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Handbook Update Working Group – Proposed Changes re: Cyclists & Pedestrians
Working Group: Yvonne Bambrick – Project Lead, Executive Director, Toronto Cyclists Union Margaret Hastings-James, Member, City of Toronto Cycling Advisory Committee; Member, City of Toronto Pedestrian Committee Constable Hugh Smith, Toronto Police Service, Traffic Services Stephanie Tencer, Member, City of Toronto Pedestrian Committee; Co-chair, Toronto Coalition for Active Transportation Barbara Wentworth, Bicycle Safety Education Coordinator, Toronto Parks, Forestry & Recreation
Legend: • • • *page number* = page that has been edited Pink text = additional text suggested by Working Group (Pink text) = suggested edits/modifications
Changes made on the following pages: 5 20, 24, 25, 26, 28 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 79 81, 82, 84, 87, 88 90, 93, 94, 95, 96 106, 107, 108, 109 110, 111, 112, 114, 115 121, 126 145 151, 153, 156, 157, 159 160, 161, 162
*p.5* Introduction Ontario has the best road safety record in North America, according to the most recent fatality rate statistics (2006). The Ministry of Transportation has introduced a range of measures to maintain this record and to improve the behaviour of all drivers. In 2006, Ontario's fatality rate per 10,000 licensed drivers declined to 0.87, its lowest level on record. In the 10-year period 1997-2006, the number of traffic fatalities has decreased by 130. Fewer people were injured in 2006 (68,793) than in 2005 (71,850). Many collisions are caused by driver error or behaviours such as following too closely, speeding, failure to yield the right of way, improper turns, running red lights and frequently changing lanes. There are drivers who unintentionally put others at risk by not obeying the rules for safely sharing the road with pedestrians and cyclists. There are also drivers who intentionally put others at risk through such reckless behaviour. Statistics show that new drivers of all ages are far more likely than experienced drivers to be involved in serious or fatal collisions. Provincial campaigns promoting the correct use of seatbelts and child car seats, and against drinking and driving, distracted driving and aggressive driving are making a difference. Graduated licensing, which lets new drivers gain skills and experience in low-risk environments, is also helping to develop better, safer drivers. Ontario’s Drive Clean program is reducing smog causing pollutants and helping us make smart choices about the way we maintain and drive our vehicles. Smog is a serious healthrelated problem in Ontario and motor vehicles are the single largest domestic source of smog and a source of several other toxic contaminants. Other modes of transportation such as public transit, walking and cycling should always be considered before choosing to drive. This handbook gives new drivers the basic information they need about learning to drive and sharing the road in Ontario: the rules of the road, safe driving practices and how to get a licence to drive a car, van or small truck. The ministry recommends that all drivers would benefit from taking an advanced course in driver training. As you read, remember that this handbook is only a guide. For more detailed information about driving you can read the book Road Worthy**, a driving textbook produced by the Ministry of Transportation. For official descriptions of the laws, look in the Highway Traffic Act of Ontario and its Regulations, available at www.e-laws.gov.on.ca. Information on how to get licences to drive other types of vehicles is available in Part Two of this handbook, the Official Motorcycle Handbook, the Official Truck Handbook, the Official Bus Handbook and the Official Air Brake Handbook. (Reference to “Official Cycling Skills Guide”) ** Apparently this document is no longer used – please confirm
*11* Getting Your Driver's Licence This chapter tells you what licence you need to drive in Ontario and how to get it, whether you are a new driver, a visitor or a new resident in Ontario. If you are applying for your first licence, this chapter explains the graduated licensing system, how to apply for a licence, the tests you will have to pass and the driving privileges you will have at each licence level. Requirements for driving in Ontario If you live in Ontario, you must be at least 16 years old and have a valid Ontario driver's licence to drive in this province. If you are a visitor to Ontario and want to drive while you are here, you must be at least 16 years old and have a valid driver's licence from your own province, state or country. If you are from another country and visiting Ontario for more than three months, you need an International Driver's Permit from your own country. If you don't have an International Driver's Permit, you can apply for an Ontario driver's licence if you are taking up residence in Ontario. If you are a new resident in Ontario and have a valid driver's licence from another province, state or country, you can use it for 60 days after you move to Ontario. If you become a resident of Ontario, you must get an Ontario driver's licence. Ontario has licence exchange agreements with every Canadian province and territory, the United States, Japan, Korea, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain, France and Belgium.
*12* Driver's Licence Classification Chart Class D Class A Allowed to drive any tractor-trailer combination May also drive vehicle in class D and G Allowed to drive any truck or combination provided the towed vehicle is not over 4. F and Ga school bus Diagram 1-1a-6 Diagram 1-1a-3 4 . F and G Class E Allowed to drive any school purposes bus maximum of 24-passenger capacity May also drive vehicle in class F and G Diagram 1-1a-5 Diagram 1-1a-2 Class F Allowed to drive any regular bus maximum of 24-passenger capacity . E.600 kg May also drive vehicle in class G Diagram 1-1a-4 Diagram 1-1a-1 Class B Allowed to drive any school purposes bus May also drive vehicle in class C.and ambulances May also drive vehicle in class G Class C Allowed to drive any regular bus May also drive vehicle in class D. D.
Diagram 1-1b-1 Class G1 Level One of graduated licensing. Subject to certain conditions. including limited-speed motorcycles (motor scooters) and motorassisted bicycles (mopeds). Holders may drive Class G vehicles without accompanying driver but are subject to certain conditions. Holders may also drive a Class G vehicle under the conditions that apply to a Class G1 licence holder. Holders may drive Class G vehicles with an accompanying fully licensed driver with at least four years' driving experience. Class G2 Level Two of graduated licensing.600 kg Level One of graduated licensing for motorcycles. Holders may also drive a Class G vehicle under the conditions that apply to a Class G1 licence holder.*13* Class G Allowed to drive any car. May operate a limited speed motorcycle or moped only Class M2 with L condition Holders may operate a limited-speed motorcycle or moped only. including limited-speed motorcycles (motor scooters) and motorassisted bicycles (mopeds).000 kg provided the towed vehicle is not over 4. Diagram 1-1b-2 Class M1 . Diagram 1-1b-3 Class M with L condition Holders may operate a limited-speed motorcycle or moped only. including limited-speed motorcycles (motor scooters) and motor-assisted bicycles (mopeds). Holders may drive a motorcycle under certain conditions. Holders may drive a motorcycle but only with a zero blood alcohol level. May operate a limited speed motorcycle or moped only Note: A \"Z\" air brake endorsement is required on a driver's licence to operate any air brake equipped motor vehicle. van or small truck or combination of vehicle and towed vehicle up to 11. Class M Allowed to drive any motorcycles. Class M2 Level Two of graduated licensing for motorcycles.
Documents must be original and valid. B. Each one qualifies you to drive a different type of vehicle. After you pass these tests. Graduated licensing New drivers applying for their first car or motorcycle licence enter Ontario's graduated licensing system. Graduated licensing lets new drivers get driving experience and skills gradually. Applying for a licence To apply for a licence. The class of licence you have must match the type of vehicle you are driving. C.in the Official Truck Handbook and the Official Bus Handbook. Some recreational vehicles have special licence requirements. Photocopies and expired documents are not acceptable. The Driver's Licence Classification Chart shows you what class of licence you need to drive different vehicles. The two-step licensing process takes at least 20 months to complete. You do not need a licence to ride a bicycle in Ontario. you must be at least 16 years old. To apply for a licence. If you plan to drive an off-road vehicle or snowmobile. The only exception is motorcycles. If you want to drive a vehicle equipped with air brakes. You need a Class G licence to drive a car. You must have a Class G licence before you can be licensed to drive any other type of vehicle. complete date of birth and signature: *15* • • • Passport (Canadian or foreign) Canadian Citizenship Card with photo Permanent immigration documents o o o Permanent Resident Card (PRC) or Record of Landing (Form 1000) or Confirmation of Permanent Residence (Form IMM 5292) • Temporary immigration documents . van or small truck. you will enter Level One and get a Class G1 licence. For information on the skills and knowledge you'll need to get a Class M motorcycle licence. you must show proof of your legal name. date of birth (showing day. You must pass two road tests to become fully licensed. read the Off-Road Vehicles section in the Official Driver's handbook. pass a vision test and pass a test of your knowledge of the rules of the road and traffic signs. study the Official Motorcycle Handbook. there are 14 different kinds of licences. Passing the first road test lets you move to Level Two (Class G2) and the second one gives you full Class G driving privileges. E and F . You may get a motorcycle licence (Class M) without first getting a Class G licence. month and year of birth) and signature. the Official Air Brake Handbook tells you how to qualify.*14* What kind of licence? In Ontario. D. You can get information on other kinds of licences classes A. Any one of the following documents may be used to satisfy the requirement to provide proof of legal name.
state authority) Canadian Certificate of Indian Status Ontario Student Card with signature Ontario Health Card with applicant's signature (Clients may choose to produce their Ontario Health Card for proof of signature. date of birth and court seal) *16* To confirm complete date of birth where no or only partial date of birth is available: • Sworn affidavit stating reason why partial or no date is available. The following documents are acceptable as proof of date of birth and legal name • Canadian or U.o o o o o o o Student Authorization (IMM 1442) Employment Authorization(IMM 1442) Visitor Record (IMM 1442) Temporary Resident's Permit (IMM 1442) Refugee Status Claim (IMM 1434) Acknowledgement of Intent to Claim Refugee Status (IMM 7703 with photo) Report Pursuant to the Immigration Act (IMM 1442 with photo) Additional documents Additional documents are required if the document presented from the list above does not indicate the legal name. . The Health Card and Health Number will not be recorded or photocopied.S.) The following documents are acceptable as proof of signature: • • • • • Proof of legal name If additional documents presented to prove date of birth or signature do not indicate the applicant's legal name (i. with supporting documents. The following additional documents are acceptable as proof of legal name: • • • Marriage Certificate (Canadian or Foreign. Note: Direct identification by a parent or guardian is not acceptable. month. Please contact the Ministry of Transportation's Driver and Vehicle Licensing Call Centre at (416) 235-2999 or toll free at 1-800-387-3445 (Canada-wide) for further information. year) or signature. only) Identity Card with signature(issued by Canadian province/territory or U. The additional documents must provide proof of the missing or incomplete information. Birth Certificate Driver's Licence (Canadian and U.e.S. the applicant will be required to provide additional documents as proof of legal name. name has been changed or is different on the two documents presented). complete date of birth (day.S. change of name or divorce (must bear legal name. The applicant is required to present an acceptable document with his or her own signature. government issued) Change of Name Certificate Court Order for adoption.
In order to schedule a road test appointment. you will be told when you apply. You will find the telephone number under "Drivers and Vehicles" in the Government of Ontario section of the blue pages in your phone book. you should report any change in your medical condition that may change your ability to drive safely. completed Declaration from a Guarantor form attesting to their signature. Once you have a licence. your first road test and a five-year licensing fee. you must prepay the road test fee. There are more charges for your second road test and for any retests you may need to take.mto.drivetest.ca. This fee includes the cost of the knowledge test. You can also find it on the Internet at www. If your physical or medical condition means you cannot be licensed. To obtain a Guarantor form: • • download the Declaration from a Guarantor form from the Ministry of Transportation's website at www. . In order to schedule a road test appointment. the applicant may present an original. request a copy of the form at any DriveTest Centre. This fee includes the cost of the knowledge test. There are more charges for your second road test and for any retests you may need to take. Phone ahead to find out where the nearest Travel Point is and when it is open.gov.on. your first road test and a five-year licensing fee. Bring the documents to a DriveTest Centre or Travel Point (a temporary DriveTest Centre where there is no regional centre). you will be asked questions about your health. or. You must pay a fee when you apply. You must pay a fee when you apply.Declaration from a Guarantor If an applicant is unable to present one of the above documents as proof of signature. you must prepay the road test fee. doctors and optometrists must report the name and address of anyone over 16 who has a condition that may make it unsafe for him or her to drive.ca or the DriveTest website at www.drivetest. Applicants must first ensure that no other acceptable documents for signature are available from the list identified above. People with certain physical or medical conditions are not allowed to drive for safety reasons. When you apply for your licence.ca. By law.
does count toward the accompanying driver's four years of experience. The accompanying driver must have a valid Class G (or higher) licence. Each person in the vehicle must have a working seatbelt. at least four years of driving experience. Graduated licensing requirements G1 Knowledge Test . you can complete Level One in eight months.mto. but it cannot be suspended. You must not drive alone.Checklist Before taking the G1 knowledge test. Your blood alcohol level must be zero. You should begin your training as soon as you become a Level One driver so you can get as much driving experience as possible. and must have a blood alcohol level of less than . Bring the following items to the test: . Row Expressway in Windsor and the Conestoga Parkway in Kitchener-Waterloo. the following rules apply: • • You must not drive if you have been drinking alcohol.Checklist Level Two (Class G2) Road tests G2 Exit Test . This is the only person who can be in the front seat with you while you drive.*17* For further details on applying for a licence visit the Ministry of Transportation's website at www. The Ministry of Transportation encourages all new drivers to take an approved driver education course to help learn the proper driving skills and knowledge. Time spent at the Class G2 level.C. an accompanying driver must sit in the front passenger seat.Checklist G1 Exit Test . make sure you have studied the Official Driver's Handbook. At this time.ca. You must not drive on 400-series highways with a posted speed limit over 80km/h. If you pass an approved course. You must not drive between midnight and 5:00 a. While at Level One. you may drive on any road.gov. Don Valley Parkway and the Gardiner Expressway in the Greater Toronto Area.Checklist Graduated licensing requirements Level One (Class G1): Level One lasts 12 months. as long as the G2 licence was valid (not suspended). Graduated licensing requirements Here are the rules you must follow at each level: • • • • • • Level One (Class G1) G1 Knowledge Test .on. Also you must not drive on certain high-speed roads including the Queen Elizabeth Way. However.m. • • • You must pass a road test of your driving skills to move to Level Two. if your accompanying driver is a driving instructor. you will be given a Class G2 licence. the E. The accompanying driver's licence may have demerit points.05 per cent when accompanying you.
the following restrictions apply between the hours of midnight and 5 a. After 12 months at Level Two. you are allowed to carry up to three passengers aged 19 or under. you may take a road test to qualify for full licence privileges. please read the Official Motorcycle Handbook. you are allowed to carry only one passenger aged 19 or under. or adoption). restricted Class M licence for limited-speed motorcycle and moped drivers was introduced on November 28.• • • 2 pieces of identification Money for test fees . M2(L). Bring the following items to the test: • • • • Vehicle in good working order Money for test fees (if applicable) Glasses or contact lenses (if you need to wear them to drive) Beginner Driver Education Student Record (if licensed between 8 and 12 months) Arrive at least 30 minutes before Road Test appointment Level Two (Class G2): Level Two lasts at least 12 months. Note: A new. and graduated licensing requirements.Checklist Before taking the G1 exit test.cash. M2. . including those who received a G2 licence prior to September 1. Your blood alcohol level must be zero. This new restricted licence has a condition that will allow licence holders to drive only a limited-speed motorcycle and moped. At Level Two: • • You must not drive if you have been drinking alcohol. marriage. you have more privileges because of your driving experience.m. debit or credit card Glasses or contact lenses (if you need to wear them to drive) * 18* G1 Exit Test . 2005. Exemptions: The passenger restrictions for G2 drivers aged 19 and under do not apply if you are accompanied by a fully-licensed accompanying driver in the front passenger seat. to G2 drivers aged 19 years and under. make sure you have studied the Official Driver's Handbook. 2005. or those related to you by blood. After six months with your G2 licence and until you obtain your full G licence or turn 20. or if the passengers are members of your immediate family (a guardian. At this level. common-law relationship. You must pass this test to get a Class G licence. You are no longer permitted to drive a limited-speed motorcycle or moped on any driver's licence other than a class M licence (including M1. In addition. Each person in the vehicle must have a working seatbelt. For more information on how to obtain a restricted Class M licence to drive a moped. • • In the first six months after receiving your G2 licence. M(L) or M).
If you are a Level Two driver.using turn signals and brake lights and making eye contact with other drivers. The Level One road test deals with basic driving skills. How you communicate with other road users .*19* Road tests Road tests check your driving skills in the vehicle and in traffic. The examiner is not allowed to coach you during the test. call the Road Test Booking Call Centre or go online to cancel your test. Bring your current licence to the appointment. For the Level Two test. If you are a Level One driver. as well as the correctness of your driving decisions. You must bring the appropriate vehicle to each of your road tests. the examiner will be watching to see how well you control your vehicle and perform such driving tasks as starting. You will be tested on your ability to follow the rules of the road and safe driving practices. While the Level One road test checks your basic driving skills. No pets or passengers other than the driver examiner are allowed in the vehicle during a road test. so if you have any questions. For more information on the Level Two road test. where you look. your ability to make safe lane changes and how closely you follow and stop behind other vehicles. You will also have to show that you can drive well on a freeway or high speed highway. stopping. your prepaid road test fee will not be refunded.mto. the examiner will inform you of the amount of time you have to complete the test. turning. the Level Two road test is much more demanding. pavement markings and possible hazards. ask them before you begin. and how you respond to traffic. such as knowing when to yield the right-of-way. Make sure it is in good working order and you feel comfortable driving it. If you are unable to keep the appointment.gov. You will not be asked to do anything illegal during the road test. you must demonstrate a high level of driving skill and knowledge. parallel parking and threepoint turning. Before you begin your test. signs. You should learn the proper driving skills as soon as you become a Level One driver so you can get as much driving experience as possible before taking the Level Two test.ca. or go online to www. All road tests have a set time frame.will also be noted. You will be tested on how well you manage the space around your vehicle. When you feel qualified to drive safely and confident enough to take your road test. the examiner will give you a complete report of your skills and explain any mistakes you have made. please be prepared to take alternate transportation home in case you fail your road test and are unqualified to drive. *20* The examiner will check your observation skills. cyclists and pedestrians . The examiner will explain the test and you should follow her or his instructions. Your performance in each of the tests will tell you whether you need more training or practice. the report will show you where you need to . If you fail the test. At the end of each test. contact the Road Test Booking Call Centre at (416) 325-8580 or 1-888-570-6110. The Level Two road test deals with more advanced knowledge and driving skills. an accompanying driver must come with you to the test centre. including when and how often you use the mirrors. to schedule an appointment. If you fail to attend or you cancel your appointment without providing at least 48 hours notice.on. While you are taking the test. click here.
