 be thl.' official creed), of
llld"-'pl'lldl'nl..l' ulldcr a motlarl'hy). ;and uniun (f.lir tre;ltmenl for
.... ;Llld !'ClltlL\lIlllrl's alik... ). Ilurbid..: IllOk I\k:OLlI Lit)' Oltld l·.. I.• hh.. :Ill
l'mpirc -wilh hillisi'll, lIfCOLlfSt', as l·llIJk'ror. II LI .... ll.'d ollly Iwu )'
III CelHlal i\llIcrita. Iht: I.llltll·d crt'1I11' hl·I.llIll..' won Il·d .Ibout Jlbl"f.1I
dUlIIiname ill Spain.l."l 1i.1l1 un'lI Ilwir lUllllll.'rp.1I b ill f\kXIlU, III 1H21tltl.: (:t'1l11.1I
,\llIcril..-an dccidcd hi Cbl I"l wIlh Illllllldl··.... l'lllPIII' .Ind
;lllllUllllccd lhcir lu ruyali .. t l\!l·XI<.:O. \Vh... 11 Iltlrbidl' ill
IX2J, lilt: Cl'lltr.11 Alllt'rkan ;-.l.lllo.'.... , Imlll Ctlall'lll;d.1 Iu t:u... ta Itil-a
("'xdudlllg 1'.lllama). h":I..IJlll· Illl' indl'jlt'Jllk'lll Lhlllni l'rl,,,illLl..' .. 01 Cl'lllr.d
A/IIel'll. ... By thl' Sp.lIn·s lioldlllg.... III Ihl' Nl·\\· \V"lId \\\'1,' lnllll..l·'! III
CulM .Int! !'ul'rlu 1{llU.
The BroziliCln Path
Indl'jJl'ndvllLl' CIIEllo.' lu'il III ,I IIl.IIIlIl'r WI)' lilHvlcnl !lOlll (II Sp,llli ... h
Am... ,.il.l. Thai p.lrtl), dUl' ltlth..: l:ll..I Iklt Br.Il.i1 \\',I .. lJ)' IHUU loll" IIhlll'POpuIIHI",
,lilt! lh.llllhl;' liny lIlollll.'l ,,-UlIlIl!")'. By ,-1I11tl.I.. I.1I11 ::'lIlgll' UIIUlli,d
klTllor} e'lu.dt:d 1lI1'1Iul>ulil.lll III ClUJlUllIl1.. III pulllll.11 1'"\\".1. \VIIl·II till'
' jlrul,.lainll.·d llldcpl'IIt!l;'llll·. IUtlgll1 Il.ll..k SIMllbl1
Alill.'Ill.:lIlS glcw til 11.111:.' Ih..: ll"O\\'II, Till' l'urtllgul..·...l·, 1111 Illl' IIlhl.·l 11.1I1t!, did !luI
t'VCll havl'lhc ll1ilil,lry pmWl til lhl' 1111IVl·IIIW.lld l'ultlil...1l ,IUlolIlllll\,.
·I'hl.: It)lIkxt of Hr.lzili.lll illdcpelldl'll(l'lluillll:tIUII .lllllllll·r 1111I'(III,.nl dith:;
CIlll;', \Vhl'll lht' N.II,oll'ullil Mill)' Illvadl'd Iht.'li.1 ill I Il\l'lllht'r IXU7. 111,'
llllirl W.I ... abk til lin' III Bra'lil. Ih.lllk.. III Illl' Bllli:,>h 1"1))'.11 11.1\)'
l)ll.l"llig IIll' l."(111)llral pt'riml. 1'0011lgal h.ld IIt,t aIJ'I\\'nl il:'> Illlllilll.t.ll
It) I'pl'rak j1lilltirlg 1)1l.·....... III lladl' wllh (Jlh":l
11.ltJlllb. l'hl' .11;'\\'1)' .llTivl·d J,!"bili' Il'gl'lll .11Il! L.II·1 1.11)11011\,.11 1)1)111 JO.III VI
pnlll.II,}tly l'lId 01 lOlllllll'rll.11 IllOlllllh,l}' h) upclIillg
BI.II.II pUll .... III:'> loglt.' W,I .. N,lpt,II.:OII IIIIW 1I11111'IIk-d "ullug.d,
lht:' l·xil..:d llIoll:ll'l.:h luuld lUllIllIlll' III bl'lIdit llUlll IUfC:lgn
IIJd,' .. II lhe fOlllll'rly l'xdusivc: lillk wilh M;,'Vl.'lnl. Tht· 1I11ll1l'
bc"lll'flClanl's w{'r,-' Ihl' whll hild, aftl'r ;1/1, hroughl 11ll' BI.JgdIIZ.1 I,unil\'
.lIltl ib rdinUl' 10 Brali!. .
Brilain gill.ned privilt-gl.·d .ll"(I.:.... tu Br .111 ill IlilU by 01111..1.11. Iilln'n )'1.'....
.lgret'lIIcnb wluch (I) g:.lVl· Britain Ihl' Ivwc t t.... dl (l'wn JOWl'!' tli.lll l'uJ'lug.d!)
1111 e.llll'ring lkazil; (2) (l.)Jllmilkd tl.e lll)WII 10 III": gl,ldll;11
abulltloIIU/lh{' Afrilall slav..: Ir<llk alld guarallkl"t1 Britlsll .... i.l
thl' right of Irial by Britbh-namt:d Ire.1I i..: ... :,>uun deq) I
llIt:llt .Illlung Ihe Hra'lili... u dik.
Tht:' cxill't! PurtuguC'st' lIIo11arl.h lIu\\' Sd .d)UlIll..Il·.ltilig II..:W Ill:'>lilullllU..... Mli..11
a natiunal libr:lfy, :I nativnal alld a bot.lllil,..d g.lldl'Jl, all ill I{ill dt'
Jalldro. Dotll Joau VI illvilcd a French III spcnl
ill ;11'(hilccture. painling. anJ M:ulpIUJ'l',
. ,Tht:' lmWII to altr.lli IUl"l.:lgl1 1111IIlIHl.IIlt::. 10 BI.I'lI!. II Ilad VCf)'
hnulcd ..... illlllligialilill llol to bq\lll ulllilthe
I.IIt: II:)HOs. There tv prulllutl' (l;'xtilt- lIl.lll11l.lClllll·, illdudillg rcpl'.i1 uf
the 17R5 rorOlI decree IhOlt hOllllled all But meOlsures could not get al
Ihe deeper causes of BrOlzil's economic backwardness: the lack of capilOlI, tech·
nology. skilled labor, n sigllirlcant domestic market. and a reliance on for all
forms of l11;mu31 work.
In 1814 French troops were driven from Portugal, but forces Ih31 had
joined the Portuguese in expelling the French remained. Arter they. too. len the
country. an assembly (Corles Gerais) was called to write a new constitutioll. The
newly vichlfious Portuguese Liberals. interested in exploiting Brazil's wealth.
pressed for the return of the ro),al court to Portugal. Dom J0:10 soon did retum
hi Lisbon. 1c<lving SOil nom Pedro hehind in Brazil <IS the prince regent of the
<':llInhined Kingdoms.
Altention now focused on the Cortes Gerais. which :lpproved measures that
would have restored Lisbon's roynl trade monopoly in Brazil. The Cortes also
approved me<lsures returning (he individtl:ll Bra7.ilian provinces to direct :lnd
rule from Lishon. therehy undermining the central rule created in Rio
ele I:mcirn nflcr 1808. However the Portuguese Liberals were in Portugal,
Ihe)' :lhhorred the move toward aulonomy ofthcir Americnn "co-kingdom.
The landowners and urhan profeSSionals who constituted the Brazilian elite
had heen pn'paring to confront lhe Porluguese recoloni7.ers. Their passionale
rhetoric ovcrnowed Ihe n('dgling Rio press. They wanted the prince regent, DOIll
Peelro. to remain in !'ra7il. The Cortes in Lisbon. however. demanded the prince
regent's immediate.- return anel look new steps to reverse Brazil's growing
autonomy. The Brazilinn plantation owners' pressure on Dom Pedro now paid
ofr: on September 7. 1822, he defied the summons of the Cortes, "I ndependence or
he cried, giving birth to the only durable independenl monarchy in
modern Lntin American history.
To win their independence. the Brazilians had to fight, but not on the $cale of
the Spanish Americans. The lIerce.',t combat came in Bahia, on the llorthe<lstern
coasl, and Gr:1o Pari in the easlern Amaz.on v:llley. In Bahia a junta proclaimed
loyally 10 Portugal nnd fought off the local pro-independence rebels, In lR23 the
rebels trillll1phed, nielcd hy Admiral Cochrane. one of the English military omcers
hired to give the rebel governments experienced help in combat. Another mer-
cell;lry. Admiral Grenfell. led the victory over a similar loyalist junta in Grao P;ld.
Ilis rorces then mopped tip ;l local rebel wing that was demanding more radical
social change. In Brazil. in Mexico. the elite was alert to repress any fund;llllenial
challenge to the socioeconomic establishment.
Portugal's military weakness partly explains why Brazil's struggle for indepen-
dence proved far less hloody than Spanish Equally imporlnnl. the
Braz.i1ian rebels did not split over the issue of republicanism because, wilh a fe'>,'
exceptions, the elite preferred a monarchy to a republic. Thanks to the exile of the
court, the Brazilians could opt for an independent monarchy Ihat legitimized
centraliz.ed rule. Brazil thus entered independence with a unique legacy. Not lenst
imporl:lnt. Brazilinns did not associntc independence with mililary prowess: no
Brazilian Simon Bolivar or Martin arose to domin:lle the patriotic imaginatinn.
The Aftermath of Independence
The new Spanish Americnll repuhlics faceel fnrmid:lhlc pTlllllellle; a.. they t·IIIII.I' ke, I
on independence in Ihe 1820s. The physical vinlcl1lC of Ihe W.\r" wroughl t·,,,
nomic disaster. The deslruclion prohahly reached ils highee;1 poinl in \'('111'/110"1.1.
where guerra a mllerte rW:lf 10 Ihe took :l hl'.IV}' Inll 011 hUIll.1Il llie Ilw
e.. rly of the Mexic<lll war.., particuJnrl}' tlllIing Ihl' l,lTllp,ligll" IIf IlitLll,:'1
and Morclos. took a similar loll 011 p('oplr ;lncl propcll)'. llrllglla\·, wh('l(' I".. ,·
Artigas led hands of gaucho rehde; ngainsl \\'c1I-cnlrendlnl :-'p,llli.. h Im"I''' ..1'''"
suffercd grave losses. During the e;ec("lnd ph.I"e ,)f Ihe lIlnVt'llH"nl. Ihe 1111'.111', ,,1
operations shifted to other nre:lS, ee;peLi:llly I'('ro, whcrC' Ill(' lIghling :lI'I'I'.II" 1.'
havc bcen less intensive Ihan hefnrc hut Ihc hurdell fll <;111'1'1" ling 1.11 gt· .1I111h'·.
was nevertheless Ilcavy. The civilian I.lhnr ftme W.I" thO, i111.II('d .llltl,
Ihe conlinent. C:lpilal was scarcc.
The economics of the new nOli iOlls were overwhc1l11inglr h.l... eil (Ill .1gt h • III II' t'
and mining. This was equally tru(' of mosl of Ih(' wl1dd olllsit!C' V,I('<;I FlIrnpc y,'1
Lnlin America differed frolll1l10S1 of Afrita,lhe Micldle- En,,1. and l\<;i.I illlh.II 11\"1"1
the POlst lwo and Ol half cenluri{'<; it lind hecn p:"·II.III)' hr"lIghl Illin IIH' wnd,1
Imding economy dominaled hy Fllrope. II W;I', Ihe expoll.lhk <;llrpill" Irnlll 1.11111
American :lgricultural ;llld proclucliolllh:lllillk<'d il III Ihe fllih AILIlIl"
ecollomy. With the creation of sep3fnlc cOllnlric... Ihi .. h,l"i\ t't II!lOl111t .. Ililt 11111'
relllained intacl almoe;t eve'1'whcre. e;lowly 10 he Illnl!irlcl! III "\I{ l('('.lillg tin ,Ill,··.
Trade had come 10:tn almnsl <;,lanl!e;lill h('lwe('1I IHIlI .1Ild IX '(.
COllllllerce with .spain had stopp<'d. anil Irnele t h(' lOt Iller. 1Ilnllic.. W.I" .11 ... "
greally reduced. Northwesl Argentina. for inslancc, sulrcrel! hom Ih(' 10..... /II t.. "I,·
wilh Peru. Guerrilla wadare in New Spain alld olher :ll"(':I" Ill.Hk Ir:lll"I'flIl dlillt .tll
;llld dangerous. Communical ions syslems within nnd hel w('l'n Ihe Illfrncl \ nit Il1l1''',
never much hy the !-il'aniards, fell inlo !lcnr 1111 ..1 di<;ll ..C
·rhere also the (aclor of poslindepend(,lltc I'q,:il111al \(Illflill willl'll
l1l:ljor arcas of Spanish :lnd I\lllcrka. MexilCl W,I .. wr.H ked 11\'
batllcs which kept Ihnt country divided and withoul dIet live l1alion:l1 dirTi I,nn
hefore lR50. Brazil. :11 Ihe S:lllle time, cnllnp<;ctl inl0 ;l .. eric.. pf Iq':IlIIl.ll!·.1
revolts after Pedro I abdic<lled Ihe Ihronc and relurned 10 1·,lImpC', I('.ldll).: II"
live-year old son and heir. Pedro II, under the gllil!;mct:' of:l rcg(,llq'. rill .. 11'11
the monarchy effectively neulrali.,ed ulllillhe IRtlOs. Ancl in Ihe nill tiC' 1.11'1.11.1
region. the fierce rivalry hclwcen the provilKc of BU('llo<; Aire<;, ;llld Illl' 1'('''' OIl
the counlry was tempomrily resolved only hy Ihe (licl;1Inr<;hip nf JWlIl jVl:l11lld
de RosOls (1829-52). Everywhere Ihe 11l0ve was 10 ns<;,ert ('(lI11omi( .WIlIlI"l1"·
by locality or region. That meanl fmgmcnt:llinn. In Sp:llli:<;h Arn('li\a il !lH.II!1
thai Bolivar's dream would be huried tinder Ihe advance of (}IlC
after another of the new repuhlics claimed economic int!C'pcIHlcllcC'. Till'}
would soon lind the world market a lesl.
In mnny pariS of .spanish Americn. Ihe ncw had 111 dc.1I \\'llh
public debts evell hefore they could allemp' 10 rehlliltl 111('lr ('t (1IlOIlIit' ... ·1'11 SII .. I.II II
the lighting. to equip the armies. Ihe insllrgelll regill1c" (rcl(ll('nl I)' h:,,1 11'11111.1 itl III
a c1wnnd
1"'IWW lund:- '1'.1.\ .. "lk.. tiulI, to plll ilillildly, wasdilfi..'lllL. Asa result, the national
ll .... l... tlli ... weI ..' ellll,I)'. <lll..1 guveflllllc:nt authorities had to turn elsewhcr(' for
11111..1 .... A prilile :-uurc.. was Britain. where hankers supported the regimes with
11I.LlI'" lJlArgclltll1a, Chill', l'crll. and Mexicu. Thus 11.1c Ill:W guv('rn
1Ia-lib 11111Ilnlt.lldy rail Ul' dd>ts to lurl'ign It·lIders. Managing th(' fureign debt
1"'IlI.llll ... d, d(IWII II' Ihc pn:sellt day. a major problelll fur Latill Am",rican
,\n"lIl"'l .IH·.L ill WllI .. 11 fllH;"i!:)1l ... "pilal illvcsted was the African slave tradt:',
\.... 1,1..11 u/lltIIlU..·,1 011 ,11;Lrgl' Brazil (unti11850) and Cuba (ulltiIIH65}.l3ulh
h.ld .Ill "'),PUI I uri ... lllnl itllltllrt: Ihat llIJde slavt:.' labor prufltable during all era
\\,IIt'1I II \V.I'" l,dug "bulbh... d ..,n.: in the ''''eskrn I klllispht.'re.
lilt' )''''.11 ... hl'l Wn'lI DUU and Iii'll) saw I.alin America'::. exports to the North
1\11.111Ih n'llllltlll), ill .. '['Ill' l"ulluwillg wcr", key prinlar)' products: wheat and
lIlll,lI ...... hU1l1 (]Ilk·. IlJba.. ..:o Irulll Culombia, hiJ",s, salkd bet:.'f. <Iud wuul frum
:\ I!-:"'111 111.1, gll.IlI" In !Ill 1·.. ·rtI, 11 UIlI Cub'l, cuITt.'e frum 13n.lZil, and GIGIU from
\ ...·lloud.1. S.llIl ..· .. werl' h",avil)' illlporting texliles alld conSlllller
!'.pud , Ih... I,,·by ult..-l1 1111uwing lucd artisan producers out of work. It was thl'
lIldtl lll.d ill We::.t EmuJ'l." (especially Hritain) competing against tile
.. Ill.dl ..... d... l.all1l Allleri.:all pruduc.. who had survived froll1tht.· colonial era. The
l ..·... ult lVII,.·gllll,,·C(Hldu::.iull.
'1111'" .ill part III fl ...... tr.ld..·, lin: dugllw that had arrived ill Latin Arnl'rica wilh
I IIIlgIIIL"11l11"'1l1 I ;Illd the cOlllmit m",nt lu the prilldpks
til lIb,·J,dISHl. Applying tlli::. dogma W;.IS tht.: llIosl signifkant policy
d..... I.. ioll I.atin America. Alollg with a rapid inflow orfureign
(I'lilll.lld)' itllpvfb (";1111 ..' a small cadre uffordgn merchants. csp"'cially
Hllll ... h.·1 1I ..·y oc...lllll..· k... y tlJruughuutl.atill America in the import of goods
.11 h I :-. ..·1 VlL...... , till." l.tlll."1 in.. ludillg ::.Idppmg, insurance. and tlnancing.
\W be Ih.11 lllallufa..-tllrcd govds frolll Europe dis
111.1l"-"ll dUllll,.·Slk 11l(ldw.. I::.? Wa::'II't il lllr.:vilal>k thaL Eurupt.·'s greater technolugy
.111<1 ,'ltllll/lilin 01 wuuld prr.:v.liI? Transpurtatioll costs should hav", hdpnl
I'll 'k.. 1 II)l.1I 1)1 \ldll... Ihl." (VI' genuille) superioril)' uffurcign-ma..le
).'"",,1... I ,,'.... l·,l a dil..-lllilia soull alkr illdepelldence and has (,:ontinued down
I" hldd)'. I..lli .. AllleriLallecollomit.'s ulien tailed tu make Iheir own industry Iruly
,PIUPl'lLIIVC ,·vil)'? I.....·k 01 a markd was certainly a faclor. Hut equally
ltlJl'''II.1111 Ih... ul .1II ..llhe sod.1I hit:rarchy which made it
hi ... 1"1 IIll' ..·lit..- II) perl'dll""'-''' based 011 all agrarian-orientcd ecollomy.
'1 hI.: r..... unll/llhe ItUU-50 pl,.·riod is therefore Olle aJapta-
III/II I" th.., WUlld ..·..:UIIUllly. l.atin AIlll'rka W;IS oJlthe fringes ufthe North Atlantic
l.... UIH/llly, whkh was tu l'xpand r;\pi ..Hy ill the nineteenth nntury. Both research
•Iud ,1.11.1 lit I IIH' l·(otlullli..: hbtury uf this era aI'''' distrcssillgl)' scan.:e-but it
dl'lh.•II .... Ih..· uf "'vitkllt'e .. vailable. Ihat Latin Ameril"a's republics took a
1'.' ... .,1\"· .. 1.111..·..·. The ..:allle IrUlll uutsidt'.
'I'll ..· u·..·alioll alhl Illaillkllau,,:t:.' llf large armies in lllust Latin
Il'I'IIIJlll.:- .Lbo .. Ill .. i,tll)' alfeckd III ..· vrder they crei.lted
.. TIll' c ... l... llI.d hlllllllatltJlb .11)
fur I,,-... reers bast:.'d un talcll!. As tht.: fighting illkllSillc.:d ;llld LIIl' sl.Jke::. ill .. rl·as",d,
I.:reolt.:' kid 10 rl,.·cruit suldiers :lnd cUllllllanders 011 al>i1ily, n\tht:r lhall
011 skin color or social stOll us. Thus JOSt' Anloniu 1'.1(,1., a rOligh-hl.'Wli I/It'Slizu,
bcc'IlIl"· a valued militilfY kadt'r ill Vellezuda. III Mexico lOSt' Maria Mordus was
11If>stiz(). Olher t:.'xalllpies abuund. Milil;lry pmw..·ss lIl'crlllIe a by wbidl
llll·mb..-rs of Jllarginal groups could gain social rl'cognition. NOlle of Ill ..· n"'wl}'
gowrnlllt'liis retained legal disabilil fIll' l,r (It hers of lllixnl
racial backgruunds, a faci whkh Ildped to blur Ull ... e rigid
But if Iht:.' wars 0pclled a social aveHue for II/csti:w:. and olh"'rs,
mobility was lilllited. Eco/lotllic rCSoUHI'S, p'ltlkularly lalld. r"·1I1.dned ill th..·
hands t)f lraditional creolt· CotllJ1ll'r,,-,.., was tllIJdeSI ill Ihe ye.. right
after the fighting. ;llld lllatly merchanl (alllilie::. rdaitl..·d tlll'ir l,.·ulllrul 01 tr"de.
Industry bardy exiskd. As a rt:.'sult, tiler..· only Otll' way lor 11ll:JI of 1I10th'St
origin to gd lhrutlgh 11le military. and fruln th... re Intu pvlil ::..
This suci;d dynamk hl'lps explaill llllll.h of the pulitical turbllk·ll e ill Spani::.h
I\llltTica Ix,tweell tILr.: U:l20s alld 185U. The lIew rcpubl ..... ::. tlllish..·d lht' wars wilh
J.lrge military e::.lablislull",nLs. often I.... d by lIIestizos who had IlU altl'rnallv", .... lr...
To get ahead they had tu stay ill Ihl' arJlI)'-ur tlIlJve inlo guveflll1l",nl. Itl the
]ll ..·untillle, cr..:ole lamh..lWllerS, ill many parts uf t ht.' 1.:0llt illelll, dId 11111 ..'01111''''11,.' lor
pulitical puwer. They withdrew to Iheir whidl ,,'uuld J"Ulldioll as
suflkie1l111niIS, alld tried to l!leir lalldhuldings. III dkclthe)' Il.'ft gUVl'lll
111",111 (0 lhe "lid to Ih.., tJIlSSl'S known wlldiflv:., hl· ..... IlIM· pulilictl
IMW... ,. did not Seem wurth lhl' lrouhk. Later ill lilt' nllldn'nth l,.·t·lltury, wllt'JI
govenlllll,.'nial authuril}' bl'l.:alllt' a V,dUl"d cOlllll\odity, !lIIet'lIi/lIdus <Ill..! estOllci,·ru:.
Cllllt' of( tlll;,ir lands alld look uvt·r.
So gov"'rlllllellts Wl'rl.' luppkd alld rUJI hy (ll//lli/!u:., olkll !'>lIldil'rs (or l'1(-
soldier:.) wl10 took power b)' 1<lr(e. Unc..· ill lit ... pre::.i"!"·lllial ullin', thC)'
IOllllJ thai sparse tr..'asuril's oflCred lillie rr.:ward lor Iheir Thc.:ir IJallds
thell dbp",rsed. and new ci/Ilflilfus would l,.Ollle lurward wilh Ill'W h'!llds of
folluwl'r:.. The gnv"'rJllll"'lltS did not havl.' strong ;lIld as .. resull w..·re
highl), vulnerahle to b,,'ingowrtlll'lHvn. FrolJllhl,.' ...elltuI'Y, polilical
authority ill Spanish Am.....ica W.IS weak; th..· a ",,,·ntr.. 1 did nol
wield llluch autonOlllous strength.
DUring this era i1notht'r current l·lll",rgni. a Iliuve lu 1.:I,.l11sulidak and cellI r:1lizl'
It usually came out in attelllpt ..·..! nol pupular CUllSetlSU!'>. Tilt'
first 'twv decadl's arkr indep",ndence thus saw till' appearanl.:t:.' uf real or wuuld-hl.:'
Jl1l'Il." like Dic:go Pllrt;J1..,S ill Chile illld Juan Manuel de Rusas ill ArgentiJla,
who sUllghllu impus", Ihdr will Ull tlwir .... Olllltri ... III"-'rl.'b)' strenglhl'lling tilt.: rolt'
of the siale. The struggle betwl'en locally based puwer ;Iud Ihl' centralizers-
military or civilian-became;\ basic thclIle ill tht' polilkallife of tlte llt'\\' nations.
If the Wars of Indq)t.:ndell..:e Upl'lll'J narruw ch.lIll1l'is for and luiddle
range groups ill Spanish AIll.... l'ka, they did vt:ry lillie lur tht: Indian masses. In
g""lIt'nll, Ilatives playn.l an ambiguous role in 1111,.' struggle: thvugh the)' sidnl with
I Iidalgu ur st.. ye..! neutral in M",xku. lhl,.·y supported ru)'alists ill suutllt'nl Chik, .uul
in Peru ;lnd Cn!nlllhi;l they fought on both sides. The IcOtders of the new repuhlics
therefore did not feci in(lcilted tn the Indi;lns. More imporl;lnt. the Indians now lost
the sped:ll protection of ..;aste status they h;ld enjoyed under Spanish colonialla\\'.
Whatevcr ils drOtwh;lcks. thOlt status had bccn ;In on-used refuge for the Indi;lns.
They :llso losl Iheir cOlllmun:l1 lands (which h::l<! been inalienable) :md were
theoretic.. lly forced into Ihe compelitive market so praised by nineteellth-c('nulI1'
lihcmls. In fact, they hecnllle even 1110re isolated and poverly-slricken.
Independence left n sOlllewhnt different social legacy for Brazil. Instead of
rJi$placillg:l mling eli Ie, ;lS happened ill Spanish America. Brazil aall/ired ;l ruling
elite: the Porluguese crown ;lnd it .. ;lltcndants. MmlY of the Porluguese who ;lrrivcd
with the I'oy;ll court quickly illtcgnltcd into the local c1ile f;llllilics. huilding close
politic;ll. eCDl1omic. :lI1d soci;llties with uppcr-c1::lss Brazili'lIls. Hrazil also acquired a
monarchy that would lastunl iI 1889. But these political trends had little elTect Oil the
bl;lCk sl:l\·cs. In the institutioll of slavery was not abolisl\ed ;ll independence or
I)y lhe lR50s, as in Sp;lnisl\ Al1leriGI (excel'l for Cuha and Rico) ;lnd it wOllld
later hecome a centrnl issue in Bmzilinn politics. In Brazil. as in nthcr new nations,
independence did nol ch3nge life much for the pooresl segments of Ihe popubl inn.
Arter IX50 Lalin Amcric;l moved from the post independence consolid;ltion phase
10 begin laying the foundations for its grc;llcr intcgration into the \\'()Tld economy.
In politic;ll terms. this required governmenls read)' 10 create the infmstruclure
needed to export key primary products. such as gU;lIlO from Peru, coffee from
Hrnil. minerals from J\'lexico. and sugar from the CMihbean, As the em of the
("(JudiI/o g;lve W3Y to lhe er:l of the administmtors. Ihe prime t;lsk was nalional
'I'he independent repuhlics moved to 1'1 renglhell the lise of Iwn dcmcnts in their
cconomics: I;lud and Iahor. Most governments sought tn put land into the hands of
ent reprelle\lrS 10 make it bear fnlit, They also sought 10 reward politicnl crollies, build
t;lctical al1i;lllces, ;lnd strengthen ruling con Ii lions. In Brazil and Mexico th;lt meant
government pres... ure to sell off government (previously crown) land. Such strategics
imposed dev;lslating losses on Indi;ln cOlllmunities in Mexico ;lnd the Andes.
To provide lahor. the 1..1tin Americ;lll clites in seveml counlries hoped for
ill1llligmtioll from Europe. Prominent intellectuals argucd that European immi-
grallts would improve the country's rad;ll stock. These years saw repeated propo-
s;lls to attmct Europe;lll illlmigranis. who would supposedly conlribute to national
devc1npment wilh little further investment. In facl. the elite-in countries like
Argentin;l and Brazil-sooll found that immigration was a sensitive issue. both al
home and in the countries sending the migrants. Before 1880 immigration W;"lS
nowhere <I Ill;ljor factor in increasing the labor force. But the strong elite impulse to
recruit Illigrants demonstmled their belief that their countries' economil: and
soci;l! s;l\v;llinn was tn he found in Europe. As will hecome ;lpparenl, this renectcd
Latin Americ;lll douhts their countries' viability.
The mid-ninetecnth ((,I1IUr)' ;11"(1 saw :1Il efforl 10 impro\'e I 1\ 111,'11' .1'·.
transportation network. '·Vhat W;lS Ileeded werc r;lilroac!l', calla I.... (101,. k... :md rfl,hk
Since the sixtecnth cenlu'1'. c;lrgn (including pepple) h;ld Ir,l\'clctl hy 1")( k III I Ill' f1'
burro. In only ;I few are;l .. did navig;lhle river.. nr lakes (lrkr :III allCI"II,"I\'(' Ih
midccntllry L,tin Amcrica \\';"1." the Inrgel for IHIIllcrfliiS llfllllll<;,ll ... III h",111 1"11
roads. The c;lpilal USU;l!l), callle frolll lCH'(:igncrs, e<,pcci;.lI)' l\rili .. h :lilt! NOllh
Amcric;ll\. while national gnvernnl<'nls provided the initialivl'
The rhylhm of cconomic aclivity quilkcllcd thmugholll 1.. ltin i\ 1111,.'1 l\ ".IIlt',
Thc stimulus GlllIC primarily frolll Ihe dYllOllllk ('I..l1lnl111C'" .. t Nnl,h
America ;lnd West Ellrope, Icel hy Bril.lin. 1\" I'UI"OI'C pllll1):nl (,\·t'l 1Il001l' tlt'I·I'''"
into industrializat ion. it needcd incre,lsing impIII h offootl, sudl .1" ", hed, ,lIhl
gr;lin, as well ;IS prilll;lry c(lll1fllodities. SllCh ., .. gllOllll' nlld 11111.111,.' kll lIi/t·r... , \\ 111.1.
and indllstrialmetals. These were Ihe deGHles whell el..On0l1111 Ill'''' tr,ldf'.III\(·.. 1
ment, fin;lncing. technology transfer. migr.llion - (.kt·pellccl helwecl1 hllPPl' .11101
Mexico. Argentina. Peril, C:hile, Bm"il, ;lilt! Cuha (evell Ihough .. 1111 .1 .... 1',1111 .. 11
colon)'). l1y IXRO the Sl;l}.:c" was set ftll" even greater ClIIIl(111111
Thc ccollnmic uplurn ;lfter IWiO h,ltl illlptlrtallt lilllil:llill1l<'. Fi,Q. il 11''''1111,,1,11
very little growlh of domestic industry. Thc rising l.a1in nccd 1111 1111'1.11
\0011', slll:lll machines, instrulllC"nts, Cllll<;tnlllioFl CI..jUipllll"lll, ,11111 .. 111,,1.11
light industr;;lli7.ed goods wn" primarily I1\cl from Europe, nol II nlll Ilnll\(' 1011111 I \
.shops or f;lctories. The trend was hardl), surpri .. illg. The I\rili<;h, !=rent'll. IIr II.S
products werc I\\ostl)' nfbeller qU<llily Ih:ll1 ,1Il),thing prndull'd:1I hornc. ahhough
that :ldv3nt<'lge could have heen Ilarrnwe(! if the (IOllleSI ic plllChll er.. 11:1<1 h,hl CIl' '11):11
timc ;lnd :l sufficient market tn upgrade <ltmlil)'. Bul th;lt would h.1\"(' le'lllilf't1
governmcnt proteclion either through high lariffs or lHllrighl ;lI\pnrl prl,11Ihllllll'"
No Latin American governmenl \\las prepared or .Ihlc III Llkc "'lIlh " ... ll'p,1I
this time. Economic power gnlllps, such as Ihe 1:1!lllllWI1C"1''' :lIHll:lltlc"H'II, \\. I'
strongly committed 10 free trade, which their European \ 1l .. p/eadlet! ,1 .. 1111'
only true ro;ld to prosperity: ;l1l(1 lllerCh:lnls. In«llct! ill IIll' 1.1'1',1' .. 1
dties. had;lll obvious stake in fighting protcction. 'nl;ll mollvt' was evell gn',ltl'l
when the Illerch:lnt was a fort'igner (usnally British Dr l'rCl11 h). a<; 11,lp''''lll'oI
frequentl)' b), m;dcenillry. Against this ;lfr;l}' offorces.lhe I.nlill Alllcru.l1l ,Ilk"
cates of proleclionism or sl:lte·;lided industry c(lllid IlInkc lIllie hc,lIlt...·,I)'.
A second limitation \\las its reinforcemenl of the highl)' .. tm' il1ctl "11' 111110
strllclurc inheriled from the independence era: a Ihin eli Ie ,It Ihe '1'1"'.;1 ... Iighllv willI I
middle grollp. and the other RO to 90 pefcenl ;II Ihe hot hun. The 1,.1Intinued lot.. u<' I HI
;lgrO- ranching ;lnd mining mcant thai mO!o'1 lahorers WOllld UIIII illllC uliller Will ktlll:
conditions :lnd r:ltcs of pay that COl lid lIevcr llllwe thelll IIlw.ll"11 IliI'
consumers that a economy bOlh produces :llld needs.
Latin America was being pulled furl her into the international et..lHllllIl)' ill ,I
way th;lt would strongly cnnditioll its sllb!o'eqllent dcvel0pllH'1l1. The llaltllT "I Ih,II
eco!lnmic link has continued to provoke hislorical r1r11;lle ;lnd will h('.1 1('1 HIH'1l1
Iheme in Ihe rcsl of this hook.
Case Studies
Change over Time
The Taming of a Revolution
he history or Mcxh.n offcr... a .. llId)' in ,ollirasl. Hi, Ii III 11.11111.11 ,,'<;"11', t'". th,'
cOlllllr}' h;ls known hnlh prospcril), (if I1llt), It.r Ill(' chIc) .111,1 I"WI'll\, , "I
sever:ll dccndcs ;lncr independcllce lIlt' 11,11;,'11'<; polit;,.11 lik \\"1".11,,,,1""'1'(" ",
chronic insl:lhil it y. NOll ion,,1 govcrnllH'llls ClUlle and wcnt .11 gllnl" ,inl. 1h r ('.llcnill1:
lhe new n<ltioll'S Icrrilnrinl integrity. H)' the 11lid nillt'llTlllh 't'IlI11r\", ,\I('Xl'" "'.1<'
clllbr;ldng:l !,,,Iit icnllihcr::di.<;llI Ihal wOllld h.lvc grc,llir I"Cdl1l cd , IIlIi 11 l'll\\I" .HI. t
the corrcspollliing bllnlcm or ilS l"'ll'l1li.ll kg:ll)'. )'{'I tlli ... 111111...1 r.1\1' \\.1" tf'
(kcadcs of dicl:ltorship and then 111 rill' I\k:"il,.,lll 1{('\,pllilillll the hI'" ,d rill'
world's grc;lttwcnlicth century rc'V{llutiplI:>. ()ut 01 Ihe Ikl'lIl11t Ii Ill, .1111,'.11" ,hi h.1I
system which produced, for more th.111 11.111 :. ,Cl1ll1l)', .1 p"IIII' ,.1 .. 1.1111111\
unm;llchcd in Lalin Amerk;l, II :llsll po.;lpollcd Mcxi.o' .. tl,Il\ .. ili,," In d".IOl.d
democracy, which would not \l(.llr IItllilthc yeal 20{)0.
Among;'tll countries ofl.alin Allleri'<l, td<.'xko h.l .. h.ld Ihe 11111:-1 llllcn.... .11111
I11mt (ol1lplcx-rehlliollShip with the lJniled Slates. S)'lllhllll. lIe Ihi<: .. illl,ltion I',
the 2000-mile land horder ... h:lre<! hy th(' two Il:llions, 'rhi:- pn1xilllil r 11.1"1'1'11,1111 ,·,1
benefits and linhilities (according tn ;l well known :HI<lgc, "!'ullr "'lexi, n! ,S" Ln
(rol11 Gotl, ;lnd SO close to Ihe United The {tllllllrk.; h.lVC \\'.lgc\1 \\',11 \\'1111
one other, joined logclhcr ag01inst common Ihre<lt ... , 0111(1 tlrvcllll'ni ,I"... · .111d
hillding economic lics. Migr,1ll1 workers (mill Mexico t01ke Illw pa}/ill): i""" .111,1
remit hill ions of c1oll;lrs tn their hnrne COllllllllllitics, \\'hile M('xi{';lll '\I\lCri•. lll
voters form a sought-arter hloc in U.S. polil ks. \.lIlt tI 1'<11 intcgr:ll inn l:Ike... eV('f y,1.1>"
(orm in popul<lr musk, cuisine, cincllla, ;l1l11."pl1rl<:. I.ikf' il "I n'lt, 11ll' ,j.· .. lill\· "I
Mexico h<ls heell lln<lvoitl<lhly interlwined with the United :-.(,111· ...
The W<lrs of Independence left Mcxit.:o in disorder ;llld de.. :lY. (:Olh.liti"ll" WI'It' '.11
worse in Mexico than in Argentina or Br;l1il hcc;lll... e thc a.-tll.11 fighling h.ld 1""'11
so Illuch more widcsprcnd nnd protr;'tctcd in Mexit'o. The c\ "nom)' W.l" III
j II ,I .... \1,.11 \ i,il ,t:-. Il,ld l,lkl.-'ll 111<.:11 t. ,lllil •• 1oul ,,1 tlh.' (ollnl J y. 'l'lh'
111111,",>, ""," IIll' IUl,k 01 t.'llIpin:, had I,dlr.:n JIll\) ,!Isrep'lIL
.lIld wy.dbh h.Ld bolh 1lI,I,k ;I poillt 01 killing IL'lhnit.ians whik
lllllll ..:.:lld... \,l 1IIiI1l.:1'" h"d gUill' lilt It) \\,.lr; with,)ul ::>lIjJl.:rvi::.illll, tht'
JI Ii 11,':-' 11,.d l1uu,kd .U1d llla<.'llllll'ry uth'd)' phlllll1lCltd
I" PIli' Ihild Ih pl..:war l.... v,·1 I\lining \'Wlllllllilitit's Valelld:llw., ftll'
" I, I, I I I 01'1) rl·::.idellb ill IKIU ,lilt! onl)' ·1000 III U)2U. It \vould take I '.11111' " __ • •
.1110111\'1 g\·II\·I.lI1Ull ,Jilt! Ill' fureigll illve"lnH'nt lu rt''\:'
111\'I'ln I"U'> JlI1Jll'''' 1,1 lull .
'I'll,' [\'\llk llldll ... lr)' h.ld l.dkll 'Ill hard Till;' ul hallIe Wt'l"t.:
Vl,>lhk Illlllllgll\,ul Illl' \llllnlry, IIH' cl:lJtr.ll v.dley. As UIlt'. traveh:.'r
Il·'.lllni. Illl'l" W\'ll' M1uill ... \·Vl·I)'wll\·r..: 111·r.... ,I viLl'fUy'S as d
1,1\L"rtl, \\,1 II'I l' lilt:' Illllll':' ::.t.,1' lu rt':,t, .llld lilt' drivl'r::. 10 drillk PlIII!lle-tllt'n:, :I
\dhJk vtll.'g.... LJ UlllblJllg til pinl's; Illl11::.t:S, hrokt'll duwn walls and archt'::.,
,Ill ukl dlurdl Illl' n:J1I.lilb lIf a .
1{,J:h!" had lin"n tll,gl .... ,,:tl·.1 <I::' \,'dl, so Ill .... LOtlotr}' lacknl:l workable sysh.:m 01
I I,tt l"'pUl I,ll iUI I alld dill Itlllill it..ltiOII. J laving ruled luI' years, II Spaniards had
111.111,1\'\'.1 Iu \1111 ... 1111.1 ulll)' t!lll.'\· 1111-\/lW;,I)''> \\lortll), IIf Ihl' ll<.ll1ll·. I ravel hy ::'lage
" 1,"11', "II ""I ;,Illd Iran::'11ort-olkn by pack s:lddlt'-was
l U.ll 1 \\',1 ... l l " " .,
w Tlti ... WI'" 1 IJh::.I.I... J.. 10 t"c"nomic inkgr,ltioll. ,,,... y ,11 h ... J , ,. ,
M.lf> i l'.'1t:xko
" \, 1/ I,
EClllllllllic disllrd.... r mcant vay Il'w jobs and Illut'!l UlIVlllplll)'Jllenl. According
lu ulle t'stiltlate, a!Juut JUU.OUU llIeJl, JIIosl ofwlwJll had ill the W'lrs. had Ill)
jill> III wI 1(;'1 I tht: halllt:s Gllll\.:: 10 all ellt!. '1'I1b rq1r....::.ellled IS 10]11 pern:lll
Ill' Ih.... enlire dull male pupulatiun. The}' were l'aga, angry. alld llsually
armed, They posed not unly an eU)llOJllic prub1elll bUI a suLialthrt'al as well.
SOllll' of these velerans managed tu lind wurk. tllrn d til crinll'
(highway robbe,'y bdng .1 parlkular favurik). Otht'rs stayed in th arttl)'. Still
othl'rs drifted into ulloflldal, ullits lh'll pwvid.... d support lor 10\';11
polilical bussl..·s, g.... 'll'rally knnwll as (m/elillo:;,. who WlTt' SUOIl to pia)' a
rok ill tht:.' Mexican ::'Ct:.'lle.
Tht' wars .115U had .. dir.... cl enl'ct un lVlcx SOl ial I II Ihl' I tl2(b
tht: new govt:fllllll'nt iSSlInl <.l dt'cree .... xpdling :dl Spaniards frulll Tlli ...
ruling nol lIllly allowed lhe publiC tll Vt'llt its hatred fur Ihe Spani:'rds. it alsu
ecollomy or an importallt SOUl"Cl' of capital. And it dilllinalnl, :II a
::.illgle ::.truh', a Il..'ading ::'l:.'gllll'HI Ill' Ihl' nation's upper or al i::.tu..:nH:Y. Now
lTeo1...- landuwllers, nut Sl'anish born, IUrlllt'd thl' ulll' .... r l'chdullS 01
Ecunoll1ic trallsfurmatiolls d'iting b.lLk 10 Iht' Buur!Joll l'ra, logt'lll .... r wilh
gr,u!ual rccoV<:ry ill the 11:00s allll IH4Us, h.. d Jllad.... it fOI gruups lu
acquire wcahh and st .. lus. Cenlered mainly ill Mexicu City, aspirants, lik....
most nouveaux richl's, were OSll'lllatiolls, pUlling UI\ d,thoratt:: display::.. III Slltll,
early lIillClt.-'l'lllh-c.... ntury /'vlt'xico had a cn.:ok upper \\lith (wu part::.: Ulll'
consistt.:d of old, traditional falllilies who lor the must part kept 10 th...-ir land; lh....
0111\'1' was Ilew, drawll from COllHIll.'rct' and thl' prufessiolls as well a::. lalld. Alld il
wus lht' HI'W seglllt'llt, n:ct'oll)' arrivl:.'d, who bl'callle <Iclive ill politics.
Poverl y persisted among 11ll' vast Illajllrit y of till' populatioll. Fspt:.'cially ill Ihl'
n'lIler ,1Ilel the south, Mexicu had a classic peasalltry-Iarge lllasst'S of cl/lIIpe:;illo:;,
01" country peupk, who'ltched uut 1I1eager liVings from bnd. t.argd)' 01
Indian origin. SOlllt'lillles llIixnl·bluud or mestizo, peasanls fUl'llis!1I,;,d
lahor for Iht' agricultural St'cluJ'. Many work....d on hal..·iendas, what' 1I1t'y livnl in
virtual serfdom, alld wt'nt bl.:'ggillg in dtit'::..
'I'h.... e:(isll'nce or Ihis undt'rempluyed pl:.'astlntry also gU;lI':llllt:l..·d lVIt'xico a
large surplus labor lure..... Parlly for thi::. n:"SUll and p'lrll)' beC<lusl' of antifureign
tvlexk<lll authorillt-s did llut 1:.'1Icouragl.:' illlllligraliull lrulll abroad. III
cUlltnl::.t to Argelliina (Chapkr t.J), Mexicu nl..'va a preduminantl),
Eurupean-born working class. Nor did it undergo rapid populalion gruwth al
all)' puint in lhe nint'teenlh ct'lltury. Starting with abuut b million rC5idl:.'"nts in
1800, thl' country had abollt 7.6 million people in 1850; by 190U Ihe llgure had
climbed to 13.6 million, but eV1:.'1l this represents a Illodest anllual average growth
rale of less lhan 1.2 pi:.'rcent over lhe period. Mexi<:o's populatiun
explosion would not COllle until the l\\'enticth et:ntury.
There wert' two institutional bases of power in Mexico <Ifter indept'ndent.:l:.'"-
tile chun:h and Ihe military. The church had COllie Ihrough the il1l..k-pclldellce
with most of its immense weahh int;Kt. According to <II I...-:lst VIII..' uLserver, Ille
I; III I l' I .\1/' \ (I I I
. J
, ""'.,\1,,·,,,·,
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'< ), I 01, "! .. ' 'r
., ....
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" 11
"I,'"'' \
'" I ,I
f' " •• ," ....
" ..,
Ever the diploffii'lt. Filnny -Ihtlnkcd the Cilbinet council for Iheir wilmillg- ilnd
manilged to find iI conventional gown.
Quolation hom Ufe in Mexiro: TIll' (euC',s of fanny Co/derOIl de 10 I101CO. ('n.
How<l,d 1.<ln<1 Manon I-Iall Ftshel (Giuden City. N.V OouhlcclilY. 19661. pr· \25 and 6q\ {nole t} J
church Illay h:wc conlrolled nearly onc-Iwlr the Il:llion's I:lnd. The church eOlfIlcd
regular incomc rrom ils vast real eslate holdings and its investmenls, :md it was by
far the largest banking npemtion in all Mexico. Its gencfOu!' loans In large land-
owners not only gllaranteed a steady income but .. Iso createc! a firm alliance with
the lIpper echelons or Mexican society_ SmOlIl wonder thOlt the church and its
economic would evcnlually become a targel or opposilion. pnrlicularly
alllClng those who railed 10 heneflt rrom ecclesinslica] largesse.
The second power hase was Ihe mililary, which dominated nnlion;ll polilics.
Ouring the forty<}'ear period rrom 1821 to IR60, Mexico had at IIny separate
each ror an avef<lge of Ihnn one year; Ihirty-flve of Ihese
State Protocol and High Society
Outsiders can provide remarkable insight into sociill clistom,>. Such Wil'> Ihe case
with Filnny Calderon de la Barc" (1804-87.). the Scottish born wife of the Sp<1nish
minisler 10 Mexico in the latl" 1830s imd early 1840,;. Her acute observations
cilplured the fragility of a "fill-emerging social order, .1'> in her description of
leilelion,; 10 her pl;m to weilr illocal dress flom the> slilt£' nf PuchI" 10 ;Hlupcominq
"f"ney bill1":
IOn Jalluilry 5, (840) We had a of Sp<lniards, illl of whom «'('mcd
anxious 10 know whelher 01 not I intendt'd 10 WP;U a Poblana drpsc; at lhe f.1ncy
ball, imd seempn wonderfully taken up aboul it Two lIldefinilC looking younq
Poblilnill<ldies lokI me Ihitl cvery one was very much plp<lsed al Ihe ideit of
my going in a Pohlanil I thoughl cveryont> had very litlle to do itnel
lalht>r 'iurprised Ihit' every OIH? ShOllld trouble them'iclves ilbollt il.
About twelvp o'dock the plc'iident. in full unifOlm. illlPndcri by his aidt's ric
e".."p. p<licl Ill'" a <lnd poltt'ling <lnd t<llkinQ for about half im hOlll,
milking himself velY amiable as uSlI.11 <lnd ilS dgreeable as he could. Shortly aftci
citmc more Spaniards, ,md just as we Wf're in hopes Ihat our visiling WitS over.
and wcu' going to dinner. we wCle lold that Ihe secretary of state. theo
of Wi'll, and of Ihe interior. itnd othels. were till in the drawing-room. In
array they came••lnd what do you think WilS the purpon of thell visit? To Inform
thill all Mexico W<lS in .1 'itille nf \Iloek ilt the idei'l of my qoinq in <I Pobl.1nil
dl(''i''. ilnd to.,c1jllrC' mI? by .1111hill W<lS mOSI alalminq,lo di'ic.1rd the ide,,1 Thl?y
assllred liS Ihat all Poblanits wele femmes de ';1'11 now thi.. is what I ctlll "
sw('epinq dilUse on the pM1 of Ihe mInistry-that they wore no ..tocking.... and
Ih.'liin m;nistf(l de [sporia should by nn mp,ln... weilr. even for nnf' evening, such
il drps,>.
\ .. I he 01.11(1'\ ..1.,11"" 1'/
ill sl;lrred regimes were led hy :ll'm)' lI/fleC! ... '1'111' h:l .. il. IIle.I"" 01 \\'11111111):
preSidential omce was Ihrollgh ;t milit;uT ('oul'. Alld l"lllning Ihrllllghlillt Ihl'.
period was Ihe Iragi(ol1lil fig"rc of I\nlllllin 1.llpe/ lie Salll.1 '\nll.l, will' hi'll 1 IIII'
presidell')' nn nine separ:!t(· 1',(.I<;jnn" .tn,1 Willi in"I:llIc(! ligllldH'.lIl...11 111111'1
Sanla l\11n;\ wns fhe 1llllSI (:1Inoll'" III Mexi(-o'" 11111.-1,11,1\. Thl'''(' .. llflll/:IlH'1l
<tsselllhlcd their :lrmed rollowcrs -Illinialllf(' anllil"'... who W('I"\' 1'1 illl.lntr "'1'('1;.11":
wC;lllh. Once Ihe)' rOllghtlh('ir w,J)' inlnl\alioll.ll pnw(,I". hl1\\'('\·('I. Ihe\' III h'" l"'lll.l
thai the Irca.<;lIry WOls running !llli (1I .. II.lI1y frnm jll('villll" lllllil.lI\· "1'1.".11111:
Evenlually fhe reignil1g .,IIIt/dln h:lnd \\'1>111(1 hl(·.lk til'. ,Il\(l .1 ,"'\\' I,·.HI,·/. \\1111
I1C\" rnllower<;. would sej7e POW('I. The (III/tit/It", IlwlIl"d\'('<; clllllll1l 10, 'I h... \\1/ II Ih.
arts of govcrn.IIKe. wa... kn Itl a (ilfllc' Ilr 1.lw\,('r" .,,111 11."k..... u.II .• I... 111.111\
frnm tvlcxico Cit)'. w!lnsl:trlet!lh(' mini"llu'" (and III Ihi ... Ih,' 11111· 1.11(,'" nil, II
reappeared: Ihere werr IH':trlr (1(111 scparal(' \.lhill('1 .11'1"111111111'111 h('lw"I'11 IX'II
alld IH(,O, h1l1 IhC)' W('1I1 In llilly ;t07 illdl\'Icll1.II,,) '1'1111" ,lid "'/liltll.. ['"1111\ '. "fll.liI
crlntillllil}':I<; we]l <t ... (·hal1ge.
The North American Invasion
Crippled h)' the \'\'::11''' or IlIdel'('lId('ll<.e, i\lc,illl \\'.1".1 .llId \IIII1I'I.lhl,. ''''\\
l1;tfinn. Tn Ihc north I:ly allollH.'1 new lI:1tinll. Wh.,h h.ld 1111"\\11 lIlt II .. IIIJ:It..t1
tll:lslcl' flrt}' }'Cilr!' culier. Nnw III(" neligh IIg llnil('d ,"1.11"" W;l" I WI' .. I\\'.1 n t .11), I
",olllhw:lrd. hC::1ded rllr lhe V:I>;I, "iJIII.tll}' 1I1'I'''plll.II,·olllfllll1l'111 ,111111.1111" "I 1\1l.1I
W:l<; ronnerlr the Vkeloyall}' 01 N,'W:-'I'.lll1
Spfluiflrd" had lIever foulld Ihe reSllllft.. l·<;lo ""lIk Ih(' 110.111 Ill,. hllgc 1<'11.
lorie" or Calirorniil. Ihe enlire ( "loI:tel,. Un-t·!' \·.llln..lIId ·1,·,.1.... '1 hI' 10,·.. 1 Ih,\
could do wa" 1o crcalc il nclwo.k 0' ,-digilll'" II1I"<;II.n<;. 1I1.llllled .Ihl'\'· .11111\ 1111'
resnurccrlllOlnd loynl Jesuils. The!"oc land ... het ,nlle.lll ,.In-iol, ... 1Il.11:IlCI IllI
tIle reslless North Amerital1<;. 111 lX21 :-'1('l'l1cl1 AI'''''.11 :llltt .1 (.j "'cltlt' •..
moved inlo ·rexas. thell ;t pnrl 01 l\kxiClI. 1·.\Tnll.,lll)' Lh:lfing 111Hlcr ,(,1111.11,,11.,
rrnm Mexico City. the Texilll'" r('volle(1 in line; .llIti tled.lI ..d lIldep,·ndt'li. \' Iltt'
following }'c:tr. 1<1 crn"h Ih(" r("heIl11ln. S.IIlI.t /\lln.1 led J\IC"lo.h.1Il 1.""1.·..
;-tgilinsl the 1\ 1:llllo. killing Ihe Tn.1Il defender<; 10 lilt"' 1.1 .. / 111.111. hilI II("' Lilt" \.1111('1, .• 1
c1dt':lf at Snn J:lcinlo nnd Tex:l .. /'(:Illaill("t! IIlIlq'e'hklll. In /X'I";lhc II .... (·'Illg•• ·....
voled In :lIl1lCX Texfl.<;. whos(" leaders promptly agre('d.
The Mexicnns S:lW Ihe anncx;llinn of 'I'ex;\.<; ,I" cql1iv.tlrlll In .Hl ,I, I .. , \\'.11
hy Ihe United 5t:lle.... , :111(1 di!>pttlC'<; I)ver fin,ll1tial claim... ,1111111111('111" tllmpl't.II,'
U_S.-Mexican rel:ltinn... Presidenl !:lnws K Polk <;('nl AIll('II(.lIl Iln"I''' Illl" .1
dbputcd border nreil, :l step Ihe Mni<:llls S:lW ., .. :In 111\'.'<;1'111. \\'ll('n III('
Mexicans countcratl<lckcd. I'llik en lied il w:lr. Ily <..."n<;enl or (;(lllgre.. , hill \\'.,l!
the opposition or stich promillcnl Icgisl:tlors ns fohn C. ('.111101111 .llld /\hl.lll.11I1
Lilll.oln Polk hild the Will" he :lnd his sllppnrler.... sought.
II was a lolfll llliSl1lalch. 1\1 fir"'1 Sanl:l Anll:! 1Il.l11aged III .c.. i .. 1 A"1\'II' ,III
troops under l...,chary Tilylol'. hUI in IR'17 (;cncrill \·Vinflelll .,11 led h.... ,,)111111.1 ..
direclly from Ver<tcfll7 In Mexilll City. C)r()in:II)' i\!cXit.lU" '''"It',lllIe 1'11"11101
llglll ollllll" .ifIll)', ,1111..1 )'\Illllg Illilitilr)' cadl'1s-si!lct' n:Jlll"lllbl::,ro:d a: till'
hvl'UI.:'> III - i.k'alh ralh... r [hall 10 Ihelr Iwtlollal nag,
Btil i[ \'I;t" III lilt .tV,1I1. Mexico 10:'1. Tltl' pri..:e il paid was heilvy,
Till' Ill',tl)' ul t;u;ld.dllp'" Ilidalgo brouglll a formal ... lld to th... war ill
h.hrll;IlY IK,nt Hr tltl.'lr\':lty, tht' LJllikd Stales paid Nkxjeoa
411 t I r; III illlllll illllltllok II1\' t'lltlr\' l'X pall:.t: of territury frolll [0 Calitornja-
,dllltil h,t1follVk.... illl\ It, dOlllain, This was a galling def... at, and it:. painful
1I11.'IIIUl)' ha::. IIl'va dinl ill Mexico. TIll' tlifieialllame orthl,;' a"dul'
III .. '·II .. ibdilll· .... III [hl' Unikd Stiltl'::' il is l'alled the -Mt'xiGIII·AIIlt'I'l(iln War, bUI
III I\k"'lllI tltl'}' l,lIllttht' "VV,II urlhl' Norllt AllH.:rkan Invasion,"
Reforlll, Monurchy, and the Restored Republic
1\11111,11)' hllFllill.l[itlll had IOllg-I.t::.lillg illlpuclS on Mexko, Olll' was to llLlrlure it
1l,llion,di:'lk :-'l'll[illllc'll[ Iltal 0111.'11 look Ii'll,;' forlll of a viruk'ilt Yankee-phobia, a
d,'vl' :"',ltL'd itlHlltu::.lihty toward Ihe United An additiollal ..::onse-
l.\lll'llll' \,>,,1" lu pulltical division along parlban lint'S,
III nirh'h'l'lltll u'l1 IUf)' I.alin i\llll'rka, I\'kxi..:{) lk'vdopnl Iwo 11l<l}Or "arlit's:
1\111... "1 \.Ilivl">, Willi 1I1,1Il'ld thl' IUltillll \11' a slrong cenlral guvernll\l:.'llt ill c1use
.tllt.trtU' \\'illt thl' C:lI hulic l :hUl dl, ,lIld l.ibt'rals, who espomel! limited
,1I111 [hI.' 01 derical 1·:,II.:h Ihe othl,;'r ul causing Ih,,'
I.nll,v l,tll;l:,> <:llll:'>t'rvallv\'S In.lilltailll:d Ihat Mt'xicu Ilad wt'akl'lll'd ltsdl
lIy lu:)li:-.ld)' Il)'llig lu .Id,)pl [he v,dues alld in::.titutioll::' uf Anglo to
IIUllh, VVltal Illl' 1I.llioll It'qlli ...:d, ;!Lcurding [u COllst:rvalivt':'>, :1 rdurn to lis
Jli::.p,IJlil'traditioll. Spl'l:illcal1y illln'ded [u prumote aristucratic ideab. protect the
1\'g,11 l'llvlkgn 01 1I111il'll Yalld Ihl: lIltlrdl, and c",:ale a cOIISli[utiulial llIOli
.1,,,1,)' (I'l'rll.lll::' hy illlpIH·lillg.1 ElIft'pl'i111 prillLe), III reply, Libl.:'rab argued that
1\1l'.\ll" lIl'l'lkd IU l:lIlhr.lll· the 01 lll\h.ll'rni'l.alioll, nottradilioll.
Till' .. l.lllllull lH11l illllni UIII ill lie Illid- I whell ;:t Salll;t
'\111',1 '>Illlglll Iv rl'llli.'nbh till' [rl'il::.ury (alld his political by vft lor
'!>IIJllldll"n V.tlle)' (tllday :'>tluthl'fll Nl'w Ml'xiLu an,,1 Ari'l.OIl:l), which
llll' UlIIIl'l1 SI;11I.'::. W;lllll'.Ilor huilding a railroad 10 newly acquired Cidilornia, '1'111:'
dn.billil was widd)' Lrilidz\,d a::. a bl'lfil)':ll of national resolvl', :llll! it prompled tltl'
Iqll)u::.i[ioll til Sanla Anna frolll puwt:r in 1855,
'1 hi .. illili.llnl a IllIlIUItUUU:' I'l'riud relllt'lllbl,;'rl,;'d ill Mexi..:o as 1.11 Uefurlllll
(111l' IklllJ'lIl), CiVilian k'd Libl'ral governmenls elwcled a St.:I';es of sweeping
.tilllnl .11 building a Ill'W sud,,1 orda, (Joe key llIeasure abolishnl the
IJ lilil"r)' dlld I'Lt.:k:.ia:'>1ic.. Ij/lt'f'US, Ille ::.pedal displ'nsations
"krics frolll having Iv sland Irial ill eivilcourts, Anothl,;'J' prohlblh::d ecdeslastlGl1
alld dvil institutiuns from uwning properly nut directly ust'd ill day·to-da),
tllll'r,tlillll:>: litis Illl'aFlI that [hI.' chun:h (oulJ kct:p its dlllrches, monaslerk,s, and
.. ,'IHill.11 il's, hUI wuuld have [II ;uK"lion off the milssiw holdings lhilt II had
,llCtllllubtt'd ovn thl' It'lIlurks. (This wus not soci.. 1 revolution: Ihe lands were
.. old III wl'altllY hllt'I'willliv:;, llot landle:'>s pl'OIlS, In fact, this provision wurkl,;'d 10
!II" .l,·llllllt:lJ[ ullhl' pUlIr, ::.inll' it rt''1uirl,d the sa1l' ofpropt'rties held b), ('jidos, Ihl'
\ /\itEXlt'(':TllI'T,lllllllg4ol.ll{l'vultlli'lll 51
LUIlllllLJllill Iandhuldings 01 Indian vilbgl,;'s.) t\ Ihird illitiil[ivt.' trallskrrnl [Ill'
01 rl.·gistr), IWIIl Iht: church hi Iht: :-.Ialc: all hirth:'>. lllarriages, adoplions,
alld Wl'l'e 1I1'1ICdilrtii Itl Iw It'gisll'rnl by civil rUllcl jUlia I III J1'157 1lillSI of
thl'Sl' provisitJlIs 10lll1<.1 t!l\'ir way inlu a Il"\\' a lihl'r;d dlarll'r [hal
grallted NkxkallS llidr lirst gt'lltlille hill (If' illalkll:lhle righl:..
1\ (;uIISl.:'rViltivt' rl"lctiolllht,tl rt':.ul[ed illlht' W,lr of till' Hl'IOIIl1 (IH58-(1),:l
rugglc Ih<ll \'I.'<lS ill IIlatl)' wa)'s Ille (lliminat ion llr prugra III Illat k di::'plll:l[ iun:..
cuntrov\·rSII:'::., and IJlinor ciVil ""aI's tltal h.ld lolluwnl ill [he w.II,1,;' Ifl
itldt:Pl'lllk'llce, A:-. Jllili[ar)' inlt'milled, so did iJl'ologic:l1 Now
llndt:r lSt-nill.> lu,ireL, iI llHllk 1'1\\')'er ur hUlllll!e Indian urigill, a I.ibt'l al
govt'rHllIl'nl.ill-"":Iilillg a 01 dcLle,·:'> e:..1t'llding tll\' spiriluflhe I..I\\'::'
vf hililt allli lllarrLlgl' a:. lIvii ll'rl'llIUllit':>, Ilillioll,dij'iJ1g
ChUfCh a:;:.dS and lillliling ill lite Slrecb, and,
most i111 porI a Ill, llall)' sepa ra tillg ell II rdl a Ild SI a11:, (\I [l'" }'\.;\ rs 0 f hll kr figlll i11 g
jld)'t::t. Illat.k ,t [rillllll'hall[ elliraille illill f\'kXlll) Cit)' dlld "":1:'> lclIllI,i1l}' dl'lll.'.1
P'l':-.idcllI ill IH(lJ.
Pt',lU' :;1 ill plOwd ih thl' lOtlllllT lJ.lJlkruplcy, Ju.iro
dl'ddrnl a two-}'ear 1Il0raiuriullI IIll Mexicu':,> loreigll lkbl--[hll .. "arning tIl\'
wlilth vI' lrt'ditors. Sct'king to it:-. t'lllpir\' ;llId Fr,llICl',
undt'r j':l1Ipcror Napolt:oll III, cOlll11lellll:,d :l 1 )'l'.lf w.,r III oel-Up;ltIUll. (Me,,,, ka II
klllporaril)' halh,d the Frl'lh.h adv.tlll-l· tow.lrd (V!l'xi<..o Cil)' III ,l h.lllk' al
lludll" 011 Ma}' 5, JH62, a vil"lvry Ih,'1 lOlllilllll"> 10 hl· lUIIllJll:1l101,1[l'l111i Inlive
Cill(O de MIIYV With Juara fl'Il11IWd IrUltl olliu', Napoli.'ull III
imlalled Ihe I\uslri:lll archduke, Fl'rdin:llld l'1'1axillllli:1l1 von 11.lp:-.burg,
l)r Ml'xilo (I hus I.:'HaLl illg tht' COIISt:1 vallVl' Ilresrrip[ iUII luI' Ilal IelklJ Iptiul I),
Arriving in i\ila)' a 1l:l1Vl' MaxilJlilian [Ikd lu ingrati:llt: with IllAW
subjn'ls by luuri Ilg [Itt' pn I\'IIK,'::" dl.'Llartng i rt'edlll II uf till' alld pn,ddlillilig
a blV,llI fur p\JliliLal Ju,iJi.''1. ,lIll! llVll W;I/'
l)i::.lrillll,d h}' ll)lI(lTll::. ill Eurup\', Ndlhllt.:"11 l·V1.'lItuillly deddl'd III wilh-
dr.lw j:"t'tllh fr\lllll\'ll'xi\u, Ilul'l-ll.·:.:'>ly [Ilis hdray;ll, r"laxillliliall
ill May IMb7. 1\11 111110rgiviJlg JU:'lfl'l. IIrdt'rl,d hi::. l'Xt'lllliOJl Ihl'
folluwing Il10tlth, 'I'bus elldt:'d Mexicu's l'xllt'ril'llt.e wilh mOllardl)',
Tltt' reMlInplioJl 01 pU\Vl'r b)' Liberab ill wh.. [ (oHll' It) hl' knuwlI as
the "restored rl'publi..:: ju;ira, ami rqHluliLalll.ohurl::. alll'll1l'led 10 Sl'l
NkxiLo Oil lill' p:l\h of Hludernij'..1tiVtl, Ikdel..leo ttl a tldrd lenJl .1::' presidl.'ut ill jul}'
I JU:II't'Z prvlllOll'd l'XlellSivl' l:LOnUIl1IC i1lld t'duLativJlill rdonn::., weill so
wdllhat he rail for a fuunh tillie ill 11:0 I, ill une ollhe lilusillolly dl'ctiollS
or thl' nindeentll cell [ury, As Congress st'all,;'d Ju.irez's triUlllph, OJlt:' or Ihe losers,
Porfirio Diaz, rt.-fused 10 acct:'pl the result alld angrily prociaillH:d thill indefinilt'
reeleclion vI' the chil'ft'Xl'clItiVt: endangered Ihl' coulilry's prindplt's alld inslitu[ions,
Tht' l1i:lz uprising was quickly pul dUWII, !lowt'Vt:r, and Sd)ilsti,lll I.l'rdo dlA 'I"'j"da
suc<"cl'dcd 10 Ihe alkr JUilrt'z suddenly died ul a hean attalk in IH72,
Lerdu's It: 1'1 II ill office was rclalivdy IralHjllii and cVllslru":live. hUI pru
hklllS arose ",hen 11ll' ;tJlnUlillct'd plans [0 rel'lectioll ill 1876,
A self-righlcous Diaz oncc ag;lin revolted in the n;lme of effective suffrage rlnd
Aflcr I'nly one oecisive military encounler. Din occupied
Mexico City in Novcmher IR7(,. Directly or indircclly. he would dominate
Ihe coulllry (or dec;,uks to come.
The Diaz Era: Progress at a Price
For the thirty-live years (rom IR7(, to 1911, Dia1. proved hilllselfto he a Illrlsler of
politks. lie hegan wilh hi .. military colleagues and followers ;lnd from there wcnl
on 10 creale a hroad cO;llilion. lie gave the regional caudillos room to maneuver.
encouraging them 10 light alllong themselves. As his presidellC)' malured, he
ste;ulily buill UI) Ihe nrrllY. In order 10 mainlain control of the countrysi<le.
where the vast majnrity of Mexicans lived, Diaz. relied heavily on the feared
gllard;as filmic... , or rural police. In short, Dia7. paliently built lip Ihe power of
the fe(.lcr:tl gCl\'efllmenl where il cOllnted-in military and police power.
AI firsl llia1 did nol seem 10 repre.. enl an}'lhing new in politics. lie was, aftel-
0111. a produci of the Iiheral IllOVell1enl. As lime passed, it became clear Ihat Dia1.
...vas a I.ihcrnl with a diITe!"t'nce. lIe cllhiv:\led Ileutrnlity nn the crllCi01I question or
the chlll'ch, neither it (like most Liherals) nor defending it. I-Ie con-
spicuously n\lowcd his devoully second wife to serve a.. a of
reconciliation loward Ihe inslitution the Liherals had pilloricd.
1n 01 her respecls. 1)1:11. stuck to principles. Inone ofhis mo.. t imporlant
;lIlt! measures. he ruled that the han on corporate landholdings, a
liberal measure of the IR50s aimed primarily at the church, should apply 10 Indian
This opened new areas 10 ranchers. :md political
favorites. In 1894 Oi:11. helped the landowners even more b)' decreeing that
unused or tcrrnlO5 /mlt/ios, could be over for private exploilation.
The crucial source of new capital to come from abroad. Dia70 and his leading
ministers sought 0111 prospective foreign investors, especially U.S. and British. and
o(fered them generous concessions. This overall strategy thus applied the princi-
ples of economic liheralism Ihal had caplured most 1.....Hin American elites in the
clt.sing deCIde!> of the nineleenth century. In Mexico lhe writers. technocrats. and
intelleclually inclined politician!> who nrticulalcd the!>e doctrines earned the label
of the cicHtijiros, underlining their supposed link to positivist philosophy.
Din proved his command of politics in thai mosl fundamental of w::Iys: he
slayed in power far longer Ihan :lTlY would have dared to predict. 1:01' Ihree and a
half decades he held the presidency, with only one interruption (Manuel Gon1..;'le7.:
lie believed Ihat he was giving Mexico the preciolls gift of polilical
slahility. which he saw as indispensable for economic growth. If that required SOllle
repression, it was (or a good cause. A shrewd politician. Diaz had the constilution
amended. time and again, so lhat he could be reelected to the presidency-blithely
cflntradicling his prior denunciations of in office. Di,,7o knew
how 10 :lppenlln the privileged sectors. how 10 make thcmloyal. how toorche51rate
their for the economic schemes Ih"t would raise their country 10 n
"civilized" level.
Ecomllliic developmen1 was Ibilro:hl .. WClC .• ikin): 1':'•. lIlIpl,·
ni:l7.11r!>llried to huilcllhem with publk (umls, httl hy I.lte IXHO Ill' l'cg.• '1 g,.IIIIIII)'.
concessions to foreigners. In only fOil I' }'e:lfS Ihe tr.ILk in opl'l.1111>1l gl('w Ill .. "
750 miles to )(,00 miles. Mexico reached 12.000 mile.. of 11',..., k hr ''lOll.• h l}:lIlllh
(oreign huilt, most railronds were lak<:n over hy the in l'lfli'"
As elsewhere in L:lt in 1\ foreign 11':l{lc rOt k('Il'II: IlillCIl ,1111."1 \\'("·11 IS
nnd 1910. The Uniled Siale... hecame' Mexico·s leading Imilc ",ullin. ,I .. 111111' I.d
eXI'0rls expanded to copper and zinc, as well as .. ilvc!" alHI,:"ld. t\l,II!c<,1 IIHlll"
triali7.:ltion occurred, centered in lext ik!;, eCillenl. in Ill, 1'111'111111 I I'.
nii.l7. sel great .. Iorc hy Ihe necd 10 pllr"uf' C«('lllflmil pnli, ic.. 111.11 \\'l\lIld 1l1.1I1l1.1I/1
Mexico's credilworthiness ill Ihe Uniled SI:lles and F.urnpc III IX'I'. 111I' !I'd, 1.11
governmenl produced a hudgel smpl"... , and fi\!' Ihe (II 111,11\ lI'I'ilill' .dl
budgels were h<1lanced. As celehration... for Ihe intkpCIlIIClHt' 1('111('.1111.11':.1 1'1111
;Ipproached, Dia70and his lietllen<1nts ccl\lld (I:limthnl Ihc\" h.• ,IIf'.• li/c,t '11 t\lt'\I'"
the witlespre;ld ideal of "onIeI' anti prngre...
Economic aClivit}, v<1ried ill Ch:lr01CICT Irlllll 10 ..• 11.1 Ihl'" k,t I"
differing snci:ll slructures. Tht· north W;l" pl"illl.lrilr:1 milling .Ifl,1 1.ln, 111111' .Ll'·,1
where the workers wcrc hired l<1hoTC·r.. minel''', for IIl,tallt c, .• 11.1 • "\\'1"":,, II ...
central "aile}'. h}'conlmst, pri\t1l1ccd WhC.11 ,llld g',lin I'll metlll'lII ..... 11.11/:1' ',1/1·.1
farms. Sugar was rai!>ed in thc south lenlr;ll Icginn. I':llli, 111."h- in II .....1.11, ,.1
Mordos, where pcas,lIlt land!; w('re !;rilcd 1"1" II'" 1>" th, null'.
Vast henequen plantations pn.spered In the, ",IICI" Illl .11 11.11'\"1·... 1\11,·
compelled 10 work as peons.
Under IJiaz., Mexico never dc"dt'ped .1 stnlllg cnllcl'lcll'·UII.11 '1.1.. ·.
Concessions nnd favors (":Ime from Ihc slate, <1IHI t;lpll.11 t.lIllf' (11111 ••d'I".hl
England. Frallce. and, of COllrse. the \Jniled The lI11ddlt- ",', II .... \'0'1'
eXlrcmely wenk as well.
These soci;ll f... clors !>orc decp pnlitit;ll sigllillt.lIlt.e. 1-.I,.. wl1elc III 1.11111
America. middll"-c1as!> profes... ionals provided IHe"sllrc :llld lc:lllc,<,!lll' 1"1 .,·!t'l
mist movements, and on occa..ion the)' drcw "uppoll (n'lll net Iglln).: ,.,,111.. 1I1.,11.. 1'.
NOI so in Mexico. Turn o(-Ihe cenlllr}' Mexito hnd Iht' ,,1\,1.11 lIlg.eclh-nl .. "" .1
revolution. hut relativel}' lillie materi:ll for refnrm.
The economic progress of the 1)":11 ycars :llso hnd it., '\-Vliil ... Ilw ,,"c,dlln'
prospered and duly copied the way... oflhe Ellfllperll\ O1ri."lfltr,11 }'. Iht' v.I,1 111.11"1 It\
of Mexicans faced grinding p(wcrty. Civcn ils lah(ll' !;tllrlll«, "lexi(f.·... \\',.1:1' I,II, ..
remaincd very low. Indeecl. one estilllnle (dnllhtles.. exaggC'r;lled) !ooho\\'('d th.• t 1111
avemge purchasing in 1910 wa.. onl}' one*tp,arlcr Ihl' IHllllc\'d t\l(·\lt.,
cxportetl agricultural prouuLls, while prodlldioll til Innsl "kxi, ,10... · dwl.lI\
staples-corn and bcans (frijolcsJ-hnrdy kept Ill' with I")l'llinlinn grl""lll V.r,11
statistics were alarming. In I€JOn, 29 percent of all Ill;llc hahie, died Wl1h11l 1!l("11
firsl year, and mttny nf Ihe survivor!; clIded up working Iw('1ve hOIll' ,I .1.1\' 11\ .1
sweatshop. Only a quarter of the populalion wa!> lil{'l";lll'.
This highly unequal economic d,'c\\, rqw.llnl pInk... " lrn'lI
workers, hOlh llrh<1n O1nd rum!. Then' were !>trike«. IWI, ''. ('''p,., l.tll}
,\h'-I ..· \\,.I:;l· 1.lh..1 wltlknl lI111ll'r ("onditiulls. Uct\\'\.'\.'l1 Il)U6 ,lIld
l'lOX. ItII t:'x.lll1pk l\kXK;t1l al thl.' Co.llHlllca Luppt'r repeatc:dly
J 'I Illl' 111}-;lll'l givl.'l1 10 U.S. Significanl strikes o(culTed abu
.lllh'II'; III .... 1.llln.,.d wtl/k.... , Ihe Riu Blallu.J texlile mills. Llbor protest
IIlh"Il"llinl hy .Ill 1I1kl1l.ltitJlWI linalldal in I\)U6-8. III lite rural sector,
j'l·.I'hlllh III Illl' f\ an:a billt'rI)' resl.'lllt:d losing their land 10 cOllllIH:rcial
lulllV.III"11 ill 'JUg.11 ;llld ulIIl'l Ill.ll'k\·( In 1111.· nurth Ih\.'rt: .1
I,,',hlh'll hi III ..· I,,:>... "I l.lll..! 101
111,11 .11 I..! Irl" l.uuld a pulky Ihe)'
h.•..! ll,·.lk,1 Ihl' lEu.I\1 dln'livl'I)' ll'l\tr,t1ized govCfllllll'lll Ihal lVkxicu had s\.'ell
.. Ill ...· Illdl-Pl·lllll-llll·. I Ill.lklllg h',IS l.-UlU.. -l'llll'.lh:d in tvkxicu Cily. al Ihl.·
\· ... " ..·11 ... • "I 11I,.tI IIr lIwd,lIo). Poliliu..d ulfiet', t:'specially .Illhe fcd\.'r.llievei.
\\.1...."ughI .tlkl hy Ihl.:' lughel Il'Vl'l 01 who made it wen: envieu.
.. III\l.· ... t'II""lllll t-:.1I11 ufkll re"'luilt'\llullt.ll.t with Iht' gOVl'rtll1lt'llt.
tll\lllllllllg .1" 1I U.. 11 "Iltlll ,Illlt}llg til\.' yOllllgl."r dih:" whu w\.'r\.' l."xdud\.'d frum th.:
1)1.11 \·... against IJf;IZ, hut WllU could have prl'dicted the
In\ In.. lulltlll ...lll·I"I·... il'lIatnl 1'.lr lIlore ulll'll 11I1')' b...·gill with
,I '1,111 \\ Ilhlll Iitl' dUIlIIll.1I11 dlh'. I )I,gllllltlni frl.'lllll·lltly yuung, bel.Ullll.'
l} ""Il\lUgll I" .llt.I\k llil' II III l\lexilo in 1910.
\ 1111· .. 1111\' k.uhllg h.IlKbctJ I. M,ldero. sciun 01 .1 l.llllil)' th'll had
11I.HI...- .1 1"1 hllll.· III \ .1111...• .llId lllllllllg .Imf liI.lI Illlkcd 10 D.,It' pOhtK,lI machint'o
I \.HI .. I" f\1.ld"'·lll, I·l.lll\.b...... gr.llldJ.lthl'l. h.ld hl'l.'l1 govt'rnor 1-11 thl' 01
\ .1,dUlI!.' lwlll tXXiJ \11 IXX· I. .Illd thl'l\I.ldt'ftll.llllily had cultiv.ll...:d a frit'IH.1
:>ltlP willi )11"" Y. I.JlIl.II1tHlIr,': Itlllgtil1ll' lillaJil.e minblc'f. gol thl'
hI'''' ,.1 .1 htll'lgll l·du...lllllll, III alill ;II Iht' Ulllvl;'rsity (If California.
I It.- I,'WI lll'd hI .lpl'l)' Ill .. III .. wkultlln:. t'::,pl'dally 011 Ihl'
\'ollllll1,1.11I1.llitll •. I It.- W.l:>.1 ::.t 1tlllg hlll'l.tI illl·UIIIUlllic::., which fitthl.' !)iazt'ra, hut
.11 .... llll'"hli....., wlll\lllhd 11... ,1. bdldin political d\'JlHKraty alicllalt'd him
11 .. 111 Illl' Iiglditil'" III Ihl' 1.111.' I)' lit' hl'lallll' an uUbpoken 0PPOIlt'lit.
.1I!"lIllig Il'.ldy luI' dl.·cloral and Ih"l if Di,IZ chus.:' 10
lUll Itlr III I')IU (.1::' I.·Vl·l)'ulle t'xpcl"lcd). Iht'll Ihl' vke
\.llhlld,lh' 11Ill:.1 UIIlIt' lIolll ullblde 1111' clique.
111M W,I.. by IlIlW l.Jpllve ul own 'vVhy should he takt'
thl.· 1.IJlI ... vJ .Ill and ::.puiI\.'d yuung olig.uch? Wht:1l Ihe dictatur
I,likd til Ill·l·d 1m .. M..d.... ru llld the unthinkablc: ht' entered the 1910
\.UlIp.tigll IlLe \.lllllidalt' uf Ihe Anti·lh:dectionist Party. Dhtz now
!,IU·.1 ul'po::.illUIl lhall .11 .IIlY t ill I\;' ill dn·ades. His dt'cloral JIlachine produced
,1I1t/llll'l \ 1\ I,,"y. hUI II \\'.1.. 1.11 Inllll Thl.' poli\'e had 10 j;lil 5000 of Iht'
"Pl'o..lllulI.llldudlng M.llkru. Till' yOllng rd.>el. nuw c:mooldellt'd, reJused 10 recog-
111/ ...' 111\' kgllitlhl ... y .... 1 I)" 11.·dl·diUlI. Ill." (whilt' in j,lil-which
.. ,,\I·XI<. U T.IIIIIlI!,; ul.1 Ik\'ulullUll rl ')
Ellliliano Zapata gave delermined leadership to the revolutionary movement
that began in the state of Morelos.
lhal 1)j.1I. h.lIdl)' h.ld .111 hun grill' 1;IIlItHI.. J.lfjjl/ tit' SIIII I.//ls
/lotusi alld clUed for arllll'li Till' I'd)d Ilh)\'t'lllt:lli glew 1"'fJi...lly••1::'
its lroops look Ciudad'l'i' (across lhe bOl'dl'r frol1l 1:1 Paso. III a
surprisillg show 01 Uiaz lapilulall."ll ,llld the COlllIll')'
ill fvlay \91\. A lle\\' dl'CliulI hdd, ;llld f\1.ldl'ltI Iriulllll!lnl. III \YI2. Itt'
IJl'lalllt:' Ille 1I.llion's hd"urt' ..:nnvds III Nlt.-xko City.
Dt..'llIocnll:)'. it UII ib way.
Fr;lllli::.I.U l\l.ldelo alld Idlllw di::.Sld...'lIb Illay havl' lite l\!l.".\h:all
Rt.·\'olulion, bUI Ih(')' did llullong (.ul1l rolil. (Jlht'r rd.>ds had I.lrgl'r l:llIilianu
Zapala, for l·xalllpic. l'lllerged the f(Kk-hard 1....ldl'r of pl·as.tllb in thl'
stale uf l\lordos. Th.... y were the (.ouJltry willi h.ld st:cn their
traditiollalland lahn away by thl' lawyer::. alld
using the new laws of inspiraliun. Th.:se (as Ihey hCC;lI11t'
knu\vlI) saw tht..' rchdlioll as a c!lancl' tu resture ;llstkt'. Tlwl Jlll'ant
llldr lamb. Wht'll Madt'fo lililnllu support tltd!' GIUSt'. Ihey di::.lllbsed hinl and
l!c...·c!areJ Iheir uwn revolutiun.
Madt'fO was hardly a Irllt' rl.·volllliunnry. 1Ie..- a wuuld-he parli.1I1l1·lltariall
whu thuugh! Diaz' ahdic.l1iuli would Opl'lI Iht' w.IY tu tnll." dl·mu... .-.lly. Madt'ru
56 PAln'IWO" (,/\SESTlJPIES; C! 1..\ N(;F OVFI{TIMI
In the north Pancho Villa created powerful military juggernaut. but his personal
flamboyance earned him a dubious reputation in Mexico and the United States.
(Courtesy of the Library of Congress.)
(Ill:\' fmlll the United which relll.lllied thl' gll',11 .ltlll'" "'111'1.111'1 lilt .tli
MeXICan revolutionaries). Villa', :1 rill}' "'Ols \\'t:1I fed .llId well t·'lll'!'I ...,l 111,1,',.,1
Vi11.1'" (ollowers nnw h:1(1 a !'lll e ..nil rt l' III l'lll plll}'lIlrllt til Ill, .11111\·. \\ II" II '·111, It·, ,I
a" <1 well paid profcssioll:llllltT(l'll<1t"V lillII'll. .'
Another chOlllcngc 10 I IIIt'lta t;Ullr Irolll f\l,ldcrn'" h'HlIC 1.11,' '" , ",11111.1.1.
where governor Venusliallll C<lfI,lll/.1 1I111111llrll .1 \llllllg 11''' 1. .. " I' 111<>\('111,'111
(:arrallza, like f\bdcro. wa .. a tli ....itlcIlI lJIrlllher olllH' cI II 1', lI.nuIl--: Il'l'll I" II .. · 1.-\, I
of during Ihe rl'gillle of I l"Ii'. 1\ \\TOlllh}' lando\\'lll'l, IIl"h,,01 .11 .." I." " ,Ill
Illtcrim Aftcr SOlllC 11I".'lt;'lli"Il.11I' ""1111 Iledl" ""111'.1 11"'\,
melll dllring tlli.: GltIlll,ligtl I.f lqlll. 1)11\(' IIIf' lC'\'"llllinll.IIW... ,.IIIH' ,,' 1"'\\"1
C:ll'ranza wa" .1'. 'he g"veillol' "I ( 11.1111111.1
(·arr:l1l7.1 1IIIClt.I·' 11"'lrp.III"1I \\llh Illtll' Ill"'\' 111.111 ., "'11111,'1
c1nilll. Carmn7a's 1'''111 d(' (,/U/,Ial/lll(' (,\lartll 1'1' q \lnl"l, d c" !.Il
d 111..1 Iltt"ll.1
hcld power' <1ntl 'h'll hc. (·all,lIl/.l. sh"ltld hi' I. "'J:lll/t·dI ... 1\1.1
(:hicf(l(the (:Oll .. tilulinnnlt'l A,m\': (llli/' ••.. 1.11>1I.. h('0I. Ih,' 111'\\ I'll ,.,,1"111 ,,·,,"1,1
Ihell LOllnlke new deilltln.... '1 he pl.11I Inc Illdr'll II" .11"'1111" I•• ,II"" II' .... 1.11':"
"IKic'el'llHlIl1il III Illrol",:I(.III(lII·\II"II' lilt· .,11111/1".1" 111"\"11'11' 1,,,.1,,1 III,
:lllol!lcr Illlllhlillg, :-0111'1"111 W.I" .. ,.111,""'1. 1,1" .. ,1\ 1111.11, ,,1'\1.111... 1\
limited 10 Ihe norlh
EVCllltl:llly 11 \\',1:- fCllrlgl1 1Il11·I\T'lllnll. IInl i\k'H.III ,11111 .... Ih,11 ,1''''111<.1
Ilucrt:l. LJ.:-O. pre.. ident \Vooch,.w \ViI ...Oll, dell'! Illlllt·" 11'" I,. In, '1:"11" 1111' .1.,',
gnn'l"lllllent. hOld Srlll 1I1.1ll1le\ to 0\ t 111'\' VC·I.H 1111 .1111'1 .111 III' Idl'lll 111\' '1\ 1111' tt.,
of U.S... aitor... I'll ,Ollnl(" Ihl' lJ.:-O 1I1.1I11H". i 111"11.111.1,11, • .I,·!.I,.\' I.,·",! ....
Ol!-:Ollll"l the Alll('ril:ln" whit h wl',lkell(',j !ll" I,,, .. illllll III 11ll' \ 1\ II 1\.11 .... '''111111'.
:-ittlnlioll was hopcle..... IIl{',lrlv JIII\· Il)11 he 1'f·".gl1nl..llt 1''''1,: Ihe 1111It<'(I<"I.I"·'.,.1
h:wing IH'erthr(lWIl him
By mid·19111, th(" 1.11 fi .... IIII·.. III Ihe Ul'VllllltH"1 \\,,'1' I", ".11111/: I.tllllltlh
ohvilll1s. Villn. :lnd espeCIally i'.:1jI.l1.1. Iq1lr"'l'lIll'lI (1.11111'. r"1 Lllli,.r! ...... I,d, 1t.1111"·
C:lrralli'a lIe wnlll,1 11.IVt' III "fkl nllill' 111,111 Ilhn,IIIIIl"'lll .tlllll"'l:.111
10 edge lertw:lrd. lie promi"C·d. \\'It h"111 de! ,III". .. l,llll III I,ll' II,,· 11111'" ,\,'IIWIII "I
the cOlHlitlon of the rllr:,1 peon. Ihf' worker. Iht' lIIlIW•..Hld III 1"'1111.11 Ih,·
proletari:ltl c1:lsscs.
therc.lftl'r.lle p.IllHllllhCd :111 .lgI.lIl,ll1 \.111111:'
for Ihe resioratillll or creation Ill' ng.ill1ltllr:t1 l"lllll1lll1ilh·... (.//.1".1. Il·'IIH ..
procedures for restorillg legaltillrs. :11111 c... tahli ... llillg:l ll.lli".I.ll.lgl.II •. IIl, "1'11\11'.
sion. And then (:'1rran7:l m.lde his tllOVe t"\\':I.<I 1.111I'1: Ill' g"l IIIf' .111.1" II"
syndicalists- the hesl org:l1l17cd Ill' till' '1Il:111 Illh.11l 1.1110)1" Ill/Ht"II(IlI, I" "1:1"0'
that in return (or favol':lhlc lahor I.lwS Ihcil Hnl H,ll.dll' 'II' \\',,"ld Ii... I, 1111
cnrrrlll,;,(lfI calise.
During 1915 the military tide tllfllf'd ill {:nl'l:lIll:l"" 1.1\',11. AI\,.1I0 (lh. '·l:OIl. h.,
brilliant ;lflny cOIllIll:lnder frolll the llorrhcrn sl;!lc of:-OnllOt.l. Ilrl l'1\'dv ,lrk.II'·11
Villa in a major h;'lllie. Vill,1 retrl'.llcd to thr hill, of (,1111111,11111.1 ,,, '''111111111' .1
guerrilla "'nr. hilt llO longer offered :I ll:ltion:d Ihn·.11 TI ... ,'fI('o/"f,/. ,,,"1.1 Il,d
tllOWll a stlst:linccl challrllgc III Mexi<.o ('jl\, .mol w.III",,·\\ 1111 .. Ih... 1 11.1111'
l\'lorelos In hold 0111 again..' !ctlcr,ll illl m.\lflll\
:.- - .
.' -.
nila.hed <II the Ihought-l'ug£eslecl to him hy less squeamish rehel" Ih;ll he
should strike ;'II his opposition hdore they slruck at him. The mil'I:lke cnst him
his life in 1913. 'lis killer W:lS his own militilry chief of sl:lff, Vic\(lI'inllll Illlerl", a
high-rnllking gener,,1 under Di:li'.. Huel'lil dragged the indiscreet U.S. :llllhassador
Ilenry 1... 1ne \"'ilsol1 inlo his plot. therehy ensuring that the United States w(lulcl
cOlllinu<.' its 1l0loriou.. role in Mexic;ln polities.
Ilueria waS;I crude figure, who thought he could reestahlish a version of the
Porfirian regime. lie triecllo impose his ;luthOl'ity ncross the aroused (oulllry. hut
soon met resistancc. Many Mexicans who had been caught up in thc rcvolt againsl
Diai' now S;lW Iluert:l as the usurper. Opposition began to huild, nnt! ,IS il g;lthcrcd
force il coalesced into the genuinely phase of Ihe Mexican
Revolution. It also plunged Ihe nnlion into a hloody civil war.
One of the most p0werful centers of resistmlCe to I luerl;'t the 1H11·thcrn
ofChihuahua, where Pancho Villa gained control. Villa \Va.. a rough-hewn eX-Gillie
rustler who had mohilized a small army. Unlike Zapata, with whom he wa<: often
compared, he led no peasant rebellion. Villa's slIpporters, at least initially, wcre sm<lll
mnchcrs. unemployed miners and workers, and cowboys: Illell who w.lIlled jobs, nol
small plots of land. So it was not surprising th;\1 when Villa pronounced all :lgrari:ln
reform, in Occcmhcr 1913, he called for confiscation o( large haciend:ls, bllt not (or
their subdivision into plots. The state would administer the haciendas, :lnd their
cOlllll1erci<11 crops would help finance Villa's milit:lry mnchine.
Villa quickly put this idea into practicc. Although it crcntec! administrative
problems, it achieved its go:\1. was produccci and ""pplies were ohtained
'"" 1'.'1\1 t\VI)" 1""'1 ... IUIJlI· ... I.IIANI,J·\JVEI( 111\\1·
Willi III' 1001ih ip.1I ..'Ia·nll..,!'> !'>.ddy .I( 11;1)', (:.llT.lIlZa ,,:ollid alrurd 10 ..:all a
,Ull\IIlUlltllI;l! UIllV..'lllioll ill 1916. Jil M.lY 1917 he formally assullled th..·
l'I ..·'IIh-llly. nle !'>Iagl..· W.I:> IIIIW::'1.:1 lur Ih.., wnting of Ih..· Mexkan Constitution 01
I') 17, .1 jll ..·ulle!' d".. UIIl":lll 01 Ille M..·Xh:.11I ItI.:volutiun.
(:.lIf.lIl.l.1 hilllM:1I had Ill) ide.13. lie draftl..'d a pJ.!I..' imitation of thc
( oll ... liluli,,1l ul :X57, little mun: 111.111 a reslutclll ..·ut uf principles of classical
IIb..·, •.II\II1. 'I'h..: I..l/rlVl"lltiulI llt·h:gJII..'3 h.ld uthl.'r thuughts. They luok contrul and
\\IUIl:.1 ..11,111\'1 Ih.11 W.13 31arlliugly r..ldkJI fvr thb pre Uoishevik erJ. Arlide 27
"mlll/wI'I\'d Ihl· gllVl'f1l I1It'1l I tv r..·dbtribuk land. Artid... 123 annuunced rights for
1.i1,ol 11t.11 h.ld \<.'1 1.11 II I)' Ill'VI'r hl'ell h"'.lfd til ill Nurlh Amen..:.l. Article 3 subjeckd
1111' .. IIUI .. II I•• II ..,W r..:!'>lri .. lh'II:>, wllicll illll'u3I::d Ol virtu;11 straightjacket. Sociali.)1
<1\ ..'1 hUln 1'..·IIII..·.ll<.:d 111l' lll1l3111u11UIl. Suddenly it beGlm... obvious that what had
... 1.1111'11 .• \ ,11111'11..' 1"'\1111 ul db!'>id"·lll dili313 .lgJinst DiJZ wal> threatening 10 become
.1 .... ,.. I.d 11'\'1)111111 '11, II' Ih.,nge sigllili ....'lllly thl..· pOW<.:f and propt.'rt y relatioll3hipl> in
J\ 1<.'\ 1,,1 .\ 11 ..·1 I'} 17 ..-va)' a.)plrlllg polil k,t! le.lder had lu aJupl 3t leJ.3t a rhdOril:nl
1",.,lllr.., III 1.1\'.11' 1,1 l\ll'xin."3 \\'tlf'ker3 allJ th..: p... a3.lIlls.
1111' .lgl.tfI,lll rdwb- ViII .. alill Z.lpat.I-..:ontilllled 10 Ill.1int.lin thdr strong-
11<.Iltb .llullqlll·.,..-lll.t Illre;'lllo C.lrr.lllZJ. Zupat:.l WJ3 dispatched in 1919,
IIIUI til'll'.! II} ,11"',111\ i:,tl' Irollp3 In .III ambush. Th... following Yt'ar Carranza faced
III ... IIWII III'JI>I":III: II.., ",JIII..·d 10 Illlp03t' a lilll ..'·kIlUWll politician, Ignacio Bonillu3.
.1 ... 111 ... '>u.. <.I·""1. C.lll.ln/.1 W.13 !'>hurl 3ighll'd. Thl.' slugan of
II, ..· I'JIll ...lllll'.'lgll 1..1...1 hl't'lI it::. IIHl311'Ilwl.'rfuJ r.dlying l'all, and it luund l:xplicit
1·\jJl ..·\\lllll III 11. ..' Il ..·\\, Nuw C;lnallz.1 W.IS viol.tling Ihal rult: in .)pirit
I,)' 1l1l11""'lllg.1 whu \... ould bl' hl3 3IUtlgl'. Tht' Revolution rcvl'rh:d 10 its
Illllt.d)" 111"... 11 ....': 1111' v.ili.1111 ()lJr"'giJII, Ille ,trdlit..-ci of vlClUry OV<.:I" ViJla, led an
tll'II"'llJg , ,II r,IIJ".1 W.I:. tlll..:..:d Itl 1I1.'1.' alld. whil", UII thl: run, wa3 assas::.inateJ by
,IIIL' .,1 III'" I,WII j-;uarlb, jllol'abl)' ,u.lillg Ull bdl.df of Obregon. ']'ht:: succession
"",1,1"1,1, Wllllh Ilatllnlll' I Jiaz' (all, \\1:13 31ill far Ironl solved.
Ill11q.!,.'11 \lh..-.. n·d..·lllu lIlt: SIHlib Ill" lh..· prl·3iJl.'ll":Y. Ilis gllVeJ'lllllent bundled all
.llllllll it III'" IIll.d nlUGltlllll 1'lllljMigil lInd..'r the le;lder!'>llip 01 th... nuted illtdll:ctual
1\,'01' V.I\",'II,dI13. III (Ill' ar....1uf 1.1LJUI, III ..· Obrl.'gvII gOVt::flIllll:111 bel heavily on Ihe
II ..·\... J) I"tllllbi (·tII11 ..... k-r.I .. lull IkgiullJ.I Obn.:r.l tvkxican<.l (CROM). which
IIIIL'gull ,o011 lIJ lIpkd, wldlt' ,It Ihe S'l/Ill: time Iwrassing Ihl.' COlllnlUniSI- and
.111.11 ... 1..... 1 11'11 Ullitlll.,. Onlaod dblnbulioll Obr... gull w.. ::. Gtulious. fi:aring .1103s of
1110..111.. 111111. ·I·h..· I:bl uf Iht' uriglll.1I popular rebels. Panchu Villa, succumbed 10 a
lu:.dl.ldl· n! bulll.'!3 in )923.•lIld tht:: era uf ... fii:ctive dcmands for fUlidumental social
Idunll UVI'I Illf Iht: 1I101lll'ni. Obreg'ln du.lnl<.lke two illlport;'l1lt cUlltributions
t.. III ..' til th.., Ih·volution. Fir.)l. hI' ..chicvl'd all under31anding with
\\".\lllllglo.1I ,III .lgle"'lll"'lll un hllw U.S. uII firms would b... Irealed. in retllrn
1111 ll.:-' . ..llpllllll.lIil rl·ulglliliuli. S..'..:ond, Obr..'gon managed 10 transfer pmvt.'r
1'1·,I... dull)' 10 hl3 MI...-...·... 3:>or, sOllll'lhing IIU l""kxkilll president had dont' since 1880.
I .. MEX)( '0· Tile ul.1 I{t:voluliull ';'}
Thc /lew pr...sidelll WJS .. lloth..:r g... n,,·ral frulll I'lllta,-c(l EI1.I3 C:.lI..:::..
This siolid soon provt'd 10 he tit ... llIall \\'ho wtluld plll tit..:
postrevolutionary political system on a 3trollg luuting. Fur Calles. II0wt'wr, Ih"
threat WJS from the right. Calling Ihl.' cristaus Cathullc
lllililants mounled a broad-based ideologit.:;11 c11alJ...ngc II) rl'vollil iun:.lry iJt' ·rlll:."
cr;steros were by no mea liS 10 thc we'llth)' dcf..:nde!'.) of Ihe old t'COllulilK
order; Ihq man}' Simple fulk who SJW lit... Rl'voluliull Ihe wurk 01 tht'
dt:vil, (0 b..: slopp"'d only by Ih... .)\\,1..1,-..1. Thb ViOl\) hd.d W.13 rt:."illful ......d by
r... OIltionary clergy, especially in th..: slatl' vi Jalblu. wha... the)' de::'l'",rall'i)'
need.....1 1001 soldiers in thl:ir crus.ldt' ag;ti1l31 the' OIl1lid... nl-.d Ikvolulioll.
When Ihe prcsidt'lltial term ofc.. Hl'S cxplrl..'d ill Ohrt'gllll, n('Vl,;"r polill
call)' relicent, presen1l::d himsdffor electiun anew. It was not a r...dc\."tion, Obr....goll
reassured Mexico, because hl: was nul Ihe in":Ulllbent. lie won "':Isily hut did nol
live to l.'njoy his puwer play: before the lli.' wa3 by .1
rdigiou3 f.malic.
Inlo Iht.' vacuum sl<.'pped the lalll..'-duLk CIlles. lie gul th"'l'uliliclll",.td,,·r3 ttt
agree on a new election and on Ih.., Cft::alion 01 .1 1ll'\\I pari}'. thl' Partido N.I..iull.i1
R..:voiliciunario (PNR). During a :>u..:xeS3ion 01 3horl·tenn I'n::sidC:ll ...-1t'3. Calln
continued to be the power behind Ih..: scenc'3.
l""lost observers expected Calles to continul' Ih.lI rok ill Ihe jJI ...!'>idC:IKy vi
LaL,IfU Cardenas. dectt:d in C;ird... lla3 W.I:. a rdalivdy ohs...-Ul""· .lImy utli..:...·1
alld forlner governor frulll Miehoa"!11 wllo SUl'pl i3... d evc:rYOI1I', l'fOllljltly 3t'llding
the 3tunn..·d Calles ililo exile. It wa3 the 1i!'31 01 lIIany 1IltJVl..'S proving Ihal C.;nk-II,I:-t
wa3 going 10 be his own man.
Many peasallts had glowll qllic.11 abuul 1111..' -rl'volutiun<.llyft gvab III tlll'ir
I'lll ... !'::,. Wh..:r", waS tIll: land thl'Y had bl'eH ull":ll plunlisnl? C'-II d..:n:13 d.....·id"'d III
1I1akl.' good on thosc prumis..·s. DUring his kflll (193·1-40) Ill.' presid..:d ovcr Ihc
dislribution of 44 millioll acrt's 01 laud 10 Iandl"':-tS Mc:xkalls, Iwice as ll\u..:h
as lhal distributed by all his predecessors cOlllbilll·d. C;irdl:'llaS knl'w Iht:: dangers ill
simply distributing land withoul the lIcl'essary 3UppOrtill£ ::.crvil..l·!'>. 1\11 lou oft ... l1
Ih.1t I"'d to subsistellce agriculturc. wilh till' fanlll'r abll' Iu ked his falllily bUI
Ulhlblt:: to produce a surplus for Ihe:: market. That would ncall' grave problcms in
the lood supply to the citil:'s, as well as for the l'xpurl lIIarkl'ls.
Cin.lcn<is' solution was 10 rely h... avily un lite l'OlllllHlllalsysll'lll uflhe .:jidv. II
haJ tit ... ndvilnlage of being genuindy Mexic:.llI, while hl'ing ndlllt:r capitalist nor
socialist. Land was formally dislribukd 10 thl' t'jir!u, which heGIll\I' the ..-oll...-ctiv..•
owner, even if plots were subst:.'lJuenlly apport ioned for individualusl'. l!.jidus could
include hundreds. even Ihousnnds. of 'iunilic3. The plans for .)..:hools.
hospitals, and financing. which was to be provided by thl.' newly founded Banco
dl,;" Ejidal. Not aLI tht' land dbtribuliull wa3 lH:.l..te tu ('jidvs. Individual
peasants and falnilies got plots as well.
WhiJe the huge distribution cre311.'d an milial cuphufla, the !onger-teflll
results were rather mixed. Agricultural produclion lor Ih... market fdl in Illany
areas. The social and financial services promised by Ihe governmenl fdl 3hort ul
overall nee<ll". The rel"ult W:ll" low produclivity and disorganizalion on mallY
!.:<lmIlHlIlallinils :lnd an illl"ufficicllt inlegralion into Ihe market for many smaller
IIllils. Notwithstanding these prohlems, Cnrdenas became a hero to the peas'lIltry,
lie had deeply reinforced the agrarian character of the Revolutioll.
Cirden'ls also reorg'lIlized the party structure that he inherited from Calles. In
19JR C;rdenas reMranged the official party and renamed it the Partido de la
Revohlcil'JI1 Mexicana (PRM). It was now to be built around (our functional
Ihe agricultural (peasant) sector, the labor sector. the mililary sector. and
Ihe ·poplllar- sector, which was a residual calegory including prim:lril)' the middle
c1as", In applying thi<; concepl of fllnctioll;,!ist represent:llion, Cardenas "!ld his
polilical advisers were harrowing from corporatism, the political doctrine then in
vogue in Brazil and TvlcdilerrOlneOln Europe, especiall}' Italy. Spain, and Porlugal.
III this fashion. Cardenas devised a slrOllegy for deOlling with the lower dass('s:
mobili7e and orgOlni7e "0111 the workers ;'Inti the peasants, bUI keep them apOlrt
fr(llll e;li...h other. Thus the creOltion of sep,lratc (;lnd competin!-t) sectors for each
group within the ofr'iciOlI party, This wa}' the government cOllld maintain (ontrnl of
pnpul;lr Illovemenls :md prevent the plls<;ihlc :lppearance of a hori7ont:ll worker
l'e:I<;:ll1t \o:llitinll.
(:.irdell:ls :llsntnnk a more radicallille in rel:ltions with the lJniled The
tOIlAhc<;t issue was oil. III the cnrly twenticth c('nluf)', Mexico pOl"ses!'ed n signifl-
c:lnl peranlOlAe of Ihe \\lodd's cnnflrmed oil reserves. By lhe 1930s, foreign oil
firm.... Tllol"ll}' U.S. hUI ...ome British, had huge inve... tments in Mexico, The
ulmp;lnies eventually gOI into n w:lge dispute wilh their Mexk:ln employees; it
was fln:llly (;lrried tn the Mexican Supreme Court. which ruled in favor of the
workers. The roreign companies disrcgnrclet.l the courl dccision, assuming thai
now, as hefnre, there must be ;l W:lY around such legal prohlems in b:lckward
Mexico. To everyonc's surprise, the prcsidcnt intervened in 193R and annoullced
Ihe expropriat ion of the companies. The precipil;lting factor ciled by Cirdcn:ls WOlS
Ihe companies' refusal 10 obey the Supreme Comt decision. The legal h:lsis given
for expropriation W:lS Article 27 of the 1917 constitution, in turn based on the
Inl1f!,-slallding prindple in Sp;lllish Inw that all subsoil rights belong to the state
(crown), nOI 10 the OWller of the surface rights. The oil companies were infuriated.
The American flrll1s dCI1l;lll(lcd IhOlt U.S, President franklin Roosevelt intervene
on their behalf. Right-wing propag:ll1dists in the United States had a field day at the
expense of the Mexican revolutiollnries who had firsl att:lcked religion
and were now :lHacking property,
III Mexico the expropriation provoked nn ecstatic response, Mexican
alist sentiment, never far below the surface, poured forth; Cardenas W;lS now an
authentic hero for standing up to the gringos,
At first Roosevelt issued some angry demands to the Mexicans. but cooler
heads prevailed in \t\lnshington, After nil, Roosevelt's much ball}'hooed '"Good
policy meant, nt ;\ minimum, no more U.S. invasions of Latin America,
In f:lci. the Mcxicnn government hnd nlready said it would compensate Ihe
(ornpanie:-, Dispute then centered on Ihe value of the expropriated properties,
\ " ;vll'XIf :f): ., he I .nom): ", ,I l{1,\·,,11I1 I' "I ,. I
The companies filed enormous c!.lims. illdllding Ihe tnilire \',dllt' .. , ..11 rill' "II III
the ground Ihcy had owned. hili thcy <liel nnl win 11lt.·II" Ul ... e. 1It"j.;"II,1
tions eventll<llly fa\lored the Mcxic;lll governlllenl, wh.."c <;UPI" II I W.l" h,"I1\
needed hy Ihe United Slates nn Ill(' eve of World W:u II.
The companies were p:lid. :lnd the MexiGln<; (fe,II('" .1 .. 1.1ll' 011 11l"1l1lIlf.h,
Petrolens Mexicano!' (PEMEX). For decade<; Iherc:lfter, it u'mailletl a high wlllh,,1
of nation:lli!'m-above :lll, hecause ils Inrgel had hec..'ll the lInited "he lid
companies ;tnd Iheir friend!' in th(' U.:-'. governmenl did ""1 lorgel ('11111'1. I",
another thirl)' years Ihq' enfnrced a world hny(oll .lg.lin"l .111 "II .Illli
effectively ohstructe<!the de\'dnpmcllt of PH\ 1FX'.. rdllllllg npcl.II inn.. h\'
it blacklisted wilh ;Ill le.tlling foreign ell"iplllcnt .. III'I,IIt·r<;. ()nl r",I""1I II",
companies and Ihe U.S. IllllUghl rhey 11:111 II' I'lllll ... h the ;"k'h .111"
for their nationnlist holtlnes<; was In pre\'cnl olher 1,11111 I\m"1 If',1ll g"\'I'lllII1,·nl ..
from allelllpting similar expropri.\llon," kxkn p.lltl a I'r 1'1' lor ... l.lIHlmg lip I"
In Sllllllllnrr. Ihe 1920" and 191(J.., wIIIlC"'''l't1 tht' 'llIl"'ollCl.III<>1l III 1\1",1< 0',
pO"lrevollitionOlI)' I(·gilllc. II plllve.l I.. hc ., 1"1I11'kx .lnd ,h... llll,II\,
h}/hrid, \\lhile there wcre r('gllbr delliI'll", II W,l" ,le,1I 1111111 Illf' l'lllv'l Ih.11 Huh
the offkinl parly could aLltl:lllr"piIC prOd,lI1MIHIIl" tn Ihe \ 111111 ,In', It W.I'.
widely conceded that oLltgoing prcsi(lcllt" wlHllt! dC"'Ign.ltc IIH'II ""U\'·"""',
Ihrough :lll informal pn,ceo;;" klll)WIl .l" Ill(' dn/l/711 (or -hlg (Thnl' w,· ..
cxten... ive <.onsultaliolls. III he "lire. hili the rdgrllllj: pl"c""dent ,lIw,,,',, 11 ... 1til<'
word,) Ambitious office !'cekcrs were llhllged In dl'( Lilt' lei \'ellr 111\,,111\' tl' 1t'\,,111
lionary ide:lls. hutlherc W:l!' no rigid idcnlngr, AIl,I when !;lC (',I h,· "1'1"'''11''1', Ill"
regime's mosl rrequcllt I"('spons(' w;,<; 10 hling lriril<;' lillo' Ihe <;." .. 11'111 1,\
offering:l voke. a job, 01':1 policy (,O!lIl'l"<;inll. A... Illl(' ..1"'CI\'CI "'Urllll1.11IlC,f Ih,'
Ilomin:lnt :lppro;lch: two c:lrrnl<;, ma)'he cvell IhlCT I'r fl'll', .111,1 tht'll ,I "I" k It
necessary. By embracing (:lnd derll ... illg) Ihe lIJ'I'0... ilinn, tht' I\kxil,11l ,1.,1(' 111,111
aged 10 stl"engthen its support. These lealllr(' ... wOlllt1 rl'lll.lin ill I'r.\( til (' llrllll Ill"
1990s, :Ind. (Ic!'pile Iheir tI"demo, ralic cltaral...le!". Iher would I'llInllc tIll' 1'.1"'1'. 10'1
Iwo or Mexico's dil"lincl polilkal .l<hieVt'lll('IlI"; tivili,1I1 ("llt .. ,1 "\'1'1111(' flull!.II'
and more lIl:ln a half century of polllical l"t.lhilil)/, III 1111' w.lkl· "I It'\'"llltl"ll. 111
olher words, Mexico devclnped:1 relatively :llllhmil:lri,ll11'lIl I>or .. !tIll,·
rc!'cmblance 10 the brulal mililary regime" rh,lt \\'Oliid ,llfmin,llc Illc
COile from thc 1960s 10 the 19RO....
Stability, Growth-and Rigidity
C:lr(lell:lS would have !teen a difficull aci for :1I1}' politil ian 10 iI,lIow TIWt hllll I' tit
his successor followed Ol pnttern repeated atlhe end n" ('\'e'1' <;ix }'('.Ir plc<;.ltlrllc.. r Ifl
Ihe 1990s: endless speculation, mostl)' ill-informed, n\'er Ihe IIkd}" nOlliinn' 111
1940 Cardenas chose neither of thc two Illllch-tli<;nl<;t;cd frnnl 1I111rwr... ("11"
mdical and olle conservative) hut turned insle"d III hl<; lillie knll\\'11 1111111'11'1 III
war, General Manuel Avila <:;lllla\hll. (:lc:lrl)' Ihere W,I" ,I 1"n"'('II'II" \\'1111111 Ill'
politic:ll elite on slcering the Rc\'olul ion olllll :1 ( "Ill "I'
,,' 1'.\1( I I WI I .. t ,\\1 \IIIDJl t IIANt,1 OVI'I{ 11",11'
III Ill" .... IIIII).ligtl. AVila l:alll.tdlU Il1:.H.ll' it c.:"'·,lr that h...· W;.lS IIllt allti..:kri....;d; hl'
hllll .....·11 .1 bdl..... Vl'I. And hl' ,ll:lually fac.....ll an 0ppollenl: Juan Andreu
'\!lll.ll..ill, 01 th...· P,lnidll AuitJII Nadunal (PAN), a Ilt:dgillg, pro-cl ..... r.
h .111,,1 p.lll} till lit ...· li/-;ltl. Till' ullili.tI I'nt\1 ...·andidall' l'usil)' prev;.lill·c..I.
III ,,1'\"1".11 kl')' jhllky .11· ·a::. Avil.ll:amadlu ::.uon proved .non.> lHudcnlll' 11i.lll
(. .lrdl·ll.l". l Ill ...' W.I,> I.lud r li::.lrihulioll. \'\fhilt- C.irc..ll·n<ls had l'lldt':.In:d lum::.df to
Illl' f\lnh.llI Ih·.I::..llIIIY hy Iii::. llllKh I'ublidud 1.lnJ gr.lllb. Avil., Camacho
I.II)",·lI'd Ill" tlhlllbullOll ,1\ IlIdlVldu.d 1.11 II ilic.::::.. And wh...·rl·.I::. had
lllhlllnl·1-I IIlJlIiClll .I...·1l·", AVII.I Call1,lcho distriblltl;:d only 11 lllillhHl.
III III\" 1.lhllr Ikld, C<LIIl.ldIU Ill,ld..... anolher mOVl' away lnHll 111 ..... left. lie
II·pJ.IU·d lilt' ulll..... ,tI k.ldl·1 ulthl' p..u·ly·s 1.lbur wilh Fidd Vdal.qu..:z. who was
IIp''IlI)' 1111..111...- III tIll' llhlle Illilil.llli Ulllun 1..:.lder::. ;lIId help.....d tu nmk..: 11100e
dllli... ult \Vllll...· ;HllullOllll.ll::. lllllUll .Idiull bt:lllg discoUr.lgl·d, till' gc..wcrllllIenl
,,111\,\."\1011 ,1tIulh...... tHllIl: , Il:.1111Ig Ih..... Mt'xk<lllo de! Sl'guro Sodal (Il\lSS), .1
,,"t.\.tl ..l·... U1lly .lgl·ll\.)' wbidl prtlvidl'd wilh 11lcdic.:al car..... through a 11l'1work
.. I ,llllh:o. .111...1 1L"."pit:lb. "I'll...: lovl'rage lilllikd to a few hulldl 1
\\\llkl'I" l.y Illl' Inid but II W,l'" Ihe pre(e... 1...-1l1 for a fril1ge b nt'll!
\\ 111...11 Wlluld I,..... ::.k,ldtly l·xh:lId.....d tu thl' be::.l-urg.lllized of labor.
III ,h!,hll"ll, ,\vil.1 C.lllI.ldltl I.llt'd Ihe l-h.llll"nge of \"'urld \ II. Mcxic:ln::.
It'll .1 ... t I illig "'}'Illpotlhy lor Ih.... Allied laU"'l·. bul:.In almost cllually ::.uspidoll
til .Ill .lIlh/lIl.llic .dli.IIlLl' Wllh Ill\.' Ullill'd Statl·s. Aft ..... r Pearl J l<1rbor IlIl' Mexic.11l
gll\' ...·lllllll·lIt I,rokl' till dipltJlll:llil relilliollS wilh Japan, (;erlll,ln)', alld lI.dy, hut
... hllli til deLI.lring war. II wa::. unly th..... rl'pl'ated sinking uf tvlcxk,1I1 ships
II} (;...·1"1I1.111 U hU.ll::. that Il·d Ihl' Avila C;lInacho government to obl..lin .1 declam-
Ihlll 1'111111 Illl' IlativII..lllI/lIgre::.... in f\l.IY 1942. Mexll"o. .llong wilh llnnil,
.• lIll· uln' til til" unly IWlI LIIlII Anl\.'ri ..... lll cllunlrie::. 10 supply combal furces to
llghl 111\' \ \I .
,\II,.IIH·I 11'1' would h,lvl' gr.l\'l· illll't1l1.tll......... luI' th..... fuIllr...·. Allel .111 expJil"11
hdWl'I'11 I'l'l':-'ldl'lll!'o Fr,lIIklill ]<'tHJ:>l'Ve!t and Avila C:.IIlIa...l10, Mexicu
hq-\.lll "\"lldlllg \\'ork...·r::. 1I01'Ih lu 11lllhl' gap left illlh.... U.S. tldds 0)' Ih...·
1I1I11I.1I}' dl.L1I A.. Ihl' .... uIIIIlIlI\.'lI. lh..: Mexk:lll Iabur..... r::. (known .IS unu·c!ro:.)
111·g.111 II' IIII Ih 111.1/-;11 uhur.. 1)uu" .1::' w...:ll .1 c.I ..... VdOpll1cllt tlt.ll aroused tl....... oppu::.i-
Ihlll ,II ll.:-l. tJlg.llll:t ·d l.thlil. ·1'11.... \\'.Ir l'l\llnl with an import..lllt pre.... e... l..:nt
II .. hl·d· tIll' ,jUiu,ally l·l1dor:........ 1 Ilurthw.lrc.l movem.... nl uf Ml:xic;.lll worker::. lu
pntullil I'lb., tUI" Wlll ... 11 n" AIIll'l"iC;lIl!'o ... uuld be fuund. B)' 1945, some 300,00U
l\kx 1....111" h,ld tile l,.·Xp...·ll("llLl' ul wurking in Ihe Ullikd St;lk.... Although
111.11l) II.HI 111l')udILl' .1I1...! disLrilllin;lliun, 11\0::.1 Ilad e,lIlll'd much
hlghl'f \\.Igl·!'o IIt.tll W..I... pt)::'!'olhll,.· ill f\'h'xko. Th.... promise of a higher income
.1"" v» Ihl' hurder, huwl'v",r larllbh..... c.I. rt"l1laint:c..I a conslant attraction to impover-
... llnll\k"i....1l1::. kJl gl·lIl'r.nion::. to (OI11l·.
\'\lltll Illl' ...·11...1 ul Wurld War II. f\'kxiuJ saw induSlriulizalioll as a way out of
1'\"1 .. 1.. 1,'111 11,'Vl·lty. t ·llIl...ell hI Il',1l1 tIll' WOly Miguel A1..... 111:1 11 , Ihc Ilrst ejvilian
I'lnhknl .. Ill......• thl' IkvtJlulltlll. (, )l1l' 01 Aleillan'::. first a..:ts W,IS (u rcorg.lnizc and
1,'lhlllh' Ihl' p.tlly. litH\' ... ..Il1nl till: IJarlidu Rcvolu.... lollariu In... litu...-ional
.1 .. I\IEXICO ·1.llIlIng ul .1 Ik\'ulllllUlI h \
(PRI). Adding Ihe wurll Min::.llItlliull,li" signaled a (urn tuward pr.lglllalblll. Thl'
parly w.l::'lllade up or Ilire..... Sl'clors: work..... r, and pUl'ul<tr, lh.... furlll il ha:-.
since rdailled. It t:'llll'rgl'd aS:lll utt ..... r1y dominant nflkial p,lrl)', dif"fl'rl'lll frulll .111)'
uther in I.alin Amcrica.
'l'lll' new prcsident's hallnhlrk W..IS IV bc ecollomk llcvdupllll·nt. WII.II f\ kxico
n1v... 1 Ill'l'ded wa::. infraslruclUre-road::.. dam::.. t."Ullllllullil-aliull::.. and purt
f.Kilitie::.. AI...-tnan th..... rl"forc laun..:heJ all aillbilious ut puhli .... wmb,
::.Ir..... and hydrock'ctrk projec..... Th...-r.... .Ibo hlghw.IY alld hOh·l
cunstnll'lio/l 10 facilit;lte Ihl' tourist tradt.: frulll the Uni1l'd Slatl'S. This
paid 011, .1 ... tourism beG11l1t.' an all-illlpurl;,tllt .. I' hlrl'igll e;<dlall)!..... lor
M..:xicu....!though with cultural ;lI1d sOI.:ial illlpikalioll::' Ihal Mexk.llI ll.lliulI,llbb
lou lid dbla leflil.
The M xican e<.llllolllY ::.hOWl'd ::.ignifiL:.Int growlh. Thl: IOUIlJ",liull'" w..:I ..... I.lid
by ::.h;,lrply inO"l'asing prOll'ctioll agaiml impufb. The ... hofl·fun ;u::.lilk:ui'"1 wa:.
IU ea::.t: Nkxku.... sever..... halance-of-pa)'llll'llts lh:ficil, but Ihe lit'! df..:(t wa::. In
provide a guaranteed market fur c.lOlllcStic prOdlll'tioll. I)Ulllt:Stic liiallufa.... lurillg
ft'spolllkd with a spurt uf growth. averaging 1).2 percellt " yl'.Lf hetwel'n 19·!X
,111...1 1951. Agricultural production did l'ven bell ..... f ill y"·.llS, awr.lging
10.4 p.... n·enl. A sluwllowll in growth thell ca::.1 a sh;ldow uv r 111l' elld 01
1\leman'::. (crill. which was further lainll'd by lIluunting c11<.lrge::. ul urruplion.
Th.... bosses of Ih.... PRJ kllew. when it camc lillle to dluu!'oe a IIl'W SU(Ll':-....or in
11)52. that the)' had In improve the government's image. Overriding A 's UWlI
pr....rer they Sdll ....d 011 a colorless politico who providl'd ..u ll'asl a p.lrtial
answ r. Adolfo Ruiz Cortines h,ld been uf Veracruz and laler ::'l'O"ct,I r)' 01
Ih.... interiur in Ihe Aleman presidency. yet hl' had managnllo earn a reputatiun ror, Once e1l· t ....c.I president. Ruiz Corlincs made good on a c,lIllpaigll
tll 1"001 uul gr.lfh:r hy firing a ::.erics of ::'U::'pl'cl ulliciab.
The most impurtanl policies vI' Ruiz CurtilH:s L,tlllt: ill the nunulllit..
splwJ't.', Sillce Ihe war, Mexico had b.....I·1I ..... xperiencing all inflaliol1 rat...' wbidl
was high lor I.atin i\merk.1. Th.... McxiGIIl ..... (UIIOlllic Illanagers lIlade a nudal
de..:isiull. They opted for a Mhard+mun.... lu\\'-illiblioll ... lraleg)'. \Vhi...:!1 IIll·.llll
sctting .Ill exchangl' rate (pc::.o/dollar) ..IIlJ then lU;.lllaging Ihdr et."lInom)' (hy
conservalive fiscal and monetary pulley) so as lu main lain thaI eXdl:lngl' rate.
Th..... flr::'1 step was 10 devalue the ov..:rvalucd pe::.u from Pl'SU::' tu Ihl' dollar
to 12.5 Pl'SOS to the dollar in 1954. This c.h:valuation .111 ;111 11 11"c.1 iall'
stintulll::' to M..... xkall .... xporls. liD\\' cheaper ill U.S. dollars. and lIwdc Ml'xiLli
dlcap..... r lur foreign lourbts. Mexko quickly be.... amc known ;I::. ..I prulllisilll:!.
target fur illlt:rnational inveslors.
When Ruiz Cortines left office at the age of sixty-seVen. he :.Iml the king-
makers chose a successor two decades younger, lIe was Adolfo Lopa Mateo::.. the
outgOing sec.:relary of labor wilh a mildly leftist reputalion. Somewhat ...-ryplkally,
L6pl'Z Makos himsdf declan::d Ihat his "dmillislraliull would b..: K un th..: .... xlreme:
left. within Ihe constilution: Mexico W;.lS nOI highly unionized. Tile V..ISI m'ljorily
of 10wer·c1ass citiuns. especially the mmpes;'lOs. had 110 indep.... nd.... nt m......lUs of
protecting or promoting their own inlere... l.s. The union... thft! did exist were closely
lied to the regime itself.
Notwithstrtnding this pilllern, Lopez Mateos was quickly chrtllenged by
militrtnt railworkers, who staged :J major strike in 1959. Their leader, Dellletrio
VallejO, was contesting the government-dominated structure of lahar reliltions.
Ollld \VOlS delllOlnding the right to genUinely indepelldenilinion action. The workers
followed the strike order ;md braced themselves for a long siege. Lopei'. M:lteos
;1pplied;'ln old-fashioned rellledy: he arresled the le<ldcrs :tnd ordered the strikers
h:lck to work. The strike W;1S broken and VallejO rCll1:linctl in j;1il for YC;1rs, all
nhje("t less0n to other wnuld-hc lllilit;1nts.
1.(·lpCZ Matcos nonetheless sought to dist;1n,e himself from his cOIl.<;crvative
predecessors. The ohvious slarting point was l<lnd. A ch:tlln: 10 acquire land
n:lllained lht, grcatest dream for Mexico's pooresl rural dwellers. Lnpcz. M:lteos
ordered the distrihulion nf approxilll:ltel)' 30 million acres of Innd, giving him a
bnd-rc{llrrl1 record second only to C;lrdenas. Furnishing tmsic services (and
tTcdit) for these new landowners W:lS Illllch 1110re difficull "nd ton seldom
<lchievcd. Nunetheless, revolutinnuy llHlmCnlll1ll 11:1(1 heen rcsuillcd in n crucial
III economic policy Lilpez Matcos cnlltinued the hard-mnnC)' policies impliCit
in the 19';4 devnlu;1tioll. Investment relllnincd high. nnd Mcxico heg:lll r<lising
capital ahro<ld, :lhovc all in the New York bond markct. The :llll";1(tioll was high
interest mtes, gll;1r;1nteed convcrtibility (into dollnrs). and O'lppnrent pnliti("O'lI
stabilit},. The governmcnt succeeded in O'lchicving cxtrO'lonlin:1l'ily low infblion.
Ihereby making it possible to stick with its fixed exch;mgc mtc of 12.5 pesos to
the dollar. Yet Mexico W<I." hy no I1lC;1ns <I completely open market cconomy.
Indced, "t;ll(' intervention in the economy incrcO'lsed in the ye:1rs 0f L'\pez Mnteos.
U.S.- and C<llwdi;ltl-Owned electric cOl11p<ll1ics were nationalized, for example, ns
was the motion picture industry, which had been l<trgely cOlltrolled hy Iiollywoocl.
The Lopez. Malens ndminislration broughl some signifkant changes in for-
eign affairs. A 19(vl (Orrll;ll agreemellt belwccn Lopez M:lteos and U.S. president
Lyndon Johnson Mexico sovereignly over a long-disputed riverb:lllk territory
in the area ofEI Paso. At the same time, Lope? Male0s prescrved independence on
nnolher is.<;ue: fidel Castro's Cuba (sec Chapter 5). After 1960 the United St;1tes
was pushing incessantly for anti-Cuban votes in the Organization of Americ<ln
Stntes. Mexico wns the only I.<ltin American country never to break relntions with
Cuh:l. II took pride in ils refusal to bow to the U.S. demand for n uniform response
from its Latin AmeriGlil nllies.
The officinl candid;1tc 10 succccd Lopez MO'lleos ill 1964 wns Gustavo
Ord;'lz, who lllallY thought would swing the PRJ back toward the right. lie was
from the state of Puebla. Mexico's Catholic stronghold. As the incumbent secretary
of the interior, he had e;1r1ier OI"<lcre<lthe arrest of certain "radicals," including the
worid-famOlls artist O;1vid Alfaro Siqueiros.
Dial. Orda7. countered this expectation b}' pledging to continue the policies or
Ilis pre<!ccessnr. I,(\pez Mateos h;1<! taken seriollsly the criticisms of the PRI's one-
The student movement of 1968 began limited protest with {'<!e(lic idpOloqy. ,,<;
suggested by the declaration of solidarity with Che Gllevilril during Ihi<; p('i'tcE-fut n1.11("11
along the Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City. It eventlli'tlly bpGlrnr> ,1 IIaqic oi<;l<. fOl Ill ...
nation's political system. (United Press Internation<tl.j
party S}'Slem and pllshetllhrollgh a :lIllClIdllll'111 th,ll gll,II.lIlt",.!
0pl'nsition parties n minimlllll (If c0ngressioll:J1 ... (':11S il Ilw)' won .1 11lillilllWll
national vote. Applying this principle in the IlJ(l'l dr,rinn<;. Wlllg ,111.1 lett
wing oppositioll pnrl ics had WOIi seals ill (:ClllgIT<;S. all hnl Igh ... t dl nvnwlwl rllllll:1\'
outweighed hy Ihe PRI represelltntioll.
Dial.. Ordnz began hy hnrH,ring this rc((lrtllist tl1nl.... I. l\tll Ilw t'lltrendH'\1 I'J{1
Icnders soon made known Iheir fllry:1t Ihe nC'wl)' :ll'poinIC(1 sc\ rel.I'Y gt'IH'f,II,"
Ihe part}'. Carlos Madr:lzo, who W;lS nl!elllpting to open Ill" the llHllIill.ltlOIi
procedllres-nlways the criticn! link ill a fllle-parl)' systC'lll. l{('sl'llnding tn rIll'
party m<lchine complaints, Dia". Orl!n /Ired M:1dr:17o. The !l('W hard lillt' IV,I'.
further cvidl'nt whell the letlcral governlllent all11ullcll lllaY(lf:l1 elrt ti'lll'" in 1\\'"
cHicI' in the st<ltc of Ibja Cnlifnrnia Nnrlc \\'hith PAN t .1lltllll.t1\·... !l,1<1 Wflll '1'h<'
lihemliz:ltioll nfthc one-party s),stem h:Hl ovcrrcadlrd its IInlll
hi, 1"'\1<11\\'11" \ \\1 .... 1\11111\ (JI:\NI,l·PVHtT[)\11
1)101/ ()rd,11 \\tluld\.· hn'lI lu... ky II lll..l)'ural \.'I\.·..:III.)IIS had been his only
l't,IIII\..11 W.IlI)·. Hili II lib 1.11t: to buvenl illll1l' era 01 SIUlIl,.'llt Ihal shook
Ill\.· \Vt·.. I",·111 \'Itllldllllhl.' 1.11\." II)bU... TIlt' prn.. lpit.lling I.u.. lor was f\.kxicu's
t,l Illl' .. 11111111\.'1 lll),lllllI (;.lllln III 1')6H. 'I'l,\., gtl\'ernlllClll \\,..·111 .111 out to
l\1\.·:-. 1\. 0 III Ill"" \'I'Irld. ·1·11 ·l\k:d....1l1 1\.'11, aUlung .... nb, wa:. upSd al
lilt, 111"".1 111.11 Ihi' go' ...'1 111111: III IIl1glll .,1Il\" n'd III gaill ing ional respe..:tabilit y.
111\.'1\' hq.;.lll.1 1...... 1til with.. t\ .. (Udt:lIl I"Ok:.t ill tvkxko Cit)' in luly was fIld
\.\ 1'1 tlLI! Ittlu' hUlil Iht' Ilul 1'"li ... \.·. 1'11l1I":)t .. pre.IJ 10 Ihl: 1l.lliullal in
... l, \.ullllrll.lllll'-: III .1 .. lliI.....·. Till' Wlvl·rnlll .... lli (hought il was ;(
","1"'1'11.1' l,t'lll '"I dl:)rLlpllllg Ih...· 1)1)'lllpit: Gallll.':). I
r<::.idl'llt 1)1:1'1. Ordaz
1""I"'lhktl Ity "",·udllq..; :11111)' llllOp:' 111110 Ill .... C:lmpus, Ihcreb}' viulaling ils hbloric
".IlI' 111,11)' .. 1.1111... '111...· hall I,' wa:. joinl'd. COllld 11ll.' studl'1l1 1l'l'1 .. l0p Iht' Ol),lllpic
I ;.Illlt·.. ?
Thl' 1l.lgI, 111)'lltlll nl hdw,'l'll sltu.kllt:) and ...·UlltillUl'd.
1IIlIhl"Il""1 2. 1')\lH,.1 r.tll), 01 :.llIdt:llh ill lilt' Mt:xilu City :.t.·I,:lioli uf'l'l.llduktl
,lh'W .111 IIIIl ... u.dly IIl·.I\')' \lJllllllgl'1l1 III fvn::.... :). All nrd""r Iv dbp.... r:.1;' \'I;]:)
.dkgnlh ""[ llh::.,·IV...·d, .llld lit\.· poll\.\.' ,llld p<tr.ll11ilitar)' lur":t::' muved ill. They
hq..;;a" .. .lIld 11I ...· ... I,I\\'d W;I:' \,Hlght 111.1\.,. ..Is
kll dt,..,1 .11111 1l1.11l} Jllt/r\.· \\I'lIlld.·d. '1 hi' ...:r..: .11 Tlatt:loko :)l'nl a
111ft High l\kxI ... tI. 111""1"...· \\' .... IHI IIHIIIII")'. lItI ...·unviIKIllg t'Xplallatlun Irulll tilt:'
III1IH,,,, 1'1 ivIll,1l1 .Hllholllln 1"""p"ll:.lhlt.· IlIr Ilw .. 1.lUghh·r. A churll:) 01 critics
...... I lin' 1... 1 1... 1.· kill pro\\"d Ih...· b.llIklllpl ... y til IIw PRI nhIllOpul}' Oil pu"'.... r. B)'
Iii,' ...1111 ...· h')...· .. , 11,,·blut,l1 ..ltow til JUIU' ltlllVIlKnl virlually \;'Vt.·f)'UIl thai
,11.llkllg\·" ttl .wlhulll}' wltuld tllIl}' hnllg llluft' wailing Th · ... was
..Ilhlllll: OIYIIlI'I\.. l ..l1lln lu...,k plall' 011 ::.dl ....dlll ... •.
I )l·"I'll\.· Iltt: 1111 tlte l'0ltll....11 [rOlli, lIlt: l\'kxirun CCl)lltllll)' ... ulltinlleJ I...)
III H 1111. 1'1 I"" ).:1'1 ..... 11.111"lla11"·' idlH.:I grl'w al () P...'I":I·llt a Yl·ar. alth\HIgl\ Ihe dislJ'ibuI iun
til 11IlI>!l'" ll'IlI.lilll·d big/II)' 111W'I!I.II. Iklwn'lI 1'J5u alld 11)69, Iht' lll\.·ome
I, I 111"" plll'l t· ..1kill II I)l (II .. III Ipul,111l III dn,IJP.......ll rUIn 2.4 p... ·'Tellt 10 2.0 per",:-clll.
J\kdll\\'lllk. ndl ...... ' h'lIllt IIl1ll·, Ih ::.han: Irol1l ·IY pl..'r":l·1l1 tu 51 pcrct'llt.
l\k,\l""'\ "llIll.IUdutl:)· gllJwlh h.ld tllIl)' 11l":ll',I:)t:d the inomle.
\\,1"'11 Iii...· IIIII\.· ... ,1111,' Jill' Ih...· prl':"l...knli:d Dial' Ordaz :)l'llied 011
l.u ... hlll·vI·III.I, III ...· :........ It·larY 01 Iltl' inlt'riur rt:sponsiblt' for Ihe s....curity forct's at
Il.tldtl!"" I.. II \\'.1" lI,lI dl}' ,I ... huit l'llkd)' Itl rl'unlk t.·mbilkrt'J rv!t:xiGIll:). Echcverria
111 llu .. Iltlw.l IIl'W 1.1\.1' ill lib .... 11t:rgdk ... alllp:.tign :.tlld, ;Ilter tht' lIMlallandslidt'
, 1 ItJl y. I Illlt) Ill .. Ill'W tlUI i....... Thl' :)plll'rt' in which the Il\'W president sought
h. 111,Ik"'·/II.. Wl·.lk.. IIII.lrk \\',1" Ihl'lllll.' \,.. h\..'rt;' II.... h':lS soon critidzed: lI1anagt'-
1l1\.·nl III Ill\.'" C\.IllIOIII)'.
l:dll'\'l'III:l .llid lib ..lJvbt'r:) w.lllkd n·ulllllllk growth. bUI alsu bt.'tter dislribu-
IItllI til Ib hl'IU:lib. All IIhVUHI.. pl,lll: tu as always in M.... xico. was thl' rural
.....·,ItIl.IIIt"I"'I·llkrnl ullllllt.. I:)lrudul\· ... udl rural dCClrilkation and tht: road
.. y.. ll·lll III ,lid", lu 1I,Il'lI}' \.·I111!>1l11ll·r:. in Ih\.· dtil's, Ihe Edl\..'verria glwl'rnlllent
Ilgllh'lll·tl 1111' .... "bling pri\.I' ulIlllllls Ull ba:)k fuodstulls. In dft:cl, tht' federal
gOV\'lllll\\"111 \\'.1 .. ltJll\lllitllllg lI::.l'lIIU all t.·:'lal.lling un loud fur til ..• urb;'lll
I .. 'I'll" T.tllllll}) III .l Ik\'ululillil (,7
1ll.ISS.... This t.uuld bt.-' flnallCl:J ullly b)' draining Ihl' kdl·r.tllrl·.I.. ury VI by p.lyillg
bdow"l..t1st 1'1' icC's for their gvutb. Thl.' 1,lt ..... 1 wuuld illt.:vit<.lbly JI:)... Ullr..lgt·
pruductiun. ,tlltl the former would ..... nd loot: IIlllalion.lry, ih lerlll
cUlltinued. hI: resorkJ iIKn.:u:)ingly to :)hort lalll 1I1..... that \\'ould Lhannd
("';'gl'S, lalld, :.ocial to Iht: pour.
At Ihl' :)alllt: timt' Ihe slale was illcr..... ib gelh:ral umlml U\t'l Ih...·
ecunomy. In additiun lu dirt.:Ll sp""nding Ihnlugh kd""f,1I t!t:·partlll.... nls .Intl
lllinblril::., thl' gu".... fllllll:nl allo... alc\.1 ,I larg...· :)h.lll· ul tht: hudgl..'l wdl oVt'r h.dl
in of and l-olllpanic ·rh....
Il..'ading 1""llding lllu:)1 ":(lllSP1\.·1l0U:.I)' Ihl..' N.I... IOII.ll Flll,ln... lt·r wl·r....
opl..'raled by the guvl'rnme1lt, alld Ille mallipulalion uf l redlt I t:'IHluwt.'d
the stak willt cUJlsiderabk inllut·lll·.... uVt:r Iht' "'·COllUIll)'. ul I 1...,1' illsl:lllce,
Ihe guvcrnlllcHt cunlrolled principal shares ill nin.' ol"lhe LUlllllry's hlp It'll finll:',
ill Ihirteell uul uf the top Iwenly-five. alld ill out ul' til ...· tup fill)•.
Whilt.: the j\'1l'xi ....:lll stalt..' took all <Iclivl' I',ut ill Ihe ....tpil.tlbl
econumy, il rt·I.lin....d cOII:)idl'r.lbk IrolH IIll' pl'lvale :)edur. Mudl
oflhis autunuJll}' :.kllllllt:'d (rom Ille laLllh.t1 J\-k:<iLu':) flublk w.... I\..'.lur Ihl.'
mosl part. Thl'Y did Iwt U)Illt: hOlll wC'althy l.,,"ilks.•1lId
aftcr flnbhing :.chool or uniwrsit)'. Ihey Illowd dir",·..:lly into polilkal ...·ar\.·t'r:). In
conlra:)1 to Ih...· United Ihl'lt;' v.... r}' lilllt· .... r uf p r:.ullnd bl'lWt:l"lI
privak corporal ions and public Off'll...', Ill\.· l\kXI 1Il nol
10 allY :)ud,11 group ur lIlll..'rl':'1. II I"'·lld..d lu loJl.thUI..Ik Wll" tht'
:)t..'clur. to he :)un:, OUI Ihis wa:) nul ahva}':) tht· ":,1:)1'-.1 Ihat g.IVl· til\'
guvl·rnlll.... nl ...·oll:.iderabl.... Irl'edolll of a":::liull.
While Ihi:. cunlllllll'd, Ihe govcrnlllt.:llll.I......·d ,I 11\.'\',' prublem:
a gu...... rilla movC'lllenL l\kxican pulilid:ln!> h.ld long rl'a:.!>urc:d 'h...·lll .. lhal
their ..:ounl ry was Irum (ht' r...·:)t of La( in AlIl.... ri..:a, wlll·r...· gUI·ITill.l:' \W!"...·
rifl·. I\lkr alL Ml.'xico had alrt:.ltly had rl'VuIUliun. M\.·Xl ...·O W.I:) nul illlllltlllt.:,
ClIl·rrill.l::. called lor violl.'nt acliUll ngaillst 111 ...· PRI alld all ib WUI k... ill
I Iht'y stagt:d .. Ofll<lllk robheries and high-profilt· kidn:lppillgs. In 11)7·1
the.: falll ...... -ill-I;.lw uf Ihe and hdd ILlr 1',111:'0111. [n Ihl' :)Iak vi
L;u.... rreru. all .... x·st:houheacher. LUl io Cab:1I1,1:', Il'J a gUt'J I ilia al Illy tlt:lt III
strike al will. They kidnapped Ih.... ufficial (PRI) LOlndid.llC' for guvl'l'lIur and dd......d
Ihe: army by dire...'1 attacks on isulukd Olllpu:.IS. II tuok ,I IU.OUU-mall .trill}' lllurt.'
than ;1 )'l'ar 10 hU1l1 down and k..ill Iltt.· rl'bd:) and thdr 1...... Jer. 1Jt.·:'I"k
un tht: I.... rt, C<.tbailas had no SllCCl::)sor ill l;lIt'rrl'm or .... rt'.:.u lilt' gllerrilb
threat faded, Why? Was it the genius of the ..:o-oplivc Sy:.klll ullhc PRI? Or \Va:) il
Ihl;' government's Ildwork uf rc:prcs:)iun?
But Echeverria's major problem was Ilut with the: gUl'rrilla:). It Wt.l:) with Ihl;'
t:t:Ollumy. Tltc weak point in Mcxico':) ......:onulllic illllatioll. III ...·rudl..'
It'rms, Mexico could nol expect to guaranke the t:ullvc:rtihility al a flxC'd mit'
lIllles.. its inllatiull no highl'r than Ihc U.S. J....\'t'1. By IY7) lllllallull wa:) rUlllllllg
at 20 pl'rct'1I1 and rClnained at that !l'vd in I M... ·xku·s gumb, Ull II Ie.: 1
exchange ralc, W('I"(.· growing uncvllllwlitin' ull tile wurld 1Il;ll'kd. Yd Ill ....
l'!\ItT'lnrl)" CA!'>!. .... llflHI.!'> (IIANC.! OVrlt liME
governmenl stuck with Ihe fixed rnte. which had heen the hedrock of fvlcxiclIl
development ;lnd a powerful politic:.. 1symhol.
\o\'hr W;lS inflation plaguing Mcxico? Many Latin Americans might have
rcversed the ljueslion: Iinw had fvlexico ,!Voided it for so long? The answer wns
Ihnt the fv1exiGln government. Irying 10 ple:lse so Ill:lny constitllencie<;. wa<:
rUllning huge deflcils :lnd financing Ihem in all inflationary Ill"nner. There
W;'IS :llsn pressure from Ihe h:llrlncc of p,,)'menls. which wenl illto serioliS deflcil
hy Ihe middle of Echeverri,,'s IeI'm of office. Mexico's continuing induslrirlliza
tion retillin:d henvy c;lpilal goods. Hut a relatively new import wns even Illore
worrisome: food. The ('collomy's fnillire wns in agriculture. PrOdllCli(lfl h:ld
grown for <;elecled food<: (lclIll:lloes. st"nwherries) for exporl. especinll)' In the
United SI:lles. bUI Ihe output of hasic foodsluffe:, cspeciall)' cereals. was f:llling
<;horl. Impor!s lel Illee-t this delll:lnd plll :In enormous burdcn on Ihe b:ll:lnce of
The I'('ekolling ellllC in Fche\'('rri:l's Inst )'cnr:l<; presi{lent. The (I r:l m:l cellleretl
011 Ihe gre:ltly nver\,;lllled peso. With the governmcnt sluhhornl)' mainlnining it<:
IIxcd r;ltc of 125 10 the t.IollM. every fvlexicOlll ofmc:lns tried 10 convert inlo
U.S. t.'urrency. The govern mellI's ever morc rre(lllcnt dCllinls of devnlllOltion rang
hollow. In 1')7(" :lfter e:lpit:ll flight h:ld reached panic proportions, the
governlllclli g.\Vc W.l)'. Thc pcso was dC\':llllcd h)' 60 percenl. Govcrnmenl
crcdihilit)' \\'01'" so low 111:l! :lllolher devnlu:ltion or 40 percent was needed to
<:cllic the 1ll00l'kei jusl one month !:tter. Could Ihis incompetentl)' mnnOlged dcv:l
IUrllion nlllvincc ill\'cslor" (including Mcxic:llls) to make new commitmcnts in
I'cstls? Allhouv.h Mexicn al last had ;1 re;llisti, exchange mtc. the Echeverria
goveflllllcnt failed tll :lll:lck the rising public·sector deficit-;\I1 esscnti:ll step if
fu[mc h<1lance of l'a)'lllents crises were to he prcvented,
Echcverrin cnded his Icrlll in a flurr)' or histrionic gestures, anI)' eleven d:lYs
befM"" the cnd of his presidcnC)'. he cxpropri:lted rich fannbnds ill Ihe north for
redistribution tn 1:H1dlcss pe:lsanls. Panic spre;ld :l11l011g l:lndowners. POI' the first
ti111e in yC<1r!', Mexicans t;llked seriously aboul Ihe possibilily 01';"1 mililflry coup.
I)cspile widespread nnxict)'. his IeI'm ended penccfull)' ;"Ind on schedule.
The new presidenl was lose Lilpc7. Portillo. the 111l;"lllcC minisler who hOld
presided ovcr fin ecollomy thai sccmed to he wildly out of conlrol. Mexico had
growing deficits. both in ill' federal hudget Olncl in its balance of payments. Annual
inflOltion hOld re:lched 30 percent; though modest 11)' American standards.
Ihis W<l" enclugh 10 erode confidence in Ihe Mexican growth mo{le\. Lopez Portillo
Iherefore gm'c firs! priority to Ih:lt e!rrnaltask of restoring roreign confidence in
IllS ecollom)'. W'ithin weeh after hie: in;'luguration in December 197(1. the ncw
MexiG\Il president traveled 10 Washington for a highly publicized visit with onl-
going president Gerald Ford and nn address to a joint session of the U.S. Congress.
11 W.IS a powerful reminder Ih:\t Ihe Iv1cxican c1ile still saw its fate closely linked to
UlpC'l Portillo's presidency C:lme to be domin<lted by economic issues. lusl as
he look offlcC'. Mexico begnn discovering vnsl CJuantities or oil. and hy 1980 I.opez
I .. Mr,XI< () 'I Ill' ["111I111: .. 1.1 1{"\"hlll"'1 ,,'I
Portillo could :lllIlOUnCC Ihat Ihe (Olllit '")' po<;sesse,1 PI"lI\'l'll Ic... ('rn·" III 711 hlll""1
h:trrcls ,Ind potcnli:ll reservcs ofmon'lhan 200 hilliflll. Ill:l w"rl,I"l'l'an'nll\ I,,·... , 1
Il)' chronic shol'lngcs nnd co.<;ts fnr ellergr. t"'CXl< II h,ltl "udtknl)' ,I<, 11Inl'd
ncw intern<lt innal dout. Dednre,lnll eh'lllicnl 1,,;l'c/ 1
01'1 illtl: e .11 c rw', hII" I,.
of in the world to(I;IY tho<:e Ihal clulI'l h;wl' lIil .,".1 lhll.... 111.11 .1'1 \\,
Holstercd b)' the!'e windfnll profll .... 1.1·'I'C7 Pori iIln .l<:<:C'IIC'.lln' Icp"IItIl'lh C' II' '111
Ihe LJlliletl St<lles in foreign polk)' e<:I'('li,llIy ill rt·g.lld III ((,IIII,1f \llInll ,1 ..1
region soon 10 he engillfcd in violelli..c and t.ivil \\'.11 (1"1,,,, 'IC· ...lllhnllll (11.11,ltl II
lie expressed S),lllp;llhy for" left wing I'CVflllltiflll.lrr 11111\"'11","1 Ih,ll III 1'1'"
topple..ln longtime U.S. nil)' in Nit <Iragll,l. III I lie oriel ('til, ,\\ 1'1'11 nll'cll' ,1'·111'1
to povcrty-stricken COlllltriC" orCentml I\lllcricn.I'" ,IIlIC.ln... III budding lllllllill"
throup,houtthe isthmus. I\lld in mid )l)RI.lhr fl.l",:i(.Hl gnn'lllllu'nIIC'lII('lt \\'Illi
Fr:lllce in a decla..... tion th:ll rceogni7c,llcfli<;1 rehel" in 1'1 ..... Ilv.ldol 1 "lq:111I1I.11I
politic<ll rorec" and propo<:ed 10 Cllt Ihc "f '''1:11''1.11 1111(' 1111",,):"
Illedintion. 1\5 U.S. leader<; frowner! in i\ It''\: I,., n 11.11" lIl,lh"I', 1,·, \'1-1,1 h
appl:llldctilhese :lsserlive dil1lolltatie gc<;!"rC'<:.
Yel prnhlcllls persisted :It hOllle. Me'\:110 wa, 1lIHIIIlg Ih.11 11ll' 1I,lId 111"11"\
"tr:llegy which h:ld worked well hl'lwccllihe mill 1":;1)-. .11111 Illl' 1.,1 .. 1,,';1).., \\,1
llll longcr possihle. Hy 19R2. inO<lli(l1l "hoI "l' III .111111"\ (,0 1'1'1\ 1'111. ,Ill 1I111'1t'"
tlented rate for Mcxilli. 1\ nnther p,linlnl dr\'.d1lnl,"" be, .1I11" 1Ilt'\ 11,11>11' III
enrly 19R2,
Mexico h:ld h0l'cd In:lvoid "II Ihi!' h)' <Ol<;hlllg III "1111 ... llIIJ:'· , .. 111''''('1\'''.. 1''11.,
world slulllp in oil prices after 19HI rrdllee,1 dr.IIlI.llll,lll}' lh(' 1'llljC,ll'tl 1"I"ll:11
exchange earnings. The l.ilpC7. Pori illo gnvel'llllleni w.... Ihcrc!t lit· .11"1\'1'11 I" 111'.1\ \
foreign borrowing.therrhy incre<lsing Ihc Ilalinn:ll d('hl. 1\111<;1 \\"Orri<:llllH' \\',1'" thl'
faci thatlhc Mexican cconom)' W:lS stillllni prndll("ing job<;.11 ,I I".lte 1.1 ... 11'11""1'.11 I.,
absorh :lllthc Mexicans enlering Ihe workforcc,
To soften polilic,,1 opposil iOll, LI)PC'l, Ptlrl mil Sl'lllle:ll' e-t! ,I I'l I 'gl ,1111 'It Il'I' ,r 111'·
Two in noval ions seemed part icularly f;lr rcaching: III'S!' Ihe rllk... Ill!' .1[1"11 "I
pnlitic:'ll parlic!' were made crlsier, so milch Ihal Ill<' (:(111111111111"1 1',I'ly )',.1111,,1
o(('jd:ll recognition, <lud second, oppoe:ilinll pallie<: gll,'J,111I ..e,I.1 t"I,11 ,,1 .11
le;lsl 100 se:lts in ;"In expanded. 400-lllclllher (;haml)cr of 1)"111111.......... 111 h .,11"1,1
lions seemed lInlikcl)' to \cad to a rund,lInenlnl t.hange ill Ihe- Il'!.ll<; III 1'4I\\'t'I. hill
Ihe}' nt le:'lSI provided all OIlI1ct-wilhin thc -Itu 111(' 01'1'"... ,llflll ,\ ... Ill'.
successor. he selected Miguel de b M:ldrid. rI Ilnr\':11"11 11"inrt! lC'dlllOI I,ll "rid
c:lbinel minister who won;"l prcdidahlc viclory ill Ihe r1e(l,on ... 01 fill\- I'IX.'
Beforc de I... M:ldrid could t"ke offit.e till l)eu'llIhrl I. 1\"\\'l·\·l·l. Ihe f'.1t.\h.lIl
cconomy was shaken hy a milch Irlrger flnnncini cri ... is. Mexiol h,ld Illll 0'11 ,lllII.II.II'"
wilh which to make p<l)'lllellls on its fnreign deht-nnw o\'cr S.HO billion. Nt',lf p.lll11
ensued in \OV:lshington. New York, Frankfurl. nn<ll.ondnn, whf'l'c il \Va... fl'.IH'd 111,'1
other 1.3!in Amcric:l11 dehtors might follow l\lt'xicn's cX;\lllplc;lIul (kll.,rc ,Ilk 1.11111
default. If thaI were the C:lse. U.S.• Enrnpc;H1. :lilt! 'np.IIl..· h.lnl-. ... wnllill Lit" 11I1!:'
losses. posing a formidnhlc Ihrr:ltln world IIn.I!l(l"IIl1:llk,'I '1 h,', .111',1', nlll ... , "'.1··
II I'.\IIJ 1\\(1'" (,\"'I"..,llJJ111"', IIAN,;I·IIVI:j{'JII\II:
I ... fl.IEXIC():Th... T.lltllllgol.llk... "lullt,1l 71
Mexico: Vital Statistics, 2007
---_. ------
__1\ W",lll .. "d LCOIlVlIll( lor
1.. \111 A",.."j(o <>,,0;) til" ( ..,llJu.:ol'
Sq)(elliber which Ill .... ,lnl a IOllg-lentl ":l.Ill1ll1illlh::111 III the r,'dlllllUII t,l
barri\"·r.!. to illivurts froJII ahro.ld, Ml.'xiLO prulIIplly h.... IIJ\wnng :lnd
oul its I;:!riffs prOllloting expurls, l·:,pl.'dall)' llollpdml,'ulil ,"xpllrls. For .tli
intellis ,lIltl thes.... amoUIIll.'d to a Ill·"r ",:olllpkl{"
of the: postw,lr uf illil iun.
13)' early) 988, tilt: de b Madrid gUWII1IlWIIl lould lill It- 11rtlt>lll'(1 Illr
Inl1.llluII h3d uu:dt::rutl'J tv Ull allJlUal rate 01 ItlJ pCrl.l.:llt. lile \"Ididt
apprv.'l.lling 19 p,'rlelll uf Ihe GI)P, .111.1 Ih.. ..1had bl','ll
shakt"11 by a 75 pern'nt drop in Ill .. l1I.lfkd. Yt'l alhJlh.-r
U.S.-"llg11ll't::rL'd capital ClIlIe III J)e':L'lIlb"r 111.1 LUllIl'J.-X sdH.AlIIe,
Mexico would buy u.s. ool1lh 10 pOSI l.'olbtt:'ral ag.lil1SI ,,:ullllller...:i,d b.lllk
The mow uffered 110 prosp,"C1 (or large .. reild' from till' dt'bt, whi..:h h.ld d.:.lrly
becume unpayab/..-.
tht'st" Ihere would be .:unlllltllllg IriLtiun wllit til.... Ullill',J
Slatc:lt, Artt:r Ronald Rl"ag.lll \\'011 IhL' U.:", ill I Ih... dl.: Ia l\ladrid
goverlllllt'ni lIew Iu t>dlle tlte 1.lglllg l.onlll,b III
America Ihruugh multil.llt'ral Ill.:goti.llltlli. KllUWll ,I:. llit: ·Colll ... dur.I" inillaliv,·
(nnmed for Ih.... sitt' 01 the: Ihe plan l..dle:tI lor regiunal pe.......... on lit ....
o( pulitic:d alld t'COllOlllic CtXJp.. r.ltion. Till' Id..a c'lllil.."kl)' g:-.illl"d
frum Ihe Unil"d Natiom btlt CflCOlllller"d opposilioll frulll
Iille Rc.lg.lIlikS-who objl'Ckd to lolLlu re.:uglliliull uf Nil.tragll;l';-. revolu-
tiollar)' govt:rnmt'111 and 10 ils on U.S, Illll:rvt'llliun. Thl' Contadllr.1
vbion expired Whl'lI. under lIonl pro AlIlcri ... all
guv.... rnlllt"llb ill Cosla nka, and EI Salv.ldul" ('xprl·s.;ed tlleir iOiI.
Even so, Mexico had unce again ib :lUIUlllllll)'.
All additional ollgoing cause fur bi/;1ll'r,d 1"I\t>ivll 11.1:: U.S, pulicy Iuward
Mexil.ans working (legally <llId illeg.t1ly) in the Ullilnl St,ltn. The
Al."l, p3ss..d ill !lJH6, laid JUWll lOugll pellaltic:. luI' elllllluYCIS \\'IIV llirl'd
Cllllll'lllcd aliens.
Tlw prospecl uf ib illlplcllll'lIlalioll sellt t>hlldd.... rs Ihl"ougll
northern and Cl'ntra! Mexicu, \\'hos.... youllger K('lll'r:tliollS had lung :.een jubs ill
Iht: United Stales (usually tempurary) as Ih.:ir main hup"lura decent lite. Wilhin ,\
lew Ihe law appeart'J 10 have had unl)' a milliJ n,d illll),l.:t OIl .I.:tualliligi ,llioll
l1uws, but tvlcxiGlIb rt'mainJ:d war)'.
The debt crisis ,lllt! economic stagll.lliull III Ihe !all..' IlJHlb inlcllsilied soLial
illelltl3lily ulld pupular pi llllllllcted, llllelllplo)'lllelll
hKrl.:3sed, :'lllJ p...... capita incollle dc.:dillnl by murc Ihan pl.:rc"'l1l during th,'
1980$. In \"-ontfilsl tv Ihe Soulhern Cone: coulltries in till: 1960s and 1970s.
however. Mexico did not ft:SOri 10 pervasive, large-seal..- aUlhurilariull repressioll.
Key 3ltribUIes of the Mexican political system-ils restricted COlllpdition. ils
control of working-class movements, its aUlonomy from privuk inkresb, uud it.!.
tactical nexibilily-help explain ..... hy Mt'xko mallaged tu avuid dt'daring open
warfare on ils citize:!b.
Aware of their sagging credibiJity, PRJ IIhtd.. th,· pru...:.... of choosing
official nominee for president more vbibll" (if 1I0t 1Il0rl' gClHlindy opc:n) Ihan
POpul.. tlon It. IditOl.'"
C.UI' (billions 01 SUS)
GNP!l<lf.llld (SUS.)
POV<:lly lellt:- 1% 1112(06)
I If", expecldncy (years)
\\','1.' HIt\ hIli'>, I h,· pn,,' lot f\Il'XiI.. O\ prillh.: l'xl'"rl (oil) had ililcrt'si r.lll·:'
11,1,1"'I'Il.d,'" 111'\\',11 d.•Ind 11,11 M,'XlCoIIlS 11,ld or dullars Olll uJ
"'111111) I h" LJ .... gowIllllll'lll, tli,' Fund (IMF). and
Ih" ltllllllll'lll.d b,lnk... a Mr.... luan l).l\,.-k<lge 10 Mt'xko, Thes\,.'
11,'\\ 1",IlI'> l'lt.lhl.-d f\kxh.o tv l.UllliUlll' JM)'illg bUI did llol ullow for
.111 I' 111l/,Ili. III
III,' I.''', til' 1••HIII') l'lh,": M":'I.h.·ulhld III .Idupl ;:111 IMI:-.II'pruved
"J.Ill. ,\ kq gll.d W.I'" I" ICllll\,.l· th,' 11l1l,III'lll.try public Jdinl, which \\'.b .11 .1
d,tllg'·II'II ... I)' IlIgh Ir, P"'"'111 til 111\' (;))P, "fIJi:> IlIe.lIlt lillt guverllnWll1
... ul ...... lh· 1111 lutld .IIIlJ I'llhhl. i\I"XICO abu had lu rl'lJllu: 13rill barriers,
II"'I..!" IIIIIUl.lllllf.: gl",II"1 dll,it:ncy and gre.lh::r
III \\'11/1.1 '""I""t Jll.lrkeh.
1·I'·... hklll d,' I.t f\1.ldnd dUlilulty lolJuwed Ihe 11v1F prescripliull, but at tht'
l'lh" .11 ,I d,"'p Hy JlJM5. w.lget> had by 40 pac,'nt
IH'IIIIIII'1i I'JX..! h:vl,:l; li\ .. klll'velilurthl.:r <It> lur
....... Ill 1<'11111.1'" \\\'1",' l·lldnl. III S"l'kltlher .•1 t>eVl'rc t:'arthlluakt: III f\kxku
I II \ dl:.•• Till' 1 H6 tlrop III 011 pfl'l.·t>
""1'011 ,·.l1l1l11
... tWlh,'" \\'l·.lk,'nillg lilt:' l.:'l.1lI01l1y.
.\111 .. 1 dllli'llltl":'. ,I.: 1.1 f\ladrid ;lllll hb .ldvbl.:rt> d'·CI,I..·d III adopt :'1
,11.1 III.d I.... Inlt III ..·u..}lhlEnit.' poli.. y.•1 1I,'W 111,,1 Gillie lu be ch.II·;lI.-terized as
·h.lpll'l" 12). Th,'"" wer.... twu main Iu th,' prugram. One
\\',1'1 I., Intli l " ,111,1 1'''',1')1 th" ..·.. ulIulni.: rul.: ul thl' 10 h....
.1"11.. · IJ1l11lig11 .. "lllllltl,·d ..·ub 1I\ puhlk :,pl'n,ling and through a prugram of
Mill 1\ .1111 ,.11"'1I" 01 u\\'ll,'d nllilpalli .... Of Ihe I I 15 puhlicly oWlied o)lIlpallics
111,11111" jlll.,·lil .....1illl.lll' J')H2, .1..,1,1 Madrid managed to offllt"arly
lOIl.lIl.lll"I".", .lu\\'11 27'1 hy 1.1\1' IlJt)6.
'I Ii,' ...·\.llnd \ III11plllll'lll \II lite Ill'W poJil.Y lOlllllH:l'dalliberaliziltioll alld
-"IIVlllll}; up" "I lit,' ,'\,.UIlUIll)'. This \V.I:. lliusl dnllll;ltil.aIJ)' dt'llluI\Slrah:d by
1\\.-,'''''''' .llU,:. .. i\,.l1l 10 till' (;l·ll"I".tl Agft:L'llh.'nt lHl 'I'arins an..1'I'radl' (GI\'IT) ill
71 1'i\lnT\NO" STlJllIFS: nIANI;I' fIVI:I( TI:-'II·
the had cvel' hecn. I)e 1;1 cvclllual choice was anolher U.S.-I mined
cconnmisl. Carlos S:'llinas de only Ihirty-nine ycars nld. who the
incumhenl blltlp,el ;lIld planning minisler had aUlhor'cd lhe highl}' IInpopulu
allsleril}' policies of Ihe 19ROs.
The e1ectioTl of hrought surpri"cs and suggesliV(' porlents of mean
ingflll change. For the first limc in it" history. the PRI f:leel! serious oppositioll
fmm hOlh Ihc right Ihe left CuallhtcllloC son of the revered
cx-pre<:i<lenl. led a hreabway factietJl from the PRI it'ielf). Organizc<1 labor also
<:howed ils displcasure wilh the PI{i (.lI1didale. Salinas de Gortari \"on with a har('
r;f).:l percent Illaiorll)'. according to nrflcia! retllrn<:. afl(1 in dniming victory he
declarcd an cud 10;\11 cm of "what was practically!!1 nnc-party Opponenls
nnnelheless accused th(' regime o( e1eclor;l1 fr:mcl. The YOlllhful Salinas tonk ofllcc
in Ikcember 19R5 under ex(('edillgly dirfieull conditions. \Vould he he up In the
The Iir"l l;l<:k for Sntina<: wn" III delllon<:lmte political authority. He hegall h}'
1l.1l11ing.1 cahilh.'1 dOlllin<llec! hy his as"llCiatcs. instead of mending politic:\1
(ences. In J<Jllllon)' 19R1) he mastcrmilulctl a spectacular raid on Ihe head<llmrlcrs of
Ille illdcpt.'ndenl-nlilltletl <lnd financiall}' cornlpl head of tile oil worker,,' lInioll. WllO
wa<: !,rPllll'tl}' placed under arresl (fnr illegal po""essioll nffirennns). Shorlly Ihere
after he the !nllg sl<lndillg chief of fhe Inrge nnd powerful teadlers' union.
!.<ll('r he fire<1 Ihe n:lVal sccrctnry from hi<: L:lhinel po<;t, an ullusualmove in "iew of
the dclic;llc ha!:lnce of dvil mililnl)' re!:llinns in I\lcxko.
Jh promi.<:ed dmillg his campnign, S;"Ilinns de (;nrlilri promoled ;"I IlH>desl
polilical opening. lie cOllimanded PIH olficials tn recogni7e a guhel'll<ltorial
Iriumph for the PAN in lhe imporlant stnle of Haja C:lliforni:l (jUSl soulh of Ihe
C:llilnrni:l horder). lie oversa", reforms oflhe electoral syslelll :lIld of the inlern,,1
workings of the PRI. BUI Iherc wcrc limits to Ihis stl':ltcgy. The PRJ c!:limed
lltlrc:llislic victories in key election... in lbe st:llc of M(·xico. ncar Mexico Cily. nn
arC<l tbnl had shown itself to he a Icft-wing opposition stronghold in the prcsiden-
tiill elcclion nf 1988. The government also IWrrlssed :lnd inlimidilted 01<1IlhlCillOC
Cardellas nnd hi<: rollnwers, wlw found il exirelllrly difficult to organize their
forces into a cnhercnl :lntl durable politkal parly. The opening. sllch <lS il was, waoS
hiascd toward Ihe right (;\nd Ihe PAN); il did not include lhe left.
Indced, (Ir Ihe first lime in memory. the question of hllmnn righls appeared
Oil the national agenda. Critics cnlled ;\t1elltion to:l numher of cOllllnilled
hy Mexico's nntional police forcc in alleged pursllit or drug Thc)' reported
the assnssinalion or of at least sixty pro-Cardenas sympathizers in
1990 They cxpressed olltrage at the murder o( <l promincnt hUIn<ln.rights
activist. To aSSll:lge Ihe criticism. S:llin:'l<; ilppointcd a National COllllllission on
I fllllwn IHghls. led h}' former university rector Jorge Carpizo. hUI did not give it
genuine authorily.
II W;lS in the e(-onomic nren:l thnt Salin:ls !i:ought hi" most la"ling nchievc·
melllS. In hopes of completing Mexico's struclural adjustments. he continued :lnd
cXlendct.!the neoliheral strategy initiated under de la Madrid. Salinas and his team
\ .. 1\11 Xl( (I I h,' I .UlIIIl)'. "I .• I{, \ •.1.,11"'1
kept lowering Iradc harritrs. They I'll II tlntl'.1 t ht' 1'11\',111/.1111'11 ,01 '.1.11,'
industries, evcn plliring IIJl 101 !<o,I!c II ",1\ 1(',1 ,IW" ,I" Ill" 11'1. 1,11'''1<'
company nnd Ihe hnnking i ndu!<ol I'y (Il<ll ion;lli'lcd hr I "pCI 1
", Iill" III I"X}) \V II II
Ihe support o( the lJ.S. gnvernlllcllt, S.llin.I" IWgllt ,I nn\' ,lehl 11· .. t I II' I
agreement Ihat promised to rc(llI(c the n('1 ulIlnll\\, III fUllcl .. h\· bdli,IIl.1 \,,'.11
lllltilthe lllid-1990s. The gnvcrlllll('llt al"" "ollghl Itl ,1<: .. i.. 1 10\,11 ""\.,.1"1'1111111 hI
e"lnhlishing il "program fill' 1l;ltiflllal <:olitl,lrit v- III 1'1 ••vule ""C(llllOIl/,\, 1<'1 ..('II 111'1"
projects Ihrougholll Ihe UIIlllll')'. 1'('1"11.11'<' III rt.·"I'"II<'(' til Ih,·",· 1lll'.1.. 11I" Ih,
nali(lIlal cconomy !i:!lc>\\'('d <:ign.. 01 pl('king lip: .1111111.,1 11l11.1111'/I 111 ••\,·,1 .1•• \\ I. ,..
thc 20-30 pcrcenl range, while .Inllll.d growth 1.11('.. Inr Ihe (.111' 10'" 1.1 t I I" I•• III
for I<)X9 and 1.9 pCf{nll fpl "NO
North American Free Trode
The crowning nchicvelllclll nllhc (f·,rll,.' W.I'" Ihe r'HIIl AIIWII\.III IltC
Trade Agreelllcn I (NAFTJ\ ). tllla hll' III ,Ill r.lI I 1.11 <;( .11(' ill\'('<,!llIf III II "Ill I 1I r"I"
or J<lpan. Ihe Salinas admilll<:tr.llioll .111111111111 cd 11<, 1I11t'1l1 I.. III }:1'·.1 IH' 11-1.1.
Lompacl with the United Slal(·... 111(' l'lllp.....11 (,1lt.1I1l'l1.1 1",.lllq'IIoII.II .. '" ..f 1111'
prolcclionisl slrategies nf IIn,,1I11 .. lIh<:tillltillg 111.111.. 1ri,lh/.l111 '11 ..Ill.! II ,II", .11.1,.1
the n:ltinn;ll trn(lilinn o( kc('ping.1 <:11""11 11111" ,II .. LlI\<l· hnm lilt' .,1 I IIr,
Norl h. Small-scale indu,,' ri,lli .. 1<; ;"Illcl gl :lin Lli IllCI" C\I'I (' .....1'\1 le.11 11,.11 1'1"\' 1111)'.111
he deslroyed hy U.S. COlllp<·tlllon..lIltl ""Ille lllld1c( lll.d.. 1lI1l1l1llnllhc 1111111111' III
dCIl1 isc (I( Ihe nat ion's ('t. flllCllll h. '" '\'(,1 nj:IlI\' .1l1d , 011111 ,11 l'll< I. ....1 I111.1" 1'('1 "1',1 • .1
Unveiled in August 1\)9). Ihl' NAF"JA ,1\1 old ell\I"lllll ..d Ihe. H"1111>1l nl ,1
three-Ilnlinn p<lrtncrship (indudlllg (:all.ld,1 ,1" wi'll 1\ln.H" .111.1 111C 1
,111 ... 1
SI:llcs) Ihal \\'(Hild forge nne III lh(' l:1rgl,.. 1 j,Io>l" III Illc \\1'II,t \\1111.1
populalion of 370 million and 1Ilmhincd C(on(lllli. 1'1"11.111111"" nt .II'I'lll\lIIl.lld\
$(, 1rillion.1t would prolllote Ihe frec flllw ell }:ood.. IIll' llwlllhn "11111111""
hy c1iminalingdulies, tariffs, alld II;Hle h.lI 1\l'r.. I1\TI .1 I'Cll11.t .. , 1111('1'11 \"\'.0" "1\1\
pcn:ent of U.S. gllfltb ga ill('d dill)' fIl'l' !<oLI III" IIlll\ll'diald)" "I \\'11 hIll t 1\'1' \T.II',
hnlr of U.S. (arm gonds exporr('d In il.kXhn IlllIIU'di,llcl\" IH'l.1I1lt· dlll\ 111'('. I h,'Il"
werc spccinl exccplions lor «('rlain .. cn .. ill\·l·R I'".dlll'" ill .lj:lhldl,\l.·.
typically one of lhc seelors IllII.. t re<:i<:! ,1111 II. ('\ 11111 IIni, I'm; l.h.I ... ·•• , II 'III
larif(.. (or corn and dry hean<: ill tvlcxicn .Ino! 1l1-11lg(' 11';' (' and <;lIg.1I III Ih,. Ilnlk.1
SI:lleS would cxtend to the yCM 20(1). Tnrill .. nn .111 :H1IPIIlOhd,'" \\1111111 NIlIIII
I\lllcricn would be phnscd III 1I o\'er 1(,1l<:. hIli 1"111('<; '1I"II,:ln <,111'111.,le,IIII.11
locnl content would hilve til he ,II IC;lsl peru'llt lor "dll' Il'" In '1l1,dlh N"I
surprisingly, J\si:ln governmcnts rcgal"<led thi .. t I:1I1 ..e .1" ,1 thinlr .Ii ..1:11i ...·" \ ""1 I I..
exclude their industries nnd pro(!uct<: fmlll lhe Nnrlh Amel"il:1ll Ill;Hkl'l.
NAFTA opened Mexicn tn tJ.s. illvc"lrncnl." in V;)flnn<: \\';1\''' llntlcr lit.' 1.. ",1\,
U,S. hanks and sccuriti<'!i: lirms could cstilhll<:h hr.lIh h nH'. t.... 111 J\1c\1l II ••1Il.!
U.S. citizens could invest ill MC'xko'" IMllking an;1 lI1"III.lIh.· lfulll<.IIK" \\'1111.
Mexico continucd tn prohihil Itlreigll Ilwllc'r.. hlp ,.1 Iid.J.., III .11 I "111.'1111' \\'1111
ils constitution. U.S. firms hel-nIlH' c1igihk In (1'l1Il'ctt.· I,"' \. lUll .Il I.. \\11 h 1\'11' ,11"'"
1'\1(11\\'11" 1/\\I·,>lllIlIl\ I 1l,\N{.1 U\IR·III'.II
1\ l.. .tllIl,> ( 1'1 ./\ II .'\ J .llld IIpl'l .Ill". III gl'1I1'! .11. Undl-r th... :-..11111' pro"b.iulI'i .IS 1\ k", kiln
ttlllll'.11111''> hll' 111'111 W.l' ltllbpltUOU' b)' bt:yond a narruwly
"111h'11 1'111\1\1\111 Itlr lilt,: IIIVVl'IIII'111 tJltuqlurall' ..llId
,>ltlll,l!... lilt 111·.. 1)' 1I1.•dt· Uti 1t:h'n..'lIu' .d.dl Itl Ih... IIUgl.llioll oflal.>or.
I AI; I A 1'Il'''''pll.IIl'l1 :.lrl·lIl1t1u'> wllhill tilt" Ulllkd In Iht:' heal 01
1i.I' I'}'}..! prn,llkllll.11 t..Il11I'.lIgll, Iklllllt.f.llh: c.llllildatl· Bill Clinton pledged In
'>Ul'poll NAI r/\ till ("tludillUIi lh.11 lill'll' be dll'(·livl." :... 1(11' t:IlViWIlIl\t:l1tal
1'1 Ull', IJOIl .IUti kl'I.,· rir;hh, h) :-'I'pll'llIhl"l" 19'J3 Ihl' gUVl'lllll It'lIb rc.l<.hl.'d
til .,Itll' .Igi n:nh'llh ull l,lhor alld Iht" l'nvirontnt.·IlL As Iht: U.s.
LulIglt· .... jlIL'('.lll·d hi \'1111' \111 1,llll1lalll)II, ·Iexa:-. hillionairl' (and
1' ...... ldl'1I11,tI 111I1'dul) I{u:.:-. l'l'lul lc-d IIll' lh:lrg..: ag.lill:>1 till: 11''':0.11)', claiming 111iI1
Nt\l; 1':\ \\'lltdtll'lllill,IHI:.illL·:':' 10 :...:ek IlIw wagt' Mt:;"iulll labol .Illtllhus lost'
1111 IHlll" ul 1\ lllt'l .111 jJr0l'0lll'llts tll.ll NA FTI\ would Stilllll
1.111' U,S I'XI'"l'b. "ddt'vl' l'tUllilIl1il':' 1)/ :-..... dl.", and ... Ilhallu.: U,S. l·Olllpditiv('lll.'ss.
l)i ... t'fllIll ul1iOllizt:d lahur,;1 hbluric bastion of
'Uppllil 11)1' J)t'lIIUl rals, Clilllull luhhktl 011 behalf of Ihe Irl'at y. Anti .Iftt:r
I'l'l"III .,IUlllhlt·d h.,dly during a llll'IlHln.lblt: Idcvisiull t1t'U<lII' with Vice Presidenl
"I (;Olt', Ihl' uj fill.tlly ..lpprovt'd Ihe NAFI'A "lCl-urd by
!. H 21111. Iht' lullv\wd hlilh .1 lUll: 01 bl-jX.
III till.1I 1111"111, the" NAFI A .KlOl'd h.ld ::>t:vt'r..d ollbl.lnding Ollt'
\\.1'> .h Illl(lhlll ,lIl1llllilllll'llt III rq.\ t'lllllllllll( Illtl'gl"lllUlI, Dl·:.plle II::> Illh....
:\11,\ \\ .... Iltltl'tilll,"il) ltJllllTlIl·t1 \\1111 Irad .- Uy 11.J90 l.lfill.llld t'Vl'lI
Ihllll.I,..11 h.lllll·'::> 1\1 1\!I,,,,i...111 t.UIIIIIlLT":t' Wt'I dn:.ltly low li\FI't\ W.IS
('11111011 II) lUlILl'lllt:ll wilh Uy obl.lilling prt'lcft'llli.11 :ll'U:.sS Iu U.S,
111,llkl"l' .lll..!.1 lunll.ll 01 Ihnn'gh NAFl'i\. huping Iu
I ... ",I,1t- IIIlhI' ul t1irnl IUll'igll il\V...... lllllc'nl-lrolll Japan .llld Eurupe as well
.I'> 11'1111. lilt' UlItlt·d Sl" .....,. By Uhl.lilling ulilralllllll'lt:t1 :1I.1-t:S' 10 low-wage
(lllll Illgldy :.kllll'll) Ml'Xll.1l1 I"bol. Ihl' UlIikd Siaks hI;!S huping III Ul';llt-' all
l".\l" III I,Lll h HIli II" l1l;lllul,ttllll nl guud:. and Ihus illll)rovl' liS compel illve pusilion
III lilt' gIIJb,tll'tlJllllllly. II \\,:1, lur llll"l." IL· ... Ihal llle N/\FTA Irt'aly L'onl.tiued
('\h'll'l\\' dlapll'l'> .th"tll IOlllpdiliulI, tl'lL,.. Hlllllllllll(;llions. and
lin,lllll,1! :.l-'l'Vlll". Inq,lidtly, N/\FTA l'lIVlsIOlll,d;,1 SUOSI.lllli.lll}, more.: profound
th.lIl ib Iabd .ILkllllWlt-dgl'l1.
Sl'll"ld. NAI:"rA Ill.lde pruvlsillll lor t.-'lIVlflllllllt.·IlI.11 pruknioll,
"11t',llI.tlly 1l1·guliatt'l1. NAFTA lIhllt..- only IXlssillg rt'fel't:Ili.'l' III l'llvirOllml'
I Ulitt', ",. III kl·l."pillg \\'ilh l.ll11p.lign pll'dgt:, howc"l·r. Prt'sid.... nl Clinton
1)\1"'.1\\ nq.;olialhll ... IlII.1 pruvbioll lor t.-'lIvlrulIllll·lIlal prolt't.litJIl .
•lIul 1111l11'1 ,I agrt"t·1ll1'lll. Iill' U.s, 1\kxk'lll hordl'r rl."cl'ivt:d .special aiit'll
Ihllllllldt·r.1 hil.llt.·r.tlllllt.·gralt"ll bwirolllllC"lIlal Phlll. \Vhilc SUlIIl' observt'rs raist:u
d'IUhl' .111111Illlh· pl'.U:lkal Siglillil.lllrt· ufllll',st: .lgre.:l'lIIl'llb, the.: merc fa":l oflhdr
llq.1,IIII.llillll 1I1.1dl' tlllt' poinl·II.ldl' and l'!IVirUlimenl had IWClIlllt: inextric.lbl)'
illlt'r1 WIIIl'd.
Yl'j .IIlIlII,l'l" dl"lillgul:-.lttllg lh.ll"at!t'lisllC 01 NAFTA ib lIndl·dying
Illllith,.11 'l'll t' Ullih'd SI;I!t':. was .s...... king st' goals. One Iht'
prt:::>t'rV;,tIIUlI ul 011 ib bonll·f. Tht: idl'.1 IlwI NAFTJ\ wlluld
e(unullIic growlh ill 1\kxicu, l."asing social .. lid Ml'olaillillg thl'
I'ulitital rl'gillll.". A :>1"CUlld go.d was Iu Iht: Unih:'d or illl rl';!sing .ILl-es,s
10 pdrull'ulI1 lrum Ml·Xit."U, Ollt: of Ihe fi"c leading of U,S. ill1porb. 1\ tlllfd
WJ'i IIII' Ih..: Unilc:t1 10 oblain all impurl.llli bMg.lIllillg ...IIII' III its
tradl' IIl·gull.ltiuIIS wilh l:llrupt", J'lpall, and Iht' Gt:neral Agrt'l'IIlt'lIlul\ Tanlb anti
TI:ldc, Ami Juunh, Iht' Unih;d walllt'd to ("umulitl.11t' JipllllllallC
IrU111 1\ I":l\ i..u un rOl'l.'lgn pulk)' ill gl'1I1'1 al. As dt'IIIUJISI r;,lInl by dIS.lgll't:lllt:lll:-. IIVl'r
Cl'nlr.d A1lIt.'rKa during lht' I980s, Ihis hatllullg Iwell ,I 01 1111.Ilt'ral It.·lI:.JUIL
BUI wllh NAI''!'A ill pl.let:. Ml'xiul becIlllt: unlikd)' 10 :>ITioll.s d1sagrl'L'
lllent with llll' Unill'd Stalt'S OIl JlIajur issul'S ofilll":f1lalitIJI,11 dij)lulllac)'.
Fur ib pari tvkxicu W.IS ... killg, firsl and lurt:lllusl, uf it:-. :"od.d
Pl'.ll.l'. Tilt: hupt: was Ihal NAF'I'A would alirat'l invcslllI":lll, Slllll11lak l'llll'lo)'-
Illl.'lIl, provid..: llll'''llingrul uPP\.Ir!lInily fur Ihe 1 milliun t-'lllt'rillg Ilit' jl>l>
111arkd l·"t.'ry )'l.';,lr-and rl·Jull' Sl'lUlld, NAFTr\
S,llin:.ts an uppurlllnity 10 illslillltiolwlizt: his e...:onolllk" rduI111S, illsubling tht.'lll
IrOlll Ihe 11Isiuril vagaries of pl'I:.'sidl."lIlial by inscribing Ihl'lII in ..Ill
inlernallonal Ir..:aly, Third, Mt."xlcu was Sl'l'killg inkrn.lliuJlal bl'lll'dkiion lor ib
nul lillilt.· tlt'mlKralic polililal rl"gimc. '1 his was illlpon.lill bt·....lll:.l'. III
lOlllparisull wllh Argt:nlill.l, Chiit-. Brazil, ;,lIld ulhl'r llmkrgtllllg I'IU-
uf tll·IJlOl"rJliL.aliull, 1\ll''''ll"U no IUlIger luukt.'d likl' .1 p.lf.lgun III pulllkal
livilil),. Fill.tll)'. Mexlt.u bdkwtl thai NAFT/\ would pruvide lht' lllllllily wilh
dlplulI!.ltll I,,:vt'ragl' "is-;,'t vis Ille I ul ill AIlIl'fi..:.I .llId. hy l·xtt'II'oUlli. IIII' J'hird
\'''odd .1:. .1 whult.-. Assuci"liull wtlh Canada and thl' Ulliktl \\'uuld Illlk
I\IeXIl\J Willi .Idvanll"d industrial dt'l1locracit-'s alld ul lht: First World.
COIIM'qUl."lItly Mt:xico ("ould Sl'r"t: .. bdWt.·t:J1 till' dl'vdupilll; wurld
and Ihe devdopt·d hlurld as a ll"prl'sl·Jllali"t.' .1IIt! inlelillclilur luI' asplrillg pcupk:.
ul Iht' SUlllh.
\oVhall'v... r ib pulili..-allllolivalilJll, NAFl'i\ app....Il·t:d III ,llhil·Vt.· Iht' n'tlllUlllil
gUdl ul l"·\IMlIdil1g t.UIllIllt:IT..... Twu way Iradt''l\\'t:CI1 Nkxkll .Ind IIll' Uuilt'd
Slalt':. dillllJl."l1 lrom $X3 billion ill lu bllliun ill 19'):' ,11Id murt' dldll
$2UO billion by 20UO, By Ihis time Ihe Unih:J Stales t-'xpurling 11I\II't: til Nk.xicu
Ihalilu Chill.l, Korl."a, alltl and Mt'XllU bt'l;'UIiC. :tlla C.llhltla,
Iht: larg,,:sl trading p<trtllt'r uf Ihl' Unilt:d (II W;IS 1.11t'1 lhsplaled h)'
China).' 10 widc::>prt'ad (<tnd l·xaggcr..llnl) l-'Xpt:'ll •• liuII, h\lwt'vt.'r, IAITi\
cuuld nul pruvid(' a Clift' lor ;111 uf
Alllht: uplilllbm rt:sldting from Ihl-' NAFTA "\ci.ortl prumptly Glllll' unde" assault.
()Il Jalluary I, I'J'Jll-lhc day thaI NAI·TA wenl inlo df..:t:l- a gUt'f1 ilb 1I10\'\'ll\l'lll ill
llw slall' orChiapas rose lip to Jl."lluunce Ll·nluri ....s uld grieV;'IlKt"s,
tht.· !>fllil/isltl t:cunolllic model, and til(' untlt'lllucralk Ch:lfal'kr ul lht' polilk.d
regilllt'. Wilh colorful and able leadership, 11ll' Zapalista N;llional I.ilwralioll Army
7f> l'AlnTwn" ..IF
(E/.IN) captured national and international atlcnlion during the course of highI)'
puhlicized negotiations with govenlmcntnl authorities. Despite a variety of govern-
mental responses, from military pressure to political negoliatinn, the I,,'lpatisla
mrlvcmcnt would remain a thorn in the side of the regime.
Two months later, as public atlention turned toward presidential succession,
all nssassin's bullet struck down Luis Donaldo Colosio, Salinas' handpicked
sllccessor and the G1ndidate (If the PRI. S"linas hastily chose another Ilominee,
the forty-two-year.old Erncsto Zedillo Poncc de Lc()n, who scurried to develop a
credihle Gllnpaign fllr the upcoming August e1cction. These developmcnts
infliclcd a dCVOlsI"ting hI ow to Mexic£l's international image. Mexico could no
longer be seen as an up-anel-coming COUIlII)' on the hrink of joining the First
World; i110oked, instctld, like a Third World society thrcatening to come aparl .1t
the scnlllS.
[nrllest and inlelligent. Zedillo W;lS a technocnll par excellence. A Ph.D. in
eCllllolllics fmm Y;lle University, Zedillo had spent most of his G1reer in thc
centr,ll hank and the plmllling ministry. As n result. he had very few cont,1(1'\ wilh
(:llTCr politici"ns or officials in the ministries of the feder"l govern-
ment. Ikspite a Incklustcr c:lmpaign, Zedillo won the Allgllsi 191)4 elections wit h
'lg.R percenl of Ihe vote (c0mp"red with 211.0 percenl for the rightist PAN ;lIlt!
olll)' I(!.f" percent for Cunuhtcmoc Cardenas' left-Wing P:'trt)' of the Democratic
Hevnlulion, PHD). thlls hecoming the IIfth man in n row 10 rC<leh the presidenC)'
withoul ever holding prior elective nrllcC'.
Inaugur,lled in DecemhC'r 1991, Zedillo (:'tced crisis right awn)'. FeHrllll of the
('lVCrVnlllnlioll (lfthe peso. investor." withdrew more lhan $10 hill ion from rvlcxico
wilhin a week. In response, the ZediJlo administration Iwd to devalue tht.' peso,
which evenlually lost more thiln hnlf its value againsl the U.S. dollar, and
the government wns coming close 10 insolvency. Early in 1995 the Clinton
administration Pllt together a lllllltibteral pncbge or nearly $50 billion, including
$20 hill ion from the U.S. government. One major goal of this me;lsure wa." tn heild
orf <l potential defilult on $30 billion in Icsobollos (short-term honds isslled hy the
Mexicnn trensur)', pa),ahle in dollars). which would have inflicled l11;ljor damage
011 u.s. pension funds, mutual funds. ;lnd olher inslitulionOlI investors. Another
WOlS to sustnin the credibility of economic reform and the viahility ofNA f-TA itself.
The IInancial crisis provoked a political crisis as well. As crilicism mounted
against Snlinas' insistence on m:lintaining an unrealistic exchange rale througholll
199'1, Ihe ex-president publici), criticized Zedillo and his economic cahinel for
mishandling Ihe December devaluation. Zed ilia reactcd by sending Salinas into de
fneto exile in the United Stales, then authorizing the arrest of the former pre-
sidenl's older brother on charges of corruption. The detenlion by U.S. authorities
of an assistant attorney general under Salinas lcd to further dcnunciations of
corruption, family intrigue, and oHlcial involvement in the nssassination of n
high-level PIU 1C':'lder in September 1994. As Carlos Salinas became n figure of
widespread revulsion. serious fissures threatened to split npnrt the Mexican
politicnl elite.
'I'he puhlic promptl)' showell its dis'lPI'l"llv,ll. I:llr Ihe IIr ... 1 /1111<' III ,Ii·' .Ill,",
rLllllors hegnn circulating lhat an ei<'ctctl I'HI 11/"(·.... idell I II lll',hI IInl h(' .Ihle t" 11111'.11
his term. One poll in e"fly ne:1rly halflht' It·... IHIClllcllt .. lll'l1ll:III.1
mililnry COllp w:'ts possihle. l!llllllnicipalities:llld <; lr"1Il 1.1Ii ... , n In ()'l"rel-ll"
and Nucvo Leoll, opposil ion candidates hCg:ll1 win !ling 01 fll ('. 1\ lid 111 1'1')",
for Ihe first time ill its history, Ihe PHI losl cnilirol of Ihe 11:1lillll.lI (.11.11111"'1 "I
I )cpul ics.
The apparent decline of the PIU led to r,,:-t iVCllC'\S wil hill I he 1',1I 1\.... 1.111" dllt I
file: alld its Irnditional hn.'\sC's, pejnr,lIivcly kllown ;l\ .. dlnn...llll .... "I tllI/''''IIiI/''''
Ch:1fi ng under the decadcs-lolll-: dOlllin:lIl(c 01 tCdllll'l 1',11 .. III /(', 11/' /I.' Ii kt ' ..... hll.l ...
and Zcdillo, the partis national as<;elllhly rliled Ih,It II." IH'i\1 PI(,"I.,!cntl.d I ,
would be required tn !l;tve hdd elected £llllle (d .. !il'lJ!alltlll Ih,ll \\"""Id h.n·,·
disqnalified ever)' presielellt since 1971l). l'lt,... idclll I.ctlillll Jlllhltl I)' JlI'" 1.'"11",1
tlWI he wOl1ld not hilllsdf designate his S\I(lc.. <;or Ihrllugh tIlt' lilll" h,QlOQld
rla/azo, so 'he PRJ desi1-:llcd :l new primalY tOI 1111' .'lInn dn tl"ll .1I1,j
g:lVe responsihility lor it:-. I.. t'lI(' ," lIlt' \,.lrly' .. In,,,,! \Tlh'r,lhk ligures. By mid 1999 Ilwre wcre tnln (.lIllh,J.lll·... lou Ihe 1',1IIr·'· 1I111111l1.!
lioll. 1I01l(' 01 whom cllilid he cnllcd ,1 Ic(hlln, 1'.11. ,\ .... t'lIt" .!!l.ily.... 1 .!lul 10'1011"
congresslHan proclai11lcd, pt'rh;tp" wi:-.hfldly...'1'111 .... j .... 11ll" "11,101 !:ll\"'llllIWlll 1,\
tcc!JnOLr:lcy, IhOlnk
Down of a New Ero
The presidcllli:ll del.-lioll nf200n 1ll.1Iknl ,I \\,I ... r<;lwd III 1\k\l• .I111".IIIIl .... \ 11,,11\
((llllested (.nlllpaign invnlvcd three llwjor ',ll1ll1d:II(' ..... 1'1,111\ 1\, II I .,h,l\lld,1 ,,1 Ill,
PRJ, CllnHhtcmoc Cardellas or the I'IU>, .l1ul;l (ll'W(IlIlWI In Ilw .... , ,'111 \ l< cIII,'
Fox of the (onservalive I'AN. T:dl. I"llgged, 11I11,110 I" Iht' 'l'll·. h,\ \\',1 .... d l'llv.ll,
husinessman and r:1ncl1er. lie heclIne (:E< I l.1 (:Ot.1 I IILI nl 1\ln;ll" 111 lile 1.11,
19701' ;lnd entered p(,litics ill 19RR, whell Ii, I' lIu,d lilt' 1'/\ N .111' I WOIl "1," /1' 'Il
a.<; a congressional representallve. Ilc ..... llhsc'll1Clllly .. rr"cd.I" ):O\Tll1l1r (111111' ""1.111
slOite ofCualwju:lto. I-'roll1lhal 1Il1lik('ly h.ll'kgrtlllllti. il1ld.... l.ll<' Idlle.... , 11t' 1.11111, Iwd
his quest for Ihe pr('sidellC)'.
A charismatic cOIlllp,ligllrr, Fox pledged all hOIH· .... I g"\"llllIlI'lti 11,'
denoullccd thl' PRJ ns hopelessly tnrrupl nllel nh:-'llirlc. V.l.I:1I1' Oil :-pe< 111> .... I",
nsscl"tcd thaI it was lime rOI" a change ,1I1<llhai wl'ldtllr.HI i\k:OUlIIlI11.1 III n.
modern, ,md delllocratic ('ra. In conirasl !.;th.l<;II,1.1 '\celll,-.II,' I'cr"tllldr rill" I'll I'·,
most tradilional elements, while 11rtsitlcllt I':rnc<;tn l.nlill'l in... l .... lt·tl 111.11 lilt· (·ll·,
tion would have 10 be clean.
Fox won the presidency hyn plllrrtlity, with 12.." per,clll ,,11111' \'11('; l.d,.l',II,1.1
received 36 percent and Cardenas look 171'C'rt.:cnt. "'lexiee) w" .. jllhil,lllt. ,1 .... Ille'llgll
il had surprised itselr. According In one ohserver, this was a tl illlllph 01 "lnndt'l
Mexico over Mexico-and hi... dwllcnge would hI' In 1'('0 <1111 ill' lilt"
two. Taking ornce ill l1ecemher 2000, Fox enjnyed apl'r,,\'.l1 1.11111):'" ,II HIlIl' I
Rs percent. Ilis politlcnl hOllc}'lllllCln WOllld he llllll.\llally 11111': hili 11 \\1'11101 11,,1
last forever.
lackluslt:r GlJllpaigll. The evenlual willller h}' ;l Il;Jil·::.-breadlh Illargill \Va:- lilt.:
YOlllhful Felip.... Calderon, ..I liCdollg lllt:lJdx'r of Iht: PAN ;llld a
IUfrtlt.·r minister of encrgy. Calderon g;lrllt:rnl pcrn.·llt of Ihe vu!l', COl II pa r...d
with AMLO's 3S..3 pero.:llt (the PRJ's I{obcrtu Madraw WUll unly 22.3 I'Cl"Ct:lll). As
Ihest' rl'Stl!ts suggest, Ml'xico W;1::. bl'l'umillg pul;lliznl a :'t1.. il'lY divided bl'l\Wl'lJ
rich and poor, right anJ ldl, nurth and soulh, lIlort.:.' and less devdupcd. h would
not bl' an easy place 10 govern.
\ .. It',): Tlte: ·1.lllllllg III ,I ]{"VO[UII"l1 :.J
Thele were 9.8 million Mexi(an immigrallls (It:'lJal .lilt! illeyal) III lh.:.: United
Slilk:>-t-quivdll:llt 109 Pt:llt:'111 of lilt:' t:lltllt' jlupul,Jllon bOllll1l Mexllu,
Ur lllillrOll million Wi:'Il:' U11t!UUUHI'I1h:'d eqwv,1
1l:!llt tu less thJrI 2 jlHcent of the U.s. pupllllltlUII
Approximale/y 57 pl:'lcent of ,III undOCIlIlll'IlIl:!d m'y,.:-.nb In tilt:.' Ulli1<::'d
Stales (9.3 million) callle '10m M(:'xico; IIII:' ur L.:llrll Al1U.."I'K<I, rlMlnty
Celllrd/ Aillericd, ill..loullied fOI nearly pt'rC!!II!.

A Silent Invasion?
hnrlligl<llioll flOm Mexico lidS vllulent 11l1/It,:, Unrtt:'d Mo,>t
denounce Ihe phenomenon 011 culturcll 01 eCOnOIlIl( grounlb-<l'> <l
ch.:Jllenge to long-stJllding Arnt.:!riCdl1 01 cl:. ... thre<1I1O jub worker:..
tn lesponse, mallHain that the MexlCdn AJlIt'lk,HI
Lulture <mel provide:. lHuc.h IdUUI 101 till" U.s. l:CUl1un IY.
The Hltensity ollhe tl:'ll(b 10 levolv..· ,Iruund IHtI11bel:'. Iluw lll<llly
dre thele? Is Ihere of "SilL-lit IllV.ISlllll· ,ll
It h<ls been VIItU<IJly to thl' size of tIle ulltlUllUI1t:nll'd
Mexican population with yr""11 preLbion. Skilled derm)gwphl:'r:. hdVl' 11Idl1ay02d 10
make eSlirntiles. though. dnd hell' ,lie ,>ume tindmgs 101 the yedl 2002:
Stalling ill the eally Inlyl,1I1011 frOlll Ml:'xllu It.'vl·<lled IJllee Sll(JyeS!lve
long-tellll Irellcb. ull/uded not only wOlkrrllj'
as In plt!vious erdS, !Jul <llso .., ramllie,> willi women <lnd lhIIUrl'll.
Second, as IdW t:'nluICell\l:'IH tightel1ed ;1t the U.S. bordel, Ihe flllyr'lnts ueg.lll
Slateslde for 101lger pl:liods of 111I1e. lhlld. Mt:'XIC,111 1111g101l1:. Wele liJ1dinl)
wOlk all avel the Uniled flOm the Nanhwe:'1 10 the nul JlJst 111
trilditional areas (e.!:.!., CalifOllllcl and 101 lhe,>c plopo'><.lls for
-immigration leform" l1eeded 10 deal not ol1ly With PIU'>jll:'C1ive border ill
Ihe future. bUl also with <In dll'eildY-lesldelll undocumented papulallon
All in nil, this pattern doesn'l/ook velY much like ,In -irWdsiun" -in tIlt,: of
a delibelate and cooldirMled occupalion of territOlY lor str<lteyic PUiPOSl:"S. II
lepreSents, Ill:.tead, an <lcculnulalloll of millions of deClslollS by <llid
f,unilies. That said, it still poses delicate challenge'> for public policy.
0<11<1 frolll Jeffrey S. Passel, "Me)uc.ln Imrnigrallull Iu lli..• U')" '1 hl: I dt..
(Wa-.hington. I).c., Mlgl,nloli Pollt y Insillute. )UU.1).
I I l..... 1'Ill' IIII' ... 11 t'llglll tIl Pll!IUbl supporl, I:ox had lu wilh a rel:akilralll
,I IltJVl:lty III JVkXJt:all The PRJ hdd pluralilies in hUlh
ltl e.llli',I'·...... ; Ih"PAN h;ld ollly '16 M'ats illihe Senale (out of 128) and 207 st:als in
Illl·lllJII ... I· III (lI11lurSOO). tvIoretWl'r, Fux had Irollbk·d rdalions
wilh Ihl' f'lllli:.t.1 ddq-:,llioll, whose 1ll1'll1ht:r::. did nul see him as a l)art}' loyalisl-
lllll ,I ... ,111 Ollbidl'l' whu had hijadtnlllll' pn:sich:nlial nomination. As ... result, Fux
llllilld II 10 gaill approval I;',,· his IlIOSt illlpurtant illitia-
I IVI'''' I.IX 11'11)1111.1'1 iV.lII/.,llion, ,Uld rl'::.ululion of till,: crisi::. ill Chiapas. Thing::. gUI
tlHI} Wt>l:-.e ,tlll'l IIIl: l11idll'l'lll uf 20U3, whell the PAN rl'(l'ived unly
\.!. ['1'1 ll'lll ot ti,l' pUpillaI' VillI' and Iu:.t a lHllnbn of Importanl seats. (JIH: skq)tical
IJh... t·rVt·" t lahllt·,llhal, a Fux would he a until Ihe l'nd 01
hh 1l"111l111 20{J(l.
h.tJIlUI1I1': dl·Vl·luplIll·111 pr":-l'lllni Fux witll anolher dikJllllHi. As a pro-
AIIII'II"lll hu ... illt·.,:-III.lll. Fox lI;hl tuutnl tht.:.' of Nf\FTA during his
I'rl· ... ldl·llli:t!l.lIli[I,Jigll. l)llllllg Illl' 1I,lll' ut" hi:-. I'I"l'si,Jt::ncr. hO\Vt'Vl'l", teCO
1I"lllll lll·r!,rflll.lllu· \\',1:'> .dl:-.ululd)' :tlll'lnk: alh:dill.... illihe CDI) 01 -lJ.3I'er(".... nl
HI .!.O\lJ. !I,ll d)' po:.ilivl· gl"tl\\ltll ul V.l) pell:t'lll in 20U2, a ra\l' of 1.·1 p<:'l'l'" 11 I in
'1 he pllill il'allhag (Ill MexicllI l'l:UIlUlIlY was, of tht: ongoing
:-1'J\\'d"\\'11 III 1111' Ullitt'li (10 which M<:,xi(o sr.:nl nearly 'JU pelTellt or its
l· .... I'urh) J''''llplt- pointedlr d:-kl.'ll: \'Vhl'rl' arc thl' bcnL'lib of NAFTA? Their
dl ..... "llll·lll IIl·l".lIlH' all IIll' illll'IISl' Whl"ll il bt.:.'t.::ame clt-ar that Mexico wa::.
I""'llig )1111 ... ,lIld 1I1.lrkd .,h.l1l· hI lllailll:tnd China, itself 011 rnpi,J
1'"II'>h" I
f\k.H.. u· ... Id.llh'll.,hlp Wllh till' Unitl'd look llIH:Xpl'l"led Assllilling
"llIu' .dlll,,'1 \I Il l·n1l.· Fox and l:l·lIrgl.: VV. Bush pl'lHllptly l·::.lah·
Ihll..·.. 1 ,I ... Illlllg alld (l/llJln:liUII. l:lJX pl'rsuadl'd to IUllk inlo
lilt' I" 1....,,[ lilil YtJ/ il1l1lligl al iOll I l't\Jl"llI-dli for r....sidr.:l1l illegab in the Unikd
:..1,11..·... phi ... a I.lrgl· "'l:lk \\'orkt.·r progr:UH, Sll'p:-. Ihal \\'ould NAFTA
;dung Illl·lull·... "lth..· ElilVIll'all Union. And in lale sunllllt:1" 2UOI. during a visillo
\V.l.,lllllglllll. hJX .. ll,dkllgl·d Bush 10 t:lwll such rdonns bdurl' Ihe l;."lId of the
l.d,,·rlll.ll yl"lf. ,b pr,lbnllhl' tvI .... xit.:."all prl::sid.... nt's il app.... ared
tll,lll1<, \\'\!uld gd \v.IY. Tltl'lIl:anll'lhe Il.'rrorist atla(ks oCS... ptember 11,2001,
.111l! ,· .... I'.IIl ... ivl,.' illll1l1gratioll rdOrlll hl'l.:allll· utterly unthinkable. Tension flared
Illl' IWII gUVl'llllIll'llb (ami til..· lwu presidl'JlIS) in l'''lrly 2003 whell
f\k.... iu,. II'Jllpllranl)' lll,lIliltg thl' UN Sn'urity Coundl, Caikd lu support the U.S.
i'l\';l.,lull lIt lr:hl. II rl(jl trntil lalll1ary 2UU4 Ihal 1I1lveikd u modest glit'SI-
!'ropu:-..t1I!J;tl kid liltl ..... ltan(t.:.' ot lungressioll,d approval during an dt'clioll
)',';1/'. I'ur ,dlthis tjl1W, Vkl'll!l' Fo.x was ldt holding the bag.
l'tljlular disl·llt.::ho..lI111I1ent with Illl' I"ox adminislration hdped to fud a new
lh.dkllgl· 10 f\kxko's IIt'dgling o"'IlIUaalY Ihl;." rise of a pulitical left, which
hol ... lt·lnl .1 ... llllllg prl·::.idelliial hid in 2UU6 by Ih(' PHD's Andres Manud Lopez.
I..IllI.hllll" (,I.I..a. i\f\lU,»). hilllSt:ll <I:> a Glildidall' 01 workt.·rs, pt:asanls,
;1I1d lhl' ]luor, ,\f\II.lJ :-.llarply lritidzed NAFI'A, fox, and pro-American policies.
I douhk digit !<-;llb ill pn.:dnliuJl poll::., Lapa. Obradur ran a n.:markably
As Cnl<lcn'ln seHiC'd into orfice. three challenges loomed large. Ol1e concerned
Ihe extell"iol1 or of Mexico's polilic:tl democr.lCy. Frce and fair
presidential elections could not hy themselves nssme dellloaatizalioll in stntC',
Illunicipal. ;llId local arenas. In fact. there persisted a significant numher of
aUlhorilarian slrnngholds-hasliolls of hierMchiG\1 Iradition \lntler domincering
jcfn (hosses). usually linked 10 the old-time PRJ. The result was a
pallcfIl of democratic nnd llondcmocr;ltic loc;llitics Ihat crC:ltctI confusion. inCOll-
SiStCIH':y. :llld inefficiency throughout the p,)litical s}'steJl1. Adding to this problem
W:lS the dHOllic wC;lkncss of Mexil.:o·s judicial branch. Comls were regardefl ns
powerless alHI corrupl. thus undermining the const itulional ideal of a sepnral ion of
pfH\'('rs. :Il\d the I;lw W;lS nol applied fairly or evenly. The polke frelillenlir <lcted
uhilrnrily. hUIll:\Il right" were oflcn Olbused. and di"selll was somelimes
stlppre:-<.;etl. A":l rcsult. hnd what politicOlj Oln:llysls have (nlled an incolll-
plele or dcmocr;lcr-:l systelll comhining free :\Ild fnir c1CClion<.; (nl the
nnlionnllevel) wil h systclllalic reslriclinns on Ihc civilliherl ics of ordinary ... it i/ens.
The prolCS" nf dC1l1(1(,.. r;lli/.ntinn in Mexic('l represcnte<l a lIlnj{lr achicvcmenl-
nhnve .111. on the pnrl of ils Ihere was still a long way 10 go.
1\ secolld mnjor challenge. conneclcd to Ihe first. involvcd conflici with
criminal org,Ulii'alion.,,-spccillc;llly. drtlg trnrllcking carlels. Mexico was serving
as the trnnsit (l(lint fur nendy 90 percenl of the cucaine heading from Colombin
lownrd Ihe U.S. mnrkel (n" well as onc-lhinl ofallthc mariju;ln;l and an increasing
share of melhamphetamines). AnnuOli e:trnings from the <Irug trnde wel'e enor-
1l101lS. somewhere bet\..'een $R hill ion and billion. which not \lilly yielded
handsome prollts btlt nlso enabled pervasive corruption. This comlllerce was
contrnllcd hy four dominant organii'... ,lions-based in Culiadn (Sil1nloa).
Tijuana (nnjn Cnlifornin), Ciudad luarei'. (Chihuahua), and Malamoro....
(Talllaulipas). All of Ihese groups had extensive mnrkeling operations within the
territnrial United States. Indeed. Ihe SiTlOlloa cartel created retail outlel.s in sHch
f;l!";Iwny locnlions as Orcgon. Florida. and Massachusells. while the Gulf o.,.;lrlc:l
established a major <lislrihlllinl1 cenler in Ihe city of i\tIOlnta. And in their Incal
d(llllains wilhin the dTIIg C:lrlels exercised supreme authority: the}' were
states within the stnte. Thc)' were powerful. efficient, creative. ruthless-:tnd prone
to lise violence.
Seeking to enhance naHonnl authorit)', Calderon made an early decision to
lake on the drug lords of Mexico. He nugillented (nnd cleaned lip) Ihe fcdernl
police. cnlisled the services oflhe army, :llld. in effeci. declared war on the cartels.
The resnlt waS:l hloodh;llh. Cartels fought furiously wilh the police, wilh the army,
and nmong thcmselve.... During 2007 more than 2500 people were killed. many of
lhcm innocenl hy... tnnder... ; during 200R Ihe death toll rose to more than (l000. Thc
U.S. governmenl under Presidenl George W. l3ush pledged to support Calderon's
wilh $1.11 hill ion in military hardware. and tenlatively agreed 10 reduce
Ihe cTO!'... -horder sale of high-powered IIrearms to Mexico. A!' of early 2009.
however. there wns!'l ill 110 end in sight So !nng as Americ;lll cnn!'lllllers conlinued
10 dCl1l;lnd illicit ... especi:llly cocaine. Ihe commerce ",ould no dOllhl
\ .. l\ll'XH () 1111' H.,'\"I'II"",
cont iUlie. Caldeftlll's hc"t hopc W;lS Ihal Ihe 1" il:t' 01 eOlHlllI IlIlg 111, .. ,,11'·... 111 11-". "
would hecnme Sri high Ihal Ira((jeker" Wllllltl t.lke Ihcll hll .. lIW.... 1'1-.<\'\Il'H· (Ill
theory. Ihal might solve Mexico's prohlem wilh Ihe .Irld..: II \\<1111.1 11"1 •... k,· II,.
U.S. problem of illicil drug ;lhIlSC.)
E(on(lmic developmcnt posclI ;1 Ihinl Ill:!jlll l hHIIcII):c 1
""p,lc 1"111"111"'"
growlh from 2003 through 200R, the M('xk.ll1 ("Cfllll1lllf \'1.'.1<; N'''llh
otl('-I hird of Ihe pnpuln!i(ln sl ill lived ill gl inding I'lIv('rl y. t\ Ill! III \'iew nil he gl, ,1".1
reces!'ioll of200R-9.lhe shorl lerm outlook wa .. trnuhlil1g. "I'llt HilI"'" elll
llf il!' expnrls til Ihe United SI.lle!'. hilt AIlH·li ... ;l11 cOII"unw, .. \'\\ lelll htl\ Ill<
price ('If Mcxkan oil "'Ol" declining. Mc.lIlwhile. cOlli I'.ll I inll" 111 Iht' 11. .... I<lh 111.111 I I
were pCI'''II.lJing migr;lIll worker.:; 10 go halk IHII1I...., Whh h IIh·.lIlI.1 <;Ii.lll' II'. !til 111.11
in rcmill,lIlee.. (which had grown 10 Illore thall 'i-2.0 lul1illll I't'l \"( ) .1IIt! ., hi ch
in ll\,\'11 Icvd of IInCllll'lorllh'lI1. t\c;,.1 1("..1111. hll h ,,' .. \'1'11'-,11'11
grnwlh ralc for 200
) hnd fOlllcll 10 nght nrnunll lern '1 hi .. nlllo 111111· 111' "'1\
{onll'Tlled an age-old pOlllcrn..1" Ihe ll.:" cI.,nPIllY ... Ion'\·... the I\k... h ... , "1 "11"11".
I,lkc.:; .111 ('vl'n lugger hit.
'\1' I're."idcllt Felipe <:aldc!"l\n \'\'.1!' \'\'('11 :'1\\'.11('. i\k-':HO·" ,d,'ll1lll .. hlJ' 1" rhl'
United Stalc!' was a mixcd hlessing fnl hi"'"ollliliry. '1'11,11 kIlH\\'lcdr.t' rlulll'" III.d·
his jnh ;1Il}' 1"',I!'icr.
Central America and the Caribbean
Within the U.S. Orbit
lll.r, .... "II Ill' pl'J il ill lu Ih...· S(:th:'s. Along wilh
.Ii l.l"llll,d AJU...·11CI ollh\:" Caribbean sharl"'d Ihb :,Iark realtty.
11,lIk, illV,'Slllll'III, ;Ind dipluillacy, Unitt:d Slatt'S exerted
,".\ll.lllldlll.trr llltlllnlll' ,'\I,T (ft"lll!::. and ,'vents ill lhis area throughout tIll'
Ildlr 'I'Hltll)'. '1111.: (and .thll:'>l') of Ihis power nul only yidds insight inlu th...,
I,dhl\ J"t ullhc Unllnl Stall's.lI abo L"llridll's Ollr ulli.h:rstillldillg lit ways thall.atin
,\JI1,'II,.1II" II.tV,· 1111,-II'ldnlIJll' llllJlive:-. alld actiuns ofll\l,:ir gi<lll\ neighbor to the:
llOll Ill. .\lI,d)',>,:,> of l \'lIlral Alll""I,;•.lllli lit,' CariblH:an providl'S il1lpurl<lnl pl'r
"I'nll\'\' ,,11 Ill,' dl.dklll-\"" lal.'illg 111" rq.;iOll as a whole and 011 tilt' "'>Jnp!L'xit}' l,t"
11111'1 /\111,'1 h..111 ;dt.lir....
hJ.llId" "llllv (:.nil,hL'.ln S".II"lld lu Ill' slllall. Tupugraphi ... s v;try frolll Ihe flal
1,1.1111', ot H.llh.ld'l:-' 1\1 lh,' rugg"d l.'o.JSb or Maninique <lud Guadclullp". A I\:wof
11LL' lik,' (:ul':I alld J;uuaka, h,IV,' rolling hills ;"Ind suhslanti;ll mountain
1IL,· dilll,ll<: i:. mild, rainfall abulHbnl, ;llld soil is f,·rtill'. Similarly, Ill\'
lid)' ::.1.llL':o. III (:"lllr.d AllIl:'rh:a lille the western edge of Ihe Caribbean
1',1".>111 FIlllil (;uaklllal.1 tll J'.IlI,Il11:J, tile istlllllllS exhibits sharp (ullirasts: a specla-
ltd.1I IIIUUlll,lllL IdUg,', hy volcalloL's of 10,OUO feet or lIlore; SOlll,",
lUll,'::'; .lIul Vl'ld.1Il1 jllngks along tile (O;l::.IS, There are bkes ill the mounlainous
dl,·a::. I'lll till lllajtlf Ilavigabl ... rivers. Nur du Ihl:' coasts have suflkient deep,sea!>1I1 .... rh ill "I' tilt: Caribbean hasin, nalure (an bring calalllily Ihrough
vll,klll l',·:" turr,·nli .. 1 railh, and dL'vastating storms.
.'11111,,1 "t IIII' l.::lIihllL·'1l1 S,',l ha::. fur (t;'l\lllfk's COllllll:lndt'd Ihe <.I1!L'lltioll of major
w"d.l 1",\\,,'1::'. TUj!,dlwl with tho: Cult" of tvkxko, it cOlllailll:d sea lallt."s or great
:..Il.llq..',lo.. ill II 'l,rld]lt.". Olll illt 1111.' t.:ulllilial t:ra, 11\1,;' Caribbean provided rotlles uf access
III Sp.lill\ 1111/:"\ Iligllly JlliZ"d NL'w World duminiuns (..IS \Veil <IS milks for S,xll1ish
-_ z