If you want to continue to drive after 60 days. When you have had more practice. The other 50% of the fee remains as a credit on your driving record. you can make an appointment to take the test again. you can use that licence for 60 days in Ontario. pay all applicable fees. or if you fail to attend your appointment. 2006. and may be applied when booking a new road test.improve. licensed driving experience for out-of-country applicants will be credited as follows: Requirements for all driver's licence applicants: • All applicants for an Ontario driver's licence are required to present a valid foreign driver's licence (if it is not in English or French. • . or short notice cancellation If you cancel or reschedule your road test appointment with less than 48 hours notice. you will have to pay the 50% of the fee deducted due to the out-of-order. pass a vision test and a written knowledge test regarding Ontario's traffic rules. You must wait at least 10 days between tests. You must complete a Declaration of Highway Driving Experience form.Checklist You must have highway driving experience (experience driving on highways with speed limits of at least 80 km/h) before taking the G2 exit test. G2 Exit Test . contact the DriveTest Centre before your scheduled test to discuss it. Out-of-order road test If your vehicle does not meet ministry standards for the purpose of a road test. it is to be accompanied by a written translation from a qualified translator). and provide acceptable proof of identity. the examiner declares the road test out-of-order. you lose 50% of your road test fee. New Ontario residents If you are a new resident of Ontario and have a valid driver's licence from another province or country. describing the highway driving experience you have. your prepaid road test fee will not be refunded. Bring the following items to the test: • • • Vehicle in good working order Money for test fees (if applicable) Glasses or contact lenses (if you need to wear them to drive) Arrive at least 30 minutes before Road Test appointment Failure to attend road test. or if there is a nonvehicle related reason for which the examiner determines that the road test cannot be completed. If you have any concerns that your road test may be declared out-of-order. Effective May 1. before taking the road test. you must get an Ontario driver's licence. *21* If your road test is declared out-of-order. Under certain extenuating circumstances only (such as a death in your immediate family). In order to book the new road test. the road test fee will remain as a credit on your driving record. Applicants who fulfill these requirements can obtain a G1 licence.
If an applicant successfully completes a ministry-approved Beginner Driver Education course. Consulate or High . The authentication letter must be on official letterhead and be written in either English or French. including the requirement to have a fully licensed driver accompany them in the vehicle and prohibition from driving on 400-series expressways. if that is not possible. applicants are required to obtain written authentication of their foreign licensed driving experience from the originating licensing agency. applicants are required to obtain written authentication of their foreign licensed driving experience from the originating licensing agency. Credited licensed driving experience will be applied toward the G2 12-month waiting period prior to taking the G2 road test. To obtain credit for more than 12 months licensed driving experience. the mandatory waiting time. The 8-12 months may be a combination of licensed driving experience in the foreign jurisdiction and licensed experience in Ontario. applicants must fulfill the 12-month mandatory waiting period prior to taking the G2 road test. Applicants will be credited with their foreign licensed driving experience as certified on the authentication letter. will be reduced from 12 to 8 months. If applicants do not provide a letter of authentication. or from the Embassy. Applicants must have 12 months licensed driving experience before attempting the G1 road test. Applicants are required to provide adequate proof of foreign licensed driving experience. This policy only applies to applicants for Class G licences. Applicants declaring a minimum of 24 months licensed driving experience within the preceding three years: • • • • • To obtain credit for more than 12 months licensed driving experience. Applicants declaring less than 12 months licensed driving experience within the preceeding three years: • • • • Applicants are credited with the amount of licensed driving experience declared on the driver's licence application. they will be issued a G2 licence and will not be subject to the six restrictions of the G1 licence. prior to taking the G1 road test. Applicants declaring more than 12 months licensed driving experience but less than 24 months within the preceding three years: *22* • • • Applicants will be credited with 12 months licensed driving experience and may proceed to take the G1 road test without having to fulfill the mandatory 12-month G1 wait period. Consulate or High Commissioners' offices representing the jurisdiction.• • All applicants must declare their licensed driving experience on the driver's licence application form. or from the Embassy. If the applicant passes the G1 road test. the ministry will accept an applicant's declaration of their foreign licensed driving experience on the driver's licence application for up to a maximum of 12 months licensed experience. However.
• • Applicants will be credited with their foreign licensed driving experience as certified on the authentication letter. state that is not part of the Interprovincial Record Exchange. France. If the applicant chooses to attempt the G1 road test and successfully completes it. Who does the policy affect? *23* • • • The policy applies to all applicants coming from either a foreign jurisdiction that does not have a driver's licence reciprocal agreement with Ontario. Austria. you will be able to exchange your licence. Great Britain. Germany. Great Britain. applicants must pass the G1 road test and must fulfill the 12-month waiting period prior to taking the G2 road test. If you have less than two years of driving experience. the United States and Switzerland. If applicants do not provide a letter of authentication. credit for holding a motorcycle licence from one of these countries will be granted for previous motorcycle experience when applying for a Class M motorcycle licence in Ontario. Driving customs vary from place to place. This policy does not apply to drivers from the following jurisdictions: • • • • Canadian provinces and territories Canadian Forces Europe U. you may take the Level Two road test to earn full driving privileges. Korea. the applicant will then be eligible to attempt the G2 road test. Belgium. However. Germany. you may get credit for your experience and enter Level Two of the graduated licensing system. The Official Driver's Handbook and the Ministry of Transportation website are good resources. states Austria.S. applicants will be issued a G licence. Applicants have. If you hold a motorcycle licence from another Canadian jurisdiction that is equivalent to Ontario's restricted Class M licence. the option of attempting the G1 or G2 exit road tests (mandatory waiting times are waived). Once you have a total of two years of driving experience.Commissioners' offices representing the jurisdiction. pending a letter of authentication of a minimum of 24 months of foreign licensed driving experience.S. or a U. . France or Belgium. Upon successfully passing the G2 exit road test. That is why experienced drivers from other countries should familiarize themselves with Ontario's laws. The authentication letter must be on official letterhead and be written in either English or French. There is no exchange agreement for motorcycle drivers from Japan. Korea and Switzerland Motorcycle licence exchanges Exchange agreements apply to licensed motorcycle drivers from Canada. Japan.
and driving in passing lanes travelling through controlled and uncontrolled intersections parallel parking and reversing foreseeing hazardous conditions and being ready for them manoevering in high pedestrian volume areas such as school zones other safe driving practices The road tests will test how well you use your knowledge while driving.*24* Could You Pass? The rest of this handbook gives you information you need to pass your tests and to keep your driving privileges once you get your licence. The written test may ask you about: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • seatbelts traffic signs and lights emergency vehicles how to use headlights speed limits getting on or off a freeway what drivers must do when they meet streetcars and school buses driver licence suspensions the demerit point system passing other vehicles collision reporting sharing the road with other road users rules of the road what drivers must do when they interact with cyclists and pedestrians starting. Summary By the end of this chapter you should know: • • • • The legal requirements you must meet to obtain a driver's licence The different licence classifications and what type of vehicle they permit you to drive The identification you need to provide when applying for a driver's licence The restrictions and testing requirements under the graduated licensing system . To see sample test questions that could appear on the knowledge test click here. including bicycles. stopping and turning traffic signs and lights passing vehicles. You will be tested on: Make sure you know the information in this handbook before you take these tests.
cyclists and drivers at intersections and signal whenever you want to slow down. the less likely you will be surprised. you must also be predictable. You should always be aware of traffic in front. Even if someone else does something wrong. Everyone is responsible for avoiding collisions. But you need to do more than just obey the rules. mental. Make eye contact with pedestrians. don't drive. Your ability to drive can change from one day to the next. To begin. you may be fined. Breaking these "rules of the road" is the major cause of collisions. your vehicle may even be impounded. Courteous driving means giving other drivers and cyclists space to change lanes. and police from each level can enforce them. doing what other people using the road expect you to do. skill and attitude. If you get caught driving while your licence is suspended for a Criminal Code conviction. Defensive driving is based on three ideas: visibility. provincial and municipal governments. The farther ahead you look. Because drivers have to cooperate to keep traffic moving safely. If you break a traffic law. space and communication. You must be able to see dangerous situations before they happen and to respond quickly and effectively to prevent them. stop. *26* Keep your eyes constantly moving. You must care about the safety of others on the road. prescription and overthe-counter drugs. sent to jail or lose your driver's licence. including cyclists and pedestrians. you may be found responsible for a collision if you could have done something to avoid it. If you have doubts about any of them. There are collision avoidance courses available where you can practice these techniques. Getting ready to drive Before you drive. and emotional state. The rights and responsibilities of pedestrians must also be respected. Communicate with other road users to make sure they see you and know what you are doing. use your horn. Leave a cushion of space ahead. stay well back. Traffic laws are made by federal. turn or change lanes. And you must be courteous. This is called defensive or strategic driving. behind and beside you. scanning the road ahead and to the side and checking your mirrors every five seconds or so. you must know the traffic laws and driving practices that help traffic move safely. Visibility is about seeing and being seen. behind and to both sides. your vehicle and the conditions in which you will be driving. Because the greatest risk of a collision is in front of you. and you will have time to avoid any hazards. not cutting them off and signaling your turns and lane changes properly.*25* Safe and Responsible Driving Being a safe and responsible driver takes a combination of knowledge. Managing the space around your vehicle lets you see and be seen and gives you time and space to avoid a collision. Make sure other drivers and cyclists can see you by using your signal lights as required. make sure you are comfortable with your physical. fatigue. If you need to get another person's attention. Illness. stress and your mental or emotional state can greatly diminish your ability to .
Don't drive when you are upset or angry. There are many types of vehicles available today with many different characteristics. Watch for a warning light that stays on after you drive away. Even if you don't fall asleep. You should be able to see the ground four metres in front of the vehicle. If you can do this without stretching. upright sitting position and gives you more stability when manoeuvring your vehicle. anti-lock brakes. it could mean a serious problem with your vehicle. including fuel ignition systems. Keep a clear view . risking the lives of others on the road. The book Road Worthy can also help you with this. If your vehicle has an adjustable headrest. Get into position Make sure you sit properly behind the wheel. and you should not operate a motor vehicle when you are not fit to do so. you should make sure it is at the right height. headlights. highbeams. Get to know the controls well enough to turn on wipers and washers. Don't drive when you are sick or injured or when you have been drinking alcohol or taking any drug or medication that may reduce your ability to drive. fatigue affects your driving ability. Your thinking slows down and you miss seeing things. The back of your head should be directly in front of the middle of the headrest to protect you in a collision. Learning to use these essential controls without taking your eyes off the road is an important part of driving. Check the vehicle owner's manual. To check your position. try placing your feet flat on the floor under the brake pedal. you may make the wrong decision or you may not make the right decision fast enough. Check that all warning lights and gauges work. You should consider these factors before you begin driving.operate a motor vehicle. you are seated properly. and systems for traction control and stability control. heater and defroster without having to look. Use a firm cushion if needed. This keeps you in the proper. Know your vehicle Get to know your vehicle before you drive it. You should sit high enough in the driver's seat to see over the steering wheel and hood. Check that you have enough room in the front seat to drive properly and safely. Adjust the seat so your feet reach the pedals easily. Do not overcrowd your driving space with passengers or property. Be physically and mentally alert You must be in good physical and mental condition to drive. 4-wheel drive. Don't drive when you are tired. Strong emotions can reduce your ability to think and react quickly. *27* Make sure you know where all the controls and instruments are and what they do. In an emergency. For driving in difficult situations and conditions see the section on dealing with particular situations. Be sure that you are sitting straight upright in the seat with your elbows slightly bent. You might fall asleep at the wheel.
Fasten your seatbelt The proper use of a seatbelt can save your life. position the interior mirror so that the centre of the mirror shows the centre of the rear window. Use your seatbelt every time you travel in any vehicle equipped with seatbelts. . The windows of your vehicle must not be coated with any material that keeps you from seeing out in any direction. You may not see pedestrians or cyclists when they are in these spots. All passengers must be buckled up in their own seatbelt or child car seat. Items dangling from your mirror can hide a pedestrian or cyclist from your field of vision. To reduce the blind spots even more. Blind spots in most vehicles are to the back left and back right of the vehicle. On some vehicles the blind spot is so large that a vehicle could be there and you would not see it. not against the stomach. Use your seatbelt always. Airbags do not replace seatbelts. Adjust your mirrors so that there are as few blind spots as possible. pedestrians. Seatbelts should be worn snugly enough to keep you in your seat during a collision. turning your head to do shoulder checks is the only way to make sure there is nothing in your blind spots. The lap belt should be worn low over the hips.add cyclist.the area on each side of your vehicle where you cannot see. You should know the blind spots on your own vehicle. Even a small increase in the number of people that wear their seatbelts can save many lives. Position the left outside mirror by leaning towards the window and moving the mirror so that you can just see the rear of your car. Avoid overlap in what you can see in your mirrors. Position the right outside mirror by leaning to the centre of the vehicle and moving the mirror so that you can again just see the rear of your car. Do not put anything in your windows that will block your view. this can cause serious injury or even death in a collision. Because your side mirrors show only narrow angles of view. your seatbelt will keep you in position so that the airbag can protect you. even when you are sitting in a position with an active airbag. never under your arm. Neither should the windshield or front door windows be coated to keep someone from seeing inside the vehicle. Drivers may also receive demerit points if they fail to ensure that all passengers under 16 years of age are properly buckled in a seatbelt or child car seat. Wear the shoulder strap over your shoulder.Keep a clear view when driving. *29* Level One (G1) and Level Two (G2) drivers who do not wear a seatbelt or who do not ensure there is a working seatbelt for every passenger can lose their licence for 30 days. You can learn where and how large they are by having someone walk around your car and watching the person in the mirrors. *28* *DIAGRAM 2-3* . Never put more than one person into a seatbelt. In a collision. Drivers who do not buckle up can be fined up to $500 and given two demerit points. You should be able to see directly behind the car when the interior mirror is properly adjusted. sidewalk to image Find your blind spots Check and adjust your mirrors and find your blind spots .
secure the child by the lap belt only. such as in the back of a pickup truck.) must be buckled into a child car seat attached to the vehicle by a tether strap at the top and at the base by a seatbelt or a UAS. It is not safe to travel outside a vehicle. depending on their height. over the shoulder and across the chest and the lap belt sits firmly against the body and across the hips. Buckles and straps must be fastened according to the manufacturer's instructions. It is important for passengers to be secured within a vehicle to avoid being thrown from the vehicle during a collision. A booster seat requires a lap and shoulder belt combination. it could seriously injure the child.Note: The safest place a passenger can travel is inside a vehicle. Research shows that a correctly used child car seat can reduce the likelihood of injury or death by 75 percent. the child is 145 cm (4 feet 9 inches) tall or taller. children must be properly secured in a child car seat. Infants who weigh less than 9 kg (20 lbs. The child's head must be supported by the top of the booster. . grandparents and caregivers are all required to use proper child car seats when transporting children. do not require a seatbelt to secure the child car seat to the vehicle. parents.). Never put a rear-facing child car seat in a seating position that has an active airbag. Never use a lap belt alone with a booster seat. the child weighs 36 kg (80 lbs) or more.on. *30* Newer vehicles that come equipped with a lower Universal Anchorage System (UAS) for securing a child car seat for infants and toddlers.) must be buckled into a rear-facing child car seat attached to the vehicle by a seatbelt or the UAS. booster seat or seatbelt. and who are less than 145 cm (4 feet.gov. If your vehicle has lap belts only. weight and/or age.mto. If the airbag inflates. These must be used by preschool and primary grade-aged children who are under the age of eight and weigh 18 kg or more but less than 36 kg (40-80 lbs. For more information on seatbelts call Service Ontario Transportation Info Line (416) 235-4686 (1-800-268-4686) or visit www. Child car seats must meet Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (CMVSS). Children may start using a seatbelt alone once any one of the following criteria is met: • • • the child turns eight years old. or. The fine for not using a child car seat as required by law is up to $500 plus two demerit points. 9 inches) tall. Booster seats raise a child up so that the adult seatbelt works more effectively. You must use a booster seat with a lap/shoulder belt.ca. or in a trailer that is being towed. vehicle seat or headrest. In Ontario. properly buckled in. As a driver. Toddlers nine to 18 kg (20 to 40 lbs. you are responsible for ensuring that passengers under 16 years of age are properly buckled into a seatbelt or child car seat. Booster seats provide 60 percent more protection than seatbelts alone. The lap/shoulder belt should be worn so that the shoulder belt fits closely against the body. Child safety To be safely protected in a vehicle. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions when installing a child car seat in your vehicle.