N'I PAln·IWO" (.A:-.I \TII"II· ...
Irc:l<;urc f1eds). The i.c;l;lnds (lII'nic;lu:d ideal cli11l:ltes ror the prodllClioll o(sug:lr, ol1e
o(lhe most llKI :lIive enIpS o(the er... I\s European powers jOl'ke}'cd ror e\.·ollolllil' and
:ldv:lllI:lp.e in the Americ;ls, the beC:lllle Ihe rrincip:lltl)(,;llcr o(
conflict-as l)l\C hislpl ian hns noled, milch like the Mcc!ilerrane:lll Sca.
The sixteenth cenlury discovery o( precious minernls in f\kxicn ;llld Peru
distrnctec! Spanish :1ttClllioll (rom Ihe Carihhcan, which hccame lillie more than :1
g;lteW:l)' 10 the thcll.prosperous l1lninl:llld. Hispanioln, Cllhn, and Puerto Rico
sCfvetl Illcrely ;lS suppl)' Sl;l! itln" and milit;lr}' g.lrrisolls (or !'O}'al ncets IO:ldcd v,'il h
silvcr ,lIlCl gold. t-.IC:lllWhilc, Ihe Sp:lllish crown proved un:lhle to sllc;t:lin ils
ulllllllcrci:d alld politic:ll 1Il01IOpol)'. The nren wac; simpl}' to(1 l:lrge. c;elliemenis
;llld (Ilrtresscs too thinly di-;per"c\.1. nlHlthe econolllic sl"kcs IllO high. Indeed, the
\,arihhe:ln'sc;l or(ere(l:ln inviling tflrget (01" mcrccllar)' privatcers nile! hllccallcers.
Spnin's leading rivals, especially Engl;md, ellcournged ;llld sometimcs oUlfitled
these pirnles; Frnncis I1r:lke, John Ilawkins, and Ilcnry Morg:ln:l1l hcc:lllle knights
of the Englic;h re:lllTl,
Other Ellropc:ln power" l'.sI:1hlished selllel1lellt.s :l" well. The "nglish sci7.ed
f;lll1:lic:l in Ic,r;,:;. The Frellch took the western h:ll( o( J-li.spaniob in 1659 :lne!
n:llllcd it (present.c1:ty Iiniti). II;lving tKl'lIpied northeastern
Br<l7il (rom )1I:\0 to 1654, Ihe Dutch moved onto :l llumher nf isl;lnd:-. nrr the
coast or Vellc7ucla, l.itlle hy lillie, Spain ccded or :lccepted tic l':'lctll loss o( some o(
ils coloniOlI c1:lillls. C:lrihbc:ln holdings bec;lllle P:lWIlS in Europe'1I1 "';Irs, h:lnded
h<lck :lnd (orlh hetweell winners :lnd losers like the proceeds in " poker snme.
By tile e:l.-1y nincleenth celllllr)', Gre:lt Britain emerged as Europe's preemi
ncnt lllilil:lry, cconomic, :llld politic:ll power. lis principnl ohjective in the
Alllcrica" W:1S el'ollt)l11ic-to promole Hritain's cOllll11erci:l! interesl", wllich 1101.. 1
relied 011 conlrnhallCltfnJe throughout Ihe eighteenth century. The l):lsis (or Ihis
:lclivit)' would he strong eC{\Ilomic institution,,: Ihe hesl ;lv:lil:lble in shipping,
hnnking, insurance, :lnd investmcnt cnpita1. In efrect, lhe British were seeking to
rcpl:lCe the:- (ormer Iberian coloni:ll infrastructure linking L;llin Amcric;l 10 the
world economy, Ye:-( (or the most pnrt, the English sought economic gain withollt
tile burden o( direct political rule. It W:lS all wherehy
Europe's chief inveslor :lnd trOlder :lvoided the expellsin link o( terrilorinl cnn·
lrol-with its potentinlmilit:lry cnt:lnglelllcnts.
\,\'hat of Ihe United St:lles? I\s the young repuhlic undertook its qucst (or
geopolitic,,1 stnlus, dOl11in;llion o( the C:lrihhean hecame a m:ltler or nalional
security -hili the n;ltioll's amhition was much greater than its power. In (:lCI, Ihc
Unile(1 W:lS llll:lhle 10 prevenl the city o( Washington (31Hlthe \,Vhite I louse)
(rom heing l!ev:lst:lted h)' Ihe in the War or 1812.11 W;lS nnt a Ill:ljor power
;It Ihis time.
The Unitecl SI:ttes atlempted to assert ils :luthority with the
ill IR23. OriginOllly aimed at czarist Russia's potenli:ll encTO:lchmenls
011 the American Northwest, the doctrine hecame better known (or its c11:lllenge tn
Europe's conserv:ltive Iioly Alli:lnce, app:ll'cnlly plnnning to help Sp;lin reconquer
its (ormer colonies. President 1:lllleS Monroe firmly declared thnt "tile Americall
1 ... (("1111':11 Alllt'lll.1 :lIltlllw t .It 11.1 ...111
...:ontinents, by the rree and independenl condition wllit h they h,I\'I' ........ n1llt'd .111.1
maintained, :lre hencerorlh not to he (..oll!oOidered:1" !oOuhjet,l lor I 011l1l17,ltltln h\' .111\
EurOpeOlIl powers." Further strictures warncc! 1he Fllrnpe:lnc; ,11:.lill ... t lIll II,,·, I
Ille:ln" 10 extend their polilical power in the New v..'llliti. 1\<,; I.lll'l 1'111 111 ,1 1'1'11111.11
slng:ln,lhe h:lsk: mc",sage \\I:l-" dC:lr: "I\IllCr1\.,1 (or Ihr Alllnk.ln... -
III (acllhe message evokell indifre:-relKc :1nd SCOtl1 illllUllilll'IlI.111 11"'1"·.11111,1
concern in HI"it;lin, and cOIl"idel':lhlc symp:lllly in I.alill '\IIlClil,1 \\'illllll Ih,'
United Sialec: the Monroe I)octrine, jillgni.stil. :lllil ns.... ntivl', Il(" ,ll'Ii'.1 t 1'lllt'I ... I"111
ror U,S. polic)' toward 1.:1tin AmcriL:\. )'I't thc Ilatlllll 1.1t ketlll"lh thl' \\·tll .Hl.t lilt
C:lpacity 10 en(orce the t1cdnr;ltioll: it w:\" pH"" t 1ll'i('d wllh. flUIIlIl'Il!." I 'p.II1"'Il'll
induding:l viclnriou.... war ag.linc:1 MC\hl', .11111 wllh ... 11111'.1:1' .... "\1'1 ... 1.1\1'1\
including n frightful (ivil war.
II \Vas not until the late ninclt.:cnth (('nlur\' th,11 Ih,. IJn;I{'d "'r,lll''' \\.1'" le.ld\, I..
t:lke :lclion in the Carihhenll-which rcselllhlcd ,I "EUflll'C',ln 1.1ke - \\'llh tht'I"\lq'
t ion o( II ispnllioln (shared h)' II:lit i amlthC" Ilolllilli<':lll ) ('WI \ .... 1'.1.111' I
wns:l EUTOpenn cnlony. still hd(l pflSq',,<;iOlllll ( IIha ,1 lid 1'11"110 HhO,
held 1:1I11:\ic:l, part o(the ViI gin b,I:11lds, (;rl'nada, and s('vl·l-II ..t rl .. , I "1'\\,11,11 ... 1..0.1,
(plus the lllain1:lnd dominions, ,( British IIIHldll,.,l<; :111(1 HI ili,,11 ( h ,III' " 111'1. I
M:lrtiniquc, Guadeloupe, ;md French (;t1i,lll:l; lhe Dutch hdd ",c\'cl-Il i... I.IIHI ... "III".
Dutch GlIian;l (present-cia), Surinallle) 011 lilt' 1l00·thelll fringe III \1111 Ill.'
1'he"c European outpoSIS presentcd ullwclllUllC limit .... fill Ihe ('),CII I"'C col II ... , I" '\\'1'1
This rael helps explOlin U,S. intervcntH1I11ll (.Ilha'<; \\',11 fnl" llukpt'ntlcn, I' "'1111
Spain in IR9R. The llcsirc 10 expel ;-'1,.lill flOlll Iht' ll(,llli ... ph"II' 11" ,1'lld'l
pl:l)",d n role in the U.S. <lccisinn. After :\11, Spain .IPI'C,HCdlll ICI',e"'!'lll lilt' 111,,'1
reactioll:lT)' clements of Eur(lpt'an .. iel\'. 1\ lllluni,d 1ll1l1l:lfI h\' ..... p.1ll1 ... t••<ll! 1<'1
eve'1'lhing the United d.limetl tn npp,,<,;e, .lIld il rq11 C"("Hlcd ,I I
violatiol1 or Ihe Monrne llfhtrine. POPU!.1l or Ilw I, 1",:1'1101
(ex:lggcrated nccollnts hy Brili:-.h hist(lri.11l pllhlll i<;ls ,llltll,1 ... I, .1111" 1111'" III
the Amcricas) (urlhcr uUllrihutct! to Ihis ("(lllvilliOl1
Ilut Ihe ide:l behind the intervention \ lIflt nnl)' ltll,heLIIt' ( IIh,1; II \\",1'" .d',,,
to :lssert Americ;lll pm,,'er. CA" \\'ill he c..'xpI.1111nl in (:h:-lI'ICI .. , I,nh, \'IIl.lkl'l'" 111
\V:lshington l1:\d long a"sulllcd thaI Ct1h:l would snnwd:l)' hl'llII1)e 1',111 .. lIb,
Uniled SI:tles.) In :T similnr vein. official<,; hrl;lllle dce!,l\" (llUd'lll,'d .tI"'1l1
EllrOpC:lll e((orts to collec! deht payl11en!.<,; (1"01111011l11";c<,; ;"\1"1111,1 rll(' { .1I11,h(·.1I1
hasin hy rorce or nrllls: thi<; f,:l\'e risc tn "dollar diplnm,h 11110111:11 Whll II Iii.
United 'stales :lssumed respoll"ihilil}' Inr Ihe deht p:l)'llu'lll<; <;" long ,1'" 1111'1\'"
would kt..'ep ils gunho:ltc; home, Completion III the Panalll" ("an,lllInlr ... IH'lIglll
cned U.S. determination to converl the Cnribhe:tll illto ,In -l\lllClll,lll hlllli
Wttshinglon's the slnkcs wcre mulriplc·-comlllerciai. ('Ullll
lllll, 1'
tical, milit:lry-nnd unnervingly high, I\nd <1C; we shall sec. thi:- str:llcgr Icd III .1
consistent pallcrn o( U.S. milit:lry intervention" :Ind/or d;llld('"till(' :-lIhICllllg"
The oUlhrenk o( the Cnld \"':lr in the 1940.,; addnl .1 n('w .lll1leu... i.111 tIl II .....
security ...:onccrns: the Ihre:lt o( internnt ional cnmlllllllislll Ilot 0111)' ill Ih(' ht'lI11
sphere hilI nlso in !\l1leric:l's Thc :llllil nmIlUlll,,,1 1':1111111."" W.",
Xt. 1'\1.11\\"'" \"1 "llll'II" tll.\hl.1 \I\II(IIMI
.. 1ll1"'1 ... 1,·t11 .llld well arllLtd.lkd (whh:h du\.·s nul lll",:ln Ih.ll It W.h
.l\.\. III ,lid. '1 ht' Ullikd St.lll·:'" had 111I dIUit:t', su Iht: rt:asolling wt:lll, hut tll fight
1,.I\.k .lr,.IIII ... ' tllc :-'u\'kl Uililill ,llld il" .. 11t'llt puwt'rs, whkh \V"'ft.: ..J..:di':'Ill.'d Iv lht:
1'\"11111'1\\ 111,1 ,jIll), 1,1 bUIll1 all Ih..: 'vV'-'3h:rn d"'lllu\.ri.l<.it."3. 'l'ht:'1 hiI'd
\\ 1111,1 \\\lut...! h\.·.1 1.1VUlik .lI"gllt:d Culd \Var thc-urhb, ;;111...1 wuuld bt'
... tlh\"lll'd II)' .. 1111111111111:...111.11'11..... ') VI llleil klluw Iravch::r'). Thl' mo.::.t drasliL (hul
k'llgn h)' tlll'e,lIl)' 1t};llh had 1''''t'lI ill (tll ..... lkrlin Bluckade, Ill\., Grt:ck Civil
\V.II. 1111' 11,'11' II .1Il..! 1t.llI.lI\ \.,ll.'dIOIl"') and III A:...ia (Iii", Kurt.::lll \, Iht' fall nf
l.lI I'll 1.11t ... 1 t hill.l. ,Iud 1111;' Illdl) ChinnL' civil war). "V,IS I.atill AlIll'rica 10 he
1IIIIIIIlIH'! ( 1111111 1111.' t .•lnhhl·.lll bnUIIII·.t bea(hht':.IJ luI' tht: COIllBllllll.::.t GlllSL'?
\ )1't'l.ttillg linda 1111'" AIllt:n,.\lll gov... tuok repe,ltcd aLl ions within
Iht' rq.!,h.1I III l.l) rq II ..'",=" It'll I"" IL·lldt:lll.. II'S, lb) support anilcollllllllnist n... ,llld
(.. ) lIVl'llllr"w :-."... i.dbl ,llld It'll ol-tL'llkr goverllmenls.
\\,ould l'xll'lld wdl hl')'ulld th,' Culd \ On.... impclus lor
.1 l"llllllllnllllllll.II)' Illl':-.o.'llll· ,tlld l'\l'll lllililJry i11tt:rvelltiull, 11'0111 thl'
l .... ·\\.11,,11 'Illig...... Alluth"'1 I.llUll'lll IUlll:.nlulI i1k·galllligr;ltiull. And .lltl·r Ih..·
,dl,h k... III .... ·pll'lllh,·1 I I. 20U I , tla' ( :.lllhht,.. lIl :llIll' undt'r tilt' lllllhrdia of"hollld,llId
..... '.. IIIIl\ .111..1 1111..' gll.h,tl war llil h'nor. impoverished, alld rdativdy wt'ak,
11.111<'11'" ,,1111" ,II ..'., tl'III.III,,1 ,· ....·,tlll' till' SII.ldllW tlflhL' ufthL' Nonh.
1,,1111111'11'" I.loded till ,I ... l/able 1:.1.ltltl ill lkLt:ll\ber !·lY2 ;Il1d l.hrt:.ll'lIt:d Il 1./1
h/'l/1I11/1l ( III 111"'11.lllillb III FlIglislt). lib an iv.1I signalt:d tht: illt:xur,lbk' duolll ul
tlil' ,111',1'", 1l,IIl\l' pUI'UI.ltlull, ntilll.ltn! .. t pcr:,ulls. divilled .1ll101Ig three
.....".11.11'· gIIIU!,"': <jhulIt:') III <;U,lll.dlll.lkbl·)·, 'I.linu Arawak, and C....ib (lrolll
\vllldl tilL' Ih lI,tlllt'). Un.. hl!:' to d!:'velup sigllific:.lnl trade. lh..,
"'1'.lIl1,lld... ,1111:-'" ttl "Xl'ltlll Iht' ISl.llHJ a", StHlrLt' 01 I.llid .Illd l;Jhur thruugh tilt:
,'//, "'II/I III I" ...·111. illstiluliuns WL'rL' illlpo')l'd upollth!:' nativt: su.. il-t)'.
111.11.111'> \\\'1\' 1tlllnl 101 WillI.. III 1IIIIlL'S and IIdd.::.. Ilarsh 1;1!.>"r and
1.]1)"'IL.d L1lllt.I .. 1 wllh Sp.llll.lllb It:d III IIlL'1I dcdlllJtiun: t1i:.t·asl' ant! dt:bilil.ltion
1\1111...1 lull. Itt:,di/lllg wh.11 1.11t: hdd in sturl'. many fk·d 10 the mUllntains
III ""'.lh.11 lit .... lIt.:'lr ,1IIdllt·t:dolll. As ill N..·", Fr.llIlt.' ami Nt:w England. the
l'UI'"l.llltlll Il'!l vidlill hi vlrtu,lI l'!inlill.llIOII.
II \\.1'" III Il.t· ·,lrd,hl·.11l wlll·lt.' ..1... 1'11.::. tJr.::.1 prolt':.lnl,linst .Ibll:.e of
lhe,' 11.111\ n. III 1'-'1 I ""ltlllill ...1,- f\IUlIt,,·.::.iIlOS :...IH)LkeJ congreg.ltion ill lhl': island
... 1110 'II) ,Ii .... 1111. j I II)' .I,·noull .. 111.dt reeJtllu:nl uf thl' JIIdian population.
",(,,111 \\ ,II d ItII tulllill" d,' Cas.l:-. bqpn his krvent cOllllpaign to protel t the
Ilhll,ill'" 11"111 .ttlV... lllllleer:. .llId ullI,/ueerors. III response to IIlL'SL' ph"',ls. thee I..fOWn
1II1IIII,Ih'I)' ,Igi L'l,d 1\ I lI'gtlbk lit,,· Irl'allll..:l1( of the natiVl.:' popldat ion. Uut 10 protect
l!l,· ,\llIL·IIL.lll ",IIIVL·:.... LI:' <:.1....1:. .tlSLI m..dt: a I.lleful Ihal import
,\111•.111 .. 1.1\\· 1 1"'UIlILL'of IJb,,,·.
:-'1'.llIl.lld lir , I,·.!tlll'd CClltral Allh.:riL..t in 15UI.ln contrast tu f\kxi ...o .1IId
1"'111, It Wol ... 11'11 Ila' ... Ih' ,)1 a lellll,di:II.:d ludi.1l1 t:lllpir..... Indigclluus pt·uplt·:. Iivl'd in
·1 w C"lllr.II/\llh'II(,I.lll.llh,·<.-.lIllJh,:.1Il X7
stahle, aUIUJlOllluliS COllllllllllilil's alld t:llg.tgt:d ill Ifad\.' with UIIl' allotht:r. Allt'f :;Utl
11.<"./'. a rdat ively advullt:l'd civilizaliun appeilrl'd ill the II ighl'lllds uf Cu:ltt'lIIala
1:1 Salvador, and it was grt:atl), inllut.'lIced by Ollllt:L- culturl' IruIII IhL' Vt:r.ICflI:t
Tabascu coast uf M,,·xko. Nahuatl st:ttlelllt:nb Iat,,'!' JulluWL'd. and c1assk Ma)'.lll
culture ill the lowlands or northt:rn C;mlklilahi. The p,,'riut! lrom hOli tu
L.!'. markt:d tht: apex orth... Old Maya Empirt:. as it \\'.IS lurllll'l'ly callL'd, Ihough
it did not constitute l.l highly organizt:d polilkalunil.
'I'h... divt.'rsity ur natiVl' cultures 1IIl';JlIt tllal Spalliards pt'lldratt:d
America ill stages, nut all at Ollce, ;Jilt! t.'<lclt cunqllL' ... 1 retjllirt.'t! th.., l'stJblish
ment of:.t ne\\' government. The rl"Sult \\,.IS ,!eceelllr.t1i:t.•lllllll. f\lurlldpaliliees
assullled day-to-da), authOrity. anJ lo\\'n councils bt:Clllll'
Ihe most important governing bodit::.. Nominall)' under thl' L'UlItr,,1 01
vicero)'s, Spanish n:sidellb of the i:.tlllnllS fUlIcti(llll'd lInd,,'r
order.::. for all intl"nb and pllrpos..·s. All!:,lllpting tu as:'l'I't aullJoril)', Iht:
Sp.lnish CroWll e:.tablished thl' Kingdolll 01 (;uatl'lIl.lIJ (as part 01 lht: \'IU'
of N"w Spain) ill thL' lllid":.ixlL't:nlh u·nhtr)'. th ill 11lL' l:aribl>"'an .1Ilt!
Mexico, tht.' t:hurch follow.... d' 011 till' hn'ls ul COlltjUl·Sl. Secular and
regular dl'rgy, l'speciall)' Francist:illiS and IJvmillic.tllS. luok :\(:Iivl' llarl III
missiunaJ')' efforts.
ELUlIolllic activit)' \ViiS modL'Sl. Millillg \Va.) Irulll till' beginning ,I
operation. The first major export was cac.lU, thuugh Vl'nl'Zud.1 SUtl1l prt:t:mpkd
thi:. Illarkt.'l. Indigo thl'1l luuk uwr as th,· leading t:xIWrl. alld tlterl' \\'.IS;I bllstllllg
... onlraband Irade ill It>bacw. III the 166Us 11ll" l'slahlislwd a fUlIlltohl at thl'
lIloulh of th... IkHzt: River (bkr British I [ollduras 01' Ik-Ii:t.t:), whidl Ihey ll.)ed as a
ba:.l' for COllllllerce in d)'L'wood and ;Jnu for btIl'GlllL'l'ring r.tid:.. BUI lor
the most part, Cenlral Am.... ri....1 was nol a :.ourCt· of gn::al WL',llth, alld II rt:cc.:iveJ
liulL' atll'lltion from tht: Spani3h nowll.
The slldal slnIL·turl' was LUlllrvllnl h)';t 1\\'11 p.ln dill'. ()l\L' dCllll'lll"'Ullsislt:t1 \II
burl'aunats wht):>'" pulilical bas..· was Ih... impl'rial Lourl (l/II,lteflcill) ill
GlI;Jtl·lllal.1. The utileI' cun.sbtt.'d of loc;Jlly burn 1.lntiholdl'rs whuse strl'llgtll rl":.itl..,t1
in IOW1l LUUIKils. At thl' bOllU1l1 wa:. the I.thor lort:..:, ctllllpnslllg ludl.llls :.tml Aln....H1
slaves. There also elllergt.'t.1 a :.lralulll uf pl·ople uf lIlix...t1 m...-iaJ baLkgrolllld:., kut)\\,l1
as ladillos in O:lllral Amt.'rim. whu \\'orkeed a:. wag..: labul'as or smalllanlll'r:. ill tltt:
t:ulIntrysitic anti as IlIL'n.:hant:.. alld pt:ddk'rs in the Iht: ":lld vI
th......olonial t:1"1, appruxilllatdy 4 pt:rcelll \lftht: l''''giull's populatiull was whill' (dllll'!'
Spanish ur creole), about 65 percent was Indian. and 31 p",r...",nl was Illdillo
(including tho:.t: 01 AfriGlIl dt:3lellt) .
During the dghtt:t.'nlh century the Bourbon mOIl.H'... h)' .lllt'llIptnt tn reasst:rt
royal conlrol or Spanish Am.... rka, a muve thai ewrywhere rt,tluct.'d Ihe political
autonumy of the landed <:l't'ulc class. In Cenlral AlIlt:rit..:a a ...untinuillg t!l'dint: ill
caC;JO production and;J precipitous drop in IhL' indigo bctwn'll the 1790.::. autl
the lMIOs b.J to furl her dist;"onll'nl within tht: crl'ole r,lllks. Tht's..· hcigh-
kneel long-standing differences bctwel'll the imperial btlfl·;\uCf:.K)' :.IlId the lu...-.t1
aristocracy, bt:lwet:n the capital and Ihe provillct.'s.
XX l'AWrT\VO· f:ASESTUDII:S Ul/\N(;I IlVrI{ 1'''-11'
Independence in the Caribbean
,,,'h<ll i!' now II"ili, on the !'ide of the island o( llispnnloln, wns onCl' nne 01
Ihe lIlosl prosperous possessions (If Fram::c. The island's originnl inhahi-
lants W('f(' almost cl1tirely rcplaccd hy Afric:lIl sbvco; imported 10 work on sug:lT'
('o;l;lles. 1)llring Ihe I:rendl Revoltllioll. i's residents. including I:-.ndowners 01
mixcd J\frican and European descent. were granted full cili7enship. :-. move th"l
while ('o;t.lle owners rcsented. Iksulling <onflict!' led 10 " w;we o( rehcllinno;. Thi ...
tilll(" Ille sl;l\TS wanletlnot nnly l)crslln.11 frcc<lolll htlt nal illllal il1llcpcndence ,IS well.
l! ndcr the 1c;:ldC'l"ship of Pierre Dominique Toussainl I:OLlverl me. tile
ClIII:-.ili re",')lted in 17q I ,md ill I I tlcdared ll:-.tioll;1.1 o;o\'crcignl)'. This WOle; to he
the sCloml free n"tioll ill the Amcric.l!, ;lIld the fire;t independent black countr), in
the Wtlrld. Allhnugh Toue;S:lillt Jed Ihe rehellion, he W;lo; sd7ed :\Ill! !'ent 10 Fr.lllCc.
",here he ('\'el1l tlall)' died in all oh!'cllre tlungeon. 11 w"s one of his lieulen;\Ilt". lean
J"l'que" l1e!'salines. who prodaimcclthe nation free frolll colonkd rule.
rill' war" hroke up ;lIld dcslroyed Ihe cstates. Land \t'a" .11
firsl worked lollet:livcly untler .1 <;y"lelll tailed Ihe ron,cr. hut individu,,1
a"l'ir:ltion" in the pO"lindependcnce periot.l lCtl 10 the distribution of parcel ..
10 freeholder". Thuo; the Ieg:IC)' of oligarchic landowllers. so pre\';llenL
c1"ewhcrc ill I.<llin America. did llot take ront in independenL Ilaiti. Inslead.
a I"rge 11l1mher nf slll"ll holdingc: rCl'la(ed the e"lnle". "uti produclion
(lecreno;('t1 dr... o;ticallr. IndependelKe g;we pOW('f 10 the hlnt·k ... who still Inrm
;'I hOIl I 90 percell I of the populatinn. " r:,d Ih:lt Itght-skillned lllu!,\lloec: hav('
rescllled .111 .llnng. Indeed, the mlllatluc" heC;'IlIle a prnspernu" JI1I11orit\'.
dinging 10 .111 idenl or Frendl dvili7:llinn nnd "peaking FrCllch on ;1 regular
hasi!'. The Ill:ljorit>' hhllk pOptll"lion. hy l.ontrasl. spnke a Ilalivc Inllgtlage.
Ilaiti:lIl. ,lIltl found sl'iritll:ll inspir"lioll ill lIoclllll, rill ecledic hlend or
l>ahol11ian religions ;Intl CalholiciC:lll. 1\ kInd nf cash.' dividecl lile'
1lIIII.Itlfle." fnll11 the hl:lck". Olll(l l.1110ill helweCll the twn c1clllent" (tn·tIled a
persisling Ihcllle in I !:lilian hi!'lory.
These events hOld complicaled spillover cl(eus Ihroughout I lispalliol;l. Since
Ihe I:Ilc scventccnlh centul)'. coloni.ll nlllhmit)' over Ihe island I1,HI hcen tlivilkd
helwecn h;m...:e. wilh Saint-Domingue (l.lIer renamed Ilaiti). and Spain. wilh
S;lnlo I )olllingo. This pallern 1)('140111 In t1nr:l\'e1 ill 1795, when Spain ceded
Dnmillgo 10 Fmllce ill the !'e;Ke 01 Basel (thus sClllillg one of Europe's endles!--
war,,). Thie; gave Fr:lnce Iit ubr pos!'e"sion of the Cl1t ire islnnd. Whell Ilaili achieved
independencc in IRO'I. h(lwcvcr. Ihe eastern put remained tinder
atllhnrilr. And when Napoleon inv,,<letl Spain ill 180R, the creoles nf Santo
Domingo ro"e up in prote"l against Pr;lIIce-"nd. a" Inral "uhjecls (lf the o-o\."n.
they restored Spani!'h rule over their c(llnn)'. Powers Came :-.ncl powers wenl; this
incipient ph"!'e of Dominican independence rc!'elllhlc(1 a of musical ch"irs_
Plots "nd counterplots emitted for the nexi dozen }'enrs. As insurgenl military
t:llllpaigns gained mOlllentullI in Mexico and Soulh America. Incal leaders of
Snnln Domingo in IR21 declared Ihe independence what Ihey <Iecided 10 <.nll
Within a malin of months, armed forces frolll Iinili invaded the
'I .. ('Cllllal AlilClil .• ,111,1111(' (.111(,1,.· .• 11 ,1.('1
counlr)'. sei,..ed power. "nd imposed:l mililar)' govcrlllll(.'ni. J\" olllht'ir :-.idl· til Ihl'
island. Ilaifinn nllthfJrilies look r;lflkal sleps ahn!i"hing ... I;w!'r)'.
properly. :lnd reducing the mle of Ihe churdl. The 11.liti,ltl IItlllpalilln Ll ... lnlllll
t\\'enly-l\\'o rears. when local p:llriols rin,,11r (111"'('tl Iht' illV.hlclS, Thi ... IlI.HIe I S II
Ihe secolHl elale of DOlllinicnn independellle Ihi<; llillt' 1""111 II.lili. n"t 11"111,'
l:urol,e:ln power.
Ilailian forces mounted lIe:lr ..olllillUllU" lll\,:lSlllll'" .lg.lill',1 tht"il Ilrighl'''l
throughout Ihe and Out of eX:I"per,llipll .lIld Ir-.Il. 1I1ll" CIIIt'lIlTI"'".!'
I)ominican prc!'itlcnt hil uponlhe ide.ll Siliulltlll: he 1('111111\'11 hi'" (1Illl1ll} I" "'1,.1111
\\'hich re"lIllled ...:oloninl rllk from IX"I 10 IR(,l'l. Thio; .Hlinn plo\ol;('t! hillf'l 11f/,h ... r
in II:liti, ,Ipprehensive ahout Sp,lllish powel ..11111 in the I 'lilted ...1.11\' .... IIllll.l):\',1 1>\
<;lICh;l flagrant violalion nlthe IllllTOe DUt..lrillC. Shfllth· .111t'r "'p"il1 \\',10; til 1\,'11 "111
another nalionnl leader pllrsued yel :tnolher c:ollliion: ,1lH1CX,lIilll1 III 1111' lllllk.l
St<ltes. Surel),. Ihis \\'ould protecl the n:\li'lIl lrom II"lhcr inllllO;II'II<' h\
I biti or an)'Olle else. U.S. president (;r"nl C:11Il/lgk "'tlPI'"""" Ill.· 1'l.tIl
thinking it mighl provi<le a homeland fnr AmeriC;1ll ,,1.1\'('" "ccd hv 111\' ( IVII \\.11.
hut the proposal f<lilel! to ohl"in congrrso;i,)n:ll npprO\·;l1.
The Dominican Reptlhlic Ihlls lapo;ecl inl" illt!ep<'lh11'111 I' .11 II ,. l<.! hv lkl.I lll' II ...
citi7ens sun'ered a series of self seeking :lud v;linglnl i, Ill" I .... "111... 1 pl'"lllll'·lil
rlllltlllg them wns LJlises llcureaux,:l di\lator \\'ho rllleel /l'llll III \\.1\
compnrahle 10 those flf Mexico'o; I'f,rf'irin nia'l. 'lnlilh ,11 iFllrigll" ;In,ll'' "11"11111
di .. arr,l}' then'after pl.l/!,IlCtl tht.· FIn lion. whi! h \\lIul<1 e\'('lllu,tlk hnd ihdl tlll,tn
lJ.S. military occup"lifln hy 191h. "lllhl'nill "'''VClCl):lll\ I.... kl'd lik,' ,111111.1.1:,
Independence for Cenlral America
Illst a!' the f"te of the OOtnilliC:l1l Rcpuhlit \\' ......"0 ... trl1llgly ,lflelk.! !>\. 11.1111
C.elltral Americl's path to indel'Cllt!rnce W,I'" h\· ('\"'111 ... III {\k\I\"
(;llld/or Ihe Viceroyally o( New Spain. 111 whit I, i :ellll.11 J\ 111('11\ ,I hellllll-!'·111. J\ tll I
1hc N"po!conic invasiol1 of Spa i II in IHIIX. pr" l "II til i.d ,1\ II hflri Ii,'" .11 f1 I ... t 11l.IIl.lrl .I
10 maintain cnntml nf\.enlral Amcrit:1 h)' .Ill allialllf' wllh 1(/,1111,,\ .uld
Indians againstlhc IIp.''tarl creole.". In IH20 :ld0l'linn ,,1.1 lihl'f,11 < llll ... lilli
linn senl shock waves throughollt Ihe arC:l. alld in Illid IH11 A,:II .. lln de IlIlt I,,,I, '.
declaration of the Plan de Igtlal:l in Mexilo (orled Ihe i..... Ill'. ['.1I1h' 1e.1I11l1:
hy Mcxic"n troops. the sodall)' ulllsCl'vnli\'e 1.llId,lwl1el:-' III ('l'lIll.1!
America <lecided 10 hreak wilh nnw-ratlital Sp:lln; ill 1.11l1l,1l)' 1f{7.2 Ihn 1'"1
claimed nnnexation of the isthllluS In imperi.11 Mexitll. Thi ... I.,,,,'cd Itlr lInly nllt
year, nnd Iturhide's abdicnlinn led 10 illdcpcndcll<.c. (:h,.II'.I" IClllaillnl wllh
Mexic(l. The other slales. (mill ,-osln l{it.1 10 (;II.IICll1.11.1 (cxlluding 1'.111.1111.1).
became the United Provinces ofCenl!"al Amerit;1. 'lc"l'il(' (!i"'lnnl.lntl di".lgln'
l11ent, Central America 10 sep;lrnle i'"c11 fmlll "'p:lill ;111.1 ll"lll
Mexico-in a relalivel)' peaceful fashion.
A!' h:lppened elsewhere. the Cenl ral Amen...lll pnlil il ;11 dllc (lividI'll illl" Iw"
'nctions: Liberals nnd Conservativc!'. The I.ihcr.ll" adn'C:llet! tIll' <011111111.1111111 "'
reforms slarted hy Ihe BOllrhon mon"rchy. The)' c.lllcd Itlr n·... tlll IInll" 0/1 ..11'1" .11
'J{J 1':\ltl IW'1 .. I ,\'>1 .... 1UIJII. ..... t IlAN(;I·.CJVFI{ 1'11\\1·
1'''\\'t'l, Ila' ,dll,lllIVll 1)1 :.Iavt"f}', tllC rnlll(liull ut taXl'S, and IlIe prOJlhltiull uf
1· ... IIIIlIIIIIL t!...:\'t·lul'llll'lll. '['lll'}' drt'w Illdr support from elllcrging prolt'ssional
ILl .... :....·.... , willie alld llldllw. and IrUIIl 1II'pl·r.middlt' St'clors c:xcludl'd from tht' circles
III lilt" l.Ulllt'd tl L'uh: ,Jl ....(y. I.t;'d hy ...·rt"olt: Ihe Cum,l:rvatives
lor (lrdl'l , II11Jd"1 .11 iOll ..llld ::.t,dJilit y. They upheld II i::.panil: inst ilut iuns,
IlL.. I hu r, II . .tlld IIa')' ,'X prl'::'::'l'll .\u::.pi ... JlHl of prngrt·s.\ivt;' rerOrlll.
VI.,ll·lll.. l· 1'1 upit'd III Ihe IH20::., alld thl' Libt"rals at Ilrst appl'arl'lilu ]),IV<: the
UPI,,'I hall'l. 1l'lluIJlltlt-d ill Ihl' Ix3Us lIlldcr the ut Jost-
ICd,td ·.lIfl·fa..1 IlIell/HI ::,wllldll'rd with llU formal l·dlh.:atil)JI. III mid Itl37 he
tldilh·d lIlt' gu.d::. "I III:'> 1I111Vt"'lllelJl lh\:' rl·iJl.\I;l!clllellt ur' tr.llliliun,d judki.lI
1'1' Itl·,luJl Iht" •l·<;tur;'liull ul n:ligiutJ.\ orllt-rs alld l'cdcsiastical privilege, all1J1csl y
1.11' all III ul)[ 1I.llvr.\ il I e:>. ile -:tlld ulwdiellCl' to his autllOrity. Carrera ft'lilaillcd as
Illl' tI'IlIIIJl.1I11 l'if4url' ill l:t'lliral !\rneril';ln pulilka[ till: until his dcath in IH65.
!{UIII,UI I hL'ClllIl,1I1l' lIftili;l[ sl,llL' religiull, priests l'l'g;lilled prult'Lliull
.. I 1I1l' l·lll,...,I.l'>II .... t1 ,/11""0. ,1Ild l'llllt,llillll was turncd OVl'r Itl lhl' dwnh. Tht.:
tllll'·J1I.,ll.llldolll'lllhL' gll,d lJl ami dl.:ddl'd
III 1'lul"Ll Ilid ib...·1 It Ill ......11111 II 11lI1l1 il· ..... lllUdl the Spanish l..TOWll had dUlll', a policy
Ih,1l Ildp"d Illulollg 1111' lhal pl'rSbled 10 day.
I dl'·I.,[ ... bq.!,.lll ,I ,Jlkr lkalh. Bdil'ving in nutiulis of
1)1"gIV.......111.1 dvv,'I"I'llll'lll, I[ley ::'Illlghl to illkgrale lheir COUlllfk::. Willi lhe ft'SI
"I Iltl' \\"dd. lu ,I ... quill' IIII' ll.q'pJllgS o( tlvilizalioll. and tv l)rlllHote Illaleri;d
illq1ltlVl·III,·1I1. III tlutl""k thl..·}' ::.halnl Ihe of tvkxko\ d'·/Ififiro::.. alld ill
p"JIlIl ... lltl'y luJlIl\v,:d tit\' I..·X;1l11jllt' 01 Porllrio Ui;lZ-l'stubli:..lJillg what CI/ll!: to ht'
kllll\\'ll w rl'publit',llI Tile)' t:t'nlralizl'd aUlhority. rigged eJections,
,llld kqJI III power luI' I..·xlendt,d pt:riods of time. They drl'w dOll1estk
I !llllll tllt·I.lJldl'l1 arblunacy alld frulil middlc:·seL·tvr delllellts. Tht'},
hllgnl ,Ill:>.e aJliallll'.\ wilh lllll'ign illlt'reSIS-Brilish. German, Norlh Arneric:lll.
Till')' .11"'0 Illod"llli/Cd IilL' polite: and luilitary c::>lahl \vhkh tht:}' rout iJldy
uwd Itl Jlllilllidal,' till' ,JPl'tI::.illuJl.
11r", p.llt'·llI pI 1"lul I'll :'>iglltlll.UIl :>.u... i,d ,dlt·l.ltiIJll.\. VVhe:rt: (:UJl5L'rV,llivl;"
1.111...·1.11 ,li llll ... li"ll,> Wl'll' ... It',lfl'::.t lliu,llell\ala alld Rka), llll'y It'd 10 tilt'
Ill'.tl"-Il'l.d ·t'lljbt· 01 IhI..' (·lI11:'>l·IV.tlivt·l.lI11ilit-::.. Whert' \Vt'rl' blurred
(lllllhllll".I,>. 1-:1 Sall'a... lllr), d)'llaslit·::. Illanaged Iv hallg 011. proved
II' l'l' ,Ill ,·.'lU·I)1iIIJl, ,I:>' families Ilad managed to t.:onsoHdatl'
lhl'1I Ihl... iliull ill adv.llll ...·. Cl'lla,li[)' Libaal a:>.t·t·nd,lI1cy 0pclIl."d
"PPoltllllitil'S to llIiddll" wtlvr alld IwJillos and led tuthe formatiun
,II Ill"\\, dl"':".
III ,lddilillll, LiIl"lill dUllllllaliuli ::.trippl'd II\(: t.:hurch of puwer alill prestige.
TIll' lilliI', h\ I', \IIlUIlli..: Iule was diminished alld its legal privilt'ges were abolished.
1\'> 1/111' hi .... ltlri;1l1 h'tltdd I.ller wrilt'. -Tht' lll;ljllr rule the dl'rgy had played ill fural
("'lllI,tI Allll'1 i"l hc... ,II lie 11I1Jluf. This W,IS Olle oflhe must important changt·s ever
1<> t.lkl· 1,1.lll· in Cl'lllf,,[ Aillerita..
The llt-JIIis,' of the church lefl all institutioJlal
V.ll Ullll!. II wuuld t.'vl.'lltually Ill· lilled, al Il"ast in par!, by a nt'w kind of Roman
Cailloll' (.'htJlLh ill the Iwl'llti...·th t'l'J1tury.
Et:ullumic lkvdopmellts ill CClltr,d AIIIc:rka and till' C.lrilJlll·all prudu(nl .1
ClHIllllun lknOlllinatnL Willi few exct·ptiun:.. such Cusla Rka, cUlllllril'.\ Ill' th...·
fegilill furged sodelies." As a rl..'::.ull. tIll')' SII<ll'l'd.1 l)1 ddllling
Ext<:IlSivt:.' prodw.:tion 01 t'xport lash crup.\ 011 1.II'14c II/fij/III/fio:>
(a.k.a. h;lCiendas,jiu((/s, t·staln. or plantaliuns)
• J\'lubilizatiull (and cOlltrol) of rural labor for harvesting alld rl..'bkd 1.1:>.k....
" COIKelllraliol1 of land ill very fL.w Iiallds
• Inadequate l'l11phasi.\ 011 subsi.\II'IlCc' farmillg. uM,ally t.trl il·d nul 011 lill}
III i 11 ifu1Itlios
• Formalion of ecollomic and sucial where lu..:al dih'S alld lordgn
Ilh'nl'rS could Jive and work ill relalive isul:ttioll hOllithL' 110:.1 SOdel)'.lt Iargt'
PlantatiOiI sucietiL's Wt're highly Unt·llllal. Iuxul')' ;111.1 IlllVl·fly.
They .\t1rvlvl'd in sEllal[ cOlilltriL's wllic.h Iackl'll till' pOI)ulalitlll and rt:.'sourCl·S to
undertakl' industrial development. They werl' umlt-rdevd'Jped. TIlt..')' Wl..·fl· eco
HUlllical[y vulllt;'rablt' to UVl'rseas lhallgl's in lllal'kt'l ..:umlilioll.\. But lJe,aml' III
lheir inslitutiunal rigidity, lhey Wt'fl' resistant to changl'. Belll',llh SllJll'1 fki;d
appearances l)fhaflllolly.thl'Y could givt' rbe lu volatile dbl"t)llll'lll.
The Caribbean: Sugar (and More Sugar)
'I'he priJKipal crop in Ille Caribbe'\ll w;.,\s sugar. 011,' uftlle ,'art)' I..·xpl'ditiull"; lrolll
Spain brought sugarc;1l1e cuttings frulll lhe Callary all act thai would alkr
llle (lJllrse uf hislvry. Ami ;lIi\:'r the DUl..:h brought Ill'W tl'chllologies frulll Illl'
Brazili;lll Nurtlleastlu lhl' Caribbt'all illtlle lldd-:>.eVl'lllel'lllh lClltlJry. lhe pll,tlll".
lion of sllgucalle explodl'd. II b...·GllllC virtu"lly tlJl' ullly tfUP 011 I3ritbh i::.J.llllb.
l'spedally 13arhados alld lamaka, and it was the dunJiJwlIt crop ill Fl'l'IlCh
lllduding Mallinkllle <llld Saint·1 >olllillglJC (i.l:', 11;lili). Togdhel", UJIUlIi,d [n.lding:.
ill lhe Canbbeall <.It't'uUllll'-d fur to 90 perLellt 01 '1[1 ,hI' (lJlISlllllt'd ill
eighteellth·celltury Europl'. By the 1740.\, Jalll;li(.1 ,I lid Saill(,J)tllllingul' Wt'l"e lIlt..'
world's largesl producers of suga ....
As production illcrl.'ased. th" Ilet'd lor labur becaI Ilt' a[1 Ihe Jlluft' app<lrl"llt.
African enslavement appl'art:d to provide;l soluliun. began the tragic hislolT
of forced migration frolllihe wt'slern t:oasl or AfriGI. Ofllll' 1010 IS Jnilliun J'l·ople
who were Sl'Jlt to thl.' Nt'w WorlJ as slavt.'s, approxilllatdy 5 10 7 million fuulld
their way 10 the Co.lribbc<ln-when: they would work Oil plantat ions, alit'!' Ih\:'
radal composition oflhl' urca, and,ultimately, help to establish l'01ll1111'rdal Jinks
with nilldeenth·celltury Europe and the Ullitt'J Stall·s.
TIll.: [oosdy organized socil'lies o(tl1e Cl'lltury. dUlllill:lled by whitt'S
and small-household ullils, gave way to ;I strictly urgallized alld hkrardli":;11
SOCiety of masters ,md slaves hy the sevelllt'enih t:"elltllry. Prodll..:tiun was linnly
coni rolled by the mother countries. With the t'xcl:'ption of EllglallJ, l'adl Eurupe"ll
92 l'Aln TWo .. STUDIES: C'IlAN(;E nVF.H TIME
(OUlit ry formed it.s own trading compnny; in nddilion 10 Ihe crlsn dc cOlli rotarioll of
Sp;lill, Ihere wcre Ihe Dutch West Indies l.Omp;llly ;lnti the Frcnch CO/llpagllie drs
Isles d'I\/IIhiI1'u'.
A primary cnnseCjllelh·e of these developments wns Ihe crc;llioll of <l rigid
syslcm of r;lclal str;ltiflcllioll. Virltl;llly everywhere pyramid existed:
whiles 011 Ihe 10p, hrowns ill Ihe middle, nnd bl<lcks al the botlo1l1. I\s whiles
returned to l:lIropc ;In,llndians disnppenrecl, the African heritnge became domi-
nant. Tlli,s p<lllern wOllld 11,1\'C long-run effecls on race rcl<ltions in the region and
wOllld sharpl)' (Iisl inguish I hc (:,1 ri\lhe;lll from m,linland areas, stich as Jv\exlco nnd
Peru. wilh lal·ge and persisting indigenfl\ls Pflpulaliflns.
"lllliher result wns the Imnsforrllal iOll of ollce-diversifled systems of prnduc
Iion inlo single-produci economics, emphasizing sugnr for export. Mnst consu III p_
linn llccds had to he imported-from other islands, from Ihe mninlnnd, 0r from
Sp,lill itself. Onl)' on the smaller islnnds, such as Grenadn, were other products (in
thi" C<lse, coffee) more important than sugar. Since mosl oflhe original populrttion
Il:ld died :lIld Spanish sellicrs did not like 10 work with Iheir h<lnds.l!lc delllnnd ror
Ihrough Ihe eighteenth CCIlIIIl'}'.
Central America: Vital Statistics, 2007
POpUI.llion (million,,) 3.3 5.6 6.9 13.3
GDr (curlcnl SUS. hillions) 19.7 5.7 20.2 33.4
GNr/C,lpitil (SU.$.) 5510 9RO ]850 ]11110
Poverty I,lle (% in J.OO(i) ]9.9 61.9 117.5 511.8
Ufe l'XPC(l<lIlcy (ycilrs) IS
" "
The Caribbean: Vital Statistics, 2007
,I .. r.ll AII1('r 1\.1 .111,1 tile (.1111>1''-'111 '1 \
Europe,m demand for sllgnr pl'l"Tllitled many oj thc '>I'uln,> 10 Ill.lkc' I.lq:"
fortunes, which the)' IIsed 10 huild great manorial hOllsl''' ;llld If' 1'"1'1 h,l."c .H\ q'I.IIl' "
into the polilic;ll ,mel SOd;l1 life of Ihe Illolher CfHlIllry. Yr-I I·rellt h ,IIHI H,ill'.h
colonists never fell at cast' on fhe islands. M,lsl IOllgrd tll rTlllll1 IHll1ll', .111,1. 'rl
fllCt. some went b:lck to posilions of power ,nul pr01l1iIlCIHC. II Ihne .11'1'1".111'.1.1
pbnlatinn Ilrislocraq' in some paris of Ihe Carihhc:lll, il W.l" llol .\ dccply n lllinI "Ill'.
Spanish initialed sugar produllinll in S,1I11n I )tlllling" ill Ill1' \'.Id,
sixtecnth century, when Ihe}' .d!>o hegan illll'orling Aflil.1I\,>1.1\'(''>. 1"0,111111"11 ,:1('\\
slC:ldily over t he years Ilnel cxp:lndcd in I hr- dghh'cnt h {('nllli \". 'Ihe I )ll'lll11i, .111 '>"g,lI
induslry rC'ceivcd n suhslalll ial hoo.'>! in tll(' mid llil1('I"('1l111 l 1'111111 ,..1" .1 I,·'.1I1! ,.1
three factors: dvil slrife in (:llha, whkh kd !lOllI(' pl"olllilH'nl 1'1.111(('1 ... 10 1•• IIl',kl Illnl
0pCl"<l1 ions In the l){\llliniC,lll J{<opuhlk; f.l1l' in 1:.111' II 'f', \"11" 11 \\'1 Ii,·\ .1 ... 1.1
ti011 on the conlinental sugar he('t indu<;{ry; and the U.:-'. (·ivd \V.II. whi, II H·dlh c'.!
sugarcane prodlici ion ill l.nlli"i'Hla and furlhcr l"edlllcd [he lHIIl] 'l'lllion. III I he ,'.ul\-
[X80s:l markcll..l"ash led In n IClllpllr:lry dc\.linc ill Jill' 1i.11"\'!'!>I: II .11,.n 1,·... 1l1ll"d III
shrtrp (1lnCeni ration of owncr"hip hC\.·'lU"C only tile 1,lrgl:,>1 111;11 ... wer c ,II,le I" ',111 \ I"".
A" prodliLlion nXflv(,l"ed.l:lhnr lor the h.lI \\'011 I.. nil I'l.llll.lll'IlI·. \\'.1'.
imported dircl..ll)' frolll neighhoring Il.lili. (:lllltinualil1l1 .. j Ihl'> Ifl'lld \\"uld
provoke sClci:l1 nlld wililin 1)(Illlinican l'l,1.11illI1·, IWJ\\CTIl
the Iwo Lfllllliries Iwd Ilcvcr hecll V('f)' gnod: Ihe Ir'·.llllll'1l1 "t 111111.111
workers in IIll' Dominican I{cl'"hli( (lilly lIl<ldc IIHllg'> WOI'>". Anli 11.11Ii.ll1 ·.• ·lill
ment oftcll look Ihe ugly fnrlll of r:H i.d prClllclkc.
As in l.uha, American inv('slors "howing Inlne.'>t ill 11"1111111' .11l "'"g,lI
around Iheturn orthecelltllfY. U.s. military illlcrvcnlilllllrlllli [(Jlt, 1,,1'/21 ·.... dl'.1
this hil<llerall·c1ationship. B)' lhe elhl 01 tIlt' II(CUp:ltion, tWll ,\rn('III.III
crates owned cleven oulnf I he t wcnl}' nnc il/gCl/ins (mill..:) ill the \' 111111 I"V .111, I '1\"\'
oflhe olhers were nwncd hy U.S. citiJ'ell". AIIllI1<;t allllflllllllll.Hl '>11,1:.11 C\I""I"
were solt! on t he U.S. markel. ShoWIl in Hglll e II. 1, I'r' Idll l ll"l1 ( 111111>1" I ,>1 r' '11):1\-

-- ------ ._-
Population (million.,) 9.R 9.6 3.9
GOP (lIIl"nl SUS 36.7 6_' 67.9
hill ion")
GNPlcapit3 (SUS. doliafS) 3550 560 10.950
Poverty fMe (% in 2006) 114.5
Ufe expeC1illlcy (years) 72 60 78

llJOO 1910 1920 Ilno l'Mn I'l"!) 1"(,(1
World Ilank ilnel E(IH1omic ror I alin AmNitil ilnd the Calibbean

Figure 4.1 Sugar Production in the Dominican Republic, 1902-19(,0
( Michael R 11,)lI. 'iu(jm (/11(/ !"(lwn ", IlIr nnfllIlW(/rl 1If'(,"/1I" I nr"I,,';\,I'1. f,·,It •• ,J\· "".t rl"
CWpqJlOIl (,I(lPfWltlI"lrl PIP"". )OOn)
'II 1' .. 11'1 IWl' ¥ 4 A',I ',Il'llll:-' lIL\Nt,j·\I\'l-!t 111\11 'I .. (;.. IIII.II,\IIJt'IIL,1 alld III\.' {:anLJh,.,111 \)5
t 4.1 LllllJhc,J1l wttll United 1920 2000 (dS % of total)
I."". W W,II,,·,
I •.•,., .",,- I h ,t. 111'1"'" " I II nl. \ ,,," 'lly 1(,""" h. !!JU I
HI S>l 12 "6
1),,,,111111,111 I') ·1! jH
HI 'J',)
111I"lIf'.h ... , Ill'll! ::.1<',1<1)' 11"111 tltt: I'J,U", Ihmugh lht' IIlL'n :'>tlarl'd
111,\\,.1,,1 III 1.1h' I')',lh, .\ll\'r l ·Ul>:l. llll.: I )UlIliIl1l.:111 l{t'publJt W;lS lilt.' secolld-
1.1Ig,· t I,,"dl",XI III III lhl' L.lIllJlw,tll. Ilardly :lllY III Ill,· prufils Wl're
J\·lIn k,1 III klv. 1111... W" ... ,Ill l·l\t!.tve t'\..VIlOJlI)' pal ,'x\.. ..
II!I 11.1111 ..... wdl IhL' I)Ullllllll,lIl l{q)uhliL, rdiallt.,·l· 0111111:' J\Jlleric:lIl Jlwrkd
,.v,', t\'" ill T.dllL' '1.1, lltl' U.S. vf Il.titl.lll \.'xporb
Ildlll 1·1 !,<'lll'1I1 III I\),W III rlx 11"ILt'llt ill 1'-)5U and H(l !Kru'llt by 200U;
"'11I1I1.IIh, tilt· U........11,11,' 01 I )111111111\..,111 Iroll1 7\) p,'rc,'1l1 ill IY2U 10 1)7
1"..'ltt·1l1 II} 10UII. ... ullled ,I v,'q' largt· shalt.' 01 l)UJIlillicall
... ug,1I 1'I\ltludi.1I1 III 11Il' l,llt" 1'),IU:o. ,111.1 ",Jdy ..ICLOlllllillg lor Ih..: low
1'1"1"'1111'11 ,.1 III lll;ll "1:1.) lhe ,·.lrly 1\)605. tlte
IJ"1I11lIi.. .I11 Ikl'ubll, h.l ... hdd lh,' !argl·st :titIllation vI tit" sligar
IUlIlIIII '111,11.1 "l'ltL' UlIllnl' ... W.I,> Ihe SOUI'Ll:' 1>1 illlportS ill
I.. ,tll ;lltlloUgll tile 1',II['Op",1I1 UIII\III \\'as llIaking lit>adway the tWl'll
Ill'lll t.lIIlL'III.llll'lId.
Abo mall)' lollt't' lllud,'::.t ill ::.ize.•lIld tht,y uwn..d h>'
Ccntnl! i\ll1eri":LIl:-i. Foreign illvestur::. 10 play all illlport,llli P.lrl ill \'e
production ill NiGlraglia. and Gt:rlll:lllS :Klluirl'd substantial alllUlIllb of
growing Ialll! ill C;uall'lll:lla. But in gcneral, coffce prutlud ion rt'lllallied ill I :t'111 ral
/\nlt'riciln llall'!::>.
Though Libt:ral sought tu eJll:ourage illlllligraliull. Celltral i\lllt'fka
llever re.:l'ivetl Iht' kind 01 IllilssiVt', working-class intlux lhat wenl 10 South
AIIll'riul alill lht.' Ullilt'd l.aUur Illr .. LultiV,lliuII'ad ...:a Il It' frUllI
tlll'mostl)' Intliall and /I/l'sliztl peasanb. Intillll' tlley l'dl ilJlu tW11 groups:
who lived 011 thl.: pl<.llll.l1iulls and SlII,lll plOb n! land (or
cullivatiun, and jUII/(/{aos, day labol"l'l"s who worked ';)1' wag,':'> whik living
IIOlllt' alld contrul 01 SIll:\11 plots 01 lu nd. In eitlltT (ase Ihl')' l",'t'lilll'd dos\'
with lilt' ,'arlh ami rclailwd Ollilol...lks of traditiollal pt:as;lnts, roth..'r 111:111
forging cunsciousness as a rural prolt'tarial.
Although t'ulTt'e prodm:liol\ dOlllinaled Iht' agrkllhural sector III lh,' niH,'
Ct"nlttry, th,' ball.llla trade \VIlllld t'v"ntu,tlly ht'(UIH\.' ,TJlbk'11I:ltJ( UfCl.:lllral
AllleriGlJl ...:ulturl'. It had ,1J1 unlikd)' III IH70 a Ne\V EnglalJd :'>t'a Laptaill
named Lorellzo Bakt:r bl:'gan ::.hiplllents frolll Jalll,lica 10 Ih\.' I:asl of tll\..·
Uniled Slall'S, alld years laler he IlJlllld a partllcr to IOJ III th,d Bustoll I:ruit
Company. III (lw JlI,'alltillll'. another investllleni group beg;ll1 banallas
lu New Orlean::. and crt:atl'd lhe Trul)it::!I Trading :Iud Transpurt COlllpan)'. III
IX")') tht' lwo lll"rged to h,nn :l singular t'llt,'IVrisl'; til" Unitt'll Fruit
COlllpany (UFCO). line began a remarkable chaptt:r ill lh\.' histury ul U.S.
ilwt:stlllell(, penetratiun. and (untrol iJI C\.'11tral Allierka.
UFC( >, or III jmli'l"lI (the fruih:ry), as Cellt ral AInITi ....l II::' (ailed It, established a
virtual Illollopoly ull the productiun and tliSlriblllioll ut" bananas. Through gov
erl1111l.'nt and ulher 1l1,'aIlS, the company a(,!uired vas I traL'ls ollalld iJl
lilt' hut. humid, ::.parsd)' sl.'ulcd Caribbean Ill\vbnd::., I( duminated transpurtation
IU:lwurks and owned a major curporaliun, IIl!t.'fIlalional Railways ur Celltral
America. It built dock::. and pun faciliti.:::., and the Tropied I{adio and
'I'degraph ttl jnllt'nt a large numbL'r \II wi,k-ly kllUWII
as lhl' .. t whik and it eXt:l'kd enorllluus inllul.'ll ....e un lllarkl'lillg ill lhe
Unitnl StaleS. UFCO lokrated and eVt'll encullragt..'d sm:t1I-scale t'oll1pdilion, bill
it was Jlt.:vt'r st:riou::.l)' challl'llgl.'d in the decltles after World War l.
'I'll,' b.llwna trade (f(':Ltcd sucidks and enclave par
excellence. UFCO supervisors and managas elllle from th\..· UJli!<.'d Slale::., lIlUSt
llolahl)' rmll\ the South, and black workl'rs wen: imported frum :lIld til,'
'West Indies. One rt'sllit \Vas to the racial..:umpu::.itiOlI of the lowlallli
popuhltion. Another was tu t.::I'l'alc harshl)' t.'nf'urced racial divisions within III
fril/cra itself.
Th\..' illdustry b\..'callle a gianl Ii.lreign (orpllfatioll. SUlllt' b:lllana lands
remained ill locil hands, but UFCO possesst.·t1 .... ontrol of Ie...:hnology, loa liS, and
access to the U.S. market. Bl'c:\use of natural threats lrom hurricanes and plant
disease, urea sought to keep substantial amounts of land in reserw, These could
2000 1'15U

Cenlrol Alrlericcl: Coffee Clnd
\Vllil,' ... ugar \"a:o. llll' lllldl"'pllit'd -king'" ill the L.lribbl'.lll, lwo produch
II! dtollllllat,· Ilk ill Lt'lIlr,l! i\llll'lica: ullh'l' :lllt! ball:llla::'.
I Ill!.'I,·llL'·... III 111\ldtklllJlI 11'\1111 v,lliall"'ll::' 111 :o.tJu.d !Jut tilt·
"I 11K· ... ,· ... Llt',IIt',l pl.llIl,ltltJll
(:U... l,l I{k.l hq;,111 ..Ill'" prvdullioll ill ::.hippillg I:'Xports
I.. , { 'II tI" .Hld til I:lu Upt'. {;U.II'·IJI,da pnJlllpll)' lollo\Vl'd :'>lIlt. a Ill! b)' IK7U tofft'"
\\.1'" Iht" ... It-,uluig \,,·xlltllt. ,I 11\1::.i1HHl it IH:ld ever L-.I $:lIv:1dor,
Nl\,lI,lglla, ,llld I 1.. lmllll,' ... jUIJlt'd lilt' ,tilt ...· lrad.. ill the and IH80s. Ccntral
:\, Ih'l IL ,Ill ul k,' ""11\ II b II,lVt' nul II> ,'nl>f1lhHI::. -1ll:'VL'f acuHlllling
1"1 1lllllt'lll,llJ Ilt'lll'ullll till' \yUlld :o.lIpply -hut tht')' havt' al\Y,IYs hecll \Jl high
Cl)ll kid Ulll'UlI,llll SJJice it gro\vlI ill the LUtl!
Illghl.llht ,doug til" IIlUUJlt,lill II did Ilut lIecessarily rcquire
u",ulll,lti\1I1 01 IalhlllOlll IOW1.11111 pl',l::',lnb. Tht'['e Wl're :'>uhstalilial l;lkl.:ovcrs in
l ;lIdIL'Jllal.1 :lIld EI S;IIV,ld"l, tllollgh dramatic than what occurred in Porl1rian
MI'X 41. III Nkal :Igll:l, :II It! (:osla Rica, d i::.loGII ions weft' less C1llHlIHlll.
9(1 PART rwn • ClIANr.[ oVEH Tnlr
llSU;llly he ohtnillcd onl}' hy gnvernmelll concession. ;1 fnct which rcquircd the
compnlly to cnler polilils. The piclure is cleM: UFCO provided relatively
SC;l1l1 stilllUhl<i; for Central Alllerk;'l's economic clevelnpmenl, hUI hCC;lIllC dire<..lly
inv0lved ill Illallers of .!olnte.
Coffee ;'IIHI dominatecllhe Allleric;ln ecollomy Iurn
of the (ell 1m}', ;lo,::ollnting for around 75 perccnt of the region's lip
through lhc 19:\05 and 67 percent ;'IS late ;'IS 1960. As a result. the economic
fortunes nf Central Alllcrica hecnll1c extrcmely dependent on the vagaries of the
inlcrnalinn,d lIlarket. \Vhcll cllffec or hanana pril.:es were down, l';lrllillg, were
dowtl. ,1Ild thcre was lillie room for Ocxihlc respollse- since coff"e and h:lIl,1I1n
pl;l1llalioll!\ could nol he easil)' or <juil.:kly convcrted 10 producing basic f(lodstulb
(assul1ling Ihat Ihe owners w;lnted to do 5n. which wns Iwrdl)' the L.ase). II wnrth
noting. IOll,thnt coffee (onsislently ronned a largel' share of exports Il1nll hallall<"ls.
:l1ld UFCO could not cOlltrol Ihe coffee market. In strict el·onomic terms, only
C:OSI;l niGI. 'londur.I!\. and Pnn;lma were "h;lnan;l repuhlics. FI
Salv<1dor, and Nic;uaglla were m;linly corfee countries.
1\ ... \\'ilh (:'1rihllC;l1l coffee·ball<"lna slrategy led 10 heavy reli;IIKe Olltf<'llic
wilh :1 o;ingle pnrtner: the United Slalcs. In the !:lIe nineteenth <'Ind earll' twenlicth
cClltmies, C:entr... 1 Amcricn h<'l(1 :1 flourishing trade with ElIfClpC-(;Crmnnl'. in fact.
W.IS Ihe coffee cmtOlller. But ;lfler World War Ilhe Uillted St;ltCS ;l<;serted it"
!\uprenl.lcv. From Ihe 1920.. through the 19505, Tahle 4.2 demonstrates. the Unitecl
St;lles ptlrch:l<i;ecl60-90 percent or the region's exports ;lllct provklcll a simil,lr sh;lfe III
imports, The North American predominance in intermltiollnl transactions fnde<1 to
'10-(-,0 percenl hy 2000 for lllo"t coulltrics, but the Unitcd SI:lte" still had considerable
cOlllmerciallcver:lge over naticlllS of the isthmus.
\'\'ithin these broad analytical contexls. geopolitic,,1 ;Inc! economic. we now lurn
10 the Ilislorical development of select('d countries. In Cent ral Allleric<l. we f(lctls on
I'anamn. Nicaragun, EI Salv;ldor, and GU<l.ICIll:lI;l; in Ihe Cnrihbean, we deal with the
Dominican Repuhlic. II<"lili, :lIld Puerto Ric0. (We cover Cuba in Chnptel' 5,) Many
Table 4.2 Central American Trolde with the United States, 1920-2000 (as % of total)
1920 19S0 2000
Costa Rica 71
70 67 52 53
£1 s",lv"dnr 56 79 86 67 65 50
(,uatemal.l 67 6\ 88 79 57 35 87 85 77 74 39 '6
Nicaragu;l 7R 73
72 3R
" Pan<llfl,l 93 73 RO 69
S('>UIH'\' W. Wilkie.SIn/lIhO (1IlllNnr,nnflIPnlky(l os Anqp'e\. UCLA I ,11," Afll('liCilnCrnlCI. 19741,
Inll'lIig"nle UIlII, Country RellOlIs, 7()(1l.
I .. ('rllll.,1 1\1111'1" ,I .1I11111w l ,II ,I,h, .111 .. '
of thcse nalions enlCrgcd ;IS pnllol}'piGII pl,llIlal ""I ,111.1/,'1 ('II' 1.1\ C ."1" wt 11· ....11 "II"
li,lie or <lnllihef, <III rclllhc twav}' II:lIUllll\lllnll.lllpl,wn.
;\s Ihc United St;ltes heg<ln lIexing lis Illll.. dc<i; on the intern,IIIIln.1I "U'lh" thl' 11I, •• 1
COn<i;piCUlltlS sign of its expansioni<i;l leal, :1111(' 'I I I III cllo"I .. t •• '1111 .. 1111' I ., •. 111,,1
hetwecn Ihe Allantic and P;lcifil IllC.IIlS. I'!.m.. f"1 ,Ill 1111('Hh ('.1 lilt 1.111.11 1111"'11'1.
Central Amelica wcnl ha... k;l<" Ihe .. n·.'llllTlllh lentlll)' III lX,X IIIl' ,:"\'111
Il1cnt nf Cnlnlllhia :lllthorii'cd ,I h Clll h I on""1 I II IIII I II .1 lIllIle I Ill' '"J:1t I!.
llorlhwcst(,l"n·most provilliC', in wl1<lt b now kllll\VIl ,I" 1',111,1111,' t 1,"-_ .'l1j:llh·('I ..
tended 10 l<lvnr Nicaragua, .llld .1 Ntlrth 1\ ItH'1 il.lll Ill'" In l'iv.',l ,1 l' '1111 ,Il I II, ',I,ll I
exc:w:ltion!\ ill thaI Ctll1nlry. (:Plllpetilioll ,,11111' II' .1l1"lhl wltll 11l,'fill.1I1, I.tll'.llll'
of I R9J. whell h(1lh grnllps rail nlll nf 1ll01l<')' ,llld qUlI
Turn-of-the twenlielh «('IlIIlI'V W.I" III'IlI'II.t'lI' .... Ildl'lllllllPI ",
cllh<llH.C il .. positioll 011 thc wllrlll I\lId III "'III I. I.d I" ,,,I.. ...1" I I"
lullur/lff' of .')ra ]10\1'('" "/11111 1I,.(J.,r" (I HI)j). lilt, III"'." i.lll 1'111,111 ,.. 1 Altll',1 11.,1\"
;-'lahall fOl"lcrnlly Ih:ll n;w:l1 pow(',· W.I<; IIll" k('\, In 11111'1 ".lllllll.11 HIII"'11l " ,
doctrine requiring a two Ill·e,1lI nav}' lnl Ihe llUlled .... "lIet 1111',,,1"11
hec.lme pre"idclll III l(jnl. II W.I" dl·.lr Ih.11 \".",IIIIl,:I"" ""111,1 11I,d I" ,I
A.!o will he explained in (:h.lplcr 7, (-lllllmhl,1 ,1'"lle,l .. 1",1111, .11
'Iruggle Ihnl lIdlllinalcd III thc "\V:lr uf Ihe'l htm,and II;1r" (IKI'" 1'10 \-.11",
fight ing was IlParing ill' l'nd. di"11:lIChnl 'I '\111" III lilll'll I II'" 1111.'1 III till'
provincc of I'<l.n<lllla. 'rhis rcStllled in;l diplnm,lli( Ili .. l<; wllllh /'\('11111.111\, 1'1"
dllced the Ilay-Herr;in TI'C'nl)'. <In agreelllcnt perlllitting the l hnh'cl :-Ot.lIn, tn IHuid
a GlIlal through Panama. The U.S. Congress cagnl}' apprllvnl I IIf' dn, 1I1111'nl 1>111
the (:lllonlhian Icgis!;llure, Illlwillill/4 III CC1lllpJ'llIni"l' 11,,II"II\'('IClt:ll1\'. II I"" ,j
10 alollA.
Thc next step was instln('tlillll, \"!jlh ]{ooscvclt'<; filii knowlcll):,', .1 I 11'lll 11
enginecr named Philippe Blln;lU-V:lfilla "I,I 1'1 I'd 1:1}'llIg pl.u" lnl .1 "I'p, ...lll',1
rebellion in P;lnalll<l. I\s the Ilprising hCAall, lJ.S. <i;hlp" PI,'\Tlllcll ( 1'!'"I1I'I.111
troops from crossing Ihe i"thlllll' 10 !'<In.lm;} Cil}'. Till' rev.. 1t W,I<;.I
\oVithin d<l}'s. \oVashillgton exiendcli rccogllilillll 10 Ihe '1<'wl\' "'<l\'(,I"l'lgll
emlllellt of Panama and rc... cived Hllllnll-\',lnll,1 (.!olill .1 1·lcnlh 'Itl/('II) .1 .. II'
official representative. U.S. senelarl' of ..laic- John 11.1)' anel Bun.HI \'.11"I11.1 h.I .. llh
signed <I giving Ihc llnitc(! SI;llrs conlrol of n lrll null' wltl(' I .111.11/1111" if it werr 1\ pllallt 1':1II:llllalll,1I1 """11
approved the docuTllent. BIIIl:lu-Varilla <lnd :llllllilll .. lr.llion Itlhhvi<,l<, 1111 Jl
turned their allention to the U.S. Senate. where pro Nic;u.lgll;l ....c!lliuu·lIl W,I'
still fairly strong. On the morning of Ihe dc-cic;ivc vole. HII ll:lI I V.mll .• p1.h I,d I'll
each senator's c!c!\k;l Nic<lmgtl:lll post:lgc SI;lIllP (Ic-pit ling.1 V/lI,.H1I1 £'1111111"11, ,Ill' I
I he silenl rnes"age look hol<1. 'I'h" Sen;llc :ll'pftlVnlt h(' 1ll ......\lII .. hv .1 (,/l 1,1 /11,1 I,1:111.
and Ihe die W;lS C<'lSl.
,)X 1'.\1111\\'1'" I ,\ ... I· ... IIJIJII ... lllt\ ,.1 (1\'11< rJi\11
I" .. lllhh..·.1l1 "")
.lhOUI II::. Lap.H:lly lu In,II11I.lill AddlllHlI.d 10,-11::"'d
011 ::"'curily, .lila Ih,· Url';.lklltnvn III 1')l)M 01 nq;oli,llltlil'> IlIr Illl' pU::'::'llJlc
l r'·.lllnn of ,I U.S.· k-d .ll1lil1.In.:OI it ::'l,'llkr ill Pall.llll.1 (whilh wlluld 11.1\," r"lluirc(1 .1
mililary Sud) f.... :1r::. bt'GIIIIl' allllll' llIurt.' Intl·lb.: ;llkl IIll' S'·jJlt.'lIlbe:r
II. 2UOI, VII Nl.'W Yurk :llId \V.l::.hingltill. un,HI::',' lhl' P,III.II11.1 C.Il ..t1
10 I'rovlCk .111 inviling IMgt.'! tur IUrllll'r 1"'rrt)li'ol ... IlIIt ..
1\ dl',-bivt: viLlur)' vllhl'l'0pulist Martin·I'onijv::. 1llllll·jllnult.:llll,d dl',11I111
"llUU4 did lillk- Lu 'Is::.uag" Iht.::s.... l;ulluwlllg pUllll'-::' ::'111111.11 10 tlll):'!1..' 01
his falher, Turrijos ::.uppurtnl lhl' (allst: vi indqlt:lld':llo.." IUf lJut:rto Rko alld
l'x!t:ndt'd :1 hand to Cuba. AI tht: ::.<lllW lilli,'. his illilialnl .1
1'.1ll;l11l.1 C;mal t'xpausioll prujl'o..l Iv dvulJl ... Ill ... t:.!J>allly .Intl .dluw
Imllk, All alJlupl shifl in polilical dire:clioll oct'llrrnl in 2009. as t-nHlOllllC
allxlelks It:t! v01l'rs Iv dt:cl It)l1::.,,rv.Jliw lllttllilllilliull;lil'- Ricardo M.Il'lindli
,\ ttl ,'llgllIl.:t'llIlg. IhL" !'.IIl.IIII.ll:.tll.a! Upl'llL"d in 1t,J)tl .IIIJ UIlIIH..
\1I.lld} hl.: ... IIIII.'.1 111.1)01' IIlI,,·IIl.llilllhtl w.lkIW.I)', Tht.' C;:IlI.l1 Zun...- 1.:"·...11111;· a Je fat:lu
ll ... \'ll'IlI}, .111 .111.'.1 \11 kg.I! ;Illd ,-tIUnlfy,dub prospl'rily 111:11 ::.Iuud ill
,UII'>l'hWIU,> ,,01111.1,>1 lu IlIl.d :'tl... d)'. ()ubid,- Ill" Zoo...-, Pallillll.lllt:vdup"d
lll.ll.h.. I..·II ... II ..... 111.11 1)'J'il'it.-d 1\'IlII.IIAllllTica .1::' a wi lull.': ,h.. pendl'IKC Ull agril:ul-
lUI.L1 ""P"lh .. lally b,IIHlIl:l::.). I'di.l ilL..' nil lilt: U.S. markt:t, <lnd dOIllt'::.lil.:
,-.lIlI11lIll)'.l Ilghlly kJllllalltlnl olig.ll'dl)'. Thi::. ::.ilmtliull (ould nul 1.1::.1 fun;,wr.
II \,.1'" 11./1 Uillil lIt,· J·),5I1::. tll.!I.1 lllllilaf)' Illl'::'ldt:1I1 of Panallla, Culund JU::'l'
:\1111111111 1<:."1111111. nJ Iht: Il)U3 IrL".lly, Thn'" year:-. la1l'r hb
dl"l h "''>ldlnl III .111 .lgrt:'·lu'-lIl 111.11 11Il.!t:.·.I:-'I,.·d Iht.· ,1lI11uily l>.t),... hk 10
tllll,ldnl lJ..... lIIID:n::.. ,tlld soughI 10 nlu.llize: w.lge rale::.
Itll lUl lh AlIll'lI... IlI:-' ,Ind j'an,llll,lIll.llb. BUI 111...- (Iu..:stiun of sovt:r...-ignly \Vas left
llllltl\lLltnl. It l.IIII,- up ill 1956, .llll·r l:gYPl'::. uf Ih..: SUt'7. When
1{ll,lld'l Ari.I!'o billl'II)' Ilrule:::.kd Ilan.lllla·s t.·xdusion frum a 4.-onfen'nc.,..
"II III,' lJi:-.i .... .....l.lfy III JIIIIII froslily Ihal
Illlllni 1I,h..1 t,1 ::.uv,-r,'il4llly UVI'I' Ihl' IJ.lllalllOl Callal ,Iu thL" l'nlirl'
.. il!11 tIl Ill,· l{q)ubIlL III l'.tll.ulla 1)/ ;:Ill)' such suvt:reigll righl::., pow.:r, ur
.lIllh, .,11)· ...
'1,'11"11111" 1'1'0\' .Hld kll HI :-.uh:-'I,.'tIU,·111 )'t:.II"!l. Tht: dYllalllk::. dlangL'd ... lil·r a
d ..,.. II'11i ill 1")6K, wllt'lI 1'.II1.lIl1a\ N.llloll.1I Guard sdzt:d powl'r and
1IIIIIlni ,I I tlhllg 1lII1l,I Illakl HI 1).;,,,11"1 I it'lIt'r.d Torriju:-. I it.'rrl·r,l. Thh
111.111..",1.1 ,1.. ,.If .1 ......·lliull hy til" N,llltHI .. 1<;u.lld ufh"'g"lIlony III polili..:::., III.:d 10
Ih..- \.'111"1 g\'IIU' til lorn},,::. .1::' Iii,' 1I.IIHln'::. ::.lronglll:lll. And it yiddl.'d tuntinuil y in
,>hip, •• :-. ., til III""> klllly wilh Ihl' Nixun. Furd. and
1..llkr III Iht: Urllkd
'1 iI .., 1I1l1lni fill.illy OllU'plt'd .1 tr".lly ill Iht' 197U:-. thaI provided lor
1',11101111.1111.111 vvc::r tli,' ldllal hy IlJl)t,J, Runald Reagan and
1111"'1 "IIl .. d('lliHllllnlllli' agn.:l'lIh:lll a sellout,
blll I pl":-'ld"l1l JlIllIIIY ( ';11 h'r l'v"llluaJly uhlaillt:'d St.·nat..: appruval.
111.11 ....\lld !'>Idll'::.lllt'll Ihrotlghuul 11I1.' hl·llIbphl.'re applauded Ihe mOVe.
Ilow"v"1 Illld!). Lllin i\llll-Il ...lli Id,llioll::' luuk.t pusilivt.' turn.
Pll·.. pIUdUL"'d hulh t:ulIlinuily and t:hangl'. In f\lay 11)99,.1
... k.llure:d k.ldlllg lOIlIl'IIJ"rs frum Iwo prolllin":l1l lamilic::.-
t\1.111111 III,' ::'\111 uf {lm,lr Turrijos, and Mosco::.o. thl' widuw of
,lIIHlh,-r hllllla In .. wh.11 of a ::.urprbt', Moscu::.o triumphed wilh
·1, l)l'IL"11t tlllllL" VIJh·::.,llJmp.lrnl Willi 3H pt:rct'llilor ·I·orrijo::. pl'rcelll for a
1I111d I'Ll\.\.' ...lndld,Ilt.'. (TillS 1I1,lde.: lhl' firsl WOlllan ill
Ill::.lul y III 1'.111..1111.1 ,llId only Iht.' WUl\lan anywhere in Lalill America to
hn.olllt.' I'lnid"lll hy dirl'L1 t:kdiulI,)
11111::.1 illlllll'dl,lk t.!1a1l':lIgl· wuuld conCI'l'1I Ihl' l'alWIll .. Callal.
... III Inl111 IIII,.' Unikd St:Jlt.':-. 10 Panama al the.: cnd of IlJl)9. As
... 11 ..· plud.llIllt.'\llll IIl'l viclufY sl'l't:lli, an: guing Iu shuw Ihat WI,.' C;ln rUIl Ihe
.. ,111.11 .... \H·II .1:-' II", AII,,-rit.:alls Jid." And whilt' tht're was lilllc doubl about
1'.111.1111:1' .. 1..,.. hllh:,,1 ahility lu rndll.lgl· Ille.: W,llt.'l'way itself, Ihere arose concern
Operation Just Cause
fn((IUIl belw...l·ll "dll.lIl1o! ,.IlId till' Ul1lll'll h-\Urld( I:.'d HI lilt.'
5tlOlltll11<lrl OnM' TOllIJtI:, lhl:'d III <In .ulpl,lllt' (1.1\11 .1111.-1 w•• \ (t:"l·d.... t.J Ity
Lelleral M.,llu",1 Alliullio N(JfIega, Widely Icpul",d 10 I)L' Illvulvt.'d III Ulllg-It::J.JIt:'d
corruption. {lIe IIdd abo bet:'ll.l pall lllllt;' aCJl·nt f(1l th... AlJldnl y
IlIAJ.) P,1n,lllldlli,1I1 lMlIOll,.ll'>ll1 tlelled Wll ... 11 IJ1... NOlll·tI,1 1.,IU';\>ltlu
1t'Ill:'W the blldler,ll ,lglt:'t"IIlt.'1l1 lUI opelaiion 01 tht- ',)( hool ot IlIl' 1\1111'11I.,\: ,I U'"'
IlnaTlced ,111ddllt'<kd lldltllllg Ih.., 1.111I1 Allll'l1ldll "'llll,lIy
Alltl AmCllldn leeling dYdln Itl 19tW. WItI:.'I1 Pr",Sld... llt Ll'VHJe II. W
,Ill t.'"Conoml.. boyc..Olllll.1II dlUlI to NOII'-"Y.J.J':> p,,1t ullin- 'W.ll
on dlug':>: The followlllg yt.''::11 NOrle<J" annull..>(1 decllon,> appillt!'lIt1y won by
Guillellllo Endald, leader of an OPPosllloni::;1 '(lVI( (lu\ddl:'- Ihe <.1103101
ship, and the Uniled Stille,:> lightened lhe ':>Clt·W,:>. III Ol'(t:lnlx'l 1t)H') till:' limll
'Op':ld1l0n )USI Willi lltOle 1I1<.l1l 2U.UOU U\, llOup"
<lnd exlt.'nSlvl:.' dell,,1 bumblng, 111'" ov... lwlldnw(1 I'dl1.'"l<.lIlIdll
It.'sisldlKe Lllid (aptuled NOliegd hlllls... lr t.:akllig 11il1I tu M",lnl. Wht·lt.· Itt:' wuuld
s"md Ilial fUI alleged complitlty III dlllg IrdlfKkllllJ. U.':., UlflUdb It:pollL"d Ih,ll unly
IWl'llly ttHee Amellcan had 10SI lhell IIVt· .., but would 1,,· 1011
IlIlUlllg lht;' de.llh 1011101 Pdll.lIll,.III,IIl':> k,>lIll1<lI .. 1.-ullJ",d 'IUlit
\INel.ll hundled 10 [(01l01ll1( ddnl.ll)e,:> hom Ih.- 1l1V,ISIOllllldy
havt' been as hIgh as S2 llllllon,
Mdny Pdl1dtlli!man... lllllldlly AIIl('1It ,UI IIOUI'" Willi bUI
Ut.."'<dlli(' dlsenchdllkd.. As .l lesull of llit.' dlld lilt:' till:.'
Ildllon.:al plodll(l Shl.;ll1l.. by 22 IlI:l(1:'111 lx-twl't:rl 19ts8 dnd t:.Jlty J'J'J I PU111l1.l1
fOI new prCSl(hml. by th£: Unllt:'d llt:c..Illll:.'d hUIlI IJ
peICem In IIl1d 198910 17 pelumlill M,uth 1991 All Oppo,>IIIOll p.llly Ihl:'
plt:'Sldt:n1 of wllh mtlll£:Y laulldt:llllV llll' 1t"'HJI:" lhtll
Ihe h.::td lIsed 10 jmtlfy liS IlIth... III'>t pl,'(t:"
100 "ART TWO e CAS I· STUPlfS: CHANGF. ()VFR '1111.11'
\Vhatever might portend, olle fOlet rell10lined cT)''''OlI-deal':
1'00n:lma\: CC(lIlOIllY remains Iighlly interl wined with thOlt of the United
For mllch of its histoq', Nicamgua has been a pawn of olltside powers, especiOllly
the United Stales. During the nineteenth century it received unceasing Oltlention
fmlll Olvaricious advellturers. many of whom sought 10 huild Ol canOlI. and il
cndured the brief bUI ignominiolls presence of \OVilliam Walker. The pallern
would continuc illio the twentieth
Washinglon developed a strong dislike for Jose SOlntos Zelaya. the chelator
who h;1(1 slOlunchly resisted foreign control in ncgoliOl(ions over <1 G1Il0l1 route. In
1909 7.dOlya (lrdered th(' exeCllI ion or two North Amcrican ;1dvcnt urers. Secrcl3ry
Geographic and economic considerations had long stimulated interest in Ihe iclE'i'I
of an intcrocei'lnic 101lie Ihrough Central America. Having failed 10 discover a
system of lilkes and rivers connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbe<ln Sea,
plannels and visionaries pondered the possibility of an isthmi<ln canal. Because of
its extensive l<'Ikes and the San Juan River, Nicaragua seemed a natural site for the
canal project and in late 1849 Cornelius Vandelbilt and his associates sc<:ured iI
concession from a liberal government. Intrigue lapidly thickened. Cosla Rica
claimed jurisdiction over the proposed terminus at the eastern end of the loute
for the canal. Hoping to block their U.S. rivals, the Bfitish supported Costa Rica. By
18S3 Conservatives had gained power in Nicaragua. and. without conceding
territorial rights. they chose to take sides with the British.
Frustrated liberals turned 10 Ihe United States for help. What they got WilS
William Willker. the glib and intellectually girted son of an austere. frontier-fund",-
mentalist f;unily from Tennessee. As a young man, Walker studied medicine in the
United Stiltes and Europe. then took up law in New Orleans. Under a contract with
the liberals, Wetlker hired a small army and invaded Nicaragua in 18SS. He seized
one of Vanderbilt·s passenger vessels. won if quick victory. named himself head of
the armed forces, and senled in as the country's authoritative rule!.
The U.S. government took a permissive view of these developments, openly
tolerating intervention by a North American citizen in the affairs of i'lnother state.
Wi'llker staffed his forces with veterans from the 1846-48 war with Mexico.
accepted Sllpport from V;mderbilt's business competitors, and invited migr",nts
from the U.s. South-who brought slavery along. Opposition mounted from the
Blitish and from Conservatives in other states, however, and Walker was driven
from power in 1857. He tried to return and met his death in 1860.
Thus ended the -Nation'll War: an event with long-lasting implications. It
discredited both the Liberals ilnd the United States and helps explain why the
Conservatives stayed in power much longer in Nicaragua than in other parts of

of SI:lle Phi);tndcr C. Knnx <!ellOlIlHcd i'.da)·.1 .1" M. I hl'll "II Ill .. 111 .. 1,11\ "I III'.
nnd cxpellctl rrolllllw \ lnll,·.1 .... III
U.S. support for nn :lllti i",elnya revolt hC'lped ron e Ill(' prr"idrllt I" rC'-IJ:lI
Fin;IIH.:ial Ch:HIS ensued. F.llfllpe:lll hegall /klll.ln,llll/: p.l),llll·lll 'HI
their dehls. In dcspcrnl ion. the new prcsidenl. ( ·orlscTv.II iVt" 1\, I, flf" Ili.I/ .. l ... k,-, I ! III
Uni!c.:d Slnles 10 send milil:lf)' nid In pnltect Norlh AIllC'rH.lll ../,In'lllli, 1111,'1,.1.
rrol1'1lhe Ihre;11 ofdvil war within NiGlr:lgll:l alHll"··l'\.I"IHI ,1<" 1'f1"n 11"111" .111,11"
inhahilnnto;: or the repuhlic" Prco;:idcnt \VilIialll I I"\....nIII '1 .111 1'1<11111'11\ .11"'1,·'1< 11,·,1
Ihc nl<lrincs. A pl:lIl fnr li<; .... ,ll r('((IVel}' nhl.I"wd.1 gll.II.lnl/·,· 11'"11.1 N.,\\ 1"11
hnnking cOIIglomerale. whit.h received / pnll 01011 he n.11 HIII.tI h,lld, .In, Ilh.. 1,111".1\
as sccurily on ils invcslrllClll. l'olili\.dly ,llIo! C<,,1l1l"IIlI••111y. NII.II.I;, ... 1
hec<llllc OJ fllll.nedgcd prnlCL!orate of 111(' lJllil,'" """1 It.., '1111<' "'lhllll'HI 1.1.r,,1
\1nlil 1933.
In the mid 1920s .. di<;pule nr,,"e over 111(".. lIlcl1tl.1I '.11\, '-"''''''11 1111 I fl1llo,1
:-'t;1teo;: imposc(llhe Irll<;l}' Allolln Pi.l:! ;111tl.lgll-nllo <:111'''' \1"'" 1'1'\ "HIlIII' 1"1" II' 'II
,\" :l rcqdt of Ihis ("('IllI'I"lUlli"c..1 Ilher.11 ll.lll11·d 111.111 Itlllll·.l.l ..... h .1".1 I,••. lIllt
president in and (":1I1ed fm wilh,h.l\\.11 "I II ..... /1""1'" lilt' Nn\ 1,,,1
hnllkcrs h<1d alrc3c1y rCltwt:rcd Iht'll inn·... 111l("1l1. ,lIul 11,llIkltn Ikl.lll" It, ...·., ..II
wns ;1boul 10 proclaim Ihe Good Neighh",. p<lllcy. III 1'1\\ Ihe 11I.11111'-" I,ll
BUI Olle I.ih('r:ll activist. J\llgu:-:'lo (:csar :-'.l1ulillcl. rC'lll<;l-d I...111111,' 11\ lilt'"''
A rcn'cnt patriot. n 11.ltion"li"l. ,lilt! a ..od:-.I modcl.1I('.
waget);t ;lg:lin"l U.S. inlervclltltlll .'Iltl t"II.lI"'I.III"11
As he g:linell :l wl(ksprc:ld popular follOWing. Ihe t IllilC.! "11( ... \\ UIII(d .lbolll Ih,·
presence ofleflist<; .. mong his sllpporler" nnt! deplored t I 1\.1.1I11l(·... III 1"111 111 Ih.
CiHllpaign against him. Aftcr the dcpartllrc (If Amcnl.111 1111 ••·... \,IIHhIH'
llle{'t wilh S"c<1sa in onler In p{',ltl" Altt'l 11\1" 1'1 .... 1,1, 1111.11
p;tlace. Snndino <1nd hi" Iwo milit<ll)' ,..des were .,rllcd hv 1l11ll<H111Col "III,"'" 1tl,I
exccilled. A genuine natioo;11 hern. !-i,IIHlirll' IHm' hn .IrnC.1 In.llIYI ..... \\",11
The Nntioll:ll Cllnrd therc:-.fter hc.... allle Ihe d<l11l i11:-' II I 1<\1\1' IT1 II .11.'):11.111
politics. At ils he;1(1 wns (;cn('l",11 An,I ... !a<;io r I.It ..... m"I.1 (,.11. I." .• 111Ihl" .. ·.
Iyrant who had given thc order t(1 ex.... ""l(' I Ie- ('\'Cnlll.llk Illl .. I ',.h .1' .. '
and took over the pre"itlellcy in 1937. Alllas... lllg ,m CllOll1ll\I1" Inllllllr 11'1 111111",11
;1nd his f;tlllily. SOIllOz.n promoted Ihe nat inn's et <lllPIlli\. gl ,,\\1 h. "1l"llU·.l ,dlr.llll 1"'-
with the Innded elite. and as"idllOllSlr culliv,lled Slll'\'j'll 11'1111 lilt' II ..... ):"\'·111
Illen!. lie \\'as shol by all nssassin in 1'):'6 anti l'Il"lwd I" :1 hn"l '11.11111 Ihl' ,\ Illn I' .111
coni rolled Pilllallla l.ilnOlI /.one. Ever graldlll rc II" :-" 111111/:1'" 1.111111 .1111 h "I II 11111 111'·11 I.
U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower "clll hi"'I'el""IIl,11 <.Illg,·'lll I,. Ily 1'1 '..1\" III'
dictator's lire. Somoz., nonctheless succlll1lhed.
The family enterprise ('ndurec!. The cider son, Ill'" I )ch.wk. WIII1
rigged elections for presidenl in 19:'7. A II"Il"ted L11l1il\' ,1"""\ 1,llc. Ikllt' .... hl\ k.
nssumed orfice in t963. Power then passcol.llhe ""Ill. ,\n., .. la"'I" \'lllltl/.1
Deba)'k,:l West Point gr:ldualc 111<; lalher. hC.I.! ,,{ II ... N.lll"ll.d (011.11,1
Sclr*seeking :Inc! corrupt. Slllllr):!a clamped .111 ll"llll lldl' /Ill Ill!' '''111111\, hill
The William Walker Affair
IO..! 1't\wrT\VO 0
...·\' ... vlll'lIllcd thvug,htflll Nkaragu"lIls by his excesses. Particularly unsdtling,
WCfl' rlllll\JfS that Ill' l'xtral'tnl massive profits from the rel."onstruction of Managua
alkr a devastating earthquake ill I
Thc l.Ulllpktl' uf represciltativc institutiuns meant lhat effective
(IppuSiliull to SOlnoza could tah' only one form: armed resistance. In the 19605
a gUt'rrilla lllt)vl.'lIlent Taking their name 1'1'0111 Augusto Cesar
Sandinu, divt'rgl.·llt l"ur(l.'s combincd their erfurts to form Ihe Sandinista Natiunal
J iUl'ratiun Frunt. I\ftl'l' years uf bilLl'r struggle. the SOllloza regillle suddl.'nly
in 1(J79.
ill 195Y (:uba, Wasil illgtun now confrontcd a thuroughly 11l1We!Lomc
dl'vl'lol>illl'rlt: llle triulilph ura leftist revolutionary movement. Given the logic of
Ih...· Cvld \'\'al", this was a thl'eatl'ning-and potentially unacceptable-turn of

The S.llldinistas prodaillied two broad policy goals. One called fvr imple·
lIh:lllatJOIl ul an "indepl'ndl:nt and nonaligned" foreign policy. which me..ll1t no
1lI1)l'l' SUblllis:.ioJl to the Unikd States. The other envisioned the creation of;\
w11lixed l"l.tJJHJJll}'" ill orcla to ;Khieve balanced development and socioeconomic
jmti..:l·. Tlw}' abu atlackl·d sll(h fUlldamental problems as illiteracy, health care,
and h) education. Their economic task was paradoxically eased b}' the
1lI.lgnillld.... \If the Sl)Jlluza falllil}' fortune, which included about 20 percent of
l.·ulIlllrfs cultivabll' land. This made it possible 10 nationalize these holdings
.wd ulIdt'fl.tke 'Igr"lriall rdonn without provuking diehard oppositiuJl from an
landed aristocracy,
Thl.' llloCW gOVCl"lllllloCllt at IlI'SI recdwd t'ncouraging signs of illtl'rnational
The}' solicited help from the United Slates, tinder President Jimmy
(:arkr. wI IV initially rt:spvll(kd with a $75 million aid program. Far more sub-
:-.Ialliial support GllllloC from \oVestern Europe-especially western Germany,
hall..:...·. and Spain. Tht' Suviet Union extolled the revolution and intensified
(virtually IIUllexisknt) culllll1erd,d tics. but offered little hard-currency assistance.
In the llieantilllc. the Sandinistas wdcollled approximately 2500 Cubans (the
1.\llJnt W.IS carcfully monitort'd by the CIA and State Departmenl)-doctors,
sclluul!l'achers, sallitury engineers-to help raise basic living standards,
Cuhan JIlililary, police, <llld intelligence pnsonnel also arrived to protect the
against what the Sandinistas (,llld Cubans) were convinced would be
attacks frolll within and without.
Euphoria did not last long. In the United States, the Republican Party electoral
platforlll ur 19XQ furmally Milrxist Sandinista takeover of Nicaragua:
and tlit: I(cagan administralion thereafter launched a campaign to undermine the
Sandinista goverJllllent-imposing a trade embargo, authorizing clandestine CIA
attacks, and resorting 10 psychological warfare. Perhaps more important, the U.S.
gowrnllll'llt supp0rlt:d and funded a counterrevolutionary exile army (k.nown as the
cOlHmanded in large part by fonner Somoz.a army of-ficers. Although the
COlltras llll.'t with limih::J lIliJilary success. they forced the Sandinista government to
spcnd half of its tutal budget 011 defense. Partly as a result of these factors, the
" 0 Central America alllllhc Carihbc;1Il 103
t'conomy went into serious tailspin. Output declined by tl perct'nl in 19M7 and M
percellt in 1988, when innatioll reached the unthinkable h:veJ of 33,000 percent!
III this context, elections took place in 1990. With lJ<lnid Orlegil as their
candidate, the Sandinistas confidcntly anticipated victory. At the head of an
opposition coalition (UNO from its Spanish initi<lls) was Violeta Barrios de
Chamorro, the widow of a distinguished journalist who had been assassinated by
somocisla henchmen in 1978. To the surprise of most analysts, UNO captured 54.7
percellt of the vote, against 40.8 percent for the Sandinistas. At t he urging of Jilllllly
Carter (present as all international observer), Ortega made a gracious concession
Chamorro proclaimcd all end to the fighting and, at inauguration,
announced an "unconditional amnest( for political crimes and an end to the
militar}' draft. Shc was nonetheless unable to consolidale her political base.
Assisted by over $860 million in direct foreign aid and more than $200 million
in debt write-offs. Chamorro's ('(onomic team managed to bring down inflation.
but overall growth remained sluggish. Unemployment rose from 12 percent ill
1990 to 22 percent ill 1993 (with underclllploymt:nt alTecting anothl'r percent).
Now known as rccolltras. former Contras engaged in occilsional sk.irmislll'S with
demobilized Sandinistas. kJlOwn as raompas, bUI the two sides accepted a peace
agreemenl in April 1994. Sporadic clashes nonelheless continued, as the n;ltional
government proved unable to maintain law and order in the coulltryside,
The [990s drew attention tu political issues. A series of
reforms in February 1995 reduced the presidential term from six 10 five years,
placed a ban Oil immediate reelection, and-in an efforl to thwart long-standing
traditions of nepotism-prohibited the president from being succt:eded by a close
family rdat ive. Barely meeting these conditions. the election went to f\ rnoldo
Alcm;ln Lacilyo of the right-wing A!iallza Liberal. follOWing year, Aleman
took steps to advance lhe puinful process of national reconcili::lIiol1, reaching a
final agreement wilh the recolltms and coming to terms wilh Sandinistas over
property confiscated during the 1980s. In early 1998 the International Monetary
Fund approved a second major loan for structural adjustment of the economy.
Things to be looking up.
Then came Hurricane Mitch in October pouring torrential rains down
on Nicaragua and leaving a staggering toll: nearly 3000 dead, about 1500 missing
or injured, and at least $1 billion in damages. Aside from the economic and human
costs, Mitch inflicted political damage as well. Aleman failed to call a national
emergency, bungled international relief efforts, and displayed an awesome level of
overall incompetence. In the meantime the Sandinistas were faring lillie better,
since party chieftain Daniel Ortega was publicly accused by his stepdaughter of
child abuse.
Amid a swirl of rumors, the two besieged leaders, Aleman and Ortega, reached
a political compact in January 2000. Their transparent goal was to secure the
dominance of Nicaraguan politics by their respective parties. They called for
constitutional reforms that would permit reelection, which Aleman favored,
and establish a single-round system of elections, which the Sandinistas slippOJ·ted.
The election of November 2001 went to Enrique Bolailos Geyer, the candidate of
Aleman's Partido Liberal Constitucionalista (formerly AJianza Liberal). Shortly
after taking office, Bolanos broke with Aleman, who was placed under house
arrest on charges of corruption-and later transferred to prison. With only
modest support in the legislature, however, Bolanos was finding it difficult to
lead. Seeking international approval, he backed the U.S. position on Iraq in
early 2003 and eagerly signed on to a U.S.-Central American free trade treaty
later in the year.
The Sandinistas mounted an impressive comeback in 2006, as Daniel Ortega
won the preSidency (under the terms of the pact wilh Aleman) with 38 percent of
the vote. Two years later the Sandinistas won 94 out of the 146 municipal elections.
The country nonetheless was highly polarized. The poorest nation in Central
America, Nicaragua continued to face a precarious future.
EI Salvador. Nicaragua's neighbor to the north. faced similar periods oftunnoil. As
in other countries of Central America. oligarchic control eventually took hold
during the nineteenth century. A series of legal decrees paved the way for the
usurpation and consolidation ofland by a tiny aristocracy-Ins catorce, a nOlorious
clique of families (which have meanwhile expanded in number and
size). Coffee became the leading export crop, commerce nourished. and from 1907
to 1931 political power rested in the hands of the patriarchal Melendez clan.
Peasants did not accept this situation passively. Angered b), the loss of land,
they staged four separate revolts between 1870 and 1900, The movements were
crushed. but they carried a message: like the zapal;slas of Mexico, the cnmpesino.(
of EI Salvador were willing to fight for their rights,
In May 1930 a popular throng of 80,000 held a demonstration in downtown
San Salvador against deteriorating wages and living conditions. The next year an
idealistic landowner and admirer of the British Labour Party, Arturo Araujo, won
the presidential election with the support of students, peasants. and workers.
Somewhat naively, he announced that the Salvadoran Communist Party would
be permitted to lake part in municipal elections in December 1931. Exasperated by
this prospect. the armed forces dismissed him from office and imposed a right-
wing general, MaximiJiano Hernandez Martinez.
Peasants broke out in rebellion. In late January 1932, as a chain of volcanoes
erupted in Guatemala and northwest EI SaJvador, bands of lndians with machetes
made their way out of the ravines and tangled hillsides down into townships. Led
by Agustin Farabundo Marti, a dedicated communist who had fought alongside
Sandino in Nicaragua, the peasants murdered some landlords and plunged the
country into 3 state of revolt.
Hernandez Martinez responded \\orith ferocity, Military units moved on the
rebels. and the connict took on the appearance of a racial war, as Indians-or
anyone resembling from Ihe government .11Ia... k. IkIWt't'll
10,000 and 20.000 Salvadorans their
The events of 1932 senl several llH'ssages. le:lrncd In t ily
bred revolutionaries who might lead them 10 destruction. Indi:lTls ht').::lll II' "cd:
safet), by cilsting off indigenous hahits and dOlhes. On Ihe politicil kvd, Idll"'"
concluded that they could slill cultivate following.. ill rur,lI e.. pe<..i:dly III Iht'
absence of a reformist alternative. The right drew harsh lessons of it!' owo: Iht' W,lr
\0 deal with popular agitatitlll was hy repres..ioll. :md Ihe WOl)' tn 1ll.lilllain M'lI1111\'
was Ihrough mililary rulc. \"'ilh Ihc conselll and hlc!'o;ing IIf Ifll.'nt" .1I11l\
officers held the reillS of govcrnmcill llntil 111(' I?70s.
A reformist challenge f1nnll}' camc from 100;(0 N.'pnleon l1uOlrl('. v..-lw llluntl('d
the Christinl1 Democralic Part}' (PDC), A!' m.lrnr ofSnl1 Snkadnr (IQ(vl 70),lhl'
dynamic and articulate Dunrte huilt up a slrnng following Olmnng Ihe intdlclll1.d".
professionals, itnd other urb<ln middle-sector group!'. The 1'1)(: hOle n lOllllll1'
men! to peaceful reform through c!eclnrnlmeau!-. Though DII,lrle lllny h.wl' \\'l\1l
the electiol1 of 1972. Ihe<llcit r;lllt mililar)' IllnH'd I"IW('T (1\'("· Ifllllll'
of its OWI1. Colonel Arturo Armando Molina. I)1I:lr!C hlllle;elf W,l<; 11111" 1"1111('.\.
tortured. and exiled-hut he ditlnOI lake III Ih(' hille;.
Conditions worsened f(lr the pe;l"anls. eXI'orh wert' Ihrlvlng. hili lhe
poor were suffering. Aholll HO percell I of Ih{' peClI'({'livet! in Ih(' nHllllf}'''uk..111.1
hy 1975 ahoul 40 percenl of the pcnsants hnd 110 land al nil (.(lmpared 111111lk I.'
percent in 1960. Increasingly unahle 11\ gain In Ih(' Mlil. lhe ((/l1lll('qt1•• "I I I
Salv<ldor were gelling re<ldy 10 rehel.
Reform-orienled options during lhe 11J70s. 'rhe eleClnral tll.HI W.I"
proving to be a dead end. The 1977 election was tighlly coni rolled hy Ihl' lllilil.llV
and resulted in the presidency of Geller<ll Carlos Ilumht.'rln Homero. whll l'n,
(ceded 10 legalize repression IhrOllgh ul aw III defcnd ;111d I'llhlil 01 <It'l -
foor an alternalive means o( public expressioll, many dissidellts Illrtlf'd 10 "1
apolitical groups lhat SOllglll nOllviolenl rOlllc:- to l h.wgc.
Sometimes organi7.ed b)' exiles like J)u:lrle. Ihey found support .ll1d o;lill",ltl"
from a revitalized inslitution: Ihc ROrn:lll l,,,I!lnlic (:hmch.
The reawakening o( Ihe church proved to he on(' of the IlI1Isi dewl
oplllents of the time. The trend went hack to 1\\10 evenls: the Sc(:olld ECtllllellll,d
Council of the early I960s (Vnl ican 1J) <lnd a conference of 1.<11 in AllleriCnll hi.o;IH'I'"
at Medellin, Co!olllbi:t, in 1968. Serving a pl;ll fornl (or Ylihcral ion I lilt'
Medellin conference denollnced capitalism ;Inc! Ctllllnlllllism as ('tlllal af(rollh 10
human dignity ;1I1d placed the hlamc for hunger and miser)' (Ill Ihe ridl ,Hili
powerful. To redress Ihese inequalities, Ihl.' hishops Gllkd 101 lllOIT edllt ,111011,
increased social awareness, and the cre<ltion of ro""mir/rulo til' /1m." small ):1'.1....
roots groups of Catholics.
These events had a profound illlpad on the el.desia!'tilal 111 II
Salvador. then under Oscar Arnulfo RomerI'. repre!'<:ioll lll(lunll·'1.
the church eventually acknowledv,ed, in l{IHllero\ own word.., "Ihe l,l'l' lilt
insurrection ... when all recourses tn peaceful lllean:- hav!' Iwcn {'xhall'h'tl N,.
1,lll' iltltlllllll' III viull'llll': in JlJHU Ihe an.hbishup himsdfwas shot dead in the
latllnlldl I,f Sail SalvOI,lllr, So Ill\JI,:h for politkJI reform through theological

III .., ul .1 lilaiitiull guvernment, things took a lurn fur the
..·. Iknutlll(:illg all dissidenls as right-wing officers and para-
IllilJt,uy '\!l'ath .. bR inleltsilkJ rcprl'ssiull. Killings continued al lhe
biting rail: III lunu per Illunth, The cahinet resigned in prokst, but the minister of
dd..'lIw (;,·lIeral lost- Cuilll'miu Carda-clung to his government post. The
libl'l,tl Wllig lit tIlt:: Chrislian Iklllu<.:ratic Party defected from the coalilion. Now
oIl'I'"',ll lllg llndl..'lli.dlly the bdeilguered Duarte took OVt'r as head or
Illl' gOVl'J'lLllIl'llt and aIItHHIJlCe:t1 a plan for land reform.
'1'111' \Ippu:.itillli tll,'n lliuved ulldt'rgruund. The IIlUsl impurtant org:lJlizaliun
W.t:. till' hlr,lbuJldu Mani National Liberalion Front (FMLN)-named for thl'
ll',ldn tlltht' 1932 uprising. Inlak four AlllL'rican women-three !luns and
,I I,I}' WIll kIT IIII:'! wilh brutal .. kat lis. TIlt' Carter administration vigorollsly
lhi" .. hust, 01 Illllll,lll rights. and Duarte promised an investigation, In
",LIly 1')X1 Ihe- H......lgan :llllllillistrati()l1, more cOIKt'rned with Cold \,\'ur :lllti-
l'UIIlJllUlli"tll lhall with changt' or hUlIlan rights, softened the U.S. demands.
By Illid ,\ kw luw rankillg lliemb.... uJ the National Guard were impliL"ated
ill III,' lrillll"jiut tlll'fL' wuuld bl.: Ill) s.... riuus plosecution. With tacit support frol11
lit,· g"Vl'f!IJlll'lll, thlls tlte I't'gillll' illtefllatiollal furor:
\.... L'lt· high ill lilat Duarte, a Notre Dame graduate and a
I,LV'1IIll" II! U.S. poli<.')'1l1akL'r:.. would rt:alizL' thL' reformist programs designed to
Illldvlllli :>Uppl1t'l hll" thl' J\'larxi:.t-Lellillist guerrillas. In fact, OlwrtL' was less
dl...·dIVl· ill S.1l1 Salvadur thall ill Wushillgtun. FMLN fighters were highl}' dis-
llplillnl .tIld ll..'t'l'ly L'lItrl'llchnl ill ZIlIlL'S Iher had ,,::o!ltrulled for yl;'ars. Duarte's
gUVL'lllllll'llt did rl·distrihulL' :.igllilicallt chunks of farmhIlH..I. but he could not
di:.plall· llll' "ligardl)' tltat had 1ll.ld.... EI S.t1vador's gap between the ri(h and
pvur ,IlJlllllg tlte ill lhl' Third World.
U.S. publi,' ul>illilitl hL'LalllL' a lllajur factur. Ih of early 1983. tht.' Reagan
wa:. supplying tltl' SaIV,ldl)/'all rt'gilllc with $205 milliun in ecu-
IIOlllk' aid .I1111 $26 lllilJiull in lllilitary with higher requests pending in
l.;rowillg uppusitiun to the U,S, aid came from congressional liberals
;trld rdigiotls espedalty the Catholk Church, stilJ incensed over lhe 198U
killing LlI lite luur Alllt'riGlll Catholk wumen. 'fhe intensity of U.S. oppOSition
(tluld b..· ill tht' humpL'r stkkers that read "EI Salvador is Vidnam in

'I'll .., batlk LUJItillued ill Ihe Salvaduran countryside. FMLN guerrillas made
p..... iudi..:: raids. Aided by U.S. lIIilitary "lminL'rs
(not called "advisers," to avoid
assudatiUJl with Vietnam), guverlllHt'llt furces conducted sweeping sean.-h-and-
d"Slroy VillagL'rs and peasants grew fearful of both sides. A decade of
lultlillllUU:> lighting rcMdted in :.talenHlk. It also led to the loss 01'75,000 lives,
eb:tions ill March kd to a decisive triumph for Alfredo
tltt· l"llllSl'!'v.llive ARENA parly willt 53 percent or tht' vule, Many
.\ .. CL'lltlal Aml'IX:1 alld IhL' Cariloul',lIl tll7
U,S. policy in Central America prompted a great deal of public contro.... ersy and debate in the
1980s. Top, cartoonist Tony Auth satirizes President Reagan's position and the hesitancy of
the U.S. Congress in voicing opposition; bottom, Ste.... e Benson dramatizes the left-wing
threat to U.S. interests, (Reprinted with permission of Universal Press. All rights reserved.)
observers believed that Cristiani, an athletic playboy without political experience,
would be merely a puppet for right.wing forces. Mouths after his election. six Jesuit
priests were brutally murdered. apparently by a military-sponsored death squad.
Cristiani solemnly declared that his government would capture and prosecute the
assassins. but little was accomplished. Once again, a rightist regime was paying
scant attention to human rights.
Even so, Crisliani agreed 10 negotiate with the FMLN under the supervision of
the United Nations. In early 1992 Ihe government and the FMLN signed a historic
agreement for peace and reform. The FMLN agreed to lay down arms in exchange
for reforms in political and military structures, including a reduction
in the role and size of the armed forces and a purge of flagrant human rights
abusers. By December 1992 the movement disarmed its guerrilla forces and
became a legal political party. and the FMLN established itself as the country's
second· largest political force.
Subsequent elections resulted in three straight victories for right-wing
ARENA candidates: Armando Calderon Sol in 19911, Francisco Flores Perez in
1999, and Antonio (Tony) Saca in 2004. Not until 2009 did the unthinkable occur:
Mauricio Funes of the FMLN won the presidency with 51.3 percent of the votes
(and no major charges of fraud!). Even as a new day dawned. the ARENA faithful
continued to lament the dangers of communist takeover. Echoes of the Cold ''''ar
continued to reverberate throughout this tiny and beautiful land.
Guatemala has a long history of strongman rule. After Rafael Carrera died in 1865,
Justo Rufino Barrios established a twelve-year dictatorship (1873-85). and Manuel
Estrada Cabrera followed with a twenty·two-year, iron-fisted regime (1898-1920),
the longest uninterrupted olle-man rule in Central America. In 1931 General Jorge
Ubico seized power and immediately launched a campaign 10 crush the fledgling
Communist Party. Instead of relying on coffee planters alone, Ubico built a
tentative base among agrarian workers by abolishing debt slavery. A national
police (orce maintained law and order. As Ubico himself once said, have no
friends. only domesticated enemies."
A wave of strikes and protests led Ubico to resign in July 1944. He was
replaced by a military triumvirate. and this in turn was ousted by a group of
junior officers. Thus erupted the October Revolution of 1944, an event that
Signaled the beginning of a decade-long transformation.
In 1945 Guatemalans elected as president Juan Jose Arevalo Bermejo. an
idealistic university professor who proclaimed a belief in "spiritual socialism."
Arevalo oversaw the promulgation of a progressive new constitution in 1945,
modeled in part on the Mexican charter of 1917. and he encouraged workers
and peasants to organize. Industrial wages rose by 80 percent between 1945 and
1950. Arevalo pushed education and other reforms as well. But the going was not
'I • <:clltr:11 Amcril:l :11111 Ihl' ('anhhc,111 10')
easy: during his five-ye;tr lenn in nff'ice, Arevalo weallH.'rcft !11l th.lll !W(,llly
tWO military revolts.
In 1950 Arevalo turned the presidC'llc)' 1,.1\'('1" 10 Colonel 1:I(oh" Atll<'lll
Guzman, the minister of defense, who Icd;l center-left (oalilinn in Ih(' C"lnlloll'
of that year. A central figure in the Octoher Rcvolulinn nf 19/1-1. Arhcllz dC"vdlJ'cd
profound social concerns-partly at the insistence of his wife. tvlari;1 Vil:lllllV.1, .1
wealthy daughter of the Salvadoran elite. "rhell:;'. ;tc\.-epll'c1 cflImllunisl <;upl'orl.
both during and after the election. hut he was a reformcr at he.\l"l. Al hi" 11l.1II):1I
ralioll he spelled oul his hnpcs for the cOllnlry's fllillre:
Our gO\'crnmcnt pnlpnses If) marth to-.w:lrd Ihe ('.. (lo"m"
ofGualcll1ala. and proposes Ihrcc (undallwIII,,1 nhjC<:lJ\lc,;: hI Cllm(',I ("llir (,ulnl r ,.
from a dependent n:llion Wllh :I S('lIll-("I,I,lnl<11 ("'(,nnlllll)' I() <Ill {'Illm'IIlII •• II\
independent country: 10 COil vert r.u:llemal., (rum :I h:ll k\".ud ..... tlllll)' Willi .1
predominantly fcud:ll economy inln a 1llOf.lern capilali';l !it:l""; :llld III llI:1k(' Illl'
tral1sformation in:l way Ih:1t will r:li.;e th(" <'I:lnt!anl ).:o1C':l1 m.I';" "j
our prople to Ihe highc.;t Icw'l.
To achieve thcse goals, Arhenz !>aid. f,;ualelll,11.1 would l1ec(lln tlil
local private sector. -in whose hands Ihe fllnl!;t!llCllt:l1 c(onolllk ,1d ivit Ytil lhe
Foreign capit;tl would be wektlna' so lnng ,I" il rc.;pcdcd (,llalelll.ll.lli
law and ·strictly abstains from inlervcning in the "nn;tl ;tnd pnliliC:1111k.-
Finally, the president dedared. (;ualem.ll;l wOlllel emh.lrk 011 ,I proW.11ll Ilf
Arbenzset quickly to work. IIe aulhol'i:;,.et! nl a jlllhlic pllfl 011 tll('
At1<mlic coast and the huilding of ;tn highway. lie I..Il1lvin....·tl lhe
legislature to approve an income lax-:I w:llC"l"ed dnwll versinll of.\ mild 1'101'0.... 11.
to be sure, but the first in Gualemalan hi:-tory. lie I""shed rill cxp.llulcol pllhlll
works and the cxploitation of energy rcsotlTces. illcluding pclrn!cUI1l.
The centerpiece of the Arhcnz agend;t agr:lrian refllm1. Ell.l(lcd ill 111111'
1952. lhe bill empowered the government tn expropriate only 1IlKlIlIiv:lIcd pnr
tions ofbrge plantations. AIII,lllds laken were 10 be p;tid for int\\fcnly 11\,('-)'e.11"
bonds bearing a 3 percent interest r:lte, ;tnd lhe v;t!ll;tlion of land \Va, In Ill'
determined according to its taxahle WOl'th :lS of May 1952. f)ming eighteen
months of operation, the agrarian reform distributed 1.5 million acres to SOIll('
100,000 f;tmilies. The expropriations included 1700 a..:rcs In Ar"<'ll'l
himself. who had become a landowner Ihrnugh Ihe dowry ofllis wife.
Almost immediately, Arbenz :lnd the agrarian reform ran intn a !>('I"lllll'
obstacle: implacable opposition from the United Fruit Company and frolll the
U.S. government. La Imtera had obvious for resisting Ihe reform. The
company held enormous tracts of land in Guatemala, RS percenl of which W,l';
unused-or. as the company maintained. held in reserve against natural (.11,1
strophes. And in arranging tax payments, UFCO undervalued il ..
holdings. (On the basis of lax declarations, the Guatemalan governmenl in I,)r, \
offered UFCO $627.572 in honds in compenslllinn for a sei ....ed portion of l\rf1pcII\,;
1111 1'/.1(1 I\,\'l'" i 1\:-.1 ... IIJIJII:-' (JlANl;I'OVhRTIII.II·
Ull I,d I,dt l d 1110.: Ihl: Slah:.' I ":Ullutt'fcd with a d"'llIand fOf
'l> 1r"X''', I,X,ll)!)
W,1 ...1ling\l" I W.I ... lin"'ply iJiVIllwd. Sn fdar)' orStatc John j:oskr alld his
III ( 'IA 1)11 I fur l'X.llllp!l:.', bUlh ":<Ill1C rrulll a New Yurk law
11I111 with dml' lillb Itl Unilnl FruIt. Thl'" cUlllpall)"s Wnshingtoll lobbyist was
11111111.1'> l U!UII'<lIl. ;t prOlllllll.'llt hl\vYl'r who un duse with
I IWIlI1l1Wl'l ',> Illl .... alld uf stalt', General \iValtt'r Bedell
"lIlllh, 11111, ....:11 01 h.'" IlIlo.'r.:.... Io.:,J ill .1 puSilillll with UFCO. lor...
1111(10 ,,1.1111 Ih,Lll p..:1 hllw"'vt'r, W<l .... Ihe anticommullist duct rill ... dt'vdopeJ
plllt,,)'III.II..,,·r... \\'1..'1'''' pmlullg .1 hard antkullllllullbl lim: in wilh
I ,11111 1\/1'1'11".1. 'l'lll' 1<1\) 1'-;ll"1 ul 1'.1'17 h.ld bid tht.' gruuIldwurk rur <.ollcclivt.' actiOll, or
"" th..- llllll ..·..! hllpl.'d, <,"ullIlllunbl adv.IlKt"s in J....ltill America, whether
IWIII \\Itlllll III wI[holl!. III ,,·.Lrl)· 1'J53 Juhn Dull\.':::. was dead)' wurrit"d .100ut
1.11 Lll A111..'1 I...1, hl' :"Ild. It.llIdlllon... ¥ .1r,,' :::,ulllewhat cOlllparubk' lu conditions as
III,,·)' III ( IUIl,I III lilt' Ihirti\::::. \\ht:n thl.' l:Oll\lllllnbl muvl.'lllenl \\'a:::. gelling
... 1.11 k .. 1 . \Vdl. il h',,' dUll'l look \JUI. \W will wakt' up :::,Ullle morning and read ill the
111'\\">1"11'"'''' 111.11 Illl·r..· III J\lIlC'rica tIlt' kind uf thing that
h,II'I'\·llnl ill (11111.1 III 1").1').· 'Ill\' k:::.t \\'ould "um..' in Guat ....
III (..(, l.uhll ..... I...tlld 1'ulk:::. bruthc'f:::' Ih,,' Arbl'llz \)fbcillg
- .... 11 .... 11 u'IlIlIIlIl11,>lIl and 1>1'.111\11,11 II a thre,ll Iu Ih.. Uniled ,llld to tht> free
\\.It Id .It 1.11 lultl\,.llnl lh.11 d..:k.11 ill (;U.ll .... llWI.1 might k.ld 10"
[,tk\'\lV\'1 "I I!ll· 1',111.1111,1 Colll,d, TIlt')' \'I.trlled lh.11 if(iu.1lt.:mala rell, thl'lIthe resl of
( .. ·L1tl ,II :\llll'II\,1 IIl1ghl ;..... h'dl (in keqllllg wllh the so calJ..:tI domino theory).
i'lL/I tIll' 1'1111\ 11',11 ,lgr.ln.111 IduIIIl. as Daniel or TIJI.'
Nt'II' I,'"d,'/ w,t1I11'd tll,ll would ll:.e Ih.... program as a
II. j.-,•• Lill • lI11lllil ut (;11.1h:01.1I.1. \Vhaln'l.'r his inlt'lItiollS, thl' United States insisted,
,\rlo\'111 W,I" ju.. t .1 Ilir Ih",
III IlJ:;1 tltl· UIlJltd dnidl'd tv <It...!. Jolin Dull\:':> l...d.l
.. III tll\' (. JIg,lllizallull III i\1l1l'riGIIl Stales (OAS) [v brand Guatemala as
IIH' ,lg\'111 III ,III \':-,11',1 lJ ..·IJ1i.... phl'riL pllwer (lh,,' Sovid Union) and [hl'rdure subjl:'d
I.. l.lIlklllVI' .lllivlI ulllkr thl..' RiO Treaty 01 19·17. Although I.ntin Americall
k.llk, .. illtt-qlrd:.llIOll, t..:k:lrI)' realized 11l;;11 U.S. intervention
W,t .. 111.....t} .. Iii.... cr.1l.ked dUWlIllll dUllll.'sti..: uppO.:.ilioll and turned tu
1:,1,>1 hit·, 1(1\' Illr !'>1ll.1I1 :LfllI:., which Wl.'rl' t'n roul1..' by J\'1:ty 1954. Ihl.'
.Idlllllll:::.lralillil dl'lll.lnding. ill ilh.. rl'asingly biulli lallguagt"
1111 U.S. prnpcrI)' in Gualcmala. of coursC.'. United Fruit.
II.IVing 1:lLlnl tl) gel (lAS lor inll..'lv... ntioll, thl' U.S. guvernment
uplnl lor ,,-owrt :It.·lion. The;: CIA organized ::In exile invasion under an obscure
1 (;U.,I ..'lll.lbn culunel, Castillu Armas, A rebel column of a few
hUlldll'd W.I:::. the burdt'r in neighboring Honduras. The)'
.1Ild dir...c1nl by Ihe CIA, whiLh up and operalcd a rebel radio
:::.1.1111111 .llld plUvldnl a ft'w Wurld \,\':If II fighter planes to strafe Guatemala Cit),.
llll\ler .111.I"k II)' thn,,' plalll.':::', :Il1d (oll\'ill(t'd that a largl' army was <tppruaching Ihe
c'lpilal. Arhel1z lost hb nervt' :I lid gave up. The Annas rd)d:. 1'0111..," intv the
t.::lpital ullopposed.
The nl'W governlllt'llt purged cUllllllunisb ,l1ld nldical natiunalists, I"l'wr:::'l,d
tilt' expropriation uf United mal dutifully signed a lllulual P:ll'l
with the United States in 1955. Mission .111 ('nallt Americ.lll
republic had bet'n brought back into Iill.... by;1 cht'ap anJ dllll"'llt CIA upc:ralion.
The United Stales waS strongl)' denounced by I.atin Alllc:rk:lll fur
intervention in Guall.'ll1ala. and tu thb da), the relll ... <t ul
q'niGII U.S. action. Even so. the rate orille Arbenl regime wnuld as a
10 n,ltiOllalbl leaders who contemplated dlallcnging
Thl' 195/1 coup marked n turning puint ill GuatellJalan his1lJI1" II virtually
eliminated the lorcc:s of the political center b)' and
Arbcllz). So the counlry had only a Icrt amI a right, and the righl \\'.IS ill cOlltrul.
Coff....e vtlll:r landownc:rs. ami fuft'ign .... and Iheir su'--':.idiark:::.
regailled their puwer under Ihl' prulectiun uf right-wing millt'
Individu.d rulers Gllllt" and went, but thb alignlllt'nt until I .
The nlorl' the changed, the mort' til..: th,,' sam",.
overthrow of tht" Arbt'llz gUVCf!lmt'lll W.I:. ;Ill tlllllnou:. :-.ign 1.)1 Iho.. l.'
who ft'.tn:d l'xpanding U,S, inlerVelltiun ill Llliu Allicril:1. II uJlt'I\"l1 )'d
autl..· example or unwelcume llIl'ddling in n:giul1.d Yt'l tht' palkrn \vould

TIlt' slratcgh: pusition 1lI,Ide the bl.lIld illlp(lrtall! tu llll' Ullilt'd
Siall':-', c0ll1111i\(('d b), Iht: t'arly lIillt'lt't'l1th cl'lltur)' [0 kelo:'Jllllg Eurupean
from il1terwning ill Ihl' hemispht..'rl·. Anarch)' and h"d prulllptcd Ihl' Ullikd
to inlcrVl'Ill.' al various limes, Frolll 1'116 Iv 1924. U.S. Marillc:, IXCllpit::l1 [h",
I)umillkan Republic (;IS wdl as neighburing Haiti). A Naliunal \V:lS crl.'alcd
10 light gUl'lTilla bands. Amvng 11Il' lllOSt brilliant disdpl ..·:. til' the American
vt.:cup;l(iun lor<.e W:lS Rafael Lconidas Trujillo. ;111 soldkr who wuuld
cvclltually become one of tht' most ruthless diet,l[urs in lhL' hemisphere.
Th;lnks to the stimulus of World War 1, which bousted prices lor expurb,
l'CUllOlllic cunditions illlprowd in tht" Duminican Rcpublil' timing [ht: Allieriean
ut.:cupatioll. U,S, troops strengthelled thl: "ounlry's .. lLpgrading Iht:
t'duc;Hion;11 SYSlt::lll :lnd imposing control on publi..: IInant.:es. Critics
beg;lll tu complain about the "dumping" of inrt'rior U.s.·ll1ade products on Ih,,'
local market and abuut the general disdain Ihe invacll'rs for local citizens.
An agreement between the United Statt:s and Dominkan leaders ill 1922 led
to the formation of a provisional government. Twu Yt':lrs Inkr, t'k'ctions gavt.'
puwer 10 I-lorado Vazquez, a rcspcctc:d politician of long slanding. Yd in 1929,
V:izlJul:z made the error that has plagu,,'d so many Il'.1der.:. III Latin America's
hislOry: he tried to rl'vist" the constitution so he could run (or office agalll,
A rcbellion erupted, and Trujillo presented himself as a candidate in lhe 1930
elections. Wielding his power base (the National Guard), he made clear lhat he
would win at any cost and claimed victory with 95 percent of the vote. He quickly
began banishing politic<ll opponents from the scene. The future belonged 10
As with so many dictators, Trujillo exploited the country's resources in order
to amass his own personal wealth. During the 1950s the avenlge annual growth
rate was R percent. rln impressive performance by any standard, but henefits failed
to reach lhe general population. Much of the nation's income was stashed in
foreign bank accounls, while peasants and workers remained woefully poor.
P<tradoxically, economic prosperity heightened contradictions bel ween Trujillo
and his coterie of sycophantic supporters: the more he look for himself, the morc
discontented his collaborators became. The most egregiOUS offense involved his
person;l!lakeover of the sugar industry: by 1957 Trujillo controlled more than 70
percenl of the 1l<11ion's production. In 1961 his formcr friends and cronies. n0t his
enemies, slaged a coup find masterminded his assassinatioll.
Free and fair eleclions in 1962 led to lhe triulllph of Juan Bosch, a former
journalist and social reformer who sought 10 confiscate and redistributc Trujillo's
l<lndownings as part of a program of agrarian reform. His efforts at improving the
l('It of the masses aroused discomfort among the traditional clites. who saw his
in nov:llions as dangerously communist ic." A military coup ousted Bosch in 1963.
A cnunten110vemcnt then sought to reinstate him as president. The resulting
connict led to a civil war between the armed forces and the pro-ilosch "conslitu-
tion<1lists," m<1inly workers and students.
As the struggle intensified, the United States under Lyndon H. Johnson grew
fe<lrful Cuba" and took over the country in April 1965. The invnding
force consisted of 22.000 marines, a conlingent whose size amazed even American
officials on the scene.
To justify its action, the U.S. government tried to engage the participation of
other countries from Latin America through the CAS. Favorable responses came
only from Paraguay and Brazil, both under right-wing military rulers. The Johnson
,ull1linistration's allempt to form an peacekeeping force" not only
failed to legitimize the intervention, but also discredited the OAS as a whole and
cont ributed to thc subsequent debilitation of that institution.
The U.S. intervention led to the formation of an interim government and,
eventually, to elections in June 1966. Victory went to Joaquin Balagller. an ex·
Trujillo official and favorite of the United States. With full blessing from
Washington, the l3alaguer government implemented a number of important
developmental programs. Housing was built, land was distributed, and educalion
was strengthened and improved. Austerity programs reduced severe problems
with the balance of payments, and, to assist with these and other challenges, aid
from the United States climbed to more than $132 million for 1968. Agricultural
production rebounded and foreign investment responded. Economic growlh was
4· \.c1Ilral America and lhcCalihlw<1ll 11'
The Dominican armed forces lIndcnvcnt llloder<1te reforlll, and its most rc(,ll
citrant clements were dispatched ;'Ihroad, oftell on ficlitiolls diplornali..:
Despite poverty and deprivation, the transition townrd democracy conlinl1cd.
Elections survived minor threats in 1970 <111d in 197H. whell the armcd f"r({' ....
thre;'llened to anlluJ the resulls, bUI on holh occa,<;ion." the outcome was eventllallr
allowed to stand. Balaguer's opponents won the elections of r97R <lnd 19H2. hill
bounced back to win three .subsequent times-in 19R6, 1990, "lid 199'1.
After Balaguer finally retired from public life, partisan sCill:lhhling ("<11llC tn
characterize the political process. The elections of 199(, reslll1cd in lrillmph fm
Leone! Fern;ll1dez Reyna. an able and charismatic politician who Ilonelheless f:lt I,d
opposition majorities in both houses of the legislat lire -which gleefully par;lly'll'd
executive policy initiatives. Elections in 2000 led In vicl0ry fflr lliplliitn ]\!lcji:l. wllo
presided over the collapse of one of the country's I:lrgcst hanks, ;"l SGlIH1<1 I th.11
discredited 1110St of the political class. Despile resistancc frolll within his \IWll
party. Mejia insisted on running f("lr rcelecti01l in M:l)' 2(l(Jtl.Aflcr a highl), I h.llgcd
campaign, he lost by a wide margin 10 hrn:indcz Re)'lIn, whn was rcdl'l"kd
presidenl in 2008. Despile spurts of economic grcn\,th, the 11<1linll f.lll·d
significOlnl social and economic problems.
Like other island nations ofth{' Caribhean, Ilaili fcllulldcr the long shadow III tht'
United States in the twentielh century. As the second rcpllhlk ill the '\111('1 It ,'''',
independent Haili faced many challenges. Political life was plagllcd hy inst.\hililv.
From 1804 to 1867 Haiti had onI)' ten chiefcxeclltivcs. Frol11 IK67 tIl 1915 IIH'rc
were sixteen presidents, with an average term of only three }'ear.... And frolll 11)11
(0 1915 H.. iti faced olle of its 1I10st ch<lotic periods. during whidl tililC :-.i\
presidents mel violent deaths.
Confronting World War I and equipped wilh "doll:1r tile I Inirt'd
Stales occupied Haiti in 1915 and slayed until 193'1. This W<1S a filii SC<1!c mili!.lr)'
occupation. U.S. authorilies aholished Ihe <1rll1y and replaced it with a ll:ltiofl.ll
police force. A cadre of American technicians and bUre<111CrOlt ... tll0k over the
financial administration of the counlr}', ensuring prompt pa}'lllellt of all foreign
debt obligations (especially those owed 10 the United States). New puhlic works
were initiated and old ones wcre repaired, but the majoril}' of Ihe pnplll<lliflll
regarded the foreigners with smoldering resentment.
One reason for this feeling was dismay over the loss of sovereignty. 1\.... :In
occupying force, the United Slates look over general administration hUI, In
particular, the management of the customs hOllses. As a malleI' of f;KI,
American financial experts would remain in Haiti until 1941-seVCll years after
the departure of tile mililary garrisons. Another reason W;lS thc Ilwrked preferelld'
of U.S. officials for the mulalloes, whom the)' brought to power ill ;1 V:Hicty 01
ways-including the superficial election and reelection of 'stcnin Vincent " ... pn'
sident during the 1930s.
Ii<lCl:.t depiction of Haiti as a naive. inept black child formed and reflected U.S. attitudes
dLwut lIlirit<try intervention, Occa::.ioned by the political and economic crisis of 1915, this
Cdrtoon expressed the hdplessncss of Haiti-through the caption in for something
fluw!"-and Uncle Sam's determination to take charge, (Hanny, St. Joseph News-Press,
1<) 15. of the St. Joseph New:.Press/Gazette.)
III k h.ll..k.....d by Ille 11,liti:.l11 Cuard (.I:' tilt' pulice fon.:e
W.I:' kllUWll). IltlSlnl 1I1l11.111u prl'sid(,Jll allli DUlll:lrs:lis Estimc in
1'),11" ulll, witll black:. alld ullder!ook a serieS of reforms
III bl'/Idit lllliit llrh.lll wurker:. ,nul agril..lJ!tuf::l1 producers. I h:
th lkht 1\1 the Ullitnl Stall::. :llld signed an agreement with thl" Export*
III q11lit HalIk lor Illl' dl'vl'lulHlil'n[ of til\:' Anihonitl' Valley, In 1950 Estimc: trit'd to
,lllll'llll till' he ,uuld remain in powcr, and fvr this he was deposed
by .trI1lY alld :'l'llt into
CUlltfol Il,\ [u Colulld Paul E. Magloil"l', a bhKk leader who was inOuential
\\'Jlhill 1I1l' afillY alld ,Ilnllllg llil' Hativll's llIaSSl'S. At his inauguration he
prllllll:>t'd 10 :-.all'J.!,uard Ihl' right:-. gU:lnlnkl'l! by the constitutiull, to continue
III igalillli projl'cb :tlld 11uh!il· and 10 prOlllo(l' public educalioll, In
IIll' illtl'lll;ltioll,d arl'n.l Maglolrl' :.tJugllt gvvd rdatiolls with the United Slates,
willIe [Ill·,I:'<l" ill l'XIJllrt I'riu::. bruught Oil by tht: Korl'an War hdpeJ to
slilllubtt: l'COllOlll!l" growth. Ik:-il'otnl by rivals, hl' \Vas OVl'rtl1rowu ill a
coup ill 1956.
Alier mOllths of ullcertainty, there emt'rgl'd tht' figure of Fr;1I1.;ois Duvalkr,
whu had himself elected pn:sidt'llt in St'ptcllIbt'l' Soon alkr seizing pvwl'r,
Duvalier set out to bend the natioll 10 his wiJ!. Tht' arJllY, tilt' pvlkl', alld tlli.:.·
sl:"curily forces beGlllll' accountable to hilll alolll:. lIt' crt':lted a special pulke forel',
which (ame to bl.' known as the M{/c.'ulIle:i. thl' Illu:.t dreaded rq)ressive
fvrce in the counll-y, Thrvugh sheer tl'/TtJ( he rid hilllSdf of his opponeuts alld
m;llll::uvered electiolls to becollle presidenl fur lill' (presidelll avie), As nccl'ssary,
hI:' mohilized largl' l'fowds with insi:.lclll prop;lgatiull uf Ilw off!':ial !)Iugall:
Diem, fJllva!icr, el Ie frape/I, /til «:1 ill/lil'isibll.' -Gud, Dllvalin, :llld Ilag, une and
A propunent uf lIoiris1l/(', a IIlUVenh:'nt that Jvoked tu Africl fur inspiratiun,
Uuv;llil'r expelled lIlulattoes frolll thl' n:Hional bUfl'aucr"cy. I It- gained illl1uence
over the by cannily assvdatillg himsc:lf wilh the figure: uf Haron Sallledi, the
earthly kecpl'f of Ihe vudull tUlllbs. ..:rt'ated a of lalter-day COUr!, who:.e
!;lvurites gained riches I hrollgh the dispcllsat ion uf statl:' favors, '1'0 iliStitut iUllali:t.e
a systelll of kickbacks, Duvalit'l" even up an lllllbrcila orgallb,ativn, the
Movl.'ll1cnt for Natiunal I{cllovalioll, which cullecled contributions from busilll.'SS
and high government employees for Ihe ostensible PUfPOSl' 01 uuilding public
fadlities. Net'dlrss 10 say. the /lIolley WilS nevl']' usn! fvr such l·nds,
Ulltil his death ill Duvalkr took thl' sidl' of Ilw United Slates ill Illu:.1
inlCl'lHltiullal arl'lla:., induding the Ullill.'d and thl' OAS, 011 uccasiulJ pru
U.S, votes would lead tu aid or loans for hbtulTupt regillll', Fur the llIost
pari. Alllerican govt'l"nments tolerated I )uvalil'r a uut if
unpleasant ally in the Culd vVar,
As death lll':lfCd, Duvalier persuadl'd the: Ndthmal'llll>l}' to lvwer IIll'
minimum agl.· lur jJl"l'sidl'nt from luny (u ciglll"l'J1 ,lllli I-Hul.. ..... nll'd lu ill:-ilall his
son as his SlI(ct'ssor :md presidl!lIl (i vii'. Yuung )loan Claude I)llv:llier, or kBahy
I>lh:" as he was SOIlIl'time::. knuwn, inlwrilt'd a uittnl)' illlpovcrished cOlllltr)',
Though he may have bet:ll less brulal thall hi:. btl1l'r, hl' n:tainl'd a parasitical
group 01 f'lVorites-:.I "'kJeptocracy" of sorts. Guvl'fllmt'Jlt beGune a means of
self-enrichment. Popular discolltent and illll'rne(ine: struggles finally led to his
dl'llIist, in Ft:bruary 1986, when he boarded a U,S. Air Furce: plant' and tkparh:d for
Political recovery was tentative, Fur the oppo:.itioll had been sup-
pressl'd, labor ullions coni rolled, ,Iud the media currupted. When Baby Doc left
the country. ther(' were nics fur liberty and c:.llls for dedw/lk(/j, an "'uprooting" of
the Duvalier regime: tombs :.Iml statlll'S Jell, policemen fell popular wrath.
erstwhile collaborators Iled the country, Elections in 1987 rl'sulted ill a bloodbath,
as paramilitary forces assauht'd voters and opposition candidah:s. A subsequent
ballul resulted in the (untruwr:-iial election of Leslil' Manigat, a well-knuwll social
scientist who lasted in office lor Ic:ss than a yeaI". Yt't another coup h:d to 111l'
ascendalli.:y of Gener'll Prosper Avril. an young military officer who
revivcd thc Toulons Macautes and imposed ;l new W;lve of repression. To m:;tn)'
observers il appeared th... 1 Ilaili was suffering from "Duvalier wilhollt DlIv:llier."
Aulhenlil. change hegan in 1990. Prolest demom:tration<; <In(\ a general strike
persuaded Avril to le;lve the country. Under a woman interim prt.'sident, Erthn
P;lsGII·Trouillot, open eJections took place in December 1990. Emerging \\'ith two-
Ihirds of Ihe vote was Jenn-Berlr;llld Aristide, a ROIll:l.Tl Catholic priesl who
espoused liberation Iheology nnd ndvocnled fnr-reaching politicil and sod.11
change. In lantlnry 1991 disgrunlled nllcmplcd a millinry coup 10
prevcnt Ihe Aristidc from t;lking oHkc: the effort fnile(1 hut Iclt 74
dead ami 150 inj\lrcd. Lntn in the year. unruly e1emcnts wilhin the mililnrr otl!'led
him from office_ The United States ;'Ind other nntiollS prompl1y c0ndelllnC(! Ihe
COtlp. nnd Ihe OAS slapped an emhargo on lrade with lIaiti, hut diplfllllalic
negotiations fM n penceflll solution to the crisis drngged on for year...
As Iinitinns sought to escape the oppression imposed by the new Illilitnl)'
regime of Gencrnl Raoul Cellrns. it wns the prospect of a large-!'cnle Onnd of
illl-Illigrnllt" lhnt gnve 10 U.S, policy. The Consl Guard picking up
Ihnw:ands of I I"ili:lIls who were attempting tn rench U.S. shores on hOlllel1lnde
Ollld took them lonn encampment :ltthe U.S. nnv:l1 stalion::lt (;u;1nl;\11;'!1l10 (in
Cub;1), In Mny 1992 Presidenl George II. VI.,!, Rush ordered Ihe Coasl Guard to
return all Iinitinll rnners to their hOl1lelnnd withoul ;lny scrccning to (Ietennille
e1igihilil)' ror politic:ll ns)'lulll. Del1locratic presidcntinl c;'lndidntc Bill C1inlon
denounccd Ihe Hush polk)' ns 'On cnllous response 10 n terrihle hUlllnll trngedy.M
but then consenlcd 10 its continuation'lfter his election ns presidcnt. By c:u'ly 1994
lenders of Ihe Africnn American community mounted shnrp criticism l)f
Washinglon's innction. nnd Clinton reversed himself hy anllOllllcing that U.S.
nlllhorilies would process rafters at sea and grant asylulll to viclims of political
repression. This Icd to yet nnother wnve of rnftcrs,
Despite puhlic skepticism, Clinton beg;'!n to conlemplntc the usc of military
force. III mid-Septemher he denounced the Cedrns government ns l1lo!'t
violent regime in our ;'Ind stressed the (bngers of inaction: •As long
as Ccdra.. rules. Haitians will continue to seck sanctuary in our nation. . Three
hundred thousand Illnre Ilaitians. 5 percent of their elltire popllintinn, arc in
hiding in their own cOlilltry. If we dOIl'1 nct, they could be the next WOlve of refugees
al nllf door. We will conlilluc to face the threat of a mass exodus of refugees and its
constant threat to stnbilily in our region nl1d conlrol of our horders.
As tension mounted, Clinton dispatched a high-level delegation under former
president jimmy Cnrtcr for a Inst-ditch effort nt negotintion. Atthe finnlminule, as
U.S. troops were nlready ell route for an invasion of Haiti, Cnrter rC:lched all
agreemcnt with the Ccdras govcrnment. Clinlon cnnceled the but instend
imposed an occup;1tion; in less than a week there were more than 15,000 American
lroops on Ihe ground, Aristide returned to office in mid-October, and the U.S.
gnve W:lY to an internation;'!1 peacekeeping force in early 199;'.
Undcr intense internalionnl ohsCfvntion (and quasi-military occupation).
elections took place in ;m nrderly fnshion. Aristide resisted the temptation to
" • «("l1tlal .Ind Ilwl .1111>1>,.111 II'
succeed himself. and Rene Prev;11, 011(' of his formcr .l ......ual('" .111.1 l'X 1'111111'
minister. look office in Fchrunry 199(1. ('flverninJ! W:I', d,t'
Aide(1 :lnd abelled by the ililernnlioll.11 (OmIlHlllilr. l',c\,.11 Ip 11111'0... •
pro-market economic rclllrlllS. Arislicle suddellly nlO\'l'11 illill lilt.: '1I'P'''ll''ll!.
refurhished his populisl credenti:lls. :Inc! :lsstll1led Illl' k,llln,hIJlII' 11H' 1.1\'.11.1'.
Part)'. Strikt.·s. deillonslrntion.". and violcllce tIl0111l1l"'ll.
The politicnl stalell1<lte continued Ihrough Ihe prc"il!cnl ial t'kl rilill .. II N. 1\'('1111 '1'1
2000, which 'cnn-Bertrand I\rislidc WOIi by ;111 ovelwhdlllllt}: bill lllll!l·.. lctl
mnjorily. In protest ;1gnhl ..1 e1eclor.11 III p,llli,\lllCIlI,lI-y ;'lllll(',", ,h,'
opposilioni"t Convergcnce !)clIloanlicl"C refll"e(lln rC(llgl1l/c .. I.III\·t· \11 1"1,"
of 1\ ristide's 1... ·w:1I;lS !'<lrty. An!'ticle IUlllcthelc!'o'" took nffill' III h·\· 20{1I 011"'.1
hero to II;liti's poor nlld llllc1crpl"i\'ilq;C't-1. Ari"lIdc "cCIll('d l'VI'I IIHIIl' • h.. t.lJl I Irt>IlII11'.
people-and ever more inclincd to illlpnM' IllS willthf411lgh ,1111.\1 r.llil Ille.II'''' .... 111(1
protests resul11ed. and violence cnnlinuecltn pl.lgue the pulilll.11 prou.:"s.
The econolll)' WOlS no hellef. B)' 20110 Ihe grf\\\'lh 1.lle II.HI tlI't I II lI't I I"
less thnn I percent. In hOlh 2001 ;1ntl 20fl2 CI0l1(1111h '1lltl'lll 1.111Ir.hl"11Il\·
percent. Thrce·qunrlers of Ihc p(ll"""lalill/l was living 111 .1hJel t 1\,"" 111.111
hOllflhe ndult popul:ltioll was :lhl<' In n',HI,Hld wrile. t 1I1Clllpln\'ll1Clll \\',1'" 1111111111.1:
nfllulld 60 percellt.
Mailers COlllle to a hend in e... .-Iy 20(1-1, \Vhile Ari"lllle 1"('l.lllle..! .1 ""h"",llll1.11
al110unt of populnr supporl. opponcnt" d,lillle<! lhal hl"' h.ld he, nlll(' .1111<11 1".,111.
intolerant, nnd corrupt. Di,,"idcnt gnng<; d.l"heri wil h jll tl 1\ 11.. llllc fllll" kll'I\,",1
as clljmi-rcs. Under the lendership of l;ll}' Philippe..1 111111)('1 nfhll'l III 1"1I!:
discredited Ilaitian nrlll)'. nrmed rehels ath·.llllell Ihrruigh 1'1"I'\·IIHI.Il I Ill\''' .111.1
soon approached the capitnl of Pnrt-nu·Princc. Apl'e.ll" hr Ihe hcsieged gO\TIII
ment for help from the internalioll;11 COI11IlHlllily, cspcc i.llly Ihe llnilt'd """1 Ie....
were 10 no Olvnil. I:accd wilh Ihe prospect 'lvil Ari ... lid.. 1"I,..
left the counlry, Crilks chided U,S.presic!clll (;eIJrgc \·v. ... h ,llltl SCI I I'Ll! r Itt
State Colin Powell for l'<Jiling 10 suppllrl a <!c111oLfal11 ,lily deIit'd gOW'I"llllWlll III
Ihe Al11erica".
Together with detachmcnts frolll C:nn;Hln nile! !=rnlll t', I I..... 1\ I,ll IIll" 111'>\'1'11111
10 estnblish n modiculll of order. In 2006 Prevnl \\',1" cll"'t Ict! pr('"elrlll \\1111
over 50 percellt of the vote, Arter sevcrnlllnsl1cces<;flll nU('ml'l ... to apl'flllll .'1"11111'
minister. the president desigll:lted Michele Pierre-I.olli<;. till"' dtrel.!(11 01 .111 in leI
llatioJl:llly recognized educationnl foumlnl iOIl. ()ff In n ... y ... t,lli. Ihc ).:IIVt'1 llFlU'111
fOlced endemic poverty, unemploymcnl. nlld sodal IInre"!. Iialli rCIIl.ltlH'11 III
desperate condition.
As we hnve seen. U.S. adl1linislrntiolls-i{ep"hlic<ln nnt! Ikl1lfH. ral nlikc ,1"'!'o"ll,·.1
their right to interfere directly in the domc<;lic nfl<lir<; IIf (ounlll('<; III ( ",,11,11
Americn nnd the C1rihbc;1Il for the snk(' ('If "nalinllnl 1ll1('1('<;t .... (l,ll' ,... 1.11111
nation, however. remnined under perl1lnncllt Ameri(an (0111101
11K 1',\11 I 1\\'1/ .. \ /\..,'· ... 1lIDII'')- "111\11,
1'(1\·,111 1{1 ... I' l'l·l.lllh: p.lrt ul thl' United as a 01 thl.' Sp.ulish-
,\ 111... '11....11I \Y.II. III lui)' IHlJX, lit retaliatiull lur the: sinking 01 Ihe U.S. Ma;'/l'
III IIb.l. ,\nll·II....1l1 dbl..'lIlbarkl..'d in Puertu Rico, initialing Ihe cOllntry's IIrsl
I ul hlltlpl·.lll ..I The island hl..'lJllll' the pawn ill <I war
hl'l\\n'u ( uh.tII p.llrilll.:. ;llld Spallbh g.trrbuns. II had not ",·xpl.'ctl·d lHiJit<lry
(Julll' til ...· ... Ulltl.II)'. had ;dle.ldy .tgrt:.:d to gr;lllt PIIl'rlO RIco autonolllY
.llid II' d ·\ I.. ,' .. Ulll"': .. tlrI ul ruk"lur tile island. The U.:::'. ch.lIlg...:d all
101 till tllIlI,·llIy. l'u"rlu I{ko h'·l.1l1ll'.1 cruciallaclor in U.S. glohal !)trollt'gy-not
Uld) J'l·'.U""· 01 II-. pll!l'lliial fu!" illve:-otllleni and COllllllt'n:l', bUI abo of
g...·upoltlll.d Itil , III "'l.lll!>olid.tling U,S, naval pOWl'l'. BUI therl' rl'lll;\illS a basil:
qlh· .. Il\'f1: \VlLy Illi III .... Ulllll'd wk...· Puertu Ricu as a lulully whill' helping
(:uJ 1.1 .1 ... JIll'Vt' illdl·ll....·llde:II...·...·?
TIll' dilkl ...·tlll· III.IY wdJ ililltl.' hislorks uflht:: Iwo TIl ...·r...· was a
IIl1lg .. .11111 1 llIVv....·lIh.:nt ag'linst Sll;till ill Cuha, .lll
\\ hidl wlIuld h.IVl' l> l.'ll llHldl 11IOr..... diJfit.:ult to UCCUP)'. Pu...TIO Itico, howl'vcr,
uti lilt' \".I} hl.1 1I ...·goti.llnl .llld could preSl.'1l1 resbl.II\("....· lo uLlhidt:
luI ........... Plll'llu Rku thus Gwght in a complt'x slrugglt;;' belwet'll major
I'U\H"" .,"d l :1111.1\
I'lh" to 1{llO "tlrl' ul dominaliutl. During Ihe l"ulonial
lilt' ,,1.llld h;l...! .....·I-v....... 1 .1 .. ;111 illlPOlt..tllt lIlilit.lry .llld
,- ...·IlIl'I ..1 101,· 11t.11 lIlt ...·Il .. llil·d Ih...· tr.ldl· r..... Jclll·J its p ·.lk 11I11ll' 1700:-0. SUg.l!"
1'1'. ,dlh III '11 II..." .1111 ...' Ih,' pl ...·dUtllllWlll .lgricullttr.t1l'llll'rprb ·. Ther...., Wt'fl' .tbu
1.11111\'1". rugg...·...1 indlvidualbb wht..1 cultiV;:tkd ... rnp:-o and helped
Ill.II11I.111l .1 dlvl·r..ill..."d Hecaus\.' of Ihl:' SIaVl' pupulation always
r\·III .. lll ...·tl .1 lIlil1tlllly.
i\ Ill'r 111l' .11 Iivai Ill' Ill ...' JlIH.:·r!o Rico dt:Vt'lopcd a p...:ntlial"
willi Ill ...' llll;l,·,1 Slilt ...· IXYH r.... Ullll\.' island had Iitl dear Il'g;l I stalus of
;Ill}' kind. III ]'117 lh y WCl'l' grallkd (ilizenship ill the Ullitl'd Stah..·s. In 1947,
11.111 .lll.'lllury .tIkI' Ill...: invasinll, PUt'rlo Rico pt'rlilill .... d It I all .... lllpi
h"1' ...·llltll'·1I1 III 1');.2 Ih.: bJ.ltld grant..... d -COllllllollwl'allh" within til\.'
UIIlI ....... 1 .. , 'l'lli .. all situatiun: PUt::rtu I{iro i.. neilh.... r a
1l.lllull 11t.1 ,"luny nl)!".l but sOllldhing elst' again.
'J .....I...-vdop Ih...· hl.lIlll, 10 Ihe of Ir ·...··worltl capit-
.• It..... , .1lI...! lit prllvidl' .111 llbpir.ltiull lor Latin Alll.:riGI, Ih · Unih.:=d
\\.11.1(,01.11\' ... 1 wilh (Iy".lllli... gov""'rnor Luis [vlujio.... M.lrin 10 undertake
-()I'l"I.llhlll Blluhlr.lp" durillg Iht..· and 19605. Under thh plan, till'
lJ 1...·d,·I.11 gvvl'rllillt'll( "'ould cncotlrag\.' ill Puerto Rico
Ihn-.llIglt .1 ... til t:.tx anti other allowanct's. Buotstr.. p wroughl
in the and economic life of PUl.'rto Rico. Sugar
nl.lln .Hld :'>111.111 lanll:'> w.... rl.' fl.'placl.'d by factories; llldustrializ;ttioll
till 1\ 1, ... 11l/ ...·Il:,> join....... 1 lit ...· uf Ihe laboring BUI Ihl;' o\' .....
Ill\' IIII ...·II\:O' did llul pruvid,,' ""llUugh jobs 10 absorb Iht' growlh in Ihe
WOI kllig .Igl· 1It11111I.Hioll, and lit .... result w;ts massive: Ulll·ltlp]oYlllelll.
011(' cons\;,lllll'nce W.IS to accd..... rak thc 110\'1 ul tu Ihe U.S.
mainland, where '10 pe:rc.:nl of pu.... rto Ricans Glllll' tu r....side. Full)' olll:'-half
of Ihe migrant population sdt!.:d in New York Cily. 111 a sense. this tfend
formed lwo PUt'rto Ricus: one on th..... island <Iud one on Ihe mainland. Thac
has b':':11 cunsidcr;:tble mOvt::lIl .... nt and ("otnlllllniGltion back "lid lurth, bUI
social tensions and cultural differeuCt.'s st'parall.' the Iwo In
demonstralion of thb lact, Puerto Rican rl.'sideilis 01 l'W York arl..' Sttlll ...·-
Political life on Ihe island has bcell .. ctive :'Ind ord..... r1y. TIlt.;' ("hid ...·x..... tutiVl: b
lilt;' govcrnor, who is eleclcd eV('I)' foul' y(·;lfS. The dominant ..... has b.....ell th.....
island's rdalionship wilh Ihl' United In a IlJ67 plt::bisdte lIll
60 percI.'1l1 1:lvorec! Ihe continuatioll and illlprovetlll'nl 01 Ihl' CUllIlIlOl1wt'alth
and 38 cam..... out in favur of statehood. Thus..... who favOJ'l'd COlllpkll:
independeu(.: 10 boycull Ihe plt.:lJbcik, but this I'ac..'tioll has bl·..... ll vue'll and
visibl .... (ill in fact, a pro illl!q)l'lll!l.'lIl.:l· group mad!..' an altl'lllpt Oil Ih..... lilt- of
U.S. presilkut I larry S, Trumall).
Tltl.' pro by the New ''.Ifly
(P 1'), won gub.:rnalorial ill 1976••tIld I98U. Under the
leadership of F..... rre and Romero Barcelo, Ihis group
to Iht: bdid thaI full stall.'hood would provide PUl.'rlo
wilh hi 1i.,tIt::ra! wdfa rl" ClUtlOtllil
growth, alld r..... lllov...· Ih..... sligma or ...e... .. od.llnl willi
..:OlllIIIOIlW..... ;t1lh Popu!;.lr for llluveillelli .....Illl.: l·sp....... ially
front Itrhall
The pro-commonw.....alth parly. or Popular I)elllocr;llk Party (PDP), WUll the
d..... of IlJ72, and 1988. Its 1Il0si prolllinl.'lllll"ader Rafad I krmllld..... t.
Colon, who callt'll for a grl':\!l'r d...·gre..., of m..... anil1gful aUluntllllY wilhin Ih....·
cOlllmonwcallh rdalionship, As governor, Ill'rn;,ndl'z Cololl aClivdy pn..Illlvlcd
wnrldwitk eCOtlomic rdaliolls for th....· island alld playl'd ;In al:tive rvle III
dt::vd,)pml'nt or the plan( COlll:""!)t-dividing the prudullioll pro("...·ss into
separak with inilial phas.... to be dUlll.' ill som...· olha arl.''' ul Ih....· Caribbt.:'i\n
and Hnal ;\ssl.'mbly in Puerto Ricu.
Concern steadily mounted ova ec.."ollomi..: ami, l;trgdy ;\ result
of a U.S. Puerto Rico lac..... d ;t dowulul"Il in lite l'ad)' 1990s. Amid
Ihis allllosphac the 19lJ2 gubernatorial d('(tion wellt lu Ihl' Pedru
Rossello. who vowed to for statdwod. firsl act in office wa!) lu sign
a bill giving Englbh equal stalus \'lith Spanish an offici,,1 language. And in
ovember 1993, fulfilling a campaign promist', Rossdlo held a new plebbcile
on the island's status. To the surpris.: of many obst'f\'l:'rs, lite pro-comlllon-
wealth position won with 48.4 p..... rcent uf the vole; stiltehood ohlained 46.2
percelll; Ihe pro-independence stanc.... gOI only '1.4 pcrccnl. Five yt'ars latcr-
on December 13, 1998, exactly 100 Y""'ars and une day "fter Sp.lin ufficially
ceded Puerlo Ri...:o to the United Siales-yel another plebiscite yiddetl a
simiklr 46.5 Iwrcelll lor statehood, 2.5 percl:'nt for indl.'p"':lldcllCl·, 0.'1
12n I'ARTTWO" <:1\:-.1' :-,TlIDIE:-': CIIJ\N(;F nVI'R
percent for "free association" or cOllllllonwe.dth status. and 50.2 percent for
"nolle of the above." The status quo WOIl out again.
Eleclions of 2000 brought the pro-commonweallh PDP back 10 power
unda Sila Maria Calderon. the first wOlllan ever to serve as governor. As
Illayor of $:lll $alvadnr and thell as governor. Caldef()n focuse(l on urhan
re(lcvelopment. proseclilinn of government corruptinll. and an end to U.S.
hombing exercises Oil the offshore island of Vieques. Her successor.
Anihal S;llvadnr Acevcdo Vila. also of th(' rDP. governed under a cloud of
alleged c1eclnr;l1 fraud. In 200R he losl a reelection hid to Luis Fortuilo, a
pro-st;llehood candidale of the PNP card-c:lrrying memher of the U.S.
I{epuhlic:ln PHty, I lis election gave every indication th:ll Puerto Rico would
cOlltinue its slrange ;lnd nmhigllolls rc!nliollship with Ihe United Stn[es in the
Key Colony, Socialist State
uha has a hist<lry <lr heal illj.: odd.... ( '1l\Ttnl fill lenllllll·... hr 1Il.lil 'I 1'11\' 1·1 .... I J II
mllion foulld a w"r 10 a....ert it .. ,111.1 !llenilir. Inlllwlh cd (.'"11
often dominatcd) h}' Ihe power .1Ilt! proXil1HIV of lilt" {lillIe.! !'>,>. II h('1 .1111(' .1
bastion of anli·Amcri<:lll "cnlllllcni. :-'hapet! fOI ).:.t'lI(·I.lllllll .. h\· II1\" I"r. (' ... "I
inlcrnaliollnl Glpitalism. il pnuIIKt-'d a genuIne "111.,.11 1('''1,1111''''1 ,Hll' Ih,11
spawned ;ldmiration. "dll1:ltlfJll. and lear .1Ilel 10.ltllll1g III 11I,l1n' p,lIl" '" IIIl'
world. Conlr"ry 10 Ihc n"lnfidcnt prcdlLIIOI1" Ilf I lilil.ll oh,..·I\'I,.·, .... ( ,d,.,· .. "lit 1.111,.1
experimenl managed to (llIlla,llhl' l'ml ofth.. ('nld \V.Il. Ihe dt'lIli"'t' nlll,.. ..... \111
Union. the widesprcad di"u'('dltlllg 01 J\l.lIxI 1 idt·nlogy ;lllol Ihe
hostilil)' of Ihe U.S. ()nc of Ihe 1 (II 1111 l"Ie... 111 lilt' \\',.. ... r.·11I
Ilemisphere. all isolatcd i"Lll1,1 in .1 d:lllgCfl)ll" "1'.1, (:111':1 ILl'" '1'llIC I" 111.1\ .1
thoroughl), ollt!iii7ed role ('II tile <"f.lgC .. t gloh.ll I I!II... ,11l1 tlll''-'' Ihlll':'
Geography offers one h:l!'>IL duc. CUh,l·... hl .. lnric.t1 I!C\"(']npIIlCllI h.I'" lWCI1
dccpl)' nffccled hy its slralCW{ kl(alinn ill Ill(' (:;ll"1hh",ln h.l'-lll. (""lllmh".. dl'-
covered the island 011 his first vo)'aAc (1'192). nnd II SOOIl h..l .1I11C.1 grou"d
for Sp;lI1ish expeditions 10 thc Mexic"ll and {'clllr,11 J\Illt'l"ic.m 111.llllI.UHI. 11<,
commercial "nd polilkal impnrlalhl' grew wilh Ihe ('Xp,lll"ltlll "I 1/1' ..1 Ik('"
hetwecn Spain and ils ,\mcril.lll tnlol1le".
The indigenous population scared}' sllrviv{'cl the fir"t (('lllnrr of Ihe !'>p.lni .. h
colonization. Here. ali: e1sewhcre in I.:ltin All"lCric". Ihc Europcan ,0lI(1I1Crol<'
turned to black Africa for their Iahor sHpply. As. a le,,"11. (·lIh.t h(,. ,lIIH' .1 Illlll"
racial society: b)' the 1wenl iel h ("clll 111")'. ;lLcnrding tn 0111' ('"Iimal (', I11(' 1'111'111.111
was 40 pcrcellt hlnck. JO I'CI"(Cl11 whilC, """ !'{'!lCIiI I1I1'\C.I (l1h 1\<'1.11'
"ncl Indian).
•• 1'" III
\11 I" II
HIll ,',\1""
A h.lIldruJ til Cuban nalionali:-'I 111..'(1 inlO exill' and plOlll'd .1 Ill'W rdwllitlll
<.lg;!inst Spain. Thl' Illosl famous MartI, an dOllt ...·1l1 fl'V(lluliollar)' pOl'l-
lawyer. A revolt ror im.lejJt'ndelKe brukl' uut in CUl.M III
allothl'r sav.tgc war. whkh Jragged 011 for thrt't' The Sp.llli.lrlb tu
brulalml'lhuds. such [13 the usc or concentralion GlIllpS. 10 liquidate Ihe gUdrilla-
GiVl'n ib huge econumic st.lkc ill Cuba. Ihl' United St,ltl.·3 unlikdy III
UII Ihe Tilt..' U.S. puhlic l'xcill'd by 3cIIsaliullaiisi alYounb ul
Spanish hrllialil)'. busine3s and religious leaders delllalllkd U.S. I"C(ugllJlluli of
Ihe rebels. TIlt' expansiollist mgt' ill Ihe United W,13 lted buth Ly Iho::>I' who
stuod to gain ct:onomio.:ally and by Ihose who prl"acht'd of ;1 U.S. lllis3ioll lu reseu\,
thl' Cuhans from Spanish misrule.
Although I'rt'sid""lIl McKinley n:sisll'd prcssun: to iJltl'!'Velle, l'Vt'llb IIveJ t0uk
hilll. In April the USS Maille' Ill)'steriollsly exploded in II.IV,lIla harbur.
The biaSI, which has never bet.:ll salisr.lclorily expJailwd, :-'Wl'I)1 aw.L)' dll' la.. l
veslige3 01 .llltiwar senliml'nl, and COllgrl..'ss promptl). dcd.Il"l'd h'ar 011
TIll' ill l"lluipped wellt duwn lu humiliating ddl:.ll. Till')' h,td lillIe dlOkl'
hut 10 gr'1lI1 CUO.1 ilidepl"ndeJl(e ill IJt>celiloef I
( 11"-") l'l. 1111011 I)' UlH.ll'r tht' rigid pulidt'::> of the
.... 1'.1111'11 ,,-UJ\"11 lItlllllhc lJourhlJll n.:fonll::> ufCharit') III (17SlJ-8X) pruvidt'd Ihe
""IIIUdi ,1 •. 11 Il·lI tu groh'lh. "'ht' nilll'll'C:lllh Cl'IlIUry saw a bridcuffee boom give way
10 till' luJli".llioll vi tulxll'l..'o, whkh hCC:llllt: a major crop b}' midct"lllury-a
pU,>llltlll It :-1111 hlJld:-••1) CUh.11I dg.,rs (jJllruS) l"tll1linut' 10 hI..' n:ganlt'd as among
llll' lilll'..,t III thl' \YUill!.
Hut tl ...: 1I11I)l 1I11I'UII,UII MJllI...X ul wl'.dlh was <11101111.:1" pruJuLI: 1..";lI1e
ElIlpl" .... ,,> Hil bl"g.1l1 ill thl: t'ighlct'Jllh l:t'nlUry. and by 1860 Cuba W3S
I'Il/lIth.lllg Ilt'ally it third tum.) uf tht: world') l'Jllirl' sugur Till'
Iltllll,LI1 puwer lu rud tltb bUIIILl I..vlliinul·d Iv (Ume: rrUlll thl' nighlm<lrish slave
II ,Ilk, \\'llllI1 tid iWJ l·d murt' Illall 60U,UUU Africans ill dwins tu Culm bel wt'en 1800
,lIld IXC,S. ibdl until IMX6, longer than anywhere dst:' in the
i\llll·ril.... save Hrazil.
nonUlllil.: tllus oet'n typical or tropic;d America: a
llltJlhllultural. t'xpurI-uril'nlcd ·plantation·society.
A...II..lUWll jl'wd urtllt' Sp.lllbh 1'1I1pire, Cuba remained a colony throughout
thl..· nilldt'l'lIlli It'IlIUI)', Ewn eflediw conlrol or ·the pearl or 111e
i\lIli11I'S· sll'adily Jt'dilling 0\'1..'1' lillle. It took ten years or biller warrare to
...-lll::.h .llllo;lrly illdt'pendcnce IlIvVCillellt (1368-78). And by Ihe I880s, Cuba's trade
.lIld wen: alllluslexdusivdy with Iht' United Stnles. The U.S. economic
illl ..... ill Cuba k-d lu 1l11lllf.:rOll:-' to purchase Ihe island (ountry. The
Sp.llli.lld.. illv.lfiably I'dused, .dthvlIgh pruminent Cubans strongly ravored
.ilIlLI'x.. thlil hy Ille Ullited SI;IIl'S, Ml'allwhile, Cuba was drawn l'vcr closer into Lhe
U.S. urhit.
Dubious Independence
Cuba Ill'r new Linda U.S. military uct:upaliull. hardl)'I.l\urahll' It)r .1
1ll'.IIIII)' 3ell::.e ufll.llion.ll illt-ntily. The U.S. authoritil'S
rebd arlllY. lllu:-. rellloving Ihl' unly poll'Jllial SOUf((: III ,ll"Illc.:d l'l'po.. iliuli to
The Bronze Titan
fllf' rno!>t l;1mOtiS Alro·Cuban of tIl(' centUly was AntonIO M.)cco,
lhe 1I11111.IIY geniu!> of two wars for independence and
1895 ·98). Bam of a Venezuelan lIluldtto emigre and a free Afro Cuban,
Maceo enleled the ,ebel army as a privale in 1868 and reached genelal
only five yeals later. Having eSlablished military leadership among Ihe u:bels
(despite ,acist sniping f,orn his white comlades). Maceo led highly successful
guerrilla operations in the 189S-9B war. His soldiers wele mostly Afro-Cuban,
and Maceo hllllself had been an oUlspoken advocale of abolitIon, Ihl.'teby
alousing white lears that hl: wanted 10 establish a "black lepubllc: [ven
Winston Churchill, then a young volunteer with the fOlce.., It.'peatt"d
that prediction In a magazine article.
Maceo was killed in 1896 by Spanish lroops who caught hhn in an ambush. I'll.'
has ell1ered Cuban history as an exemplaly pauiot and soldier. He had lalth thot
Cuba would create a rightful place for Afro·Cubans. I'll' also US. entry
into the 1895 war. arguing -I should not wan! our neighbor tu blvod fUI
our cause. We can do Ihat for J
Americ,lIl rule. The occupation was a textbook exitmple of what was regarded as
"cnlightenccr inlervention. The North AmeriGlIls built hadly needed s<.l1ools.
roads, scwers, and telegraph lines. Llut it was all in the service of intcgraling the
now -civili7.ed" Cuhnns within Ihe U.S. sphere of innuencc.
U.S. govcrnmcnt Icaders saw thcse cconomic. moral. and politic,,1 rcsponsi.
hilitie.. all going hoHld in hand. The Cubans wcre allowed, cven encouraged, til
choose:t convention, which produced a ch:lrter in 1901. Hut the U.S.
government h:trhored doubts ahout the new country's "hility to govern itself. so
Washington forced the Cub"ns. under protest. 10 incorporate a provision (the
"PI:111 Amendment") which gave the Unite(1 Sinh's the right to intervene in
domestic politics nt will. This stipulntion made Cuba nn Americnn protectorate.
Around this lillie, the United Stales ;llso leased rights for
installation of a nav;ll b;lse at Guanl:lnamo Bny. In other words. the U.s. govel'llment
;:lccplired a pennanent foothold on Cuban nationnl soil. This agreement w(luld have
unforeseen consequenccs more than a (entllT)' later, as (;uant:lnamo came to he usc<!
as:l detelliinn center for slI!'<Ipects in the U.S.-directed on
C:uh:l'!'<I fir!'<lt rre!'<lident. Tom:l!'<l Estrada Palma (1902-il), favored outright
alll\l'x:ltion hy the United States. lie was 1}1)ic::l1 of much of the Cuhan clile,
which saw little future f('lr olll independenl Cuh:l, Their willingness to embracc
Y:lnkce encroachmcllt arouscd the fury of those few Cuhan n<ltion<llists who kepi
nlive the n:lllle of Jose M<lrli's dream of a Cuba (ree from Yankee domillancc.
Estrada Palmil WOIl a second term hy c1ectoral (raud. The ensuing revolt. led
hy the defeated Liber:lls, broughl :l second U.S. milit:ll)' occupation (190(, 9). The
United States imposed <In interim presitlenl. Charles Magoon, who oversaW;l ncw
eleclion. Fmud recurred, however, triggering :lnother U.S. military intervcnlion in
1917. Alilhese interventions presentcd opporlunities for U.S. economic inlerests
10 deepen Iheir hold over Ille Cuhan ecollomy.
During Cuba's yeilrs as a protcctorale, it underwcnt a great sugar hoom. Cuha
emerged as one of the worlo's mosl efficienl sugar producers. helped by the
modern vacuum methods of refining. As oUlplil increased. sugar camc 10 c1om-
in<llc Cuba's econom}' <lllcl, eventually, 10 have a lasting c(fecl 011 the class structure
:lnd socinl rcl;ltionships.
By Ihe carl}' twentieth century. as shown in Figure 5.1. Cuba was producing
seveml million tons of sugarcane per year-nearly one-quarter of the world suppl)'
around WorM V";lf I. <lhout 10 percent of the tot;ll during thc Depression )'c;lr...
and closc to 20 percellt jusl after ""orld War II. Throughout this entire period.
sllg;lr exports earned approxiJn<ltc1y 80 percent o( the island's foreign exch:lnge.
Such Jcpendence on a Single product obViously placed lhe Cuban economy in an
ext remcly vulnerable positioll. If the harvest was poor or del1l;ll1d was low or price!'
were down. Ihe Cuh:l11 economy would suffer. Sh<lrp decline!' in product ion during
Ihe I
HO!' and 19.50s illu!'tratc some of the dangers o( this situation.
1\llnlher fealllre ofll1c hoom was ... 0 11<.e 11 t 1',11 1011 III o\\,lle, .. IIII', 1'''1''
... iall}' ill Ihe hands of Al1leric;l 11 io\'esltlrs. After Ille lR7Ch,llu' 111'\\ In
particularly railways.stimulaled:l r:lpid reduditlll inlhe 11I1I1l1>('I 1l1"lIg,11 III II I..
(from 1190 in 10 only 207 in IR9<J). 'I'll<' inek-pcndellt gl!l\\'{·r". wli ....,
sll1all- alld llledium·!'i7ed (;lrllls had I'rnduccd rHo.. 1 "I tilt.· ,.IIlC hd'''I' lh,
IR70s. no\\' c;old out ill wowing numhers tn Ihe I>lg "lIg,l!" \ '1Illl'.llli\· ... I'll'
large firms controlled more thall 10 peru'llt (Of .1111.11111 ill ( 1Ih,1. Ih t"", lh.·
Ilumher o( sugar mills h.ld drnpped In only 11H. ,11111 Iht")' 'lIlllltdlf'.1 I''''
per(enl (\1 l.t1han land.
Thi .. UlIlcentration of mill and 1.l1ld IlWnc-r.. hlp \V,I" ,I ILIIlll.l1 r('''1111 "I ,h..
tIl,Wller in which Ihe sugar hoom had pmlccdetl. IJndc-l' Ih(' .. hidd tlllh.· pl,.I.-,
lorale, lJ.S. illve!'lnrs poured capiLli intn the huilding nllllndClllllldl .. (,,'/1111111"
and Ihe consolidation of lall(' gl'llwing lillHl!>. All1c-rilan "Wllnl Illill .. 1'1,,,111., ,I
only 1.5 percent o(Cuba'!, !>ugar ill 190(" hut h)' 1')lR their .. It,1I1" le.hll,·,I.d''''11
7"" percclll; hy 1950 it stone! at '17 perl'ell!.
Till' tech nolog)' of !'ug;ll" produci ilJll ,llk(ll'd l.\hl'l .1" wdl ".. 11\\ ,H'I .. II rl' ,11 .. 1
IH<lnagelllclll. Cllltiv:lti(m l:llnC to requilc !>\.lk \..'I.rkt"I.t'_ ( ,IIU' ,1t·1"I .. I,'
he rcplanted onl)' perioc!i(,lll}'. al inlen:al .. 01 t1Vl' ttl tW..llly 11\'(' \'(',11" '11"'1.11.,.
Ihe principal need for l:lhor i.. for thc har\'c.. I, or 1l1l1.. llr "1'<'111 I'll I h\· .11 dll"u'.
(;I!lC with Ill:lLhele" rile rc-.. t o(llIe p·.11 \\',1" knnwll III ( tlh" " .. Ih,· ,1,·.,,1
"\'<l"on" of witle'il're<ld unemploymelll anti 1lIltl('I"('1l1 I'll 'plWIlI
nllt workers had nowhere tl' gil. Ik....l'l .. e t.1 Ihe ell'\III""'" 1'1.1111.'11"11". 11 .. \
cnuld not lease or p\lllh,'!>e sllmll ,,\;'lk pltll-. 011.11\.1111, Illl II 11\\"1111"(". I'