When installing the child car seat. has not been in a collision. the steering wheel.Do not place a child in a seating position in front of an air bag that is not turned off or cannot be turned off. Ensure that the seat comes with complete manufacturer's instructions and all necessary equipment. is not expired or more than 10 years old. If you are not wearing your seatbelt. Your local public health unit is a good resource for finding out how to properly install a child car seat. Eighty per cent of the base of a forward-facing car seat should be firmly supported by the vehicle seat. dashboard or another person might be what stops you.on. • • • • • *32* Turn on headlights at night and in poor conditions Headlights make it easier for you to see and be seen at night and in poor light conditions. is not under recall. Your vehicle's headlights must shine a white light that can be seen at least 150 metres in front and is strong enough to light up objects 110 metres away. seatbelts help keep you conscious.5 cm (1 inch) where the seatbelt or UAS strap is routed through the child car seat. • • Seatbelts help keep you inside and in control of the vehicle during a collision. and. This "human collision" often causes serious injury. Seatbelts and child car seats save lives Seatbelts and child car seats reduce the risk of injury or death in collisions. *31* Correct installation of a child car seat is key for ensuring a child's safety. Note: Be careful if buying a used child car seat. You must also have red rear lights that can be .gov. The installed child car seat should move no more than 2. and for a forward-facing car seat. no one can hold onto a child who is not in a seatbelt or child car seat. People who are thrown from a vehicle have a much lower chance of surviving a collision.ca. collide with other people or be ejected. then you can prop up the base of the seat with a towel or a Styrofoam bar ("pool noodle"). The safest place for a child under age 13 is in the back seat.mto. press one knee into the seat and use your body weight to push it into the vehicle seat. make sure that the seat is tightly secured by the vehicle seatbelt or by the UAS. Seatbelts keep your head and body from hitting the inside of the vehicle or another person in the vehicle. If a rear-facing child car seat does not rest at the proper 45-degree angle. giving you a chance to get out of the vehicle. then tighten the seatbelt or the car seat UAS strap as much as possible. Use a locking clip where needed to ensure that the seatbelt stays locked into position and will not develop slack during a collision. Infants or children who are not wearing seatbelts can be thrown against the vehicle's interior. does not show signs of deterioration. windshield. If it does happen. For more information on child car seats call ServiceOntario Transportation Info at (416) 2354686 (1-800-268-4686) or visit www. When using a child car seat. Fire or sinking in water is rare in collisions. ensure the tether strap is also used. In a sudden stop or swerve. When a vehicle hits a solid object. the people inside keep moving until something stops them.
remember to switch to lowbeams within 150 metres of an oncoming vehicle.add cyclist with lights and reflectors to night-time riding image Diagram 2-7 .seen 150 metres away and a white light lighting the rear licence plate when headlights are on. *33* Have your headlight adjustment checked regularly. You must always use lights when fog. Use your lowbeams when you are less than 60 metres behind another vehicle unless you are passing it. These rules apply to all roads. keep them clean. This ensures that the rear lights are on. In low light. When you use highbeam headlights. Parking lights are only for parking. Turn on headlights one-half hour before sunset and keep them on until one-half hour after sunrise. Driving with your vehicle's full lighting system turned on at all times is recommended. snow or rain keeps you from clearly seeing people or vehicles less than 150 metres away. including divided ones. use your headlights. making you more visible to other drivers (replace ‘drivers’ with ‘all road users’). Diagram 2-6 – Highbeams *DIAGRAM 2-6* “Highbeams” . and replace burned-out bulbs as soon as possible. Studies show that using daytime running lights makes it easier for other drivers. cyclists and pedestrians to see you. Summary By the end of this section you should know: . Please see the section on driving at night and in bad weather. not parking lights.Lowbeams Don't drive with only one headlight or with lights that are not aimed properly. Remember to switch to regular headlights one-half hour before sunset.
use hand and arm signals.• • • • • The concepts of safe and responsible and defensive driving Factors that may affect your physical and mental readiness to drive How to familiarize yourself with your vehicle's controls and how to set your seating position The legal requirements surrounding seatbelts. behind and from side to side. Anticipate other road users’ movements and make allowances for every possible error. (*add image*) After signaling. turning. If your turn signals and brake lights are not working. adjusting controls or checking your blind spot. The pictures on this page show how to make hand and arm signals. booster seats. Picture the steering wheel as a clock and place your hands at nine o'clock and three o'clock. Give the correct signal well before taking the action and make sure other drivers can see it. Be extra careful at dusk and dawn when everyone has difficulty adjusting to the changing light. *34* Steer smoothly All steering should be smooth and precise. Look well ahead and watch for people in parked vehicles . slowing down. Use your turn signals and brake lights to signal before stopping. Keep other drivers out of your blind spot by changing your speed and don't drive in other vehicles' blind spots. and check your blind spots by turning your head to look over your shoulder. You must also pay close attention to smaller vehicles. leaving the road or moving out from a parked position. changing lanes. You must be able to steer in a straight line while shifting gears. move only when it is safe to do so. Check your mirrors every five seconds or so. on lane changes and on yields to other vehicles and pedestrians. Check that the way is clear before you act . bicycles and pedestrians. whether left or right. Use signals Signals tell other road users what you want to do. This is especially true when driving around large commercial vehicles as they typically have large blind spots to the sides and back. remember that cyclists may signal right turns by holding their right arms straight out. When watching for signals made by others. . Develop a routine for looking ahead. You should do most steering and lane changes without taking either hand off the wheel.just signalling is not enough. Follow the rules for turns.they may be about to pull out in front of you or to open a door. alerting them to your intention to turn or stop. this includes not only other drivers but also pedestrians and cyclists. and child car seats How and when to use your vehicle's lighting system Driving along Always be aware of traffic around you as you drive. Keep a cushion of space around your vehicle and be prepared for the unexpected.
Stay in your vehicle and wait for the police officer. Where there are no posted speed limits. School zones and construction zones often have lower speed limits to protect children and those who work on or near the road. villages and built-up areas and 80 km/h elsewhere. This means driving below the maximum speed in bad weather. there are some circumstances in which cruise control should not be used.Add image of cyclist doing signals – from ON Cyclists Handbook Keep right Keep to the right of the road or in the right-hand lane on multi-lane roads unless you want to turn left or pass another vehicle. but always drive at a speed that will let you stop safely. icy or slippery roads). This is especially important if you are driving more slowly than other vehicles. or when you are feeling fatigued. the maximum speed is 50 km/h in cities. *35* Obey speed limits Obey the maximum speed limit posted on signs along the road. upon the police officer's request. However. in construction zones. Cruise control is a driver aid that can improve fuel economy and prevent you from inadvertently exceeding the speed limit. You must immediately. surrender your driver's licence. Speed measuring warning devices are illegal. When a police officer signals you to pull your vehicle over. in heavy traffic. even if the directions are different from traffic lights or signs.Images of cyclist signaling Diagram 2-8 *DIAGRAM 2-8* . you must pull over as far to the right as you safely can and come to a complete stop. or to accommodate bike/pedestrian traffic. . towns. such as adverse driving conditions (wet. you must follow their directions. you will be fined and accumulate demerit points. in heavy traffic. Obey police When police officers are directing traffic. If you get caught driving with such a device.
You will need extra space in certain situations. stop counting. or when carrying a heavy load. Whenever you follow another vehicle. drive at the same speed as traffic around you without going over the speed limit. A safe following distance is at least two seconds behind the vehicle in front of you. Remember that the two-second rule gives a minimum following distance. you risk being fined (up to $25. If you reach the marker before you count "one thousand and two. Pick a marker on the road ahead. Maintaining space As a general rule. one thousand and two". When the front of your vehicle reaches the marker." you are following too closely. This lets you see around the vehicle ahead and gives you enough distance to stop suddenly. If you do not obey a police officer's direction to pull over.000).vehicle permit (or copy) and insurance. 3. When the rear of the vehicle ahead passes the marker. having your licence suspended or even serving time in prison. such as bad weather. you need enough space to stop safely if the other vehicle brakes suddenly. Leave a cushion of space around your vehicle to let other drivers and cyclists see you and to avoid a collision. count "one thousand and one. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • How to steer and use your vehicle's signalling system and hand signals The importance of maintaining space and how to measure following distance Where to position your vehicle on the road and to obey speed limits and police . follow these steps: 1. *Reference to Passing section. Contrary to popular belief. *36* Diagram 2-9 To give yourself a two-second space. Do not block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic. such as a road sign or telephone pole. It applies only to ideal driving conditions. when following motorcycles or large trucks. 2. you do not have 24 hours to present these documents.
limited-speed motorcycles. They should be treated the same as other vehicles in this circumstance. large trucks. (from pg. treat them like other vehicles when driving. Motorcycles use a full lane.*37* Sharing the road with other road users Ontario's roads accommodate a variety of road users including pedestrians. limited speed motorcycles. Make sure the motorcyclist is actually turning. and reorder these bullets. mopeds. 37) Sharing the road with cyclists . Cyclists generally occupy only part of the lane but are entitled to use the full lane as needed. Drivers of these vehicles may make sudden moves because of uneven road surfaces or poor weather conditions. bicycles. the speed at which they travel and the space they occupy on the road. they are more likely to be injured in a collision. he or she may have just forgotten to switch off the turn signal. limited-speed motorcycles. bicycles. buses and farm machinery. Diagram 2-10 Diagram 2-11 *DIAGRAM 2-10 and 2-11* Add pedestrians *38* 1. mopeds and bicycles are harder to see because of their size. 2. Sharing the road with motorcycles and bicycles (limited-speed motorcycles)*remove* Motorcycles. Because they are less protected.Ontario's road users include pedestrians. *on pg. Suggested change to: . motorcycles. motorcycles. Be aware of and courteous to other road users. 38 – include bullet point regarding cyclists. large trucks. the speed at which they travel and the space they occupy – all are entitled to be on the road. Be aware of other road users. Since many motorcycle turn signals do not automatically shut off. 1. buses and farm machinery. mopeds. be careful when turning left in front of an oncoming motorcycle with its turn signal on.
allow at least one metre between your car and the cyclist – pass in the next lane at higher speeds. sharing the road with large commercial vehicles means you must always be aware of a large vehicle's capabilities and limitations. Cyclists are more vulnerable to the weather and to road conditions that will not affect drivers to the same degree. bike couriers. Be especially cautious on curves and in underpasses where bicycles are more difficult to see and when cyclists are crossing tracks. change lanes to pass the cyclist. however. Remember that if you can't see the driver's face in the large vehicle's side view mirror. or take the whole lane if necessary for safety. Recent data shows that the majority of fatalities resulting from collisions involving large commercial trucks are not the result of the truck driver's actions but of the other driver's actions. When turning right. 3. Cyclists need more room to maneuver at both low speeds (ie. The driver cannot see you if you are directly behind and if the vehicle stops suddenly. you have no place to go. signal and check your mirrors and the blind spot to your right to make sure you do not cut off a cyclist. Avoid tailgating a large vehicle. Many people cycle for transportation or recreational purposes in all seasons and vary in ages from young children to senior citizens. Therefore. Cyclists need a metre on either side of themselves as a safety zone. when climbing a hill) and high speeds (ie. Cyclists may be traveling faster than you think. When parked on the side of the street. Drivers must be aware that cyclists may be very experienced riding in traffic (commuter cyclists.) or more novice riders (young children learning to ride and occasional cyclists). When passing a cyclist. look behind you and check your mirrors and blinds spots for a passing cyclist before opening a door.Large commercial vehicles have big blind spots on both sides. Drive as though every road has a bike lane on it in order to provide the space needed for cyclists. If the lane is too narrow to share. Your passenger should do the same. Because they take up less room on the road then motor vehicles. when descending a hill) so increase your passing distance or stay behind until the cyclist can move back to the right side of the lane.The Ontario Highway Traffic Act defines the bicycle as a vehicle that belongs on the road. Sharing the road with large commercial vehicles It is extremely important to know how to drive safely when sharing the road with large commercial vehicles such as tractor-trailers and buses. such as to avoid potholes and sewer grates. scanning for bikes is a critical skill for drivers. Bicycles and mopeds that cannot keep up with traffic are expected to keep to the right of the lane. they can use any part of the lane. Diagram 2-12 blind spot . Cooperative drivers will slow down and facilitate the safe passage of cyclists. Be aware of the following: 1. the driver cannot see you. Remember to look for cyclists. Blind Spots . Use care and caution when driving around cyclists. Exit your vehicle safely and avoid keeping the driver’s side door open into traffic for longer than necessary.
and bus stop areas between two designated parking areas. and you are approaching in the lane adjacent to the bus bay. Wide Turns . it reduces the space cushion large vehicles require in order to stop safely. indicating that it is ready to leave the bus bay. Once the front of the vehicle has cleared the corner. Spray . snow and debris. a large vehicle can create heavy air turbulence. a large vehicle may need to first swing wide to the left and around in order to avoid hitting the right curb. do not cut in front closely. If you are in that lane. Do not drive up into the left lane when a large vehicle is making a left turn in front of you.*DIAGRAM 2-12* Add motorcycles near right blindspot.In bad weather. There are three types of bus bays: • • • mid-block indented bays. you are putting yourself into a very dangerous position. Stay well back until the truck has cleared the left turn. Turbulence . Stay well back until the truck has completely cleared the lane. When the driver of a large vehicle releases the brakes after being stopped. You must also pay attention for pedestrians exiting and entering bus. If a large vehicle in front of you is making a right turn. all drivers and cyclists must allow the bus to re-enter traffic. This situation can occur on expressway off-ramps that have two left turning lanes. Diagram 2-13 3. large vehicles are capable of spraying up large amounts of mud. your vehicle will be squeezed between the trailer and the curb.Due to various factors such as air pressure and airflow. Allow more room when passing a large vehicle. Rolling Back .When making a right turn. do not move up into the space that opens up in the right lane. which could land on your windshield and temporarily block your vision.Large commercial vehicles require a much longer distance to stop than smaller vehicles. the rest will move partially back into the right lane. 39* 2. Sharing the road with municipal buses Many municipal roadways have special indented stopping areas for municipal buses. Not only is this discourteous. the vehicle may roll back. or else you may get squeezed between the truck and the curb. indentations immediately before and after intersections. When passing a large vehicle. When a bus in a bus bay begins flashing its left turn signals. 4. This may affect your ability to control your vehicle when passing a large vehicle.Leave plenty of room if you are stopped behind a large vehicle. • A: Mid . called bus bays. it is dangerous. *40* 6. Stopping Distance . where passengers can get on and off.block indented bays . 5.
.] on the rear of the vehicle. Drive slowly and cautiously through school zones. visually impaired. Caution signs are posted in some areas where there is a special need for drivers to be alert. like pedestrians. making it difficult for the driver to see vehicles coming up from behind. Farmers often turn directly into fields rather than roads or lanes. Usually these operators will travel along a sidewalk but if there is no sidewalk available. Stay well back and do not pass until it is safe to do so. whether they are crossing roads in traffic. You never know when a child might dart out from between parked cars or try to cross a street without checking for oncoming traffic. but are very difficult to see. If you see one of these signs. The sign warns other drivers that the vehicle is travelling at 40 km/h or less. but travel at less than 40 km/h when towing implements or wagons. Farm machinery on the road must display an orange and red slow-moving vehicle sign [link to the slow-moving vehicle sign on page 105.• • • B: An indentation before an intersection C: An indentation after an intersection D: Bus stops between legally parked cars Diagram 2-14 Sharing the road with farm machinery Farm machinery moves quite slowly compared to other road users. Most tractors and combines have a maximum speed of 40 km/h. Remember that it is common for farmers to be on the roads after dark during peak planting and harvesting seasons. wide or long or both. Be very cautious at twilight when children may still be playing outside. walking or jogging alongside roads. Pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired may use a white cane or guide dog to help them travel safely along sidewalks and across intersections. Elderly pedestrians or those with disabilities need extra caution and courtesy from drivers as they may be slow in crossing the road. slow down and be cautious. Be alert for pedestrians who are blind. or move from lane to lane. Watch out for Community Safety Zone signs as they indicate areas where the community has identified that there is a special risk to pedestrians. *41* Sharing the road with pedestrians Pay special attention to pedestrians. persons using a mobility device should travel. people in wheelchairs or people walking slowly due to some other physical impairment and give them appropriate consideration. along the left shoulder of the roadway facing oncoming traffic. Persons operating mobility devices (motorized wheelchair and medical scooters) are treated the same way as pedestrians. Always yield the right-of-way to pedestrians at designated crossings. Farm machinery is often oversized. residential areas and any other area where children may be walking or playing. Watch for children. hearing impaired. or using crosswalks or crossovers (generally known as crossings).
cyclists. and pedestrians How to share the road with other road users safely and appropriately *42* Driving through intersections Be alert as you come to intersections and look carefully for traffic. stop signs. cyclists and pedestrians. cyclists.Some streetcar stops have a special safety island or zone for passengers getting on and off. if you are already so close that you cannot stop safely. Diagram 2-16 *DIAGRAM 2-15* add pedestrian and cyclist When you approach an intersection on a main road. yield signs. Include people in the image. be prepared to stop when it turns yellow. stop signs and traffic lights. This does not apply if you are turning left or right. . come to a complete stop and wait until the light turns green. and the intersection is blocked with traffic. *change order* look carefully for pedestrians.) Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • The importance of sharing the road with other road users. drive through the intersection with caution. yield signs or stop signs to control traffic (Diagram 216). Always be ready in case pedestrians make sudden or unexpected moves. (Insert image of streetcar w/ a special safety island. At a controlled intersection where you face a green light. Diagram 2-15 *DIAGRAM 2-14* add pedestrian and cyclist Controlled intersections Controlled intersections have traffic lights. motor vehicle traffic. stop before entering the intersection and wait until the traffic ahead moves on. However. Where you face a red light. yield signs. drive carefully through the intersection at a steady speed. There are two main types of intersections: controlled and uncontrolled. especially large vehicles. Pass these safety islands and zones at a reasonable speed. traffic lights. If the light has been green for a while.
slow down or stop if necessary and wait until the way is clear before driving through the intersection. you must wait for approaching traffic. you must yield the right-of-way to a vehicle. come to a complete stop. At a controlled intersection where you face a stop sign. When entering a road from a private road or driveway. Watch closely for cyclists and pedestrians. A yield sign means you must slow down or stop if necessary and yield the right-of-way to traffic in the intersection or on the intersecting road. If two vehicles come to an uncontrolled intersection from different roads at the same time. Diagram 2-17 *DIAGRAM 2-16* add cyclist stopped at intersection and travelling through intersection. If two vehicles stop at the same time. (Diagram 2-17). the (driver) vehicle on the left must let the (driver) vehicle on the right go first. *change order. and if you arrive at the same time. the vehicle on the left must yield to the vehicle on the right (Diagram 2-16). you must yield the right-of-way. pedestrian first. you must yield the right-of-way to the first vehicle to come to a complete stop. At an intersection without signs or lights. Uncontrolled intersections Uncontrolled intersections have no signs or traffic lights. This is called yielding the right-of-way. You must also check your blind spot for cyclists on your right or approaching from behind. Be extra careful around these intersections. At an intersection with stop signs at all corners. If you are turning left.At a controlled intersection where you face a yield sign. including bicycles approaching the intersection before you. Drive through the intersection only when the way is clear (Diagram 2-16). you must wait for pedestrians to cross if they are in or approaching your path.* . you must stop prior to sidewalk and yield to all motorized and non-motorized vehicles on the road and (pedestrians on the sidewalk) (Diagram 2-18). *43* Yielding the right-of-way There are times when you must yield the right-of-way. including cyclists to pass or turn and for pedestrians in or approaching your path to cross. If you are turning right. Here are some rules about when you must yield the right-of-way. This means you must let another driver. cyclist or pedestrian go first. the vehicle approaching from the right has the right-of-way (Diagram 2-15). At any intersection where you want to turn left or right. They are usually found in areas where there is not much traffic.
marked or not. signalling does not give you the right-of-way. . stop at the crosswalk. stop at the edge of the intersection (Diagram 2-21). If there is no sidewalk. Diagram 2-20 *DIAGRAM 2-19* add cyclist and pedestrian If there is no stop line. Wait until the way is clear before entering the intersection. stop at the edge of the sidewalk.Diagram 2-18 *insert text and image re Pedestrian Scramble intersections. replace with cyclist Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • The difference between controlled and uncontrolled intersections and how to safely navigate them The concept of right-of-way and common situations where you must yield to other road users Stopping Knowing how to stop safely and properly is an important driving skill. If there is no crosswalk.* *44* You must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing at specially marked pedestrian crossovers (Diagram 2-19). Diagram 2-19 *DIAGRAM 2-18* remove right lane car. You must make sure the way is clear. Remember.
Downshift before starting downhill since it may not be possible once you are going downhill. You may also see yellow advance warning signs and large 'X' pavement markings ahead of railway crossings. Stop at the stop line if it is marked on the pavement (Diagram 2-20). This will help control your speed and you won't have to brake as sharply. Watch for these signs and be prepared to stop. Never race a train to a crossing. so watch carefully. remember: • • • Slow down. try shifting into a lower gear going down long. you should be in the same gear going downhill as uphill. Use your right foot for both brake and gas pedals so you won't step on both pedals at the same time or activate your brake lights unnecessarily. Do not cross the track until you are sure the train or trains have passed. steep hills. Some less travelled crossings have stop signs posted. begin braking early and stop smoothly. railway crossings may not be marked. stop at least five metres from the nearest rail or gate. Remember it can take up to two kilometres for a train to stop under full emergency braking. . Diagram 2-22 *46* When you come to a railway crossing.Diagram 2-21 *DIAGRAM 2-20* add cyclist *45* Safe and responsible drivers see stops ahead. listen and look both ways to make sure the way is clear before crossing the tracks. If a train is coming. check their mirrors. Stopping at railway crossings All railway crossings on public roads in Ontario are marked with large red and white 'X' signs. Some railway crossings have flashing signal lights and some use gates or barriers to keep drivers from crossing the tracks when a train is coming. As a guide. In a vehicle with manual transmission. You must come to a complete stop for all stop signs and red traffic lights. Braking is easier when you sit properly. Press the brake pedal firmly and evenly. On private roads.
Avoid stopping in the middle of railway tracks. under or through a railway gate or barrier while it is down. for example. make sure you have enough room to cross the tracks completely before you begin to cross. . wait until all the children and the guard have cleared the crossing. wait until they stop flashing and. All are chrome yellow and display the words "School Bus. including the school crossing guard. Watch for these buses and be prepared to stop behind them.• • • • • • If there are signal lights. Buses and other public vehicles are required to stop at railway crossings that are not protected by gates. if the crossing has a gate or barrier. have cleared your half of the roadway and it is safe to proceed. Move to a safe place and then contact authorities. stop at a safe distance for children to get off the bus and cross the road in front of you. Drivers who don't follow the stopping requirements may be fined between $150 and $500 and get 3 demerit points. stop at least 20 metres away. before you cross the tracks. regardless of whether you are behind the bus or approaching it from the front. you must stop unless otherwise directed by a flagman. If you are coming from behind the bus. Never drive around. Stopping at school crossings • Where a school crossing guard displays a red and white stop sign you must stop before reaching the crossing and remain stopped until all persons. signal lights. in heavy traffic. It is illegal and dangerous. If you have any doubts on when it is safe to drive forward. Stopping for school buses School buses in Ontario come in a range of sizes. If you get trapped on a crossing. *47* When approaching the bus from the front. wait until it rises. being lowered or being raised. If you are approaching a railway crossing with a stop sign. School buses must stop at railway crossings whether or not they are protected by gates or signal lights." You must stop whenever you approach a stopped school bus with its upper alternating red lights flashing. Do not go until the bus moves or the lights have stopped flashing. or a stop sign. Avoid shifting gears while crossing tracks. immediately get everyone out and away from the vehicle.
This arm. As well as the upper alternating red flashing lights. swings out after the upper alternating red lights begin to flash.Diagram 2-23 Diagram 2-24 *DIAGRAM 2-23* add cyclist in front of red car and beside blue car If you are on a road with a median strip.) You must obey the school bus law on any road.000 and get six demerit points for a first offence. these same fines. may be applied to you. Vehicles cannot cross over a median strip. You could also go to jail for up to six months. Stopping for pedestrian crossovers . only vehicles coming from behind the bus must stop. Watch for school buses near railway crossings. a standard stop sign with alternating flashing red lights at top and bottom. (A median is a physical barrier such as a raised. Be prepared to stop for a school bus at any time. In Ontario. All school buses must stop at all railway crossings. but not demerit points or jail time.000 and six demerit points. not just within school hours. If you are the vehicle's registered owner. earth or paved strip constructed to separate traffic travelling in different directions. If you are convicted a second time within five years. Remain stopped until the arm folds away and all lights stop flashing. school bus drivers and other witnesses can report vehicles that have illegally passed a school bus. school buses use a stop sign arm on the driver's side of the bus. the penalty is a fine of $1. no matter how many lanes or what the speed limit. *48* Note: It is illegal to fail to stop for a stopped school bus that has its red lights flashing. The upper alternating red lights are not used for these stops.000 to $4. If you don't stop. so be alert. lowered. you can be fined $400 to $2.
Pedestrians may push a button to make overhead yellow lights flash to warn drivers. Drivers. Do not pass any vehicle within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossover. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • • Where to position your vehicle when stopping at stop lights and stop signs The importance of stopping at railway crossings and how to position your vehicle to stop for them How and when to stop for school crossings and school buses How and when to stop for pedestrian crossovers Changing directions Before you turn a corner. you can proceed with caution. Turning a corner . and behind you. back up. left.Diagram 2-25 *DIAGRAM 2-24* remove blue car and replace with cyclist. Pedestrians should point across the road to show they want to cross before entering the roadway. to your right. Once people have cleared your side of the road. *49* Always watch for pedestrians and people using wheelchairs at these crossings. including cyclists. change lanes or turn around. *More info needed on vehicles stopping to load/unload passengers. Always check your mirrors and over your shoulder to make sure the way is clear and you have enough space to complete the move safely. Add pedestrian walking bicycle across. Pedestrian crossovers (also commonly called crosswalks) are designated areas that allow pedestrians to safely cross roads where there are no traffic lights. must stop and allow pedestrians to cross. you need to know what is (beside) ahead.
Cyclists may be going faster than you think. limited-speed motorcycles. Gradually increase speed as you complete the turn. always begin and end a left turn in the far left lane in your direction. keep as far to the right of the road as possible. or moped riders go through the intersection before you turn. pedestrians or cyclists check your right rear blind spot. Look ahead. Try not to brake and steer at the same time. turn the steering wheel with one hand and cross the other hand over it. Let cyclists. always begin and end a right turn close to the right side of the road. *Refer to pg. drivers often lose control of vehicles and skid because they try to do more than one thing at a time. 151. left. Do not turn the steering wheel with one finger or the flat palm of your hand. complete your turn into the right-hand lane of the road you are entering. behind. Remember to yield to pedestrians and others using the road.To turn a corner. This is called "hand over hand steering. left. Diagram 2-26 *DIAGRAM 2-25* add multiple pedestrians crossing intersection." When you have completed the turn. right and left again before starting to turn. When the way is clear. Right turn on a red light Unless a sign tells you not to. cyclist waiting at light. right and left again and check your blind spots. For a sharp turn. To make a left turn. To keep full control of the vehicle. signal well before the turn and move into the right-hand lane when the way is clear. finish braking before you turn the steering wheel. Right turns Unless signs or pavement markings tell you not to. Slow down before you enter the turn. signal well before the turn. move into the proper lane either the far right lane for a right turn or the far left lane in your direction for a left turn. the sharper the turn.Remember. Look ahead. Check your blindspots for cyclists and pedestrians. When it is safe. Make your turn when the way is clear. . Signal your turn and look from side to side to make sure the way is clear. Left turns Unless signs or pavement markings tell you not to. relax your grip on the steering wheel and let it slip or gently feed it through your hands to return to the straight-ahead position. If you have not seen any (smaller vehicles or pedestrians). *50* Grip the wheel on the other side and continue turning. the slower you should go. If the right-hand lane is not marked. signal well before the turn and move into the far left lane when the way is clear. you may turn right on a red light as long as you first come to a complete stop (insert image highlighting exactly where the vehicle is to stop) and wait until the way is clear. To make a right turn.
If you are making a left turn behind one of these vehicles. your vehicle could be pushed into the path of oncoming traffic.When you are stopped at an intersection waiting for approaching traffic to clear. Turn from the left curb lane to the lane just right of the centre line. each should turn to the left of the other after yielding the right-of-way to pedestrians and oncoming traffic. move into the right curb lane. when you can. With your wheels turned to the left. do not . Diagram 2-27 *DIAGRAM 2-26* add cyclist and pedestrian Diagram 2-28: Two-way road to a one-way road. move into the right curb lane. Turn from the lane closest to the centre line to the left curb lane. Then. Then. Diagram 2-28 *DIAGRAM 2-27* add cyclist and pedestrian Diagram 2-29: One-way road to a two-way road. Diagram 2-29 *DIAGRAM 2-28* add cyclist and pedestrian Diagram 2-30: One-way road to a one-way road. Diagram 2-30 *DIAGRAM 2-29* add cyclist and pedestrian *52* When two vehicles coming from opposite directions meet in an intersection waiting to turn left. limited-speed motorcycles and mopeds turn left at intersections in the same way as larger vehicles. Turn from the lane closest to the centre line to the lane right of the centre line. Turn from the left curb lane to the left curb lane. bicycles. Motorcycles. don't turn your steering wheel to the left until you can complete the turn. when you can. following a smooth arc. *51* The following diagrams show you the correct way to turn left on different types of roads: Diagram 2-27: Two-way road to a two-way road.
follow these steps: 1. it may be hard for you to see oncoming traffic. make your turn from the marked lane. 2. . Diagram 2-32 *53* As they wait in front of you. Signal and move into the centre lane shortly before your turn. Diagram 2-31*REMOVE DIAGRAM 2-30* Replace with diagram showing cyclist turning left with motorized vehicles and pedestrians present. Left turn on a red light You may turn left from a one-way road to a one-way road on a red light after coming to a complete stop and making sure the way is clear. Only go when you are sure the way is clear. 3. Make your turn when the way is clear. At an intersection where left-turn lanes are marked on the pavement. Remember that vehicles from the opposite direction also use this lane to turn left. To use a two-way left-turn lane. The centre lane of some roads is used as a two-way left-turn lane (Diagram 2-32). This lets leftturning vehicles from both directions wait for a chance to turn without holding up traffic.pull up beside it to make your turn at the same time. Keep this lane position as you turn onto the other road. These left turn lanes are not to be used for passing. Stay behind and turn when the way is clear. Slow down. Yield to pedestrians and traffic. Carefully move forward to a spot opposite the road or driveway where you want to turn. Left-turn lanes Some roads have special lanes for vehicles turning left (Diagram 2-31). Wait for the smaller vehicle to move right before you pass.
Adequate gap: Watch for a safe opportunity to enter the roundabout. use your right-turn signal. you have the right-of-way over entering traffic. Travel counter-clockwise: Once in the roundabout. Don't enter directly beside another vehicle already in the roundabout. Look left: Traffic in the roundabout has the right-of-way. • • • • • • • • • • • *54* . or stay to the right if you entered from the right lane. Maintain your position: Maintain your position relative to other vehicles. as that vehicle may be exiting at the next exit. watch out for vehicles on the right that continue to circulate around the roundabout. Adjust your speed or stop at the yield sign if necessary.Driving through roundabouts Approaching: • Slow down and watch for pedestrians on the approach to the yield line at the entrance of the roundabout. Signal: Always signal lane changes. Exiting: Signal: Be sure to signal your exit and watch for pedestrians and cyclists. Stay in your lane. always keep to the right of the central island and travel in a counter-clockwise direction. Signal intent to exit: Once you have passed the exit before the one you want. When preparing to enter the roundabout. Enter when there is an adequate gap in the circulating traffic flow. Left lane exit: If exiting from the left lane. pay special attention to the vehicles to your left. Keep moving: Once you are in the roundabout. Maintain your lane: Stay to the left if you entered from the left lane. Entering: Visual checks: Do visual checks of all vehicles already in the roundabout and those waiting to enter (including cyclists). do not stop except to avoid a collision.
Diagram 2-33 *DIAGRAM 2-32* add cyclist and pedestrian Dealing with particular situations at a roundabout: Consider large vehicles Allow extra room alongside large vehicles (trucks and buses). including the apron (a mountable portion of the centre island adjacent to the roadway) if provided. . turn your body and head to the right and look back over your right shoulder (Diagram 2-34). Before you begin. If you have not entered the roundabout yet. *55* Backing up Take extra care and move slowly when backing up (reversing) your vehicle. If you are reversing straight back or to the right. Give large vehicles plenty of room to manoeuvre. put the gear selector in reverse and turn sideways in your seat to look over your shoulder in the direction you are moving. Give them plenty of room. While firmly holding the steering wheel. Pull over for emergency vehicles If you are in a roundabout when an emergency vehicle approaches. check that the way is clear behind you. Driving a large vehicle in a roundabout A driver negotiating a roundabout in a large vehicle (such as a truck or bus) may need to use the full width of the roadway. the vehicle may need to occupy both lanes. Large vehicles may have to swing wide on the approach or within the roundabout. exit at your intended exit and proceed beyond the traffic island before pulling over. Be especially careful to look for children and cyclists. Prior to entering the roundabout. pull over to the right if possible and wait until the emergency vehicle has passed.
including cyclists. *56* U-turn Before you make a U-turn. . move forward and turn quickly and sharply into the opposite lane. Turning around You may need to turn around when driving if you miss a turn or go too far along a road. check that the front end of your vehicle does not hit anything. This applies to the travelled section of the road and the shoulder. It is illegal to make a Uturn on a curve in the road. Check for traffic. check your mirror and over your shoulder and pull over to the right side of the road. Never make a U-turn unless you can see at least 150 metres in both directions. or near a bridge or tunnel that blocks your view. do so. a U-turn or a three-point turn may be necessary. To make a U-turn safely. on or near a railway crossing or hilltop. check to make sure there is no sign saying not to.Diagram 2-34 If you are reversing to the left. You don't have to wear a seatbelt while backing up. Signal a left turn and when traffic is clear in both directions. Always check the opposite shoulder as well. But don't forget to buckle up again before moving forward. To make a U-turn. Diagram 2-35 It is illegal to drive in reverse on a divided road that has a speed limit of more than 80 km/h. signal for a right turn. but there may be times when this is not possible. If you need to remove your seatbelt to turn your body to see properly when reversing. Stop. you must be able to see well in both directions. In such cases. The only exception to this rule is if you are trying to help someone in trouble. If you are turning as you reverse. The simplest and safest way is to drive around the block. There are several ways to do this safely. as you turn. turn your body and head to the left and look over your left shoulder (Diagram 2-35).
When you have reached the left side of the road. Diagram 2-36 *57* Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • • • How to properly turn left or right at intersections The rules surrounding turns onto and from one way streets How to navigate a roundabout Where to look and how to manoeuvre your vehicle when backing up Methods of turning your vehicle around to travel back in the opposite direction (U-turns. or near a bridge or tunnel that blocks your view. while backing up slowly to the other side of the road.Three-point turn On narrow roads you need to make a three-point turn to change directions. Before beginning. When the way is clear in both directions. Stop. stop. Changing lanes . turn the steering wheel sharply to the right. Signal a right turn. As shown in Diagram 2-36. a three-point turn starts from the far right side of the road. move forward. drive forward. Make sure you do not make a three-point turn on a curve in the road. Shift the vehicle into reverse. Signal for a left turn. 3-point turns) Changing positions Changing your position on the road involves changing lanes or overtaking and passing another vehicle. be sure you have enough space and time to complete the move safely. on or near a railway crossing or hilltop. turning the steering wheel sharply left towards the curb on the far side of the road. Shift to forward gear and check traffic. After checking that the way is still clear. When the way is clear.