Figure 5.t Sugar Production in 1880-1998
• ....,.,.".,;, II "
Fd,IOIli'tl de ( I"nr-I'K 50oal{'... I07Al.lll. A'lhttr "'''',' I W,lfl Rrvol"'/OII ",,,t ''''''''/11" , \,.j ','" ·"1'"
(Nl'w YOlk Mallin'., Pl'('.,\. IQR1). 0\(,,11 1\ r II'It"'V.lffl.l.•( lIb.l ,1"d 'II" 1"'''rn.III'''' " '''1-'1 !
of The r,flh Anrl\lal MlV'ltrlq of tllf" I\.,',o(!it',flfl "" 11,... '.I,,,h" I rllf' I "I .H·I "j' .. " '" ",
10 1).1<)1)';. Co II,)ocll)('Iq ,lnd kl"'; Alval!"'. 'llI',tow,,1 (1v... \.1' 111>" (". r .·f·" H' I" h'" ,.
Imn"(,111l11l\ lor 'Ill' I \lIllie: nf food imll A{jl" 1I11,rr.ll '., ,r", r', II", ,f'r .'1'" .111",,,1.> f. 11(1 I .".,
WilkiP. ('It. III A/lI/IO( 1 t)f 11/1<11 AIl,rlll" I) (I " .. />," Wlr\ III I/>. /111111
w,Llllnlll. kl'ql IIll'II1 Ill',11 IIll' 11lilb, ,IV,IlI,lbl.: luI' work, and fur Ihis Ihe)' J .... vised
1,llliL", ('Ill' 10 pUrdl.lM.' a share o( C,1I1\.· from illdt'pt'nd('llt
grl''''l'r.. 111',1111)' whIt would .. han: III .... of labor with Iht'Ill, AIlolher was 10
lel "'UI W) 11110 ddJl,::>o IlIl'y would ft'III;'lill lliider oblig<ltioll 10 11ll" own.... rship.
A IIl1n.l W.I" III l'lh..lIUr;lgc: 11ll' lurnHltiull uf urban sdlh:lIlenls, called
111.11 \"utld lfe:,lk ,,·urklllg-"'!.I::>::> olllllllunilit's.
Ih ,I Il' ..llll , CULM Illl' Uppl'.l!';.lIlCe of a prolt'larial, .1
tJlIf' Ih,ll ,iii kl ,'J W'l',llly fl o III .1 ,1,1::>3i,- \,Vurker::> in Ihe mills .Iud
111111" ::.,Jllb Wl·II'!.Lhorl'r.. , Ilt/I I.. rlliers, Thl')' were concl'rned more ;,lbOlll wages
,L1HI ,1IIldilhIJl" IIl,11I dhullt lhl' of land,
J\1'III:UVl'r, till' rlll,ll h;ld illlillHlll' l-ontact wilh tIll' working class ill
lilt', llil· .... 'I Ill')' olll'll Illigr,llnllu urhan arl'as, living in IllI:: kind of::>lllll1S thai hav....
l"Jlll' III dl.lfOllll'li/1' Jllall)' vi Lllin Alllt'rica's largesl Il1ctropulisl'S: k.nown as
ill Ml';..h:t) allli JlIw/.b ill they acquired ill Cuba till'
... tlll.1I III' II,LIIII' I II vl/tlll (-, \11111' .llld :'1'11 k'''). And tht'il' rt'sid('nIS were blighled
II)' IltlVl'lly ,llUl dep,.ivaliull. Onl)' 40 pt'rt:cllI of UrlXlll lowa-di\ss had Ittdd:lo, 0111)' 40 pl'ncill had Il:fng.... r.ltiull of an)' kind, alld as llIallY as a dozen
pl'tl11lt'lhl'J III a :loillgh: (Illlll"
(:tnll.ld .lllll UJllIlllunil'alloll hclWl'l'1I urban and rural dellll'lll::> of tht' Cuban
wurklllg wtJttld l:'VClllu.t1ly 11,1 VI' ,I cfft'ct on the COli he 01 tht' ...-OUlltry'::>
lu.,IOI lin ,llI:lo1- Ihl'y pl'f1llilkd Ihl' MIll ul unifll'd, ::>Od,ll IllOvenlt'nt lhal
1i,1" bl'l'lI !"\llld ... tll,lrl'iy III L.tlill t\1l11'ril.t.11 b wurth IlUIlIlg, too.tllallhechurt:h
11!.I}'l't! 'IIII) .1 1II1Iltir lull.' ill CUh.111 ••Intl lradc uniuns Ilad a alld
pH".IlI11U... l·xi ... ll'IIH', III IlIhl'l Wllllb, till' oUlluok and bdl3vil1f of Ihe Cuban
1.t11111111J!, Wl'l'l' 11011 ullldlllUlle:d ur cuntrollt'd by exi::>ling
\Vt'lkl'l'" WtHllt!, iJltilllC,lll' OlV.lll.lbll'lul' Illohilizalivll.
l\k.lll\vlllll', Ihl' lIllitnl SI.III'::> hllllt up Ill(lrC ;Illd llll)rl' ctlnlrolovt'r thl' Cubnn
n'll1tltll)'. Nill nlll)' dId 1\IllI'rit.LlIl:'apit.d lakl' IIVt'/' major ofplanlaliulls
,Llld Inill ... , lltt' Unih'd St;ltl'S bl'clInl' h)' tar thc customer fur Cuba's sligar
,·.'(]lUl'" ll:lotL.dly 7:. or XU pcn,enlllflhl.'lutal. Through it all, Cuba was
dq"'lltl"lll 111'\111 U,S. lUI 1111' 1,Ilt' uf it::> major indu::>try. And U,S. sugar
illlplill IIl.llt y W,L::> lIIV,lri.lbly;l lupic vll,rulonged debatl.' ill Washington,
Nl'wl)' IlIdl'pl'llllt:lll CUh.1 1i,ld Uriglll<lJly signed a reciprocal (ralk treaty in
It)(U \\·llllll g,IVl'l,ub,111 .120 pl'rt:"ellt redUClion from the l'xisting U.S, tarilfs,
II1Idlllll, l :111,,1 Il:dll'-l:d it::> 1.lri! b Oil AIIll'riLan goods by 20 to ·10 pl'rccnt. For tht'
111.';..1 Ildrl)' tr.ide J't'btiuns grew ever c1ost'r, il::> the Cuban
,-",_01 lui II)' lor .dllllkllb and inkgrated into Ihe U,S. ecollomy,
U.:". InVl-:lolol'::> ill Culla might well havt' smiled over their good fortunt', The
l'ltd ul Wllrld I hold bruught <l widl'spread food shortagt'. and all exporters,
CUh.1 llldudni. hHIlld Ihl'IllSdVc:'s r.lShing in on near-pank buying conditions for
lULlllllU,-hlll'::>, A tht"1l (.HIlt' ill Prices suddt'nly plunllnett'd. and the
v.lllll' 01 IIll' "'I"0P In lillll' mure Ihan one-l.J.uarter of Ihe postwar
kvd, '1111' l'll::>ui ng l.rbb h:lJ a dl'vOlstaling t'(fl'ct on Ihe l'conomy, hilling especially
IIIU:'I' I uI.d whust'' pre(ariOliS eVt'n in best of times.
A steam-driven engine hauls wagons of sugar cane to the mill in the early 1900s,
(Courtesy of the library of Congress,)
With Iht' ullhe world t',--onomy in Cub.l::>uun::>ullt'rt'd luI' il::>
(.:loOlIlt'what IIIvululllary) dl'pt'lldl'Il11' vn one: Inlding p.. rlnt'r, lilt' Congrn... ,
trOlll tilt' ::>Ug.lIhl'd pruJu":l'r::>, p.I::>::>\:d thl'
tanf! III bunlenlllg Cub,Ill, ::>ug,lr h'ith 11I.:W dUlil'::>. Thb lHl'rdy lilt'
011 lhc ::>I,lgge:f1llg Cub.tIl ::> l'... ImunlY. whith (UIIII.ldl'd :lol'vcrdy, The
unl), bright ::>pul ....tlllt: wilh Fr.lIlklill .13·wlnlllil1ll 01 I'I)\VI'l" in
ill 1'-)33. Ruo::>.... vcll alld tht' IkllIU(falil.- (:ongrl'::>s hruughtluwt'l" tariffs.
In Congn:::>s mandalt'd flxt:d <jllul.IS alliollg donlt'stic and forl'ign suppliers of
the U,S. sugar markl't. CUb:l'S lluota \\Ia::> 2M perl'ellt, :1 sharI' Ihal endured, with
l1lodilkatiolls. unlil IY60. This pl'UvisioLl g.IVl' Cuha a privill'gt'd :1l"leSS to Ihl' U.S.
markd, II abo tit'd Cuba It> lilt.' will ul 1111' U,S. whk-Ii lvuld lhallgl.' 11ll'
It'gislaliuLl al allY lilllt', II .tlllhl' vullll'r;lbilily whil.h illdcpellllelKt' had
bruught Cuba in tht' .... ra of AIl\t'ri(a 11 dominance:.
In Stllll, the rdianct' on produced Illixt'll blt's::>illgs for Cuba's l'I..':OllOlllV
and socit'ty, It LJroughl I..':oll::>idcrabl .... pruspt'ril)' 10 Ihl' t'slwdally in
uifra )'cars. bUI it abo crl'nlt:d a volatilt- ::>ocial SlnKlurt'. Olle ill which and
urban e1l'lIlents 01 ;1 long-depnvell working class maintained Clllnlllllllic.lI ion with
each olher. Tht' top of Iht' sodal pyramid was uccupit'd not by landlords.
as in classic haciendas, but by furdgn or Cuban owners who oftt'n
lived in Havana or New York: Ihe Uppl.'f class was absentee. Therl' was a sizable
middle class, at k'as! by Latin American standards, hUI it was all amorphous
lhat lacked cohesion and sdf-t:"onsciollsness, A::> Maurice
Zt'lthn once observed, this combination of (actors was bound 10 Iww ib dTeLt:
entt'rprise in Ihe COUIlII')'sidt' the illh:rminglillg uf indmlrial and
:lq:;ricultuml workers in the sugar centrals pcrmc:lted Ihe coulliry largely with
capit:lli!'t. nationali!'tic. sccul:lr, anti-traditional v;lluc!' :lnd norms of conduct. In
this !'cn!'c. the country was prepared for dcvelopmcnt-Ihe only thing kIcking
bcing the rcvolulion
Cub:ln govcrnments in the 1920s and 1930s wcrc :lll1ong thc most corrupt :lnd
hrulOlI of the repuhlic's hi!'tory. Gcmrdo Iv1OlchOldo gOlincd the prcsidcncy hy
c1cclinn in 1925 and soon llscd his cxcculivc powcrs to make himself forcvcr
\lnhCal:lhlc al the hallot hox. Machado's repre!'sive IllC:'I!'ures Olnd Ihe growth of
nOli iOll:'llisl opposition, cspcci:llly among studcnts labor, broughl oul 1hc
uglicr renlitics of the U.S. protcctoratc. When thc global Deprcssion hit. Cuba's
export-oriented cconol11Y !'uffcred badly. Thc bottol11 dropped oul of world !'ugar
priccs yct :'Igain, and thc Cubnll economy conlraclc<! even further. Total income
plummelcd, and uncmploymcnl mushroomed.
Economic distress provoked political conflict. Opposition to Machado included
:l co."tlition of students, labor Icadcrs. middlc-c1ass reformers. :'Ind disgruntled poli-
ticians, heJd togcthcr by a common hatred for thc dictator and a common aspiration
for a more honest and mnre just Cuba. Anned plots abounded. Machado's police and
milit:'l'1' bore down with morc rcpressivc measures. The United Statcs. so attentive to
some other kinds of deviations from democracy in Cuba. stood b}' passively"
Fmnklin Rooscvelt·s election victory brought nn aClivist to the \"'hite Iiolise.
While Washington assumcd a morc critical stance toward Machado. the Cubans
took matters into their own hands. A successful general slrike in Augusl 1933
helpcd prod the army toward undcrclilting the dictator, who fled Hav:'Ina. Now
opinion bcg:'ln 10 pol:'lri:;,.e sharply. Thc young radicals dominanl in thc provisional
governmenl joined wilh :'Irmy cnlistcd men. Icd by Scrgeanl Fulgcncio Batist:'l. This
"This nqlJle is lor estimaTed "purchasing !'lOwe'" in the 10{.11 <,conorny. Thp aOu;"!r
dollar figure would be c10sel to $3500.
SOlJlln: WOlld Bank and Country Prome and Dernogr;"!phics. Dala on glos.. domestic product
,In<l poverly levels are not available. J
Death at the Microphone
alliance look over lhc governmcnt, I{ooscvd(!'> Illgh le\'eI t'11\'ll}, :-011ll1l1,·r
\Vellc!'_ Thc new dvili:'llllc:'Idcr W.IS Ranuln <;r:'ll1 S;ln /\l.lrlill. ,I l!tll.1111 l'lllk....."r
and long-tillle hcro 10 Ihc studenl lefl, wilh whol1l ht' had im·.lri.lhh- "I,kd
"Soviets" werc formcd. followed hy OCCupOilions 01 l:lll"rir... ;11,,1 r.llltl" Ilw 111'\'
g(wcrnmcnt prociOlimed :'I !'ociali!'1 rcvohllion.
\V;lshinglon hccame deepl)' worried over lilt' Idr\",\f,1 hlln h\ II.
protecloralc. U.S. N:l\'Y !'hips look lip sIal ion .. pfr Ihe Ctlh.ln In.I ... I; old ... 1\1,
intervenllon seclllcd ne.1r. Hul :'I new stronglll:'ll1, I,) 1111111\' 1111 ,,,h.1II
fnnnul:'l fOl llnding power .11Iel WC:'lllh, was ;llre.ul}' IIIl "'l.lgf' (In "'1):11.11 hOIll Iii,
UnilCd Siale." B:'Ilisla ca.. ily lIllsled Crall and Ihe r;",,11I ,II ... 1\ h"lll 111.111 1"",,1,1, 111
Olcceptnblc 10 W:1shinglnll W;1S soon arranged. and 1111' f.l,lt, .• 1... 1111' n.III"II.oIl ... (·•.
and the rerofmers warched wilh hiltct"llc..,s as (:uh:J11 polili, .. 10'1111111'.1 ",1>11"'111''''''
as llSl1:'11. U.S. hegcmoll)1 was Sll «('!"Iain 111:'11 Vl,l:-hillgltHl had rill r1I'lIhle .lgrt·(·IlIJ: (.,
abrogale the I'lall Amcndmenl ill \93'1. The ll.:-O. 11:1\',,1 h.l ... c.lI 1011.1111.111,1111" \'.1"
lIol affClled.
Fill lhc l1CXIIWCIlI)' five yc,II·". <:lIhan !,,,Iili, .. w.'" tl0111l1l.1Ictl hr I'ulg, ,I< I"
Bali.,I:\. HClwccn 193" :'Inti 1t)'IO. Hali<:IOl rail hi .. l.(Il1l1l'y llllllugh pu!'pel I'"
sidcnt ... lie ruleel direclly from \<)40 In 194", IllC11 w('111 In.1 1",11111\111.,
scelle!' role as Ihe oneti,ne melical San M,lrllll 1{'111111(',II" Illl.· II/t·.... lnl, \
(1944-4R). There wa.. lillk lefl of CrOll! the uk.• I",I, ,IIHI IIII' "1'nl,HIe ,.11.1'.
de..ccnl inln Ihe ncther \,",odd ofCuhan polilit.::JlllllllIl'lllllllllc/l'h dl'qlclll',lllw
disgll"t :lnd moral fllry hll 1"111 IIg inlhe l;"Idil.:JI<:and 1I.llion.tll"' .... (rI.lI'-" .. Ih ,1"""., 'I
another Halisl:'l fronl IlI;tn. \\':1'" C,ld.l<: Prin CI') 11'\ .... I.1 Iltll .... '-11
rClook lhe presidential rein" III ,\ (OUP :lIHlllrlHd"rlll 1111",1 \"1111 ,1,,1 .• 1,111.• 1
powcrs ( I 952- <;9).
Cuba of the 1940s anti 1950.. hold no beller knoWIi r•• dlo Ih,IIl Ill"
vnliltile Eddie Chib,l!>. His ('v('ninq proqr.llll Wft .. li';I"'IlHl'l lflr nlll
lions of Havana residents. especially the middlf' c1.1"SC'" who If.. ·.pnt ... ,j Ill... Iyr", .11
milchinations of Ihe political esl.lblishOlenl. W.1S .1 th(' IMICI!('¥I"'r Ilf Ih'
opposition ·Orthodox· political pMly. and he pO\l(l"d fOrlh "'I)(II... .. IIIW·.llv'"
againsl the corruption and hypocri..y of Cuban polHi",
In July 1951 he launched wild cOlluptinn chiHqr's .1(pmo;,l Ill'" ...dllt.l11''''
minister of President Catlos Prio. When challenged. C111b,is f;ul('(1 It) plOdll' f' Ih,'
promiseO proof.lnslei'ld he wcnt on thc air wilh i'I paso;,ion.ltf' .. ('If et"f... n (Iyin"
out to his fellow dtizens: ·Comrades of OrtodOXlii. forwald! Sw('cp i1W,ly Ih ,lu('vC'''
in the government!" A pistol shot then rang out Eddie hftrl shol hiOl.. rlf in 111('
stomach. Evidently he had meant only 10 wound himself wilh i'I d'iUllftll( <I' u, ...
that would galvanize his lisleners. Unfortunatcly. howevc(. h(' h.1(1 qnn" off Ill 101
just before pulling the Irigger. ChilJo"ls died len d.,ys lill"'1. I II .. nwn p,uty (0..111 IIIlT
"9ree on i1 successor and wpnl inlo rilpid declin('. Th(" sl"II" w;"!<, V'I (fl' Ill'" 'm.ll ,\. I
long rUle._
t 1.3
Population (millions)
literacy (age 15 and over) (%)
Unemployment (%)
GNP/per capita. in purchasing power' (SU.S.)
life expectancy (years)
Cuba: Vital Statistics, 2007
III h·.dily, (:Ull.lll .llId I'0llli ..... lilll ..., ... hange bl·lwl·.... n 1')3·1 and I')SlJ.
'111"" fUlility .... 1111...· ...-l ....dlll.t1 1l·1' ...·;lI ....dly delllolbtnlteJ, ;,IS tht' p('rennial
.. lltlllglll.lll (y...... ll'ld.I), f\o!a...:h;ldo.loday H.ltbl.l) wurked hb will. The hOllesl oppo-
... 111111 ... I.lllllnl .llld :.Ifuggkd in v.lill. \Vllal llad Ilappcllcd to Ille revolutlunary
kl VOl 01 J""\ S? \VllI:I ...· w.I:.llll· had:.o frighkll ....d Wilshington? ItlHld
gil II...' III...· W.I)' 01 all Cuhan natiun:.llbl IlIuvl'mt'IlIS-rendcrcd impotent by the
IIl1hl·.ll.dlk .dll.llll': lit Ille CUb.11l dltell, thl'lr polilic.1I and lIlilit,lry hO\lllJmaidens.
.Ilhlll,h.k 0..;.1111. II ull(' '1.ld (I:.knllllo"l ill 1959 \'lhclha tlldr link bland
lutl .111) \,.h.llh....· <II Iru...· indep\,,·lhklh.."l·. how man)' wuuld have \"Iarcd sa)' ycs? Vcry
1...·\,. 1\ 1".. 1t:dll\" .111,.'...1 CUh.lIl:' LHll,.loubt""llly Ihuughl that tht' besl Iht'ir <.·oulli r)' could
Iltll'l,.· 1111 W.I" Iq Will .1 lew advanlage:> .11 thl,.· llIargin. \Vh"l ebl: <."ould un...' hope?
t\ .. .111:'\"1,.'1 ...· forth.
III Iltl' 11I",·.llIliIllC. powl,.·r ..llId presl'IKE: cXl'rcbed it dominaling
1IIIIul·lhX. ·llllIu...t1ld:. IIf Nunh lived in Cuba, chidly in llavana.
Ilh'} l-IlJII)'I,.·d pdJ\,.· "I pl.llt'. Il'ingling wilh IlIclIlbas 01 Iht:' Cuban dite, along
h I1II w...·.t1lhy I."X 1'.1 Ir 'II Iht:' Ilav.lnil Coulltry Club, the Yitchl Club, the
fl.111.1111.11 Y,hollt Clull.•tlld ollll'r sLllial Mall)' mort:'
!\11Il·lll.lll .. vhitl·d 1111,.' bl:tlill Iuurbb. and gang:>tcrbm became
.. 11I'11)'1111 HI .. Wllh III\,.' U.:--'. H,llbta WdlOllll·J lIlob.. ll,.·rs likc Meyer
I..llhk y oIlld '1'1 JI. Thl' g.lllg:.!l'r!'> ill lurn :.hared Iheir ('arnings with
til\,.· di, I.tlor .Hld hi .. IU·lIdlllh:lI. I'n... lillltlllil .. pread to GI!l'r to North American
"liB .111\1 .....·X IIlun.. h.
U ..... ,tIl,1 Ililhil. fill...·d (:Uh.1I1 l.lIlCIII.t alld raJiu a.. yuung Cubans rushed
t" k',lIl1 Ihl,.· 1.11l':-1 dalll-l'" ;111.1 ... alch the I'o..:",:cnt of John \'Yayne
.tlld 1\\",.tlYll Mllmut'. I:nglbh wurd:. WlTl' illlorpur,lkd into Cuban Spanish:
feill/O/l (!tOlll\'" rllll) 'Ilal {lid (duubJ...- pl.IY),llr.: nOI ullly tht' popularity
III h,t"l·h.t11 1111 til\,.' (illtrodllLL'd ill thl' I bUI abu lhe growth of a mon°
I l', l'lll I'hl'llllllll'IIoJlI,
By lit\,.· IllSlh,:1 Nllrlh AIl'lo..:nclll lOIl!'>UllIer I.Ullllrl,.· had takl'lI hold in
II00v.III;I .llId tltr.: l.ll'g\,.·r prllvindal lllk·... CUb,Lll dill'.. bought U.S. :lulOlliubill's and
\\'\,.·1I1 IIi,,) (u Mi.lllti ,Iud N...·w York, bringIng Ihe hlll'st f,l:.hiollS
.111...1 While: llwir sodal bdkr.. livl'" ill lill: st)'le: uf the North
"llll'I'1I .tll rid I. rlliddlt'-lll"':Ollll' Cuban:. :.trugglcd within a depelldent {'conomy to
.,1,1.1111 llll.· U.S....UlhUllll'J' dC:lltOllltlnl by the:ir pft'(arious position.
Castro and the Batista Regime
!SIll II ill 1')27. Fidd Ca:.tro w.I:.111l' 01.1 MllCt.,..:>ful Sp:lnbh illlllligrant. and he
rl'J'lo..:!'>l·lltl'l1 .1'1 old Cub'lIl tradiliOll-llll,.· IIC:ir uf u peninsular whu had
AOlt·ril,I." .IS t hl' Spaniards pul it in tht' sixkenth ct:"lltury. Hut this imllligrunt's son
W.I" 11111 lllll"fl·'li ill l'lljuying the comfortahle life his background and training
IIligltl 1I.lvl,.· prullli..I,.·J. I It: wanll"d to mah· a different America.
hdd h.ld lollll\\'('d tilt" palil-primary anJ ..econdary education with the
k .. wl:.. Illl'lI .1 I,.,,· I,.lq.!,n:,t:'. lie plunged intu Iltl' turbull'nl worlJ uf student politi"':s.
I It' prowl! 10 Do..: artkllhll\,.·. ,HId '1II1biliIJU:'. 1'.1:.!'>ionaldy 1l:ltiOII:t1isl.
hI,.' sto..:l.'red <lear ul Ihe (Unlnlllllists, who wert:' tile organized (If Ill\,.' slud<,'111
SUUlI aft.... f gr.lduatioll, Fidd bl'gall 11.IVdillg ill L.ltill AIlIo..:fll..I, llll·I,.'ting tJlhlT
radiGIln:ltiullillists alld learning abolll olher political rl·alilir.::.. Ilis most dr:lIl1ali("
l'xpenelKe camc ill in 19·IH, Whl'lI the urbitll riut uf tho..: !JogOltlZQ
turned Ih{· Lily upside dowlI for two Thl' triggt:'ring t:'\'t'1l1 had bCt:1I the:
as..a:.:>inatioll of a young and progressi\'t:' polittcian n:lI11cd Jorge Elil'cer C... it.ln.
TIll' populace rose as one and took ova iI cil)' who:>c ;Iuthoritit·.. h:11..1 i1bdiGllt:d in
terror. !-idel w..... swept up inlo Ihc wave of outrilgt' ,Iltd, III tltt:" prLKt:":':',
acquired a glimpse of Ihe of popu!.lr llIohiliz.1l iOIt.
Fidd Castro's un B.ltbla's :>tak "'-:Illlt:" str,liglll uul uflhe Iraditiun uf
rUlrHlIIlK Lalin ;\Illt'rican revoilltionarie:.. It wa:. an "'1I"Kk on tilt' 261h uf July 1953.
ag.:liml tltt: provincial .trlny b..trra...-k.. at MOlIl.II,.I,. in tht' city of
S'lllti.lgU. Fldd It'd a band of \65 who .. tort lied the Tile govt:rllmenl
r....:lCllon W.IS swili ruthlt:":.s. Th.... policl' bq;;111 :>I.lllghlt'ring :>U:>Pt'...:h. Fidd ;'llIJ hb
brother Ralll wo..:rl' t.-.lpturcd, trit-d, and selllellll'd III liltel'lI )'e:ilfS ill prison. !Juring
thl' lrial Fidd gave a lung, impassion....d. ramMing .. pt'r.:lh CHi.. tory WiJl Absolw
Mc·). little llolkt'd at tht: time but later to belulllt:.1 :>:I... red kxl 01 lht:" revolutlun.
The Caslru brolhr.:r.. \'It're lucky. Thcy .. 1.I)'ed ill prboll unly d ...·Wll llIo11th:.
before Batbt ... granlt'd ;Hllllt'sty in an attempt Iu l'Ourt public upinioll and 10
illlprove hi.. polilkul image. GiWll 1rCI,.·dolli , Fidd II II lIIt'dl:tt d)' lied 10
l\!cXlt.:O to begin org:lIlizing a lIew rt:'vulution:II'Y Inrll·.
In 1956 Fidd sci oul wilh a IIl'W band or ill Iltt' Grlll/tIIll, <Ill
:llldo..:nl With him \lIKe ag.1I1l wa.. hi.. brother It-u'd, 11l1}J°C 1'0Iilic:lII), radi..:al
thall Fidd. Also aboilrd was Ernl'sto GUt'vara, a hv""l1ty-seven-ye<lr-old
Aq.:\l'lltilll:' ph)'sidan whu had pl'l'solially lhr.: CIA-cundul.ll:d ovcrthruw
ul radically allti·AIllt'rican GuakllliJ!;1l1 prl,.·:.idl·lll Jacoho Albellz in 195'1. Afkr a
harruwing voyage, Pidd and his fdlo\\' SurvivUh Ht'd inll) lilt' Sit'rra Mal'.. lr:l in
l'aSle:rn Cub,l. horn this forsakell OUlpo.. l, Fidl.."! rdHiilt lebd band and ren.... wt:'d
Ill:. war agaillst Balisla.
Fuld and his top knew thaI a kt:y lu luppling Ualist.1 wuuld bt:" the
erosion uf the dictator's foreign supporl, IrOllt Ullitt'd Stales. Fidel's
l·Ollta.... ts found the perfect whidl': llerbt'rt Mallhcw.. , <l Vt'tl'r;'1Il lurcigll ..:orre:,pol1-
(kill ofthe New )fork Times. Matthews was :>lllugglt'...Iup Iu 1II0Ulll:lin hideuul
and from thl:'rl' wrolt' a st'ries ofstories whkh exploded 011 tltt' front page oCtile Illusl
prestigious Ilew.. paper in the Unikd SI.I!l:S. M:tllh.... dispatches por-
Ir.lyed I"idd ,IS an idealbtic refor me!' and gave 11Ir.: rebel:. illlt' statu:. over-
nigh!. Suddl-'nl)' Balista was on thl:' dcfclIsivt: in wurld publK upinion. I Ie was in that
most dangerous of realms-seen to be both brutal and impotent.
As Iheir ranks increased, Fidel's youthful folluwers t:ltColinkfl·d Iltt' h.trsh and
diflkult world ofCuba's peils:lntry. Tht: rdxb took a strong pt'oplc's
It wa:> the first principle of tht' gllr.:rrilla: rt't.lIJ1 tht' of the: local
nol only for but al:.u so they willllot bc:tray you to thl'
The rehel band was still. however. primarily middle class. A few pen"nnts
joined the rehels. but they never GUllC in Inrge numbers. and they never held
positions of lendership. This is hardly surprisi ng. Most revolutions in history h:we
been led by fl coulllerclite, This is not to say lhat participntion nnd support from
peasants was unimportant. RUI the Fidelistn phenomenon was middle cla."s in
origin nnd leadership. Its Inler directions were nnolher mailer.
Guerrill:l w:ldnre is :l lonely nnd dangerous business. Month nfler month
through 1957. the rebels l11anage{lthe e"senti;1.l-to survive, But they failed to score
seriously against the enemy.
Endy 1958 brought S(1me encouraging signs. In FebmaT)' the CUh;lll hishops
issued:l paslomlletler calling for a government of nationalunitr. In r\'fan:h the U.S.
government. under pressure for supplying arms to the repressive Batisln regime.
placed ;:m embargo on :lrlllS shipments to both sides. This move amounted to a
partial withdrawfll of legitimacy for the established government. After i1 general
strike f;lilecl in April 195R. Fidcl decided to hecome more i1ggrcssive. Ikltista's :lfllly
launched a "liquidation II1<\t resulted in disaster, By Augusl the :ll'Ill}'
h"d withdrawn from lhe mOllllt<lins. defei1led hy their own poor leadership nnd
fi1ulty Iraining i1nd hy intelligence :lnc! rledici1tion 011 the rehel side,
Through the rest of 1958. :l savage guerrilla war raged on. There were never
"ny sci It was i1 \.V:lr of hit-and-run. with bomhings. sabotage. :lnd
men!. lbtisli1's reSpOll!;e was counlerterror. Since he could catch the
guerrillas. he sent his against the students and Ihe middle class suspected
of having links 10 the 261h of luly Movement. In so (Ioing. Batista r;tpidl)'
enlarging the support for Fidcl. Ironically. the repression ended up :lllrading new
recruils to the rebel cause.
Support for B:ltista began 10 evaporate, I\S dictator his gre:ltest card to pIa)' had
i1lways been his ahility to keep order. Now even that was disappe:lring, B"lisla and
his arlllY were unprepared for the kind of underground th"t could elude Iheir
network of regular inf(lrlll<lnts, Torture and execution only sparked popular nllt rage.
By 1:'Ile 195R Batista had no desire 10 fight a losing cause 10 the end. I Ie could
sec th:'lt his power W:lS shrinking daily. His <'Irmy and police had become holh hated
:lnd derided. lie Iwd lost the all-importanl support from \¥ashington. And the
counlry had hecome so convinced of his fall that the economy was increasingly
disrupted as husinessmen and bankers waited for the inevitable. Suddenly. on New
Year's Eve. he called his :lides together. designated a president. and took
orf with a planeload of relatives for the Dominican Republic, The W:lY W:lS now
clear for Piders triumphal entr), into Havana.
EuphOl'ia is Ihe only word 10 describe the country's mood in the early d"ys of 1959,
Ficlellwd i1chieved genuine heroic status, The question now occupying the minds
of the middle workers. peasants. foreign investors. the U.S. embassy. and
other observers was. What kincl of revolulion would this be?
•• t IIha' "C}' I ninny tI".1 "'1.111' I \ :
Fidel enleret.l a politiGll vacuulll. The dvil W.ll h.ul nnl 1I1Il\' dl"'lll'lh" ,I
Batist:l; it hi1c1 hesmirched Ihe entire political t.!a"....11101 it .. 1ll1·llIhn.... III
or lesser degree. compromi'iet! hy the diclalnr. The Illtlllll'ntlllll 1I1l\\' I.I}' \\'llh lilt'
guerrillas in the green fatigue uniforms. The rehel .Irlll\, \\'.1'" I" r('IIMill till' 11'\
politic,,1 institution thcrenfter.
Fidel's weatcst as!'el. i1side from his llwn formid,lhlc Ic.ldcr... hq' }:ilh. \\',1\ till'
desperi1tc desire for change among his feIlOl\' (:uh:ln..... Tht' 1'll" ... 1 1111<1('11'1
Ihe rur,,1 poor. It"d never l.otlntc<! for anything in Ihe c1edol.d w<;lelll.
cJ:l"ses in the :mdto\\'ns had precious lillie I'Iwre welghl
The mO"1 restless :lnd Ill,,"t imp(ll'tant "ndal "'(Ylnr \\'.1'_ 111(' llliddle t I.,,,,,.
which W;'IS r(,;ld}' to recei .... e i1 new pnIiIK.llme""age. Ih 1'11(.·mht·'''' well·hl'.t 01 ..11
c1isgu<;led hy thl' old polil ic:ll c.h..lre. .sell)IHI. tlw)' wei C lIl(l\'cd h\' "l'l'c,d... 111I gll'.llr·r
social justit.e. Third. the}' longed lor:l mMe In(!cpCIl<lcnt (·'lh.l. Th.11 tllC,11l1 .1 t 111',1
freeroflhe Uniled $t:1les. Yel any :1"scrlilll1 "fCuklllll,llioll..I dlgnil\' W,\ ... h01l111ol
10 collide wilh the Yankee 1,,"('seluT.
1959 wa" a }'car of drama for Ihc Rev'llill i.'Il. 'rhe fll ... t tll.ljl'r 1"llilll,11 111'.1'.
<I rose over what to e10 with the 1:ll'lllrcd Bali.;t:1 offkial ... Willi 1,.1,1 hct'll 't·... I'.'I, .. il,I.·
for the worst of the !"epres!'iflll. The l"I'Vnlrltlnllaric!> 1l·... Olll'd I'l ."hlll.1I r 1'111. "
e1ures in trying their victims. appealing In ... C't1lilllctlh "f ""rtllll.lry 10'
legitimi7c Iheir execulioll". V\'itllin six nIl1l1th"..Ihmll ';'>11 \\'1"(' pill I•• tlt'.llll.
following trial hy v"riOtlS rCvllhltitlllary (llllrl<;, The"I..' CX('\Ullllll'.. 1111/11111.111',111\
cries of {'"retlau! (tn Ihe wall!). worried,.ltC'" III ('111),1 .lntl ,h"II' '>\"1I11'.lIhl/' I·,
;'Ihm.HI. e.specinlly in th<.· Uniled
III April 1959 Fidel "cl nut fpr New York. wheR' he \\'.1" 10 \'1'11 lilt' liN 111".1, I
qU"r!er". lie 111<11laged to pnljcctlltc im:lge Ilf i1 n,llltlll"II...1rdol rnn, <,trongh', '111"'\,t ,I
to foreign intervention. hut ;11,,0 lUll :'I I..nmlllUtli<>l , I Ie W,I" Ifl rn.lhll,IIlll'I,I\
cont,,(t \\'ith the ll.S. Anw'rnmenl ",hill' "killflllly \lllliv,Illllg dlt('. cr,l, I" "I
opinion Wilh, for example. a lrillmph"lll apl'c:"",ltll<: ill 11:1 1"\'.11 d :-'Lltlrlllll
Fidcl retuTlled In Cuha 10 CMfY (lut hi.; mll"l 1,ldll.1I lllf'.\'IIIl' til ,I,lt.·· tilt
Agrari"n ncforlll of May 17. 19'>1.) The l"w c1111111l.,tl'd lite 1· ... 1.111·...
expropri<lting nvcl' 1000 :Itrcs. with I,. Il" 1•.11,1 III
Cuhan currency hond.., No foreigncr ... w(lul.1 heilidoit II Iw .1110\\,('.1 In 11\\ 11
agricultuT<l1 land. The expropriated I:lIlds would he IUTIlell O\'el til .. m.,l1 1'11\',111'
holders :lnd cooperative". ANal inn,,1 of Agr.H"ian (I I{ 1\) \\ .1'"
created to implement the"e far-real.hing me.l"ures. (:1 itlt ... III ('lIh.1 .lInl .1I111l... !.
especially in the United St<ltes, hegan 10 r;Jise Ihe abnn, \\1.,<; Ihi ... nol Ihe IlI ... 1... tt·I'
10 cOlllmunism? Hadn't Fidcl appointed a communi ... 1 a.. lht' fJl'eT.lling he.\.1
of INRA?
Pol it ic:l I polari7A,lion heighlened throughoul the ycar, Fidel allllflllilled thr
discovery ofa 1'101 ag"inst the Re....olution. Noncomlllunists " Illl Illg Iht' "llllll"II('I'"
of Batista's overthrow hecame increi1singly <l1<ll"llled. A fonner pre"itlellt .,j lilt'
Senate atlacked Ihe agrarian reform :lnd called for Ihe election" \\'hit h I;i. lei h.l,1
promised, The commander (If the i1ir force resiAllcd in prote,t ll\'C"I" .1Ikg\·lll' IIlIII'll1
nist influence in the milil:1ry.ln July Fidcl."l:lgrd whnl \\';1" 101 IW(f111.... ,IICtlllH'1I 1
1',\ltl 1\\,11" ..,tE
III' . ill the llIilbt of what he as conspiracies
.1 •.tlll.t. u.' II,; 1'11.: I I r II - I
- -I'll 'r' fullowed rallies. Wlere t Ie care: II y prun",(
Illl.' Ih.· ... o ullun. t c: . '11 d
"I I - 11-110,-1--,1'110 n.:lurH lu tht' premiership. He bOWL"C1 to tht:lr WI <til •
Illli 11111•• ...1 II .
111 ..0 t1uillg, allllUtlllll,d a lengthy tllOnlhJriulll un
I. . . - 'til'll would lor Illany becollle' a hallmark of
'rhl'rl' W.l'> IIU\\' vrewIllg.1 . .. ,
Ill ..' Ikvollltltlll'S radicalization. tvlajur Ilubt:rl Matos. one o.f I"del:.
] ,dlit'" ,Illd a IUllgtillll.;' rt'volutiunuy, (hose to bn:ak the hdelJst:l
II m' I It- Inigllnl !lUlil till,.' ,Illlll'd lUI ..:cs alld a h:lt.el: "1t ..\'t.h
- , ",II""llet' Fidd\ rC:'llunst' was He JU,h:d Matus and mubl
o . I .
II/nl;l hugc pftll'.lg:tnda co.llupaign ag:tinst him .l,!, a traitor tu tht: !{evo utlon,
' I- - I- - I' 1'111 tvhtus lucked away in prison. remained for the
I'ul t I..' nt'xt • I,. ...HI,; .1111,. .1 I. • ' , , .. •
l,d,.ll .. t.1 fl'gUII ..· thc of revolutiona.r y many
Matos relllained the quintessential vlCtlln of Stalinist-style
..' _ f b
Iii.' YI,;'.l1 I<}f,U provcd Iu bt' cven mure de":lslvl.' .101' () tht: eu an
Ih'vlllulllIll. I'our ha:.ic tr..'nds look huld: (I) lht: nationalization of the
- I ,S -" "'0' (3) the c:'stablishmenl of an aUlhontarwn
(.!) .1 1.11(' lu til.: UVlc U l, . .
- I I (I) lhe hunchinI' or an t:galitari<.1ll socioeconomic pohey,
I 'II 1,.' • 0 'Cb
It illl'vitabic thai any Cuhan govcrllllH:111 allelllptlllg to rC<.ISsert 1I:1I1
U'lltful uVt'f ib ..'(unolilY would ('ollidt: wilh the Unikd Statt:s, Tht: major
- -I WI - 1'- I -I h ld discovered that he could buy crude 011 cht'apl,.·r
ll.I .. II ....IIIIt"UVI,.·IUI. 11,.11 Ill,. , . .
I 1< 1
11"" 1'
-0111 VI,;'l\l''l.uda he urdered the U,S.-owned otl
11\1111 t I..' • -.
l"l.lll".1 ill Cuh.1 Iv 1111,;' RU33i.lll crud1.', Although an old law obligated th:m
It) I,.UllIl'h', thl")' refused. Fidel promptl)' confiscatt:d Iht: U.S. oil compallles,
1'.lrti:lIl)' i'll ret:lIiatiun. Ebenhower suspended the Cuban sugar quota
ill Ih" lIlIilcd Statl.'3. ,
'1 Ill' ( :uhall govl,.'nlllll,.·llt IIOW lullo\\'eJ by seizing viftuall,y ulltllc rcsl of ,s.
l'l"la'''')'. '1' Illl..lud..... l dcctrh.ily and ldepl,lolle (.,IHother prlllle
irril.lllI tn the lIalitll1alists), mills. and lllCkel 11111lCS, Washlllgton reactt:d
Ii)' l'lllh:lrgoilig all lradl' In Cuba, t:xcept
"'JlIh:lIl{u would I.llcl hI,.' in remal1l In phlU: fOJ
lu "IHllt'. .
Thl' ltJ thc Soviet blut.: \....IS neither a cause nor an effect 01 the c1a3h
Willi 1111,.' United Stale:.; it p:lrt.lllJ pared of the same it W.1S:l
, - '-I O'Y ,-" 11,t' Sovicb mil-ht bl' ",iIlilw to commit III Cuba.
'IUI,.'3 lUll tl 1 .. 0 0 II
'1'111' pn.wt'J holda ;:lnyone expected. In 1960. we
(,durl,.' lht' full e":ulltllIli..: brt'ak with the UniteJ Slates, the Soviets a tmde
,1l!.f'e"'IIH'nt with Cuha. $IUO million credit to buy
pnJlliising 10 purchase 4 milliun tons of sugar in each of the COlllll1g rou.r years.
Fidd was Ilt)\\' all alternative sourCe of
.llld thc SlIvil'ls Wt'rl,.· gl'lting ready tu intl,.·grate Cuba as a socwllSI ally In the
'Illird World. .
Ih'vulutiunary Cuba's slatl,.· was l,.·l1ll'fging in a piecemeal. ad hoc
hdd Ih:gan hy pruclaiming his commitment to Ihe 1940 constitution, which
B.llbtOi had rl,.·IHltli.lted b)' hb ((luI' ul IY52. Thc pluhlelll was.1 UIII,.·: huw
to Glrry uut fUllJ.tlllclllal eCOJlomk and 30dal ..:h.lngl,.· when illg gOVt:fIllllcnl
institutions wert' St'l up 10 lIIainl,lin the quu. Fidel re3ulvt'd this
with authuritariall effidellcy, as:.crling rt·vnlutioll.lfy ... ulltrol uvcr hoy ill3litu-
Iions of tIlt' "bourgcois" urder-tht' J111,.·dia, courts. unions, univasities. and
Though thc uld :>ySk'lIl reillaillt:d ill plact', thal' lIt'WI" all)' atkmpt 10
clect a ne\\' k'gisl,ltlln:, The 26th ur }uly Mm'CIIlI,.·lIt (nuld h.lrdly prOVide .111
It had lIeVt:r dt'v('lopl,.'d into ;1 lighlly knit urgalli/atiull. aud it
\Vas hlr from a political party. From tIll' sian. Fidd rdic.. 1un lhc JIIu:.t r....
and popular institulion at hand: the revolutionary Mill)',
I..He in l'JbO thc gOVt'f1I111t.·nt Cl"eal('t! an ilnporl<.lnt Ill'W
COilll11illees fur the Ddcnse of tht· Revolutioll (CORs), Locally dli'l.eIl3·
groups, they wcrt' urganiud primarily civil ddt'IlSt.'. Thl,.· COlbt.lllt Ih!"I,.·,lt of
such a Illc:asurt'. Sinn' tht' J{evl)lution also had t'1I1'1llil."3 <.II
humt', tht' CDRs also had the lask of monitoring thl,.· populatioll fur (tJunter
revululiollar)' 0lliniuns ur behavior.
The Revolution Sd (.luI 10 (" ..e:ltc new instilulitJll:-i ill pl.Ke of the old. FiJt:1
st'cillcd 10 be everywlll're, Mubili'l..ltiull W:h IhI,;' illl,;'xor:thll' thl'lIlc: IlIObili'l.<.llion
against mobilization sudal and econumic prulJlelib at hOIllt'. To
:!chieVl' goal, a huge militia wa,!, I..fe:ltl'd: by thc I,.·nd 01 IY6U il 500,000
nut 01 a total pupubtioll of 6.7 1I1111ioll. Alid nOIiC I,.·uuld doulu Ihe Itlelltil)' 01 thc
COllllll:lndt'r-11l-cll ic[
The unly polilk.ll p:tl'ly tu Sllrviw the rcvolutiull.lI"}' tran:-itiull thl,.' Cuban
Communist Part)'. Never a lllcmbcr. Fidd had ":'lrt.'fuJly .lvoiJl'd :Ill)' pasullal
idt'ntific,ltion with the part)'. Hut hc Illade il c1car that .llltkonllllunblll wuuld be
consic!l:!"I,;'d ..'ouillerrt'vululiullary. lie also cnlntstnl part)' with such
as agr.triilll rl'lUl'Ill,
,,"Vhal most CUb.IIlS carcd "bout \Vas [lot puJili..:al slrllctllrl' hili ho\V till'
Rt'volulion would dlangc their liv..·s. On scure. Fidel ami his guerrill.l
kept thdr eyes fixed Oil thc pour, t'SpC..:i.llly in th.., l..uulltrysidc.
The revolutionarie3 wcrt' ddermilh'd to :1l1ack Ihe legac), ur tht' currupt.
capitalist Cub::l: illiler"ll")'. malnutrition, and dilapidated housing.
A yearlong crusad(' clli illiteracy ratl,.·S in half(Cuba\ illikfacy r<.ltc was alreaJ)'
low by Latin AllleriGl1l standards). and illiteracy virluall)' disappe.lfcd SilllC
then. Sensing the direction of the Revolution. tht: ridl (and mall)' from tht'
middle class) bCg'HI tu flt'c. and Ihe govl,;-'rnmellt <Icquircd a windfall: lhc
refugees' abandoncd assds-homes, offices. farllls-thnt the- st.lle could now
The IllllnLer or defecturs steadily grew, Most attacked the gucrrillas
fur betraying the hopt' of rapid dl·ctiolls. Insll.'ad, they charged. Fi..ld and
his dillue werc leading Cuba tow<.lrd communisl totalilariunislll. Must prob-
\lbly were Othcrs also thought it the bt'st tactic to arouse the
United States.
1;\(. PAWl IWO" (A\1 (IIJ\Nt,l·tlVFnTIMI
The Cllhan He"olulion to Ihe Uniled States. Afler U.s.
jllllicylll;,kcrs had !lIng daimed 10 havc relationship with Cuh,,-\,"hich,
in effect. mennt conlrol of the isl;md's destiny. As John QuinC)' Adams put il so
famously in 1R23. -There MC laws of as well as ph)'sical gr:witalion: and if
apple scvcred hy Ihe telllpcst fmm its native tree cannot choose hut f"lIto the
grnlllld. Cuha. forcihly disjoined fwm ils own lInn"tural connection with Spain,
nnd illl•.•lpabic of self supporl. (all onl)' toward" the NtH,th American
Union. whid1 by Ihe same law of nature ("nnot her off from her hnsom,- (In
Ihl' cl1d. r:Kinl prejudice prevented outrighl nnnexntirm of the islnnd-how (.ould
the United Stales nh.sorh su\.h :l "tlbst:llltial hlru:k population?) But Ihe hask
C(lIlSCllSUS W:1S dear: olle W:lY nr the other. ;1" eilher ;l stale or a prote\.·l11rate,
Cuha rightfully helonged tn Ihe United Stales,
In Ihi" spirit, lkl'uhli(:tll" :tnd vOlifemusly dellCllllllcll 1:i<ld
( :,Isl m's upstart The lIot inn this slll:tll-si;ted pl:1I1Ial ion Sll\. irt)' could
ch:tllenge Wnll Sireel's inve"lmenlo;; :Illd \o\'a.. hington·s :Hllllflrity w:!.s deellled to he
:\hsnilltcl)' galling, It ch;llIcnged cOllventional wisdom :!.hollt Ihe hene\'olence of
U,S, powcr, Ihe solidarit)' of Ihe Western Ilcmisphere, and ahoul the forces
.,f hislnric.ll ch''IIlgc. Given Ihe dyn:\lllics of the Cold something hnd to he
The U.S, go\'cfIlment dc"el()petl nntirevnlution:\ry policies in (lVer time,
A<; Fidel and hi .. foIlO\..'crs wer\.· "till lighting in Ihe IlltHlillains. the Ei ..cnho\\'er
rntioll heg:ll\ lor :lll :lltefll:ttive preservation .,f the <;Ialll" <luO
tinder another pro-Alllericnn :\utoer:lt. under the fonnub of
without B:tlist:l," The <Iictator's sudden dep:lrtllre al the end of 195R hrought
Ih:tt option to :til end,
After Ihe triumph of Ihe Revolution. (:nstro's naliona!iz;lti0n of Allleric,\1l-
owned enterprises offered grollnds for govcfIlmcnlnl overthrow (:lS in Cualemal:l
in 19S4). Whilc diplolllntk hostilities intensified. U,S, political lc:tdcrs decried
whnt l!ley as Ihe leftward drift of this onetime protectoralc. only ninel}' mile..
ofrthe r10rida coast. intolhe orhit of the Sovict Union, Washington cOllld simply
not ahide a ·comllHlIlisl wilhin the Western llemisphere, This was the
thinking th:\t prompled the Eisenhower :tdlllinisiratioll 10 sever diplomatiC rel:!.-
lions with Cuba in J:lllllary 19t1l. and to planning for an effort 10
overthrow Ihe Castro govcrnment.
The most ohvious strategy for \Vashington W:l.S 10 support exile invasion of
l.llh:t, Th:l.t was how Jose M:uti h:td returned 10 Ihe island hack in 1895, nnd it was
lhe siandnrd stralegy in C"rihhean-exile politics, In jul)' 1960. the C.IA convinced
President Eisenhower to approve the of an force,
The ·toughness" of U,S, policy toward revolutionary Cuba becaBlc an issue in
the 1960 presidellti:l.l ,,,mpaign. which rcnturcd Eisenhower's vice president,
Richar(l Nixon, :tlld the rcl:!.tivcly unknown senalor from M:l.ssachllsetls, John
Kennedy, Inlhcir ftrsllelevised deh:lte, Kennedy lOok a more :l.ggrcssive
stance 10w,Ird Cuh:l th;:111 NixOIl-\'I.·ho k1ww olll1c ill\' ... ioll 1,1' I
• .11l. llli \\'.1', trlllhl"
10 acknowledge it in puhlic. .
II was Kennedy, Ihe oslensihl), tougher \.andul.lle who \\'on II,,· .. I
. I.' . , . 1". "II I fl' ,
and 1Il1erlted the (,uh:tn prohlem, Eisenllll\\'er broke Iii" I'· I
. ( 11111.1 H 1(" ,111.111 .. III
jallll:l.ry 1961. III response 10 Fidel's demand th.11 the Unilcd .... ",. I II
d' , . \ .. , 1.1 .. 1"" \.
re uce lis emh:lssy III 11:\\1:111:1. In AI,ril Kellllcd)' I "" I I "11
, .,. , ' II ( 11111"( 1'1 c..... II ",1 I"
"ppro\e an exile l,nVaSU)Jl of (,llh:l. \V:lIlling III (Ill hi ...lllti\,"lIlIlIHtll .. 1 dllh 1'111
fearflll of the posslhle cffe(1 1111 wOlld IlI'inioll Ihe Ill'W I'r" .. i I·" I· "
, . " I 1 \ Illl,lll' nllh.ll
there he 110 Idenllll:lhic U.S. in\'ol,'ellleill II I'rovr' 1 I·
. 'II " ,Ill 11"1111 ,llld t..tdld
The BCJY of Pigs
rumors nHl lll1ted.;ltl il1\l;l .. inl1 "Int· 11c1I1c.1 I", ,',,1, \.,
, ,.1III j pll l'lld 'I h,
oper:llioll proved :l misadvclllure Irnlll !he 1)('/'11111111/' 1\11,·, '1 ' I I
) , . .' Il 11111111" , c' I,ll, ,
I resldcnt Kcnnedy reduced the nile piloted ,Iii' lon'I .1Il.! Vt·I.,\"I",,·, . I
US I "" I". " ,111\
.. , p :IlleS, I lC ITlvaders fOllndcrc(! in nil ill hll .. I "11",1, .", , I
R f r .. 1 1".1" .• -11 I ...
I Ig... I he hoped-for 111'f1"illt-:... whidl \\'I'ul<l "lll'l"I"I',II"/"II.II\'/c Ih,· ( ,,1',111
defenders. ncver malerialiled. The CUh,11l 11HI\·....d 1I10lC ,I", I. .
'1'1 _' " I' . I .It <'llI·lll
1e 1Il\:tSlOIl lflg<1des wcre <JlliLkl)' <.,II'ltll"(,(1. Thn' 11('\,('1'1" I , I I
I . f: III . . •. l 1.1111 (' In .1. fil'l
t H'>lr,.:t ,:ck proccdllre-he:ld for the mlllllll,1 in" .11111 mlllllli .1 glICI' 111.1 I 'I'CI,III' 'II
I hc I a)' of Pigs COllid nul havc heen a ).:1'(':llrr Inllllll,h f.u I·, I·' 1 I
I' ." \ •.llil III
revo tlIIOn:lfle..s, fhe Unile(1 h.ltl fill:llir "IHIWllll" 1I111'Il!ll'II.. llll.(' wh.11 11,1, I
had nlwn)'" S<1ul Ihey were: a (Ic.. ire to 1111 n Ih' I k I k I I
" I \"t. '.'\ III ( 11 l,l. 1\ 111"11,:11 II ..
h:ld tfled In .scrcen flul Ihe mort.: 11II".IV.I')' ex B.III"',1 1)"1.(·... Iht' '11\" .. 11'1',
IIlclud('d more thall :I few who Imd <;C'rn'd lhl' di I" , I· 1·1 I I
. \ ., ", II ( .Illl " .. s"I'I"'III'I"
sClzed on those namcs 10 pro\'(' Ih,l! Illlilcd \1'" , .,
. I' d ' . \ .. \\,,," \ \ In /c.. !nJ(' III<'
(lScre< lie Iyrant.
The Missile Crisis
Thc f:liled inv:lsioll marked a walcl'"hed in II \ ('"h", ,'('1,,', "" \\1 I 1 .
, ,., " •... lit II' "II '.
ohvl:us slrntegy h:td failed, \·Vh:ttl)l'll()n .. WI'!"C Idt '''1 thl' lillilcd :"1.1;;",)
." fhe ISsue now shiflell to the le\'el of Ihe Slll'crl'<lWCI,>. III 1')(.0 1111.'
had rallied Soviel missiles ill dcfen..c lit (:llh,lIl '>11\.1.111 .. 111 '1111"
thereafter decided Ihey Illllsi hack III' Iheir th,(':I1 hy pUlling llli<;.. dc.. III
Cub:l Iiself, and b)' Octoher 19(,2 II . II'
b _ . 1 ley were IIlsla IIlg 'Ilterme(li,lle 1.lllgC IlH kl'l
ases This waS:ln unl'receclcnled ch:lllenge 10 Ihe hn\.llIll' of lI11hl.lI\'
power. 1he United St:lles dem:lnded Ih"llhe Soviets wilhdr,l\v !lIcil l1li .... ile.. hOlll
Cuba. under sanction of a "" , .' II' • • \:1 <jualal1l111e on a nll/ll.11'" .. lllplllrlll .. tll
The world seemed 10 011 Ihe edge of lluclenr W:1I, J\llrl ,I LllrllIl
Khrushchev complied. The mis!'ilcs were wilhdr:twu.
superpowcrcol1frnntalion ill Ihc C,rihhe:Hl hnd l.lternl illlpli.:llion.. I",
U )3, hrst Fidel himself . I , ..
" ,W.l,S not cnnsu le( al an)' I he re"lIlt W:I': 10
uba, In 1..11il1 Americ:lI C . IS' I"
S ,1 yes. III 0 a. oVlcl snlc I1le III r",..cnlial .. nlllilv 1ll.1Iln ..
econd. Ihe Soviets wilh" ,. .., I
• , In.::W t \('11' rnl.SSles on)' h('\.';1I1se hl'\I('II,)
,\"1 "IUPII" UIANI,1 tlVUt 111\.11'
I',\HI IWu w I
t 3'.1
illku!::. .ll1d
Miami :I::. a
uver lOllllllllllblll. Fur pr.ld1l'.11
Ih..· ilnti·Fiddbta COlllllHluity III
ul Ihe ::,upl'fiurily 01 l·apil.tlislll
\VilShillgtOIl rl'gardnl
guvcfllrllclli ill {'xiiI..'.
This long-terlll rdianct' Ull Cuban dissidl'nts would kWl' 1".lldul
Onl' was to give til(' Cuban Aml'fit.:an community ill Miallli illordillak inllu... ncc
uver U.S. policy toward Ihe Castro regimc, As thl'ir lltllllher::. grew and prosperilY
swdled, tile exilcs IOfllu:d a power(ul polilkallorct' within thl..' o(Flllrida. Alld
through a light-wing urgani1atioll known .IS Ille Cllb.l/I t\lllt:'I"ll..'ali
FounJ.l1ioll, Iheir bilh:r1y-allll dfectlvdy-oppollt:'d rd.lx.ltivil 01
hoslilitk::. toward Ihe rcvoluliull;lry govcl"l Illlell I. 'I'u <l l'UIlsld",ral)le l'xll.'lll,
Cuban American:. in Miami managl'll Iu tie the hands 01 dClll'd polith..iall::' ill
An addilional CUllst'<jl1l·nt.:1.' was I..'utirdy lInintclltion.t1: Ih", U.S. polil y cJlablnl
Castro 10 export his oppositiun. Over tinh', Fidd's lIlust vuciferuus aitks wert:'
vbligl'd (ur l.'llcouraged) 10 k.lw Ihe.: ,,--olllliry. A::. .1 re.:::.ult, IhI..' 1Il0::.1 rt'::,uIIll.dul
("l.'llkr of di::.lIidt:'lIct' Willi nowht're 10 be found Within Cub.l; il W.I::. III tviiallii.
lronically.tlds prU(l'::'::' provided CaslfO wilh a pulitkal sali.:ly valVl'. II abu .1Ilownl
hilll to taint his 0PPOIlClllll as unprincipled ufthe tltht:'r1..iIld, a.::. 0PPtlrtu-
nistic gusllnos (worms) ralher th:m luyallllbmlOs. Words were.: ullporl.11l1 we.:apun:.
in Ihe struggle::. over Cuban dl'stiny,
U.S.-Cuhan rdalioll:. took an llllCXpl't.:lt:l1 lurn ill AIIl'l :Illli-(:a::.lro
Jbsidt'lilS storml.'d tht:' Pl'ruvian emballsy ill hup('s or g.lilllllg pulilil..';d asylulll,
Iht:' Cuban gUWflllllt'llt rl'talialcd (ilgain::.1 Peru) by withdrawlllg it::. sl'...-urily gUMJ
around Ihe diplomalit.: compound, Word sllddl'nly sprt'ad Ihal Ihe l'mbassy w.!::.
unguarlkd, ;.llld within hours IOAWO Cubans rushed 01110 the.:
groundll. The Castro gO\'t:'fl1mt'1l1 imllOlillce.:d that thc)' would <III be allowt."d 10
l'migrak, along with anyolle dse who c;lrt:'d 10 infoflll aUlhuril ies. TIll..' Inl.lll'xodu::.
eventually climbed to 125,000 peuple.: (including t.:riJllinab deadbcilt::.).
Dl'partillg rrom lhl' port of M;uiel, must went vi,1 ::.JlIaJl cralt proVided by the
Cuban Americal1 ill what b'..'l".tnH.· KnUWn.1::. thl' "t\larid bOillhlt: Alter
thai, Ihl:" Castro gowrnnlcnt pruhibill'd llllauthorizI..'d 1..'1lligr'IIiuII tronl Cuha to Ilw
United Slates.
The third and final pillar of U.S. policy toward was all economi(
embargo, In lale 1960 Pre-sid... nt Eisenhower imposed a partiid tr;,tde embargo 011
Cuba. excluding food and mt'dicinl'. The Foreign Assislanct: Act of 1961 pruhib-
ilcd aid 10 Cuba ilulhorized the presidt'lll 10 impose·a tOlal t'mlxlrgo upon all
traJt'n with Cuba, which John Kennedy did in respoll::.e to C.lslro·s t."xprupnaliolls
of properties (notably. Ihose belonging to the Ullited Fruil Cump•.IIly
alld International Telephone and Telegraph). This took pl;;K'" in February 1962-
months before the missile crisis of that
The embargo remained in plact' t'Vt.'f sinc\.:'. In 1992 it W.lS ..:udilll':'d inlo law
for the staled purpose of Mbrillging dl'lllocraC)' to the CUb'lll people." In 1996
Congress passed the Helms-Burton Act, further restricting U.S. dtizt'llS frolll
doing business in or with Cuba, and ill 1999 Prl'sident Bill Clinlon amplilied Ihe.:
TI,e Hardening of U,S, Policy , ' , 'I' '
, I , I ( 1111 I..... fl..'volulHJlhlry lIot OJlly IIltl'lI::.dll:d U.S.
I II..' :'lIlIYIV.I" ' . . ' I I, The
"" I Illlliq' to\'\'ard I.atlll Amenca as a W lU l.
IIV t.l::.u.1 1..1.. ll.. • l'> • S' 'I
' . . C lb·t::. Nu lllUrl' socialist i:xpl'nmcnls, no OVh:
I..I'UII II ,lIl·lui,>l..· bl..'l;l II II.."110 IIhlll..
1 • .' I' I
' 'I I " A III llle lulltc:xl urille Cold \0\ ;,II', tilt' UllItCI
'Ill'l'd,>, 1I11.lull '\lll('III...IIIII..I..'Vtlbll:::'. ...,
I..1'uld nol .lIld \'\'\lIlId nl'! pl'flilit .IIIY ::.mll fvrm::. 01 I II::.
lIvi Ih'll I'rovidnllhl..' IIJr :.uhse'llit'llt oVl'rl or CO\'ert mter
I." l . I bl' (1""5) l'hil-(11J73) Grena<;1
II, ,1,1 ( 1
",.,1) 1111; I )UI II III ll."aJi {l'PU II.. ;.-0.,..... c ,
Vl'HIIl'II'> III., . . ebb' '.
, I ' (II' Itllhl'e}'l'sol \'V.1::.hlllglon, u a t'calllc
(l'nUL.lIldl l·nll.l t\llIl..lIl.1 II .
.111 uh'l..·d 1..'::''>1111 1111 Ille hl..·IlIl:.pht:'rl..·. . ".
A::. hI!" .. :uIM, IhI..' U.S. gll.t1 ... -bringing thl' rt:'gulll.'. I
1111 "-'Ihl, ,\llIl·III...1I1 1'"II":yll1.lkl'r::. pllr:,ul'll ,I 01 ul.',;del
l..I II", "111'(1"11 11Ir ldugn·....11Il1 ami,lIlgulatlulI 01 lhe CUJaIl
. '11t'llly nll':-l' l'lIltlll':'o no·IlI,llnl.'d in pl.ll·I..· luI' dCGldt."lI 10 t.:ome.:. _
ll\ I Ill' ;11 .. 1 ,>Ir.llq;)' W,I::. \lrinliliw: a::.::..lssinah: C<lslro. AI Ihe bd,lCSI 01
WllIIl' IIl>uw, IhI..' CIA urdlt:':'oll,lkd llluhipll..' ami <lltempt::.. Such plots
,1 ,. "'IJllIdill" d •••11 .1 lunval-infedl'll diving SUil, and gangland-style
Illl Illl:I..,l ,. () {'>, 0 .. II b' "
. . .. _\,' b 'Inti lu::.1 cuntrul o( prollta) l' U::.IllCSSCS III
::.11I111111IlJ,. (AllIl..·lll,lll J\ .1 1.1 v::.::.\:::. • . ". '
I 'I
," '\' Illtiun ,>n Ihl'y Wl'rc .IS ...ager as the pO!lUChlllS to
II.\V.IIl:l ."" .1 11·.... 1I I II I It; "l U , .
' ' ,) 1\ urdin,' tu fOfllll..'f St:'CUflIY
Il·1I111\1·l..1.... 11U ItUllil II: :'ol..llll:. 1.-1.. 0 . . ' "
, I "I,' IA tUlIk dill'll II!' 11Illin:":1 pari in638 a::.:.aSSIIHltIUIl eCtort::. ag.lln::.t lUll
III .1\., Il , . . . .' I'
• 1\ ", 11'0 b rt'llUrll'd to Iwvl.' ::.aid, "II survlvlIlg assas::.llla Ion
\lVl'!" \ II..' :'0 ...... :'0 "
.I!h'lllpb \\,l'l'I..' all OIYlIlpi.. e\'l'III, I would will thc guld medal. .... A
Till' hdtind Illc::,\.:' .11Ie.:l1lpb wa::. .IS tlawt."d a::. Ihe ... XClutIOIl:. I h,1:
'"1',1"'11111.1111 'I::':'lUlllllll\JlI 1\';1::. IIl,II C.uba·:'l rl.'vulutionary .. nl \vas s
' "',.,.,, ,I,,'Olll.h till' 1,II'(l' 01 his dwr'l(lcr-unlrusl wOlthy, ruthless, and
pl'!'>Oll,1 lll·. . 0 ,.' .. \. I
ht:' t.. kl'n hb cuuntry aw.ty Imm.-ts
1.11111111.111: hUll and I..'Vl·1 )'\hlllg would Ch.1l1gl·. \Vhal II11S logiC r.HIt'd to :h..knu,\ I
nl 'I..', III 1\\'e.:\'l'l. WI.'I I.' IIll' 1.lctufS uehind thc revulution: illCllu<t1il )', Irusll"lllun, long-.
h '.1 . • •. I ,opu!;,Ir su,'port for !)rograms 01
:'ollllllll..·llllg ul U.S. uunllll.. UOIl, all'- I . .
1.ldit.. .. 1 ..:h.llIgl;'. Thi::. .Ippro.ll h .. bo got 11ll' U.S. government mto Ihe lhstasteful
, , I, I f ·tatt:' 'l laClk that was later
vi .llklllpllllb Iu ;1::.::..1::.::.111-111:" IOrclglI ll.l( sus "
dn.l.unl ulll.l\vrul by all ad orColIgrC::'lI. .'
'1'111..' lI1..'lVlld I>rll.ld ::.tratl..'gy W'IS 10 I'lIIbr.u.:e Fidel's opponents. 11I11t'
vi Lblllll.I'lI llt'pal lure.: ililak 1'J58, the UlliteJ 51,tlcs welcomed eXiles and
rdugcl:"::' with UPl'Il arms. And tht')' GlIlle by thc IhOllS:.lnds, settling (or Iht' I ill lite Miami ,Irl·.l-whae.: they furn1t'd a vibrant and successful.
, I I 'b 'I .' 'y beachside resort Into a multi-
C\'l:"lItll.llI)' II ;In::.luflillng w 1.\1 lal ('ell a s 1:"-'1 .' '. •
lillgU.11 M
il.i1 vr Al1Icri..:a." Thl..' U.S. guvt'rnment lUHh:d all dissidents
, I 13 "'" I,"'ration W;;lS carried out by antl-
lfenlvlli llghtn::. (r(,lIll'll1bl'f, t It' ay II Igs 0 C • "
(:,I::.tru CUb.llI::') ilnd procl.lillied thaI Ihdr l'xodus provided unnllstak.. blt:' proof
III tllIll ....l·d II \'\'\lul..l Jlul IlIv.ldl..' Cuh... '1'111.: h.ld
.IIIII\'\' 1111..' '>1'1..1.111,>1 I..':\I'l'IIIJllAIlIIII Clll,.1 Iv pllll..l·ed.
1.16 I'AWI·IWO. ,,
The Cubrl" Revolution utterly unrlcccptrlble 10 the United Strltes. Arter all, U.S.
\l;",d long drlillled to lwve ;l relat illnship" wit h Cuhn- whi<. h,
in dfect, tIleant LCltltl'Ol of the destiny. As John Quincy Adams put it so
falHously in are laws ofpoliticrll as well:-ls physic;].1 gr.lvit:l.tinn; and if
;11l apple severed hy lhe tcmpest frol11 its Il<llivc tree (<l1l1l01 c110()Se hut fall to the
grCll1nd. (:Uh;l, forcihly disjoined from its own unnatllral connection with Sp"in,
and inclpah1c of self "uppnrl, <nil gl':-Ivitate only tnwards th<.' North /\nH.'rkan
I Jninl1. whit h hy th(' samc In\\' ()f n;11l1rc (:lllllnt Gl"l her off from her (In
thc cl1d, r,,(inl prejudice prevented outright annex<ltion of the island hem' could
the United ahsorh sHch a substallti:ll hlack population?) Hut the hask
consensus was Llear: one wa)' or Ihe olher, as eilher a slate or a protectorale,
Cuha right full)' belonged 10 the United Stntes.
In this spirit. Hepuhlican!- <lnd Democrats vociferously dCllounccd Fidd
IIp!-I:,rl regime. The notion th:\1 this plantntion society cnuld
challcnge \-"nll Streel's and \.Vnshington's authority \\'ns deemed tCl he
ahsolulely galling. It chnl1cnged <nnventional wisdom <thout the henevolence nf
ll,S. pnwer, ahout the solidnrity nflhe \"'estern 1lc'misphcre, <llld aholll lhe
of historilall hauge. (;ivcn the dyn;lmic.; nf the Cold \,Var, sOl1\cthing had tn he
The t I.S. gm'e!'llment developed anlirevollltioll;lry policic!- in stages ovcr limc.
As I:ickl :1nd hi.; followers werc still fighting in Ihe mountain:>, lhe Eiscllhm.... cr
;1drninistrntiol1 beg<ln searching for;1n allernative-prc5erv;ltion nflhe status quo
llnder nlJOlher pro-American ;1t1IOCI'<lt, 11nder the formula of "13fllisfiallisnw
without The dictntor's sudden departure <It the end of 195R hrought
Ih;1t option to <In end.
After the triulllph of the RevolutiCln, Cnslro's n<ltion<lliz<ltioll of American-
nWllcd enterprises offered grollnds for governmellt<ll overthrow (as in CU;ltcm.,la
in While diplOlll;1tiC hostilities intensified, U.S. pCl!ilic;ll 1c':·,ders decried
wl1:1t they S(lW a.<; the leflw;1rd drift of this onetime protector"te, only ninety miles
offlhe Florida coas!. into the orbit of the Soviel Union. V/;"lshington could simply
not ahide a "communist he<lchhead" withinlhc Western Ilcmisphere. This was the
thinking th;lt prompted the Eisenhowcr administrnlion to sevcr diplomatic rela-
lions with eU!>;l in !:lrHl:lry 1961, and 10 :lccclerate pl:lI1ning for all effort to
overthrow the Castro government.
The mosl obviolls stralegy for \,V<lshinglon W;lS to support an exile invasion of
Cnha, That wns how Jose M:lrll h<ld returned to the isl;1nd hack in 1895, and it \\,;1S
thc standard str3tegy in C;1ribbean-exile politics. In July 1960, the CIA convinced
Prcsident Eisenhower to approve the t raining of an invasion forcc. ;:
The ofLJ.S, policy toward revolution<1r)' Cub:! beC11l1e an issue in
Ihe 1960 presidential Lampnign, which featured Eisenhower's vice president.
RicJwrd Nixon, and lhc rc1<ltively unknown sen;1lor fnllll Mnss;lchusells, John \.
Filzger;11d Kennedy.lnlheir Ilrsltc1evised dehale, Kellnedy look:l more aggressivc
stance loward Cuha Ihan Nixon-who kncw nl the ill\"I<;illl1 1,1", I, , , I
' '. 11 \V.I" 11'1.1 "
to ncknowlcdge it ill puhlk.
II wns Kennedy, Ihe osknsihly IUlll'hcr 1;lIlllidlte who W"II 11,,· I
. I' " , 1'1' '''Ie "11' \
alll 11llenled lhe Cllh;].n prohlcrn.
I:i... ellhower hroke dil,IH'" ,', ,."
. ' \ \" '''11'' III
January 1961,111 response In Fidel's demand th;1t Ihe lll1ill'll \, "", I II
. • • ( 1,1" I,., \
rec uce lIs emhassy in Ilavana. In April Kenncllv found him ". I
. . ', .. c prr.... llll" I"
an ex,le of (:llha. \'Vanling til do hi ...1I1Ii,nlllltll'Il, .. t rllll,·. Illit
fe,ll(111 of tIle poss,hle efl<'(l.lll \\'"rld Ilpini.ltl. tile Ill'W I'tc.. ,d ",' I- I' I
. I . • . . , \ , 111.lIlt ,', I 1.11
Ilele 1C 111) l<kntlflahle itlvolvc'llCJ11 11 ]'r!lv-'d' ].
. l" " .111 It"II1, .11111 I.lll lid
The Bay of Pigs
As rUll10rs tll0llnted. :lll invasion loru' ht.: Hkd f",· (·,,1, \ I
. '. .1 III '1'1'1 1')(" .[ III
operallon proved ;1 misndvclllufC rrom llll' hCI'inllln" A",o,. ,. ,.,
P.'I ' 1" 1-, .. 1("IHlntl" .,' ).lll·.
leslc ellt Kcnl1edy reducc\llhe exilc-piltllcd :Iii "IVl'r 'llll1 v,-'",-,' ,I,,·, I
US I . . . . ,"" (I .1I1\
" . p <lnes. I he mv.,ders foundered in ,Ill ill l.hll"ell hil (It ""ull . I
H·' f!",TII '" UIl1,H.I'.. I,Hl1rl'
") 0 ",llIdl wpuld <;ul'l'"snllr !"Ilal)'/(' rill' I '111'.111
defenders, nevel m:llenah7cd. I he Cuhan ddcllsc.. I'nl\'nl 1111111' ", '" I. ,
TI ' . , I' _ . ,I( I 'It I.. \
II Il1VaSIOIl 1ng:ldes \Vere qUII kly I. ;1 1'1 III'('d. The)' /1('V(",· 1 I I ,
. C III 1.1' ,I' LIII< C ,,, .11 "1'1
11Clrla )ackprocedllfe-hendfol'lhctll, , .. I .
'1'1 B)' • Oil .1111" .1Ul mllllnl,l glll'n JILl 111'(,1,.111 011
1.C Ilgs (ould nlll have hcen :l gn'alc, triulI\ph It'r I idel .11lt! rllt'
rcvoJullonnnc!- rhe Unit S, I I·] I- II I ..
... ( . :l ('S 1,'( Ill;! )' .. l(l\\'tl II" rnrCllllnll\ In 10.... \dl,'1 I·ltl, I
h'ld alw;lys s;lld Ihey were::l desire 10 lurn Ihe dOlk ],,(k it, (·,,1, AI,' I 1
CIA I I . ' ,I. 1 I w
, 1;l( tned \() screen \HII tilt: more l'llsavIII)' ex lYl'r ... rhe I1IV,lIkl"
Included lllore than ;1 few who had served Ihe Ii " I·· '·1 ] 1
. .,l ,11\1'. II \ .11ll 11" !-llf'I"'lln ..
seized nn those names III prll\'e thar the \ flliled SI ",- , . I
. ,. d ., .. W.lll" ttl 1(' .. 1"1(, 1111
(ISCree lie tyrant.
The Missile Crisis
The failed invasion ll1<lrkctl :l walcr"het! in (I S (. I -I ' .
• ". .11 ),111 It "llt'II". \\ ,t .. 11 Itll'l 1111 '.
most obVIOUS slratcgy h:ld failt:d. options werc Il'lt fill the """ . I', ,". ;
'1'1 . t.I .....1 {".
lC Issue now shifted to the level nf rhl' sllj'erp""'\·t<.;. III 1'/(,11 N,kll.l
Khr.lJshchev Iwd rall'led Soviet missiles III c1eknsc n! (:Uh,1I1 "tll I.di .. m. Tire
therenftcr decided thcy 1l111."1 hack lll' their hy I'llrtin)' llli .... ile.. III
nnel hy OCloher 1962 llley were Inslalling il1l\·l'llledi.ttc to, kr'l
>ases 111 C b TI' .'
,.. . II <l. liS was an unprecedcnted dwlJcnge In Ihl' h.d,ltHe "f Illilil.lI\·
power. 1 he United Sf;1tes dell1:1 ncled t h:ll Ihe SOVlel" with\ I r:lw tllelr tJli'<;!-tl('." I rt 'III
Cuha, .1l,llder sanction of:l naval qll:lr:llliinc nil :111 11lilil:,,)' .. llipIl1l'11t... III
Cuba. I he world seemec] I I I - I I .
i . , . . )n_a,Utc on lle ecge olllllcicar \\','1, Aller a 1.1trfltl
!llcnal, Khrushchev compiled. I he missiles were withdrawl1
C The superpower cOnfrol1l;1tinn in the C:lrihhc;1t1 had 1:II;ful illll'lic.ltitlll" r"l
hin,lsclf W;1S nol consulled al an)' The tC",lIl \\',1" 10 1l1.IJ.:C
1)", III "allil AlllCnC<ln eyes, inlo a Soviel saldlile ill e""clltial .,,('( lIrity 1l1.,llet'.
econd II S· 'I I .
, le. oVlels Wlll( rew their ll1i.<;silcs onl}' hClallse \,Va.. hilll'lnll hc,rdl)·)
:-.1',:-.1 IIllll S uVI']{ ']II\.IE
1',\1<1 J\\'\)" l
" '" " " ..',,,. of US ·owned cllrporatiolls from
I I b'(il1 I tllleign l.:> ' ,
Iy IUO II I. b, I, , I' J'II'ln l:onlinuatillll and cxtensiun uf the
I' I 1'''Hll' with <,uua, II ,Irgt: r' , . . I
lUlll llL lug , . f I 'C Ib"n American COllll1HlI1lty 111 ltc
I 11 I' Ilhl' PVWl'l u Ill.: l
1'111 ).11 g,tl It' l'L l:l r FI . I, Till' was perpclUalion of the mosl enduring
•• 11 illll'UII.lllt :.1.110: \I urll.l.
II' Idl' l'llIh.lrg
ill 1l111llem I ' _ r II '" Cuban
. rile Idl'.1 hdliml IIIi!> pulit)' .lpl'e.lrs lu be Ihal :.Irangll allOIl 0. lc:
'll' '.ld dislOllkll1 Ih.11 would rl'sult III a popular
l'l\IIIIIIIIY \\llllld V.l'JlI:I.11o: WILt!>1 l: '11
1 II ' (·I:.I!U rl'glllll' whICh wuuld lead 10 it:. eventual Jownlu . A:lo
"1,".... .I lc':tllr)', nulhing of thl' kind had laken One
" I >II } - .' - I .. t C' lro w,)s
It'l\HII IJll·lllhllll·d l'.IIIit-r, w.l:.llhlllhc resuurcdu opposition 0 _
. 'I I I hUI III Flurid.l: 11ll' l'xile leade:r:lohip Moreovt'r. the
n"l III Ill. ., " I. ¥blockadc") had enabled
"I • trill 'l"l'V Ol:. II b kllOWIl III 1, I.e., I It
lllll,llhll \1 II , '" b, k an 1dowllturns
t' 1... 1Il I .llId to hhllllC allY ;llId.d t'conOIllII..: ae S I. r. I
• .\ . policy thus becamc a uselU
"II 1111' gllVI:rJllllt'lIt ,1111.1 it:. l:lIlh,lrgo. J lIlerlcan
I I"
, 1I,l.· (, .Uh.1I1 Il'.llkl
\11' d'i -tllllg Ihl." Ua)' ut ill IY61, the cvuld cun-
r I I I. II ." "UI"it' ladlll' Iht' Ill'W Cuba. Thl.' ..::cnlral fa..::t W;.IS that thl'
ll'llIl,tk oil II llV :;, . U . ·d S'
(, ut III l'llllhllll)' II..'Ylllvnl l'xpurtillg )':,pl'l:mlly lu lhe: Illte
,. I . ,,', 1,\ '1"II1inl'd IUlh.llll'cth,11 hUlllili,ltinglkpendt'llct'. I hI.'
I Ill." H'VU \\\:H Il I. 0.., . '11 I
" I"" -,"I ." Ihe Arventlllt' physlClan-guelrl :1 W10
,Il Il,., 0, ..... '
.,· llivl·\hn.)fdilian <Ullong thl' n:volullonanes. GUl'vala dn:w up a
\\,,,.. I' I , ,. t. I .
I \
'" 1'1", ",Ilidl ":'llltc'd fur a,'rindtulal divtc'rsllKalloll (a le-lmpwsls 011
'(Hll l·;lI. • 0 C b
) I
"", I":.lri t11'llliun (111l' In.lllllfdctlln' of liglll consumer guO(:.. U.\
... IH'.11 .llll l. • ,.
I .' I hL'd 111i:. allluitiuus plan alilid grl'al (antarl·. 'I
,1111 1<J1Il: 1l::-.uh:.llad alrL'<.tdy pruvl'J disappuinting. In p.ut. a.'h
I' , II lui WL'n: rl.·aping IhL' whirlwind ufthe pohcleso
II" )"U I , k I" I IYbl Iht' Cubans had
I');'') 110. pruducllun had la t'll a p lIngl:, n ., ',.
1 . I u HlIlilliulllllns ul sugar Ihe st'(ollcl highest harveSl1Il Cuban IIIStOIY,
l'IO,llll'l . .,.. .... ,I, Ihe 'uvt::rnlllt"ni was
"'"I Illllllil Illl'n... ly dbl'Lllsed Ihl' dellbtl.lIt: neg ecl g .
I. I 0 '11' 'dIII
" "r 1" 1"6" ,I", h·trvest drolJped to 4.H Illi lUll an
luwlng III . 7 _ ... , .
'11 \Va:-. unly 3.M lIIilliun lOllS, the: sllI:.llle:lo1 sinl.:e: 1945. The fall W;IS or
'"'IH>rl l·arning:.,
. I . I. II C ba lackc;'d the raw mate-
ThL' ialil.:.ltiuJl drive .. su gUlllg ua( y. U d
"I "I" " S' ce 1960 the United States ha
Ilab ,llld l'Xlwrtbl' tu rush inlu IIll llstna Izallon. III ,
" C 1- .' 1• all U S firms (and their
l'lIl"rl'l'l1 t:l..ollumic embargu ag;lInst lIva, pressurJI g . '. "'.
" ,. "I" " ") t cease trade With Cuba. I hiS
l.atin AIIlt'riGll\ Europe,lll StlvSI( 0 ,
l..'lllhMgu furl..'ed Cuha tu dept:nd largdy 011 lhe Soviets and the bloc .tor
"lluipllll·lll. I)ireltiun W;l:lo Iu cOllie from highly c.c.nlrnlized
lil·... 1I10l1dt:d alta Sovkl <tllli Czedl patll'fIIs. I he effort was. l.neffedIVl:. a
" I" aboul umkrwnllllg 3 sOCia 1St
t'>:I>I·II:.IVl·. I',vt:n the ullt:,t:loy
ullll'i., ill thc C.lrihbl·,III.
In llIid-1 lhe SOvicb pUI thdr luul dowlI. Thl.' Cubans llIust sluw dUWll till'
induSlrializ•.IIion drive and improve their planning. Thc)' llluSt
comparativt: advantage: sugar. Chl' Guevanl resigllt'd. conft'ssing his l.'rrlu·s. Fidel,
l'v('r on Ihe initiative, now embraced sugill", whit-II he had so rt:celllly SpUfIll·J. III
19C>3 he annoullced Ihal ill I Y7Q (Ialer labeled Ihe of thl' Decbivc Elllk.lvor")
Cubu would bre"lk all for :-.ugar produclion: il would 10 million
lOllS. Like olht.'r plantation Cuba lhu:lo tell irllu Ihl' trap ul rdiance WI ;)
sillgle expon crop,
De:balt.' COlltilHlt'd over :lotralt'gies fur 1'1.OIl(..-"llil devdoplllt'llt and polilk"<.tl
cOllsolidalioll. Slill active in Ihe regime, Che GUl'V;lfa argul;'d lor .111
slratt:gy, a Maoist approach lhat would IUl.llI)' dilliinak Ihl.· lllurkt:t and 1I1.Ilaial
The economy would bl: fully colle..:tivil.l'll and dirl·'d by.1 cellindizecl
planning authurity, A raJicul break wilh the cupitaiisl past wuuld rl'quire ;1 ¥nL'w
mall," a Cuban who would work for lIlordl (dccuraliollS, publil' prabt:)
and rdleci u IIl'W, higher It'vel of politit::.t1 Ill'rl' IIll' Cub.tll
leadt:'h Wl.'fC going Ihrough Iht' dilcllllll.1 01 huw tu
rccullcill' tvhlrxisl idealism with a prilglll;lti(" ClUIIOlllk pulk)'.
GUt'vara's idl;'31isiS funht'r argued tlMI Ihl' constructiun 01 a( hOlllc
required Ihe aggrc:losivc promotion of revululion abruad. TIH.:y wankd III provt'
that u gUl'rrilla stratt:gy cuulJ wurk Ihroughout 1.;l1in Allll' <Inti pt'rhap:. Illl'
I'nlirl' Third Wurld.
1ll,Iin UppOlll'II1 ill 111i:-. dd>;tk W.I:. Carlo:. IC11al,1 Rodrigul.·z. all
l'collomisl and IUlIglillll' Communisl PMI)' Illl'lllbL'f. I{odrigutc'z luok ;l Pf:.ll·-
tical approalh. 1It.' favorcd ;I mure 11Ie.I:lollled 01 ct'llllal plauning, partial
rclhlllcl' un lIlarket lIll'chanbms, and autonomy lcll 10 the individual
prisc:-.. I k Ihoughl stale firms shuuld have 10 accuUllt for thdr l',XPl'IlS1':' .1IIt!
earnings, In short, Hodrigul:Z and hb allies pruposed d lIlort' cUllventional
palh, rdying 011 Ill<Hl'fial illcenlivt's illskad 01 only llIoral OIlt;'S. Thl'y favorl'd
also a :.lrung part}' and a kflexibk" polit.y tuward I.atin J\llll'rica. This llll'alit
;1 wilJinglll',,>:-, to dl'al with regimL's Illal <Jlll'Vara unly as largels luI'
rl'volLltiollary OppOSilioll.
\"'hile tht: argulllents went 011, Cuba ft:lul'Iling III sugar. ElUllUlllic
production W..IS nunt'lhdt'ss disappuinting, The Yl'ar 1\)64 yiddt'd ;\ 9 percenl
gruwlh ralt: for of the economy. but thai was primarily a GIICh-lip frullI the
declillt's of 1961-63. In IY65 tht: figure slipped 101.5 percenl.less than Ihe rule: of
populalion growth, alld in bt'came negalivl' again (-3.7 perl·cut).
in policylllaking was nul building ,I dynamk soci..di:-.nL
At this poinl Fidel broughl lhe debate 10 an l'nel by endorsing Chl' Guev'lra's
idealislll. Cuba would make 3 gigantic collective effort accompJ.nied by moral
inct.'lllives. This immedi:1tdy increast'd Fidd':lo own power, :loin(t: he himself took
chargl' of Ihe now strengthened central planning I Ie: anJ lruskd
lielllt:lIaltts plunged into the: minutiae of econumic llIa1l3gt'ml'nl. The almusphere
fl'called the early romantic days or the Revolutioll- rhetoric. cuphoric
drtc'ams. celebr;;.l ion of the selfless lIew mall."
Fidel Castro addresses a rally in the early 1960s; the doves, frequently used <ts a political
symbol, represent the idea of a society at peac.e. (Center for Cuban Studies, New York.)
Along with thi" idcalistic mohi1i7"at;on at home wenl a stepped-up cOlllmitment 10
revolution ahroad. Cuba sought out guerrilla movcmcnts across 1...11in America,
offering arms,lraining. :lnd experlise. ehe Guevara spearheaded the drive. 1\lways
a heroic figure, ehe bec<lllle the nemesis of Ihe CIA and the Latin Americ<ln
milil:w)'. Unfortunalely for ehe, however, he chose the alliplano (highbnds) of
llolivia to stMlthe "pread of his "many Vietnalll"" in South America and Ihne llIel
dealh in 1967 atlhe hands of Bolivian Ranger In"l0ps.
By 1968 Pidel wa" pulling hack from Ihe Gucvarisl line. There had alre<ldy
hcen signs that ehe did not get full support frol11 ,1:lV:lIla c1llring his ill-fated
campaign in Bolivia. By supporling Ihc Soviet inv:lsion of Czechoslov:lkia in
I;idcl signnled :l return 10 Soviet orthodoxy. lie then hegan to downpl;ly Ihe ex pori
of revolution.
On the domestic front. howcver, Guevarisl policies continued inlact. The
spring of 1968 sa\\' a "rcvolutionary offensive." The remaindcr of the priv;tte
sector was ll;llionalizcd, consumption W:lS suhordinated to investment, :md
Cub'IIl." werc exhorted to give thcir ;tIl 10 rc::tch the omniprescnl t:ll"gct of 10
million tons of sugar in 1970.
Thc m;tgic year came. :lnd all of Cuba was l1lobilizcd to (III calle. Everything
was s:lcrificed 10 release lahor (or Ihe C:\l1l' rields. Ihat the I:\rgel waS
• ( lIh,l I\,'y ( ..1',,1,'. \, .. ,.111 .. , '1.11<" II:
dislanl, the :lulhorilies left some of Ihe 1'J6'1 h<llvC"1 ill Iht" field .... I"
improve Ihe 1970 rigll,.e. It W;lS 110 usc -lhl' rc.llll<'d s.r, lllilll"n Inl1"
It w:\s a prodigiolls tnt;ll, Ihe 1:\I"{:cst ill (:ub.1I1 hi ... lory, hilI II .. loll Icll .. /lIlT·1 /,1 ,h
much-louted goal. So IllllCh prnpaganda, Illall)" p.... ml .. (' .... II W.l".1 1IlII,I.III,I,,\\
(or the philosophy o(<:h('. TI)(' loll \\.1'" 1'lll1l"1WII,..
Hut Fidel. ever rcsollr(c(ul. was ;lholll 10 l h:lIlg(' poli\ w...1):.1111
Consolidoting the Regime
The failufe of Ihe 10-111 illiOIl-lnll e(forl m"d(' I:idel' .. ,11101,1 t' ('" .. ie,. ,. "('1"\" "I'
{ould see IIl:lllhe muclel had (,lIled.l)1I 1111)" 2(" hlt'l. ,,111t·......·.1 ..11
In" lll:lf:lllwl1 speech ("Iellhe Sham£' Be \Vcll'"1IC-), ('.1"11,\ IIIt1k "II h, .. "'\11
shoulders the responsihilily for Ihe qll,,(ollL LIII":hle 1111 Ihc "'11'('1 11.11\,'..1 II,
offered 10 resign, hili Ihc ("(0\\'...1" uietl 11.\ '1 hc Cl ollnllllC Llll",,· \\"1<; "hlllel.llt't1 h,
revollilinll:lr)' lhc:ller.
Cuhan polic)' now l11rtlCII rnnn.' p,.lgIII.lli,. I·ir"l. III,"" w,·,.· I" 11(' 11t·\\
managcment :lncl pl;lnning S)'SIClll<; ;lIUIIlHII'(, ll<;£, III "1" f Ifll .. ., ... 1 h,l .. i.. I." .1"1 ,.. " 'II
making. Second, the privale seclor was hI he t-:ivell .1 gr(',lhT Init' III hili Ii
and service". Third, wages ;Jlld salaries wOllld flOW he Iinkrll In 111111'111. WIlli
prcmiums for needed "kil"'- Finally, Ihere W;l'" In he (" '11101111... inleLI, 11nl1
with Ihe \Vesl.
Thi" morc convcnlional cLllllorniL plllil y W,l.<; ;lll 1l1ll1':1I1ird h)" .1 .. l1l1d.1I .. hll'
ill instillJtinnnl policy. The COrllllltlllisl I':I,.I\" w,." IIIIW "lrCl1glllCllc,L Ille 11111.>1\',
;"Ind ot her mass organi7al inns w('rc re'lrg:l11 i"lcd ;lll(l given ,I .. r I' lit'. 'nll<;, Ill""
toward grc;"llcr "orlhodox)," (i.e., doser rc..elllhl:lIH C In I\'I pl,lt til rl .lll.', 1(.1
culture ;"I" well. CCnlf;J1 conlrol" o\"('r ('(llIl-,llipn ,HHI Ih(' 1ll.1"" lIlf'dl.' \\, II

In e;lrly 1971 Fidel 1:lllllLhed (l1riol1...Illalk.. 011 "1"11.1.. - 111 1111'
Hcvolulioll who had ch;uged Ihal Hders pl'rsonali"til regil1le \\",1" Ic.lding C1I!>.1
lowMd economic defcat. In addilloll, Fidcllracked dnwn nil the ('tlh.lll .111''''1<
s(enc h)' arresting the inICrn;Jlioll;llly knllwn wriler Ilphclln I'.hldl., "1'1'.lIl"l1lh
llnder coerciun, P"dill:l was forced 10 lCIIlle"" lflnl{'" ,lg,IIlI.. 1 Ihl' J{("V"IIIII"11
lie later repe:llcd his IllC:l culpa hefole a wrill'r,,' ("onlcrCl1U'. whil h .. ('I rhe 1011.
for a tougher siandard of polilicallo)';llty IInw cXI'£'t!£'<! nl .111 .lrli .. l" III In"l"
lion;lry Cub:l. Usc of Ihe police In enfnrlc polilital L"lIlo,rlli1r h"llighl !>.'lk
unple;lsallt memories of fccenl dicl:llors.
Part and parcel of Ihis polil y shift W:lS an iIICl"C';]"lng ap,,"":': Hila I,,'11 I,j ,
models of cconomic and polilit.'::ll decision m<1king. II had h{'('n nnder \\',1\' I.. ,
several )'ears, hilt the shift in (IOlllcslic polic)' IHIW lI1;lde "tlh;l'" owr,lll .. Ialll c Ill' 'II'
consistent. Radical experiment:llion was over. The inevilahle logic 01 Cllh.,·..
enormous economic :mcl mililary dependence on the Sovirb w,,<;, !Iring 1'1a"l'"
QUI. Fidel Was now a reliable :lIly of Ihe USSR in Ihe Third World. Thl" (:111,.,1\
Revolution W;lS :lpproaching Ihe Soviet model morr dn.<;c!)' th:llll"Vl'1 h<'folc.
r.uha thus sCllled inlo an exlreme economic dependl'lll(, lin Ihe 11111
that hore much resemhlance In onetil!1e 011 1111' .... 1.11.·..
III 1'.\l{1 t\\l) W l .'\,>1 ,>IUIIII,> 1. HANI,I·OVI·.R 1"11\11·
,\ltlltlllgh Illl' l· ...It... 1 11I1.d W;I::. dillilult;', it probably l·llll.lh:d :lbOUI um'-
"ltlll'l.uh.llI gru::.::. n.ltiun;" pn.u.llll.:t (c..;NP). Thl' ul with
111l. Illol 1.111::'l· tu it Ihld vn\.c bel'n with thl· UnitcJ States. Had
1. .lIb.1 1I1l·1 d)' II.Hkd ulh: br.llld vI" dl·,Jl:ull ... llcy lor allotlwr? Yl'I thl" til's 10 the Soviet
l Jllinll did llut produce thl' din:l.t which had created a natiunalbt
.lg.llmt l"l.."tJIIUlllh: pelll·tratlull befure 1959.
\\' \\'l·'l· thl· uf thi .. neW d(·'>t'ndl·lll·y? We k..nm" that Fidel
11... ll'lI1l Il,d Ill\' Sllvkt 111ll.'" t!l-IlUlh... l.ll iU11 It! Illl" Suhdarit y muvement in Poland and
1'1 .llw,1 Ihe ....ovld Illkl Vl·II1 illll ill AIgllall ist.1I1. Cuba St'nt Illort' th.1ll 30.000 Iroops
•1'1..1 .... lu <I regillll' ill SOllIe olJsl'r
\1.1 .... :'lIggl·:-.II'd th.11 (;ub.1 h.ld pludlln:d a IIC\\' hybrid rt'gime capil:llisrn."
In utll.'" kl.·y rnpl'L1, rl·gillh: had\'\Illlilll... changl'. I Ie !Jromisl:d
IIlllll' puhlic participation, hut ;Ktual rule rl'l1laint.'d lOp down and the
filial VUkl' \\',1-. hi ... Irunk.dl)'. ;lpplyilll; Marxist dogma ill the Caribbe;lll
1.ltin AlIh:rila\ durable t"(lI/dillu. Th.... profound social rcvolu-
tlllll ill t:uh.1 had bel'll ullly 01 Sovil'l milit'lf)' pmkclion and
.lId. II ICll .. lI11dl·,lI whl'lhl.'r h:lt! more: bilrg;lilling power
\\'Itll I\\u..... ow tll.llltltl·y Olllt' h.ld with Sovict-Cubnll
Illl.l11 1"1'..1 III 1.11 Wl·.lkr Ih.11l h,ld with the Unikd St.\\l"'s. Tht:
( lIh.1l1 .... , whll ,,1 .... 11 .Ilkd Sovid achit'vt:d hrilli..lnllllilililry victories
II\l.r thl· '-IlIlIth All I\. ,Ill .lrlll)' ill A!ril.l ,111..1, a f(;'SUIt, WOli lI111t'"h in the
., ill· Ih·\'lIlutl\l11 I'lought 11I.1IIY t:haJlgl· .... to Cuba. SOLl.dbl CUU;I'" gre:.ltest
II HII II pll .. 1I.lvl.· bl·t'll III ba:.ll. hUlllan Jll.· ... lb. Jllih:r.llY bl·l.·n wipeJ out.
.llld .. llllll,"dll'II"'IVl' ...llltll)1 ::,)':.Il.·111 has h'-'l'lll.n:.lted. It::. k;t.:hlllg (ullknl is. not
.... 111 pI llighl), id,·"lugil.l1, lll":-.Igm:d 10 illllllcall' Iht' Jle\,' values.
H,l'>ll Ilv.dlh l.lll·, prt'vl·J1IIVl.· (.trl.', has bCt'JI t'xtcndt'd tu Iht' 10wl'I"
:-.l·lllll I\kdll.d 11.L1I1IH!!, 1I.t:'> bl.·l·ll l!,c.llnl II) publi( h... ;dth. l:lIvd distributivll,
.11\\,1)' 1I11l· III lhl· IlIu;,>1 IcJll'diVll::' uf iJll.· bel..'n gllanlll
kl.·.1 h)' l,lliHIllll}!,. Thl· Inull thdt lik l.'Xpl.'ClaJl(y rust' trolll thrl't' ye.lrs in
PU,I) III WWtll)' l"ight 11I1U07, and Ihl' illl,tIIt llHHtalit), rate: fell b)' llHlft' lhan two..
Illud:,> III thl· :,>.11lIl.'"
1':',ltl· Id.11 Hllh underwcnt 1II.Ijur 1I1Ipruv\.·11l ... nts \\'dl. III Cub.l, as dSl:wht'rl',
die: Il·g.h)' III ::al.lver)' h:ld bnn l'xtt'lI::.ivt' prejudice. Whitt's occupied Ihe
Jill rung'. IlIUl;ltIU.... Wl'l t: in the middle, and bl.Kks were at the bottom.
(IIVe-1I thl' ddl·rnllnJtion tu rectif)' ::.oti.d injuslic..... I"iJdbla policies enabled
tll .Il.lltllll" l'duGltioll and .ldv.ll\n: ill caret'rs ull lhc basb of m.... rit. Afro-
dllllIJl'd III 1I0Iilbl)· high mnk::. within the armed furces. of these
illlprUvl·IIlCllb. thc blJck l:ollllllunil)' ill Cuba rt'mained ilS one of Fidel's most 10Y:l1
h.I:-.liulI:,> ul pulilical
The lulc Ilr \\'Ollll'll hn'n 'lIlutlll."'r afl·a of t:hangt', The tradition
III pruvcd it 1I\"ljor 10 Ihl' ft:millist lliOVt:mt'nl. To lake a
::.t rikillg t·,..;alllpk, b), mid .. 198U 0111)' 1'-) pt'rel'nt of the Communist Party lllembers
;lIld 11ll" w ... rt: WOlllt:11. NOllethdes:., th(' Federiltioll of
Cub.lIl WUlIIl'll (Fl'lll·r.lcil'lll de 01" FMC) h.l::' gUile a IOllg W.I)'
luward ch.llIging upinion illld behavior. Thl.· Illllllba vf WOlllell ill higher l·duel
tion and prokssioll:.J1 SdlUOls mt'dil·ine. whCo'rl.' klllall' sludl'lIb now
lIlall.'s) has imTl.'ascd ::.harply. Tht' 1·f\·le \\'.IS IllSlnlml'nt.d ll\ getting
;l<.lopted III 1975 an ....galitilri:lll family code whidl obligatt'll to do hall vi
all family chores. Any viewer of the Cuoiln t'il1Il Portrait ofTl!rt'!Jtl knu\\'s that
and othcr 1(:lllinist goals will IlOt bt' easily reached in Cuba. I >t-spitl' pel t"t:'pl ihlt'
dl<lnge ill Cuban allitlilks, married \\,Ollll'lI, ....ciall)' thosl' wllh dllldrcll, havt'
found it difflLult tv cnkr the full-lillil' labor forl-t'. One tilt' and
illCOIIVt'llil."'llce 01 (hild ell"e.
. was th.... olllt'r ba:.ic n... ed that had bn:ll su lI11t·llllall)' distrihult'd
bdorl' 1959. IlerCo' thl' revolutionarit's had Iruublc maklllg rapid It W.IS
t'as)' l.'llUugh to expropriatt' Illl: resid.... lh:cs uf thc wealth)' alld givc thl'lll 10
spt'dal (like studellt::.). Bill Ill·W cUllslflKtiull alit! tllOI"l'
III th.... ::;:hon rUIl, illv.... stlllcnt ill lI .... w rlul :'>Cl'lI a::. a tup
Ironic.llly l.'llough. one 01 "'lUllOIlliL' III .lgrit"ul
ture. In Ihe t'arl)' of thl.' Ikvoillt ion, thai ulldt'r:.talllbhlt·, The:
w:re .... ager to rt'pudiall' Cuo:.J\ Junglillll' hOIHI.lgt· Iu .1 :'lllglt' l.·xpOrl crop. EVl·ll
allt'r tUIU t'conomic r.....llbm ill 19(d, fuud VrUdU(tlun 1,lggl"d.
i\I..l.lJrJmg tv a UllIkd Nallons ;lgrkultur.11 pt'rlunn:IIKl' fur
IY61 76 lit'd with 01 Chik lor Iht' in LIlili Allll"rll..1. Aha
fMIIl output gr.;w ilt .1 hl'<Ilthy I.Ill'. hUI b), tlit' .... nd 01 tht· I'-NU::., Ihtert' \\'t'rt'
Although CUb.1 rca..:ht'd Ihc withoul IhCo' ul
dUUllll·d COllllllllnisl\1 in Eurupl" Ih... h.ld til III F\'la)' 19M7
tht' dqltlt)' chiefof IIll' CUh.11I air ftlrn" ;111(1.1 hl:fO olille B;l)' uf dillllwd illlu;I
pbnl: :llId dt:f ..:tcd to Florida. III JUlll' I')X') .1 ht'.tvi..-r bill\\' kll. Thl· .11 Ill),'::.
J"t' sl)t'(lcd Il·;HI r, Cl.'nl'ral Arnaldo S;incht'L, archi1l'd vf hlilli,1ll1 b.J1lldidd
\'iLtvl VVt:r SuulII African !on.·t's wlll.·n Cuba loughl tu (ull:.ulidatc thc I.."VllllllU
r(;'gillll' ill Angola, alld ex... cutl'd••dung Wllh tlLrl.'c vl!ll."r high
I he wel"c drug running alld clllhczzk'lll... nL Mall)' asked Ituw oefkers whu
t'njo)'ed Fidt:I's COllfidl'ncCo' (ould Ilave orgallizcd sudI iI t:onspir.1C)'
the k.lIu\\,)tedgl' of a kade!" \\·ho posses::.t'd .1 Ie:gellllar)' ilVpctik for adlllill-
detail. Or was Ihis a w:.Jy of dimillating a pUkllllJI lor ultimate:
A key to th(' Revolution's surviv.lI \\'uliid bl,the ability to 11isIitlilionalizx tht'
rcvolutionary Vroccs::.. The chaJJ(;'nge wa::. tu Il':.JJl'r::;:hip frum a
tin)' t'litt' uf gut:rrilla veterans and parly faithful to <l grvwing b;lse of lo),al
supporter::;:. The most obvious was to broaden thc ha::.c of thl."'
COllllllunist Parly. III 1975 this pruee::.s began. Under Ihe of
participation:' gra::;:sroots eJeclions for I"l'gional asst'mblies Wt'ft: held. Yd b), till'
Illid- 1990s Cubans were still comphiining about a highl)' (Co'lltral ized. bure:illl-
cratized, illCo'fficient stale
After 1990 Cuha underwent OJ p;linful rcalit)' check as the foreign underpilllling of
its econonl), v:lnishcd. The collapse of the USSR and o(Comecon (the foreign tmde
;mlhority for the and Eastclll Europe) hrutally exposed Cuha's economic
vulnerability. B}' 1992,,11 Ru,>sian economic and military aid was gone. Oil ship-
ments (c1l86 percent from 1989 to 1992, while food imports dropped 42 percell I in
:lImos! the sallle Vital equipment, stich as huses. once supplied h)' f=..aslcm
Europe. now klllgllishcd for lack of replacement paris. General ecollomic activity
fell by al IC<lst 29 percent hetween 19H9 and 1993. Cuha suffered an economic blow
greater than ;lll)' (including the Great Depression) experienced in L'llin America in
Ihe Iwentieth century.
Dissolution of the Soviet hloc imposed enormous strains upon the island. It
hrought a end to economic subsidies and. more important. to
cOll1lllen.-i"I links with Comecon. Cuha thus faced what :m::t1ysls called a -double
rcnccting the longlime polier of the United Ihe other
from the implosion of the USSR. The demise of lhe USSR also hroughl
'\Il Clltll() thirt), years of Soviet support for Cuba's polilical sovereignty. Ominous
warnings from the Cuhan American cOllllllunit)' in Miami abollt plans to -rctake
the islnnJ hy force aCCJuired a new sense of plausihility. Isolated hy Wilshington
;11ld nhilildoned hy MnSC0W. Cuba found ilselfin iln extremely vulnerahle position_
Fidelistil leadership forged a douhle-edgt:d response. One pari W:lS 10 hunker
down: In assert the integrity of the Cuhan Rev()lulinn. In stress Ihe ill1porl:lnce of
national unity. and to mrtintain a commitment to socialist ideals. As a m::l.ller of
f:lct. Cuh:l w;\!; virtu:llly the only forlller Tllemher of Ihe Soviet bloc Ihat retained a
one'p:ut}' cOl11munisl system. The other part involved modest political reforms.
Direct e1eclions for Ihe nation:ll legislature (As:lmblea Nacional del Poder
Pop\ll:lr) were introduced in 1992. Procedures for selecling local and provinci:ll
representatives were Iherenfter oJlened uJl as well. Restrictions on religiolls orgn-
ni7.nliolls were rclnxed. and, in the aflermalh of::l. visit by Pope lohn Paul II in 199R.
the n.omnn Cal holic Church assullled n significanl role in Il:ltionnllife. III Ihese nnd
olher wa)'s. Cuhn's leadership Il1nde significant efforts 10 strenglhen Ille legilimnc)'
of the regime.
Tolerance of dissent remninecl a dclicnte issue. The regime carefully permilled
lhe exiSlence of n "Iegar opposition and :lllowed writers. ::l.rtists. :ll1d nthletes to
cultiv<lle inlernationallinks and travel abroad. Yet it also imposed harsh penalties
011 Ihe "iIIeg:lr opposition Ih:lt echoed U.S. government demands for "regime
chnnge." which. in effecl. meanl overlhrow of the political syslem. II has been
estimated that Cuba holds hetween 100 ::l.nd 1000 political prisoners.
A major crisis emcrged in 2006, when Fidcl Castro underwent an emergency
operation for gastrointestinal complications. Could the Revolution survive
without its "1ll::l.Xillllllll lender." the only president thai it had ever hnd? Fidel
responded hy "Ielllpomrily" stepping down and hnnding over power to his
deputy and younger hrolher R:H·d. Fidel also nssigned key respol1'iibilities to
.. 1111'.1 .... 0"\ C"It'I1\. \, .. I.lh·.1 ',1.11, II
The Saga of Elian Gonzalez
Cuba's f'conomic crie;IS of Ihe C<1fly 1990.. /1"I111pI ...,1 ,I l.wI!' IIl11nl\f'1 of (1Ih.HI" I,.
s,lil to the r10rida CO<lsl on v............ ls 01 hOIlH'ITI",r11' 1.111 .. lh,,/\,H) Ih.
.. led 10 milny dpillhs anfl o"',lIPfI ;In Ulllll('fh,Ilr hlllll.lnll.1Ii.1I1 (11'.1'. III
.esponse. the Iwo qovernmenlS IPilC!l('f1 .1rl .1qll' ... rnrnl 'Ill' I..., wlmh ("I'.H\·
intercepler! ill S('<I <1.(. e;PIlI b,lCk to CUh,l, whilp who m,ll-I' 11 I" 1\111<"1, .lll
e;oil a.e pellnitter! to rel1ldin in Ih(' lJnllNI Ih, .. , ,1111(' tn Ii... kllllWIl .\'. lh.
·wet-fOOI. dry·fool" policy.
TIll'. imperfe<:1 but work<lblp ,l1l,lnqclIlt'lll C.1IllP IIll1lr. V'V"I'" 11.......11I1 II' .1
highly publicized C,lse involvlI1C) child (tlslody. pollllC.,1 Ill.ln"'l 1V...·r II 1'1••lIl,III.III"I\.11
pride. In Novembpf 1999 a lIllie boy Il.lllled Ui,ill (,OIl/al...;. Iw. mnll1.... 1 II.',
boyffiend. and othcrs lef1 Cubit in .111 "IUlnlllllm 110,11, 111(' ('IlIIIO'" f.Hlrd .1mlll
10l/gh seilS, the vese;f'1 <;;mk.•1nd InO<;1 p.l nql' ... dl(',1 1h... Ill'\' .mel Iwo ',IIIVIV'U'
floiller! ill <In inn£'1 IlIhF' Ilntllthry W("II" ' fll ... rj hy ,Itld 11111,,·'1 nV"1 r,.
Ihe US. (OilSI GUilHI. "Thie; was ,I (Ipal (,1<; 01 ·wrot fOl.I· .,pp,,,h"'Il'.I,,n
The Irnmlgralion ilnel N<lIlIlillt.l.11l0rl <;""VIf-'" /lNr,)I ... rnIVl,.llIlv 1...1..... <.<,<1 11.111 t"
his pitlPlIlill q.eill uncle. LilZ.1IO ('on7.11....7 II,... hoy'e; '.1111... ,. 11I,1Il Mlqlld ('(lIl/dl... ,.
had In the meilnlimp notified'llo hv 11"1f'phnnf' from (111"'111.11 Ill... Illnlh"lll1fl
h,s son wcre BilCkpr! by (1/11.111 Arn("'.,c.lll IlowrV"1 1.1;.111' 1I.I1.n' ,I
lhill Ihe boy shollld Sl;ly in 111(' lhlllf'cI "till"" lath.... Ih.lll fIn h,II" ,.. (01).,
Wl'1nqlinq followpcl lI11df'l Ih£' ql,l'" nllnl"'n<;IV'" m...dl.l' "V"I.l'!'" 111.111'·.1.1111"1
;lIld bOlh grilndlllolhpre; C'1lll" flolll (lIh,ll/l plrild fl" II!'. l"Itllll 111... 1'" h.I·.l'd
reliltlves countered by se£'king leqill.l'oyhllll 10' Ih(" hny II fr-rIf',.lI'll1lq" d"I1I'·1l .h,
pelillon. Mi,lml D;lde COUllly VOWl'd 10 ''''SI\1 nff1CI.11 ... If,,,t<; .11 l"'p.III1.1
lion. £:It;\n went to Dislley World on(' r1.lY.•md m('t wllh r)Ollllr.ll f'IIII1 ...... Ih... n"')(1
Seeking to enforce Ihe <OUlt lulmg. Allnfney (,<>11£,1.11 J.ln"t IkllO 1'111('11"<1 Ill"
,elulIl of [I,.;n 10 his f.llhel hy no 1,11CI thill! 11. )000. l)r-ft.1Ilt MI.ullI 1,'I.IlIVI".
kepi Ihe boy ;n ,1 hou"!" SlJllnllllrieri hy prnl"''''('Ie; .lnd poll,,' A w,·... .1ft"'l ,h.'
dC.ldline, Reno ilulholizf'd '1 r.lid by <;,wl\r "qllipp('r! nffl«'I" of til... II" 'In''''!<-I
Pal.ol. Onlookels proIP'olec! ;lnrl a dl.lollr IH('I£' .... f'ne;u... d prnn,...d .1 1"11
block illeil of Miitmi'e; Llltlp H;rv.1tl.l r1,e;Iltll.l'otlfr we.'" d,-'plnv... d tI. 11"1 " .... 11 .1ull
(car gas filled the iUl
I\n obvioue;ly h.1PPY Itl.1n W.l"I('lmll...cI wllh hl\ 1.1Ih"'l hilI h,I,II', 1"111.1111111 II ...
United Slaies while the MiamI 'Cl.llives exhitue;lcd Ihl'lI 1('9,11 "l'tll'll'. II rllClIlI f"llIl
evenlually ruled thaI the Il'lallvee; IMkrd the t£'gal e;lanrllllq 10 ........ k .1'>ylullI nn III'.
behalf. In Jlllle 2000, nei'lrly a half YP'1' <lfl(" Ihf' ",ltj.lll£'(I.lll. tllf' "111111'111'" ( (1111'
let Ihe cifcuil courl decision Sl.lnd. l.aler Iholt e;.llllf" d<lY. r11.11\ (,011/,11"'7 .lnrl 111'.
falher finally returned to Cubil.
Throughout Ihe case. elecled U.S. offl<.titls from h{llh IXllltu .11 p.1I11.· .. \V"I"
alli'lcked for getting involved III whal ..ome [If'ople r....q.l.drd ,le; ,1 pllv.l1'" f.llllliv
mailer. Wrote a columnist in the WoslJinglOlI PO\f. ·Eltiln.1nO Jllall MU'I, 1(,Oll/iltf'/.
SOil and father. The former is "n innoc('nl child. Ih... I,lllf" iI rnilll who· hoy W.l'.
li'lken frolll him. Eliiln hits h(''(1 likp ,1 typiC.ll 6 yPii. nlrl. IildO Mlljll... 1 IlkI' .1
IYP1<ill f<llIlC'r.l\nd rnoe;1 of Ihf' polilki.lne; like lyp.(.ll fOl'''' "
IIX 1·.\HI l\Vll" I,A'II (11t\N... ;I:UVtl<'IIJl,II
utlll'l .I'>pillli
r..·.llkf:'>. )'OUlll; IIgufl':'> as Carlo:'> Lag..: ,wd Felipe
RUqUl'. Alllllhl'll ill Fdlru.lry 100M-day::. beforc Ihe Assclllbly w.,s
dill' I" l'i,,'d Ihl' prnuit'lll-I-idd anlloUlh:l'l1 Ihal he would lIul .Iccept another
kllll, .uullt,lul \\.1:. dlll)' dl'lled. Althuugh 1<..llillack::. Fidd':,> billa .lIld popular
''Ilpl·.II, hl' l'XPI"·:'>:'>l':,>.1 rl·,dbtil" ,1IId pr"l)llwlk :::,t.·use ofn3Iioll:tllh:·eJs. l\lort' 10 the
puinl. l·u,,;I·... l'uhlh...d ill ... lltulilln:::. m:lllagni tu ::.urvivl· a major (.'hallt'ngt'.
Un till' ... idl·. Ihe Sovid facilitalt:d tht' reupt'ning ufCuba':::.
dlllit'lll.llit Id.IIIlIlI ... willI II,IIIUII:'> ul 111\: AIlll..'rici.I:,>. mosl of which wt.'rl.:' citht.·r
1'.11 It. til l·lllh.,rketlllll path::. or dl'llluaalizal ion. Threl' n:ltiuns uf the hemi-
,>!'!lVll' {.tJIOld.l. f\kXit:'lI. ,llld Vl·lIl·LUl·l.l-bt.·(,lIlH: espl·t:ially prominenl partncrs
III and invl· ... tllll'lli. (It did nut illll:rnation,11 not icc that Canada and
f\k:Olll W,,'l,,' loullding NAIo'TA lIwrnlwr:::..) As Hugo eh,iva intellsifled efforts tu
t"q.!,l' ¥t \"l'1I1)' II ll'lllul y Vl'nl::Zut'la began providing Cuba with low-
oil .Illd .IIJUlld:lllt turdgll .... x..:h,lllge ill rdurn for thl.: Sl.'fvicl· uf or
h'.ldll·l ... ,tlld Llrgd)' " ....1 rt.·:::.ult or tilt.' Chavisl,l sub:::'lllil::'>, in ract. Cuba
lol'g.lll III ... lt.·1 VlT)' high r.lll·::' tlf !J,ruwth. .
j'igllie 1),2 (llkr:::. ,I broad ut Cuu,,'s oVl'r<l1l t:conomk perlonnanct:
"'11 Ill' I'J'JII, Tilt.' gru:::.:::. .... pruduct (CUP) llropped sharpl)· <II first, plunging
I.. II) 1"'It.l'1I1 ill IY')3. Tht'rt'alh:r GUilt.' a decade-long modt':::.t relovery. with
t.t>lI'>I:,>ll'lll ,Illd or gro\\'lh (sonu:tilllt's ovcr 5 percelll), And with
:,upl'lIrt !10m Cub:t l'lIjO)'l'd a brit'f in 2U05-7, as the
hl'lh'lll I,Ill' "'\t.l·l"It'd 11. p"'rlt'111 III 20U(I, ()l1l' W..I)' or allothl'r, (:uh.1 1ll.luaging
It, II:'> \\,1)' Illrllugh thi ... l·r.1 ul tlll..:ert.lillIY·
NIII\vllh... l.llIdllll) till' t.·lld ul thl' Culd \ the' UllIkJ St.ltl·:'> cOlllillUt'd it:::.
... llldl.:lli <lppu:::.lIiulI 10 thl, CUl"'ll It:gUllI:, Afkr tht' Sovkt thrl'al dis.lppl·aretl.
\V.I ... hingItJII IUlll:'>nl ib wr.t1h Ull thl' pl..''llLC of unl'-party rlllt'. In OcLobt'r
till' (;l'<lI14'" \V. Hll:.l, wt'lll lar tt> crcate' a ::.hadow
" -

c.. \I - 1- -r-.--.--[--,-,-,--='t--,-T---,-T',T-,,-,-
I 'Nil I'J')..:! I'''il, I'J'JK 2uuu 2UU'1 2UU" 2UU6
guvcrnment, a su called COlllmissiun lor Ihe 01 a Fin' Cub.1 (CAFe)
thai W,IS inlt'nlled to "help preparc tht' U,S. gOVCflllllCll1 10 pruvidt' dlcdivl'
assistance 10 a frt'c Cuba- and 10 stt'p up Iht' cnfur,,:clllcni 01 Tht'
following yt'ar led lu a lighlening of rc:'>tricliolls UII travd ;llld n:llIill.lll.... e:::.. And
in 2007, the CAFC rt'ilt'ratt'd persi:::.tcnt U.S. ollidal dcmands fur dl.lllgt.·..
in Cuba a:::. a precondition for rela..'(alioll uf sanction:::..
The U.S. cmbarl;o remained !irmly ill placI.:' ulldcr bUI HoL withuut
int:rc.,sing For lhe :::.eventcellth str<.light yt:.Il. thl' UN Gl'lll-ral
Assl'mbly udopted in October 20UH a nunbinding IIIl;'asure urging It:fll1inatiun ul
Ihe cmbargo-bY'1 vote uf 185-3-2 (Israd thl' Pacinc :::.t.llt: of P.dau
with tht: United States in oppusitioll, while Microllesia alld Illc Mar::.hall bland:::.
abslainl'd). Amcrican business illlCl'cSIS also I..'xpre::,sl'd muunting trll:'ltralioJl wilh
lhe cmbargo. since il prevented U,S. compalliL's frolll seizillg pOll'lllially IUCf::ltivc
opportunities for Irade and invcSllIll'llt in Cuba-and left Ilcld dear fur
EUJ'opt'an and t>th!..'r compt'titur:::.. Timc was running uul luI' Cult.! W,lf Idtovt.'f
II was in Ihi!> atmosphere of llllCl'rt ..lilily that Cuhan:,> Illarkt.·d thl' i1ftit'th
anniwrsar)' of tht' Rt'volution on j;:llluary I. 20U9. Apart frolll oblig;lIofy llbplay:::.
of pOSler::. and flags, the t'vt'nt gave rise 10 little An "liling Fidd did not take
part. PI,1I1S for an ambitious celt'bralion wert' lOlled down illlighl 01 m.tjur d.lI11.Jge
(rolll thrl't' hurricant":::.. Ralll ClStro led the galhering in Ihl' t'.J:::.lcrn cil)' 01
S::l.Iltiago, I)raising thc regime's sUfviv,i1 unht'allhy .1I1t.1 \'illllit.tiw
haired of tht' puwcrful Ilt'ighbur: Efkrvt'::'ll'lIt Cuban dti/.t..'lb huggt'd .Illd ki:'>::'l·d
and drank un Nl'w Year's Day, whilt.' childrt'H r<.lll .Il\d pbYl'd ill Ihe street:::.. Ollt.·
ob::'t'fver, a rdlel-tiw middlt:-agt'd man. exprt's:'>l'd faith ill eh.llIgl· t)f It.'adl'hhip-
1I0t only ill Cuba but abo in the Unill'd St.llcs, with 11ll' in,wguration or Barack
Obama thl' U,S. pr... are hoping ,lIld l.:Ollllling OJ! lhlllg:,> g\'ltillg
bt'lIt'r," hI..' said, Dilly lillie would It'll if hl· was right.
Figure S,2 Cuba: Annual Change in GOP. 1990-2007
" ,', I I II'r,1 '.1,\1 1.,10l1 .\11\1"10 ,I .111,1 Ill>' ( ,0111 ,t".."r, tt,ul,llwwwl'll"ll
Thereafter. Japanese ;'Ind I.ehancsc immigrant ... hllllu'r ('111 It Ill'll I'cnl\·I.llI ""t 10'1 \
Indec<l. Japanese Peruvian... havc pla),cd a PHllllilll'nl 1IIIl' III InC-ill 1','111\1.111
politics. a:' have Iho:,c of I.chanese ill ECIl.ulol.
The Andes
Soldiers, Oligarchs, and Indians
The Vicero)':tll)' of Peru plovidecl ... t:lggering nll1(1I1111" n( ilh'lnw Itll 1111\'1'11.11
Sp"in. During the sixicellih (cnlury. Ih(' o( I'oln,,' 111 11pl'('1 l't'llI (h·lt.ll I"
now Bolivin) produccd 110 Ics!' th;lll twn IIHrds III Ih(' world". klltl\\'!1 HIIII'ul "I
silver; the cily of P0In... i. initially lr(';Iled ;I.'> :-. 01111'''''1. \\'.1'. Ill.11l
((lnlcllll'nrary London. veins were I:-.I('r f(HIll,1 III Illl' \/,'/111 1,/ \\'lul I" 11"\\
Penl. fllrlher stnking Ihe (]I1£'''' tllr PI-c\ inllS 11lel;II ... Jil ,,11111.1.. 1. "11"111,11 1'11."1,,,
(under the ,l/lrJ;('II';O OfQllilo) ilCV('r h('(<l1111' .1 11lilllllg\('lllfT.11l .. 1(·,HI. II Idle',1 "II
Indi;11l Iahor for lexlilc prncllKlion .md IOta] ;lgJ'i1 11]1111'1' III lhl' hlf:hl.lntl "J:i",,·,
Map 6 The Central Andes
\ 11111 I \ I A
,-' I
"'= i' ",,,.J
-)r-- ", .;--,-:--y. '.. I
r "'/';""1/'
, \_...... tllI.\ I I I
l·j·.llI' )-1.. -.-r// ')
..;. ,/1\1 II:I
.. , .. I ..I.m"·,
I I'
'1, '\ .. "A)
} '"'' ILj ,''';,1 N"NA \ '-
, "",'/Ii
/'''1/ /1'.1

, ,
I ...I. r... n. '?