Never make sudden lane changes by cutting in front of another vehicle. Avoid unnecessary lane changes or weaving from lane to lane. Never change lanes without giving the proper signal and looking to make sure the move can be made safely. Never overtake and pass another vehicle unless you are sure you can do so without danger to yourself or others. Remember that spending a few seconds behind another vehicle is often safer than going around it. Here are the steps for making a lane change: 1. You may have to change lanes to overtake another vehicle.20 *58* 3. Check your blind spot by looking over your shoulder in the direction of the lane change.Changing lanes is a movement from one lane to another on roads with two or more lanes in the same direction. 2. Don't change lanes in or near an intersection. For example. You are more likely to cause a collision. Steer gradually into the new lane. Check again to make sure the way is clear and that no one is coming too fast from behind or from two lanes over on a multi-lane road. Even if you signal. especially in heavy traffic or bad weather. including bicycles. Other drivers expect you to stay in the lane you are already in. Do not slow down . Passing Passing is changing lanes to move past a slower vehicle. You may want to pass some slow-moving vehicles when you are following them. Signal that you want to move left or right Diagram 2-37 *DIAGRAM 2-36* add cyclist position change imagery from ON Cyclists handbook – p. cyclists. road service vehicles and drivers ahead that are preparing to turn are usually slower than the through traffic.maintain the same speed or gently increase it. While all public roads have speed limits. . If in doubt. Don't pass moving snow plows under any conditions. they expect you to yield the right-of-way. not all vehicles travel at the same speed. 4. Check your mirrors for a space in traffic where you can enter safely. do not pass. to avoid a parked vehicle or when the vehicle ahead slows to turn at an intersection.
Also watch for vehicles that may be turning left in front of you and vehicles or pedestrians entering the road from another road or drriveway. 2.Here are the steps for passing a vehicle: 1. Use your left-turn signal to show that you want to pass and check that the way is clear ahead and behind before moving into the passing lane. Watch for bicycles and small vehicles that may be hidden from view in front of the vehicle you are about to pass. .
discourteous and dangerous. When being passed on an undivided road where the passing driver has pulled into the opposite lane. And do not speed up when another driver is trying to pass you. signal that you want to move back into the lane you started from. clarify what is meant by 'pedestrian crossing' – a crosswalk? all intersections? When passing parked vehicles. When another vehicle wants to pass you. do so by changing lanes. If the vehicle you are passing speeds up. Go back to your original lane. If you do want to pass these vehicles. 47 . *ADD IMAGE* refer to pg. Motorcycles. Do not take this as an invitation to pass in the same lane. It is unlawful. *59* Change lanes only after signalling. do not race. watch carefully for people suddenly opening doors or for doors opened to load and unload. and when you can see the entire front of the vehicle you are passing in your inside mirror. After overtaking. limited-speed motorcycles and mopeds often need to pull to the left or right side of their lane to avoid dangerous road conditions or to be seen by other drivers. Do not pass any vehicle (cyclist. Be careful not to cut off a vehicle by suddenly moving in front of it. make the lane change. limited-speed motorcycle or moped) within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossing. you must move to the right and let it pass. motorcycle. Be prepared to slow down to let the passing driver get in front of you more quickly to prevent a collision. Diagram 2-39 *60* . pay attention to oncoming traffic and move closer to the right side of the lane. bicycles. 3.Diagram 2-38 *DIAGRAM 2-37* add cyclist in place of white car.
3. This will let you see more of the road ahead. Signal. 2. follow these steps: 1. Passing at night Be very careful when you pass other vehicles at night. move into the right-hand lane as soon as you can. Passing on the right can be more dangerous than passing on the left. paved or not. *61* Passing on the shoulder You may drive on the right shoulder only to pass a vehicle turning left and only if the shoulder is paved. you are far enough ahead to pull back into the right lane. An advance sign tells drivers they will soon have a chance to pass. Do not suddenly change lanes and pass on the right. Switch your headlights to low beams as you approach a vehicle from behind. You may pass on the right on multi-lane or one-way roads and when overtaking a streetcar or a left-turning vehicle. the driver in front may realize you want to pass and move to the right at the same time you do.On many high-speed roads with three or more lanes in each direction. trucks are not allowed to drive in the far left-hand lane. This means that the lane next to it is the truck passing lane. check your mirrors and blind spot. . Passing on the right Most passing is done on the left. wait for the vehicle to move to the right. Passing and climbing lanes Diagram 2-40 Some roads have special passing or climbing lanes. These lanes let slower vehicles move into the right-hand lane so that faster ones can pass safely in the left lane. If you are driving in the passing lane with a slower vehicle in front of you. and pull out to pass. switch on your highbeams. Remember to signal. As you move alongside the vehicle you are passing. Another sign warns when the lane is ending so drivers in the right-hand lane can begin to merge safely with traffic in the lefthand lane. When you can see all of the front of the vehicle you are passing in your rear view mirror. If you have to pass and the way is clear. If you are in this lane and a truck wants to pass. You may not pass on the left shoulder.
pedestrian crossing or road entrance. They often travel faster than you think. Add point re: why? – cyclists may be hit/involved in collision Parking Since parking rules change from road to road and place to place. Here are some basic parking rules: • • • Never park on the travelled part of a road. Never park on a curve.g. Add cyclist next to blue car. regardless of whether there are people visibly leaving or entering the streetcar. Drive off the road onto the shoulder if you must stop for some reason. . standing or parking. Vehicles must come to a complete stop at this two metre mark while the streetcar doors are open.Passing streetcars Diagram 2-41*DIAGRAM 2-40* Zoom in on streetcar/pedestrians. At streetcar stops. You must pass streetcars on the right unless you are driving on a one-way road. at night. Always pass these areas at a reasonable speed and be prepared for pedestrians to make sudden or unexpected moves. stay at least two metres behind the rear doors where passengers are getting off or on. always watch for and obey signs that say you may not stop or limit stopping. crosswalk. hill or anywhere you do not have a clear view for at least 125 metres in both directions. This rule does not apply at stops where an area has been set aside for streetcar passengers (insert image of this scenario). *62* Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • • The safety considerations and the sequence of steps to follow when changing lanes or passing How to deal with specific situations when passing (e. Do not park where you will block a vehicle already parked or where you will block a sidewalk. Be aware that not all parking by-laws are posted on signs. streetcars) Add point re: watch carefully for cyclists. Add pedestrian and cyclist on opposite side of street.
Parking Parking for people with disabilities The Accessible Parking Permit. the Disabled Person Parking Permit. standing and stopping areas. Always do shoulder checks for cyclists before opening doors. When you must open a door next to traffic. The permit is issued to the permit holder. is a laminated card that may be displayed on the dashboard or turned-down sun visor of any vehicle in which a person with a disability is travelling. on or within 100 metres of a ridge or within six metres of a public entrance to a hotel. Do not park within nine metres of an intersection or within 15 metres if it is controlled by traffic lights. always signal and shoulder check for traffic and cyclists. Upon its expiry. Before moving from a parked position. • • • • • • *63* Diagram 2-42 After parking your vehicle. The permit entitles the vehicle in which the person named on the permit is travelling to park in designated disabled parking. Do not leave children or animals in the vehicle. formerly known as the Disabled Person Parking Permit. Never open the door of your parked vehicle without first making sure that you will not endanger any other person or (vehicle) cyclist or interfere with traffic. People who have the old version of the permit. remove the key and lock the door to deter theft. keep it open only long enough to load or unload passengers. Never park or stop in a bike lane. Blocking the lane causes potentially dangerous situations by forcing cyclists into faster moving traffic unexpectedly. theatre or public hall when it is open to the public. even if only for a few minutes.• Do not park within three metres of a fire hydrant. any new permit issued will be the Accessible Parking Permit. Never park with any of the vehicle wheels on the sidewalk. may continue to use this permit until it expires. always turn off the ignition and the lights. . Do not park where you will get in the way of traffic or snow clearing. not a specific vehicle. Do not park within 15 metres of the nearest rail of a level railway crossing. pulling out only when it is safe to do so.
The Accessible Parking Permit is issued free of charge to qualified individuals.on. but is not a permanent disability. . nurse practitioner (extended class).mto. The permit holder places the traveller permit on the dashboard or sun visor of their vehicle when leaving it parked at the airport. a licensed physician. A traveller permit (purple) is valid for up to one year and is issued upon request to individuals who hold a valid Accessible Parking Permit and plan to fly from any Ontario airport. This also applies to standing or stopping at curb areas reserved for picking up and dropping off passengers with disabilities.gov. • Diagram 2-43 Misuse or abuse of an Accessible Parking Permit should be reported to the police. chiropractor. Accessible Parking Permit applications are available on the MTO website at www. at any Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office or by sending a request to the ministry at the following address: Ministry of Transportation Building A 2680 Keele Street Downsview. • • A temporary permit (red) is issued when the disability is expected to last more than two months. physiotherapist or occupational therapist must certify that the applicant has one or more of the conditions detailed on the Accessible Parking Permit application form. The person's regular permit travels with them. A company permit (green) is valid for up to five years and is issued to companies and non-profit organizations that own or lease vehicles used to transport people with physical disabilities. There are four types of Accessible Parking Permits. The permit must belong to you or one of your passengers. ON M3M 3E6 Never park in a space designated for people with disabilities unless you display an Accessible Parking Permit in the windshield of your vehicle. To qualify for an Accessible Parking Permit. • A regular permit (blue) is issued to people with permanent disabilities and is valid for five years.ca. Misuse of an Accessible Parking Permit will result in fines and revoked privileges. The temporary permit is not renewable. Medical re-certification is not required to renew the regular *64* permit unless the permit holder has been certified as having a condition that may improve.
(Diagram 2-45 A). Check traffic and shoulder check for bicycles before opening your door. Minimize the time that your door is open. Parking on a hill When parking facing downhill. 5. find a space that is about one and one half times longer than your vehicle. Park on the right side of the road in the direction of traffic. straighten your wheels as you continue to reverse. When you can see the outside rear corner of the vehicle in front of your space. Unless there are signs saying otherwise. Follow these steps: 1. Diagram 2-44 *DIAGRAM 2-43* add pedestrian To parallel park on the right-hand side of the road. This will keep the vehicle from rolling into traffic if the brakes become disengaged. or shift into first or reverse gear if your vehicle has a manual transmission. turn your front wheels towards the curb or right shoulder.or parallel to the vehicle ahead of the empty space. Park parallel to the curb on roads where parking is allowed unless there are signs saying that vehicles should be parked at an angle. When you are properly parked. Stop when your rear bumper is in line with the other vehicle. always set the parking brake and move the gear selector into park. 3. you can parallel park on both sides of a one-way road. Slowly and carefully reverse into the space. When facing uphill without a curb. If the vehicle rolls. *66* Turn off the engine. If your vehicle is not parallel to the curb. When parking on a hill. Turn the steering wheel to the left so the wheels are turned towards the road if you are facing uphill with a curb. Drive alongside . turn the wheels sharply to the right. and signal your wish to pull over and stop. Lock your vehicle. Remember to remove the key from the ignition. turning the steering wheel fully towards the curb. leaving about a metre between the vehicles. load and unload your vehicle from the passenger side. 4. 2. Where accessible. Check (the traffic) for motor vehicles. or shift . cyclists and pedestrians beside and behind. The tires will catch the curb if it rolls backward (Diagram 2-45 B). Turn the steering wheel fully toward the road to bring your vehicle in line with the curb.*65* Parallel parking Parallel parking means parking a vehicle with its wheels parallel and next to the curb or side of the road. set the parking brake and move the gear selector into park. it will go off the road rather than into traffic (Diagram 2-45 C). drive forward to straighten.
Turn off your signal and turn on your hazard lights. * see point 2. Diagram 2-45 Roadside stop When you need to stop by the side of the road for a short time . put the gear selector in park and set the parking brake.follow these directions: 1. Check back for cyclists and steer to the side of the road. Turn on your signal before slowing down unless there are vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and the point where you *67* intend to stop. and stop parallel to the curb or edge of the road. 3. 2. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you are turning before the stopping point. for example . Terms should agree. set the parking brake and shift into neutral if not turning off the engine. do the following: . allow a passenger to disembark or to look for directions on a map. steadily reducing speed.to check something outside your vehicle. If your vehicle has a manual transmission. below “flashers” . or shift into low or reverse if turning off the engine. Check for traffic before opening the door and remember to lock your vehicle. Before slowing down. Turn off the engine and remove the key. When parking on a hill. You should not be more than about 30 centimetres away from it. You and your passenger must check for cyclists and pedestrians before opening the door of your vehicle.into first or reverse gear if your vehicle has a manual transmission. 5. check your mirrors and blind spot to see when the way is clear. Pulling out from a roadside stop When pulling out from a roadside stop. If your vehicle has an automatic transmission. Do not stop in a bike lane or where you will block an entrance or other traffic. turn your wheels in the appropriate direction to keep your vehicle from rolling. 4.
2. In the acceleration lane. (Yielding) Ex: Don Viaduct A freeway . You will need to learn how to recognize markings and signs for these lanes.is a high-speed. Entering a freeway There are usually two parts to a freeway entrance: an entrance ramp and an acceleration lane. On a freeway. Signal and increase your speed to merge smoothly with traffic. so driving can be more demanding and difficult. increasing your speed more quickly. Release the parking brake and move the gear selector to drive or shift into first gear. freeway driving can be safer for experienced drivers. In a vehicle with manual transmission. . shift gears as you increase speed. A few entrance ramps join the freeway on the left. Freeway drivers should move over. drivers increase their speed to the speed of traffic on the freeway before they merge with it. Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. and who is eligible to park in spaces designated for people with disabilities What parallel parking is and what steps to follow to complete it successfully How to safely pull over your vehicle for a roadside stop and re-enter traffic Possible tips re: Private parking lot *S* *68* Freeway driving *Note needed re: crossing path of pedestrians and cyclists who are not merging. bicycles or pedestrians. and the rules for using them. As you leave the ramp you enter the acceleration lane. 4. Use the acceleration lane to match your speed to the traffic. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • • • Basic parking rules that may not appear on posted street signs What an Accessible Parking Permit is. Class G1 drivers may only drive on freeways with a licensed driving instructor. Just before pulling away from the stop. New drivers need to learn how to drive with other vehicles around them at low speeds before trying freeway driving. accelerate moderately. Vehicle speed is higher on a freeway than on other roads. you may have to accelerate more quickly. In light traffic.also called an expressway . traffic going in each direction is separated and ramps let vehicles enter and exit. Turn off your left turn signal as soon as you are back on the road. However. New lanes called High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes are to be used for vehicles carrying a set minimum number of people. 5. if it is safe to do so. check your mirrors and blind spot to make sure the way is clear of vehicles and cyclists. leaving room for merging vehicles. In heavier traffic. multi-lane road. Turn off your flashers and turn on your left turn signal. This means you enter the fastest lane of traffic first. 3. look ahead and check your mirrors and blind spots to assess the traffic to see where you will move into the nearest freeway lane. As you move along the freeway entrance ramp.1. because there are no intersections.
or as far ahead as you can see. when making a lane change or joining the flow of traffic. This will let you see clearly in every direction and will give you time and space to react. when you travel at faster speeds. Use the far left lane of a multi-lane freeway to pass traffic moving slower than the speed limit. Be careful not to cut off any vehicle. Look ahead to where you are going to be in the next 15 to 20 seconds. a safe driver travels at a steady speed. leaving the other lanes clear for passing. Traffic should keep to the right. Stay clear of large vehicles. It is dangerous and illegal for a slower moving vehicle to cut in front of a faster moving vehicle.Diagram 2-46 *69* Driving along a freeway Once on the freeway. yield sign or traffic light. to each side and behind. Drive in the right-hand lane when possible. On many freeways with three or more lanes in each direction. Leaving a freeway There are usually three parts to a freeway exit: a deceleration lane for slowing down that leads drivers out of the main flow of traffic. but don't stay there. large trucks cannot travel in the far left lane and must use the lane to the right for passing. Because of their size. Be aware that you are re-entering a pedestrian and cycling zone. large or small. Diagram 2-47 . using the left lanes for passing. scanning the road ahead. Get into the habit of driving in the right lane. Remember to keep scanning and check your mirrors frequently. Slow down and use extra caution. they block your view more than other vehicles. Leave space around your vehicle. an exit ramp and an intersection with a stop sign. looking forward and anticipating what's going to happen on the road ahead. your eyes should be constantly moving. As in city driving.
Slow down to local speeds and use extra caution. HOV lanes on provincial highways are reserved for vehicles carrying at least two people (i. do not stop or reverse on the freeway.*DIAGRAM 2-45* Zoom out to also include pedestrian crossing on exit ramp. HOV lanes benefit all drivers. • The HOV lane is separated from the other general traffic lanes by a striped buffer zone. . If you miss an exit. signal that you want to move into the deceleration lane. and encourage carpooling and transit use by providing travel time savings and a more reliable trip time. 7 days a week. Take the next exit. Check your speedometer to make sure you are going slowly enough. HOV lanes can move a greater number of people than a general traffic lane. Losing your ability to judge your speed accurately is sometimes called speed adaptation or velocitization. buses and limousines). Signs telling you that there are freeway exits ahead are far enough in advance for you to make any lane changes safely. *70* When leaving the freeway. It is a special danger when leaving a freeway. save money (by sharing the cost of driving) and reduce stress. It is illegal and unsafe to cross the striped buffer pavement markings. When you are in the lane. minivans. taxis.e. but do not slow down. reduce your speed gradually to the speed shown for the exit ramp. pickup trucks. High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane A High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane is a specially designed lane that is designated for use by certain types of vehicles with a specified number of occupants. It can offer travel time savings to those who choose to carpool or take transit. not only those who carpool. a driver plus at least one passenger in any of the following passenger vehicles: cars. Be prepared to stop at the end of the exit ramp. HOV lanes are open 24 hours a day. in the following ways: • • • • Improves highway infrastructure by moving more people in fewer cars Reduces the number of vehicles on the road Reduces vehicle emissions and improves air quality Helps you conserve fuel. You may not realize how fast you are going because you are used to the high speed of the freeway. Be aware that you are re-entering a pedestrian and cycling zone. motorcycles.