/',1 ( " ,(
. WC Ill(' l('rm "Ct'nlml Anile"" in a scn<;(' T<,chniLally the "cel1'lal" Andes
cxl('nd flOIll northern Chile through Bolivia and I'c'ru inln EC\I;"Idnr. whilc lhe (()f(frlkra in
IIortllf'rl1 F(l1;ulnr to h('lnllg lolhc "norlh('rn" AIl<lr.".
Il(' Andes MOlillIOllll" deflnc the terms of life ill milch of Alllcril:a. \-Villl
sUBunits :lppronching 23,000 feci above sea level :lnd wilh deep interior \'<ll1cys,
this imposing mrdl!f('ra (fmm the word for stretches 4'100 miles
:llollg the north-soulh length of the continent. Tn the we51. ils snow+cnppc<l peaks
lower <wer narrow cnast::!1 :lrea"; 10 the cast, the)' slope through \'crdanl jungles and
cXp:'lll<;;vc plains towaro the vasl Ama7.01l bnsin. For human settlements, the rugged
lefr,lin of the Andes h.lS had a divi..ivc effcct: conditions in the highland Slcrra arc
worlds apart from lowland :IrC:lS, and cOlllmunic;llioll between the regions has heen
slow <lud tlirfiCliIt. This bask renlil)' hOll' led to soci:ll. economic. ::lI1d polilic.11
Ir;1gmenlalions within :III n:ltinns embr:lcecl by this In:ljestic feat of nature.
We fncus here 011 counlries of the central Andes-Bolivia. Peru. and ECIl:ldor.·
In precolonial times. these :lrea!' were home to l:trge and settled Indian societies
under t he rule of Ihe Incan empire. centered in Ihe ancient cit y ofCuzco. today,
native-speaking Indi:llls make tip !'ignifkant shares of Ihe nntiol101l poptdations:
ahout 62 percent in Bolivia• percent in Peru. nnd 25 percent in Ecuador.
Indi:l1l" live (and have lived) mainly in the highland!', oftell in tightly knit tr:lclitionnl
t:ornnlllllilics. perpetunting folkwnys that go bnck to Inca d:lYs. 'such fact!' raise
t:lnt.tlizinl-{ quc!'tions :lhout the contemporary welf:tre nnd status of indigenou"
peoplcs. Ilow h.we Indian communities farecl in modern l ..'ltil1 America? Ilave
they done betler in some places than oLhers? \-Vhat might explain the differences?
R:lcial and ethnic oiversity has created complex and fascinnling societies
within the Andes. Mixed-hlnod everywhere form the largest single demo-
graphic element. Descendants of African slaves make lip ahout 5 percent of the
population of Peru and 10 percent in Ecuador. Perceived labor shortnges in the
ninetccnth century hrought hundreds of thousnnds of Chinese laborers to Peru.
1',\Hj j\V11 l ,\ ... I·:"ltJlIII.S:f
Th". dghIL' .... lllll I,.l"lliury plllllgl,;'d Ih.... vkl,;'roy:.dty into :1 eCOJ.lomic
I.] i:.l ..... BourGoll lin' tr,ll,iL' p()lid.... 1.... 1.1 to the displaceillent oll.:.cuadonan textiles by
ill,,'xpell:.ivL' duth... Irol1\ EUropl'; thl'Y also dil1linatl'd Peru's legal on
lllllllill'/l·l' WillI Upper I'l'rll alld Chile, a:. guuds t:ould llOW t:Olllt: ovcrlmld Ir,olll
Ihll'1l0., Ain':., Silwr productiun wl'nl inlu a slump. Administrative reurgalllza-
lurllLl,'f \wak... lIl'lll.illl:l's while the creation or tile Viceroyalty of
NL'W (;I:llldda (prl':'l'lll day I':cuador, COlolllbia, Panama, alld Vellt."Zuda) IUSli:rcd
d :'l·ll"l' "I dlllllllg 10c.ll "·rl·,ll .... dites,
I) ,ILa!',;\ iLall)'. Ille's,,: 11VIHb did nut pruduce a widt'spread illdelJelldl'llCl,;'
JIII'VL']IIL'llt ill l'l,'lll, lClthl'l, LIIII.I·S illll'lIl,(tuals argul'd fur COJlCcssion::. wilhin thl'
,lnd lur lhat would n:storl' the privik:gl's ami prosperity
"I pll,' BuurbtJl1 l'ra, A:. illdl'pl'lldt'JIC": 11luvelllelltS were swct'pillg Illruugh thl'
11,':.1 III Spallbll Alllt,'rila. PlTU rl'lliailled a loyalist slrUllghold of tIll' crl)wn.
N;tl)l,k'IlI':' "I Spain in [I:\U8 and his assumptioJI of II10nnrchicui
p"\\'L:r:. :.IIUl,.k \\'av.... :. through thl' t.'lllpirl'. III till' absence of the king. local
jUlItol:' ill Sp.dll rl'sl:.tcd IIH' Frellch takt'over. III the Viceroyalty of New Granada,
Ihv LrL'Ilk dt/lHill.lIl'd tUWl1 I.:uulldl (ca/liMv) l)r Santatc de Bogolil threw its sup-
IlIIl1 Itl 1111,' JUJlI;! al Sl'vilk, III JXU'> neole di1l's in Quito challenged royal power
.tlld nl.lhll ... hl,'l! IIll'ir uwn junla; angl'red 11)' the vkeroy's repressive reaction,
lfl.t1I,,':-, prtJlllplly lwgaJll'llllting aguinstthe Spanish regime, Earl)' in IHIO, elites
III '.lr.h ,Hid d ... l'w!Jt'1"l' ,",..'IHOVt'd Iht'ir culollial governors, Almost t'verywhere.
11Il""" Jlltl\'L'llll'nl'> .lvowed thdr loyahr to Ferdinand VII, till' Spanish king.
1:VL'lltU.dly. thl'}' wuuld upl'nl)' assnt thdr illdependelln.
III IKl2, li,rces inlli(ll"d a crushing deft'al in Vent'Zueia on pro·illlk-
I'L'lH!L'Il\I,' tl\IUp::' ulldl'r Sinlon Bolivar. By mid- 1816 ;\11 ufthe mort' populous rt'gions
III Nl.'w ;ran.ld.l wcrl' ha..:k n1yalist cUlltrol. 13rlltal repression during lhi::.
·1",.. Illndy :'l'lvnllo strl'llglhell the insurgents' determination tu
g.lIJI ""lIll'k'\\" indl'lwlldl'lll":, Aidnl hy arms and troops from Grt";lt Brit;lin, patriols
lq,:.llIlL'd IIlI' illili.llivl· .\lId Uollvar rcturlll:d lu the fmy. After the dclcal of l"Oyali::.t
l':' .11 HII)'.IL:l ill IKIY, Itluk Cllllt rolof most of NI'W Gmll;Jda.
[)Ill tlt l' ulllrM' uf his military campaign, Uolivar led a movement 10 unite
VL'lll'/Ud.1 aJI(.1 L:ulollluia. '['hl' Republic of Colombia was proclaimed in 1819.
I·,,,u•• dnr in Iti22. (Much later. this composite stute was called
l:"llllllhi.I," VI' Cr"',IlL'r Culombi3, to distinguish it from prcst"nt-day Colombia,)
I'rllill it-. tht' ilL'\\' republic fact'd two chalkngl's: warding off continuing
tlll,:als Ilonl Spallbll for":L'::', and laying the foundations for politkal ordt"r.
I'vkall\vhilt", de Sail Martin led his troops over the Andl's from
i\lgl'lllill;l lu l:llllL', .... in IH20, hl' rl'ached Ihe I,:oast of Pl'fll. Several months lalt'r
the Sp.lltiards evacuatcd Lima, and on July 1821 San Martin prodaillled the
ilHkpL·ndt'llLI.' uf Pl'ru, Rl'lugnized as the by the 10Gli populace, he made
plan:,> 1\1 l':'>I.lLli:.h a lllOll;ll'(hy and commissioned an agt"nt to search for a suitable
EurIJI'"',tll pi incl'. Thi:. bruught oppositiull from liberals, whu wallh:d a republican
tonll til gOVl'flIlllt"llt, and the projt'ct disappeared nrta San Martin's fateful meeting
With Bolivar ill bk IH22 .lllLI ::'llb:'L'quent withdrawal frolllthe sCt"IlC, Boliv"lr wun n
dedsive victory OVL"r inll)t'riallurCt:s at tlll'battk' ofJunin in 1823, alld in Ikcelliber
l I\ntonio j\lse Suert' delivcrcd the coup lk gruel' al I\ya<:uclllJ. I{o)'<.llisl truops
thereafter surrendered, ending SIJ;\llish rule ill South America.
To ro::.ter cOlllinelltal unity, l.3ulivar propos\'d a conl"l·llcr.ltiull ul IJeru with
Upper Peru ilild Gran Columbia-under his k'adership, of l.:uursL'. III the
time, creole leaders in Upper Peru decided to t'stablish an ::.tak. Thl'Y
ll<lmed it afkr Bolivnr, and illvitl'd him to cumpose its cOllstitutiul1 <.llld rule a::.
prl'sidl'JlI. Thus was the statL' 01" l301ivia founded, Thl' I.ibel".llur propused ;Ill
extr('llldy ::.trong executive power-;l prt'sidl'lll fIJr who, ill lluminating his
vict' prt'sidl'lIl. could llame his successur,
Slllil ten by his o\\ln I,:real ivit y, tht' Liberator r\'ga rdnillb Buliviall COl 1st it lit ion
as th.... ideal solutiun for all of Spanish Aml'rica alld sought 10 illlpose il 011 (;r,11I
Columbia. Critic::. dismissed it as a prl'sniplion fur munarch)' ill republican dress.
As disagreeJllenlS lllolllltnl, two rival f.lCtiollS l'lI1t"rgcd: pru CI.·nlralist :'lJppUrlL.'rs
of Bolivar and pro-l;"'deralisl di::.sidt'llts who expre::.sed alann uVt'r his nUlhuril ari:ln
tcndencies. By 18)U l3oJivar\ hl'alth was ill rapid tb.linl" alld llediL'd in D,·c"-l1lber
of that year.
t;r31l Colombia thus broke "parI. II was rivL'1l by ((Jllilieis Od\\'l't"l1 1111.' clergy
alld univl'fsit)'-edllL"atcd liberal polilicialL::', helWL.'l'll IIlI' alhl :.allllA
politicians. bl'lh'l'l'll the cl'nlral guvefllJllent ill Hngot;i and clites ill Vl'lll.'l.uda
Ecuador, and bL'lWt"t'1l Holiv<.lr amI his rivals. By IX31 Idl inlu its
cOl1stituL.'nt parts- VI,.'llaUl'l.l, Ecuador, and Culumhia, In lht.:' Illt';mtilllt", Bulivia
alld Pt"!"ll retaineJ tht"ir separate claims tu nalional'ss Ihall a dl'cadL'
afkr independence, Spain's furlller viceroyalty in Soulh AmeriLa had broken lip
into nilll' differt'nt rl:publics.
Cycle:. ul growtll have charadl'ri:tt.:'d the \XOIlOlllJl'S, TilL"
rhyl/lills 01 .... xpansion ;:lnd Jt"c1ine illl'XpUr!S h;lve v.lrin!lrolll LOlllllr)' 10 cUllntry,
hut paltl'l"llS havt' heen consiSknl. Illkrnalional tradt" ill agriLlJltlllal pruducts ur
natural rl'sourc\;,s led to growth in spccillc Sl'(tors ;tlld el1ridlt"d tho::.L.' in conlrul of
proJuction and comlllerce, Lleclints in wurld (orkll brougllt by cUllljJt'ti·
tiOll frum other countries) pruvoked periudic crisl'S in ll<.ltional l'cunulllit:s. As
other prodUl'tS proved profilable on IIII,.' world markel, dilferellt region:. Gillie 10
j/flllllinL.'l1ce, Individual ;llld family wt:alth rUSL.' <llld fdl \\'itll llplu.... :. and duwn-
swings in the l'Xport sector. Unable tu sharI.' 111l.'sL· prunt::., va:.t Sn'tors u[
population r('mailled margin;]l and poor.
Peru; From Guano to Minerals
N;1tllre bl,;'stownl an unusual bonanza un pustllHlepl'lldl'lKl' I'l'ftl. For (l'Jlluril's the
coldnl'5s of the Coulltry's olTshon: walcrs h<ld atlrat:led large ll11lllUl'rs of !ish, The
fhh ill turn attra(kd birds, which Id·t Iheir droppings Ull i!'llallds Ill'<.lr Ihe t:oasL
Atlllospheric dl)'lleSS aided the prescrvntion and calcification of these deposits,
known ;"IS guano, which hml n high concentrntion of nitrogen. And gun no, "s lhe
Inc:Is had known, turned out 10 he a fertilizer.
from IH/II lllltilthe 1890s, guano exports fueled the Peruvian ('collumy and
crealed the O1ppearance of prosperit),. Since the islands were public property, 1101
private land, national policymakers faced a thorny question: How to take
advant;lge of this virtual monopoly? The answer was a "consignment" system.
The government leased out (usually exclusive) exploitatinn rights to a llH.'ITh"nt
hOllse or partnership. [n retul"l1 it obtained a fixed share of total sales, ralher than
n l"x (Ill profits. The mcrch;lllts (usllillly foreign) received the remaining
percentage of sales plus reimbursement for costs. On ils f;lce, the strategy
involved a mutllnlly hencfki01I partnership between n liber<ll stnle and privale
But the consignment system pl<lced the state in constant connict with the
merchant houses. The government wanted 10 sell the gU<lno for ns high a price ns
possible. This could mean holding hack on shipments to keep prices IIp. Merchanls
were more interesled in the tot;ll s:des volume because they h;ld time-specific
contr:1cts; from their sl:llldpoint, it was often 1110re profil:1ble to sell luge <lmOllnts
of guano:1t mo<!er:1tc tlwn to sell small amounts at high prices. AS:1 result,
state authorities and their consignees const:1ntly hickered.
By the early IH60s, the Peruvi"n government was enrning 80 percent of its
reVellues from guano. At the time, nboul hair the government's receipts 011
gunno were destined for payments on lonns from English bondholders. The
hoom therefore provided lillie stimulus for long-run economic development: as
historian Fredrick Pike IIns obsen'ed, gren!er the windfall gains bec.lllle, the
less self-sllstaining the econom)' grew." Deposits neared exhaustion hy the late
18HOs. The nge
Lhus came 10 an cnd.
From the ]890s to the 1930s, the Peruvian economy experienced a series of
booms (m honmlels) in export products. Prominent among Ihem:
rI A ruhher hoom in the Amazon rainforest. elltrepreneurs like
Julio C. Aran<l amassed huge forlunes, and by the lurn or the century the
city of ICJuilos h<ld grown to <lbout 20,000 inhabitants. But then Peru, like
Brazil, was eventually pushed oul of the market by the more effiCiently
grown plnnt01lion ruhber from the Far East.
" Sug:lr production in the coastal lowlands. This was a profitable operation
that required substanti"l c"pit;ll investments. Machinery for the model'll
mills was expensive, nnd il took luge ;lmounls of land to feed sufficient
cane 10 the mills. In contrast to the Caribbean (sec Chapter 4), Peruvian
production was a year¥round activity and required a permanent labor
force. immigrants from China :1Ild Japan, and Indians
from Ihe sierra camc to work in coast<ll plantations under coercive
conditions. Sugnr output and exports grew rapidl}' through the ]92005.
though the market coll;lpscd "I the end or the decnde.
(, 0 Thc Andc!>: 0Iig.1I' ..llld I,',
• Colton, also grown alnng the coa.'>!. Some colton f.Hmcrs were "111.11] .. , .111'
pensants, .. It hough the mO... t common lahnr W;1'; <;!l:lICl ropl'lIlj:
(yallacoIUJje). Peruvi;lll IHltion:1l.<: were Ihe lal"gt'st investllr". :1"
Glpitrllists were rcluct:1nt to engnge in 1l1l1l1l1<lrkel rd.11 i< Ill" of 1ll"!IIllll I., III
By 1930 cotlon accounted for IR percellt of l'el"llvi,ltl eXI',).I ...
• \'\'001 from the Andean highlands, ;llwnys:l sccond:lr}' cxpnrl prodlll 1.·11.1
ditionnl peasants produced the highest-grade' variety from the alp;lc.l: <;lwf'l'
wool came from Inrge-scalc haciendas. ·I·hc collapsc nf the 11''llkd in III<'
1920s hrought on:l reccssion, cspcci;l11}' for sheep 1".liSCI"<;
Meanwhile the once dominant scctor nf thc I'C)"IlVi.1l1 Cl 1I110111r. 111111111):.
underwent n shift from precious mctals, such :1.<; silvcr ;ltltl gnld. tn Illdl1 ... 111.d
metals. Copper gnined special il1lpnrtnnle. ].nl"gc-scalc U.:-O. IIl\'C"lmc'lt .1,.,\"{',1
in 1901, with the purchnse of a complex at Ccrro de I'a<;ll', .11ld l'nH1II\t.till
quickly acceJcrnted. Ownership fell nlmnst comp[etely IllHlcl" Ihe ,flllr)"ll] I"
foreigners, eSJlecinlly from Ihe Unitcd whilc miwanl ,",II,m \'''>1\ .,k, r
the workers,
Petroleum exlracti(11l <llsn expnnd('d in Ihese }'l'ar.... e'l'ct..iall}' dllling \\'01101
\''';11" I. Coastal fields conlained not:1hl}' high grade deposil". ,11ll! l J.•<". ,.ll'iLlh... t..
took nctive pnrt from the start. In I<)]J rhe Inlcrn:ltioll.l1 Pcllfl1clllll (·01111',111\
(IPe), n Canadian-registered of SI:lntlanl Oil, .1< (e 10 1l1.linl
fields. By 1930 oil made UI' "hout .10 perccllt oft{lI;11I'cl"l,vi.ltlc.-':II"lr .
The Great Depression :ltul \'-"odd \,Var II ;l!tercd the sl rill t lilT of ill1crn.ll., 111.11
markets and prompled " modest reorientat ion of Ihe Ct..OIlOlllr. [11 ( 0111 r.l"l In IIW11
counterparts in Mexico (and Argentin:1 and Bra"lil. ,1S we <:h'lll ..c'c), hnwevcr.
Peruvian policymakers did not atlempt tn emh:lrk nn n sll:-.t'lincd progr.1111 nl
import-subslilution illdllstri<l[ization. \oVhcn 0pl"lrtullltr hcck(1ncll ill tin' 1.11,'1
1940s, they reverted instead to 'l Iried-and truc exl'0" led J:lll\\·th 111
cooper<ltion with foreign investmcnt.
Sugar production eXl'nnded in the 19(JOs, as I'C'II ITlcivnl.l .. h,II"t'I,j rIll' tl"-
market quota Ihnl was taken awOlY from revoltltionary Cuha. (:ot!on I'lndllltlon
more than doubled hetwcen the 1940... and the 19(1Os, thell (lc( linc,l ill 111C 1,1\ t' 1,1
competition from synthetic fabrics. Copper r('t<lined ils pn.<;ilioll .IS lilt' k,ldillg
minernl expol1, all hough iron ore became imporlanl ;"IS well. Fi<:hlllCal expo.t ...
undenvenl a briefsurge frolll the 1950s tuthe 1970s, lalcr dc.-Ilnin): ,1"':1 n'<,ult 01
chnnging ocean currents.
In sum, the Peruvian economy underwent three 1(lllg ,}'dcs nt eX!,I'11 led
growth. Figure 6.1, showing the volume and v:llue of exports, illtlS[ ral c.... lIlt' '(I'III",I[
pattern. The first phase, corresponding to the guano ngc, sl I"ctdle,1 f t"I fill IIIC IX"I,
through the 18701'. After a period of oscillalion, the cconom)' rcnwC'rnl ill 111l'
18905 and began a period of expansion that Insteo untiltllC' CIT'll [">ep/,cs.. ion inl!le
1930s. The conclusion of World W<lr 11 reopened intCrtl;ltiollal market ....111.1
precipitated a third cycle of growlh th:1t t:llntinlled to the mid P,70<;, whcll
world prices for <lgricllltllr<ll and other wcnt inln dcditlc Oil, C •• " .. Iill
'."J" I 11"'.",",,.y 11I'1l1' ,n"l t 1lt.·,II.lIl1. "I.'/ll Ill'JU I'J// (,/ul'"o'(/1 (!IlJ f-'ufuy 1/1 ()II Upen h UII(,rIly IN"w
'"I"ll,t"" lJillv'-'\!lj "It·\·,. l'l/tll. p "
')i1ver lefilling (;It Cerro de Pasco in the early 1900s large-scale technology.
(Courtesy of library of Congress,)
thl' highlands. And fuurth, 1>1"1"1l furgt'd a highly 1I1l1.·qual p,ltkrJl ut i1lCU11I1:.'
distribution. Hy the 198Us Ihe lop 20 percent oflhl" populaliun n'cdvcd p.... r<...:J11
of the incollll:.', while the lowest 20 IJ,,:r...'t:nt got 11111)' 5 percl'nt. (Do::cldes Ialer, tho.:
figures wcrt: abollt the same.)
During the lutl:.' 1970s and 19HOs, Ihe lllOSt profitable Peruvialll'xpOrlnup was
illicit-coca leaves, uscd for the production \)1' C'ocaint: (in hiddO::l1 Iaboraturies ill
Colombia). Cultivaled mainl}' in thl..' Upper Huallaga Valley, thl.' coca leaf harVl'st
C,Il11e to 2UU,000 melric tons in Ihl:.' year 1'-)')0, e(juivak'llt to twu·lhinls o( wurld
production. 11)' tillle coca ll'afprodmtioll e'ligagni Pl.'r11:lIJS 10 p...·rce'111 jlfthl'
Il.ltiol1's agriC'ulturallahor forcl:.' ;,lIld 200,000 \\lurkers al nil stagl's of prodW:lioll,
wilh a tolal economic impact ofnboul $1 billion, Whil,,: Ihis waS a llIajor :lCtivily, it
did not creale Illultimilliollairl:.'s aJllong Ihl:.' highland c(jlllpcsiIHJS. FMlllgat\..' priet·s
for COGI lenf were actually r:11 her mode'st; largc-sed,,' profils ill Ihl' drug Irack ClIlI\..'
Ihrough wholesale <Iud retail sales in ovcr:'icas markets, ...:spct.:ially Eurupe and the
United Statl:.'s. fb Ih\..' cClltury o..:aJlle 10 .LIl "'lid, guvcl"lllllvnt and p1.11l1
disc:ls"'scolllbilled 11.) r('duce th...: Pi..'I"uviall Tilt: would b...· takl.:'l1 up by
olher cuulIlries.
Bolivia: Silver, Tin, and Gas
llolivia long been renuwlle'd fur ib lllining. Ourillg lht.· t.:oluld,,1 i..'I.I, tIll:
principal product \\las silver: by Iht: tWl:lltit'lh n'lItury, lill bl.·GllllC the 1..:.ldillg
cXI>orl. In fact Ilk's,,'t\\lo mil1\.'rals Il:nd to appt:ar :dollgsidl' Olle <l1ll,lher, alld a good
dl'al of till \Vas jl'llisonl:.'d as lIsdt:ss by illlpo.:riaillwrlunh., IIII..' Indusl ri;d
Ikvullllil)1l aCCl:ll'rall:... 1 ill ninelCl'llth ce'nlllry Eurol'l:' :lnd Norlh huw
eve' 1', wurld demand for tin :lnd wilh II1\.' cUllslnH.tiuli 01 rail-
road !illl'S during Iht: thl' prospl:'clS fur pruCitalllt.: explllit.tliulL beGinlc
abllnd.llHly clear.
Local entreprcnt'ufs seized UpUll the upportullity. '1 he lllO",1 promincllt was
Silllun IJatiilo, OJ mestizu of modest backgrollild wllo startet! oul as a nllning
apprentin·. lly 1924 he owned olll'-Iwif of the 1I,ltion's produclion, (olltfolkd
the EurOVI:;l1l rdlning of Blllivi:lIl tin, ami was bn:oming Ulle: or tl\l! world's richl..'sl
Il1cll. \,\'hill:.' Paliilo SPl..'lIt much of his lire ill Eurupe', Ih\..' othe:r ll:ading l.'ntrepre
lll:.'urS, Carlos Arallla)'u and MOJuricio Ilochschild, rl:.'sidt'd prim;ll"il)' ill Hulivia.
These three f:-llnilies controlled about:>O pefCcl11 of Bolivian lill. Thl:.'Y forl1lt:d
:t close-knit group: alullg willlthl.:'ir retaint:rs, they we're nickllflllll."d fa rusclI- Mthe
scn:w," in a poillll.'d metaphor. Lkcausc taxcs and fl'cS froll1tin pr"duLlion lorllll.:'d
an important source of national revenue, the Illining barons widdl.::d \.onsiderable
inOucllce OWf governmental polic)'. Unlike the sitv!.:'r 11Iagn;lIt:S of thl:.' nindcenth
cl:.'ntury, however, the till-millt' owners did not dircctly in politics. The}'
relied instead on pressure group tactics, which provnllo be highly efli.:'ctive,
Bolivia quickly bccaml' one of thl:.' WOrld'3 Icading suurces of till. Production
climbed trOIll an allnual averagt: uf Ill"arly IS,UOU Illl:."trk in ItJUU-190'1 In
3'1,000 ill the 1940s. Thl..' peak individual year was 1929, wilh all output of LllorC
Ihan 47,000 metric tons; by that lime Bolivia plu3 Ihree ulher cuulltries accotlnted


? lOll
0 1"1
t,11 .
, ,
11.1 10 h'y f... alufl's of Pl.'rll'S t'l.:onulIlk- devdopml.'nl.
1'11,>1, Iht' lUlllllry relll.lIJll·t1llighl)' d"''Pl''llt olll:.'XpurlS :IS:l slimulus 10 growth.
ulId, I 'ell! W.l:> n.tll·llld), vullll'r.lbk' 10 priLl' :>\\'ings ill thl' inkrnatiun:d lll:lrkd
,111'\ tllll., III h,.:'yond il:> (otllrol. Third, IWClllieth-cl:lllury Pl'HI .111
l· ... "IJllllly \\11111 Vl'I)' lo..'\\1 pl"du":livl' hdwel'n Ihl:.' capital-inlensive Mmodt.'rn"
""... 1"1, 111.tllll), \Ill 1111,.' ... "a:-.I, alld Illl' labur-Illknsivl." Mll'adil iOlla!" SCCIUf, mainly ill

lli-lU lijlJU lli7U IHMU IIiYU 190U IY:lO 193U IY-lU IYSO IYtiU IY7U
Fi9ure 6.1 Exports from Peru, 1830-1975: Indices of Volume and Dollar Value
t 1990 = 100)
for SO pen:('nl nfllle world's lin. As a resull oflhis lransforrn:ltion, I.., I'm' eclipsed
Potosi ns the financial and <;ervice cenler for the nation's mining sector,
·... el Ihe tin hoom led 10 social tensions and 10 frequent slrikes. Ilighlancl
Indian peasanls provid("d most of Ihe bbnr, mnving from Iraditional rural com.
Tllunit ies inln rollgh-;1lld-re;1dy mining cnmps. They lived nnd worked in ;11 rocious
COlldilions. 'rhe}' Inhored nt :lllitucles of 3000-'1000 feet nbove sen level, descending
every dlly inlo deep and precnrious mine shllfts. Illness and injury were C01ll11l0n-
pi <Ice. Women 13bored along... ide the men, hearing equal risks and dangers. cat
the explained one female worker. "and Ihe mines cal LIS."
The Great Depression h3d an especially dev;1slnling impaci on Bolivia.
causing tin prices 10 plulllmel from $917 a lOll in 1927 to S3R5 a lOll in 1932. In
cOlllpnri<;on wilh its leading competitors, Bolivi3 had Ihe lowest-grade ore and the
highest 1";\Ilsportalion cnsls and would therefore find il hnrder to recover. World
\V:u II hrought a boost in tin prices. but a postwar slump left the nation's economy
And while III rosCfl survived the 1930s and 19'1Os, its vast holding... were
expropriated h}' the government as ;l result of Bolivi;l's Revnlutioll (lf 1952
(descrihed l;lter). M<1n<1gcll1ent of Ihe tin industry passed to the Cor"I)1'f/c;lm
Mil/e1'f/ de 11(1/iv;a (a.k.a. Comihnl), <1 staie-rull elllity that was controlled in large
part hy organized lnbnr. As the second-largest tin enterprise in Ihe world. Comibol
took fiftee!) }'enrs to bring production back to pre-1952 levels. Even so. tin
accounted for Ill(lrc Ihan h31f of Rolivian exports in 196R. During Ihe 1990s,
Bolivia reg<lined ils slalu<; :IS the world's fourth-largest source of lin, with lllosl
CXPOI'IS hcadinf. lor Europe and the United States.
OUlside of C:olllihoi. small- 3nd medium-size operations continued 10 seek
other l1lel:tls, stich as silver., anlimon}',lead, and tungsten. A short-lived
rush" in Ihe late 1980s ;111racled hundreds of cooperatives and Ihollsllnds of
indivitlll:ll prospectors; it was eSlimated, in f;let, thnt contraband sales were
equivalent 10 HO p("rcent of legal gold exports. Bolivin's historic mining fever
relllained alive and well.
Explor:llions for pelroleulll hegan :IS early as 191(,. These operations were
n;1tion;l!i1ed in 1937 under Ihe control of the slate-run }'acimienlos
dc Holivia (Y!'foU)-one ye3r bdore Mexico's nationalization of oil ill
1938,. Bolivian production peaked in Ihe earl)' I970s but declined there3fter. YPI:n
W3S priv:ltized in 1996.
More imporlant was the .. a......ociated natural gas" typically found in conjunc-
lion with petroleulll. As proven reserves became significnnt, Bolivia negotiated the
C<lflslructinn of a pipeline 10 in 1972. A Inter ;lgreelllent wilh Hrn7illed
to construction of a second pipeline in the 19905 ;111 the wn}' to Sao P3ulo, nlotnl
cost of $2.2 billion. As a result of subsequent discoveries, Bolivia's estimated
r("suves of natm31 gas incre:lscd exponentially between 1997 and 2003. In 2004
naillml nccOIlnted for 29 percent of all exports. By this time Bolivia W.IS known
to possess Ihe second-I:lrgest reserves in nil of South America. In keeping wilh Ihe
then-prcv<liling elllphasis on privatization, l'Xplojt3tion of the newly discovered
II • Th(" An,Ic,,· Snltlicl". Olig.uI II·.. "11.1 111011.11'. 1.'1
wn<: granled h, ,III Illlt'f1l.1IIIH1;l1 (('Ilsorlilllll nl ttIlUp,IIIIt'" Ir"lll HI.I/,I
(I'etrohms), Spain (Repsol), ;lIld Fr;lIIu; ('1'01.11).
Inevitnhly,thc natural hOIl,II11.1 sp<lfkcd inlclI ...t'l'lllitil.II",nllo\(·,,,,\ ., h.'
locnLion oflhc rescrves, ill the dcpartnll'nl nfSnnla CrU1 ,1lltl"IlIlPlII1IIlllg ...nlllll
easlern arC;lS, provided a harsh rt'milukr ofso<,ial ;lntl n 1'11' 'Illlt I 1t',1 \·.Igc" h"l \\t,·I'
the highlands and Ihe \OWI;lIHls. Anlignvcrrll1lenl crilil.s IknOllllt col ., wide
of orricial decisions: the pricing agrcclllcnts willI Argcll tina .llid It .. ,l.,il. IIll' I,"".I,,!'.
agreements wilh cOlllpnllics. nnd 1:1X .(lllC"clioll" hr .t'lllr,,1 .111111 1 11111"'.
Vcnting regional fruslrnlioll wilh Ih(' polilic.ll pr('('rnillnht· nl r" ".11. 1to, .. II·I ... II'
Snnla Cruz mounted insi<;I('1l1 Gllllp;lign<; fltr vaguel)' ,ldllll,.1 ):".11" 1.1 lq:"II •. 11

Generall}' speaking. the Sllll'Y of Bnlivl;ln milling Il'vt'.II ... 1\\" 11111'1'11.'111
differences from Ihe Pcrurinll expcrit·lll.c. First W<lS Ihe plctlnlllln:lIll I"k ot
nation... 1invcstors. ralher than foreign IlHISIIII,I .• hl)' III 1111 l'lllllih 11"11
Second W;1<; Ihc economic rfllc of Ihe SI:llc. \·\lh("l"C'a<: 1'('1'11 ,l'Iu·cl ,dill' ,,,I n,. 111 .... \,·"
nn priv;lle enlerprise,lhc governmelil (,1111('10 perf01 111 donllll.tlli II ti,'" 111 I:, ,11\ I.' ..
('xl rnclive riC's. Throllgh C:c llnihol, Y1'1' H. ,llld 01' hel 1111 Ill ... III I LO '11. 1111"
stale prnved to he a rnaj(lr C(OIlOnllC ador ill Ilnlivi.1. I\S wc "h.• ll ."I·c·. Ihe cud, of Ih, ...
slory W<lS 'l(Iw!lcl"e in
As ill Pcru. coca Piliduclioll h,ltl;l lllllg antl'I'I'II,ln. Ili"II'I' III 1:,,111'.'
Originall)' grown for Ir;ldlt iOllal ('n<;lI111pl HIli hr hlghlalhl "I"'l'n'I/"(. II',., 11".11
L(llllrihutcd more Ih<ln (, percen! ofCnl' hy Ihe 1.11(' l'mt)..,. 1'11111111 I'l.hl
in !\'l'(l print.ip,lI area:-: tilt' ,I high IllllUl\l.lin .111',1 \\111i IIIlCrl'1l Inl.lIl1.
where it ;lccounled for J5 percenl of .Iglllllliliral pn'tlultltl1l (1l1.lilllr 10" 1'''.11
cOlll'umplion); ;lntl Ihe lowl:lnd Chapare. wh("l"e il :lIlHHlIlll'd 10 lIlole Ih.1I1 'It!
percent of ..gncultural oulpUI (mainly for expllrl .1hro,HI). !-.vef "inl" Ilw 1'.111\
1950s. coca Icnf growers (known :1<; werc l"C'llll:IlIlCd ,'" "
grollP of Illrmers. In lhe the I (l(fl/{'I"fl( joinctl :I (//111/11'(;1111 1.1"01 .dh.lIhl'
org:lllizetl under Ihe Ilnlinn's pc.,k bhnr ")'IH!ic.;lle. \oVhilc Ihc illlnll.Illt'Il.tI dIll):
trade W:lS illicit, lhc harvesting of • (Ira leave<; W.I<; nlll
Ecuador: From Cacao to Petroleum
The slimulus ror Ecuador's t:onlempnr;lr)' C'I.OnOIllIt. lkvd. 'j'llwnl Ii.l·, • '\111'·
mninlr from the C03Sl. r;llher Ihall the qam. In (onlr.l"t In goll\'I,1 .lll.! I'rill.
high-altitude mining never took rool in lhi<; cnllntrr. I.lrgclr .1".11.·... 1111. 1,".101,,1
played ;l minor role in Sp:lin's imperial tle<;igns.
Independence left Ihe nation wilh :I I"IlInl eCOlllllll)' "I llI1lr h.111 .\ 1111111""
inhahitnnls. Lahor rdalioll<; took Ihe f(lnn nnd ... h.IIC', ""I'I'llIJ: 1\' '1\'11\
focused 011 cash crops 3nd inexpensive raw 1nr Ihc \\'llIld 111.111..1'1
Vulnerahle In ch;1nging l11:lfkel demands anel price fllH 111:1111111 .... F'Il.Illoll··.
economy was suhjec! to uncerl;linly ;lnd inslahilil}·. Tlw<;e {Olldiliflll'" , h.lllj:4·tl
lillie during the remainder ofthc nineteenth lelliurr.
SI:lrling in the 1880s, Ecnadllr's first cnIHlllcrtial hoom involrnl II\(' C\ It'll I "I
cacao. (The intern31 ionalmarkct expandc(\ gn'all}' 011 ,hi" 111111', 1'.11 tlv l'l'l .111"'· Illllk
ll,ll 1'.\1,1 I\\\J" 1 .. \ .... I· ... lll!)II ... 1 11.\ '(,I· 0\ I-!( 11r..IF
,lh" hn..IIIIt'.1Il IIC:III vI ill Unih,:d By !lJO,I,
h 1I.ldclI \.... 1111' larg... prodw... ·,:r of(:<II.:ao, accuunting lor 15-20 pt'rcc:nt 01
wurld \llIll'lI!. am.! Hu'SI;:WS len tht:' highlJlIds tu work wage laborers in
1111."1.,10...10 pl.IIII,IIIUII::.. Growll Ulldl.'f 1l.Jlllr.t1 Sh,hll'ull luwland Ileal' Ihl'
b .. u.ldlll'iall l"lldO Ill'CHIl'" 1.IlIl11US lor Ihl' high (ilialit)' of it:.
.lllIllI.lli... -1l1l",H
'I'll,,· 1-'0:1::.1 hn.IIlI"· Ill'" ""'IIll-r 01 IIll' 1l.lliull·S n'ollorniL adivit)',
,1"llIllI.lll'.IIJ.lI ddllg. UJIIlltll'n i.d. alld "''':1'01'1· illljlllrt ,lff,li rs, C,ll'ao buill
,dli.llll. l'::' WillI IIh... ldl.Llll::. \\'110 o)uJd pnwidl: acl.."t"::.s 10 illkrnalional
111.11 kd::. .111,1 1IJ11111l1nl gOlJd::.. Although CiIl,.•IU allloullit'd 10 GO 70 I'l:"l cent or all
1·1. thllltlll .. 11 \'XI'Ul b, gelll' illg 1.lhor .llld iIII.Olllt>. II pfCIvidt'd lillie rur Ihl'
1I,1l10ll.11 ,'UIIlUltl)' .1::'.1 wi lui .... Ill::.ll.'.ld ul promoting dl·vdopl11enl.
lite pl.tlll.IlIUIl::. Il'h...d 1111 rivl:"r::. luI' Ir.lIl::.purt.l1iOll and COl11lllunil'alioll. J\flon:over.
IIll' \lWlll'l:> I'f.... ll·I...\'I..1 10 ll::.t' Ihl'ir pruJ1b 10 rrOlll ralhc:r
Ih.1l1 illlht'IUI,:.d i... LUtlOIIlY. ib wilh oll1t'r III L<ltin America.
,.II-.ltl pllu.lul.tillll killo the lll'aliOIl 01 an -endavc
AnHllld 1915 thl' C<Il;H, bllll,lIli'.a bt'gan lu faller in Ihe (,lte vI LUlllpdilioll
IHIIlI \·Vl':-.I j\ fru,'.1 .llld Brazil .•lIld. IlIOrl:" ill\purt,lnll)', Iht' appt\lranCl' of a drcadl'd
pJ.Ull kllO\"'11 Ill .., hrooJll." By Ihl' \lJJOs Ecuador was pn)ducing
only'J 1',,'rl.l'lIl 01 lit", wurld induslry enjoyl:"d a parli.1I in til,·
1·) .0.. ,I" .1 Il'''lIll .,f g.w',"1 nllll'lll rq>l.llli ing Hy )')SS Ecu:lllor
h.l III,,' \\·url.l'"" ..1 ,,'XpUlllT. ,dlllough 11::. wcre 11111 ul Ihe ::..lIl1e
tlll,IIII)' .1::' tl\·hll' llld pl.,dlltliOll,,'lIlJver by ::.mall-scal..: I-'lanll'rS,
l\'llhllll ...d ::.lgllllil.IIlI, bUI lltll 011 till" :'l.lI... ull'alllt'r
El 1I,ldo,':> 1l1.I)Ul expvrl buum illvvlvt'd the prodUltlulI uf banana::..
Hn .HI::.,' ,II III,,' 01 pl.1111 dl::'l'.I::.e and Ihl'l:)'d",s 01 ion. I.lrgc.:.c,dl'
1I,III,III,llllltiv,IIillilltlfllnl 11111 10 bl' a t:nlerprise. a::. were
\.\1I1 .. 1,IIIIly ::'l',-klllg 11,'\'" '11'1-',1::, Illl' llillivalitlll. 'I'hl':'C l'l':.lrkl..:d Ihl:"
1\1 1.1I·gl' lUIIlP,IJlk.. wilh slllfkiclll lu olll prudud iOll
"h'I'.1 1I11lllhl'I .. I .. Uniled Fruil f.JI .llId .Iwa)' lit", l.rrge:.l l'1I1ily. ill
I'}\'I Ilghl III lite 1I1lddll' oj lhl' (;ll'.l1 !)l'j)rl'::.::.ioll!-UFCt) t'::'labli::.hnl upt'r.l
11011" ,tllIUg IilL' /'.lu,Hluri,1I1 Ol.l::.t. p.lrlkul,lrI)' ill Ih", coasl ..d :lfl:"as
'I'll", dilll;llc, alld suil of this Iropkal arc;,l would .Imply juslify Ihe
dloiu... ollol..llioll,
i\ pu.. ' \,Vlllld \ II ::.urgt" in world dl:"lll.llltllor o.lnal1a::.led 10 a lakeoff
III plududillll_ Tlte b)' building road::. connecling inl'lIld
10 111..' VtJ1b; Iv ,I lllUdl grt'.ller degree Ihan In<'.IU, tlte uanan.1
htHllII Itl::.ll'rl'l1 11.lthlllal dl:"vd,lplllelll, By 196U Ecuadur providl:"d JU percenl or
IlIlal wllrld UUlplil. represcllted 60 pt'rcclli of all Ecuadorian
Tit ... l'CUIIOlilY grcw a rapid p"h,:l', alld t<lriffs illcrcast::d governmt::nl revenue::.,
NOlwilhstanding lurc:igll early rule. tilt:: ;;lclual produclion of bananas
"Vl'lllll,clly 111UV... d ililu EClI.ldorian haillb. illv<lded UFCO laillb ill 1962,
.111(1 .1,,·s uf alld Lonvillct"d the company 10 cede: direci owner.
:11111' of Illl' pl.lIllaliun.. III I"GII (UFCO mighl abo h<lvt' learned somt'
It'ssons lrom its ,,'xperi..:nce in l:ualclllala, de::'l.I·iued in Chaptl'r 4,) But thi::. lilJ not
mean that UFCO disappearec.!. On the colltfilry. il remain..:,,1 ill (ontrul 01 mar-
keting and dislribution. This \\'a)' the comp'lII)' (uulJ avuid IhI.' risks of I.lbur
agitation plant discasl', but still earn profits lfom overseas
Oil provided Ihe fuundation for E(uador's third export boum. Tht' di::.(ovtT)'
of petroleuIII ileitis in Ih..: easlern AnKlzon rc:gioJl illihe tall' 1960s Ilamfufllll'd Ihe
counll)' inlo a world producer of oil brought large increasl's ill guvernnll'1l1
reVl'llue. The ycar 1972 saw COJllplt'1ioll 01 Ihe pipl'lilll'.
eXknding frolll Ihe OriC1l1l: region 10 Ihl' pOri lily ur Esllleraldas_ In addiliun,
:.ubsl.lIlli.11 of g<l:l \wrl' found in Ihe <":tllr (II CuaY<lquil ill Iltl'
Largely bCGIU::.e of pt'trolcum exports, Ecuador's nl't )ureign "'X..:h,lllgl'
earnings dimbt'd from $43 million ill 1971 10 over milllun in 197-1.
Augmented by OPEC-led increases in internalional prll'e::., pt"trolt'ulIl
boom promolcd unpr",cedelllct.1 l'Conumic gro\\'th, Rl'al Gnp incrl'ased by all
.lVcrage of mort' Ihall 9 pern"lll per yt'<Ir frolll 197u 10 1977 (tolllparl'd with tl
pen:ent lor Ihl' 1960s), Ecuador bt'Cilllle lhe pdrolelllll t'xporlc:r 111
Soulh Amaica. afkr Venezuela. and in 2007 .:rude <lnd rdillcd Ill.:trulelllll pro
duCls aCCOlll1kd for 5R percelll of the' nalioll's tolill t'xpurt earnings. At lhe same
time. the oil boullI Gillsed sevcre l'llVirolllllelltal daJllage 10 Ih... 01 il'nk regiull and
pOSt'll seriolls he.dlh hazud::. for Iht' 10(:11 indigt'lluus populatiun_ Alld as ill oll1l'r
nations. petroleum-led dt'vdopmel1t It'd 10 massivc ill iJllpurb .tJ1d in
furl'lgn t.Jell!. 1\::. MexlCu dbl.(lvl'rc,l (Chapll'r 1), nJl \\';\:> nut a 1Il.lgi( p.lnal.c.l.
Social Tronsformations
pron's::.",s of l'COliomll' change led to ill Ihe ::.t.KI.l1
:.lructure of Ihe cenlral P.llkrns wcre broadly Ihe Illll:"e
l·olllllril":., bUI Iherc wt'll.
At Ihl' lUI' was a capilalist dill', Ihough il by nu Illunolilhil-, Thb
W.IS:l cosmopolitan grollI', shrewd and wdll'duCllcd. wilh its (ellkr 01 aClHJn III
Illajor citil's (Lillla. La Paz, This ladl't' lonk a i1exiblc, pnlglllati(
approach 10 mallL'rs OIl hand, olten collahuraling wHh !orl'igll inw::.lor:-i :lIld
frt'qut'ntly pel'lllllling Ilt'wly rit.h illv,,'sturs alld milil.lI")' ullk.... 10 join ib
circles. In Peru alld Ecuador Ihis st'glllent was headquartered alollg Ihc P<ldlic
(oast; ill Bolivia, ils center or action alternated bclwe('n La Pa'l Cruz.
The olig;,lrl'h)' was III general morc Ir<lditiunal. in .Il1itudcs ,1I1d
illsularit)', In Ecu;'ldor and Peru the provincial patro" bound Iu the lalld and
Illitinlained an intimate (though hierarchiGll) rdatiunship wilh Ihe wurking peon.
OWl' lime. howewr, Ihe preeminence of highland lltll:clldado:> calli'" und..:r inknsl'
pressure, In Uolivia, the Revolution or 1952 (described later) led to large-scale land
reform and liberated wl1/pesitlos from the oligarchiC stranglehold; in Pc:ru, a
gradual erusion or dilt:: authorily was hastened by lhe agrariHn prujeci of a Inil itary
government in 1968-75. Many peones left Ihe rur jobs either ill
coastal sugar or cotlon plantations or in mountain mining (:Imps, As if in admi::.
sion of ddeat. some frustratct.i landlords simply turned tht'ir lamb over to
162 I'/\RT TWO· CtlSE STUI1lE:;;: ('1It1NCt!" OVI·R TIMF
Hcnc;\lh the elite there were people of modemle in("ome, members of middle
sectors if nol :l middle d:lsS (ill the sense Of;l cohesive, sc1f-;\ware soci;\1 ...lass Ihal
emerged in nineteentJl-cclltury Europe), Mosl of the,e;e heads of household lived in
UrlXlll ;\rC:\5, had high school or univ('rsily-levc1 educalion, and held while-collar johs.
I.;\rge enlerprises employed engilleers. computer progmlllmers, and tecllilicians.
Many aspiring profcs.<;ionals found positions in government-including Ihe miJitnry.
Bure<lucmcy, as well as c01l11l1erCe,llCC;\me the ultimale middle·sector occupalion. In
EClI:ldor, lIlost middle-d:lss citizens resided in Guayaquil and Quito; in Bolivia. Ihey
emerged in 1.,:1 Pn7.. Cochnb;'llllba. and Snntn Cruz: ;'Inc! in Peru, I.ima remained the
l1Iost pnwerful magnet for :llllbiliollS would-he professionnls.
And Ihe lm\'er classes. pcrhaps $0 percenl of the Andean populalion,
remained soci:llly heterogeneous. The}' included Ihe I'ur:ll proletari:ll on Ihe
sugar :lIld han:lIl:l plant<llions, tennnt fanners :l!ld hired hands in Ihe coffee ;lnt!
cotton fields, and peas:lllts and suhsislence farmers in the siam. They were wage
e;lTllers on fishing hoats, miners in the mountains, and organi7ed workers in the
cilies. They included dnlllestic servants in Quito and Bogota, coca Ie:lf growers ill
Peru and Bolivia, and residents of suhurhnn in Lima La
1';17. nalive of Aymara and Quechua, m:lll}' remained on the fringes of
TlntiOll:l1 \\'as :In siraillm, divided alon!!. three dimensioll,e;:
hetwcen workers ;lIld pe:lsants. hetween CO:lst and $icrm, betwecn non-Indian and
Indi'H1, Network and family lines oftell hridged divisions, howcver. alld the
effects of migration reduced once-major geographic gaps.
The exodus from rur:ll to urhan areas occurred later in Ihe Andes th.1Il in
other pmH, of L'ltin Americ:\, but it has intensified (lver till' past forty years. Over
70 percent of lhe population of Peru now Jives in cities. ApproXimately 76 percenl
of the citi7cns of Ecuador reside in t(1\\'ns or cities. as do 63 percenl "fthe people or
Bolivia. Accelerated movement frolll the countl"}'<;ide to cities h:ls created nc\\'
sodnl prohlems-slums, crime, and poverly.
<,Ot_I,.; World Bank and EconomIc Commission for ano the
The Central Andes: Vital Statistics, 2007
PoplJliltion (millions)
GOP (current SU.s. billions)
GNP/capita ($U.5J
Poverty rate (% in 2006)
lire expeclancy (years)
Ine(luality and poverty h,lvc h('('n pcr"i .. t(·llt .11ltl \\I\k""ll'.lll IllIllng II.,
1?l{()S. the of lnore h;llf (If the P'·I'lII.II1I11'" lell Iwl,.\\' IIII' 1"'\'·1'\
lille. Although those havcdlopped .. llghll}',I!lc ,1I ..."llIle 11111111>1'1,11 1"'PI,1e
living in povert)' has iocreased. Snci;ll :llld ClIHlIHllIl I1le"lll 111(''' l nullllll" I"
prevail. The persislence (If Ihese neocolonial legal 1(''' 1"1'-e.. illll,lll,I,,!t- 'lIW·,tl'lll"
.\houtthe Andean region as:l whole. Ilow did 1'0lilil:ll.HIII"<; :HldlC"" 11,'11,,",11
prohlems ill the arterlllalh of illdel"'elidelHc? \-Vhal WI'I" the I" \\1,,,1.
indigenous people fOllgh! for we:ller 1" 1,IIut ,IIUI .1 Iwllt'l 11\"t·III"'j,d'
V1.'hal h:lve heen Ihe effcc.ts of Ihe eXl'fll'l tln\'Cll In"tlel .. III ,h·\·..lj'I'IIII·III) I h."
have polit iLal ;llld SOl ial lllovclIlenls Ir,lIl<:lll/ tlH'd Ihe... · II ,tllIlI It·..
Peruvian pnlitic<: in Ihe po<;tindepcIHlcnLC,' cr.1 l'rc"'·III,·.1 ,1 1,·11 ,HII '\11 .• 1.. , "11" 11.1\'11'):
defealed Spain through Ihe help "f flllt<:i(kr... 1'1'111 1I1"nd II ddlh lilt III ,",'.lIl
aUlonolllY from slale". Tllc eL,"I'''II)' \\.1.. c\le",hll,:h \\"".11 11,:11
had ravagNi landed eslates alollg the (0:'1,1 :lnt! illlhc \wn<l. f "tllI1lt'" " "'111,1111' .1111
depression. The mines were ill dl<;rCp:llT. The ll'"IlII),\It:'.Hlcl" dr,l'( 1.lkh 1I"cdl"
Illoney in order to huild Ihe ne\\' nalion. hili Ihe Ile.le;lIl r \\';1..\' 1'11'1'1\' I-I"mlll,·
IH20s onward. the govCl'lll1lCll1 hegall 10 :U.. ClII11I1I,lle,1 <;cl"lc.. llf IPII'I,:1l 1111.llnl\
1o Brilish lenders) tha, w(lulc.llalcr prove Ip he IlIil1""",
Nor did conditione; i11lprn\'('lol ,he 11l(li,IIl ... Wli" I ,111,'"1 "0 I" I" "'
01 Ihe tolal popul:llinn of apprIlXI1ll.lleh- I '", 1111111011 I'pltlH 1.111" 11·1,1.1t ,..1 II,..
tr:lditionaltrihule. formally ahnlislH'd \\'llh Ihc .'\p,.I<;11\1I "t "'1',1111. \\'llh Ill>' •• ,,/
trilm(ion tlr i"digl'flfl$, n he:ld I;lX (,1 nat t:n, 1111 C"\C'r\'lllH", /cg:ltdk "I Ill' ""Icl
Since nineteenlh-centuq' liherali"lll regaldctl Indl:'lll<;' .1" IlItllvldl1,II IInl '''11111111
nities,lhe)' no ('Iljn}'('d Ihell pl('\'inl1<; leg,lI p",ln 111.11.. "'"nll' ""11,:111 r,
:IS peones on esl;Jles or :1," w(lrk... rs ill milw" ()lllc"" 111(',1 I" 1',1.... ,I" I//{"/I. ", ,111,1
find cmplo}'l1lctlt in cities :lnd 10WI1<;.
I'\)' 1845. as the gU;lnn Ir.ldr W,l'- ('Xp,llldlllg, 1'1'111 l.llllt· l11ukl lilt· 1111,' ,,[
R,llllon C.I'ililla. its strongesl 1l\1l('ICl'nl h (l'nlill \. 1,'.1\ 1'-1 A 1ll11,1,11 \ "III' 1'1, { .1'1 IlL,
sought to l1loderni7e Ihe counlr}'. lie oq:,l1l1/l'1l till' 111 ..1 11,1111111.11 hlltl':"1 .111,1
promoled puhlk works. inc1ulling Ihl' (1!Il .. lllILlulIl 1.1 ,1 1,1111 ••.111
I.illla wilh Ihe port cil)' of <:allao. I )llrinJ.:. a <;eL 1111,1 telm III / ,1111", ( .1 .. 1111.\ .Ih, ,1,..1"'1 I
Ihe nmfril",ci(;/I dr ,mel e!llall, ip:llC'd hl.1t k ..],1\'('''. '1 n 1I\.1k" "I' tOI 1,,',1
I;lhor, Peru imported loo,oon Chillrsc (o'llie 1Ild l'1l1}rll'q,IIl" ,1'.. 1I"klllllr
wnrkers froTH ,he mid lR;,Os to 'he mill IX711 t\ bllllilel "\ ill .. tllll'1fHl". I
also encouraged military profcssionaH7:ltintl and I'lIhlH (',h" ,1111111
The nalion's srirnJing dehl posed in"oluhlr pl'llhkm.. fOI "lIh"('ljlll'lIl 1,"...
dents. Under lose Balla (1 R68-72), Ihe 0\'('1" the (; ,rcigll,khl In
the Parisi<lll firm of Adolfo Dre}'fu<;; in Ilrf'vill" I'\llk ,1\'('1 Ihe 1ll,111,1):"
ment of guano consignmcnts. The ,!c.ll Illiglll 1.,1\'1" 1l1.lIk ,·,"11'111111 ",·II..e.j,·1
Illany Perllvi;lns. however, it repr(·<;cnlccI.l1l UIl,lL1 CI'Llhlc It II killllr "llItI' 11,111"",.1
pal rimony. Parl\y for Ihis Presidenl f\ 1.0111(,1 I'.lfdp I 1x;.' "(,) t nl" ,n' it'd I"
H,I 1',\1(1 I\\tl (1\ ..>I· ... llIIIJE:-. I.IlANCJ,UVUtTIl\·II':
tlll:'o :">l·llllllll·JlI by 1l.Ilioll.t!i,ing till' LUlllltfy\ llitratl;: fields, Ala.'>, that gc.'>lurl;: would
.11l1ll" IIl1doll\:" ill IIIL· \,Val' ol the P,IL·illc.
III IIIL· w.lkt· "I" tlli.'> c.dallliluu.'> defeal. Peru tu prudllL"t:: a new
lJ.I'>'> 01 ,lvill.tll kadt"l:"> wlLu rc.'>t·lllblcJ lht.' ciclllifictls ill tVkxku, Highly
t·.lul.lh",1. 1I,·lJl'0... ilivblil" hy Ir.lilling, and liberal by outlook, they cUJllprised
.1 l UIIIlIl'> hfn·d: 1,,1' l.lLh. III a bdkr phrase, they might Ill: dassilied as
,llJ'>It>ll.IIIL tvllllloLr,Ib. Thdf lIlitial spokesman was Nieol:'l ... dt· Pkrola,
Wll", .1'> ,t 1"a... 11 )'UlIllg tll·.t"'Uf)' millbtt-r, Ilad negotial\:"d the t.:onlrt.JVt·rsial
lll'")'lll) LlIlIlf.lL! vJ Aher fonning tilt:' DelllocraliL P.lrl)', I'il:rula
IIt'l.lllll' I'rl·... idL'llt ill JH95. Eager ttl reinvigorate expLlrt-led expansion, he
lIH'Vl"d 10 ... trl'llglhL·ll I'l'ru's unlit rating. He tightt'lled tax alld
Jlltrt:.l"'l"d dlilin viI CUlIlIllL"fll:. which ltd to a doubling uf government
IJlttlllll' dUlillg Ilis fuur )'l·ar krill. I-IL· abo establislled a ministry uf
lJpllH·nl II' a ...... isl lucal L·,llrq)l't·nl'urs alld facilitate participatiun
III l'llllllJIllit growlh.
i\llL"r I'il'rob slqlllL'd dUWIl, Pl'ruvian politics entered era of
known .1 gWI/U/lIIIiSlIIlJ. I'Jfi:clive competition lur rowa was restricted to tht'
uPI"'" LI.I l·lllt.:. Eit-Lliulls hlok plaL:1' uut ballots were not Sl'cret, so landowllers
,-wild held Illl·i .. work.:r:,> alld peolles to tile polls and mUllitor their votes.
Ild'I'II,/a,/os Irllill tht· S;('/III had clcclcd to the national Congress,
Wlll·lt· Illl·)' ... .'>upporled Ihl' president-in for llncheckell
The War of the Pacific
fb llltl,llo.: IJhldUUIUl1 in the Ui!U), Chilean IllIile owners coveted the
lit II rt·wrVL') oWrlf'd by UOllVld and PelU, In IH79, Chilean investors refused to pay
!It:W 1,IXt:) 011 Uohvio!l nitratt: reserve). In retaliation, Bolivian president Hilari6n
[).lld (1 H76- /')) ordered the seizure of Chilean-owned nitrate operations in
!\lItul.ltjd)I,I, UUIlVl<l. sellt In tlOOPS to occupy the region, Aftel sorne hesita-
(lUll, Pl"rllVldl1 governlllent decided to honor an 1873 alliance with Bolivia and
JOI! I till' WdJ.
Ihus bL't.Jdtllht:' W"r of L1le Pat..ifi(. (1879-83), pining PelU and Bolivia against
t 11I1\" WUII d SIUlIlIHIY milttdry victory and occupied lima, In the ensumg
pC,I,,-, 'rt'..lty, Boltvi.llu'>tlb plUvinct.' 011 the coast. Chile gained outright contlol of
111,-' 11l11,Hto' Il( 11 provInce of Tarapaca, including Ihe city of Iquique; and it
lu kCL"p lUlllrul of l..len,l <mel Aricd fur ten years, their subsequent fate 10 be
lid Itk'lI by .1 pld)1SClte.
IIlL' Well of 11 It:' PaClflL Ildd f'Jl-It:'dching effects on alllhree countries, For Chile,
II u.,h,'It'd III d Illlrdle IJOOII1 and boosted national confidence. For Bolivia, it denied
.In...... It) tilL" '>L'd. !-ur 1't:'IU, it was a humiliating defeat, which discrt:'dited the
pultuu.IIlS <llltl accdeldkd the declinL" of the economy, II was a failure for Bolivia
ell.d I',-·'ll ill L·Vl'IY (ullcL"ivdblt: way.
lucal power. lVlt'antinlL". tht.' coastal dile, ib cOlltrul 01
policy, pur... ued the path or t'xport-,Ied growlh" .
As tIll' twentieth celltury opened, all urhall workIng dass bl'g.lll 10 as...t:r1 Jls
illtcrcsb tllruugh collectivt' acl ion. indudillg s('riullS proksts ,Igain... t inilatiull ill J,) I I.
In this COlllt.:xt, Guillermo Billinghurst, a na·ive and aral it." pupulist, triulllllhnl ill 111('
IYI2 A propOIlellt ofell1iglltened Billillghurst dt'lliull ... lr.ttt,d llis
sympathy with the worke'l"S b), supporting public housing, all eight-huur <1::1)'. and
collective bargaining. When he l'ncouraged streel delllulbtratiull.'> ill :'>uppurl of his
policies, however. the elite closed ranks against him, A COl*!> lit-posed hUll in 191
Power J't'Vt.'rtcd to civilialllcchnocrats under Jos':-I'ardu, a Illoth:ratt' rdiJl"IlIt'r, III
Janual), 1919, "s labor prolests erupted in Buenos Aires, Santiagu, and Solo Paulu.
workers in I.ima-Callao prucbimed a thrl'e-day general .'>Irike:. With ",upl'0n frulll
university students, they demanded 100wr food pricl'''', ;1/1 dght·hnur d,l)'. and t'lIat:t
IlIclll of other A hesitant P:mlo L"vt:ntually caliedoul th..: arlll)' 10 dispL"r.'>L'
thL' workers, and in the w;lke of thL' violencL'. he accL·ded in \':lrt to (lidr dL'Ill'lllt.b.
In the midst of rcsulting confusion, Augusto B. I..eguia WOli lIlt' 191') deLtiul1.
Eager for absolute rule, he staged a coup prior to his own inauguratiull and st'izetl
the national sent Pardo off 1'0 L'xile, dissolvnlt he me, :tlld l'lls(ull :d
himst'lf ill powt'r. Thus began Legllia's dictatorship, a watershed rt"lllellllll'r l
throughout Peru as tile tJllcclIio, or eleven-year rult.. ;\ pliant
;lssl'mhl)' devised a charter that legitimizl'd J.l'guia's aUlhoril)' and prL'slribL·d a
!'>1J'ung state rok in Ihe t''':OIlOIllY. To cunstruct tilt' fatlwrl.llld," l.l.:glli;1
undertouk a vigoruus prugr:llil uf public works and pnJtl10kd furt'igll iIIVt·stlllt'nt.
lie also 1l10wd aggressively h) silellc" his nities, dismissing dlssidt'nt
from universit)' chairs alld turning against stullt'nts. alliong thern a young kadl'r
by the name of Victor Raid Ila)'<t de la TorrL'.
In foreign affairs, Leguia s(·ttlnl in 1927 a long-standing hOUlld;ll"y dlSpule with
Culumbia. Two years l:ltL'r, ill 1929, hl' J'cadlL'd all agrt'l'lIlt"lIt willi Chiit': tilL'
northern provinet.· ofTilena would go to I't'I"U, and Ark.1 \\'vultl l"t"maill under
Chile's t."untrul. Tltl· War uf tht' Pacific, so Glta... lrlll'hi..: lvr Pt'l"ll, finally rL'ached IIl L'
t'nd of its diplomatic coda. VVilhin lhis carefully cunstructed politiLalt'IlVillH-llllcnl,
LL'gula had no trouble getling rL'dected in 1924 and 1929. I-IL· st.·t'llh:d invindhlt:.
Flirting with Policy Alternatives
As in other parts or L:l!in America, tlte Grt.'al J)eprt'ssioll prumpted lIlilitar)'
intervention. III Augusl 1930 a young :ll"Illy ufficer, Luis tv\. S:'lllcheJ' Ct'rro,
be..:allll.' hl·old of all interim junta. A Illall 01 Illodesl backgrullilti. brought a
distinctive tuuch to Iht' executiw OHlct', st:l'killg to build ,I pupulbt coalilion
between disgruntled lipper-class elemellts alill the working masses. In [931 hL·
became a formal candidate in upcoming dections. His principal 0ppoJlellt was
Victor Raid Haya de la Torre, the t.'rstwhile studellt agitator andlluw leader ortlle
Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (American Ikvolutionary AllialJCe
Party, APRA), all organizatiun tlwt wuuld becollle tht.· rl"u)st durable political
party in tht' nation's histor)'.
An Aprisro election poster expresses both the party's outlook and the intensity of the
1931 campaign; the slogans say "Only Aprisrno will save Peru. vote for Haya de la
(Private collection.)
The 1931 Gllllpaign provcd Ill;) fateful evcnt. S,indle7 Cerro (altetllnr ngrarian
ref(lrm. rur,,1 exlensi0n programs. anti assimilalion nflhe Indialls. I-Ia}'" de I" Torre
countered h}' stressing the C'vil.. of impcri"lislll and the injustice of social inequilies.
II was nn inlense Glmpaign.markcd b}' violence and mutual nc(us-,tion<;. Ahhough
APRA received ample sllpport, S:inchcz Cerro cmerged as the viclor.
l'olariz;llioTl ensucd. In 1932 :l fall;ltic<lI }'oung "prist" tried to "ssassinate
S;lllchcz Cerro. APRA p"rtis"ns organi7.ed nn insmrectioll in the provinci:ll cit}' of
Trujillo. which led to thc arrivOlI of" heavily "rllled milital)' colulllll. As panicky
"fri.<lo5 ned the premises, Ihey executed arm}' officers. policemen, and other hos·
tOlges. \Vhen the government troops discovered this :ltrocit}'. the}' sl1mm:lrily
cuted "tleast a thousand local residents suspected ofsupporting the insurgents. This
set the tone (or APRA-army relations thereafter <lnd convinced m<lny officers that
the)' must never lei APRA cOllle to power. This determination gained strength the
following year, when another (l1'I"ista gUIllll:'lll succeeded in killing Cerro.
Beset hy crisis. Congress elected General Oscar It Ben.wide!' 10 serve out Ihe
relll.lindcr o( the presiclentinl lerm. 1\5 nen"vides took ofl1ce. Peru entered n
I, • Thc Antics. Ohg.ll,h....I1Hllllth.lIl'> II.'
tnillsitionnl ph'lse that heltl out Ihe possihilil)' o( rCI.1t1l 11l
IhI.' lllllllll"y'<; dq\t'ndl'lh "
nil international markets and invcstmcnls. Export .. <;LUIl'd III rt'lIWI"f. hlllll',n
pital he"l :l slead)' retreat. 1.llcal enlrcpreneurs. <;lll1lclillll.·... \\'ilh g,IVI'1111111'11
help. gnincd parlial conlrol of some mineral !'el I Olt-Itlll <11111'111 WI'lll
Industrial cap"city was modcst hut gf('lwing. II ;lp\,e;lrcd Ih.ll I'rlll \\'.1'" lin\\, III .1
po.. iti0n to redirecl its economy.
Ben:lvides allemptcd to seii'e 'he npportunil}'. III hi<; ,1I1I1l1I11 ... II.III"0
the st<lte-directed developmel1t n( petrolClIlll. "1"1 ,Hie d"uhkol 1I1l1l1 1""1"1 I"
1936, while the national currcnc), (Ihe fo(ll) r('lllaillcd .... l.lh1c. Th(' 1;0\"('111111('111
ivc1}' promoted public works and sodal projcll!-. illl 1I1;lo! l' 'Il"'lnl, II' 111.
working-class hOUSing. and a cOlllpllbor)' sodal sClllrit)' ,y... ll'llI Ikl1,l\'I,k·•.11·,..
supported an agricullUr:l1 h<lnk 10 give credil hI nliion 111.11Itt'l" .11101 .'Illt'l 1.1,,,1
owners, thtls reducing Ille role o( foreigll merch;llll holl"(,'"
The presidency Ihen p"sscd In nllldel":llC ("ivill.IU.... f\l.llllld 1'1.101" .lnd 1,1""
I.uis Hustamnnlc )' Rivero. both of whnm gnverllct! wilh '11"1\'<1 ""1'1'''11. 111
tandem. the}' furlhered the modest rl·nricnl.llinll 011 lilt' 1'1'111\'1.111 Cllflll'lll\
awa}' (rom excessive rdiann.· Oil internal illllal 1ll.11 kcl .... "1"111'\' Ill< 1('.l ... t·,] go\ "111
ment !'pending :lnd established lonlrnl .. nil illlporl<; ,1l1l11"Il'lgn e', 1i.1lIgc. I lin
launched a scheme (or a sl:lle controllell iron :lnrl <;te('1 ,,!.lUI. ·1111')' ""lllgill
to diversify :lgricult Ill"<.' "!lei lh,llkn)!,ed the I oa<;1 :11 ... ug.lf 1>,1rO., .... !"(''1"Ulll,: Ihnn
10 meet d(lllleSlic-lll:lrkel tl"ol:l .. heft Ire CXI"ll·ting It I (1\'CI ... r.1<;' 1l1,llkt·I '\1111.1
puhlic controversy. Bll!>.I.1I11;111\(' apprllved.l llllllr.hl gi\'ing 11'( 1"·11I1I I"n I"
sc"rch for nil inlhe I)e..erl. Takingadv.lrl1.Igl' (,\ .In.lllllll,dl ... 1 "Ill. 1\' ,,\,'1
this decision. the clla .. tal elite en}-:inccretl.l Illililal)' t (IIII' Ih,' J:' '\,,'111111,,11
in 194R.
Once ill office. f\\alHlcl 1\. ()dri.l prOlllpll)' It·... l,,rl't1 the .Hlllltl\· ...
Ir"dillon,,1 export led growth modcl. nllhlldnx e(llIlnll1il \'lllillC'" en, /1111.1):,·.1
foreign inveslment alld reslril..led govcrnlllCnt,,1 lrllervl'nlioll (hlll.l' "., ... ,,1,.1.11,·,1
his position by winning the 1950 e1el-tlons Illelt' wa" Ill' '11'1"\<;111"11 ,111.11'1"
("ceded to lighten his hold nn power. Much in Ihe 1ll,1I11ll"1 lIt Argl·lllill,I· ... 111.111
Pen·lIl. he courted .. m:ls<;es. I,l\,j.. hetl IlIlltb ,m 1l... h'IlI.III"II" !'"hll.
work... and developed a person.dislil fI11l'lwing. \Vllh tilt' .Iul t·1 Ill'" \\'11l",
Oelgado de Odria. he mohili7.Cd women ill supporl of Iht' ll'gll1lC',
suffrage to females in 1955. lie harassed and imprisoncd "pl'0n(,l1t,. ('''I't't 1,1Ih'
As civilian nlig:lrchs exprc... sed "ppre!lcllsillll !lVCI hi'" 1.11'1 It I"n'" 1111111 "I
rule, Odria finally consented to free elections in 19';(1.
The leading contenders were forlller pre!'ident 1\1:lnuel I'I,HIII. "'up!,,,'lnll,y
APRA. :lnd :l politic.. l newcomer n:Hlled Ferll:lntln Tl'rry.•.1lloliol.ltr .. 1
the National Front o( Democmtic Youth. HcI:ll·lllOC. a lIniverl,ll)" IlfTrx.I ... tr.1I1H·oI
architect, articulated the hopes and (rustr"li0ns o( the cdtKaled middle <;('tl,I, ..
Arter winning the election. Pr"c1o hroughl in a period o( pnlilll:ll Iihcr.lli/,II11,n.
permitting trade-union organization and nllowing \,01111\111111 ... t.. ,IS \wll ,I!>. "1""""
lo operate freel)'. He proclaimed a progr:llll (or sheller .1111 II.Ull r (f"1 1111 I' /,('/ I" /111
the name o( the peas:lnts. hUI did little ahoul il.
H,S t"I\1 1\\'\'" 1/, ... 1 "'1111111\( IIANI.I (IVI'1{ 111\11·
Ti'l' lh'xl pll·... H.ll'lIti.d dCdltlll, III IY6l, ulkll'd II I..kar picturl' of pulitical
I ,'> IIh.llllkd Ilay.1 dl' 1,1 TlIlTl', ,Ihle ,II last Iv run 011 Ilw Ilpristll
1'1,,[1111 Ill; Ikl,HlIldl" .I Ill'W Ulg,llllZ.ltiull l·.dlnl Acdoll Pupular; alld
Illl' .dW.lp hUl'l'IuJ l)dn,l. 1!.ly.1 Wlill tile Illu::.l Vule;'::., wilh 33 pl'r(l:1l1 uf the lotal,
hili Illl' 1lIt1lt.ll Y .1l1lIUIJl'll Iht.· HI urdt.'!' tu a possible aprista
1'1 nidt.·llt.. )', Ille IllllowlJlg pruducl"tl .I lllore an:t'ptabll' rt.'Mllt: vklory
Illl Hd.llilldt.' (Tilt.' \/1 dt.·L101.11 g.lllll· tim::. bt'G.lI11e ell:ar: tlpristtls cuuld
Itill, lUll tll\') \\'I."It.' llut .lIluwel..llo WilL)
Ihol.lIllh!\' Il'V\'.t1..-d he .111 .IPIH.'.dlllg, I..h.lrtslllati( politician. An ,wid
,'I"pUIH'1I1 <II LJ ...... JOhll I" K"-Illledy'::. AlIi,Jllu'lur he.: pruposed
\/1 .llr.III,:.,·AIlHIZOII high\\';ly. invokl'llthc ollncan power,
,II hJ III gt:d Il'lIow l'it hI to 1I.ltlUllal grl';ltlle::.::. again. On a mort' practical
Il'\d, 1Lt.' "'lIughl to the HlI.: 01 tht' expand ::.oci.t1
111.llllIl:It.llIIlllg. ,lIld Ulldcrl.lkl' agral i.1ll rdt.)l'IIl. Aftt'r .1 hoslilt' Congre::.s em;:lscu-
Lllnl hi'" I.\llli Idurm hill, huwt.'vl'r, III lilt.' sierra rl'al..-h:d angrily by
11I\'.llltllf. and tdkillg I)ver 1:.1 Ill"', cunllkt raged throughout the
)1,'11", .1 ('lIh.1l1 guerrill.l lIlllvelllelll lJeg.1l1 violent in order to
"'11.tlk •• \IHIII[r)'Wldl' revolulioll. III ::'I'ilt.' (or of lib reforJllist
Ihol.lIllltlt.' wilh fort.t.'. 111.1 vit.-h.HI'" (;:lI11p.lign, the .1fI11Y killl'd and jaill'd
l/tIlU.... llhl ... ollllghl;lnd '1'111: fUrlned.llraUlIl.llk ..-xperiellcl' for
hulll II •..: 11"1I/'l'::>lIlll::> ;1I1d IIll' sult.ltcr:-..
\)lll' lit utJllT W.I ... to ,I IUllg dispuk witll
Iill' 11'1' I It.- 1.I\..:d.1 AIlCI IIv!;' 01 pratnl(:tcd IIl'gatiations.
tll,ttkt.',1 Ii) llHI ... lal1t Irolll Ihc IPC gailll.:'d ..H.:cess 10 IIl'W
11t.,ld... lit Iht.' AIlld:t.IJII, ,1IIdlht.' I't'ru\ l.lll gvvt'l"IIlll..-nt Iv crude oil to IPC
.11 .1 ll\l'd I'rtu' 11I1 Idinlll).!, .I[ Iht.' CUJllp!t.'X. Oppon..-nts :leolsed
lkl.ll'llhll' ul wJlJllg Ullt lI,tliI'll.d ih (rilil..hlll swdlt'd, Hd.lllnde's opli-
1111 ... 11, VI ... IIIII \II .1 IlJlilt.'d ;lIld Pl'fll proved 1\Jlilitary
Ollll' ag,llIl ""tlllht'ir to lltt'
The Military Revolution
Tilt.' 1')hH lUUP !),lvnllhl' \V.IY lllr 011(' ul L.IIIII AllIeIK,"s .llllbitioliS mililary
g"Vt.'1 t1J1I..:11b. I.t.'t.! hy liellt.'f,lI lu.lll Vd.l:-'lO i\lv.lladll, lite junla ded..lrc:d its inten·
tlllil Itl hllllg 1.1/' r.... ldlillg dl.lllg..::,> III the t.lf Pl'ruviall socidy. \<Vhat Peru
llt.'\'lkd. Ihe iJlli ... pru...l.lilllt.'t.!. a l1t.'h/ (;.'LVlIUllli( orlk-r, capilalist nor
,I tlidt wuuld .Iblllbh prey,liling, illt:ljuities and I.."rt'ate the
1I1,11\'II.d lor harlllvny, all...! Jignit y,
'1Iut.'t.' sd Ie.:gillll' ap..ll'l frolll ulllt'r cpbwt.·s of military rule, One
w.'" ih ...lIli.11 and politit.';t1aulllllollIY, Tht.' P..:ruvi:1Il armed aclcd alone, rather
th.1l1 III With l-I\'ilian pllWl:'r the leaders of the regime
.1,1, 'I .t"'tllll.., Ulillook .Int.! vi llll' dl'IIt.'lldt.'llt.:ya of anal)'sis. seeking to
l'lhl h'h.llthl..'y t..dkd ul thl' Peruvian et.:onolllY 10 foreign centers
"I dl'U"'IUll.
Thlld,l.lrgdy ht::t..Hl't.' ul ib expcrielKe: with alltiguerrilla cmnpaigns in
thlt sianl, Iht.· Peruvian mililary exutll'd gt.'J1IlIlIt.' wilh Ihe plighl 01 lilt'
peasantry, The rt.'sult l'l'voJulhmary Illilit.ll"y rt.'gillll:'.
A kl'y lu the rdunn. In Illid 1969 Iht.'
Vdascu regime annoullCed Ihe mosl s\'Jl'l'ping land rl'!UI'Ill prugram ill Lalill
AJlll.'ric.. since Ihe Cuban Revolulion, All Iargt.' l'Slalcs, ur pruductivity.
\wre subject to expropriation. The highl)' Il1l.'chaniud sugJr of
t.·vast lIllllc.·r tht.' of workt·r·nln coupelaliv..:::.. B)' Ihe llIid
1l}7tb, af tlt..- t.oUll1ry\ I'rlldll(tIVt- 1.llld Illldt.'r lOOpt:I.ltivt'
Olli..' ::.01'1 ur anolhl'r. 1\1.11I)' of till' huge.' t.'::.t.ltl':-. that h.ld dUlllillat..-d
thl: Pcruvian <lgr.lri,Jll sl'llor Jbappc.arl·d.
To l:vmulidak ib tilt.' rt'gillle U't';tlnlthl' N,ttion,11 lUI
Supporl of Social Mobilization (Sistemfl Nfldotl,,1 Apuyt} de Iii MUl'ili.wt.ic.m
Sodal, or SINAMOS). SUIlll'lillles writll'll ;IS Iwo mllU!>, ·without
-it was 10 as the: illtt.'grating institlllion for and working-
groups. It linkl'd tht.' rcgime with tht..' idcntifil'd th.... gOVl.'rtlllll:'nl with
its group::.. and prumo(l't.I a ufll',lt.ler-loJlowl;'r relation·
dcsire to urg..lnizt;' ;llld lIlohilizl..' tht.' bee.lIllt.' Ulll' 01 lht.,
gc.)\'l'nlll1l.'llt's halllH..
A priurily Ihe sprawling .arl)und 1.1111.1 amI
otilt'r cities. Mililary officers organized thl' rl'named N
(plll'blos jOINflt'S), and l"nlislt'd Ihe ;lid oj thl' dlllreh in their Pari ul tht.'
solulion \V.IS ,:.,illlple t'nollgh: the grallttng of pl'Ope.:rty hi tilt.' migrant
O(t."Ilp.llltS, Another t..lctit- wa::. bringillg tht.'/1I/('iJlvs jlJI't:/h'::> und..:r Ihl' Ullllndl:l
stniLturl..' or SINAMOS and thus PI'IJlllOlt.' IJ)' 1\)74 thl' lll;,ljurit), ul
urban had been rl'organlzl'd frolll ahUVl' illto charlt'red PUl'll/OS
lop-duwl1 pattan ul org,llliz<lllllll allli 111ubilizdtiull rl'vcalnl a audal
kalurc ufllll' Vcla:-...::u r..'gilll":, II \.... nnl ,ltlt.'lIlpllllg to a st1..::ialist
did Fidc:l Castro in Cuba, Nl>r was it sl't.'killg It.l ('xcludl..' and re.:pf'(;.'ss 31rcady
urganiJ',l'd llIovt'll1el1b, ;lS would milliary governllll..'lllS in (:hiil..-,
Brazil, and Argtlliina. Instead, Ihe Pl'rUVi,ln regimc was illll'nt 011 inlegrating
nwrgil\al urban and rural massl'S into Ihl' n;Hio1l31 sudely in ordt.'r 10 Jay the
gruundwork for induSlrialization and autunomous dl..'vdopnlt'1l1. III tit is th..-
I)erllvian regimc t'll1age:d as a corpurate stalt'. rl'lllinist.·ent of tht'
C:irdl' guVt.'rnmt:nt in Mexit.o (I 93'1-4U),
III addilion, Ihl.' regime took 10 rt.'du(l:' Ihe roll' orrordgn
capilal. Suun alter the coup. the rl'gilHl: nationalizatioll ul JPC and
the I;.'stablishllleni of the fJdrlJpeni. III tilll..: Ihe: guvernml'llt touk
owr other promincnt forl;'ign·owllec.i finlls: I'lT (196\). Chase: Manhattan lJank
(1970), Cerro de Pasco (1974), and M:trcona Mining (t975)-tht.' lalkr two
rl'placed by Miflopeni. Thest' actions mel with prt'dklable: hOSlilil)' rrom thc
Unito.:d Stall's. bUI in February 197'1 till' twa readied all ;;IccurJ.
Peru paid $150 million as full settlement of :.III outstanding alld IIII;' Nixon
administmtioll withdrl'w its oppositioll 10 Pau.
170 PART·I \\10 " C/\SI: (IIJ\NGF OVr.R riME
I )c<;pile its populist st:mce. the government met with
home. Prcexisting labor unions. such a!" the llprisla-dominatcd
orgal1izations .ullong sugar workers. resented the inro:lCls on their terrain.
Pea!"ants orten (ound Ihe top-down institutions unresponsive to their demands
to stage protests. Tradilion:ll eliles voiced their horror at the regime's
poliCies. In response. I he generals seized cont rol o( newspapers nnd telt-vision nnd
radio slat ion!", while six other dailies ill Lima C:lme Hnder man-
agement. This compounded the government's prohlem. as intellectuals nnd jour-
mdisls denounccd restriClions on freedom o( speech.
Economic conditions added to governmental woes. Export earnings dedined.
pelroleum explomtiom: yielded no new oil depo!"ils, and world prices (or sugar and
copper (Iropped. The bal<1nce of payments deleriorated. the foreign debt swelled, and
innalion slmck. \o\'orkers began to demollstmte their discontent. As these problems
first loomed on the horizon. Velasco himself succumhed to ill health. In Augu<;t 1975
Peru's joint chiefs replaced him with General Frnncisco Morales Hel"llllldc". Under
press\lfc frolll the IMF. the government imposed an extrcmcl)' h<l.rsh ('collomic
austerily prognllll th<1t reduced the renl income o( the urhan working hy 110
percenl. hll·lhcr. Morales Berlllll(lez unveiled plans 10 convellC :l constilulinnal
asselllhl)t in 1978 and hold general elections in The o(ficers were getting out.
In retrospect. Ihe Velasco regime (ailed to gain solid support from an)' social
c1:ls<; nr grouping and. thereh)'. estahlish inst itlltional (oundations for ilS :lui horit)'.
By real.hing into so man)' areas o( Peruvian societ)'. Ihe military government
succeeded in alienating "lmost everyone. No group felt safe (rom intervention or
control; no stratum o((ered its uncondilional :ldhercnce. Ironically, lhe fealure
which had given Peru's revolutionar)' military government so much (reedom o(
<1ctiun-its autonollly-also !cd to its evenlual demise,
Struggles of Civilian Governments
r:or the 1930 gcneral election!" the top two p<1rties were AI'RA. whose lickel W<1S
now led hy Armando Villanueva (Ha)'a de la Torre having died). :lnd Accion
Popul<lr, still under Fernando Be1<n'lIlde Terr)'. After an ardllow; cnmpaign.
BeiallFldc cnptured a cOlllmanding plurality with 42 percent o( the votc.
Chastened by his earlier experience with far-reaching reform, Ihe statesman-like
Hclatlllde now espollscd centrist policies: reducing the role o( the state. strength-
ening private enterprise, and encouraging foreign investment. His economic team
had dose tics to international banking circles, and its pro-(ree-market orientation
helped to renegotiale the foreign debt and attract (oreign capital. An unusual surge
of optimi.<;m .<;prend throughout much of Peru.
Insurmountable prohlems then arose, By far the most serious was the debt
crisis 1riggered hy Mexico's Ilear*dc(ault in 1982. a shock that was greatly amplified
by the 1981-83 world recession. Arter modest growth in 1982. the Peruvian
econolll), contracted hy 12 percent in 1983. This was a crushing blow.
Economic uncertninly and social injustice provided a fertile environment (or
revolutionary activity. Around 1980 a Illovement known as Sc"dcro L"mitloso
(•• I he 1\llcko;; I.... (Htg.I', I,·..lIt,1 In.\ ... \1'" I I
) emerged in the impt"lven<;hc<1 1'111"'1\(" .. I A} ... III 11"
C(1lllhining ideological illllodrinatiol1 with 111('... (' gll(·rnll.l\
burst onto the SLene hy assassinating village IC<1(lcrs whcl (.111111 "111.1... 1,
aulhorily and eSlablish an egalilarian Ililipia. rVlotlnling .'\('/1.11"1/1 Vll,ll'lhl' loillo·.1
Bclnlll1de to authorize a military of(cnsivc. whiLh lell 11<; llWIl nf replt''''''''''
and helped Sendern ils illnUCIlt..e, 1\1'f)\IIHI It)X/t .1111.lllel gl'fllll
· lIlt·
1\10v;II/;('lI/o nCl'ohl/;ollfiritJ Tlll'tII A11/(/1 II UvIRTI\). ,d"o high 1'"oIde
;\'lorc ill Ihe da<;.. iL ,HI)ltI of ITV(,I'llit'Il.I'V IlltIV\'II,nll". llH' r>.11(l 1\
hnilcd the Cuhan ({evolutinn ;lIld lI<;ed .Ill.! '.111"0'11 ,.1111l'1 111,111
\'iolen<..e to .1ltrad allclltion .lIultll ;lUtlllllll.,I<' 1""..... lIn'·... ,\" glwfldl.I .1t11\11\
I)ertl fell inlo a ... I:llc of ncar <..ivd \\'.11.
Ihe<;e prohlem<;. Iklallllde IIl.1n.'gcd h ....('n(· lIul hi" Icrlll III 0111\ I. ,HIli
ill 19K:; the e1ectorat{" dlO..C a... hi<; "11I.<.e... "nl" 1\1.1Il (.,11\ 1,1..1 Ih"t\· "1\ \'1',11 ..loJ
neWCOlller from APRA. \'Vllh hi<; I':lrtr '11 Lontrnl 01 (·011):1(·....... ( •.1111.1 111"\'1'.1
swiftly Oil Ihe economic frOlll. I It' IIKn';l"cd re:11 \\.Ig.·.......1.1\111"11 1.1'1(' .... I\·.hll ('01
interest rate<;, Irnze prin·.... lnd dev.l!lw.ltllC',,,1 '1 I H.' 111"1 dt(·c t \\'.1" oI"III.llId
which lh(' (;ar<:ln le,11ll hnpt'd would alllv.lll· 1'("11'<; t!olllll,lIl1 Illdll"!II.d "'1,.1111\
The governmenl ,111111111nccd investml'llt I'r",:r.1111" til!" .1/:1 i, ultllt.d dl·n·I
I'IlI,·nl ",
the long llegleftetl highland" .Ind. In t!cfl.llhl· Ilf tlH' illll'lll.III/1n.11 t/
prod<lilllcd a dcf:lllil (Ill Ilefll'<; {"xtclll.II t!chl '1 hi" W ..... :l1l ,"""lllt'II" g.'l1)hl.·
II did nol pay (In, (·l.IIIl11Illii. 1".lit II'" pll.chlll',I.1 ,,11,.,1
lived economic !tPtllll <;t)()n followcd h)' ... 1111,'1"'('. \ 1I.ldl· .Id" II
rapidly exh,w... lcd Inreign eXt 1i,111ge re<;(.'n-c" 1IIIel"l1011 I' ,,1,11 , IC,.lll .11111 1'1\\·... 1Ill. 1.1
with(lrew In l!le face tll Ih...· <lebl (1e1.IIII1, Vu.lelll ,lllk,'" p,II.lh-IC,1 1'1,111\ .11,'.1" ••1
c(onomic activit)'. An ('(.ollolllic pillgr.llli III 1'IXH tl' .... l"II ••• I"..Inll
massive ullcmployment .Irove millilJ1l<; oll'cnl\,ial1'" 1I1111lhe Illq:'11 II'
C(OIlOIll}', Amici skyrol.kctlllg hypel"inf1.111t111. tllC' gill"" dtllllt'''II, p!'l.dlll I plllllgt·.l
Ill/Ire tllall 10 l'eH.ell! in IhlTe ye<1' .... 'rht' {'llllill" \\'.1'" lel'l"IIII!: t'll IIH' \"1·'l',O· ,01