If you are on a long trip. and feature a solid white line with intermittent bicycle and/or diamond symbols. regardless of the number of occupants. you can be stopped and ticketed by a police officer. failing to yield the right of way and cutting in front of someone too closely. Bicycle Lanes Bicycle priority lanes are lanes designated for use by cyclists. drivers must shoulder check. An angry driver may attempt dangerous retaliatory action. and listening to relaxing music. wait behind before making your turn. • *71* Short paragraph re: bike lanes. If someone else's (driving) behaviour annoys you. driving along or exiting a freeway What HOV lanes are and who can use them What a Bicycle lane is and who can use them Dealing with particular situations Aggressive driving and road rage Aggressive driving behaviours. If you use the HOV lanes improperly. cyclists and even pedestrians to become frustrated and angry and lead to a road rage conflict between (drivers)road users. Emergency vehicles such as police. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • • What a freeway is and which road users can and cannot use them Safe practices to follow when entering. Buses can use an HOV lane at any time. . If there is a bicycle ahead of you. You will be required to re-enter the general lanes at the next entry/exit zone. take a break from driving every few hours. Make the right turn from the right most part of the lane. breathing deeply and slowly. may cause other drivers. These lanes are usually found on the right side of the curb lane.• Certain vehicles are exempt from the HOV lane rules. fire and ambulance are also exempt from the restrictions. cyclist or pedestrian. don't try to "educate" the person. At intersections where the bicycle lane is dashed. signaling your turn. Motor vehicles are prohibited from driving. Leave traffic enforcement to the police. speeding. Make a conscious decision not to take your problems with you when driving. Drivers should take particular care when turning right. parking or stopping in these lanes. such as tailgating. Don't take other (drivers') road users’ mistakes or behaviours personally. Avoid becoming angry on the road by following these tips: • • • • • • Know the warning signs of stress and combat them by getting fresh air. or crossing bike lanes. signal and shoulder check again before merging safely into the bike lane. Don't compete with another driver. or retaliate for what you believe to be inconsiderate behaviour.
Cyclists and pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users. Street racers run the risk of being charged under the Criminal Code of Canada. Studies also indicate that shift workers. indicate that you are sorry. Drive in a courteous and considerate manner.• • Avoid honking your horn at other (drivers) road users. Yield the right-of-way when it is courteous to do so.). It shows a callous disregard for other drivers and road users. A light tap on the horn is usually sufficient. Street racing is one of the most serious and reckless forms of aggressive driving. If you make a mistake while driving. are at greater risk for such collisions. *72* • • If you are in a situation in which you feel threatened by another (driver) road user. If you have a cell phone.m. and 6:00 a. people with undiagnosed or untreated sleep disorders. From website.) or late afternoon (between 2:00 p. unless absolutely necessary for safety. and 4:00 p. If you become angry or upset. Drive to a police station or a busy public place. Avoid aggression and yield right-of-way. Don't return aggression. If you believe you are being followed. Drowsy driving Drowsiness has been identified as a causal factor in a growing number of collisions resulting in injury and fatality. Tired drivers can be as impaired as drunk drivers. They have a slower reaction time and are less alert. and it puts everyone on the road at serious risk of injury or death. Always avoid driving when you are feeling drowsy. Some of the most erratic and inconsiderate driving occurs when a driver is lost. do the following: • • • • • Stay in your vehicle and lock the doors.m. Here are eight important warning signs that your drowsiness is serious enough to place you at risk: . Use your horn and signals to attract attention. do not drive home. Remember that if you drive responsibly and courteously. you are less likely to spark a road rage situation. • • • • Plan your route in advance. call police. Keep away from erratic drivers. and commercial vehicle operators. Studies have shown that collisions involving drowsiness tend to occur during late night/early morning hours (between 2:00 a. Be polite and let other drivers and cyclists in front of you when they are signaling that they would like to do so.m. pull over out of traffic and stop until you calm down. An apology can greatly reduce the risk of conflict. Street racing This section is not in the current print version of the handbook. Avoid eye contact and do not gesture back. Scientific research confirms that you can fall asleep without actually being aware of it.m.
Motor vehicle/wild animal collisions increased from 7. . We suggest a ‘Sharing the Road With Cyclists’ section. Your mind keeps wandering and you can't seem to concentrate. move slowly and carefully around the obstacle. roll up your windows and take a nap. Workers on the road Be extra careful when driving through construction zones and areas where people are working on or near the road.• • • • • • • • You have difficulty keeping your eyes open. Obey posted speed limits. the only safe driver is a well-rested.489 collisions in 2006. You cannot trick your body into staying awake. the effects wear off quickly. do not change lanes. Municipalities can lower the speed limits in construction zones to increase safety for workers. Many of these collisions go unreported. but if you are sleep deprived. yield to the driver coming from the opposite direction. Your head keeps tilting forward despite your efforts to keep your eyes on the road. watch for traffic control people and follow their instructions. Treat people working on roads with respect and be patient if traffic is delayed. It is also an offence to disobey STOP or SLOW signs displayed by a traffic control person or firefighter. Stimulants are never a substitute for sleep. you may be in danger of falling asleep. slow down and obey all warning signs and people and/or devices that are directing traffic through the area. Crashes involving animals (mainly moose and deer) are a growing problem. The same is true of turning up the volume of your radio or CD player and opening the window. Sometimes traffic in one direction must wait while vehicles from the other direction pass through a detour. When approaching a construction zone. This represents an increase of 85 per cent over a 10-year period. In the construction zone. Whether you are driving during the day or at night. Traffic control workers control vehicle traffic in work zones and prevent conflicts between construction activity and traffic. Lock your doors. Pull off the road and park your vehicle in a safe. You have drifted off the road and narrowly avoided a crash.839 in 1997 to 14. When the way is clear. You can't remember details about the last few kilometres you have travelled. You are missing traffic lights and signals. Animals on the road *Add section comparable to this re: bicyclists. alert driver. Remember. secure place. Reduced speed limits come into effect once signs are posted in the area. Use well-lit rest stops or truck stops on busy roads. Your vehicle drifts into the next lane and you have to jerk it back into your lane. be ready for sudden stops and watch for workers and construction vehicles on the road and give them more room to ensure everyone's safety. Copy can be used/adapted from the ‘Official Cycling Skills Guide’. Drinks containing caffeine can help you feel more alert. If your lane is blocked and no one is directing traffic. Recent changes to the Highway Traffic Act have resulted in doubled fines for speeding in a construction zone when workers are present. you need to sleep. *73* If you have one of these symptoms. You yawn frequently. drive carefully and adjust your speed and driving to suit the conditions.
especially during dusk to dawn hours when wild animals are most active. Animal movements are unpredictable. use a hands-free microphone. If you see an animal: • • • • • • Cellular phones Cellular phones can be an important safety aid for drivers. If you do see shining eyes. Keep your windshield clean and headlights properly adjusted. Scan the road ahead from shoulder to shoulder. If you are driving and your phone rings. Do not park on the shoulder of the road. Stay in your vehicle. To reduce your chances of hitting an animal: • • • • • Reduce speed in darkness. farm or wild animals on the road anywhere in Ontario. But using a cellular phone while driving takes a driver's attention from the business of driving. If you hit a deer or moose. Many areas of the province have animal crossing signs which warn drivers of the danger of large animals (such as moose. If you must use a cellular phone when driving. Do not try to move an injured animal. Travel at a safe speed and stay alert. or have a passenger use the phone. deer or cattle) crossing the road. Driver inattention and speed are common factors in animal-vehicle crashes. Make it a habit to use your cellular phone only when you are parked. These conditions can reduce your ability to see an animal on or near the road. Use voice-activated or speed dialing and never take notes while driving. as other drivers may be distracted by the animal and hit your vehicle. Don't try to drive around the animal. Be alert for other animals which may be with the one you've seen. Be cautious when you see these signs. slow down and be ready to stop. report it to the local police service or the Ministry of Natural Resources. Watch for shining eyes at the roadside. Slow down and sound your horn. getting out increases your chance of being hit by another vehicle. slow down and pass carefully as they may suddenly bolt onto the road. If you see an animal on or near the road. Many people use their phones to report crimes and collisions and for personal safety when they are lost or their vehicle breaks down. let your cellular voice mail *75* service take the call and listen to the message later when you are parked. find a safe place to pull completely off the road and park first. If you wish to watch an animal. As more and more people use cellular phones. Make sure your phone is easy to see and reach and that you know how to use it. it is important that they be used safely. rain and fog. Distracted drivers are more likely to make a driving error or to react too slowly.*74* You may encounter domestic. . Use high beams whenever possible and safe to do so and scan both sides of the road ahead.
you will get six demerit points and can be fined up to $2. PDA's and MP3 players Reading maps.g.) Careless driving is a serious offence. Stress can affect your driving performance. CD and DVD players. your licence may be suspended for up to two years. cell phones.000 and sentenced to up to six months in jail. radio and CD player. A split-second distraction behind the wheel can result in injury or even death. Drivers who talk. directions or other material Grooming (combing hair. cell phones. Make it a habit to pull over and park to use your cell phone or have a passenger take the call or let it go to voice mail. dial or email using hand-held cell phones and other handheld communications and entertainment devices face fines of up to $500. take a break from driving. There are a number of possible driver distractions including: • • • • • • • • • Using devices such as GPS systems. Any secondary activity will detract from your ability to drive properly and safely. text. such as collisions or police activity (Include stats on collisions and fatalities caused by careless driving. If you are convicted of careless driving.The rules for using hand-held electronic devices (e. When you are hungry or thirsty. laptops. radios.) Driver distractions Driving is a job that requires your full attention every time you get behind the wheel. *76* Emergency vehicles . GPS units) have changed. Police can also charge drivers with careless driving or even dangerous driving (a criminal offence) if they do not pay full attention to the driving task. In some cases. Police can charge drivers with careless driving if drivers do not pay full attention to their driving. Remember to focus on your driving at all times. New to website. Cyclists can also be charged with careless driving offences. CD player or climate control) Visual distractions outside your vehicle. Put reading material in the trunk if you are tempted to read. Tips to reduce driver distractions • • • • • • Attend to personal grooming and plan your route before you leave. smart phones. You must reduce distractions and focus on your driving. stereos. Do not engage in emotional or complex conversations. (This paragraph is not in book. Identify and preset your vehicle's climate control. type. putting on make-up or shaving) Eating or drinking Taking notes Talking with passengers Tending to children or pets Adjusting the controls in your vehicle (radio.
ambulances and public utility emergency vehicles. Allow other vehicles to also pull over. It is illegal to follow within 150 meters of a fire vehicle or ambulance responding to a call in any lane going in the same direction. Remember to check for cyclists and pedestrians. Please yield the rightof-way to help them reach the emergency quickly and safely. Pull to the right and gradually come to a stop. Don't drive on or block the shoulder on freeways. Note: Some fire fighters and volunteer medical responders may display a flashing green light when using their own vehicles to respond to a fire or medical emergency. Approaching a stopped emergency vehicle with red or red AND blue flashing lights . Use your signals to alert other drivers you intend to pull over. and stop.Emergency vehicles include fire and police department vehicles. • • React quickly but calmly. Check to make sure the way is clear and signal before merging back into traffic. Failing to pull over and stop for an approaching emergency vehicle can result in a conviction and a fine. Look in front and on both sides of your vehicle. Clear the way! Pull to the right and stop. Wait for the emergency vehicle to pass and watch for other emergency vehicles that may be responding to the same call. Diagram 2-46 *DIAGRAM 2-46* add cyclists and pedestrians. Reacting to an approaching emergency vehicle When you see red or red AND blue flashing lights or hear the bells or sirens of an emergency vehicle approaching from either direction. • • *77* Never follow or try to outrun an emergency vehicle. prepare to clear the way. Take lights and sirens seriously. Stay alert. When you see an approaching emergency vehicle with its lights or siren on. It's the law. Check your rear-view mirrors. move as far to the right side of the roadway as you safely can. Emergency vehicles will use the shoulder of the road if all lanes are blocked. you must immediately slow down. Don't slam on the brakes or pull over suddenly.
000 to $4. snow or fog. Watch closely for cyclists and pedestrians under these conditions as your field of vision is reduced. This may cause you to overdrive your headlights if you are not careful (see Diagram 2-49).000 for a first offence and $1. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • • How to manoeuvre your vehicle through construction zones What to do if you encounter animals on the road Things that may distract you when driving and how to minimize those distractions What to do when you encounter an emergency vehicle\ *78* Driving at night and in bad weather At night and in weather conditions such as rain. Reflective road signs can mislead you as well. depending on the angle of the sun's rays and your surroundings. if it can be done safely. demerit points on your driving record. . a driver's licence suspension of up to two years and a fine of $400 to $2. Diagram 2-49 Glare Glare is dazzling light that makes it hard for you to see and be aware what others around you are doing. you must slow down and pass with caution. and whenever weather conditions reduce your visibility.When you see an emergency vehicle stopped with its red or red AND blue flashing lights in a lane or on the shoulder in your direction of travel. especially on unlit roads. This is a dangerous thing to do. If the road has two or more lanes.000 for a subsequent offence (a subsequent offence is when you are convicted again within five years). even with headlights. Failing to follow these rules can result in a conviction. Overdriving your headlights You are overdriving your headlights when you go so fast that your stopping distance is farther than you can see with your headlights. you cannot see as far ahead. because you may not give yourself enough room to make a safe stop. Glare can also be a problem at night when you face bright headlights or see them reflected in your rear view mirror. making you believe you can see farther than you really can. Slow down when driving at night. you must move over into another lane to allow one lane clearance between your vehicle and the emergency vehicle. The court can order you to spend up to six months in jail. or you may have to pay a fine or both. It can be a problem on both sunny and overcast days.
Use pavement markings to help guide you. there are a number of safe driving tips you should follow. If you can't see any headlights. use your sun visor or keep a pair of good quality sunglasses in your vehicle. delay your trip until it clears.*79* When meeting oncoming vehicles with bright headlights at night. look up and beyond and slightly to the right of the oncoming lights.and during your trip . Fog can reduce visibility for drivers. Avoid passing. Assume that cyclists are on the road and position your vehicle accordingly. switch back to highbeams.check weather forecasts. move off the road and into a safe parking area to wait for the fog to lift. . If that is not possible or you get caught driving in fog. Remove your sunglasses and turn on your headlights. follow these safe driving tips: DO: • • • • • • Slow down gradually and drive at a speed that suits the conditions. Diagram 2-50 Fog Fog is a thin layer of cloud resting on the ground. slow down to let your eyes adjust to the reduced light. If you have fog lights on your vehicle. delay your trip until it clears. Use your lowbeam headlights within 150 metres of an oncoming vehicle or when following a vehicle within 60 metres. Cut down glare at night by following the rules of the road for vehicle lights. When you enter a tunnel on a bright day. resulting in difficult driving conditions. Be patient. Highbeams reflect off the moisture droplets in the fog. If you are caught driving in fog. Use your lowbeam headlights. changing lanes and crossing traffic. rather than the centre line. On country roads. Make sure the full lighting system of your vehicle is turned on. in addition to your lowbeams. Check weather forecasts and if there is a fog warning. If visibility is decreasing rapidly. If there is a fog warning. if possible. Use the right edge of the road as a guide. making it harder to see. *80* Tips for driving safely in fog Before you drive . use them. They could save your life. In daytime glare. switch to lowbeams when you come to a curve or hilltop so you can see oncoming headlights and won't blind oncoming drivers. The best thing to do is to avoid driving in fog.
replace them. Remain calm and patient. This is called hydroplaning. Your full attention is required. tires make less contact with the road. For example. Make sure you have good tires with deep tread. Don't speed up to pass a vehicle moving slowly or to get away from a vehicle that is following too closely. pull completely off the road and try to position your vehicle in a safe parking area.• • • • • • • Increase your following distance. even if the fog seems to be clearing. If so. and slow down when the road is wet. In rain. You could become the first link in a chainreaction collision. . You will need extra distance to brake safely. Cyclists also need more stopping distance in the rain. reduce speed gradually. Look and listen for any hazards that may be ahead. Watch your speed. If your wiper blades do not clean the windshield without streaking. turn off the cell phone. braking and accelerating will reduce the chance of skids. especially as the first drops fall. Leave more space between you and the vehicle ahead in case you have to stop. You could find yourself suddenly back in fog. Don't stop on the road. Turn on your emergency flashers. Rain also reduces visibility. Keep your windows and mirrors clean. Use your defroster and wipers to maximize your vision. If the fog is too dense to continue. When visibility is reduced. DON'T: • • • REMEMBER: • • • • • *81* Rain Rain makes road surfaces slippery. Make sure your windshield wipers are in good condition. If there is too much water or if you are going too fast. your tires may ride on top of the water. When this happens. You may be going faster than you think. Don't stop on the travelled portion of the road. Look ahead and plan your movements. Reduce the distractions in your vehicle. This will also help you to avoid spray from the vehicle ahead that can make it even harder to see. Watch for any electronically-operated warning signs. Smooth steering. try to drive on clear sections of road. Don't speed up suddenly. With more rain. Leave a safe braking distance between you and the vehicle ahead. Keep looking as far ahead as possible. pull off the road into a safe parking area and wait for the fog to lift. If visibility is decreasing rapidly. use your lowbeam lights. control becomes very difficult. Drive slowly enough to be able to stop within the distance you can see. Don't pass other vehicles or speed up suddenly. like water skis.