1\<; the 1990 eleclion<; ,lpprn:l<.IH'c1. a nc\\' savillr SI'CI1l("clll'.III\, II' , 1'''1 Ilt' l'I'PI
(rom ils doldrullls Ih(' intern,llion'llly ,1 ... d.11I1H.'d 11"\('11,,, M,IlI" \'.lIg,1" 11"".1 \
of grIlles and 1l11<;cak ulallon" hy 1.10:-..1 gl.Hlu,llh "'111:11111('1 I'd hI'" k,hl
howevcr. an<1 he eventllally lo!"t 10 Alherto Fujllllnl"l ..1 1llllc-klltl\vn .lgl,'II."1
economisl horn o( Japane\c immigranl pan·IlI<;. A qllll1lc"'''I'nli,I!I\' .II1IH·.. I.II>II\h
ment candidatc. Fujilllfll'l tl<;ed Camhio 90, ,lJl ad hill. clIg,1I1i..-,ltillll )";tlhn IIl.HI .1
political party, 10 huild deLloral .. 11I1ll ...cll.I" .1 ilia II III Ihc I't"plc.
Fujimori vowed to improve their economi( plight.
11 did nol take I("lllg fill' him lel hlt':lk I"C.1111o;;("\. 1'1... !{".HI .01 .1 1"'1'111'''1
progml1l. Fujimori's tcchnncratsloHlIKhcd:l nHlic<l1 re<:lrLlltllring I"'lgl,IIIl Thq
slashed tariffs, welcomed foreign inveslment, rind 'ImlcrlllillCII 111(' IC'!(' III clrg.l
nizcd I.,hor, These measures coni rolled hyperinnatinn. ,llld l't'lll I"{"SI1IIH'cl p:I\'
ments on the (oreign dd1t. VJilh l1loral.-.nd lln;lIlcirll (:n<.ollr,lgellll'nl lrlllll 1.11'.1ll.
where Flljimori culllv.lled special lies hC(;lU<;{" tl( 11 .... I'l'r""n,d .111«('''11\. Pt'lll
)"e"umcd:l pnth o( (if Ilol slc;HI)') ecollfllllil gl\l\\lh
rujilllori' s Lillliled Democracy
'\Illloyni h)1 .tlld t'agt;'" to llwilltain the olh'n!>ivl', Fujirnori suddenly
:-.11111 dUl\'1t tin:' ill April ,IJld illlnolllK\:d il !>weeping rt'organiz:atioJl
III ,ll.ll.iaIY, III Ill' slnKk down his own gov('rnlllcnt in Wllilt bl'Cilllle
1,.lllJWII .I.., all (l1I(t} gulpt:, or MdutU-f..:UUP," madc possiblt' bl,;'ClllSe of sulid military
I."d;illg, Pall thus hl'clJJlt;'ll1l'lir:-.t Suulh AIll\;'rican country oftht.: 19YU... to slip
h.l l k 111\\I,ud .HlIh"ril,trblli.'>1l1.
Hdlllld till:. ..,lllklUg dn'dopllll'nt, a:. bulh and conscqUl:lln', was il
p."grl',..,ivl: w\'.d'l'lling uf Pl'IIl'S tr.lditionill institulions. Pulitical ksl'\;'-
'I.tll)' ,\I'H.A) I,,!>t lTl'dibilily hl'L;lll:'\;' ofllll'ir painIt ilKolnpeknlc ;llld OCGISiOllal
"llItlj'tl\lll. 1..11111' 1Iliioll:. rdaint.'d Iiltll
inlhll'lll·C. Univt'rsilil's lost and
vll.ilit),. /\gdill..,1 Illi:- Val.lIUlll Fujinluri built hb uwn j)owt.·r base ill the armed
... ,Iud Ihl' illldlrgl'lt.·e Sl...Vll·l·.... lIe also daillped down on the prl'SS, as slate-
pWIll,d Jlll'dl.! h'·l.tHll' hbt<lully pru-gUVl'rlIlIlClll alld official intimidation pres-
... url'" Ill.1I1}' ullin JOlllllalbt:. inlu ...
( "llI ... pll :'>Ulll':-'" lllllowcd I Ill"' ( ;OVl'1'I1111(:nt (ol'..:e... :l rre... tcd thl.'
lup k.ld"j ul tla' tvlKI'A. 1\ few 11lOlllhs lall'r, i\bill1ad GlIzJIl,in, the foulldl'r and
Ill,l.\illllllil k'.llll'l ur St'lldl'ro Llilninusu, WilS captun.:d, imprisoned, and lhealrically
pUI lIll dl ... pl.l)1 Illr llil' 1'1'1:::-':'. Mnre uf high,level St'lldl'ro leadas fullowed,
.'I,d 1I1I' ... Iartnlt'l disilllcgrate, Many 11cruvians applauded Fujilllori's
i"'I\'\' RIding Ihi:. tidl' of popularity, Fujillluri WUll Ihe /INS t'lel'tiull
\\1111 (, I Pl'llClll III IItt' Votl',
,\ ... 11'1' I<)')U.. laille lu'l dose, l:ujilllOri laid till"' groundwork till'}'d alHltht'r
11I,':-idl'llli.t111'1111. III lIlt;' SUprt;'lllc COLIn ruled that Fujillluri would bl'legally
rllll 'Jnl'l' again. sinn' it would bt' hl... lirst rl'dlxtiun under Ihe CllllstilUlioll
III 1')1) '. I-:Vl'll :'lJ, lltl: IOllg l'lllb.ltlk,d llpposition WilS Sign:. or lire,
1>1 ... ..,.Ili:'>I.I'lhlll \villl Fujirnuri was gruwillg over Pl'ru's pt'l'lorlnance,
Wllll!' w.r ... 111.1 11t'iI,j'lg workl'rs 11I'IIIl'Iowcr Illiddk· dasses, and UVl'r the prl':.idellt·...
IIIglI h,lrhkd .lbIlSl' 01 PllWl'r. Fujilllori cOlltinUl'l1 lu cullivate :.uppurl, howevt.'r,
,1111<.111.1 ,Iy .11 IllJ1Ig 11Illg IIl'gll'l:kd peil:.a IltS and alllllllg lniddll' class WUlll\o'll. As thc
l'klllIJI! dl l'W .J hljilutlri vi('lory appl'arl'd to be il IOl'cgune cundusion.
Slhldl'lrly lilcre t;'ruerged all upstart cilndidatl', Alejandro Toledo, a U.S.-
nlul:lll.'ll l'lUIIOlllbt whose nm1l'-fI'Om-IIOwherl' campaigll wa... rellliniscent of
hljiull)ri's own llll'leoric risl' in 1990. By willning more than 40 percent of lhe
Vlltl' ill Illl' April 20UO conkst, Toledo dellied ;,t majority to the president and
,I ballot. Tht·u, with lillie warning, Toledo withdrew fr01l1 the race ill
"101 l'''' t ag'lin... t lit' claimed would be declural fraud. Fujilllori resolutely
pfl'pill'cd Itl take ullin', out thell a bombshell struck: ;J tape was rdeo:lsed to the
Vladimiro Muntesinus, Fujimori's top adviser intelligence
IIIlIClal, bnllllig an uppllsilioll l'Ungrl'SSJllan lu join the Flljimori coalition. The
Il1Ibli> lIllll'l')' dt',!f;':ning, Muutt'sinos and Fujilnori were hopl'lcssly exposed,,lll NOVl.'lllhl'!' 20UU, whik' till il visil 10 Asia, Fujilllori n,'signed from Ihe
alld sllught asylulll in Japan, Ilis l'arerully cUlltrolled democracy carne
10 Illll'.\;pn-tl'li end.
The Contemporary Scene (200o-pre,entj
A caretaker government OVl'rsaw free and fair elel'liOIlS ill 200 I. In it se..:und ruulld
rlllH.lrf (ag.linsl former president Alan Garcia), Alejandro Toll'llu t.'llIerged as a
.... It'al' winner with 54 percent of the votes. Electoral delllO(ral}' WiI ... halk. but
govt'rtling was t1ifficuh, Olle reason was Ihe cougl'llil:tl wcakm·... :. of party
:.ystell\ in Pel'u, characterized by numerous parties wilh fickk· fulluwings,
Toledo's own party, Pl:rll Posiblt', was inll'rnally dividt'd by constant hid,l'rillg
:Jlld ht'id unly 4U pern'nl oflhl' st'ats ill CUllgrns. 'I'u Sl'CUl'l' pa:-.sagl' of II'gisla Ii 0 II,
Toledo then:-fort: had to forge ad huc allianccs with a bl'wildt:rillg arfar
tillll parties.
Economics post:d alluthl'l' !)rubit'lll, Like vlher pulilicians, Toll'll!,.) fUllnd it
impossibk to live lip to his campaign promisc:. about t.:Jl\pIU)'llICllt, growth, and
safdy nets for the poor. He S3W little '11tt.:rtIative tu Irt'e-llIarb:t eLonomlcs, III 2U02
Toll'do weDI ahead with the pri\'atization 01 IWI) dectrkit), LUIJlpank:., whi(h
provnkl'd tllrn' days of violelll prok'st. gOVl'J'llllll'JlI thl.:ll backed duwlJ and
I'l'vt'rsed its tkci:-.ioJl. This Sellt a ratal sign of pulitical weakJlt':.:.. Capitulal iUll 10
protesl would I1l'COlllt: hallmark urlhis gOVel'llllll'llt.
There were personal issues as well. Arter prolonged dt'llials, Tokdo 'Il'knuwl-
edged that he had an illt.'gitimale daughter, As is su often the ..:aSl" the problelll by
lIot ill thl' Ifuth-but in the ,lttempll'd COVl'l'-UpS. Hb \Virl', a Bdgi.lll-UOJ'll
OIllthropolugist nalll(·d E1nine Karp, also allllOyl'd Inilny Ilt;'I'IIViarls,
Illembers of thl' elite, because of her ulltspuh'n LUlllllll'llb .l!)OUI tIll'
01 ... ucial injustice, Predictably ellough. she wa:. both prai.'>l'd illld do:nuulI('l·d,l ...
Ilillary Clinton" of Peru.
The 2006 elections pilted Ihe inddatigable Alall Garcia ag;linst 011allta
IluJilala, a Idi-Ie;;\ning nationalist and arlll)' colnul'! who had kd all UJl:.UCcessrul
lllilitary uprising against Fujimori ill O(tobt:r 2UOO. (Tht:.' CUJlgress pardoJled him
ilrtcr Fujimori's dowllfall.) HUlll'lla ulilpolll.'d l;arcia ill tht: 11r:.t round with 31
per..:cnl to 2-1 percent. During the runoff campaign, Velll'ZudaH presidcnt Ilugo
Ch,ivez proclai1ll1.'11 his support ror Ilumal'l, whit'll provokt'd :1 fl'rocillllS baddilsh
againsl IIle idea offureign-t'speciaJly c1llll'i.stll-intrusiull ill natiunal altair... (St'l'
Chapll'r S). For his pari, Garda insislt'd (without 'Illy St'nSt: of irony!) Ihal hl' :t1011l:"
possessed lhe stature to negotiate sllccessfully with international e,,:ullolllic orga-
nizations. In the end, Garcia won 53 percent of the popular vo1t', althuugh t'xit
pulls suggested that he was seen as Mtll e lesser uf two t'vib, A resounding
nHllldate this was not.
Although some radical ereoll's ano me.stizu.s d:ullorcd lor indo:pl'Il(!l'nce in IS09,
dite society in Upper I'eru was hesitant to .-llign wilh reud rOln'S, III their repc,llcd
attempts to illvade the highland areas, insurgent armies suught support from local
Indians with promist's 10 terminate forced bbor, abolish taxes, alld redistributt'
17'1 I'ARTTWO· o.;TllIlIFS: C11AN(,F O\TR TllIl!:
1:1Ild. Such overlure.. intell .. irled creole fears indepcndence from mighl
upset :l sod.11 :llld economic hierarchy. For thc next sixlccn ye:1rs,
civil W:lr enveloped the region.
A.. in PCI'll, the ecollolllY of the newlr founded rcpuhlic W,IS in
Thousands III mine.. h:ld been 000ded. Owners l<lckcd Ihe C:l pil:l I to renew
prndllclinn. while lhe coll:1psc of the fon.:ed I:lhm syslem (//li/(/) created a scarcity
(If w(lrkcrs. Agricultural !'rtulllClion slagnalCt! as well. Indigcllolls COllllllllnitie:s
retained ;lge old 1r< on l.."ollllllllnity land and prndu(ing only fllr Incal
markel". I\t SO percellt of lhe inhabitants spoke Qucchua or a
lll;lin I,lllgllage. Fonnerl)' nile of Ihe wC;llthicsl of the Sp<lni"h empire.
Bolivia W,lS stllfering IrnlH prnfollnll ecollomic millaisc.
I\S the niltion's IIrsl president. Jose Antonio Sucre (IR25-28) allempted tn
con"tnl(:l <I liher;ll slale :md reinvigorate pro"perily. With declining revenues from
silver produclion :1Ild a sl;lnding army thaI comumed ;:lImosl one-half of govern-
mental cxp('ndit\lfe... hi" adlllini ..lralion decided 10 replace the recently ahnli .. hcd
Indian lrihule with;1 head tax on the indigenous popul:llion. Between IR35
IR6S. this ('(III,,.i/'I/(';I'1/ de ;1If1i):,ClIfIS provided n constnnl revenue stream Ih;"ll
(overed 'lO percent of ."I:lte expenses. Sucre nl ... o weakened the church hy con
fisc:ltinp. its properties. I lis sllccessor. Andres de Santa Crll7. (IR29-J9), sought to
achieve nne of noli";lr' .. goals hy eSI:"lhlishing it confedcmlioll \\'ilh Pel"ll.
Thre;llcned hy Ihi .. I'0tentiall}' powerful :llli:lnce. Chile ded:lred W;lr on Ihi"
w(luld he cOlllctler;ltinn. Although S:lnla em:! \\'on some initial victories. the
Chilean ;lrmy "nundlr defe:llcd Bolivia and Peru. lIe \\'('nt inlo exilc in IR39.
Polilic:ll inst;lhility ell .. ued over Ihe next thrce decades. In contr.Jst to his
predecessors, Isat.lor nelzll (IR
I8-S5) was the first preSident 10 appeal
direclly to lower-clas.. urhan IIIestizos (especi;llly :lrtisans) and peaS.1llts. He cncour·
aged dOlllestic production hy rnising lariffs 011 imported cloths. lie do... ed foreign
warehouses and declared lhal only Bolivinlls could engage in intern:ll Irade. To
incre::lse sl;lle revenues, he estilhlished a slale monopoly on the export of chinchol/a
bark (used for CJuilline.;lIl :tntifever <lgent employed especially :lgainslm:lhria). I Ie
<lIsa volunt:ll'ily retired frolll omce, the firsl president 10 do so since Sucre.
Another prominenl president, Mariano lVlelg:lrejo (IR64-71). oversaw leg-
islO1tifln in IN661hat gavc the statc the power to confiscate all Indian (flmmunity
1:1Ild. Thosc who worked individu::l1 plots had to register title 10 their land within
sixty clay.. ;l11(1 pay <I sum of 25 to 100 pesos. If Ihcr failed 10 do so. the state
would put their land up for puhlic auction. Many Indians did not have the cash
to P;\)' the reqllired fees. Others lost their I<lnd Ihrough fraud. The beneficiaries
of this duhious slatllle included we:llthy landholders who enbrged their
hacicnd::ls. medium·si7.ed landowners who purchased more property, mer-
chanls wilh ;wai1ahle c;lpita1. illld urh:ln investors who used the land <IS a
source of incollle or:lS collilleral for minor mining inveslments. In response 10
this legislalion, a series ofimligenous rehellions hroke out. Although Mcl1{arejo
hrutally crushed these uprisings, he w;\s suhsequenlly forced 10 reverse some of
Ihe lanel confiscation'i.
In foreign affairs. Mclg;Jfejo enlered inln dllhicl\1'" illlc·III.llltlll.d .I!:II c'III1I1"-
Opponents charged thai Ihey favored llnly 111(' person.lllill.lllll.ll illlne... ' .. "I lilt
president. ralher than Bolivia. In 1l{6(,. he .. a In'.lly Ih;ll rcn'J-:nilt',1 (·lllk.11l
terrilorial daims 10 the region 01 lilt.' 1\1.11;1111.1 111· ... '·11 III
lR68. he ceded 010.000 st)lI:lre miles 10 Bla7il illlhe Am,l/lIlli.11l
arr<lnged free lrade agreelllcnis with (:hilc alltl I\'ru lh.11 111111 II.t" Ht,IIV1.t11
eCOllOI11)'. :lnd gilve lip gU:lIlO cxtra(linll right .. :l11l11j..: Ihc l'.llill, lO.I ... I. I II' W,J'"
finally nverlhrowll in IH70, when an alli,ll1l..c nt erclllt' "1'1''''''1111111.11 h',Idt'I" .111,1
alliplano Indians forced him to nec tht.· (tHll1tl)'
Ar. noled e:lrlier. the \Var or the 1',ldf'l h,ld ulh'll\, t1i .... I<,lroll .. t tllI .. t·'plt 11. 1""
fnr Hnli\'i:l. It <llso led 10 the di"pl;lC('lI1ellt nf 1111111.11\ IIl1nlil/,,\ wh.. h.I,1
politic.. since lIulel'cllc!cnle. ()rg,lIli7etl 1IIIIIIIgh Ihe ( 111l",·I\'.II,\"!"
Parly, nlig:uchic mininv. inlere"ls "\\'Iftl)' 1ll0\'ctlllltfl till" \'.1111'1111 Tlln I "nllllllC'd
free trade policies. improve\! lr-ansporl:llulll. ;11111 .lC'"c1flj'C't! 11'('1'.1"'(('111 10\d."I,1
frnnticr region through slalC' l;locl salt:-.. III .. "eol1:1tnl" .llltl ... clIll', ... ("1\('1111111'111
r.uhsidies .Ind illtern;ltilul,ll IlIl.InC"ing plt,vi,k,1 Ihe rH..·lc.....II) I .lp,l.l1 111' '111"'1 III r
r;lilway lines lhnl cllllld IllIl\'C 11lillcr.ds In 11K P,llifil pllrl III Anlnl.lg..... t.I. ('11111
(formerly Bnliviil). An lIplurn in r.i1\'C'r protlll<.li(l[\ and H('\\' rn,HI l'"1.. 1'lll 1'"11
expanded inlcrnill markcl ... Morcovcr, 1\lIli\'ia took :ldv,lIltagc I,r, he tiller 1\,11'011.11
ruhber hoom h}' elK(lurilging exporl .. f!"("Im iI .. /\111:l/0111,111 1('11 illlr)' or 1\\ 1('
Indian lands relll:linct! :l Irouhlc.. lIlllc hSllc (·I)I\ ... e,·\·.III\·I'" 't'!'t'.tll'oI IIH'
comlllonpl;lLc argullleill" Ih;ll l,ltll,11l Illllllllllnilr lanll ... h"1111I Iw hl.,lt·1l "I'
into illdividuall}' oWlletl pllll". ;1Ill! gO"CI"nlllenl" Innlllllll",1 IIll' 111111,111\,''''
begun hy Mclgarejo a dcc;lde heflllc. i\1.IIl}' Illdi.lIl ... werc IOlll"t! 10 ..clllh,·l.lIlol
they had workc(1. V\lilh lantlle..... IndIans ill Iheil (,IllI,I,,\'. h,h.Il'lld,1 11\\111', ..
incre:lsed hoth their holding" alld prtldlll..tioll. In,h,IIl" '1Ihl' 1"I."IIIt!
ag:linst Ihese measures. In IX')!) unde!' lhe IC:l(ler.. hip t'l ;I,II.lIl' \\'1111.:.,1. ,11101
with support from Ihe l.ihl..·ral !'arly. indigellous Clll1l1l1l1nlll(''' llr lhe .11111'1.11\"
defenled:l Cnnservali\'e·lcd nalional ;"Irmy. \oVillka tllell 11l111Ct! .lg.lInQ hI" ,dill''''
massacrcd <I detachment of Liheral sI11dicr". al\(I dc( br(:d a 1'.11 C W.l1 111\ ,.II \\ hili'"
Ilorrirled hy th is development. I.iher"l" ,lIltl ( '1"'1 kh I' 'Innl I, "l t··
:llld defeated the rehels.
As a coll<lpse in internatiol1:11 .. il\'er !,rices \\'e"k(,llell lhl" (
demands by Ihe Liberals to move Ih(' n:llion;ll I..apllill hlllll :-'1111(' III 1.1 1'.1/
intensified conniel hetween Ihe t\\'o panic... In I(mn I.lhel.d.. wle... tctl !,,,hllt ..I
cOl1lrol of the counlr)' from lhe silver (Iligarl..hy. /\1 the tUlle. till 11111111\):
W<lS emerging as Bolivi:l's major export. S(1me silver h;lrflll" qllldJr ,·,llp 11lC'
new export mineral, while olhers S<lW their forlunes del line. II wa" nol lllll): hdoH'
:l new and close-knit mining oligarchy look hnld-Io 10«(11. Ilndr .. Ill(' ILl!
leadership of Simon I. 1':lliilO.
r1espite the import:1Ilce of mining. Illl' Wl,<,! Ill:ljoril}' 0111\" ludLIll I'll I' II !.l
tion rcmained in :lgricullure. l.iherall'.lI"ty prollli.;cs III ''It'l' 1.1Ild ll .. nr p,lllPll .ltd
not prevent the transfer III' properly hi 11011 Illdi,l1ls. Br IhC' 1'»)0" IlIth.lll"
ret<lined only one-lhir<1 of Ihe land (If Ihe h iglll:llHls. \1 hlle 1f"1 "/It/,lIl, '" I i "III t ,11",1
l,c. 1'.'.1(1 tWO" I \"·.J· ... UI,\Nt;l'(JVH{T11\1I
111\' ,.111\'1 two thild.. , Iru::.tfatioll!l about till: los3 01 to lalld
wl/uld .... k Ill'W rl'bdli\IlIS ill the 1\)4U::. and 1950s.
'l'lll' ill,'t';'''lligly ,lutoLr,ltk rult: or' Libl'ral Party politkians provoked a split in
tln:lf I,111l......llld lin: I.'fllhlliull oftlw Republican Union that Gllnc to power
lIulll Iu I'}J·1. Ii)' hrC'<.tking up a two-party monupoly, Republican role opent'd
thl' .... )' ..klll It, lllultil'.lrly groupings. Although tht: sale of Indian community lands
\ 11111.111)' ll·.l",.1 ullder Ikpublit.1ll adlllinisiralions, the govenllllent t'ontinued to put
.1.,\'0'1\ ll'bdliol1S, IhL' 1927 Cha)'anl<.luprising, UIII: of the largest
111,11.lll 1,'vI1II .. ill thl' IWl'Il1ldiL Cl'llltlry, by brute furce, TIll: Chay"llita insurrection
.lg.lIlL.. t pWlll'rl'o til hlrge h.lI.iellda.. lU.:g.LlI in southern Holivia and quickly spread to
11111l' 1111 ,\ Illu-'S, hIV"lving \JVl'l IU,OUU I dlt."ls. II istori<.ll1 Erk: D. Langl..'r has noted that
-.,hll"ugh llil' rl'Vt,1t W.I,> :!!ollpl'n''':!!ot'd, il drl't:livdy hulled the of tht'
II.lticnd.1 ulltu Indhlll t:tlllllllllllity anJ prompted Iht' gOVl'rnllll.'llt to replact'
ltllll1l'l lUI..II ollill,":-....
111 BlIIIVI.I, .1:> the Great had a dc(bivt, imp'll't 011
I'0llli ..... III tlli., p....tit:ular (;ISl', Iht: I:'(onolllic crisis hdpl'd lead the government
nllu .111 l'XPl'Il:-.IVl' war.
TI,e Choco Wor {1932-351
Blildl'l .. klrllll .. hl'::' hl'l\\l'l'l\ Bulivi;lll .Illd UVt'1" thl..' Chaco region
111 lla' \· .... 11·111 B"hvl,lll lowl.tlld:-. brukl'llulil in tht: 1'J20:!!o. The dbcovl..'ry of \lil
III I hI' !\ "tll',111 l\ltllh ilb III 191.H rabed Ihl.' plJs.. ihilit y thai lurtht:r t'xplnralion lIlight
lind rl''l'rVl''' III Ihl' luwlamb 10 tilt' III IlJ32, Bolivian pre:!!oident D'lllie!
(19.\1 J·I) ordl'rnltroops to tKCupy'l Paraguayan garrison, ,tilt! war
I,.okl· nul bdwn'll Iht' twu lOUlltrit::!!o.
)pplllll'Jlh ..I,timcd Ihat the conllict was a (-ynical effort 10 distract altention
,1\\'.1) 111/111 t hl- luUtll t'cunulIlit:" crbis_ Hulivian soldil'r:!!o frulIl tht: highlands wert:
"ul'plinl alld did llul ildapt tv thl' luwl;,llld climate:, The
,0 LlLr''' i.tJIIVt:lltiull,t1 fighting ::.lrall'gy ..lIso !)ruve:d indfective against the guerrilla
1,1\ II." "I thl' In:> IILLllll'roul'o hut nllirl' sc..lsoned Paraguayan 'I"housands or
"'fldl"I" UII bllih :>id\'" dinl In Iht' war, mostly due to as malaria.
IU:!!oI 65,OOU young lllcll, a significantllumber in a total population of only 2
lIullit)L" III lilt' In·al)'. Bolivia losl the eh.ICO region (which ended up
11\11 t.tHII;dlling vii bUI I'daillt't1lerrilories that in faci hdd a ridl supply
III uil allllllalul"LI ga::..
'rhl' C1lal..·o W.t!' had implications, First. thl' COJlscription of high-
I.tllli ludi.lIb inlu thl' Holivian army hastened the inlt'gration of traditional COIll-
1l111I11tll':> illto thl' naliunal ::'Oddy. No 10llger isolateJ in remote villages.
suldiers at:'luirl'd a neW sense of perspective (and grievance), Second,
till' 1I1dil,lry ddl',lt disaedill'd thl.' Iraditional parties and provoked a widespread
de... il'l· for dlange,
Yuuthllli generals rl'spulldetilu this damur by seizing power and implementing
that !tod theln Iu be called -military socialists.- David Toro (1936-38)
l'.. t.lhlbhl·d a tvtillbtry vI' Lahur and n;ltionalized Standard Oil of Bolivia. which had
tI • 1hc Andl':>; SoldLt:"rs. UIIg.lrdl:lo, .Iud Inl!L.III:lo 177
t.-ulitrollcd lilt· oil produclion, Thl' constitutiun 01 19JH granlt'd lhl' gowrn-
1I1t"llt a Illurt' adive rolt' in the l't:onomy. EWIl !lO, it rdainl'll liler<lI..-y rl'quirclllcllb
til'll political participatiull 10 lhc slllall IlispalLidzcd upper alltl uliddll:
As II rt'MIIL.lcss thall 50,UOU J-leopk' Wl're digibk 10 vOll' ill n'llioll.l! dntiull:>,
Leftwing <.Ind bbor ftlru"s t'lllcrt'd thl' pulilit,d :lot.lgl· ,llId IOrnll.'ll
lhn:e partit'::.-tlw P.lrty of Ihe Rl'voluliullary Ldi. the Trobkybt
nevolulion,ll'y Pari)', .1Ild in 19,10, Ihe N;'ltivllal Rl'Volulion;IIY I\lovl'l11l:'l\t
(tvINR), ",llleh appc.t1l'd 10 lIlodl:'rak, lllitldll' t.Ia..s naliollalt:lots. AlIlhle,' platlonnl'o
called (or nationalization uf Ihl;' lill Illine:-.. LJm!tor lhe Il.'adl'rship 01 Juan I.t't.:hill, a
lllilitalll Tl'Olskybi, Illl lIlilll'l"S lvrtlll'd Ihl.' h:dt-'ratillll vI Bolivi;Lll I\'IIH' "VOl kl'r:!!o. III
19,1') over I,OUO Qlll::chu;I alld A)'lllar.1 l'opl'akillg Il,.. d'·I:lo galh\'rnl .It thl..· 1i!"..1
N,llivn.t1 Indian Congrl:'s:!!o III La Paz. A::. hl:!!ololl.ln Ilnbt"r1 h.I:!!o nOletl, BoIIVi.1
had -dwngt-'J fmlll being of IhI:' lllobillLl'd In Lallli Amt:ril-a. III
tt'flns vf I"ldical ideology and union olgallizalion, into one ulthe nlo:lol .ldvarlCl..'d:
JII tilt' 1.11e 11)-10::., pt'a:lo.Lnl fl'volts !I.lred up til rouglll,ul Iht: 1..111l111. ) "I LI'
millt'r:>' uniun, tht· Rl:'vulutiol1ary Wurkas P.Lrty, .Ind tvlNI{ lJ,l\knl the:.l.'
,Ind to l"urgl';1 bruad p\)/itit.:al allt.1I11..l'. t\ drop ill 11I1 pritl::> ,llkt
""orld \Var II loru:d mine to lui W.lgl'l'o, pruvuklng grl.'alel 1.lbor mili-
tant y. 1\ 01 worKt'r" 1Il I ht' Cat.lvi lIlill\':!!o hy Mill YIrvvps in 1,,),17
dn:'pen",l hU:!!olilil)' tuw,lfd Ihl:' l-t'ntl,t1 guveflllllt'llt. 11111.llh1H .llld t' ... l)ILt)lllil
lurtht.'r illlemiflt'd popular di:lo(Ulltl'lll, III 19·1'}. Illl' I\INR Ulldt'1 thl'
kad\'l":!!ohip Ilf I Ierll ..i II SJll':!!o Zua'lo org.llliLCd a \ ivtliall :Ll'lllt'd rl'voll tlw
;lfllly that ulliled llliller:-. and nliddk Llass :loUppurkrs. ;\lthuugh Ihl' Upl billg
f.lill'd, the tvt Rled all armed I,lbur slrikt' tht.:= ll(:xt Yl';lr .\lllllllg hll) wurker:!!o in
La P:'l:l-. The gVVl'llllllt'1l1 "'\Iuirt"d alliller)' .Illd .lirpl.ul":!!o tu 1..I1I:!!oh th..: l<.Il.Hlr
Thl' l\INR Iht:"11 turnl'tllu;lll dl:'t-ttll.d ill Ib pur:!!oUlt vi !'UWI..·I, III 11ll'
1951 prc:!!oidt'lIli;.d dcclrolls, MNI{ It'adl'l" Vklor Paz El'oklb:>clrn raIl un ,I I it:kd wilh
Sties l.11al.i.l and gamcrt'd 53 Ih'rlcllt of thi.' Vllll', U:!!oilLg Cold War <lllliUlllll1ll1l1ist
rhdtln.... the IHilil.Ll)' to Id tilt.' rvlNlt lakt- onJlt' and .lllllUlkd
The: MNlt ..gain up in rl'voh, l'oeiziu
\\Icapom frulll.lI"IlIoril':> .lIld distribuling
guns 10 thl:' publIC. !·bdicalizl'd \\Iorkt-r.::.. peasants, and Ihe mltldle dl.fe:ucd Ihe
army and the: MNR seized powl'r. Thus h"gan the Bolivian Ih-'volulioll, the firsl
MKcl..'ssful m... ssivt-' and popul,lr n:vol! in L.-llill America sinct:" Ihl' Ml'xi..:all
Rl:'volution or 11)10.
The Revolution of 1952
Paz ESlenssoro, thl' Ill.'W prt-'sidt'lll, had graduated fmlll Ihl' N;uiollal
wilh a degree in economics. Ht:: volunlct'n:J in tht' Chaco War ag'litbt Par,lgu<.t)'
and then joint"d a group of young Turks Ihat supporkd the lIlilit..lry'- In
power he built the t\'INR into a broad co,llitiun that ranged from Ihe: COllllllunist
Party to lhl' middle d .. He gave Ihrl'l' cabine:t posts lllllw lill rnillt:r::. <Il1tll·ankd
OUI his campaign promises: nationalization of tilt' a(ross-the-board wugt.'
hikes, and governllll'llt subsidies for b... sic st'ctor::. of the l·c0110my.
17R I'ARTT\Vc)" ClIAN(;F TIl\lE
The B0livi:1I1 Hevolurion of 1952, like the Mexic<ln Revohllion, Iwd;"l profound
effeci on Ihe country. The new government dropped <Ill elector<ll1iteracy require-
Jllenls ;1nd cnfr<lnchised hundreds of thoul'andl' of t ndians. The vot ing popul<lt ion
incfC.';1sed fivefold. By nationalizing the mines (with compenl':ltion tn the owners)
and selling lip :l sl:lle-Owned mining giant (Comihol), the government gained
effective coni 1'01 over refining plan Is olltside of l3olivi:l and could essent i<1l1y dictn!c
the pri(e nl"till. The miners' federation also formed an all-powerful Crl11!cd('rnciclll
O/'I'('/'11 Holil'itll/{/ (Bnlivian I.ahor Federation, COB) that pllshed for heller wages.
conditions, <lod over<lll policy.
Furthermore, Paz Estenssoro purgt'd milit:lry offic!.'rs who f:lvoreJ the tracti
t ion:ll elites and reduced the size of the army. The miners' milit i<ls he-GIllle the most
import<1nt :H'llleci force in the COUlltry. Throughout Ihe highland countryside,
peasants began t<lking over medium <1nd large est<1tes by force of arms nnd forming
peasant unions under Ihc guid<1nce of the COB. The {vINR intervened in this
pr(l(ess and implemenled comprehensive agrnrian reform. After ohtaining land,
the pea.";lIlls tended to become more conservative :lnd less involved in nationill
although the)' continued 10 provide a lo)'al polilical hase for the MNR_
While lillld reform look pl<lce in the highl<1nds, lilJ'ge estnles remnined int<1ct in
the (':lstern lowl<ln<ls. U.S. ;lid <lnd capital poured into this region to flnallce
cOllllllrrcinl agriculture. Unahle to shift Ihe course of the Rolivinn Revolution in
the highlands, Washington polic)'lll:lkcrs nttcmpted to huild their influence in the
(ountr)"s most dynamic economic area. A regional boom drew highland peas<1nts,
and the city of Santa Cruz bec:lme a power cenler for l;1rgc-sc<1le Irllldowners.
Silcs ZU<li',O succeeded Pai'. Estellssoro in the 1956 elections, cnpturing 83
perce lit of the vote. The son of a forlner president, he represented the more
moderate wing of the 1\lINR. During his administration, the MNR split into diverse
f.1ctions al(11lg persoTl:lllincs over policy implementation. As inflation son red, Silcs
ZU;17n decided to stahilize the economy through 'In austerit)' program under the
auspices or the U.S. governillent <1nd the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In
the midst of eoIt! Wnl' pnlarization, he nlso re<1ligned foreign policy in support of
the United Sl<ltes. Al thc same timc, the right-wing Ffllange Soci;1list Pnrty mobi-
lized disconlented sectors of the clites nnd the middle class in <Ill unsuccessful
attempt 10 topple the MNR government.
Un<1hle tn block the radical reforms of the Bolivian Revolution, lhe
Eisenhower and l:lter the Kennedy adminislrations chose to offer economic nlld
Illilit,lry aid to the country <IS an :lltern<ltive means of establishing inlluence_ The
U.S. government also consolidated support in the <lnned by providing
offker lmining in the United St:ltes and counterinsurgency instruction in
Bolivia. (tn contrast to Guatem<lla, where the Arbenz refflrms had direclly chnl
lenged American economic interests, the MNR progf<1tns of n<ltionaliz<ltion and
redistriblltion focllsed exclusively on Rolivian-held properties. This greatly
reduced the incentive for decisive U.S. intervention.)
When pnz Eslenssoro relurned to the presidency in 1960 with Juall Lechin as
his running mnte, tin prices hnd flattened and the government had few disposable
resources to meet economic prohlems. Ilnp:l1ielll willi tl,c .... IIIW ",he 'It ld,lllll"'.
opposed to the government's move to dis;lrmlhe :ll1d ... lrcngl11l'1l
the militnr)', nnd resistnnlto n constitlltional ;lll1elldllh'lll Ihal wllllid 1t,IV(, ,dlownl
Pnz Estenssoro 10 run for reelection, Lechin resigned (l'l"l11l hi... I'"... t ,I'" \'11'
president nnd split the MNR coalitinn. Silcs :I,lI:li'O ;lbn broke willi Ihe
over PaZ Eslenssoro's mnneuvcrs to rUIl for reelcL!llJll. Il.lVIllg 111 ... 1 sllpl'llrl fr'lIll
the left wing of his party, Pnz Estenss("l1'O attemplcd 10 ,,110Il' III' hi ... 1'llpld,lIll)' h,
selecting Gener<ll Rene Ihe charblll;lt ic I.C 1111 rll,lllIlel III IIll' II 1\'i,Ill 1\ II
Forcc :l1l{1 a longtime MNR supporter, ,\S his nrrllllll,L: m,llc' ill Ihe 1'1("1 dCI llnll.
Over lime, the milit:ll)' had hecome resentfulllllhe ern... inll (11 I'" 1'1(· ... 11,1:\· .111<1
power. Three months ;1ftcr the election, vile prc... idt'l1t It-ulic-nll .... ,ll1d ,\llle,l·,
Ovando, COllllll<1nde!' of the :Hlll)', Ollsted I'ni'. ;old dl'l 1.11 c'tl 111I'rl1"I'I\'('"
co presidents. E;lge'" to cbim ;lIlot her nIl)' ill Ihe (:old W,Ir. \V.l ... hin,J.loC] I11111 ll'1 II
<ltely backed the new govcrnlllent. For Ihe lU'Xt tln/t'll yc,lI"', the lllr!i!.uY .1"1111
naled the political life of the (·OIlIltr),.
Military Rule and Popular Resistance
A nntiveQucchu<1 speaker, BarrientosS;l\\' his OWIl po!rth,lIlorlllllc... 110tlw II"'C, In
1966 he resigned from his interim po!'ition <llld cl1np,ligllcd fpI Ihe I'H""d"lll\,
developing a conservnlive populist hnse among rlll',d Indi.lll:-. pC,I"';1I1I", .lIltl ti",
middle class. As president, he promoted pro lll:Hket :llid aIlIiClllHllHllli',1 IlW.I"'l111·"'.
breaking strikes that ended in the mnssacrr CIt workel'" lie ,11"0 1l\('r:-,lW lhe ("111111'1
insurgency cnrnpflignlcd h)' U.S. tmined R:lllgcrS lh.11 ill l'u,7 !'lll' (· ...... 11111\·
tracked down nnd execl1ted 1\ rgent inc CUh;l1l !'evolnl iOlla ry I· 1']11'''''0 :hc- C d U'\'.II.1.
who !l;ld <lttempted to estahlish a gllerrill;l hase illlhe Antlc.lll flinthill....
Rnrrientos' sudden death in <l hclicnptcr C!':lsh in 1l)(,IJ 0pl'llcd tll<'l'lllc... wl111111
the army corps until Jl1an jose Torres C;1111C In power in 1971. " I.Idil IOIl,dt,.!.
Torres furned 10 the left, convoked an !\","clllhl)' of lhc' 1'1'tll'k. ,lIld "'lglw,1 ,I
contmct with Ihe Soviet Union to huild;1 Ill'W lill "meller. (;;"I'n Ihe LrllpCI.llt\·I·
of the Cold W:lr, Torres was overthrown within ,1 lIl;lIlel I" IH"11I1I ....
Bolivia's new leader waS (jcner,llilugo (1971 7XI..l 11.11 I\'(' .>1 ".011.1
Cru7. who went on to become the lQngest -surviving III rlil:l r)' dll 1.1101' in Ih.. 11,11 It Ill''''
histor)'. III lhe 1l1i<lst of f<lvorablc economic (Ollditioll", I 1111'11 t l'1 1111 IIU' rrgll1
with a conservative wing of lhc MN R ;lIHI the semi· 1',1 .... 1. i"l l:aLlngc Sill i,lli ... l I':II 1\.
Tin prices sO:Hed, and Ihe rcl;ltivcly .... rnall \Iii 1'('.<:elTC... provided !>i}:l1llc
c<lnt foreign enrnings arter the flilcri!'is 01 1<17'1. MnrCIl\·(·I. 1111'
long-Ierm effects of Bolivi:l 's r;ldic<ll l<lnd reform ;1nd III 1ra'" n Ii l! liT dcw'I,II'llWlI I
expanded mnrkcts and increased agriculturn1 prod liLt inll. Tile eX!'1 II I 01 ,111' I
later cotton from lhe Santa Cnn region slrcngthened ('(llllllH'rlial aglklll ll l l't'. also sought closer economic tics with Brni'.it .11111 Argell1ill;l. CSpCli.lllv ill
the hydrocarbon sector. At Ihe same time he govcflIed wilh a he,IVy 11;11111. h.lllllill!',
left-wing p:lrtics, suspending Ihe COR, ;lnd closing c!lIWIl 1IIliv<'fsilks.
Arter Jilllmy Carter assumed the U.S. presidency in 1')77. Ihe H.11l7el gO\'CI'n
ment callle under pressure to enact <1 delllocralic lrnnsition. \-\lhcl1 it ... e('1I11'd likl'lr
tSlI 1"1'1 I"" (,,'I 'lUtHI" t 11,'Nt,1 OVI"I{ tl,\II'
11,,11 Ilhl,.tll\II'lll'l·d 'til l 1..'''''''1 II \\IIlIld I"'l' hI Slk':lo /'1l.IZU, IIOW\.·Vl'l , B.lllzl·r allllUlkd
Illl' d",II\'11 /\''''11 It ... ".X.t'II",·r,lh.'d h)' Iii ... anll)' lllril.l;'r:lo :lollllllllaril)'
Il'lllu\nl hllll 1111111 \l11i.. l·
lhl'l tli..· 1\.... 11 )1',II:lo, ,I :lotnng UlllVlh.1ll and' guvl'rlllliellb alter·
1I.lkd III 1'11\·.....·/, ..... 1'.1/ E... Il·n...... OrU and Sill.·:lo ZU.lZO vil·d fill' th...· pn::loidl'nc)', 1l..'\V
Pi lIlt iI..1111 111..1" 1'1 1Il..'I'!4\.'d , ill.. llIdillg till' !'.Idieal Movement 01 the l<evolutiunary I.en
(i\III{) .llld 11'1' II).!.III WIll!4 N.lliull'lllh·lIuKr'llic !\(·tion, hl·aJ\.'d by Ilugu Ball'lt'r.
"1111,1 Illh 111,1111,.11 .. 11.h...... (,I·lh·l.tI l.lll:lo (;,Ircia Ml'l,1 (1',JHO-MI) !'>l'lll'd 1'1I\V1.·1.
\\'111'11 Ihl' jUll'tll.llmo.ll prl"..... I"l'\'l',dl,'d Ih.ll key figurt's III hb gov"rnmcnl wel'l.:
11l\"h'I'd III 1111' .. U,.llIlV II.llk', f\i..'i.llluio..kl), Ill!'>t credibdlly. Suaring IIlILlliUll .Illd
I"l',hl 1>.1,,·d 111'11111.11 Ilrull.:... I'" hi, lul\.·ll'd to hi:lo ulI ... ll'r ill IYXI. 'I'he Ilcxl
fl·.!I, H"I"I.I 1l'lIIJ"lIl"\lluln'I' alld l.tll \.·k-dioll ....
Tile CUlllclllPOI ory Scene ( I 980s-presenll
l)lh ..· .li',.IIIl, Illv "ldl'r gl·Ill' •.ltllJII III Ihllill.... all:lo dbplltl.'ll I'0\\'t.'r.
lk,.lu',,' It \\.1' \, .. Id)' .. U11 ... ldl·I ..·d Sdl::-' ZU,IZlI h.ld \\'ull Ih\.' d\.'Clillll:lo.
till..' ( "IIl-:II..·..' dl'\.tl'lillilll plnull'lll III I'JH1. Ill.- .. nl.1 enmoillil
\Il,i ... Illl·I,tltll'ltl dluppnlllllllllllll.· wlllld 1111 Illarkc:t, .lnd ill hypl·rinn.ltiun
1,·.I,llnl ,III .IIlIHI.d LII\.' III 60.000 Ihi' IlHlrlh.highnl level III w(lfltl hbtorr.
II u... lrdkd 10) Ill'" Hl.illllll), Itl gun:rn, "Jdl·... ZU.170 slepped d(IWIII'.lrly .1Ild dlxtioll:lo
\\l'1 I.' •• dlnl
Nil' ... IIII'I .... P.l.f J ... 1\.'11...... "111 \,·Ill\..·Il!>\.·d:l:lo Iii", Willlll'r. l.UIII', 11I1\\,\,·V(·r. w.....
Ihl'I'ltlt.l.llllllt.ll ""u·I.lvl111.'l1 :lol.ll\,·llllltrul U\l'r till'lIlajur Ollhl·I·l.OnuIIlY.
1'.1/ I '1\"11......"1<1 til"'''''' .I"'hlt" .tli IIlthl:" n.lllllll.dl:lot .llld r.ldit.a1l'rugr.1I1111l.1tic point!'> ul
Ih\.· 1\1NI<. Huddllll-: .111 .dil.lll\..e wltll 11l1'1Ill'r dKtatuf Ilugo B.lll'l\.'!'. P.1Z
1'11'1"'''',1'1 Ill·"lllll'I.1I N\·\\ 1':IIIlHIIIIIl PI.III. Folluwing uriliudux llll)uc:tary pulicil':lo,
Ill' .. ul V.'!\t'IIIlIII·IIl llt'\.'d puhb( "'l·.. lur plin':lo, .llld illl.l",.lSl'd rl:Velllll:"
\VIIt'1l lldl.lli"JI drtlpPl'l1 III d.Hlbll: digib. Ill.' lllllvl'd to dblllalltic Ih...·
'[.lk JlJllllUg .Hld Ul'l'lI till' l.lJllllty Ifl.'l· tradl'. II1I hard hy IhI,'
1·... '.1"1111' .. 11 ... 1', hilt 1\1 no .... vail. MallY whl) jllbs
111\1\1"\1 III llllll'l Iq.!,ivlI'" .llld l'Vl'lllll"II)' hl·l.tllll· ... lllaU·scall.: t:Ol,l gnlwl'rs.
"J1l\"\\"nllllg prl·... llk·llb lollu\.... nl P.l.f .. Ill..·olibcwl policil-:lo, Jainll' P..lZ
/'.1111111.1 (I')H'J 'iJ) III till' 1\111<. huilt.1 l.unuu:loco.lIitioll wilh right-wing Hugo Hanzel'
.llId hlllh\'1 hlokl' Ihl'l'uwl'r 1)1 thl·l.lhtll lllU\'\.·lllt.'lI!. II SllCu':loSOr, CiUIIZaiU $.lnchez
lIl' I \li.ld.1 (I'N \ 'J7). r:'lll 011 .1 tKkl.'l wilh Vi.... tur Ilugo a leader of the
'11111.11 1..::.11.111 I{l·\·I,' 1.lha.llioli tvluWIll"nl, Although he continued
IIHIIIl'l.IJ) nod tu "Idigenuus Ihdr
to gl\·.1I1·1 pllllliGlI p.lIl kip.,tiun. i\ mung S:i.nchez de'S reforms \Va:lo a
l.lpll.dii..ltlllll progralll l:II01bling juint vcnlurc:lo bt.'tween pliv3h: capital and stale-
\I\vIl\.·d II hi U:lot I'l ...':-;, At Ihl: :loa 11 II.' tillll.·, h" I.k'1.:larcd Bolivia 10 bc a pluricuhural statl',
.!t-U'IItI.IIJ'lI'd IlHlnitlpal guvl.'fllanct' (:lotrl'llglh\"lling indigenuus COIlHllullities), and
l·rtllillnlllllllg.'IlIlU:-.I.lIlgll.tge:lo lu hl·l.tllght ill SdlOols.ln Iv U.S. pressurl's
,lIloul drug Irallldullg, S:'111... hcz dl.' l.lIZ.llLI abo sl.'l up a volulltal)' cocaine l.'r<ldicalion
PIl/gI.lIll Ih.ll Il'l'lIrlt'llly reducc..ll'rtlductiun by ollc-thir..1.
A Ill.'wl)' minted Ilugo HallZl:r rduml'll tn pO\Vl'r III 1'.N] .111...1
t:Olltilllll:l1 frn'-lIlarkd ..lnd privatiz.ltiun pulkil':lo.11I.' l·lIlbra\.-nl a U.S.
percenl HKaine eradication program, known as Plan I>, that pourl:tllllillilJll:lo
uf mtu thl.' cuulltry for cUlInkrnarCOlic:lo dllllh. Ball'll'r ;llso lit\.'
.s.,ll' of Mate-owned resourc("s to the priV.IIt: :lo\."Ctor. An agr\.·I.·Illl.'lll with Ih\.' Ikdltd
Corporation that privatized the Woller supply .. m ill Cudlaballlb.1 met wilh
popular n:sistancl' when tht.' COlllpall)' lripled ib rates; in til\.' facl' of signilicilllt
lIlobilizatiun, thl.' govcrnment n:sl:indcd Ihl.' l.l.)IlI,..KI. Irulll ufliu' 1·'lIly
for he:llih reasons, Banzer was sllccl.'eJl'd by llis vke presid\.'1l1.
In 20U2 S;ln('hez dl: rl,'g<llll\.'J th\.· pn:'·:loid\.'IlC)' wilh ,I llllllillhd "llll.lIily
in a multiparty contesl. I lis ehiel UPPUIll'lIt Evu Morak':lo, a katll'r of th\..' (Uta
growers' union rUJlning un Ihl.· lickt'l of Ihl' MOVl.'Ill1·1l1 lowanl Soci.dbm (MAS).
(The Spanish word auonYlIl MAS llleallS Morak:lo surprised politkal
by cuming in a strong secund. This but a prdudl' of dUllg:lo tv CUJllI:".
Sallcht'z de LOl.ada illIJajkd all et:ollulllY ill :loh.lrp dt:dilll' ;j1ll!.1 ... wdling I1Sl·;11
ddkil. 11l\.·ady 2003, r;Hlit:al 0PP0:loiliullisb lunned Ihl' IlIgh COllllllalld
10 challengc Evo Mor.lIe:lo o(lhl' coca groWl'fS' Ulllon Ic\llhi, illiliativ\'.
ow all t.'1ll\:rging IC.lder of indigenml:lo and popular slll.·l,d 1IIUVl'llh'nts, Mllrak-:lo
and Ihl: Peopll"S lligh COlllmand lallndll'd a of prutt":lob gowrlllll\"nl
TIll'ir demands ranged frolll long IIdd local grkvallt::l::lo to ul'p'I:loitioll ttl
cuca t'radil..lIioll policil':lo. blockl'd 1"O,ld.... and ":!lie:....llld .llfl,...... lhl·
":(Iulltry t:.lIl1l' to a III lktohl'r 200J dl' 1.11/.1\.1...
:lol'\.llril)' fOrll':lo to opcn thc W.I)' luI' Iud tfll.. k:lo " .. ruull' lu 1.1 1'.li;
0pclll'd lire Oil Ih..· dl·monstr.ltl.. :lo, killlllg ul Ull;lflll\.·d llli/l'lI'<, 'I'll\.' prl'
SkPPl'd (luwn .l1ld bu.lrded.1 l.UIlHlll:I..-i.t1l1igllt IH Ihl' UIlIll'd
A New Course for Bolivia?
louk plan' ill lall' 2U1I5.1 )11\..1' again, ":V<l Mor.II..·, 1.lll 1\11 Ih\· ,,111\..\', .llld tlli ...
lim...· hl' III powl'r wilh 5/1 perCl'nl IIll' voks. 'I'llllluuI I1..':11 Ill'll .111 all liulI:'
high, with X'l pt'rn'lll 01 c1igihll.: VOll.'l':-; p:lrti(ip.lling. All A)'IIl.Jl.l ludi:lll 11'0111 Ih\.'
01 Orinocu, Oruro,·s had lIluvnl with hb extl·ll..kd 1.lIndy III Ihe
Cuch"l.>:illlba Valll'Y 10 find work as :lomall f.lrJl1t.'l"s prududllg lruib .llld C"lk..a Io.::aw:lo,
1-1 .... got involVl'd in the c()(olero ulliull, rbing tu naliullalll:".ldl:"l and henllll;llg all
uutspoken OppOlll'nt of lh.... gove:rnmcllt's ... ucaillc l.·raclit::aliull·:lo.
His vktory evoked a rc:tllrn 10 the idl'ab ulllll" 1952 rt'volutiull lalld rdorm
and lhe nationalization of industries and natur.d Moral\.':lo, how\"vl:r,
l>roadeut.'J its scope tu indllde real partkipatiun ufllll' Indi.HI pupulation in local
national gO\'l;'rnancc. To sigllallhis :lohil". Murale:lo org:\Il1' .1 inaugu-
ration ceremony following Aymara rituals prior to the ufrici;11 cveili. I k 1'..... 1'1'.... -
senled himself as thc first full-blooded indigenous pr"sidenl who \Va:lo dedit:<lkd tu
vvcrturning Bolivia's centuries-old sociailliera!'chy, (II opprl's:loion,
this was a stunning culmination and di!'>play 01 Ill'wly found PO\\'\.'I".
Soon after laking office, Morall's took over Bolivian as:loeb
and negotiatl'd ncw contracts Illun: f'lvurablc: 10 Bolivia willi 1
clrobras, Brazil's
Evo Morales dons" poncho presented by the Mapuche Indians of Chile during a political
rally; <'s a democratically elected president. Morales has become a figurehead for
indigenous movements throughout latin America. (Getty Images/AFP.1
(•• '1 he /\lltk..: ()lll:·H, 11 .... ,",1 Iwll."" I'"
Why Bolivia and Not Peru?
The political sllcces<; of Ihe imliqenous POfllll.llion III !'ohv,.\ 01f"1<, .1 ,,'Ii":""l
contrast to the relalive quiescence or pro In<!iiln mOVl'I1H'III<, III Pr'rtr. Incllfl"lInll'.
peoples constitule mOIl" Ih;Ul 60 pPfCr'nl or 1hI"' Rolivl,ll1 pnl'lIl,llilll1, ,..,r fllllt<, ....
compared wilh less Ih;1n 1\0 in rNlI. htll thill i\ riot Ill" only 1".l\On 1.0111
the Ch;aco War through Ihl"' Rl"'volulInn o( 1'1"7. Illillnl "V""l<' ill Ilnlivi,1tl 11I'.I"lV
have mobilized ,'md heiqhl"nl'd ,ollsfioll<,Il('V, ,lmOlli1 lh" r..,1II1"·',
But the di(ferenc('<, (10 not <;IOp Ih('lc. A«"o,d.nq to pOlll'f ,II '" 1""1,'.1 I )OIl'l.I
lee Van Cott, factors intcrn"llo PCflt oUc' IIn(")O.1<\ol ell"'lll"n, .. of r'xpl,tn.""\l1
The lag [in Pelul i.. allribul ... blr> 10 th(' c101l1l1l,11l(f' of M,lIX"I .1Il.! ,.,l.ln,·.\ 1,1<-..1
ogie.. in the majority indlgf'nou<, h.qhl..nd<,: Ihp Ilf'q.ll'v'" rl'l,lfhNI
to indigenous elhnkily Ihf"{', Ihr> 11'\11"'1 <,IICC r'<'\ 01 Ih... lalld ."(01111 of Ill':' 1<170'.
a leqill systf'm thaI ha\ II,ldlllOn.1Uy Irp,ll"d htqhl.'llrl ,lilt! 1"\\'1.10<1 hHh.lll·.
separately, m... king jo,nt Mlion Illor(' diffl(,i1L Ih... poll(¥ "I lh" '.111I1111'11',\111
c!wing Ihe 1980s and {'ally 1 1('1 .. '";,in,ll'" rlv,111... "d",<, f,f '.,i1 •• IIl"'," 01('1111"
the policy of Ihr> Albe,'o FujimOli qov('lIm''''nt In lab'" ,1<' I('lInrl'";l UPl'fl\l
tional political aClivily; ,llld hl',wy 'lllqr,llion tn Ihr' I II.", dllrillq rh" It'JIlI\<' ,ltld
1990<;. which rf'movcrl flom thilt Wf"I'" I",flIIIOIMI Itl..-l"I"nOIl'.
terrilories. Since Ihe 1('(UI)('r.,l1on .1n<1 ('If ,nfhqr>nflll<, I ... lIlln.I.... ". Ih,'
cenH>rpiecC'of in<1igr>nou<, moh,h7i11,nn In Il",nhhnlinu ""\111111"<'. 1"",11<'1'" ,"I",n
of much of Prlu's incl'9E'nou<' pOPII'<lI'''''' d"p'lvP<, th" l'''Il'VMIl "" "_'''''''11' "f
I)(lWcrflll OIgilm71n9 th"'m("
<;talc-owned oil company. which imporlcd two-third<; of Bolivia'!, nahlr:11 g:1!'. lie
:1lso ovcrS:1W :1 c1eci!'ivc turn in foreign policy. :1ligning himself SqllMely with the
icnnlc Fidel r.:1st rn :1nd Ihe lIrchr:lI1d Hugo Chavc7.. Gmtcful1y ;lccepting ecollomil.:
aid from oil rich Vcne7.llela. Mor:11cs heC:1111C:1 key memher of the leflisl Jlolilical
mnvelllent known throughout Latin America rl.S the "pink tide" (sec Chapter 12).
And ;IS all ardent nationalist. he dist:lnced himself from lhe United St ... te....
The W. Bush :ldministrnlioll in Washingl01l took gre:lt llmhr::lge over
thi<; d('\,('lopmenl. hUI W:lS unahle-or ullwilling-to devole Ihe resource" 10
opposing it.
The Mornles ndministralion :1lso presided over the ",riling of a new constitu+
lion. In an e:1rly 2009 referendulll with ... 90 percenlturnollt. 61 percelll ()fvOlers
... pproved the new n:1tional charter. It acknowledged Bolivia as a unitary. plurina-
tinn;ll. secular slate. :1nd it dec1Med lhal nalur:ll resources were the exclusive
patrimony of the Bnlivian people and should be administered hy the stale. In a
separntc refercndum, 81 percent endorsed a restriction 011 private land possessioll
to 12,1100 .. cres. lhus opening the door 10 :ldditioll;ll redistribution or large
I.. ndholdings.
The Mor:lles govcrnment encountered significant opposition. espcci:llly frolll
:lgrihusillcss intcrests in $;ulla Cruz that used <ICIll:lIHl!. ror regional ;\utOIlOIllY
threats of secession :1S rallying eric!'. " recall effort ag;linst Momles ill 2007 failed.
\OUfI(r: Donna lee V... n Cott, 1l11ni"'q \11<"<' '1110 OppnllltnllY AI h,"v"m"nt'...I
E)(c1uded Grours in lhe Andes: in Pilul W. D••lkf" ;lOr! [.ic 11""hh"',q. <'(I<., "',/1,'
(Inri Society in Conflict; Compauui"e I'f'ISI'('l 1m !1m/rOil (//'.i'<' (rllt',hlllflb
of pjltSbUrgh.I'II"'S.... 700(.,),_ p. 1(I) _ .
whell ()7 percent of the c1cdoralc voted III ",-.('1' hilll ill nUu.c. .11111
highland Indi;lIl prejudi((' wa.. within Ihe mfl\,rllwnt .lg.lII'" i\lnl.II,··.
Following:l visit to S:1nl:l Crt!; in 20117. nndlllfn 1111" II .... 1'.·. I,d
Rapporteur on I-Iuman Righls of Indiv,enoll<; I'('opk<;. l\!t"cf\'cd thnl lilt' !,,,lrl" ,II
c1im:lle h;ld given rise In "J1l;lnife"lnl inn<; of ral.. i"'lll 1111 11(' '1IIIl',II'l .1 t "I, Id
than a modern democr:ltic st:1le.
Morales' mulliple electoral viclnries revcnlctl hi<; hn),HI 1"'I' \,111'1'(1'1.
especially among the indigenoll<; l'0pu1:"ltion. They .11<;0 rdln Icel the
willingness of popular movemcnls to push for a social atlel CCOtllltllit" 1"('<.,1 n II.-I
of thc country. Thc ncw consl illit ion permits Ihe rceled inn of t 11(' I'l"c!'oidcnt. :-\11',1 I
ofsignificant political turmoil, Morale:"sccms likely In remain in pOWl'I until )011
Ouring .. cclebralion ;lfter Ihe rntillc:1tinn 01 the new I.-('Il<.,lilulillll. J\1,, "I"
claimed. "They can drag file frolll Ihe p,I):lLe. Thc}' 1...111 kill 111(". i\ll ...... IIIn .hl fllll
plished for the re-founding nf the new 1I11ilCti I\oli,·i.l
IX·l 1':\ltl IW\I" I.A... !· ... .... ( 11,\NI;F tJVI·j(·1 111.11'.
1.\ u:I\I"r I.:mlllrni ollguillg pl.)!il kal volat ilil y for the last two ccnlllries. Bet weeJl
IX \0 :Illd Iltl' prl."';l·ul, till!)' IWl'llly have complt'led constitutional terms
ill ollkl.·. Thl' Ilalion h.. :. had twenty-uuc t.liffercJlt constitutions since il\(ll:pcn-
dl.'Ih.I.·. l)wiJlg tlh.' t\\'l'nlidh ,,:clItury 'llonc.the seized political power Oil
11,1 Ie..... Ihall thil'll·I.·JI Pulilkal institutions have remained and
Coudillos, Conservatives, and liberals
With tIlt: .Khil.·\'l'llll·nt or illdqlt.·ndellCe, Ecuador juilled Colombia ;tnd VCIlI;.''l.uelii
ill (ir'1l1 Columhia projl'CI. Bullvar ill turn appointed Juan Flores, a
\'Clh·"lud.lll t.U11I1lI; in Ihl' Wars of Independence, as governor of Ecuador.
Although waS or hUlublt.' urigins, he quickly married into the local creok
dltl' ul (2ullt) tu gain :KCl'ptallCc.:.
,\lll.·r h'u:ld0r broke away fmln Cran Columbi:\ in 11:\30, norl's became
1'1\::.idl'lJl ot the IlL'W repuhlic. Wht'll opponent ViLente Rot.:afucrte
till ag,rill:.l hilll, ht: jail..... '" his adv.... and then struck a dt'al. Flures would
lullill krill :lnd !{uGlfucrk .... ·ullld th",n assume office. Flores continued to rull'
1Jl·hilld tILt.' IllC 11t.·.. d uf Ilit;' army. \.vhen Rocafut:rte's term t..'xpil'l'd, flores
rdufllnl ttl IhI.' and tlJl'll fort.·t.'d Ih", ratification of a new constitution
Ih.d l'uablnl hilll III ;lllulha l'iglrl )'ears. As dsewlwre in nineteenth-cC'ntury
1..111il Alll ...·li.;!, 111....·:.1..· t.·.ll])' l.·vl..·lIls ;I p.ltlerll til' ((/Iulil/o politics. III
!Luwl..·vl'r. Ilrl..· IMtll'rn vt.: ... alnt..' a traditinll.
III Ihl' llle.llllim"" l.ibt.'rab <.llld Consavalives vied for cuntrol (If th....· state. The
l.rllt.'ral Ilan)' tl..'lHlt.-d I.... (\1',1\\' it., :>lJl)pmt frulll Ihe business dasst's of Guayaquil, whitt'
Ill ..... Cun"'t.Tv,tliveS rt.·linl lIlI lilt.: of Quitu. Both usnl military·lIgIl1 III 111t.·if ]Jutilkal will. l;eJleral Mari:l Urvin:l, a l.iberal, seized
]lll\V('f ill a CllUP d't'lal III IX'll. Urvilla fjllitldy signed a deere\,:' Irl't.'ing till' nathJlI's
lCltili.:d ,I:-.!H·...·silkllt ill a t'ulltrolkd dcctinl1, hI.' remained ill
1I111Jl IHr,el. l;...·Jll·r:r1 I:ralldsul ]{ublcs, alsu a Libt'ral, l'llded Indian
Illhull.· rl..·'1ui1t:'llh.'llh. Tllc:..· llIt.:a::.ures built sYllIpalh), fur LibC'l"als (llllOllg the 10wl..'l'
1,1 ...... hut l.ibl..·r;tl-.; t.olltrul of the governmenl ill a sail's uf il1terr·....·gional
:!lllllng rival ((lIIdll/oS ill (known as terrible
le:lder (,aurid Garela Mort'no joined with utlwr military
II' IHlt dl'\\,ll Iht: rt.·gil.llal rebdlions, rt.:storeJ order. and Came to power in 1860.
1\ devuut (:athlllil:, (v!tU"l'I1U gov..... rned Iht..' t.:ounlry with all iron fist fur tile next
.llld ,I halt, ",ililn .t:-. ur as puwer broker. lie OVersuw a new
l..ull::.tilutitlll ill JXhl Illat IHadl' Humall Catllulkisl1l the olTidal statt' religion, and
;Illtlther dial tt'r ill II:HJI) that Iillked citizellship to the Cutholic faith. Although
Mt.r....·IHl ,I figure ill Enmdorian history, even his detrat.:lors
adlllit Ihal 11\' ht.·IJll'l1 illlpmVI' tht..· l'lhu:atiullal systelll by expanding primary
tt'cllnit:d inslitulions, and improving universities with the
111.'111 ul Inuil lit.' abu stn:llgt!ll?lled tht:: country's infrastructure,
" .. Thl: Andt.·.... : Suldit.·r:.. Ulig.lrt.h:., .1IIt! Illdialls
uuildillg roads betwet.'11 tht.· highlands :.llld Ihe coast.r1 rt:gioll alld inili,llillg a
railruad line linking Quito with Guaya"'luil.
Cacao, Prosperity, and Turmoil
As Libenlls and Conservatives battled fur t.:untrul ur th\.;" a buum in
C:1C,1O exports brought economic prusp('rity for the l\IerChallt.s and
the L,lCking political power. this IIrril'istc uligardlY
11Il:lnc....·d a 111r1ltary coup III 11:195 by IUllglilll1' Liul'ralll'ader Elu)' Albnl. Ct)
clites rt'maint::t1 in t.:ommalltl 01" the st,l!t' lor tht: follmviog tltree dt:'t.:adt:s.
Once in powt'r, the Liberals carrit.:d uut two lllajor reforms. thl'Y
separated Ihe Catholic Church frolll the state, legalized divorct..', and est<.lblished
civil marriagl'. This meant tllat the stale would now adnlinistcr t:ducaliOll and
soci,ll welfare programs, services thai the church prl'vit)usly had providl'd. St;'cond,
the Lilwrals relied on rl'venues drawll froBl tarirfs on imports to finance publk
wurks, education, and government-full welrare services. These COSily programs
depended increilsingly on loans from the banking St;'ctor, as custumhouse reVeJlues
were insufficient to fllnd the burgeoning budge! or all activisl Thl' govern-
ment found itself deeper in dt'bl.
In thl' 19205, Ecuador lost its llIarkt'l ::.haf(· ur the c:lcau lradt.' dll\.;" 10 plant
disease and rising compel it ion. I >eclining rt'velllJt:S made it increasingly difllcult to
nation's political modd :\Ild discredited Liberal politicians. :Igain
the Hulrt;lr)' moved 10 (l'oter stagl', '\Ild a gruup of yoling olfkt:rs seiznl puwer ill a
This :su/pc de esilldu of 1925 lnarked a significant shift ill tht.' rull' uf tla.· arrlll'd
forces ..Up to this point, military rule had beell linked to pt'rsonal ambitiolls; all of
the country's most importantlcadt.'rs from 1830 to 1916 w",rt.' lllilil,lI)' oITiet..·rs. III a
l'oulltry with weak govt.'rnllll..·III:II instilutions sharp regiulHlI diflerences,
lllilH:lry might had becoll1t: Ihe privilt.'gnl Il1l'ans 10 pOWC'·. Yel the armed t"or..:cs
did nol havl' a strong idenlity. In the ",arl)' tWl'ntit..'th ct.·lliury, how-
I'Vl.'f, within tht.' lllililar)' werl' i:realing a ilion: pruft.·s::.ional unicef curps-
dr;l\vn Il'sS lrolll the llppl..'r dass and mon: from the lIliddl", st.'t."lors uf suCid)'.
Coming mainly from Ihe highlands, thl'se llt::W soldiers saw the Liberals as having
mOrlgaged Ihe country to coastal banking interests.
The of Young Officers thaI took cuntrol of Ihe govenllllt:.·nt in 1925 did
su in the name of Ihe nation alld Hul 011 bchalf uf any single individual. Stilt, old
patterns of governance died hard. Power soon shifted 10 Isidro A)'ora, who quickly
assumed dictatorbl powers and undcrtuuk a reform of lilt' cuulItry's financial
SySlt::lll. Ayom appointed a team of foreign I.·collomic advisl'rs, headed by Edwin
W. Kelllmerer of Princeton University, to suggest ways to improve the nation's fiscal
and b'lnklng systems. Ayora established a Centraillailk and restructur.....d budget ing,
taxalion, and clistom These reforms brought signillcallt new reVl'llUeS to
the central guvernml'llt and reduced lhc Ilnandal role of the Guayaquil clites.
In addition, the military oversaw the pnssage of a new 1929 constillltion that
granted suffrage to women-the firsl in Latin Allll'rka!-and included progressive
Ii'll> 1',\RrTWO" CA.... I·:-,·llfI)ILS.UIANC,FO\'l·R 111\11'
soci,d Ille;lsures for the, It ;llso gr:tnled more power 10 Ihe legi .. latlm.'.
'111isl"lter prnvision, designed to Iimil arbitrary presidential nIle. endeclujJ weakening
the ex('("uli\'e branch's ahilit)' 10 govern as Ihe counlry faced the Circat Depn.'ssion.
III the wake of the worldwide crisis, an abrupt drop in the international
demand for cacao and other export products devastated the ECll"dorian econoln)',
Disillusioned with Ayora's le"dcrship, the military soon ousted him from power.
\V"rring political filct ions ilnd parties hatt1cd for control of Ihe gov('rnment, an<l "
.. trillJ:: of military and civilian figures telllpnrnrily hcld execulive power. Liheral
GlIlllid;lte Juan de Dios M;lrtinei' won election 10 Ihe presidency ill 19,n, but
p:lrlis:lll opposilion p;lmlY7ed his would-he goVenlmenL The challenge 10
M:lrlinc7. was led b)' Jose /'vlO\ria Vclascn Ibarm, the dwrislllalic president of the
Ch:lInher of Deputies, who insisted that he person"II}' ret:lined no presidential
nspir;llions. Popular mobilizations forced M;lrtinc7.1u resign: less than a )'ear laler,
Vclasl,.o Ih;lrrn won a resounding elecloral bid for Ihe presidency. Eleven ll10nths
l;lter. after he :lliempted to close Congress, jilil his oppnsit ion, and seize dictatorial
powers, the Illililary removed him from office, This \V,IS the fire;t of five times that
VcI:lscolb:lI"ra would occupy the president.-y over the nexl three and;l h:llf del..ades,
III 194\, Ecu:ldor :'Ind I'eru engaged in a war over disputed territol'ie::o in the
AI1l:l'l.on River hasin thnt would have <levastnting re::oults for Ecuador. The peme
I!"e:lt)' recogni7ed Peru' .. territori:ll claims and deprived Ecuador of ;lCCCSC; to the
Amn70n River and, ;'Ie; a re.. ult, of;ln outler 10 the Atbntic Ocean. The Jefeal
pwvoked nn outhurst of nationalislll thnt cO;lIc..ced in the Democratil Alli;1n(e led
hy Velasco 1I":lrra. The president resigned in Ihe \\lake of an uprising in (;wI)'nCJuil.
all(1 VelilSCO Iharra came to power 011 the wings of a populist promise to cont:lin
the "cornq.,t Liberal oligarch)'M responsible for the loss of Ihe w"r.
Velasco Iharra promised soci ... 1justice for the lower classes, he did
little in pr;lctice. As inflation increased find foreign exchange reserves dwindled. hc
too lost popular support. Once again, the milit;lr)' stepped in and removed him
fr(llll office. Artcr ;mother ye:lr of partisan disputation, the U.S.-educntc(1 (;;110
1'1017.:l L;lSSO defeated his Conservative opponent and led a coalition of independcllt
I.iherals and socialists inlo power.
Bananas and Dictators
In the 1950s bananas became the new export product that offere(l sufficicnt
economic stahiJity to ensure political tranquility and delllocmlic transitions of
power for another dozen )'cars, Traditional parties lost their electoral appeOll, rind
new political formOltions sought support from the middle and lower classes.
Velasco (harrn's lerm in office from 1952 to 1956 exemplirlcd this new
political strategy. His progralll of massive publiC works projects, from roads and
hridges to schools and electrical plants, won him widespread popular I,ll
fact, he rode to power for the fourth time in 1960 garnering the largest vote In hiS
entire career. Unfortunately for Velnsco Ib:lrra, earnings (rom hanal1;l exports
temporarily declined. Filcing capital flight illld economic crisis, Vclilsco Iharra
responded slowly and c1ulllsily. lIe soon lost popularily, A general strike led by the
l1;ltinnall;lhor fcder<ltiolll'lalllllred ftlr wage' 1'1"01(', tll'tl" ,lod ,111 t'IIIII"I'I"):"\"' 11\
men!. Although the ;lrlll)' sllcces!'llllly replc""ed the \\'ork .. Illpp,lgC, "''''11 IlIn,
after it stepped in and oue;led VcI:lS(O Ih,lrra.
The new incumhenl wns endos Julio "Hl"l'mCIl,1 i\11'1l101)', "d,l"'" Ih.III.1·..
preSident. At this jUllcture, the Cllhnll Ren.Jlltion ,Inti ( old \\',11 1',,1111'"
determined the shape of lint ional polit K!'. 1\ rosnnen,1 i\ 'nnn .\' I'n.1 1("1 (·,1 .Itl lilt I,
pendellt foreign polic)' alui. like hi" (Ollnlel"p,IIIS III i\lt'\II(I. rdll"l',l I,. l.t,·,11
diplolllatic rcl;ltiolls with Cuhn. (;cm\ervalin' "'111'''1111\11(',1 loll hi" 11'1'1"\,11 .11,,1
in t')(J1. the militnry depnc;cd hilll.
As in 1he <lmlY ft.'l1lOlinc,1 itl the Iwc.;i,ktlll,11 p.ll.h (' I, 'I .1', ,',I'·tI, I", I", t I'" I
1\,101'(' aulollomous nnd profes,.. innnilhan hclnl"C, Ill,' tlllll!.II\' 11I1l!.1 initl.llt'd ,I "'·11",
o(structllnll reforms supported with (J.S. g(\\,('ltlIlICIlI ,11t1lhl""gh II ... AIII"Ult t"l
The)' changed the t,lX s)'slcm tn ilH,1't',I"C 1l'\'C'IlIll' ,111d l""1t"IIIII'I'1I01)',-I
deficit. The)' decreed;l mOd('SI land rdnrm ,lIltl ("lllnill.l1el! IllI' 111/(/'/1'1/11.1:" l.,h"t
systelll Ih,lt tied Indian I,) the: Inlld a.. "h:lleuopp"I" \IIlU' rill' "1 "11"111\
relll:lined st"gn;lllt, Ihe: junt:l rai"ec1l'evcnllc"';, hv i'll rc,l .. illl: 11111")11 tllll'l·... 11",( )1111"
;lnd (;u,I)'nquil dlamhel"" nf Cl'Ill Illerce t-IHIIIICft'd tlli .. pi' 'I" .... 11 w,1 h ,1 gl IWt ,II .. , t11 ,
signaling th:ll the economic e1itc" wnllid not ,lllow IIH' lIulll.lI \ I" I tlllt t.l\TIl' IIt'1I
((lmlllercial interests,;\ r('Hcw('d cllolt the foll"wlng l'lt'llgbt "111111.11 l'I,'lt",1
Quite- ahrupt!)', the milil;l'l'lclt nlllLe III I'U,';. hll\! Ii)" Ihe 111,11>1111\ I"
Ill;lke e\'en mild reforms, nnd (e-Mflll nf ,I dc, lilH' 111 the I'llhllt 111l.lgl, ..1Ih,' 11\11 ...11 \
the officers simpl)' rclinqui.;hed power. In the IU'lllicl the nlllll.lI \ 11"1 rIll
eCOllomlC c1iles mohili7etl pOl'ul,lr .. lIl'porl 1111" 1'"l1tlt,tllt'" 'I m.. 0' fill 1'1.111"" 1 0111
the generals. Citizens remained on Ihe sulcliIH'''. A 1'111\'1 .. " '11.11 1:1\V('1 tllllt'1l1 11d,-, I
for lwent)' Illonlhs.
Once ag;lin, Vclascn Ihnrra {;1I11(' 10 powcr illthc I'}(,X dt'l IIIln.. , .111,1,1" Illlh,
past, he f:ll;ed revellue shnrtralls tll;lt tOilld Ilnl fin.llilc llH' 1"11>11. 1'''''gl,IIII'' III'
promi.e;ed in his electoral CIlllp;ligll, F,lling;l hcll1gcrclll (·"ngt ...... , Ill' 1'.,111",1
support from the mililnry for his movc III n<;"lIllle die I.llnri.r1 1'1'\\'1'1" "Ill ".1\'(' rh,'
coulltry from total ruin.- lie closed ... l'xlkd "PP"tlCIlI .... 111.1 1(' .. 1111,
tured government operation.. tn ellSllrc more fie;c;ll CffiUI'lIl \.
Ahhough widely regarded;le; a Vda<;lll Ihat I,I rdlcd Ie.... 1"1 1"'I"II,lt
mobilizationth:ln on empt)' promises. I Ie hnilt no h,I"C within the \\"Oil-kill!: 11. .......1"
Perc'm and VMgas had done in Argcntina and Hr:lzil. Nor 111d he .. nlldilv hi" 111"\'
ment through" natiol1<llist. anti.imperialisl di"ClHII "C ,I" It.ld,l oil' 1.1 I ""l' III
Peru. Having weathered repealecl political stortne;, hl' IcllClllllnH' on 111 .. 1"11':1"\ 11\ .1',
a politicnl figure than on his aeh;('v('ll1ent of COn(lTte re.. lIl1..
The mUit<lry grew dist fIIstlul of Vd:l"co Iharr,., ee;pell,llly ".. Ilewly ,1,,,, ,.\ ... , .1
oil reserves presented new possihilities of governnicilt II' I'f"
the military ousted him from office for the final time. The armed 10l"tt,,,, It, ,,\'('\'CI,
did not simply move in, exch:lllge politici;lllS, :1,1£1 retrc';lt linIn Ih.. I'IC'>Iell'lIll.11
pal;lce, This lime the)' remained in power (nr sevcn )'e,ll".
The defining fe;lture of this period came from tile- di .. ,,\vl't"y p( I'cl,,,kllll1
deposits in ECtl;ldor's Alll;li',On reginn. (;el1cl"al (;llillcrtllfl 1{,.,lriglll·/. 1,Ir.l. wi",
I'\J(I J\\tl" (,\'.;I·:-,IIJlIJI·:-' t IIANt,1,l)VEHTIl\II:
The Curse of Oil?
' 0 It 01 lcuddo,'s It fkldno::s d
l III. tItll'lIt1y rL'pll:"L'llI'> t 1<111) Pl:J<.t:'1
b the lI(h deposits of
lhud .,1 IId1l0n<ll budlJ.... t Yel SOIllt:' U ),:>dV .
1\11','1'0111.1" vii .'':>.1 (U'':>t:'. What lluyht led them to such il .
I" l'Ju'I, 11lL" U.S. b.,'iL--d COllll)3ny began searclllng for Ollln.the nOlth·
\ ...... of E<'Uddol. Aflt:'1 l1lilpping area ilnd dOlnlj sample
""lIlmJ, tIl... l.Olllp.lIly 11l,),ked off ,In eighty lillie ,:>watch of and an
'''lrL'I'IIlL'nt willi till: yovt:lnm... nt. Texaco slluck 011 ill 1967.11 bUilt a pipeline across
II". Alld...·...,nd lJL'IJ.l1l lull "L.lI"", puxlUdlOIJ In 1972, all extlilction b,ought hefty
pll,llI ... tv thL' IVIIlIJdllY dlld ..IYIllIKdnl fUI Iheyovernmenl. .
Y.'t Ilh'IL' \'lid" a ploblt:m: Hvw tv dl'>I>o""'" 01 wd,>I"",? Side products of
I""""':'. Ilw"L' IluXIOU':> lIldh.,,'ldls includt:d tOXIC water and mud. callYlllg high
I,'VI+, 1.1 (.lIt IIU.KJl:Il':> .1I,d hedvy metdts. 1he company's solution was to dump
11"'111 III 1.lly...·. ulllul",d pit'>. (nvllunnlt:ntdlist,:> charge that. over the of
IVll'Illy YL.• <It l<:'dSl 12 LIlhul1 Ydllons of ttw. waste have leaked Into the aqua film.
Illl'y .,I'>u d':>..I,.'illhilt TeXdCO tOlLIC waste III that Violated U.S. law.
IlJt1llhilly IL'lullL'd lhdt II und<:'ltook c1t:anup m the 199Os. when It
pull..t!out vf rcuador. and any link belween thelf opelatlons and reported
h.·.,lth jJlublt:'llI" III tilt;< dltc'd.
Wht:'ll T... x.ltO left l:l.u.llJur III 1992. II h.lIldt:d over drilling 10 PeHoecuador. the
',I"to. UWI ..... t1 ulI cUlllpany. Ihe Ilt:'xt YI!.H I:cllddolian and US. lawyers flied a
.I\ 11,111 I.IW.. Ult <l9.1I1l,:>t Tt:Xdl.O II' .1 New Yall. fedeltll court on behalf of 30.000
All l.ll'ur I r...... known dS 105 Aft!ctado5 the Affected The attorneys
'd til.,t Ille: ljloumIW<.lI<:" w,)'> cont<lmm31ed from the ledky open pits. causing
Illqlll.IIC:> ul (,)Il(02'r. ,:>klll dl':>t:.l,:>e.•mel utllel hCdlth problems Ihose liVing III
II ... IL'IJlvrl IIll001 <l Judy\:' ruled th,1t lilt' Ctlse should be liled III That
' .. II IlL' yL·.,I. buuyhl UUI T...·x<lco. lhe second·lalge,:>t uil l.ompany m th<:,
tJIlll,.d bL'(dllll' tht: new pldllltitf In a rnllilibillion-doll,ll l<lw'>lIlt.
IJu lilt:' IJt..'1 It'l It':> uf olll"",VCl1UCS vutwt'iyh p0h:ntidl hdnn to alld Ihe:
•. I1VIl\)Illll.... llt? l).1vld l'otilL of (sper.ln7il Intelllationill, Inc.. a nongovernmental
tlHjdlllLdllUIl tlhll lid.. lJet:1l IIlVolvt-'t1 in the lawsuit, ,:>ees Ihis Cd,:>e as d potential
w"I,'I.,lwd: <If jll .. lllC' I:' brouglH to tile people of Ecuadorian Amazon, it could
.1', .111 III uth""'l IJdll'> of tht.· world for righting aYilinst the negatIve
III1IJ.1l.1 vI ""'Xll.Kllun."
"lilll ... )' gOVCIIlIliI:."IH whcll illvuk powl.:r ill initi.llly. lu
l.lllon.dlft... upcralHHls IV tWller IH:nelll frolll tht: luunlr}' S new
1.111 Il·Vt..·I1U<'S. I k 1,.·lllplt)yed rlldul ic and 10 a certain eXlent Ill.otldcd IllS
1til,' .Ilkt IIIte" lllilihiry reg.iIllL· of Juan Velasco Alvarado in Peru. Rodriguez Lara
L11'.IIL'.! IIL'\'o' guvcrllm...·nl to uperale the oiJ industry, natiomllized failing
\'IIIL'I p'IW:-O. and up lIn.llleial
[\l.1 V) L.I pl.llll ( ;u,>I.IVo J.II Ii II AlIlvudi.l, the 11L:'W 1II inbll:r of llatt.1 ral res:u
.Iml .111 .lILh-nt 1I.IIIVII.llbl, fur a fI:."llegulialioll of conlracls WIth foreIgn 011
\llllIp.IIIlI,.·,\. E... tlador juinnl Ihe Organll.:I1il.lll uf Petroleulll Exporting Countries
(OPEC) alld huslnl a ll1et'ling ill Quitu. W!tt..'n Jarrin lJeGIllle OPEC pr...·sidL;·IlI. h....
propOSt'd thai tht: Ecuadurian stall: should ;!("lIuirt' :l 5 I pc:rccnl intl'l"esl in IhL'
Tt'x:lco-Gulf cunsortiulIl. Jarrin's hard-Iille slalu:t" loward foreig.n oil CUlllp:lnil's
provoked a negative reaclion frolll Iht' U.S, governmenl, which thre;lkllt:."L! to (lll
un mililury aid unless Jarrill resigned. 'fhe guwfIllllt.'nl dbJllisSL;'d him
It)' sl..'clurs of the IlJ ilil aI")' ;lnd Livili.ln le.,dcrship l>..t ... kcd .1 l.OUp Iv
RodriguC:."Z Lara from power. Although Ihb dlort 1I1lIi.t1ly f.lileL!. ht..'
resigned Ihe lll:."Xt Y('ar, anJ it triumvirate of <.·U1IIl1l.lnder,\ sluwly
the coulliry unct.' again to delllocmlic rule.
The Conlemporory Scene {1979-present}
As olle has noted, Ecuador's pOSI- ul pnlitit.ian.'>
ported the modernization of Iht.· pulilit.:.t1 through IhL' .... 01
tile:' dl;'l'IOrtltL', issue-oriented campaigning.•lUd Ihe tlevdoplllL'lIl III mudern !,oil
liGtI parliL·s." Reform measures propused by I'residenl Jaillle Aguilera
(I 1) .... ntl his successor, Osvaldo Ilurl.ldu (llJH I-H'I). Iu pdrolL'UlI\
in infrastructure. edUL.:alion. and rllr." lk·vdopllll.:nt Wl.·rl,.' nulll.·thd...·ss
thwarted by w'lrring factions within Congrcss. An ecunomic downlurll lullowing.1
drup ill oil prices increased the di(ficllltil's 01 h.lfIll.·,\sing petrokulIl reVl'lllle for
economic "lid socinl relofllis.
Throughout Ihe and inlo lIlt..' IIlld I <)t)th. pf'I'sidL'llb .'>WIlllg b.lck .Ind
forlh b.... IWC:."t.'1l Ihl' righl and the 1....11. II as it tilt..' pulilk.11 kId lJrukt'li
down. Abdal;i Bucamrn, Ihe gr.llltison of I.ehant's.... inlllligr;lllb .lIltl .t lllcmber 01 a
ClI<lY'l(·luil polilical clan, callie lu po\'/t..·[ in 19\)(); six 1l11111lhs 1.ller. lite G..lllgrl.:".'>S
hill! 011 Ill(' ulltlsual ground III in... An illll:."rilll prl'
vice presidenl, and IhL' interirll (.. lg.lin) Llui<.kly lullu\\'t'L1. Janlil
M.lIllIild, all Arab Chrislian vI dL:M.l:lIt, luuk ult'it.t..· ill ll)l)tl. bUl delllun-
slr.lliuns fort.."t'd him to r,'sign, 'l'hcII liutilTlt..·Z, a lllt'Jllbl:f oJ'IIIt..· sllull-livt'd
junta thaI ousted Mahund. won Ih,' 2U02 dL'(lions lIll;1 plallunll In iJllfL·.. lse
once ill oITicL', he rl'verst:d his alld implemented austerity
Ilh:asun's in ol'lkr 10 oblain .1 n...·w luan frvm I Itt..' IMF. lrUlll
the leli and the righl joined in <1/1 allt'llll)( 10 impe.lL.:h hiJIl Ull curruplioll (harges.
and subst'quenl stret'l demonslrations It-d Cungress Iu rCllloV(;'" him frum office.
Indig<"t1ous movemenis playnl shifting rules ill tht..'st: dL'vduplllenls. III the
...· of a lransfurlllalivc' historical event ... h lht' Bulivian l{evulution uf
1952), Ecuadur's Indian cOllllllunities \wre dispersnl and IraglllL'lllt'd bt'lwet'llihe
coasl, tht..· siam. and tht: Amazon. Org.ll1iz<lliun.lI d'lurlS uwr Ihe years had heen
made by such diwrse (and opposing) groupings as the Communist Parly. thl,.·
Calholic Church. and evangelical Proteslanls, It \Vas nul llntil Ihat dhnic-
bast.'d federations coalesct:d in the Confetleraliol1 of IlIlligenulis Nalionalities of
Ecuador (CONAl E), which mounit'd llh\jur dlurls un beh.11I uf ludi.1l1 dghb in
199U a 11(1 1994. By the late 1990s CONAn: rt:prc:.'>cllted percenl of the CUlllltry'S
indigenous population, anti in !LJ9M illt..,d Ihe popubr Lklllunstralium that (orced
l')() I n\'o .. ( A'" YlllDII\ ('IIi\NC,F 0\'11{ T1l\1I
Ahl,.bl.' HIIC:mllll frolll the !,re"jdency. Rut in partkular and the pro-
Indian llltlVClllenl in generallml coherence and <;trenglh afler in Ihe
ludel govcrnmcnt.:\1l experience that proved 10 he extremely
And ;1 <:ONAIE pla}'cd (lnly a minor role in the dVilupri .. ing Ih:1I ou"lcd
CUlicrro in 2005.
I:illallr. in 200(\. I{afad Correa, a young U.S.-tl';lincd econollli:-.l :lIld (onner
Ilnance mini... ter, won a runoff e1eclion, seemingl)' stnpping the pre... idential
revolving <10M. A... a decbretl Chri"tian leflisl "nd a proponent of -twenty·llr... t
cclltury so(j"Ii... m," Correa tcnninalrc! ongoing negolialion... for.1 free tr.1de :lgrcc-
Illcnt with Ihe Siales, crilicized I\merica's imperial prelcllSiolls, and
dCl1ol1l1ccd the BII'.h :lthnini... lralion·... role ill wnrld affair.... Together wilh Evo
1\lol:lle<; nf Bolivia, he hcc:ulle:l promincnt alld highly arliculatc memher of the
len leaning "pink lide- in I.alin America.
1ike JIlO,<;( prcdeces...or... , (:orrC:l relied on slrong person.... l .... nd I're"i(lell
Ii .... I po\\'el. A IlCW (on<;!itlliion in 200R permilled a Iwo-Iel"ln prc"idency and
illt re.... exenltivc power". In the c1ccloml contest o( early 2009, Correa WOIl a
tleci<;ive victOf)'. lie repudlaled Ecuador's l1;1tional deht, calling it immoral .... ntl
l:linted h}' hrihery. :lnd pronll':;ed 10 lise oil «'Venue" for poverl)' allevi:llioll. As
intern,llional price.. (or pelrolculll lTIIl .... incd :ll llltldc...1 Icvel il \\'a<; ulldC':u if
F.Ctl:lt!C\f'" e,lrne<;t ,,-hid exeulli\(' wOllld he :lhlc In (ulfillihat olellln pledge.
Civility and Violence
nlOlllhi:l is a Ialld 01 p:lr,ldox 'I'll(' mllTI"tl n,l\'ig.llor 1'\1" who1Jl II I" 11,1111 •• 1
Chri<;tophcr <:nllllllhll", never IIllt(' ..('\ 10c,I "I'nll Iht' 11,111011'" l'I""I'nl kIll
tOf)'. Allhough C:ollllnhi,ll1 I("ader<; <;oughl In pHJlnoh' IIII 11\' ,1l1HlFlg Ill(' 1I1'I.-p. II
denI fcpuhlics of SI'.llli<;h J\Ill('l"Il.l in 11ll..· c"dy llillctn'I1111 lcnlii/l', Ih.'11 .'\\11
countr), \\'ould laler sllflci hOlll dl"IllCmhc'fllh'llt ,lllll 1I,lglllClll.Il11111 1\111","}'h
pnlHical e1ile<; 1hel"(' .... I'tel' ntllivaicci :Ill elhiL 11( t ivililv, 01 l."".h'rl/l ;.,. Ibt' 1l.lllflll
plullged inlo eras (If eXlrannlinar)' violcnl c. Although ('"lolllhl,1 ... no\\ \\ 1.(, h
judged 10 he Ihe longesl.<;urviving delllOt ra\.)' in I ,Itill I\ll1ni, ,1,1111.1<; 11lf' 1"111:' "I
lasting guerrilla movclllenl ill the enlin' "Ihl \\hlk 11 h,\" 1",1)'. I·, ,'II
ncglecled hy world power<;, the United ( /llomhl,1 h.I" "lId.I,'nh
rbenlo Ihc forefronl of the 1I11cr Alllerk,l1l agclld,1
As ill Ihe uI"e ol"the \.enlral/\IHlc.lll n,lti'IIl", gC(lgl,II'h)' 11.1" 1,l,I}c,I,1 Ill,I!"1 ",I.' III
shapillg Colomhian dev<'1tlp1l1t'llt, '1 he ('tlll.ll(11" l n'"..c( the "lllll!Jnll 1',11 I ,01 lilt
Ct1tllllfy, As e1scwhere in Ihe Irtll',\.$, telllpel;llllrl,.·.. \'.11)' \\'1111 .lltitudc .wd .IIt
rcl .... tivcly constant; rainfall i" ahllnd:lnl. The I\nctc" III ( ol"l1lhi,1 101111 If HI .1
single mountain range. in Peru, hilt Ihrec "ep.lIate Im""',./(/, th.11 hl.1I1t 11 .. 11
from each olher jusI norlh of Ihe horder with Fnlador :lud rUIl mOH' "' Ie",
parallel in a norlh-northea... lerly direclion. This rllggetl terr.lin h"" m,lIle 1.1ll.1
especially {Iifllclllt. From coloniallime<; to Ihe I're<;clll. 1111" 1"1'"
graphy ha... dividcd the cotllllry into Ihrec major regi\lll": Ihc La<;l. the \\'\,,,1. ,lll.l
the C,rihbean coa... 1. Under rule Ihe Ea<;t IlC·l .... me Ihc !'cal of 1'0lllil.11
power, with tllc capilal of the ViccTOyally of Ncw Cranatla localed in lilt', 11y 01
Sanl"rc de Bogola (nnw known more commonly Hogo!.i). <;Illd 1'lillillj: 1'/
viciNI economic power 10 Ihe \>\Ie<;t and spllrred the growlh 01 <;1Kh Illlllli, '1',111111'"
as POpa)'an in Ihccclllral villleyand Medellin in thc prnvirllC' lit /\1l1io(llli,1 ..\1""1'.
lhe Carihhean co.... Sl Ihe dl1lllin:llll dly \\':1<; (:;11'1:1):(,0.1, wl1ilh h(', ;llllC lilt' huh .,t
I') 1
1'.\1(1 1\\11 \ \','''''1(,1111'''' \ II\Ntol U\11t 11r.11
,,:llruni<.:all)' ,II wOIr with .llIuthl'r. I-artill'r to '>Uuth,
highlanJ Wt'I'C mustl)' dudl.... Ih\:y duminatiull oy
outsiders, howl'vcr, including ;.lgCllb 01 Ihc IIleul "'lllpll"l'. TIlt'
wcre controlled by thc comlllunly knuwlI ,I
tutal poplll;ltiull betwccn 80U,UOO alill 1.2 milliun, but without allY gl'l.':ll III ball
(l:nlers. Along with the Tairona, Ihl' tvluiscas had till' hil'rarchkally orga
nizt:d allli krritorially l'xtcmiw social SySIl;'IIlS hy till' I rille the' Spaniards arriwtl.
Thl.' Eurupe.lll (Ullquesl of COlulllhia alld lIlll'Vt:11. Thl'
clJ,.,lilIt'f(/ was contjul:rcd by Sp,llli,lnb who wert' 1lI.lking [hl'ir w,ly dvwlI
lrolll Ihe C.lribbe,1l1 vVl':.lem COIOlllbi.1 rdl tu 01111111I'/011011') who werl'
l"uming llorthward rrolll Peril and lrolll C:HI,lg..:na; panly
fur thb ft·ason. llIuch ol COllllllbi.l nevC"r Clllll' ullde'1" til,,· l'IkcII\'I.' Jur
isdiction or colonial allihorille:. III d..: Bogol.l. Along thl' Ll'lIll"ll wnltllo'rll,
urfer!;"d ferol'ioll:' II.·sbl.llIce lu would-h\'
Thl: 'I'airona around the C:ll'Ibb"'.1ll abo put up .\ light. III IIll'
lo\vland an'as,lIo\\'\:vl'r. th(: arriv,d 01 lhe Eurupl.'all'> .llId their parl .... u
larty l1l:lI.lria alld .... lIo\V ft'wr-led to dl'/lwgraphiL
As a 01 tl1(..·sl.' geographic and historicd dHfl.... the lltll'l.· leglllll",
lk'vdujJl'd dislitl(tiw r.tti.d and l.ultural prullk:., TIll' 1,lpid dl'Llim' uJ
pOPllJaliollS 011 IIH" C.lribhl·all <.oa",1 alld ill gold rnining rt'giom til 11I1' led 10
tht'ir !'epl:K\'Illl'llt br .1 largdy AlriC;.l1l I.lllor for......,. In till.' e,I",[,,'rll,
'>lllvivnl in gn.:.l1t·" ,II III 11-\\' AI,.iL.11I ",I,lvC".. Wl.'ll·
illtroduLl'd. In Illl' E..... t. \\l·rl.' h)nnah:.tic and hi,,·rarthil';.ll; alung
Ihl' Carihbt.'an loa:.t and in p.lIb uf till' Wl':.t, th,,"r,,· l'''I ... led lIlurt' ..... .lIld illlunllalil)'
hdWl'l'lI the d"IllIll.lnl alld a Atru-Colt)fllbiall 1,IhIJr l"'I'Lt:.
Ultimately...lluJ pt'rhaps illl'Vllahlr. tllr.: pupul.1I iOIl of <"':01(1111)1,1 hCI.·,lllle pI'","
dominanlly 1\\ixL'd-raCI'-lIh'.!.t;ZlJ, lIlulatto, nr lOlllhlll,lti{111 tll1'rl·Or.
"L'Lurding to a natiOllal uf OVl'l' l)lh.:-thil'l! 01 Ihl' l.·ountry'",
inhabilallts (3/1.'1 pl.'reL'nt) wefl' dassilll'd ..... 10 pl'rct'lll W,,·t'l' hlack, only
6.. pl'rll'llt w,,'re Indian, ,Illd 119.2 Pl·l"Cl'llI-tII,:·;.lrl), II rw-h:-ll I 01 thl' lo[,d-wl.'rl·
rr.:curdnl;.ls -nllxl.?d.- I krl' and 1IIlOUgilullt [.:!llll /\rlll·rk.I,lllbu:gl'lhltioll [)b)'ed.,
u'nt!',,1 role in lilt' forlilation or :,o<.ll'ly.
• l\1...ldl",
II IUflflrA ',J \/ ,t
w Ilur.ulJ
il." """I'''JI.,. ,,'f
'1111 1111 .... '"
. ,/