not spongy . you should take the vehicle in for repair immediately. skidding in a straight line. rear or all four wheels. A puddle can hide a large pothole that could damage your vehicle or its suspension. Water can also make your brakes less effective. Look ahead and anticipate what you must do based on the conditions. full of hard tracks and gullies. An abnormal drop in wheel speed. causes the brake force to be reduced to that wheel. look where you want the vehicle to go and steer in that direction. including cyclists. Use extreme caution. Anti-lock braking systems. Although anti-lock braking systems help to prevent wheel lock. which indicates potential wheel lock. Under normal driving conditions. Press down on the brake pedal. trying to get as much braking power as possible. Make sure the vehicle stops in a straight line. If you still feel a pulling to one side or a spongy brake pedal even after the brakes are dry. Then. release the brake pressure slightly and re-apply.that's a sign of trouble. The spray of water could splash nearby pedestrians or drown your engine. smooth and soft. Continue braking this way until you have brought the vehicle to a complete stop. Cyclists and pedestrians have no protection from the rain. which are also called ABS. *82* Threshold braking . Don't pump the brakes. This improves vehicle safety during heavy brake use or when braking with poor traction. hard braking. Some vehicles have anti-lock brake systems that give you a maximum threshold stop automatically. Be careful not to oversteer. you will notice no difference between vehicles with anti-lock braking and vehicles without anti-lock braking. Flooded roads Try not to drive on flooded roads . Most skids result from driving too fast for road or traffic conditions.water may prevent your brakes from working. Test your brakes when it is safe to do so by stopping quickly and firmly at 50 km/h. The brake pedal should feel firm and secure. or. This is how the anti-lock braking system prevents tire skid and the accompanying loss of steering control. Once in a skid. or flatten a tire. are designed to sense the speed of the wheels on a vehicle. practice emergency braking to understand how your vehicle will react. If you are on ice. on clean dry roads. Skids can involve the front. step on the clutch or shift to neutral. Brake as hard as you can without locking up or skidding the wheels. if you feel any of the wheels locking up. even in slippery conditions.If your vehicle has an anti-lock braking system.All vehicles. Skids A skid happens when your wheels slide out of control on a slippery surface. rutted. Drivers unfamiliar with anti-lock braking are surprised by the vibration that happens when they brake hard in an emergency. If you must drive through a flooded stretch of road. slow down and provide ample space when passing. should stay out of puddles. going too fast around a corner or accelerating too quickly can cause your vehicle to skid or roll over. causing it to stall. Anti-lock brakes . without pulling to one side. Make sure you know what to expect so you can react quickly and effectively in an emergency. you should not expect the stopping distance for your vehicle to be shortened.Threshold braking should bring you to a reasonably quick controlled stop in your own lane. It is a good idea to practice doing this under controlled conditions with a qualified driving instructor. Sudden. test your brakes afterwards to dry them out. Slow down on . Snow Snow may be hard-packed and slippery as ice.
Be patient. do not stop on the road. If there is a weather warning.and during your trip . changing lanes and crossing traffic. snowy roads. Given the presence of large snowbanks pedestrians and cyslists’ patterns change and they will likely need more space. Leave a safe braking distance between you and the vehicle ahead. delay your trip until conditions improve. if possible. You will need extra space to brake safely. Keep your windows and mirrors clean. drive only if necessary and with extreme caution. *83* Tips for driving in blowing snow and whiteout conditions Before you drive . Look for an opportunity to pull off the road into a safe parking area and wait for conditions to improve. Avoid passing. stay with your vehicle for warmth and safety until help arrives. Try to get off the road when visibility is near zero. Whiteouts Blowing snow may create whiteouts where snow completely blocks your view of the road.rutted. You may be going faster than you think. braking or accelerating that could cause a skid. When blowing snow is forecast. Watch your speed. follow these safe driving tips: DO: • • • • • • • • Slow down gradually and drive at a speed that suits the conditions. Stay alert. Avoid sudden steering.check weather forecasts and road reports. Increase your following distance. Don't attempt to pass a vehicle moving slowly or speed up to get away from a vehicle that is following too closely. Use defroster and wipers to maximize your vision. DON'T: • • REMEMBER: • • • • • . remain calm and be patient. Be prepared to facilitate their travel. You could become the first link in a chainreaction collision. If so. Don't stop on the travelled portion of the road. Pull into a safe parking area if possible. reduce speed gradually. Run your motor sparingly. If you become stuck or stranded in severe weather. Stay alert. Open a window slightly for ventilation. Your full attention is required. Use your emergency flashers. Keep looking as far ahead as possible. If visibility is decreasing rapidly. Reduce the distractions in your vehicle. or reports of poor visibility and driving conditions. Remember that cyclists ride year round. Make sure the full lighting system of your vehicle is turned on. If you get caught driving in blowing snow or a whiteout.
Snow plows Snow removal vehicles are equipped with flashing blue lights that can be seen from 150 metres. On freeways. and the ridge of wet snow can throw your vehicle out of control. wet roads become icy. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • • How to identify and manage situations where your visibility may be reduced How weather conditions such as rain. do not drive away. Call for help. asphalt in the winter should look gray-white in colour. If the road ahead looks like black and shiny asphalt. slow down and anticipate ice. Total brake failure is very rare on modern vehicles. If your brakes fail Try pumping the brake pedal to temporarily restore hydraulic brake pressure. Do not try to pass between them. whiteouts or black ice How to recognize and share the road with snow removal vehicles *85* Dealing with emergencies If you drive often or travel alone. It may be covered by a thin layer of ice known as black ice. several snow plows may be staggered across the road. It is a good idea for new drivers to practice a parking brake emergency stop under controlled conditions with a qualified driving instructor. This is extremely dangerous because there is not enough room to pass safely. It is important to look ahead and watch for clues that indicate you need to slow down and anticipate slippery road conditions. Be sure to break well in advance of intersections and crosswalks and to be wary of obstructions even when advancing on green lights. apply the parking brake gently but firmly while holding the release button. clearing all lanes at the same time by passing a ridge of snow from plow to plow. Generally. shovel and blanket. Pedestrians may take longer to clear the intersection in icy conditions. If this does not work. If your gas pedal sticks . If you think there may be black ice ahead. *84* Ice As temperatures drop below freezing. Flashing blue lights warn you of wide and slow-moving vehicles: some snow plows have a wing that extends as far as three metres to the right of the vehicle. non-perishable energy foods. be suspicious. Here are some suggestions for coping with some common road emergencies.• • Be prepared and carry a winter driving survival kit that includes items such as warm clothing. slow down and be careful. you need to be ready to deal with emergencies. flooded roads. snow and ice may affect your vehicle and your ability to control it What to do if your vehicle skids or if you encounter heavy snow. It is important to look ahead. Sections of road in shaded areas or on bridges and overpasses freeze first. If your brakes do fail and you manage to stop. flashlight.
Be careful getting out of your vehicle. John Ambulance recommends that all drivers carry a well-stocked first aid kit and know how to use it. By law. leave through the door away from traffic. Every driver involved in a collision must stay at the scene or return to it immediately and give all possible assistance. *86* If a tire blows out Blowouts can cause tremendous steering and wheel vibration. Call for help. Avoid heavy braking. In a collision with injuries. Be prepared to correct your steering and increase speed when your wheels are fully back on the pavement. .First try to lift the pedal by slipping your foot under it. It is dangerous and illegal to drive at night without lights. While you wait for help. Turn off all engines and turn on emergency flashers. take your foot off the gas pedal and pull over to the nearest shoulder as quickly as possible. If you are not personally involved in a collision. If you have a cellular phone. the 400-series freeways and many other high-speed roads are patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. stay in your vehicle with the doors locked. Check your mirrors. possible fuel leaks or serious vehicle damage. Set up warning signals or flares or have someone warn approaching drivers.000. Do not wait for your vehicle to stall on the freeway. In a collision where someone is injured St. If you need help. call for help yourself. If you have trouble on a freeway At the first sign of trouble. steer toward the pavement. Turn off the ignition and do not drive away. Do not raise the hood. If the lights stay out. you must report any collision to the police when there are injuries or damage to vehicles or other property exceeding $1. It could mean the difference between life and death in a collision. If this does not work. Do not reach down with your hands while the vehicle is moving. you should stop to offer help if police or other help has not arrived. If your wheels go off the pavement Don't panic. When the vehicle is under control. shift to neutral and stop as soon as you safely can. Consider reading a book about first aid or sign up for a first aid course. turn on your hazard lights and bring your vehicle to a safe stop. Stay with your vehicle and help will arrive shortly. preferably off the road. The Queen Elizabeth Way. Take your foot off the gas pedal to slow down and steer the vehicle firmly in the direction you want to go. Grip the steering wheel firmly. but don't be alarmed. turn on your hazard lights. If your headlights go out Check the switch immediately. Bring the vehicle to a stop off the road. put on your hazard lights. tie a white cloth around the antenna. Never stop in the driving lanes. off the road. If someone stops to help. Call for help. ask them to call the police or automobile club for you. stay calm and follow these steps: • • Call for help or have someone else call. If you do not have a "Call Police" sign. get back in the vehicle and put a "Call Police" sign in the side or back window. begin to pull over. If possible. Take your foot off the gas pedal to slow down.
leave injured people where they are until trained medical help arrives. move them as far off the road as possible . Disabled vehicles on the road may be a danger to you and other drivers. depending on where the collision takes place and if a pedestrian or cyclist is involved). use common sense. Stay with injured people until help arrives. 2. the collision does not have to be reported to the police. If the vehicles are driveable. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • What to do in emergency situations such as vehicle component failure. If damage is less than $1. Call police (provincial or local. If there is no danger of fire or explosion. If you are not trained in first aid. driving off the pavement or vehicle trouble on a freeway The steps to take if you are involved in a collision with or without injuries . people in collisions often go into shock. If you cannot move the vehicles off the road. This includes giving police your name and address. 6. within the level of your training. get the people out and make sure everyone is well out of the way. Cover the person with a jacket or blanket to reduce the effects of shock. Get the names. For example. treat injuries in the order of urgency.this should not affect the police officer's investigation. addresses and phone numbers of all witnesses. set up warning signals or flares far enough away to give other traffic time to slow down or stop. clear the person's airway to restore breathing. However. For example.• Do not let anyone smoke. Do what you can to make sure everyone involved in a collision is kept safe.000. the vehicle plate and permit number and the liability insurance card. If you are trained in first aid. give rescue breathing or stop bleeding by applying pressure with a clean cloth. you are still required by law to exchange information with anyone whose vehicle has been damaged. 4. 5. Give all possible help to police or anyone whose vehicle has been damaged. • • • • *87* In a collision where no one is injured Follow these steps in a collision where there are no injuries: 1. This is especially important on busy or highspeed roads where it may be dangerous to leave vehicles in the driving lanes. the name and address of the registered owner of the vehicle. Contact your insurance company as soon as possible if you intend to make a claim. you must report any collision to the police when there are injuries or damage to vehicles or property exceeding $1.000. By law. If a vehicle is on fire. 3. light a match or put flares near any vehicle in case of a fuel leak.
For short trips.mto. Obey the speed limits. These pollutants affect the quality of the air we breathe. Smart Commute info? Drive Clean info? Avoid starting your vehicle unnecessarily. which damages our lakes. Hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen react in sunlight to form ground level ozone. Driving at high speed uses more fuel and increases your chances of a serious collision. Even in cold weather. Combine several errands into one trip. Turn off your vehicle if parked more than 10 seconds. cars are responsible for nearly half the carbon dioxide produced by all forms of transportation. forests and crops. you can help to protect the environment from the harmful effects of driving by following these suggestions. A car gives off less carbon dioxide than a larger vehicle. use your vehicle's overdrive gear and cruise control for better fuel efficiency. bus or train. Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen combine with water vapour to form acid rain. truck. On the freeway. better known as smog. Avoid driving during rush hours. consider walking or cycling. Before you drive: • • • • • • Plan ahead.gov. A large burst of pollutants is emitted when a cold engine is started. As a driver. Global warming is the result of too much carbon dioxide and other gases trapping heat in our atmosphere. such as an airplane.*88* Driving efficiently Vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel give off air pollutants and gases such as oxides of carbon. Carpool whenever possible. hydrocarbons and soot. public transit is an environmentally friendly alternative to driving alone. produce less carbon dioxide per passenger than cars. If you want to meet at a central location. Many of them can also save you money. our health.on. there are free carpool lots in many parts of the province. It is especially important to follow these suggestions on days when smog is bad. uses less fuel and releases fewer emissions. Global warming could cause average temperatures to rise. crop yields and even the global climate. crop failures. • • • • While driving: *89* • . does. lower water levels and more frequent and severe storms.ca. However. causing droughts. because so many people own cars and drive them so often. vehicle engines warm up within 30 seconds. nitrogen and sulphur. Pay attention to Smog Alerts. call MTO INFO (416) 235-4686 (1-800-268-4686) or check the MTO website at www. For longer trips. Vehicles that carry large numbers of passengers. Smog is a major health hazard responsible for respiratory ailments and other illnesses. such as buses. To find one near you. Driving in off-peak times takes less time.
Keep your tires properly inflated to reduce your fuel bill. Slow down when road and weather conditions are poor. Worn spark plugs.yield the right-of-way. . make sudden lane changes or run yellow lights. 5. 6. • At the garage: • • • • • • Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • How passenger vehicles impact the environment Ways to reduce the amount you drive Ways to conserve fuel and reduce emissions when you drive *90* 11 ways you can help make Ontario's roads the safest in North America 1. reducing the fuel you need to buy and the pollutants your vehicle emits. If you're in doubt. wet snow and winter sand or salt. Obey the speed limits. use your vents instead of opening the windows. Always wear your seatbelt and make sure passengers are using the appropriate child car seat. let the other driver go first . emissions and tire wear. Don't drive when you're taking medication that will affect your driving. Regular maintenance will keep your vehicle running at maximum efficiency. using your air conditioning is usually more fuel efficient than opening your windows and reducing the vehicle's aerodynamics. Don't 'top-off' the tank when refueling. Follow the recommended maintenance schedule in your vehicle owner's manual to maximize fuel efficiency. Have any fluid leaks checked by a specialist to avoid engine damage and harming the environment. Keep your vehicle's engine well tuned. Use your vehicle's air conditioning wisely. Have your vehicle's alignment checked regularly to reduce uneven tire wear and fuel consumption. Use your windows and vents in city and stopand-go traffic. Don't drive when you're tired. 3. dragging brakes. Remove roof racks and compartments when not in use. low transmission fluid or a transmission not going into high gear can increase fuel consumption substantially. 4. Spilled fuel releases harmful vapours. At high speeds. At high speeds. Maintain your vehicle's aerodynamics. Don't drink and drive. 2. Don't take risks: don't cut people off in traffic. such as heavy baggage.• • • Remove unnecessary weight from your vehicle. upset or sick. booster seat or seatbelt.
overheads and other visual aids. Most programs are designed for new drivers. a principal or other high school authority.7. Keep at least a two-second space between your vehicle and the one ahead. *91* Choosing a driving school As a new driver. • • • • • • • • Course information package Personalized program Classroom facilities Low student/teacher ratio Audio visual equipment In-vehicle topics covered Basic manoeuvres Strategic driving . They are taught in high school classrooms by qualified instructors. To check your distance: start counting when the vehicle ahead passes a fixed object. You may also be eligible to take your road test sooner and to save money on insurance premiums. night driving and driving in adverse conditions. To help you choose the best driving school and course for you. 10. freeway driving. It may also bring you savings on your car insurance. The school should also be equipped with up-to-date videotapes. slow down and give plenty of space. but many driving schools also provide courses and services to upgrade your skills. driver training emphasizes strategic driving techniques. Look for a program that offers high quality instruction and a comfortable learning environment. Understand that cyclists and pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users and must be treated as such. stop counting when your vehicle reaches the same spot. Courses are administered by the local school board. As well as teaching the basics. Be sure to watch for them. Approved driver training courses in Ontario must offer at least 25 hours of classroom training and 10 hours of behind-the-wheel training. risk perception and management. A driver training course or high school driver education program approved by the provincial government can teach you the skills and attitudes you need to be a safe and responsible driver. 8. 9. Cut the distractions: don't overcrowd the vehicle or play loud music. choosing professional driving instruction may be the best way to put yourself safely in the driver's seat. Always check your blind spot: look in your mirror and over your shoulder before you change lanes. Check traffic in all directions before entering an intersection. the Beginner Driver Education Student Record you get will reduce the time you must spend at Level One by four months. If you graduate from an approved program. 11. Approved high school driver education programs offer in-class and in-car training after school for a fee. use this checklist of features. Drive with extra courtesy when they are present.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Risk perception and management Freeway driving Night driving Driving in adverse conditions Instructor qualifications and experience Regular instructor upgrading Student progress and evaluation reports Certificate of completion Minimum 25 classroom and 10 behind-the-wheel instruction hours Training materials Use of vehicle for road test Certification fee Registered educational institution Tuition receipts Testimonials Number of years in business Consumer protection insurance .