I \' II /.
MdJ.' 7 Columbia
kg.1I uJlIl/lll'l u' \\ 1111 IhI' oul .. idl· world ,1IId. llol slIrprbingly. 01 a thriving lunt r:1
Abtl III ... til Pl'ru, ClllollIIJi.l'l> wdigcnutls pOpUI.ltLOll did nut form ;1
.111...! lcnlr.lIly org,'tI''lcd cmpirl' in prcl'ulonial tillll.?S. Ihrl'l'
hllglll:'>lil pr....... lurninalnl-Ih\: Chibdl:l. Ihl;' Carib. and Ihl;' Ar:lwak,
Aruun"'! Ihl' ell ibhl'OlIl. Ihl: civilizalion was [hal uf Ihe: Chibcha
'>I'l·.. killg 'I'aitllll.l, wh\. l:ngin.......·riILg wllrks in including kIll
,,1...'''' :lnd irrig:'liun alld drain:tgl.' Aroulld tht:
).:llid hl,':11 iug rl'giolll)1 Alltimluia,.1 cuhurallll:ltrix l:mbri.lcc:d as many as I million
lllh,lhil,lllb divitk·\! Lillo m,lIly trib;11 spt'aking diffl'n:llt llialt:cts,
Independence and Its Ahermalh
Nt'\\' Granada played a c.... nlral !'ole in thl' nll1tinl'nt.11 for lLbl.·r,ltion frum
Spain. Local elitt's firmly rc:jec!l'd Napoleon\ assumption 01 po\wr III Ille wah· 01
III:. IHOl:S invasion of Ilk' Iberian Although they initially
restoration or the Spanish monarchy. l'venllJ:llly (,Ilill.? vut ill favor of
ll:ltion::tl indcpr.:lh.knce. And as events unfolded, [h.... demands of a drawn-out
ll1ilitary campaign led thell1 to tIIubiliZl: popular ill SlJl'purt "II' Iheir
CaliSI..', By juining llil' indt'pcnJelH.:l: llluWml'llt, dis-
dained by rhe ("lill' as thl: pO/J1I/1lc!w-aJdnl a 10 tilt· :lllti-
Spanish turbull'nce. Women ht:rc plaYl'd a ruk. During an uphe.lval
in in I!:S 10, itS th..: viceruy's wife W"IS bt.'ing led to lhe WOJllt'Il'S prison, an
194 I'ARrTWn .. C/\!)F!'·ltJllIE!':CJIAN(.EOVERTlfl.11
noted th::lt Mthe vile rahhle of lined the route to the jnil. hroke
through the proleclive conJon. tore off the good lady's dnlhes, and showered her
with curses. "'The insolences that they were saying." said the slartled observer,
·were enough to make one cover his cars." Fearing thaI they might lose control of
lhe m::lsses, local leaders soon attempled to restrain such popular excess.
While creole clites remained supreme, the W::us of Independence hrought
signilkant soci,,1 change to New Gr,madn. Militnry exploits fostered upwud sadrll
llHlhility, and mnny Afrn-Colombinn sl"ves oblrlined their freedom in compcns<1-
tioll for their ."ervice in the patriot colllse. The pop"laclln revenlcd itself::ls both ::l
politic::l1 ::lsset ::lnd a potenti::ll source of dnnger. Ever so slightly. women found
means of expression in the public ::lrena. The church ..ome or its power but
retained moral ::luthority.
In the political arena. Simon Bolivar's allempt 10 creale a composite of
"Gro1O Colombia- produced a constitutional ch::lrter in 1821 th::lt combined a
ccntrali<;1 form or governmcnt with progressive social measures. It prod::timed
:\1) end 10 the Inquisition. estahlished freedom of the press, ::lnd sought to incor-
porate bbcks nnd Indians:ls eventual citizens. A of free stipul::lted Ihat
children of slaves should be free. while another clause indiC::ltcd that Indi::lns
be called and have the right to hold puhlic office.
As recounted in Chapter 6, Gran Colombi::t was doomed from the Its
component p::lrts- Venezuela. Ecuador. Colomhi::l-each went their sep::trate
ways. As hi<;lorians fomnk Safford nnd Mnrco Palacios have noted. "Thc collapse
of gre::ltcr C(llol1lbia was Wh::lt would happell next?
During the 1830s, Colombia resumed its path::ls a sovereign liberal republic. Yet
another constitutional convention proclaimed the need for reconciliation and
inst:llied Frnllcisco Pau1<l de Santander ::ts president. In comparison with other
postillllepcndcnce governlTlents of Spanish America. Colombia enjoyed one dis-
tinct ;Hlvanlagc: the delllohilization flf the patriot army and the dep;uture of
VenC7ucJan forces meant that. as a corporate group. the rcm::tining mililary
would have less weight in Colombian politics th::tn would its counterparts in
Mexico. Peru. or Venez-ueln.
The aftermath of Boliv::lr's short-lived Gran Colombia produced :l truly
remarknble development: the emergence of the political parties, I.iberal and
Consclvative. th::ll would dominate the nation's political life from the 1830s to
the pre.<;ent. What determined the formalion of these parties?
At leasl in part, the parties emerged as a sequclto the conniel between P"o-
federalist Santanderislas and pro-centmlist Bolivarians. A connict known as
the "War of the Supremos" hardened lines of disagreement. Slrident opPosition
drove lTlany moderates into the arms of the Bolivarialls and lhe clergy, where. ::tS
so-(alled m;Il;Mer;ales, they hecame supporters of the admillislralion. In 184R,
... ('"t"luhl.l , ',","'\'.11111 \'".1"11,' 1"',
these pro f,0vernlllcllt (orl..t.·<; ftlullc!ctl the ('flll"n·V.ltl\,· 1'.111,' 1'/" Inl, 1,,11'.1
relaineclthe 1a1}(,'1 of Liher:l\-..
The shClrpesl source of disagreemcnt hclwn'n 1.lhn.,I... ,Illll (.'11"'('1,.111\1"'"
focused on the church. thought the church W.I" I"n "'1""1ll: .111.1 Ih,ll II<.
innuellce lelltled to !'c:-tr"in economic prodll<.livit)1 ,llltl pllhlll 1..·llllghlcllltU'nL
Conserv"lives. in contrast. Ihe chttnh <1" all illdi ... pl'lI .... lhlc Inl1lld.llt"tl oj
sod:ll (lrc!cr :l!lel cohesion and cOlltr;lslc<! thdr l'Ollllllillllcnl to n·li):l!ltl. 11.11 Illnn,.
and morality with what ther r('gaftlcd .IS Ih(' irrcligipII<, .11I,11,111"'111 .. I Lldl•. l1
Liher::ll ... A second issue lOIll.l·rn('d Ihe rd,llioll:-hil' J>dwl'('1I Ihe, clIt\.d '.1.11,' .111,1
pl'ovindal autllOritic.... hilt h('r(' Ih(' t1iVI<;illll<; Ito...... ,1e.11 f\1.1... 1 11111'1.110..
espoused feder::llislll. hilt StlIIH·Ic.IICti a w(...lkt.·nlllg 01 l('IIII.11 '0111101 Alld 11111'.1
Con<;erv:lti\,es supported (,elltr:thslll. hut <;nllll' (('''pc, i.111}' III /\nll'''p,i.l) l'r·lllk.1
:ts a refuge frnIH liher:tl excc:-".
I'artisan connict tlHIS dcfined the sh::lpc tIl (:'lhtlllhl,III 11'llilll .... )','1 II \'.1"
neither peaceful nor preclict::thlc. The slrtlgglc het wCC:lI I IlIel.ll ...1Ild ( """1'1 \·,'11\·....
led to fretjtlent oulhursls nfviolc'lLc. til pCl'lndi, Li\'i1 \\'.11" •. 11101 In 1he (nIh ""II I. III I
el('vation of military orti",('rs 10 the prcMclclitiallJrti(c. II led 1/1 ,I I'COdllll11l1 Irk('
alternation of Lib('r;lls or (:on"('rvalivcs ill power. 1'.,1111"1' lli,lll 1" 1I1Iii .. /· '"
coalitillllS. And il led to chwnic inst:thilit)' paltl)' .1<; .1 11· ... ,11 ,II 11,,"'11,· ....111,1
conlradktions within th(' two p::lrtics :llld parllr :1'_.1, n"...·'1"('II' (' .,1 rh,' 1"11,100111 \'
fOl individuals 10 switdl "ide".
The ",iI,istcrirlirs held pnwcr through nUl'" .11 'he I XII"'. tlu'n 111., I ,I "'1.11 ..
came 10 power with the (')ection nfCenel.d Ililafln Inpf'./Itl IHIX t'l \\'1111 Ilu
urging I.iheral ... the 1..·,pC? ao!lIlilll .. tralinn ,Ih"II.. I",cl .. 1.1\"n..- ,,'IIIIJ:hl.
expelle<lthe Jesnit order (perceived .IS the v,\! nf,lll' Illn"l ,.):grc.... I\T' 11111. II
position). and dccI::lred:1I1 endtn (IINIl (\\,h .. h a.... .. I>'1
priests in rather th::l11 civilllltlrl!'o).
After Ihe election of Josi' Maria Ohando ill I Liber.'" III {'lIngl c.... .1.1, 'I'!r" I
a highly secularized new ifln thaI l..;dlcd lor sCI':lr,ll ion "I chit Ii ,11101 ..1.11\".
of civil Ill:lrriage ;lIld divorcc. aholilion of tllf' de.1l11 pell.dr\,. dr.I"II'
reduction in the st::lIldinJ,: :Il'llly, :llld dil'nt elel tion of prnvlII\.I,1l wn CIIl. II" 1.ltlll'l
than their appointmellt hy the Oh.llldo <lcplllrcd Ihc.. c ,kvdnl'"lCIII ..
without presidenti:ll cont rol of the chllr<.h ::lml of provim I,tl g' ,\'('1 Ilf'r... Iw 1\c!II'\'C' I.
it would be to govern. In IR1l4 Oh::tndo thll" .1<.11"lc"l..ed 111 the "1','1
throw of his own goverllment. There ensll('d :lnnt her dnl Ihi" tlllr 111.11 1,(',11 ,\
deep <lnt:lgonisms- hetween::ln elitist t n;llitioll (II {"III"CI'\',III\ c" .111,11 ,h('I,II..
on the Olle h'lIld and ::In alli::lllCe of Illililary soldiers ::llld POPII!.I!' l J.I ..... fIll 111,-
olher. In December 1854 the Conserv::ltive-l.ihcral ,dli.IIlU· .Ilh,,'vnl " ,k.I"I\'·
triumphed in the clcdillll 01 IX';(,. WII1111111: the
presidency (under Mariano nodriguez) :lnd 1l1.1jllritir.. in hOllh hOll<;C''' 01
Congress. Two basic policy initiatives of 'II{' Lihclal .. 11(l1l(·lltd(' ...... lIn"l\·nl ()Ilt'
was the continuous scaling IlowlI of the Il:ltional .Hlllr. The olher w.'" the 11',h"
tribution of power from Ihe cenlral to Ihe pronrh I,d J:t1\"·"IlIIl(,l1t .. : .1 Ill'\\"
I'hl 1'.\ltl 1\\"1" (',\'>1 ,'II,\N(;FUVEltTlf',ll'
.. \!ll:-.Iilulloll III IK5X W.. lar a:. I•.) rl·llallh.' the country Ihl'
(:IIJlI"ed"'1 iun."
i\f"kr :Illulltl'r dt'va,,>talillg dvil W;lr (IXSY-63), the Liberals assllllwd COlll-
1Il,llld III 1l,llillll:tI ptllilks during, Illl' Itl60::. Hlld IX70s. The most prominenl figure
ld l'I",' w.... Cipriallo dl." Muslluera-Ionncrly a cl'nlralist, now a
lnkrali:-.t, luro.:Vl."1" a Ilh:'rl"urial rlllhlt-ss opportunist. As vidor ill the civil
wal, [\\I/:-.qlH:r.l dl.lslil.:alJ)' attacked tile dlurdl-asserling civilian control, exp.... l.
Illig till' J":'>llil:-. (.Lg,dll), ;wl! dn.:larillg l.unlrol of unused church properties,
WlJill." lhl· dislike of Chlln.:h support ror Ihl:'
(:Oll'iL·rVdliv..· ]/ar!y, mall)' bdit'vl:'d hl' wellt too far.
Fe.lllul 01 lite Liberals adol>!L'd a cunstitution in
tXed Illat lilililr.:d 10 ullly IWO years and prohibited ret'lectiol1.
TII"'II illklll W.I::' tv dis,,::ullrag...· dvil W'.II"::' by making the presidclK)' Icss of a prize.
Bul L'\lllstitulion ..d::.u Iliade th.... national government 100 10 provide
d"fi..'lI ivr.: g'H'enl<l1lCr.: 01" 10 ,,'cunulllic policy. And while nalionwide wars
W,,'I'L' :lvuided, cOlll1kl--alld vioknL'l."-vfkn l'rupted al the stalt' kvd instead.
(:Olltt·IlIIHlrari..,:-. ofkll lh...· re::.ult anarchy."
Rafael Nunez and the Politics of Regeneration
lllllliL,tlly. tIl ..' 1,lhL'rab' pre.... milll'llCe 1c:d to Ihdr downfall. During the e1I:.'C-
liun L,lIlll',lign, ItH.Hkrak l.ihnals gav.... thdr ::'l'llport to Ibfad Nlllll:'Z. all illlL'llec-
tual .111..1 diplolllat who 11.1(1 allr.I(Il'..! al1l'lltion by warning thai Culombia :-.Iuvd un
11.,' l.rillk 01 r..·g.... nerOltion ur cala::'lrophe." Arkr a two-y.:ar term ill
[SHU X2 hI..' rl'lUfIlnlto lh"'l'rL'sidL'llq' ill liiS:I, this timl:.' with avid support fralll
lit ..· illld Itt' would ill officI:.' until his death ill
II during Ihb dec.ld.... that Nlll1ez illlplr.:lllCllll·d his progrul1I for national
IL'gt'lIL'l,ltillll. \'Vh.1I Ih.... lOllntry lll' ...... lcd, in his view, WaS a p.... a..:e" (:1
1lt,II wOllld he ,'chOl.:d hy COllIl'llIpllraries ill Mexico ami e1sewhl:.'re).
hll' \ :llllllll!ll,l, lhi-. IIlt'allt a cl:'lltralbl constitution that wOlild enshrint'
(,,11111,1111:-'111 .1:-' a .. (II 1..' elt'llll'nt u( suda! cohL·:-.iull. Nuilcz' b<lsic criticisms focused
"ll .1 [1C11il h:;lll'ultilfe dl,lra...:tI:'J"l1xd by illlulL'rancc and viol.:ncl::. Adupt ing prenlisc::.
IIIHII Ih..' pilil\I:>l..lphiLal pusitivism lhat p..... rvudnl much of Latin Ameri"::;l al Ihe
I1111C, Nlllkz L'on':!udl'd that popular religiosity could be all instrument of social
... Ill.' fOI.... rl'j,,'ctcd thl' anticiericalisill of earlier Liberalism.
TIll:> Inlt\) the adnpth.Hl of another constilution in llwl
would laSI until thl:' nallll:' of Gud, supreme source of all authority," the
.. 11.11'11.."1" ..... llpll ... ::.izl.'llthl' rok· ofCatllolicism but ;]lso called for religiolls tok·raliUlI.
It u'nlralizl'd puw"'r alld strl:.'nglhenl;.'d the prcsid.:ncy: terms were lengthened to six
(I.lll·r to lour), and chief executives were endowed with a variety of
...·... ial pU\wrs. K.... y 10 lhe ::'YSll'Hl was tht' alliance of church and state. formalized
ill a ...·ullcurdat of 18H7 'llld an additional covenant in which granted the
..'lIlltru] lab IIsnl in publk schools. Elections during this era lacked
but nondhl·l .... ::.s lllarkt'd the rhythm of public life, ritualizing disputes
willdll Ihl." go"..'1 11llll'lIl p.ll ty.
7 g (:olumlJi-l: CivllLI)' ,Iml IlJ7
ily the cnd of the J 1390s, ColOllllJia was ill a clIJ1ll11r.:rdal dcp",·s:-iioll .
Incre;lsillgly resenlful of thl' Conservative mOllopuly on Jlowl:'r. a gruup of
Liberals rebelled ill OClober The Cl'lllral government reaCll'd by gr;ll1tillg
dl:'partlll"'ntal govl;:rI1or:-. the aUlhority to dr.:crl'l' furced loalls alld ...
whidl wen: levied on artlul'llt Liberals and in ar..'as un.:upi,,·d b), Iht:.'"
accomplices, supportl.'fs and s)'lllpalhizl'r::." orthe uprisillg. I(lluwn a::.llle \'\';11" of
thL' Thousand Days. the struggle laslcd Ihn-..· Yl·ars. l'velllllall)'
triumpll"'d, bUI .11 all a::.trol1ullIil:al
TIll:' \rVu of Ihe.: Thousand Days consumed tli .... (·l1l:'rgit'::. and ur Ihl:'
Colombian government and paved thl' way fur ;1 pivolal alld IraUlllali..::
I he loss of Pall<\I11a.
Panama had belonged 10 Ihl' viccroy;l!lil;:s of Peril and Nl'\\' CLlllada evn SIIl":C
Ihe Spanish cOIlCllll'St and, aftL'r indCJwnde.:ncc, to Ihe Colomhian natiun. I.:kc<lu::.e
of its physicallocatioll-separated fronl the main body ullhe n'publil: by irllPCIII:-
trauk jllngl....s ::md :lcc(-ssibk· only by sea-Panama alw:!ys had spni,ll :-italu">
within lhe federation of Cl)lollluia. (AI Olle point thl' Naliollal CUllgr...
d... darl.'ll Panama tu be a f..·tIl'r:!1 stall'.") And u('caus.., ol"ils ptlkillialtu
link th..... Allanlic alltl Pacific o(cans, !Jallailla W:lS of gr..... al inll'I"..'::.t 10 lhL' wurld's
II{)w",'rful n.ltiOIIS,
A::. .1lI illcipiO:l1l wurld l'cunumic pow.... r, Ihl' Ullill"d Stall'S a::.:-.erkd its dalnl:>
wilh e\'l'r-illCreasing into:nsily. Ulldt:r 1111.." Treaty ul IIH6--IK,
thl:.' Ullill'"d Siaies pre-SUllIed to guaranII..'..... thl:.' nelllralil y oj lhe istl111111::' ,\Jld Irc..·dulll
oltl";:Ubil across iL The CaJifofllia gold rush of hl'ighlennl U.S. inkrest alld
SOUIl t.:d 10 Ihl' CUllstru((ioll of a U.S. nnall(....d railw.lY. As Anll.:rK;1I1
rU:-ihed acro::.s the iSlhmus,:1 dbpUlL' wilh naliv.... Pallaillallians lnlln.1 rinl ;llld the
Jl:'ath vI' I1flct:1l U.S. dtizens ill IHS6. III r.... ::.pull::.e, Wa::.hinglull dL'lllalllll:'d all
indemltil)' of $400,000, thl' creatiun of ::.df-guverning al 1t.'flllillal
puints of the railway, a sovereign CI:.'Ssiolll.... n Illile::. widc 011 e,ldl slde 01 thL- railway,
and the lISI' of two islands by th...· U.S. Navy.
Such .... xtravaganl provokl'tI sirong reactions frOlll Collunbialls.
called fur sllcL'umbl;:d 10 a ur hdplessnl;.·s::"
Thl:' Liberals wen: perhaps the JIIost confused: Ihey had long regarded the.: Unill..'d
Stales as a political Illodel-antl now Ihe United Slall;:s was acting wilh imperial
haughtiness, issuing an unreasonable u1tirnalum. A Cunservativl' secretary or
foreign relations suggested that Colombia goad the y.,\I\kt· ....s inlo sd:t.illg Panama
and then collect an indemnity from Washington. M<lriano Ospina, soon 10 be
president, briefly imagined that Gre::!t Brilain or [":rance mighl inlervene on
Colombia's behalf; when lhat hope vanished, he Ihought of annexing nut unly
Panama but all of New Granada to thl' Unitcd Slales.
The dispute was eventually seuled for a modest indemnity, but Cololllbi.. ns
would thereafter view Ihe United Stales wilh suspicioll. Ih.... Itl40s alld
191{ PAWl' TWO" CIlAN(;E OVER T1fo,'IE
noted. the Uniled l;'Iking l;'Inc! rrom Mexico "-Ilel lI1ihuslcring
ill Nic,lr:lgll:l, Expressing:l gcncrnlized sentiment. Jose MOlri:1 VOlrgns Viln would
wrile of unruly and hrulal north that despises us." And inlerestingl)' {'llough.
Ra(ael Nlllicz' regcllernlion wOllld inspire a cOllservative ll:ltionalist current with
:llllilihcrni ano anli-Y:lnkee tones. Following the papal ellcyclic:l1 Dc Uall",
Nol'tlrll1l1 (I R91). Colomhin's cOllservntive Iwl ionalism exuded :lll anticapitnlist
n.1\Ior <IS well.
In 1879 the Cololnhian governmcnl gr:lnled a contrncl lor O(;l
canal to Ferdin:lnd tic l.esslIps, Ol French engineer ;lnl! enlfepreneuf. already
(amoll" (or his cre;llion o( Ihe Suez C:lnal. I)e J.essups hegan construction in
IR82 but r;lll into numerous delays. i\ third extensioll of his contr;lLl Cilme ill
1900, just as the War o(the Tholl"and D;l)'S reached the iSlhmlls.
l\1canwhile the U.S. government. now under Teddy Roosevelt. decide(1 to
build the c.;nal. It acquired rights from the New French COlllP;lllY and signed ;'I
Ire,II)' \·..ith Cnlomhi:l in 1903. The Colomhian Senate rejected the tre;'ll)' On the
grnlilld Ihat it viola led Il::tt ion:ll sovereignly. There (ollowed a cOllspiracy n( c1iven;c
th::tt ended with a tleclaration o( P;lll::tlll::tniall independence. under the
vigilanl pr(ltecLioll of the U.S, Navy. and recognition of Ihe new repuhlic hy the
Unilcd in Novelllher 1903. Al' Roosevelt reporledlr dednred with pride.
Negotiations thereafter focused On U.S. cnmpellSation 10 Colombia. A Ireat)'
ill 191'1 initially offered an indemnily 0($25 million. pay;\hlc in five inslallments,
logel her with :l st::tlemenl o("sincere regret" on the pari o( \"'::tsh inglon" Amel'ic;lll
politicians (Ienounced the pact as n ,I!ld the Senale wilhheld ratification.
Years laler.lIH' trealy wns rewrillell, the "regrets" were excised, :llld Ihe first of five
allllual pa)'mcnts o( $5 million was made in 1922,
The Cnlnmhian ecollom)' W::tS conspicuously underdeveloped during most of Ihe
nineleenth centur),. Part o( the prohlem cnme (mill politic:l1 instnhilit)', which
hindered long-ternl planning and inveslments. Equall)' important was Ihe cnun
try's fonnidahle lerrain, which presented serious ohstacles to commerce among
the three major zones-Caribbean. Easl, and Wesl. Overland tr::tnsportatinn was
dangerous and prohihitively expelll'ive (:lround IR50 il cosl no more 10 move
frcighl (rom I.iverpool across the Atl... ntic and then up the M::tgd;'llen;l River by
steamboat to the interior port of Iiond... than for it to travel by mule down the
mountain from Bogota. less Ihnn 100 miles away). As :l result of the geogr::tphic
dispersion or the population. consumer markets were modest in size.
During and :lfter the c.oloni:ll period. the only substanti;'ll and reliable export
was gold, which rem:lined important into lhe carl)' lwentieth Cenhll)'. From Ihe
JR50s 10 the Colombia exported !'igniflcant amounts of tobacco nnd
C.hint..hona b;'lrk (the l'ource of quinine). Bananas also bccame important in the
S::tnla r-"Iart:t regioll of Ihe l... ribhe:ln COOlSt, where the US-h:l!'ed United Fruil
Company ntlt lU11)1 owned a I.lrge pl.llll,ltlllll 11IIt ,11"" \l,nlll,llni .. hll'plll): .tllli
Hut the mosl dur.. hle tlevcllll'lllelll. lht, 011(' lh:ll bid Ihr n't'lll11alltlllnd,llu.n..
of l.nlombia's economic devdoplllcllI, \Va." the t·1I1livalinn .I1Id e)(I'0l"l.llll1l1 .. I
co((ee_ Ily Ihe l::ttc cof(t'" heGllne Iht' Coulll"r'" Ie,uhllg Br 1')0(. II
flccoullted for more Ihan ;\7 pen,:enl of Ihe n:tlioll'" ('Xpori ('.\fllilll:". ,I IIgUl" 1b.11
dimhctlto 70 percent in Ihe 1920" and ,I" high;l" xo I'rlH'II1 ill Ihr 1
''",0" 1\".1
reslIl! of co(rce exports. Cololllhia 1X't.:lI11e filiI)' mtegl,llrd 1111" lh.· wlIlld
There could he no douhl :lhnul II: cllfhx \,'a" kll1g
By the coffce ill loillmhi.l wa"l'lf')dllt ,·dlll.lmiv h\' .. m.IU .11111111("01111111
sized cuilivator,," In olher ar("l" 1l11lahly nl,l/il, II .... ,Ih:lllol ..Illtl 1,II.l1cnl.II.I
co((ee nourished nil large "t:lle e"l.lle". (01\('11 Iht' 1t''!lIl1rlllCnl .. I.. t III It'll '"\ ,
manll::tl l:lbor in CIIII i":lting (l II Ic(' Irce". hll\'l.'C\'el. (1,1 Icc 1'1 "tim t 1"11 til' I 11••1 \ 11,1,1
"ignif'lcant economic!' o( st..:lle, $0 "m:llI ,,(,lie (,IIIll.'r, Inllid 11'1n,IIIl .ollll'!'IIII\'(·
In C.olomhia, il would c\,cnlu::tll\, he ;'I<;"el·I("d Ih.1I Ihl' <'111"\"1\.11 III ,I .... 10.. \.11111.11
'" ralUlll of small cnlfee ( ulIIV.llllI" WIIIIJII ht'II' 1'111\ "II' ,I Illullik \ 1.1 .... 1'.1,,1" I, 'I III\'
ltlll"nlidalioll or polil it. ,il 11('111(1\ I,ll \.
hcrlllore. CO(rcl' pI odll( 11011 "pUll ("d lilt" t11'\"c1nl'lllcnl 01 II,In"I"'1 l.1l11 'II
when it hec,lllle llC(e"",lly III "hll' Irclgllt 1IIlIll Ihe hlghl.llhl" 1\, 11\·.'1"
(:lIUllhell 10 Ihe coa"t and ,Ihroad). Unhke (-.tT ( h.lp1t:1 'I), (·,,!t'Ill"I.1
mn<lc little progress IHl rnilw.I)' (Ollsl, I1cI iOIl (hlrillg Ihl' /I11H'1en11 h \ ('Ulill \' t\ ..
co(rl.:e collival ion expanded. <,n (hd Ih(' ra IIw,I)' "yslt'lll, ,I" (II III \11, 11 .. \,,('\,1'1. Iht' h\ II
Inr!!eSl Lilies, Bogol:1 nntl Medellin, WCI(' 11\11 \,('1 IllIked Ililt'lll\' I" r,lil. ·l'Ill',·.\ll'·\,
Ihe govern men I hegan stn.'ssing lhe t..onS!1111 111011111 11Igllw,IV" In.. lt'.ltl III 1,111\\',1\'"
(During Ihe ::tnd I()lin". high\\'.I)''' :Jill! r,lilw,I)''' e,Hh l,lIl",d ,dU'IlI .111\' 11111.1
of all frcighl: hy the IlJ90s. thl' highw:lrs t flrned HO P('l"l t'1I1 .1I111111t' 1,111\\"1\·,, lllllv \
percent.) III view o( Colomhia's (h:lII("Il).:in): Ifll'llgr,ll'hr, :111"\\'.1\"" ,d"o het.wl!' .1
c('nt rid p:l rl or Ihe na Iilln's 1 H"I ,lilt 11 I 11('1 W(II k \ \' II h 1111 IY""Illl' ex ,Ill' II \.
il h,ll' heen S:lid Ihat ColPlllhia leaped dirct II)' (rnlll the lilliit' In Iiii' .lil!'!.lI\!'
By f:lr Ihe dominanl o\'("r,,(':I<' m.lrkt'!. Iht' t Jnih't1 '-.1.11('" \\',1" t. fill "I II III ng 11I"lt'
Ih<11190 percenl O(C0101llhi,lIl cof(ee eXI'IIII .. illlhc 1
J2fl" ,lIltl I') Ill" I k"I'llt 1111"
n')llllectioll. Ellrnpc remain("d Ille n( '>1'11.11 ,11111 tlllllll,III'rr<,llp' I<1f III"
cowllry'S clites. Suspicion of Ihe (:010"511<, of Iht' North IlIlllilHll'd It I 1't'1\,ldt
Colomhian !'ocict)'.
!)uring Ihe the (I,f!t'e hOllall1,1 II' <:'1!l'111111,1 Irll tn 1:11'111 gl"wth .Irul
.111 expanding Ihal (:tlllC 10 hc kllowll ,1<' 'Ihe d.III' I' 01 II ...
millions." as Ncw York h,lllk"r.. nlfclCtI <'i;ahlc In,1I1"" Lh I", .. 10.
Ihis hull ish optimism :lntl it" fln.1I1lial hllhhlt' WCI(" <,It':ltli1r 1-'1"'11" ,.1
b:IIlOl11a<; aod petroleum, holh produced in (Inllllll.lled ("Ill I.W(''', ;lIUlll" "'1'1
of Ihe $25 million PnnamOl Indcmnil),. Much flf ('olnmhi,I'" hUIgcl1nlll): .kl'l
wns incurred nol hy !he ll;'llional J.,:tlvernlllcni hili hy 1ll1l11I(il',llilIC" ,111.1 I..,.d
Then Ihe Gre:tt Dq're"sillll "Iflltk 1'.\'(,1l <,n, !he <'lIt In('tIlIHIIllll .!Ild "011111 ,II
effecis of Ihe Deprc<;"ion wer(" le"" "('\'('1(' ill I '"Inllllll.l 111,111 111 111.111\' •• 11,,·1
l',\lll l\\"." \.,\:-.1 \11)1'1/\ 111i\N(.I·,OVI·jt·IIMI:
l'I'j', :"lIl1tl I'IW, 1')""
- -----------'''''
IVI'. 1'.',1)

'0 .w

It, ---------
u "" r,-." ,-,-, ,-,.,-,-.-,---,-.-" ,-,--, , , ,-, ,-,..,--,,-,, ,-r" 1 ,-, r,-, ......,
This dl.:vdUPIlll:llt hits had imp.lcts-oll LolulIlbl.lll sucit.:'I)'. it:-;
....t:llnOllly, ;:liltl rd.ltiumhip \Vnh thl' Ullilt'd $t.lll·::'. t-\IIlUllg olht.:'r Ih,,-"
unn:gulat"'d mllu\\' 01 introdlll.t'd enOflllUU::. unlxrt,ILJlty IIIlu cconolllic
poliC)'ll1illUng, It helped su::.lain the value or tht.:' COIUlIIbi.1I1 IWSO (dUring thl.:'
early ... , dullar-pl.:so I.:'Xchangc r,lles on tit.... blalk m:ll-kct W,'II,C' uSll:llly luw"1"
tllan Ihe llflkial ratr.:s!). Till.: "'llrgl' \11' dull,ll":' l:llcuuragnl 11IIpOl b thai. ill turn,
thrl"llelll.:d dOllll.:SlIl induslry. TIIl'rt: is wdl, willdfalll..'.lI'll-
ings frulII pctruklllll ,lilt! drugs dbLollr.lgl:d active ill uthl.:r po!cntially
pruductive arl'as, a phr.:lltJllll:1101l knowll ilS "1)11I('h disl..':l::'l·."
I\s Culombia's cconolllY undl,.·l"\wnl c!Iange, ""'I did ib "'''-'lIdy. '1'111..' I'upllhltillil
expanded from JUSl 2 millioll ill IH50 10 4 milliun ill 1900 .11I.1 IlluIl' thim -12 11Iilhull
in 2000. Its lllobility and dispersion werc as important a... it::. ... i/l,.'. Thl: Columbian
population h:l:t neVl'r been ,,-uncl'ntr.llt:'d around :t ::.inglt:: ItX,l1ioll. Around tht" mid-
nineteenth ccntllr)'. lIlo:.t peoplc Iiv....d in Iht' highJands-llut ill 1.lrg.... cities. but
in a cong.... ries of middle-or small-sizl,.· tUWII .... Thcn b"g:m a ::.It:'ady IIIUVC'llIcnt of
pc::ople from thc cool highlands to tlit:' warlllt.:'r ZQll"-'S ul th.... IIIUUllt.lill and
valkys allli to the Caribbean lowbnds. a tre:'nd that SOUle rq;anl the:
mo::.t illlpurtanl social pht:nomcnon uf the hundred-Yl"ar pe:riod from 1850 tu 195U.
Urbanizalion followcd, but Ialer than in Argt:lItina or Chile. Hy the lall:' 1930::.,
less than 30 percent of the Colombian population residl,.'d in citil:s; b)'lhe end 01 the
cl.:nlury, around 70 percent did. Thl.: pruccss of urbanizatioll rl.:adled its ma,Xillllllll
velocily ill Ih.... it W;)S and divergl"nl, JlotWl\Cclltr,JteJ ur
centralized. In sharp contrast to Argelltina and Cllik., dUlllill:lll'l1 n:spectivd}' by
Figure 7.1 CoHee as a Percentage of Colombian Exports, 1945-2000
.,. "" I' t.Jt'Il,Jrl.JIIM:'lIhJ Ndl.Il.It ...1lito PI,JIlt;.J< tutl dlod Ildl" U <-<:'1111,,1 fk"uIA.... ,I,· I "I.xlIl",)
l..\'UlItll'·') 01 1.11111 '\lll,,·III...1. Th,,' nxovcf)' W.IS grcatly by tht:
HI.IIlII.IIl pllli" )' 01 (:.Cl,· Chapler II) which r.... duc....d the- world's coffe....
"ul'ply tllwugh tli,: "k:.trudioll of7H milliun su(-ks ofcoff,,'1o: b.... tw........ n 1931 and
1').IlJ {llll' "',!UIV,lkllt lit th'lI full uf wurld production!). Also helpful to
rnuvC:f)' Wl'r,' lilt: inh:rn.lliun.ll d.... lllillll,llor gold, the adoption of .... xchang....
Ullllrub, .llId thl' Jl.:valu.llioll uf thl' Columbi,lll p.... So. B....sides, expOriS accounted
lur tli.1lI Olll' llll.lfkr IIf Columbiil's natiollal prodlll'l. so the impact of
,kdilllnl{l'xporl luke:. rdatiwl)' limitcd.
I·JuduaIHJll::' III illll'm,Jtional coffl'''-' pricl's tendcli to r....::.pund tu variations in
Ill,· w\,rld\ :'>ul'ply, rather 111.111 Iu COIl:>lllll,,-'r prdl'l'CllCCS, (Clll1::.ulll.... rs cuuld b....
'\It11lll'd 011; by thc th'l:lltieth cl'lltury, ('ofkt: had become a basic product, Ilut a
luxury, Ihal Vl:upk' jusl had to haw-evell if tlll'ir inCOllle::. dedined,)
Pl'filu.ll( bUI 1I11l'rl.:dklabk Ir,,-·,,·zl..'s in Brazil could bring sudden reductions
ill pnldlll..lillll, lausing prit't's 10 risr.:-stilllulatillg growers in Colombia and dsc-
\\'hnl,.· III pl.lIll nlll,..... hu::.hl·:'>. whidl would COIlle: to maturily in four or five years
,ltld ,hll::' ,,-n·.ll,,· .tll ("v,'Hlual uverproductiull Ihal would drive: price:'s duwll-
",.Ild .lg.llli. f\luf,,·uvl.:r, Lufll:e could be:' nlilivaled nol only in L.llin America but
ill 111.111)' 1,.lIt .. III Ih,,' world, which illtroduce:'d thrl.:ats uf compdilion; in facl,
::.1i.lll" 01" wurld produdion lIc.'vcr <Iuite: re:adh::d 2U pcrlent. a situatiun
111.11 lll.hl,,-, It Vulll,,-'r.lbl.... tv I,.I .... vduplllcnts ill other coffee,pruducing arl'"as. Parlly ill
rOpOIl"" 10 1I111,.e:'rlailll )'. I..·offcl'-cxpurting anJ -importing Lountrit's reached an
1IlI'·lJJ.lthlll,d -.. '"lin' Agr"-·l"llll.:lIt ill that was designcd to :.tabiliz....
,\It.-r ,I p,,-·rlO.I uf rdatlve:' r"-·tf.... nclllllent from the J9-10s 10 Ih,,· mid-J970s,
t \lluIllbl,1lI ,olin' prolllh.:1101l rl,.·g.lin,'d II::. expan:.ive:' mode lar-gt:r-scale produ-
"- ....::. JlI,llI,lg"'d to illCfI:,J::.e productivily and profit margins. Cancellation of the
11Ih'11l.ltlllll,d Colin' Agrc:clliellt in 1\)t)'J brought exposure to price
1l1ldu,llll)JI:', bUI n::.k ::'1,.'1,'1111..'1.1 for the cnsuing dt'cade-if not
Illln,,,'1 J'llllIllgh 111"-' I';)')U:., l"tk,,-' ,,-·xpurl ... pi..:kcd up from utlit:'r part ... ur tht:'
d,·vd\lllllil-: \\'1..111.1 indudillg ::>ulllhl'l"lI Al'l iL.1 ulld from .. h L1J1likdy
.I" \'Il'IJI.tlll, wltidl hl·I,.'.IJIl,,-· tIll..' wurld's :'>"-'culHl-largcst cuffer.; proJuc,,-'r in 2002.
A.. -..:"JIIIlIlud'::. l'CUIlI1J11Y divl..·r::.itll.:d, Lulle:'t:'\ ill1purlilllCe As showli
ill hgUIl' 7.1, 1..0£1,,·1..' drupped than 80 percenl of the lutal cxports in lhe:
I lu .II"IHInd 1U pe:rl'cnl fur Illo::.t ufthe I\)90s and tu less than 10 pcrce:nt by thl:
"/Ill III Ih,' dl'l.",k-, III IhI,." c,Jrly I950s, accuunted for mure than J0 percellt of
Illl· "-lIllllllY'''' (;iJP; b)' tilt' 19I)U::., it dOWll to only 2 pcrcellt.
At ill p....t, th.... rclativlo: dc-cline ill culfc:c was compclls,H.... d b)' the growth
",I IIOIlll.lditiuII.11 I..'xpun::,-clli l1uh'I..'I"::'. (again). ::.hnc::., tobacco. and
"r""-"-·..... nl 111I)d. A ... urg.... ill pctruJI,.·ulll productiun in the mid·1980s also contrib-
ul,,-'d II) cxpurt e.lflling::..
Bllt expon.t.:'wli bdort.:' the was illicit dntg..., especially cocaillt:.
t)nl' ,,'stilnatl- hold::. that drug t raflicking brought $36 billion into Colombia between
)80 :Iud 19')5. w"... I:quivalcnt to more than 5.3 percent of GOP, oVl..'rsha-
d\lwiug ltllllrihutiulI'" frulll buth l'olb: ('15 perccnt) and pl..'ll"OICUlll (1.9 pcrcent).
'I'll,,· .dbOllll"-' voill/Ill,.' ,,(trafficking inll·....asl,.'(l steadily frolllthl..' J98Us to Ihe 199Us,
202 I',\HT TWO" CM:;I S'I UIH!-.S; CHANe,!: nVFn TlMI
World Oilnk ;lnd Economic for I atm
AmC'ICil ,mel lhe C<lribbean.
The \oVar ollhe Thou"and Pa)'" and the (al.l<;tropllH II, .... 1,1 1'.11\,1111.1 11\,11 knl.l 111.11' 'I
llIrning poi"l in COIOlllhl"'" nalioll:Jllirr. I'or;\ lillie, al k,I<;,I.I'"hIH .11 t·hl(' .. Inkl.ll".1
through rituals or ccmvivc"cin, the gcnh:cl rule" nr P,lrl',IIJlCIIl.1I \ ,I,h,llt·. ( 1\11 \'..1'
"';IS c1elegitimiz('d ... s a form or (Olllpelil kill. New plllllit.,11 ,Iltlll'" .1\'I'("lf,,·,1 "II' I, ,1'.
lahor uninns-:Hlcl1Oocial and polilicnl right" \\,l"f(' hrn.lIlen('d. And 10 \ "It ...
exp<wts, Colomhia would allast fine! it.<> Ilk.he withlllllw world 111.11 kel
I:resh rrom Iheir lriumph ill the \0\' .. 1nlthe'l 1101l",1I1d I J,I\..... 1111" ( 111\"'1' '·.111\' '.
r('tained control or the arl1l,", Ihe halll)1 \lox, .11111 IIlSllltlliflll.ll I'P\\'l'1 (."IHI.II
Haraclltcyc... hecame prc"idenllll )1)01 ;1I111 pn)(n'dcd Ii' willi .111 lI"Tl 1,.Ind
\Vhell Congress railed 10 conpcr.. lc, he lIi""olv('(\ II, I,ulnl ",,1\14' 1111'1111"'1·, ..11101
exiled other". Re)'es d('t..\;Hed lll:lrli:-.llaw :1n(1 as... llnll'd Ii .. 1.I1I1II.d I'l'\\I·I". I \1'11 '.".
he managed In rcoq':,llli/(' Ihe 11:1lion' ... III1:lIhe.... !"I,,,tnIC l'olllll1hl,I'" \ 11.111111 \\l'II,1
market". :H:\..cleratC' the l·llIl ... lrut..!lllll 01 ,.1Ih\',n" ,!lId Illgll\\o,n· ....111d .. 11111111..1,
C(llree production. In slI<.11 wa)''', hi'" rule 1I':,\'lllblnlllPtllllh" lh,111,1 h'"I''' ,Il'\ ' ..... l"
J{;lfacl Nuflel., but ;llso Ih.\I III Porllrll' l)i:Ji'. III '1""1 "1'1'11... 111.111 <.m·IlI.1
when Re)'es ath.'mptc(lto .. OI1 .. lllde a Ifl',lly IIIl,kl whi .. h 1111' \llIllell ... \.)I\· ... \\l",hl
pal' $2.5 million in rei tlrn ror ('nlnmhl,l' S IOIIlI,ll I t'I ,.1 111" IIIl (,·1" ".Il n, I
or Pallnllla. This appeared In sel an unduly Ii 'w 1"1\ e I'll ( Ilh ,mlll.11I "",c"'I!'nl\!
(;onrrontcd hy populnr fllry, he resigned (1011101111(' In ll}[l"
Although Conc;efvalivcs cOlllillllCI!tl!('lr 'll11tllll (II 1'11\\("1. tl,e I"" 1.1""'1.11
( h,lllgC ",a" quickening. I.. ,I,,)r inn I('tl hi ;'I c1n .uk III I 'II Itllll'I\I""I. \\ 1110 h
peaked ill the late 1920s. Ten..ions call1(' to.) h(';1(11II Ihl.: lllwllllf ( 11'
when a Ulli(1ll gllided hy the Revolulion:lfy I',nl\ (,I 1'11'1111 ...111 .. I Ill'
Communisl P;lrly) clccl:ued a slrike and 2S,Ono \\'urker.. , p.IIIIUrl,lIly Ill"... ' .11 II",
U$.-(l\vned United Fruit pl:lIllalion.... , slopl'n! <.lIlting h,1I1,111,I .... Ilw t\nll'II' ,Ill
manager dispatched 3n IIrgcnt Illcss.lge Itl Ihe- ('llll,mhl.lll 1\11/:'11 1
Ahadia Mendez. "an eXlrcmely grave .lml d.Hll-:l'I"ll'" ",111,1111'11.
Mendez responded h)' d('plo)'ing .trlllY unil'" ill link. III 111,linl.,ill "ld!1
The ensuing confronlalion led to ",h... l has (om(' 10 he k11l1W11 .11; 1l1.1....... 11'1,1
the banana a cenlral evenl in Ihe (ol1('(IIVC memor)' 01 c
and recounted, alheil WitJl purposdul exaggeralion, hy C;:Jhnd (;,1111.1 1\1.11'1
11"/ III
OtiC IIwuJrr.d Year5 oj Solillulc. (The Ir;lgedy did lint, l\llW('\"I·1. IUII\"il" (' 1
I:ruil to Icave Colomhia. That occurred only in the 1
)'11)..". ,1111'1 .111 1IIItlll",11 ,.1
sigatok... dis(',lse dcvaslatellthe hallan:l pl.ullalioll1O it dlllirolll,d)
Inequalily and pcwerly ha\'(' hcell pcrsislclll :lIld 1>III Ill!: th,' \'\ ·11'.
and 1980s, Ihe incomes or !lead)' (ll) percell I of Ilw 1'(11),11,11 j, '11 ",II 1",!t lW ,ill' 1"'\"1"11 \
line: hy the 19YOs Ihe figure had dropped slightl)' III '-,r, pel,el1l, ,III hough 11lf' ,II ,1111.'
number or people living in poverl)' h:td;J<;('tl. I\y IIll.' 1.11(' III-If"', ,I" wdl. It".... 111.111
I percelll or t he people were earning one Ilunl.l111 11.11 i"ll,lllih In I ••1, 11111',,1.
;"IC; elsewhere, such patenl injustice m'lc!'>!'>.lnly "np,hlctl 1,,·lllIt'" III 1,·1111, .. I,ll
incqu;\lities orland di!'ilrihutil)1l \\'ould k.HI PC;1S,lIlt .. In 1.I"l' tillT' t,h 11"" 11\1 n' ... ·I\' '.
Colombia: Vital Statistics, 2007
Population (millions)
GOP (current SU.5. billions)
C,NPlcilpfta (SUS)
Poverty rille (% in 2006)
life elCpeClancy (years)
Buenos Aires and Santiago, Colomhia hac; rour large regional Bogota,
Medellin, Cali, and Barranqltilla.
Like other countries or I.atin America, Colomhia developed a substantial
middle class-hilt nile Ihat is less distinctly urb;:1II than in the Southern Cone. As
shown h)' the history orcorree production, the middle class ill Colombia has a sii'.:lble
rural component. loreover, its urhan elements arc spread out among diverse
in dirrerent (ami ortel1 competitive) regions, so the)' are not especiall)' cohesive.
FU1111Cnl1nrC, economic change gave rise to a working c1a"c;. Initially, Ihe
clas.; was Ctll1Celltrateti 110t so llluch in manuracturing as in roreign-dominated
('"daves, such :lS oil fields and hanana plantations. and in the transportation sector,
espcci,llJ)' r:lilw,l)'s and river navigation. Arter Ihe turn or Ihe century man)' workers in
these arc... " hccamc markedl), radical. nationalist :lnd anI i-imperialist in idcolog)',
sometimes with S0Ci... list over1ones or in"piration. In the cities, labor unioJ1!; were
created, controlled, or co-opl('<1 by one or three entities: political parlies (usually
I.iheral. sometimes CClIlsclvative), Ihe chmch, or the cOlllllllmist len. Indeed. Ihe
polilicallen (Liheral. Sllci:1lisl, or Communisl) came 10 dominatc <:In import<:ll11 seg-
mcnt or the 11Ilion movemenI the creation in thc late 1930s or the
<:llllfedl'r.lCibn de Trahajadorcs de Colombi<:l (ere). The process or unioniz.ltion
was llo11elhcle"s slow: oul or 4 million workers in the I940s, only 90,000 (2.25 percent)
werc unionized. By the Tlli<I-1960s, union l11emhership c1imhed to 700.000, approxi-
111alcly 1].4 perccnt of the Jahor rorce, Inll Ihis I1rol1ol1 ion has declined in rccent yenrs.
At prescnt. Ihe r... lc of union membership i." among Ihe lowesl in L..1tin Amcrica.
,"Vhcll all is said and dOlle. Colombia's rcliam'c on exporl promotion failed to
t.Te;lte :"I trill), prosperous society. To he sure, thc Colombian econom)' grew slightl)'
I:,ster Ih... n the average ror I..,lin America during the course or the Iwentieth
century. In the country's GDP per capita ranked tenth in l..,tin America,
and by it wns eighth. Rllt hy 2002 Colombia's pcr Capil<l income was
still rar helo\\' ctllllpar... hle levels in Argelltin... , Chile, or Mexico. According to
worldwide stalH.bnls, Colnmhia nnw r<llls in the income , ... Iegol"}'.
This \\',1" progress--hut on Ihe installment plan.
'1 11,' IrOlil 11:lWi III J').{U tlrtl'll 1.,11I..·d 0111.: 01
1"'I',\'lIltl"}: bUI II W,I,> /l1'lfl" ltlnlpll'.,< 1II,Ill Ihal. Thl' Cathulic hit'i"an.:h)' ind"l'd
11,1,1 ,... 1,.,llli\..11 rOll' .LIlli W,13 ,.Jll31dl·rl·d pari uf Ihl' gOVt:l"lllllt:1l1 undt'r Ihe
,1I11.. tllull"U 01 Il:\X6.•·3P...... l,dl)' \'Ilih Ille C01l3l'fValiv('3 in puwl'r. Yd Ihe church did
1It11 "1'"',ld II-. ,h.IIViti.'3 l'Vl'III}, .1\.1'0:>3 Ihl' lOlilltry. III t'thnic tt:rI1b, the churl'll
IlIllI .....d 1I1l'/l' llll 1II,·;,fl.:u .111.1 k:>:> lll1 blal.k:) ,lIId lIlulath,)es. The I.:on-
"l·'V.lll\'\" l'I"\llll'· uf A/ltlulluiil 1..1..1 ,111"'·:>IIl"l.i.III)' dust.' connectiun tu thl' church.
"'",1.11, 1,.lllg'· Illtll\·llll·k.... I'l':>nl.J Ihl",·.iltu Il", ..lilioll.ln 1925 IhI;' reclurofa (hurch
ILIII ... Ill" ,1.,lk/nl .1 I.JIllelll ,lbOllt dill' youlh:> .Ind c1mngcalJiJity uf tlwir spirit,
II ..· }'·.Il1111lg lUI dl\'",·r.:>IUIl:>, till.: hlllhty lall3nllJy the tinl"lIla ... Ih...· rebdliuusne:>s
1h.1I "',1'1. IIIUI ..., in till: nl..:>:> ululidisdplinell:>ludelllS, Ihanks 10 lhe
... ".I"II} d..·.. IIUlII\.·llfe::>.)... Sl:lul,lriZ,ltHIII \'1,1:> :>prr.:ading through :>Ocidy.
t.. .1lI'>l·1 v.illve rule W,IS h'l:akl'llnl LJ}' the ufl:>d of Ihl' Gn:at Depn:ssion, and a
.. \\1111111 tl.e p,lrl}' Iliad..., il po::.sihll" fvr.1 nll.xJerdle Liberal, Enrique' OIaY.1
I kll\:I,I, III IIl.'lUlllt: pn:3idc'1l1. inaugur.ill"d it f1ht...... n-year pl'riod known as Ihe
rl'puhlk: Thi:> .:r,1 wuuld Willll':>:> considerable t:xpal1:>ion in the role and
... Ltlllllllhi,I':> 1I,llion,,1 gllVernnl...·lIl. ()II a 1...':>$ posilive note, it would inereilsl'
Ih,· pt>hll' 1/,111011 .)1 pulit..)'lIhlkillg pruc... ... and thus intensify rivalrks.
l\lhhv,,) Ih...ugh hl,>I..-rIll, UI,I}',lllmllul.Itc:J'1 vI5ionary propusal fur agrarian
IdOl III .\ 1,1.. k lUlu' IIml.:" his .Iirl"ctlOn :>uggl'slcd a reform ba:>ed on principles of
""ll,lll .. 1 LII"1111'nl I rl·II.11 1,Iw and un Ih...· agrarian principles of the MexiGln
Ik\ldulh'll ,tIl.! III.· :'lp,tJII:>11 I{l·'"lhli.. Itl'slablb,lll'd a prl':>ulilplioll OWll+
,·/ .. 1III' .. I - .Ill 1J1l.1l111\ ,lll.'d l,llld" alld.J luroll.Jr}' principle Ihal public l.111ds could
I,,· .. hl,lIllnl lUtl}' hy wllo Wl'rl' working un Ihclll. The lInal stalull.'
,lj '1'1 U\ ...1 loy till' Iq.; UI c.:: \\''-':> !lIU( II IIHJre lllllscrvative, how(;'vt:l", privileging th...
.....1111 II}' ••1litll:' Ilv..·r Ih...· ,llJOI.:::illiul1 ollalld tu pl:"<.lSOlnb. In t?lrecl, tIle
,lg'dl i,llI l,tw 01 19J(, I h}' rndhuds ill III>I:' since the J
Illlllllgll Ilu' l"IV.11\.' or guverllillelll divbiull uf large that \'It'rt.' besieged by
IO/l/IW;, U)' IIIl' .ldjudil-alion 01 pllblk !;llhb Oil a cilse:-by-..-:asl-' basb. Vcry little.
II ,IllY, gll\Jd l.llld W,l" in f:KI. As a OVl'r Iandowllcrship
.Illtl "11l>lli:r,lliOll wuuld U)lItillllt' lor tlL..· Ill'XI halll:elltury.
:-'Ulll'l'dIJlg Ulay.L ill lilt' pn'3id"IlCY Ihe charislll.ttll: Allunsu Lope:z
l'UIlhLll'j", \\'Ilu plod,lilill'd Ihe illiti:ltiull l)1 a revo/llcioll ell f11lln/w Jurillg his
I') JX 1...'/111. A :>lrtHlg of UniUllil.atiull, h.... bec,lllle the supreme arbikr
,II wlllkn 11I,lllagl'llll'lll cOllnil:b. Dirl·ctly cOllfrollting tht' pakrnalisl cUlltrol of
Idh"r II II IIII I.:> hy illdll3trialbb ill l\ledellin and olher cities, h.... actively t:llcouragcd
.. h}' l.olll"l·llar... ,llld thl'ir ljU...SI llllioniz,llioll. In 1936 Lopa alsu
I'Vl·l II,,· eXIl'll3iuli uJlhl' vull.- Iv all,ldllit lilait's, a Sll"p th..lllllovcd Culombiu
dltWIl tIle rv,ld pulilks.
Ellll,lIdu S,llItll:> a sud.1I modt:ratc. tvuk :>trong stands on eeu-
Ill/lidl P\!Ilt..)'. To IHumute llldu:>tri,lI devdopmelll-spc(.-il'k.t1ly, illlport-subslitu
IlllII 11"ILI ..ln.t1I1,ltlllll (lSI), .1 relipe: f'lllm\'l'li l'bcwhert' ill L:Illll AlII",·riG.l-he
l.Il·.lll,... 1 Ih...· Imtitutu dl' I:Ufllenlu Industri.d. Ilis thus bucked the
Ulll:>lllldltlli vf a ill f\'kJdlin (1\)-12) ••1 rubber f.KlOf)' lIt:ar llogota
(19'12).:1 :>hipyard ill Barralll)lIilla (194.3), :Jlld a Sll'd plallt ill BoY,Il-,i.
prornotl'd low-cosl huusillg and thl' dl'vdupllll'llt uf illlra:>lrlicturl', including
,lquedllcb and st:wers. All such prugraliis tl".· autllOril}' <.Illd
cxpandc:d the I"c:ach of IIll." national st.lle.
From thl' 1940s to the 1970s. Columbia ,lduplcd a pr.tglllatiL l'l.unullli ...
puhey thilt combinl'd demenb ofouth prulcctivni .. 111 ,llId Il ...,c Dvwlllul nl> in
tllc intenlational coffee lllarket accentuated support fur :>0111t: dl'gree oj lSI, e:Ve:ll
rdiance ull t'xporb stressl'd thl" 1I1,;'1."l1 101' (I ...·.. 11,ldl" ill (:n!tullbi.I':Jo
lll.ljor llIarkt.·b!). Mt'anwhile. \'\'a:>hingltlll Columbl,l ,I:> a l.l\'urill' rl'cipklll
of ecollumh: a:>sistanee lIndt'f the Allialll.l' fur Prvgrl·:>s. 1,llllh,hcJ ill 196 I. Initially
ht'r;dded of the Alliance. Coltlmbi.\ got oil' 10 ,I :>Iart, hUI Iltt.'
cull..lboralioll with the: United Statl's svon sour(·d. Corruptiun,
and partisan polilics marrt:d Iht.' ....rrOrl, while
preoccupation with other parts of till' wurld IMI'IKularly thl' III Vit:lll,llIl-
led to virtual uoandonment of tht.' Alli.IIlC...,. During Ih...· I'JMOs till""" l'llIe:rgn! ill
ColumlJia <.I new comlliitment to the doglll..l:> 01 Irn' tr,lde, .ILl.urdlllg ll.1 111.1Il}'
a thm appeared to he hy Ih.... d... hl ultli.11 l·I,I. the:
subst:llu""llt globalization of marhts, thl'l'xpt:llaliuns lrealnl by gruwing lIh.:UlIh:
from pl.'lrulc'ulIl expons, and the illlp:lci 01 drug Ir.tfficking.
Gaitan, Reaction, and La Vio/encio
I'olilil.:> wa" rdaliv...!y peacdul during thl." Ir.lllsitlUIl IrUIII COll:>..'fV.IIIVl·lwgl·llIl)lI)'
10 the Liber.1I repuhlic .lIId through Illlllh 01 Ihl' ,Llld 11Itll IIll' 1'.l·Hh.
Ek'ctiollS b""GIllle free and fair, ltller..lctcd wilh llI11tu,11 and Illl·f...·
evidence of I>odal progrt:ss. Thi:> tranlillil inlclludl' would Itot lur I.Ulg.
'rhe init iallhnlkllge Glllle (nJln within-in the pl.·r:>Oll ul Jurgt: Elit-l.l"r (;.1 it,il I,
a lllaVl'rick Libcral who cultivatl·d a lollowillg .lIllOllg tl1l:"
:>l'cturs ufsucidy. Based l<.lrgcl), ill the (ilies, his nHlVl'llll'llllJore a It)
populist mU\'l.'lllenls ill Argentill;J, Brazil, Chik', <.Iml (JIIll'!" I.:UlJlllril·s or Latin
Ailierica, although it !<.Irked sigl1illcallt suppurt frulil COlulllbial1 industrialists.
Ililllsclf all utll:>ider, Gait.ill allalk...·d Ihe .l1ld
dlalllpiolll'li thl" empuwermellt oj vldlnary p"'·lIpk. Cun:>lfu,llllg hb j)ubli....
image wilh cart', he provided frl'c leg.1I dcfl.'lll>"'· 10 deSlilUII:' ddcndanb.
Cdling fur a (as had Raf,lel NIIIlt"Z ,I hall celliury bdure),
Gaitan spoh of the division uf Colombian soddy inlo pulitical and
"Ihe n3tional counlry." For Gait<:ln, Iht: Mn.ilional cuulltry" represt:lllcd all
who were excluded by Ihe uligarch}' trolll th.... lUlIntr(·-·llut unl),
working peopl\.· but also industrialist:>, agrit.-ulturali3b, and of Ihe:
middlt: class.
Gaitan represenli:d a Ihreat-not onl}' 10 the whu held the
under Mariano Ospina Perl:z (1946-5U), bUI abu lu 1l:.ldel:> of Ilis own
Lib... ral Part),. G.lilan diJ not ('omt: frolll the elill'. 110: d""l\oullced thl' vligarcby's
dhos of civility as 3 charade fur the perpeluation 01 puweL 110: lllubilizl'..I th...·
m.lsses. An elt:ctrifying speaker, he cuuld COllllll.IllJ l.'xtr,lOrdinary lo)'alty -to
hom Herbert Braun, The AHoHmorion or Gaitan: Public life and Urban Violence in
(Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 19851. pp. 102-3.
legacy-hy inciting pOlrti<;:lIlIl()<;tilitie". '1111<; \\'.l'_;1 p,llllllll.IIl.l .Il'llIlIll': 1l1ollll'llt III
Colomhian polilicallifc. The ass;lssin;ll illll (If <. ;,Iit,tn .. III<'CI I Ihe ,,",IV Ill' ellil I',t .In, I
reformist solutions for dcc:ldcs to (nme. (nlll'/l'nrtlfl \\',," gPllc
GOlit:ln's murder thlls led 10 " grisly ,lllc1f'r"lll1n in 1'1l1111l.11 \"Ill!. '" ,'..Ill
er<l known simply "s 1,(1 Vin/rlll i(/. 11 !'>lreldH'd Irnlll I') Ih II! 1'1(, l. wllh It ..
most c!cslruclivc period ill I'JIlR r;1. Unhdkv:Jhly, 11 Ic",tllc'd In .... 111.U1\· .1',
200,000 dealhs. lis flllHlamclllal \;1I1<;;e \\',1" virl1h:nl p.lIll".lll"lllp_ Illlcll"lIu,1
hy the (;ait:lll assa<;sination :Jill! hy ,h(' clho" "I the ( ..1,\ \\',11 III p.lll t1
emergell from long-st;Jnllinl: velldella<; helwcell 11\·,,1 I l.11l" Ih,ll h.I.1
lillIe 10 do with ideology. And from Ihe mid 19r;n" In IIH' Inld I'U,I,., II I"..k
the form of vioknce. as lll:tr,lllclin).!. grolll'" "'''11,:111 CP1I1PIlIh ,:.lIn
instead of political power (hy o,frce \\lflrkt',.!'> ,tl 11;11 H"l Ilnlt·. l!ln
could hring l:lndowncrs 10 their knccs). C:ollLenlr.llcd in "1'("( Ifll ,,,,:lon.....1
thp country. including the coffc(' helt". J tI V,fllr"ri,/ 11"11t·lllt'II, .... inlll' 1t·,1
trauma on the national society al large.
In protest :lgainst whatlhey regarded:ls the Cnnservnllv(' ,,1)11"(" lilt'
Liberals ahstained from the presiclcnlial C1f'(tillll of JI).1I}. Thi" g.IW l'rl' .. IIlt'TlI
Ospina an excuse to close Congress. pack Ihc lIllIl't" Willi pMI\' 1,,\.II1"h,
and declare a slate of siege. Aided hy the pnlkc. Cflll"l'!"\',lll\'I' 1111.1", ",III,\'(1 .Hld
burned the of Iwo of thc IIlIl.. t imporl.lI1l ,11I01 rt'''pl'' It·d Ilht'l.d
Angry crowds react violently to Gaitan's hy ,,"itrkinCI <;ymhnl .. flf
traditional authority in the bOgOt070.
Gaitan's slog.m 'n pueblo es sU{JCrior (I sus dirigentes' ('The pueblo is superior 10
its leaders') . W<l<; the most far-reaching of all his slogans, for it pointed to ,10
twprturning of Ihe HKlal order. Gailan Ihreatened the le<ldefs with Whill IhC'y
most feared. an ochlocracy [rule by the rabblel. and he offered his followers a
Yel another ma<;lerfully crafted slogan-'Yo no soy un homb,e, soy un pueblo'
(" ,1m nOI a man, I am a pueblo')-reunited the t\'YQ worlds that Gaitan had
separ'lIed and reversed. He represented a npw order with himself as head of thp
f1o(lollol. The <;Iogan contradicted the tradilional distinction between pI!
V,'II' and public life. G,'itan vias claiming to be an entirely public figllrp for
rp,l<;ons Ihat wele precisely Ihp opposite of those of the cOflvivialislm: they
separated Ihcmselve'i from Ihe pueblo; he was giving himself over 10 H. For
hi.. followers the slogan meant that their leader, a distinguished with tht>
chillacter to ch.,llenge the (onvivialislas, was retlllning to the puehln hom
whIch he had corne.
("><'Ilt.1n'<; other major slogan, 'Par /a 'estourac;on morol y democro"ro dE' hI
'<'lJlihfir(l' ("Tow;ud tht" and democralic restoration of Ihe nation"), suc
cll'lclly GlplUred the clusiv"" ielpal of a return 10 a social order Ihat thp ron",v'rJ
IiHIlS had betrayed." mllst have produced an intense feehng of racial isolalion 111
the white ehle, which saw allY restoration, .lny return to the past. thaI was not
led by them, as a return to the indigenous, pre· Hispanic origins of Ihe nallon.
Even Gaitan's 'iimple call 10 a'ms-"A 10 CDrgo'-contained a meaning thaI is
not readily app;ucnI. The word cargo also signifies a physical burden, a heavy
welghl to be carried. Every time Gaitan c.. lled the pueblo to action at the end of
his m;lIions, he was eliciting images of the daily world of labor. Gilitan ended
1ll0'il of his speeches hy repeilling Ihese slogans. As Ihe crowds grew accus"
lomed to the rilll.. 1, he would c..11 out. 'Pueblo,' and the crowds responded: 'jA I"
rorqa!" 'iPueh!o," 'iPO' /0 rPlrourociOn moral y democrcitiCfl rie 10 republrco"
',Pueblo!' 'iA 10 vkroflo!' 'iPupblo!" 'j(onrra 10 oligorquia"
Mobilizing Masses, Empowering People
Rhetoric has always been an source of political power, especially in Latin
America. Artfully and thoughtfully, Jorge Eliecer GaHan appealed to his followers
with a series of carefully crafted slogans. As analyzed by historian Herbert Braun,
Gilit<ln's plllilses often held multiple meanings:
himself, nol to the syslelll or its leaders or even its institutions. To Colombia's
traditionalists, Gailan was an upstart-dangerous and unpredictable.
On April 9,1948. Gaitan was shot by;H1 unknown assailant in the center of
I\ogola. Ilis assassin:ltioll prompted massive riots lhroughollt the city, the 50-
called ImgOlflzo. At firsl lhc uprising horrified and unified the traditional politic:!1
clites. Once (;:lilan hecame a martyr, however, lhe e1iles oplcd 10 destroy his
1'/ ·1'1,·tII/'1l ,tud U 1::'/I,·,t,ldor. Tllrowll UII Ih.... ..', 1111..' l.ibt'rals
11'1"111..·,1 unil:.. Vit,ll.:ll(\:' and \'lltllltl'l'viok'IICC nlOlllll\·11. Approximald)'
;,U,lJtlU I'\'opk \\'\'11' killnl ill IlJ'10 .duIIO:.
\Vill I l.ilwr,d.. ah:.tainiilg I rUlli tll\· dn t iun, Cullso:rv.ltiv.., c.lndid.lIe I..IUr('.II1V
('I'lI11'1 th.... III 1'150. 1\11 UpCll adrnirt.'r 01 POri ug;:1 I
,I lid h .111\ 0':' "ip.UII , (;,"III\:'Z tu (':.t.lhli ..h .111 uhr.l(OIl:>l·rv.. ti".... order Oil
t.· .. Ullllll1i.. lIldll .. tll,llizaliun umlt'l guid.IIILC, 1,:01111'01 (;:llld rl'llres:.iun) oflabor
Illllllll'>, ,Iud d,'dlll,ll d" \"llIdl l.ihcrals unwittingl}' t'ontributt'tl by
,111,>t,llllillP. tntJll d"Lliull'>, E;:lgcr 10 dt'vdopmt'nt, Gomez also promoted
Ilit.' ,.\ 1',111"11111 til lh,· ulunl 1")'':, inlt .I'>tlllttun:-dctt rirk,llioll, tran:.portat ion, ;:I.lld
\ "11111111111\ ,Itlllll".
\ d t '"111.... 1 r,tli .dulIl oj lin' mllit.1I )'. \Vh.... n he '1lIl'lIlph,'lI tu relllUv\:, C"'Ilt'ral
t ,11,>1,1\ II 1'111111.1 ,I'> \ ul Illl' .Inned ill 1<)53, Roja:> re:>pondt't.!
wllh ,I "IHlp d'l'l.11. t )1I\'lll lir:.t .ll'l'> wa:> til offer ;:111 10 guerriJlas. l11u:>tly
I Ibt.·I,d,>. Ihll'> brillging Ihe 111''>1 ph.l:.e ill III Viu/t!tlda to.1ll end (.IS W.b llIentione't.!
\',1111,,'1 ..1 :.\:,\olld ph.l:'l· \\'ouhl :.lrdlh 10 1<)64). In:>pired by the t'X:llllplt:' of Juan
1',",," III ArglAlltina, Roja:> .ttklllpl,,·d 10 furm his OWI1 political base', the
1\111\'11111\'1110 lk
i\u:ion Nadoll.Jl, ,lIld hi:. UWIl poliliL.ll pany. the Third Force-
\"llIdl hulll 111"'01' pal'lle':' jler.. d\ ...d .I:." Ihr,'.I1. I1kl' 1'('1'011, Ro)":. sought to
,ldv,lllll' 111\' of Wt II IlL'II , ill.. urporaling WOlllen into thc poli..:e furce.
,II'I'IJIlIIIllg Ih\' 1i1:.1 \\'Olll.lll guvt'rnol .lu\1 Iho: fil':>t W0I1);:111 ... ;Ibilld Illinbkr in
Iht' 111'>1tll) ul 1111.: (;(Jlllllry. ,I lid :.u!fr.lgl' .Illd lull pullllL.ll rights luI'
WIIIIII'Il III ).;'·IIt.· ..t1. MUI\:,UV..'f', Ill' alll'lllpkd 10 tUlTY :.uppurt alllung
WOl k'·I".
A...111 ....... Ullulllh.: u·bb gripped lh.... LIIUlltfY, Columbia':> traditional diks
lllllll"d ,lg,lin:-.t hill!. III 1\)5h a lI),ditiulI ul and .... rv;ltivl'S furmed all
,1111,111\.\' h. lIlI .. t H.up:. !lOIIl pll\\'l.'r. Still OpP\):.itIUll muunted fr0111 the dlllrch alld
IllIlll 1I1l."r... hallb, and banker:., whu 11l:1I1.lged 10 muunl a gt'ul."ral
'>llikl.·. III l"11l:.11.111.:\1 1.... :.ignnllJ\lI11 uffkl' ill 1:/\'01' uf ,I 11Iililary jUllt.l
IIL,II ,,\\'1 .. .1\'" ,I p'·,lu-(ultr,llI:-.iti'llIlu.1 LOll:-.litutiull.d gUV"'rlII lll'llI.
Tltl'w dev\'I"jllll\'lIb Sl·rv..' ttl highliglll lwu dlstinctivl' ,:h.ll.. h.::kri:>lits or
... Ll,;'lIl11I')' l)olLtit":>. nlll' w.. IIIOtlc:-.1 eXpt'rkllLC' with military
Illt .... IV'·llli,ll!. 'l'lll' Rojas Pi.lilla dh:lattll':.hip wa:> llllquC:.tiullably autllUritarian-
IHlt it W.I:-' rd.lIivdy Illild and I>rid, tilt/II.: populist thall cOllsC'r\,;Itive in ido:ological
Ilfi,,'llt.ltioll. Unlik,· t·oulllrk:. oftl1l: Southel'll CUlle, Colnmbia nl'Vl'r had to endUft'
.1 MbUlc.luLr.lllC autlwritari,lll" fegillic ur .I :-.tatc-:>poll:.uret.! w"lr" againsl
:t1lq!,.... d :.uhv..... III sub:.equL'1l1 Ihe Colombian military would exat
iltllu\'IILl' 1)11 lhl' puliti..:al <llId .l ...llllire a cun:.iderahk degrcl:' of
alHuliomy, BUI il wuuld 1101 overthrow elected ci"ili;:lIl government:>.
SL'nJllJ, COIUllIbi,I':' tran:.iliun to electoral demucracy in Iht' late 195Us was
' IIlIl'''''lItllll. That' 11t1 wav.... of poliliGlI assassinations, no
hlul,d.. II\·ll ill Ille :.Ired:-., 111I t'xlelll,ll W.II, l:.:,:,cIltially, tht' rt.'lurll to dcmocracy
fl':>u!lnl Ii'll/II all 'llllil'ablt.- b.lfg.lill .Jlliung Iradiliol1.ll dites, Tht' process w;:t:>
r.... lll.llk.t1lly :>1I11)oth. III rl.·lnl:,pl'cl, il 111.1)' been tou :>llluOlh,
The National Front
Emcrgillg from the anti-Uojas coalition of 1956 57, the Natiunal FrOlit reslllkd
from .1 lormal pact between tht,;' majorities uf both lhe Libt:ral ;:Ind COllst.'rvativc
partie:>, Untkr the terms of the agr....clll\:'ut, the prl.:sidclicy would ,titanate bel wn:ll
Liberals and Conscrv;:I.tives, and all positions ill th.... br.ulchl's of gOVt'rIllllt'lIt,
Ihrollghoul Ihc (;ountry. wuuld be dislrilHlted evcnly bdwt'en Iill.· two partks. In
eflcct il created all automatic mechalli:>lll that wuuld rL'movc lIltLertaillt)' frum
declOral politics. Endorsed b)' Ill'arly 95 p..'rcent of th.... participants in a natiullal
plebiscite in late 1957, the compact was scheduled to la:.t until IlJ74. III 1968 tht'
tWO parties re;lChet! a suppleml'nlary p:l(t cdit'd th... tll'.sm(}lIt\' (ur Mt.!islllanlllllg""
which confirmed an understanding th;:l.t there wuuld be ,Ill Mrl/uilable" reprt.':>ellt.l
lion of till' two partk:> in the nalional cabinet .Ifkr till' l'xpirallOtl of Iht' Front
III 1')7,1.
Tho: National Front had sewral gO.lls, ant' key purposc was 10 bring"l1 ... lId 10
tllc Vio/e"da by frl'l'zing thc of pu!itiGti
.I:>sl'ls, A second was to restore constitutional dt.'lllocrai..'y and tht' (,tho:. pf ovility
or COllvH'lmda. A third, of (O\lr:>t', was to ensure that politicians of hoth partit.-:.
would have access to pOWl.:(, As they learned during till' ROjas Pinilla di.::t;:l.torship,
all)' share of power would be much more plea:>ing thnn nOIlt.'.
Wilh access to office guaranteed, political <.'lllnpelilion during Ihe Nalional
FrunllOok pla..:e nOI:.u much bdwc... llthl·l)arti.... withillihe parties. This It'd tt)
the trivialization 01 politi.::al dbolssion anti a plt'thora uffa<.liunal infighting, And
by tlt'finition, thc FrUllt denied political l'l'prcsl'lltation to thu:>e who did 1I0t
:>upport the traditional parties. So it ended partisan fighting bdWI.'t'1l the Liber;:tls
alld th... COllservatiws; by excluding all others, howevCl', il pruvokt:d Ill"W of
Nul' did the Natiull;:l.! Front lead to a visiolwry slId.1I polk),. Onc uf thl;' 1Il0st
illlpUl'I<lnt bsues for Colombia W;:IS ;tgrariall rdunn. I..... gislatioll adupkd under the
Libl.:ral Albertu L1cras Canmrgu by Cull:..... rv:lliVt'
lluillt'l'l1lu Leon Vah:nda (1962-66). It \V.IS rl.::.lIsdlalt'U b)' .Illothl;·l' Lil>t'ral.
CMlos I.h:ra:. Restrepu (1966-70), wlJol.:llcouragt::t1 peasant 111obiliz:tliuIlS. Later,
undt'r another Conservative, the governlllt'llt su:.pended land distribulion in 1972,
and the leaders ofooth parties agrecd to abandon the clltire p!'Ojl'Ct. In its place. the
Liherals proposed an income tax onl;:llId-which would presumably encourage the
salt oflands-butthat proposal WaS blockcd by tht' COll:>l'rvativl's in the lalt' 1970s,
Such a prolonged partisan stalemate provukcd discuntent throughuut the

As might havt.' bt'en I.:xpected, Ihis silU;:llion g;:tvt.' ri:.e 10 arllled revolutionary
movements representing politic;:ll elements th;:1t were \:'xcluded frulll thl.: National
Front. First to ;'lppear was the Ejercito dl' Libl'racion Nadonal (EI.N. or N;:ltional
Liberation Army). cre;:lted in 1962 by university stlldl'llb who dt'1l0UIKt'd
Mparliamenlary cretinism" of the Commullist P.JrI y and, by ex.lension, Iraditional
e1iles and the National Front as a whok.lnilially fucllsed on urban areas. the ELN
exlt'nJed its operations in the late 19605 to the countryside, where it mel with a
210 l'AltTTWO· CAo.;FSTlJI)II·"; 11
decisive military dele:Jt in 1973. ,\s distress mounled :JlllOllg r011l/1('.(;IIIIS. the EI.N
wOIlld 1:ller regroup, and b), Iht, 19ROs it beganlnullching s)'slelll<llic and repealed
:lItacks on oil pipelines oWlled by U.S. companies,
The 1\ rlll:ldas Revnllll.."inllarias de Colomhia (f/\ RC, or Revolutionary
Armed Fnrces ofC..olomhia) elllergctl in 1966. The FARe had its roots in COlll-
munist led peasant agitation dilting ha("k tnthe 1920s, and. unlike the EI.N, it had a
hugelr agr;uian focus. From experience in Ihese struggles. the FARe's preeminent
le'lder. Manuel Marulanda. h;ll! ;lctlllired the nicknamc
III rcaclioll 10 all;'lcks frolll governmellt forcc:". the FARe: developed lll{lbile
gucrrill;l Hnits for offensive ::lCtinn. In Ihe 19XOs FARC.lradership hroke with Ihe
(:ol1ll1luni<;1 I'arl)' nlHI hecamc nn independenl revolutiollOlry orgOlniznt ion with ito;:
own mililnry and political doctrines. The FARe nlso formed t::lCtic;l1 nllinnces \.... ith
l1an."o-1 raffkkers. and hy Ihc 1990<; it was Ihe musl pt)\\'erful guerrilla movemen t in
In the l1lenntimc, Cuslavo I{()jas I'inilla hnd returned tn the polilk:ll st:lgc in
the 19(,()s :lnd estnhlished nil Opposilion parI)'. I'H.:cillll Nacioll:ll Popular (or
I\NAPO). 0111 with less than 4 percent of till' Vole in 1962. I\NAJ'O
sonn hecame .1 potent dedoral forcc-Ihu<; Ihreatening the NOllionOlI Front.
whose hn<;ic premise was a I.ihernl-Con<;ervOltive tlunpoly 011 power. a
credo of MMlCialism on ChrisliOlIl hases in the Colomhian Rojas Pinill,l
directed his nppenl to Ihe coulllry's urban lll:lSseo;:. 1\ n:ltiollalisl. he sought 10
impose re.<;;lrictiolls nil foreign inveslment; a social cOllservntive. he endorsed <1 hnll
on hirlh ..:onlrol. In SOme wn)'s Rojas hore all un..:alln)' resemhlance 10 Jorge
(-;ait:tn. Whl.... had so effectively mohilized the working c1nss and urh;lll poor
dllring the 19'1Os.
Ao;: Ol resull of A I\P()'s rise,lhe National Front losl credihility in the eleclioll
of 1970. people thollght Rojns Pinilln wOl1the mosl vOles. On c1eclioll night
Ihe government cnncclled lhc trnnsmissioll ofresulls. however, nnd the nexl da), it
:l11nounced the victory of the offidnl cnndida Ie. Ihe C:onserval ive M isael Pnsl ra !la.
The orficial tally awarded ANAPO 35 percenl. o;:till a respeclnhle showing.
President Carlos I.leras Restrepo. an otherwise disl inguished statesman, conllrmed
this outcome and promplly imposed a curfew in the nation's major cities. Initially
hniled OlS a triumph for delllocrncy, the National Front came to an ignominious
The disputed cleclioll of 1970 spawned yet another guerrilla movemelll, the
April 191h movcment (or M-19. named for the date of the eleclion). A radic'll
splinter group fmlll I\NAI'O, urbnn in origin and (ocus. 1\'1-19 was initiall)'
innuencetl hy the (temporar)') success of Monloneros in Argentinn and
Tupanlaros in Uruguay. II mounted some spectacularorerations. In a monulllen-
tally s)'mbolic allack, M-J9 chagrined the Colombian mililnry hy snatching the
sword of Simon noliv<lr. In 1980 ils adherents seized the embOlssy of the
I)olllinicnll H,epuhlic, holding diplolllOlts and others hoslage. And in November
1985. M· J 9 guerrillas seized Ihe I'alace of lust icc. prompting Oln all-0I11 Olssaull hy
the milil:try; the resultanl pit<-hcd hattie led to the deaths of twelve justices of the
Suprelllc Cnurl. all forl)'-one guerrillas mvn!v('IL :lnd 1lI,1Il) 1.1\\')'el ... ,md 11111"" III
cit i7ellS. (Over Ihe door of the I'al;ll C of lllst a e, thrOll}:h willi h .1 rmy '-Il1k.. I' ,11.001 I"
mOW down Ihe arc wrilten Ihl' wnnl" "Clllplllhi:ln.... Irlll'" h.I\·(· j:I\TIl }tHI
independence. 1... "I\\"s will give )'011 frecthHl1. - Thi .. Il,ft)' rhell till \V.l"" '\'el ,,1,.11 I. ,\\,', I
h)' h;lfsh re:llit),.) Thereaflt'r viewed;ll:l negati\"e I1ghl. 1\1 ,', 1'\'('lIll1.llIr' II....., I"
:lban<lon armed slruggle ill order to p;lllidl',lle in t i\lhan poltlll\
In the 197-1 election Ihe first wilhout Inl the 1\\"" parlie.. 1IIt'I 11'1'1.11.
(l\'crwhellllcd the Cnnscrvaliv('". 1\11;-'11"0 1."\'c/ i\ h( IIchcll (1 hl" ...nll 01 1\ If, 'II ..... I "1" '/
I'tllnarejfl) hccalllc prc<;idenl alle1" l()rgl11g .m .11l1,llhl· Willi ,I 110111111111'" 11'-1,1111\"
polilician. lulio C:i'!'>ar Tmh,ly, a move Ih.l1 dl ... dlmlonc,1 IlJ,lI1\' t III/l'Il .... lilt' 111><"1,11...
dnllunaled hoth hOII<;"!' 01 In' a 1,1111' "I 1ll·.llly}. I. \ In, 11\ It I.-d III ,I .. '
lillie 10 improve the policy prn<l'''''' howe\·cl". .Illd I1l.1l1\" 11l7cn.. 1Wl .1I1lC" ,.h'·I1.llt'd Ir, '111
nalion:11 politic.<;. Disillll<;ion spre-ad eV('1l lmllle!" .1', 1\1.....11'1 01 lilt' 111\1.1,11
mathine, won the parly\: nOlllill,lfln!l and bel,lIlll' plt·... idclll III I"'·X.
('olomh;a hil hy Ihe <!chi lri .. i.... I,.nn): 111i' :.. IIllIIII·.II.lllllll "I Ikl1'.. III"
IklallClIr. a {:ollscrv.llive (1')X2 X(,). In lOIlII.I ... 1 10 /\lgl'1I1111.1 ,Iud t· ... III·' 1.111\
r-,1cX;t o. Cn!(Jll1hia h,ltl ki'pt plIhlt\ hOI 1 t.. Illlldt·... 1 lnd.... hilI pi 1\ .11,' tld'l'
illl"urrcd hy cnt('rpn"c<; \,.1 ('.lled .In all,le 111111 1... 111.11 t I,"I .... 1" .1"'1... 1
wilh tleht s<.heduling.the Inlerll:lllflll.ll 1\111111'1.11"\' 1-I1IId 1..11"\\'1'01 II .. " ... n,d ""IH \· ..1
ecolltllllic nrlhndox)' h}' del1l:1ndllll!, ,1 tlr,I"" 1"1'(llhll"ll III 1'111>11' ""1'·'111111111"'.
which re(luired a (re('/e on pllbli( .. ('(.101" \\',1$:('" .llltl \ nl .. III (,111\ ,.111>11 .1Ilt!
(tH' lhe poor. a11<1 t1l'v;duatinn !II lilt' wl11< h 11,1.1 Ihr ,·tk, I "I l'lnlet Inll:
domeslit" manu(aclllri'r.. fftllll f'Jldgn \('Inpt'tllll'li
The presidential hntollthcn p,IS"t'tltll VllgllI" H,lI(.l (t'IX(, ')(1) •.1' .hcI.d 11 ..
hrought I he t/csmnll/r In a llll"e h)' ahalHlt lnlng Ihe. PIH epl III .1 hll',lll 1'.111 ,.II'lnt'! .
Barco hegan to <lisJl\:1lllle Ihe l:ldlf prnlC\ IUlll 01 ,Il,me'" It III. hl'.11 \", .1 prl" ,...... 111.11
would hc completed ill the early 1<)')0.... r"t'l1 "". gll\'l nl1.1 gil '"I" an, 1\1. 1lj:,.11 11+.
wcre gaini ng sl renglh, and I'"hll' al vinklll t' (1I11t i III let! III Ill' 'II Il I. 111 1\ I'IX".
Ihe assa.o;:sinalion of I iher;;!l prc"idl'lllial lanllid,lll' 1 Ill'" (·,Jlll .... {;.ll.ill. "I,lcl."II,\
drug traffickers. senl shock w,nT<; Ihrolq::htllil (.olllllll>l.11l .... ,\wl)'. III .111 dt"ll I"
;lddress these challenges. Bnr(tl made hi... n1l1..1 "'Ignllll.lni tit'. ''''11111 III ",,1.1 .1
plehiscite Ihat would pn"e the \\'ny for.l Ul1l ... tilllli
III respol1se to popular d(,lll:lncl. I.ihcral l'arlv P1"(''''11 1<'11 I Ct·.... ll (,,1\'11 I,' (1')'111 '111
over!':lwlhe clectinll of:1 cnnO;<;elllhl}, III 1)f'lC"lnhcl 1'1
10. ,\ "'1'1·••. 11
feature of this pnlc('s" wa:- an ofleI" Ilf :1l1\lIe... ty 1'1 gIICIIIII,1 11 I' >\'.'I11CI1 I....111
invitation lhat was promptly accepled h)' Ihe r\'1-19 llU>\'l'nH'l1l. WillI h het .IIll" .1
signillcant force within fhc assC'mhly ilO;:clf. The held ...(' ..... "11<; nnlilnlitl
1991, al which time Ihey approved a new lharlel. 11 III <;tl('llgllll'1l kl'y
inst itulions, protect civil righls. open channel<; (Ill" (it i"ell 11.111 h ill,.t i, 'II ill 1'/11111< '"
nnd regulale the rcl:llionshil' helween Ilu' exclllli,,<, allll 1cgl ... 1.111\"· hl.111l Ill· ....
Iluleed. if \\Ia" hope<llhnllhe Ilew tOll"Iillllu'll w.,tll.1 \\,olk 11111.1t It-.... l·...,II .. IIIllI:
2.12. 1'1'111 IWl). 11' ... I,"JUIIlI ... :('IIANt;rOVEI(TIf\IE
'IUO.lJtlt..l -- ---------
o 1k;!I'l.' J
• t "IUl"I".,
U 1'1""
l.utI.OUIJ ---
(princip.\lIy the Uuitt...·d .tlld Europt.'), Ihc)' could al:llllil L' lIt.t.').. IVe.: 1>lUlib. OUl illg
the 1990::., hO\wver, produl:Iiull d\:'dine.:d ill Bulivi'l .lIld I'au lor a varid)' ul
iIl( Iud ing guv\:,rnlll\:, repl - it Ild CUllllllhia II lIIlJll1t::';1I0.\ I,irkl.'d Ill'
til\:' slack. As is ['ew.lled ill FigurL' 7.2, Colombia bt·G\I\Il'th,,· world's leading ur
coca Ic.:af by Ihc lllid-1990s alld would c:ollliJHI\:' its aSLclld.tlKY, plllducill!J, nearly
60U,OOU L'stilll:lled lllL'tric tum in 2000. l3y lOn."\, Colombia Ihoughl to produc:L'
oflhe cocaine l:OllMl1l1l.'d in the United Stal,':>'.
Drug cartels undermined Ihe authorilY of tht;." Culomblan guvL'fnmcnt In
s\:,vt;."ral Firsl, Ihey .... llIployed violl.'lIcC aud inlimid.lliull. uud"',,
Escobar, tilt: Medellin carld w.lged virtual \Val' Ihe gov"'nIlIlL'nl in Iii\:' bll'
191:50.') and l.'.ldy 1990s; in particular, Ihc}' WL'fL' f(';'lcling ag.llmt an ul/kial
10 extradite drug tr..lffickt'rs for trial inlhL' UnilN! $1"tL'.'). To Iheir point,
Ihey of pro.')ecutors, law cnfur""L'IlIL'nl "gents, and
politic"ll1gurt's. Mt'ddlin wcnt a.') to blow up all AV1;,IIlC:1 airliner
that was thought to be carrying police informants. Four oul of presidcnli,,1
candidales in the 1990 election process were shot to death, Secolld, llarco-tr:Jf(jckers
compromised government authorities through the extL"nsive and 1.'f1i.">("tive us\' of
briber)', Third, Ihey won public support by prl;'senling in Robin 1loud
soccer teams, building playgrounds. charitic!>, and
tht;." like. Fourth, the drug lords Jisplayed a bra:tell of ililpunit y. Th.: weakllc::..')

Figure 7,2 Coca leaf Production: Colombia and Other Countries, 1990 2000
NOle: Estimate'!> of coca and yield figure'!> lor Colombia wcle revl'!>NI upward In t9'J9,
beglnlllng wIlh dala for 1995.
I U OfII(\.' ul N.II"It",1 [)IlJolJ ('M,lllo! ',11,,1, h ':dl,,,,,,,11 lIu<j ""111"'11,1' J> 1"' ... ·J'u",I, ... 1 It
V.I"II' Huu·.c'. lIJUj) I ",I ... '>Uf'j ,1"111<.'111. T"l.!t· 4"
p,,',au' ,I lid 11.111011.11 r,,'(olll:ili.llioli. Offering;,t judgment,
politi, ,iI ","I,,'ull .. 1 Cl'I'C:.I.1 Ulloa de.:c1ared: "It wOlild 1I0t be an eX.Iggcr;l.
tiun III 111,11 Ilw lIew I<)<)J Colombiil wdl t"ndowl;'d as as
II ..: !'lOklltl.11 lur d"·lIluI..I ,llIl.. concerncJ. '"
I k"pllc.: it.. Ille.: !leW I..OlhtilUll011 creakd its share ul probll;'llls. By l;'
li ..1111l1; III \IIIAXc.:Llltiw .llld kgblatiwappoinllllc'nts lor thl;' IltajUrity of
llll Ih,,' Illp ,ldlllilll:>.lr<ilive.: \.:0111'1, il h:IllIL'd tu politicize the already lottering
jlllli,i'li 111'.111\ 11 H)' 11l.lIHl.ltillg lilc Irallskr 01 lle"r1}' one-half of lla.tiollal rt'Vl'lllICS to
Illllnl, ip,tllll",,, ,lIId III lIvinl.i,t1 dq).lrllllenb, il brought aboul a Iheal crisis for the central
.. 1,IIl', B) Ill.: Inllll.ll ion or IIlUlllPIc.: p.lrties, il \.:onlribuled to Ihe fragmen-
I,ll il III 'It Pi Ilill' ,II !I)r(l·.'). Alltl hy l.'.')I.II)lislll1lg a vile prt'sid\:'llCY and runoff elections for
IJI'" )'. it 11<)1 IIIlJy lllllh:J'lllill\:'d Iht.' dOlllinanc:c of Ihe Ub.:ral Pany-bul also
\W:d'L'IIL'" Ihv 1l,IIIOll'S IUllg standing pany systeill.
(Jill' \It)'>llivl' Irl.'lld was increasl'd ellfranchiscmL'nt for WOllll.'ll. Uy 2002,
Wlllllt'll Ildd 12 11n'''\:'111 III IbL' SL'at:. ill lh\:' lower HUllS\:' and 13 percenl in tht'
.... ,·11.11,,· JU:'>I .1I)tllIl Ill,,' .'),III1L· pmporliolls those in Ihe Ullil('d Equally
.. iguilil,II11, WtllIlt'!1 hdd l1\:'.trly une-liflh of the.: ..::abind positions. (Indeed, a
\\'11111.111 \\IHtld WI \1,.' .1" til dl'l"'I1:''''.) UlllikL" soml' oth..:r L.llin AIllt'fk"an
l.lillllllll"'l, t "JltHIIIII,1 did Ilul L·:.I.lbli:.II.\ law'" for fL'lllillc r\'prl.'sentaliun in
p.llll.... l'kdl)J,11 I.HII il c"'elllu:1Jly louk the unusual Skp of rl'''-!uirillg thai
W"III,,'1I 1I1,lh' tip III p..'rl.l'1I1 01 d\:'dsioll lIlakl.'rs in Ihc public sector.
I ).... pll,,· lilt: II"'W l.\)11.:-.tilutlt1l1, Culumbl-I wuuld fil(l.' th..· pro::.pcLt of dbinlc·
gr.ltltlll 1I1IIHlglltl1l1 Ii II' I'NU:.. (Jutl.lw oigalllz;:llions posed St'riou:>. :llld mounting
hi .,I,IIL' .llIlhunl )'. OnL' .')Ullrc\:, ofd.lllga Glillc from n.lfeo-trafficking
11t.11 1II,Idl' ClhJfllIUU.') plullts lrolll Iht' \:'xport of cocaine, principally 10 the Uniled
"'1,llt':>'. bllnl.dly prulle tu viul\:'IILC \\'.IS th,,' Medellin carld, ulld('r till,.'
1.-.11 I\:'I ",I 11 P III I',lhlu E:>, who lin.tlly 1lIl'1 his dl.'alh in a shoot-uut in IatC' 1993.
Th,' U.S. gtlVClllllll'lIt W:I", dl'cply involv"'d in Ihc hunt for Escobar, Jispatching
Inllllil,;d and a l1lilitary IL'.lIlI. And all Ihe while, Washingtun
ill::.bkd Ih.11 th.: L.IlI:>.e.: uf ilHLiI drug Irafl'icking came from production in Soulh
J\lIwriLa, I.IIIIL·" th.tli consumptiun within the United Stales.
,\It"" F:''s d,,'mise, Cilrld from the city of Cali «Ime to the fore,
vil/klll, IIIVIl.' :::.uhtl\:', ;alld murc 011 profits thail on thc elimination of
,·Ill.'llli,·... WIl"'1I Ihi::. glllujJ W.I:> dbb.lJldnl ;,lIld broken up a result of top-level
,1111'''''', drug Ir.tllh king t:ullliIllIL'd-nuw ill thl' hands of dozens of smaller c;.lrtels,
I",,,,.') u·lIlr.II,II:·d, vi:>ihl.." :tllllmurL' dill'icult 10 trace, Colombi.l Ihus confronted
,I "lIupIL' 1.111: .1:' IOllg .IS Ihl'rc.: W..IS strung demand for illicil drugs ill foreign
11l.If·kd.'), npni,t1I}' Ihe Unilc.:J St:ltt'S, there would be supply.
;\.') drug L.trtds werc rbing and Colombia shifted its poSition in thc
I'r\,duLlioli 01 l..ot.:aint..'-lIlade frum coca Icavc..'S grown only in South Aml.'rica.
Tr:tllilillll,llIy, Columbian Irafllckl.:."rs rdied on Bolivia and Peru for their r.lW product,
pill dhl.,lllg lIl,,1 k.lVC's (til' l.ULil alld 1r,.IIlslorllling it illtu powdered cocainl' ill
d.ll1dL'.')II1'\' Iilhurallirks. In ..,frc\·t, this gave Colombian traffickers a
Vit tll,t1I1H'llllplll)' Oil world cocaillc Shipping their goods to overseas markets
21'1 l'AWrTWO" LA:-.E:-'TUI>rI·:S:CIlAN(;EOVEHTll\IF
7 .. (\,lfll11hia: ( Iv,III\" .1I1d \'",l"fl" 'I'·
of tll(' judicial syslem and pnlke corruptinll heGlme especially conspicuollS. At one
point Pablo Escohar. for cxample. had suhlllilted to delentioll only ,lner lengthy
negotiations wilh ClutllOrilies; he then to conduct husiness in
a special :lnd luxurious prison ofllis own design. from whkh he lalcr walkecl away.
In its confrontations with drug traffickers, the government secmed powerless.
The seconcllhrc;lt Glme from guerrilla groups, which gained strength through
the 1980s ancl 1990s. The FARe acquired econ01llic leverage through its
wilh n;'l!'co-lr;lffickers, and it moved directly into the cultiv<ltion of coca, Illar-
iju<lll:'l, and opium poppies. According to official estimates. the I:ARC expande(l
from 3600 insurgents in 1 10 aboul 7000 ill 1995 and as many <lS \5,000 (or even
20,0(0) hy 2000. I)urillg.lhe same period, the ELN grew from only 800 insurgents
in the mid-l<JROs 10 5000 by 2000. In sharp contrast to other countries of Latill
America. where revolutionary movements had all but disappeared, Colombia
continued to face serious ch:lllenges frolll ;nllled insmgencies.
Relationships hetween drug cartels and guerrilla groups werc Illercurial <llH.l
changeahle. Alliances were tnctical. instrumental, ;lJld often eXlortionntc. In cxch:1llge
(or <l -tax· 011 drug profits. for instance. gllerrill<l groups sometimes furnished milita,)'
prolection for traffickers and COGI-growing ((Il11peshlOs. By the laIc 1990s. 100. il
appeared thilt the FA RC was actively involved in the cultivation of (ocn le,l( To this
extent guerrilbs and trarrickcrs shared common interests. At the same time. conflict
<'Inc! lellsions persisted. M-19 anc! oLher guerrilla groups alteml,tcd h) extract rall.<;OIll
fmlll drtlg traffickers hy kidnapping relalives of c;lrtel memhers: in (urious response.
the cartels unleashed ;1 vicious c;llllpaign of -death to kidnappers' (mlU'rfc (l s(,C/fcslm-
dOl·es). On their part. nOllvenll riche drug traffickers sometimcs used their v;\sl profit.e;
to purchase rmal estatcs-thus joining the landed oligarchy against which agrarian
n..hels h:ld t:lken lip ;Inns in the first pl:lce. Guerrilla:" <Inc! ll'nffickers fought one ,mother
just :l:" often :lS they forged
Dircctly and indirectly. these developments led to the emergence of slill allolher
lhre:lt: :lnned units lh:lt presented themselves as groups. If
the government could llol prolecl its cilizens, according 10 maximum leader Carlos
Caslal-w, the people would h:lve to (end for themselves. In f;lctthe paramilitary groups
functioned <IS self-apPointed vigiklllte ullits th<lt unleashed violent <llt<lcks for a broa<1
variety of motives-economic. political. and personal. \-Yith a v;lgucly right-wing
idcology. paramilitary units lended to offer their selVices to prominent landlords.
\\'e<lllhy businessmen. and, at times, opportunistic drug trnrfickers. By 2000 they
were said to have 4500-5000 members. Evidence showed th<lt paramilital1' units had
close lies to the Colombian armed forces and lhat their ranks included soldiers.
policemen. and even ex-gucrrillas.
Triangular conflicts aillong drug cartels, guerrillas. and p<lramilitaries inDicted
frighlfullcvels of violence on Colombi<ln sociely. From lhe 1950s through the cnd of
the 19705. homicide rates in Colombia averaged around 30 per 100.000 citizens-the
highest in 1... "Itin America, but still within range of other violent countries (including
Brazil, Mexico, Nical":lgua. and Panama). Then levels in Colombia began to escalate:
hy 1990 Ihe rale h"d c1imhccllo 8(, per 100,000, ;lIld by 1995 il \Vas 95 pCI' 100.000.
Assaults, kidll:lppings. <lnd assas.e;il1atioIIS mClIJ.lted slc;hlilr tlln Illgll(llll Ilu'I,lll' I'}'In,..
Violence had returned to the bnd of /.0 \lillft'II';a. The trnflk in drug... \V.\\ (11"'11\".1
lllajor provocation <IS Medellin hecame the nntion's Illlmicr (:lpiLII.
Colombian governmcnls struggled In Illcel thest.' Illultipk hilI \\'1111
liltle visible Sllccess. Glinllllers nf hope Olppcarcc! under (;aviri.l. ;1 l.ih'·I.II. \\"111'
oversaw the conslitutional process nf 1991 ;lIld the (Iis;lflnillg ,,1' 1- (ll W;I', tn 1I1!>1111):.
though. tllat neither the FARC nor the ELN acceptcd llle' gf'\·cnll1ll·111 .... "fl"1 ..j
;:\lnnesty). An effective leader, (;nviria t1nderlt 10k wh;'ll he (.llIed ,I Cllllll'\"< ,I, III' '11.-
more popularly known in Colol11h;'1 as cI 1"/'1'010)1/ (liter.llly. Ill(' 11l11l1,k. "I
wrnover). In addition to promoting peace. he ao... elcraled the prnL<·... III C,Oll"llllo
opening, creal ing a new minisll1' for (prcigll Iraclc. r('dlKing ,111(1 11111.11:111):
foreign invcstment. At the end of his terlll, he elected e;l'\ 1"('' W'lle"ll nf Ill<'
Org;lnization of American Slates. in which post he wf1uld serve wlll1 di tllll 11"11.
The Liberal Party won the elections of 1994 bill onl)' .\flt.'!".1 1111111,]
runoff, whell f.rncsto Sa III per defe;ltcd Con..;ervativ{' I\ndrt· ... 1'.1..;IJ.II1,1 "y ill ... t :-
percentage points (50.3 perrenllo 'lX.2 perc('nt). Almost .1" .... Illll .1" hl' Illnk ,,111. ,'.
Samper's presic!enC)' fell undcr the cl.H1d of ,,;cullial .... pel lilt all r. lI .... lri,Hl ... 111.11
he h;ld accepted ovcr $6 million in c:llllp;'lign lunds from the Cali drllg \ .11'1..1.