This chapter shows you what many of those signs. It means you must let *94* traffic in the intersection or close to it go first. lights and markings look like and explains what they mean to drivers. It warns that you are coming to a school zone. Signs use different symbols. In this chapter • • • • Signs Traffic lights Pedestrian signals Pavement markings Signs Traffic signs give you important information about the law. It means you must come to a complete stop. Slow down. If there is no sidewalk. drive with extra caution and watch for children. colours and shapes for easy identification. Slow down and look both ways for trains. If there is no crosswalk. If there is no stop line.*93* Traffic Signs and Lights Traffic laws include the traffic signs and lights. pedestrian signals and pavement markings that tell drivers and other road users what they must do in certain situations. Watch for this sign. Be . Stop at the stop line if it is marked on the pavement. A railway crossing sign is X-shaped with a white background and red outline. warn you about dangerous conditions and help you find your way. Here are some of the many signs you will see on Ontario roads: A stop sign is eight-sided and has a red background with white letters. A yield sign is a triangle with a white background and a red border. If pedestrians are present they have priority for crossing. It warns that railway tracks cross the road. stop at the edge of the intersection. Wait until the way is clear before entering the intersection. stop at the edge of the sidewalk. Stop if necessary and go only when the way is clear. A school zone sign is five-sided and has a blue background with white symbols. stop at the crosswalk.
Regulatory signs These signs give a direction that must be obeyed. There are four other kinds of signs: regulatory. You may park in the area between the signs during the times posted. They are usually rectangular or square with a white or black background and black. Do not enter this road. A red circle with a line through it means the activity shown is not allowed.prepared to stop. .) *95* *Scramble Intersection signage to be included?* Snowmobiles may use this road. (Watch for cyclists and be prepared to share the road with them. temporary conditions and information and direction. white or coloured letters. warning. Be aware that different municipalities may use different signage but all must be obeyed. (Used in pairs or groups. A sign with a green circle means you may or must do the activity shown inside the ring. Here are some common regulatory signs: This road is an official bicycle route.) You should always be prepared to share the road with cyclists but on these roads expect a higher volume of riders.
This means you may not stop your vehicle except to load or unload passengers or merchandise.) Do not turn left at the intersection. (U-turn) Do not turn right when facing a red light at the intersection. even for a moment. Do not stand in the area between the signs.) Do not stop in the area between the signs. This means you may not stop your vehicle in this area.Do not park in the area between the signs. This means you may not stop your vehicle in this area except while loading or unloading passengers. (Used in pairs or groups. (Used in pairs or groups.) Do not drive through the intersection. (Used in pairs or groups. Do not turn left during the times shown. Do not turn to go in the opposite direction. .
Speed limit changes ahead. Do not pass on this road. *96* No pedestrians allowed on this road. . No bicycles allowed on this road. Keep to the right of the traffic island.This parking space is only for vehicles displaying a valid Accessible Parking Permit.
above the road or on the pavement before an intersection. It informs drivers approaching from both directions that they must stop for a school bus when its signal lights are flashing. . The speed limit in this zone is lower during school hours. tell drivers the direction they must travel. Traffic may travel in one direction only. For example: the driver in lane one must turn left. Observe the speed limit shown when the yellow lights are flashing.Slow traffic on multi-lane roads must keep right. *Pay extra attention to presence of pedestrians* This sign is installed on multi-lane highways with no centre median divider. and the driver in lane three must turn right. the driver in lane two must turn left or go straight ahead. These signs.
above the road or on the ground. . Be prepared to stop and yield right-of-way to pedestrians. Different symbols are used for the different types of vehicles. They include: buses. vehicles with three or more people and bicycles. This sign reserves curb area for vehicles displaying a valid Accessible Person Parking Permit picking up and dropping off passengers with disabilities.This is a pedestrian crossover. either all the time or during certain hours. These signs mean lanes are only for specific types of vehicles. *97* This sign. Keep to the right lane except when passing on two-lane sections where climbing or passing lanes are provided. taxis. means the lane is only for two-way left turns.
* High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) signs Only public vehicles such as buses. Vehicles cannot change lanes into or out of a high occupancy vehicle lane in this area. *98* Warning signs These signs warn of dangerous or unusual conditions ahead such as a curve. . Road branching off ahead. or passenger vehicles carrying a specified minimum number of passengers.*Insert examples of dedicated bike lane indicator signage that can be found in Ontario. Here are some common warning signs: Narrow bridge ahead. dip or sideroad. They are usually diamond-shaped and have a yellow background with black letters or symbols. may use this lane. turn.
Intersection ahead. Pavement narrows ahead. . Slight bend or curve in the road ahead. this sign shows the maximum safe speed for the curve. The arrow shows which direction of traffic has the right-of-way. Drivers on the sideroad at the intersection ahead don't have a clear view of traffic. Posted under a curve warning.
Bicycle crossing ahead. *99* Winding road ahead. Chevron (arrowhead) signs are posted in groups to guide drivers around sharp curves in the road. Paved surface ends ahead. The bridge ahead lifts or swings to let boats pass.Sharp bend or turn in the road ahead. .
Pavement is slippery when wet. If you are in the right-hand lane you must merge safely with traffic in the lane to the left. Right lane ends ahead. Slow down. Hazard close to the edge of the road. Each road carries one-way traffic. Share the road with oncoming traffic. The road ahead is split into two separate roads by a median. .Stop sign ahead. The downward lines show the side on which you may safely pass. Slow down and drive with caution. Keep to the right-hand road.
*100* Traffic lights ahead. Divided highway ends: traffic travels in both directions on the same road ahead. . Snowmobiles cross this road. Drivers on both roads are equally responsible for seeing that traffic merges smoothly and safely. Steep hill ahead. Keep to the right. Slow down. Two roads going in the same direction are about to join into one. You may need to use a lower gear.
. Railway crossing ahead. Be alert for trains. be careful. Bump or uneven pavement on the road ahead. Sharp turn or bend in the road in the direction of the arrow. Slow down. Slow down and keep control of your vehicle. This sign also shows the angle at which the railway tracks cross the road. Sign shows how much room you have.Underpass ahead. Take care if you are driving a tall vehicle. The checkerboard border warns of danger.
Watch for fallen rock and be prepared to avoid a collision. Watch for pedestrians and be prepared to share the road with them. Truck entrance on the right side of the road ahead. the entrance is on the left side of the road.*101* Deer regularly cross this road. If the sign shows the truck on the left. be alert for animals. Shows maximum safe speed on ramp. There may be water flowing over the road. .
These signs warn of a school crossing. drive with extra caution.This sign warns you that you are coming to a hidden school bus stop. They are usually diamond-shaped with an orange background and black letters or symbols. Watch for children and follow the directions of the crossing guard or school safety patroller. . detours. diversions. Slow down. lane closures or traffic control people on the road. watch for children and for a school bus with flashing red lights. *102* Temporary condition signs These signs warn of unusual temporary conditions such as road work zones. Here are some common temporary condition signs: Construction work one kilometre ahead.
Road work ahead. Drive slowly and watch for instructions. Traffic control person ahead. Survey crew working on the road ahead. Drive with extra caution and be prepared for a lower speed limit. . Temporary detour from normal traffic route. You are entering a construction zone.
Pavement has been milled or grooved. *103* Lane ahead is closed for roadwork. Closed lane. Adjust speed to merge with traffic in lane indicated by arrow.Flashing lights on the arrows show the direction to follow. Your vehicle's stopping ability may be affected so obey the speed limit and drive with extra caution. Do not pass the pilot or pace vehicle bearing this sign. Motorcyclists may experience reduced traction on these surfaces. Reduce speed and be prepared to stop. Obey the speed limit and merge with traffic in the open lane. .
Various exit signs are used on freeways. Overhead and ground-mounted signs help drivers choose the correct lane to exit or stay on the freeway. Shows the distances in kilometres to towns and cities on the road. They are usually rectangular with a green background and white letters. In urban areas.Follow detour marker until you return to regular route *104* Information and direction signs These signs tell you about distances and destinations. Other signs with different colours guide you to facilities. . Here are some common information and direction signs: Shows directions to nearby towns and cities. services and attractions. many exit ramps have more than one lane.
*105* These signs change according to traffic conditions to give drivers current information on delays and lane closures ahead. airports. Freeway interchanges or exits have numbers that correspond to the distance from the beginning of the freeway. . Signs are also posted at the exit. The arrows matching the exit lanes are shown on the advance sign in a yellow box with the word 'exit' under them. Shows off-road facilities such as hospitals. Distances can be calculated by subtracting one interchange number from another. interchange number 204 on Highway 401 is 204 kilometres from Windsor. universities or carpool lots. Sometimes one or more lanes may lead off the freeway. The term 'VIA' is used to describe the roads that must be followed to reach a destination. For example. where the freeway begins.Advance signs use arrows to show which lanes lead off the freeway.
Shows route to passenger railway station. Shows route to ferry service. unless they are only crossing it. Motor vehicles moving slower than 40 km/h must show this sign at the rear when driving on a road. *106* Emergency response signs . Shows facilities that are accessible by wheelchair. Shows route to airport. Other signs Here are some other common signs: The slow-moving vehicle sign is orange with a red border.
go straight or turn right after yielding to motor vehicles. warning. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • The difference between regulatory. . Read the messages in the language you understand best. Green light A green light means you may turn left. They tell road users when to stop and go. When turning left or right you must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the intersection.or amber .light means the red light is about to appear. Bilingual signs Watch for these signs when driving in designated bilingual areas. You must stop if you can do so safely. with an English sign immediately followed by a French sign.Some information signs include a numbering system along the bottom of the sign to assist emergency vehicles in determining an appropriate route. cyclists and pedestrians already in the intersection. temporary condition and information/direction signs How to read the symbols and messages of some common signs in each category Traffic lights Traffic lights tell drivers and pedestrians what they must do at intersections and along roads. when and how to turn and when to drive with extra caution. *107* Yellow light A yellow . Bilingual messages may be together on the same sign or separate. go with caution. otherwise.
go straight ahead or turn right from the proper lane. you may turn right on a red light only after coming to a complete stop and waiting until the way is clear. stop at the edge of the intersection. stop at the edge of the sidewalk. Lights and arrows to help turning vehicles Flashing green lights and green arrows direct (drivers) motorists and cyclists who are turning. stop at the crosswalk. Pedestrians must not cross on a flashing green light unless a pedestrian signal tells them to. you may turn left. If there is no sidewalk. but you must come to a complete stop first and wait until the way is clear. Unless a sign tells you not to. Motor vehicles and cyclists turning left from the opposite direction may also be making left turns because they too face a left-turn green arrow. bicycles and other vehicles as you complete your turn. *108* Simultaneous left turn When a left-turn green arrow is shown with a red light. This is called an advanced green light because oncoming traffic still faces a red light. You may also turn left on a red light if you are moving from a one-way road onto a one-way road. If there is no crosswalk. . If there is no stop line. you may turn left from the left-turn lane. Wait until the light changes to green and the intersection is clear before moving through it. checking for pedestrians. When the way is clear proceed safely. Bring your vehicle to a complete stop at the stop line if it is marked on the pavement. Advance green light or arrow When you face a flashing green light or a left-pointing green arrow and a green light. marked or not.Red light A red light means you must stop.
After the left-turn green arrow. You can still turn left when the light is green. complete your turn when it is safe. a yellow arrow may appear. otherwise. If the light turns red when you are in the intersection. This means the green light is about to appear for traffic in one or both directions. Do not start your left turn. The round signal is on top of a regular traffic signal and shows a white vertical bar on a dark background. This allows transit vehicles to go through. Pedestrians must not cross on a left-turn green arrow unless a pedestrian signal tells them to. while all conflicting traffic faces a red light. Transit priority signals Traffic and pedestrians must yield to public transit vehicles at a transit priority signal. but only when the way is clear of traffic and pedestrians. turn right or left. . Stop if you can do so safely. complete your turn with caution.
In these intersections. *109* After the left-turn green arrow.Fully protected left turn Some intersections have separate traffic lights for left-turning traffic and for traffic going through the intersection or turning right. Motor vehicles and cyclists from the opposite direction may also be turning left. If the light turns yellow while you are in the intersection. You may turn left from the left-turn lane when you face a green arrow. complete your turn with caution. a yellow light appears for left-turning vehicles only. traffic going straight ahead or turning right will usually see a red light. After the yellow light. Traffic going straight ahead or turning right will face a green light or green arrows pointing straight ahead and to the right. Flashing red light . a red light appears for left-turning vehicles only. When a left-turn green arrow appears for traffic in the left-turn lane. you may not begin turning left after the green light appears for traffic going straight ahead or turning right.
Flashing red beacon A flashing red beacon above an intersection or stop sign means you must come to a complete stop. warns you to drive with caution. Flashing yellow light A flashing yellow light means you should drive with caution when approaching and moving through the intersection. Go cautiously and use the intersection the same way you would use an intersection with all-way stop signs. Move through the intersection only when it is safe. Move through the intersection only when it is safe to do so. Flashing yellow beacon A flashing yellow beacon above an intersection. Blank traffic lights During an electrical power loss. cyclists and pedestrians in the intersection and to vehicles entering the intersection from your right. .You must come to a complete stop at a flashing red light. *110* Traffic beacons A traffic beacon is a single flashing light hung over an intersection or placed over signs or on obstacles in the road. Pedestrians have the right-of-way. Yield the right-ofway to motor vehicles. Pedestrians have the right-of-way. traffic lights at intersections will not work. Pedestrians have right-of-way. above a warning sign or on an obstruction in the road.
*111* A pedestrian facing a flashing or steady hand symbol should not begin to cross the road. . pedestrians facing a green light may cross. Pedestrians may not cross on a flashing green light or a left-turn green arrow. While crossing. The signal for pedestrians to walk is a white walking symbol. Be aware that pedestrian signals are not always indicative of a traffic light change. should go as quickly as possible to a safe area. pedestrians have the right-of-way over all vehicles. *Update re: countdown signals* Diagram 3-3-1 A pedestrian facing a walk signal may cross the road in the direction of the signal. Pedestrians who have already begun to cross when the hand signal appears. While they are crossing. Diagram 3-3-2 *Clarify image.Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • • • The different colours and symbols that appear on traffic lights and what those mean How to navigate turns using advanced green lights and arrows How to proceed when approaching flashing amber or red lights What to do in situations where the traffic lights are not operating Pedestrian signals Pedestrian signals help pedestrians cross at intersections with traffic lights. A flashing or steady orange hand symbol means pedestrians must not begin to cross. pedestrians still have the right-of-way over vehicles.* Add cyclists and pedestrians At intersections with traffic lights where there are no pedestrian signals.
an intersection pedestrian signal helps people to cross the road safely by signalling traffic to stop. mark pedestrian crossings. bike boxes. a pedestrian must use the button to bring on the walk signal. pedestrian scramble. See also the section on driving through intersections. show turning lanes. Include diagrams for each. Stop signs control traffic on the smaller.Intersection pedestrian signals *Add image and description of pedestrian scramble intersection?* Where there are pedestrian pushbuttons. gridlock intersection. Yellow lines separate traffic travelling in opposite directions. You must observe. push buttons for pedestrians. less busy crossroad. Diagram 3-1 A solid line at the left of your lane means it is unsafe to pass. The intersection pedestrian signal has one or more crosswalks. indicate obstacles and tell you when it is not safe to pass. pedestrian walk and don't walk signals. Pavement markings divide traffic lanes. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • What the symbols on pedestrian signals indicate What an intersection pedestrian signal is and what to do if you encounter one *112* Pavement markings Pavement markings combine with road signs and traffic lights to give you important information about the direction of traffic and where you may and may not travel.) . and. *Add section re: new/emerging markings* Ex: bike lanes. Pedestrian signals give people more time to cross than regular traffic lights. traffic signal lights on the main road only. obey the traffic rules and use safe driving skills to drive through these intersections. parking indicators. On a busy main road. White lines separate traffic travelling in the same direction. ('A' should not pass.
Diagram 3-2 *113* A broken line at the left of your lane means you may pass if the way is clear. When you see continuity lines on your left side.) Diagram 3-3 Broken lines that are wider and closer together than regular broken lines are called continuity lines. ('A' may pass if there are enough broken lines ahead to complete the pass safely. . it generally means the lane you are in is ending or exiting and that you must change lanes if you want to continue in your current direction. Continuity lines on your right mean your lane will continue unaffected.
stop at the crosswalk.Diagram 3-4 A stop line is a single white line painted across the road at an intersection. However. If there is no stop line marked on the road. If there is no sidewalk. *114* Diagram 3-5 *DIAGRAM 3-5* Add cyclist and pedestrian A crosswalk is marked by two parallel white lines painted across the road. crosswalks at intersections are not always marked. stop at the edge of the intersection. marked or not. stop at the edge of the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk. stop at the edge of the intersection. If there is no crosswalk. If there is no stop line. . If there is no crosswalk. stop at the crosswalk. It shows where you must stop. stop at the edge of the sidewalk.
Diagram 3-7 *DIAGRAM 3-7* Add cyclist and pedestrian *115* A pedestrian crossover is marked by two white double parallel lines across the road with an X in each lane approaching it.Diagram 3-6 *DIAGRAM 3-6* Add cyclist and pedestrian A white arrow painted on a lane means you may move only in the direction of the arrow. Yellow and black markings are also painted on the objects themselves as warnings. Stop before the line and yield to pedestrians. and overhead yellow lights. Two solid lines painted on the pavement guide traffic away from fixed objects such as bridge piers or concrete islands. Diagram 3-8 *DIAGRAM 3-8* Add cyclist in place of blue car. . also the image doesn't have the overhead yellow lights which are referred to in the text.
You will get a temporary licence on the spot if your application and documents are in order. You are responsible for making sure you have a valid driver's . If you do not get a renewal application form in the mail when your licence is due for renewal. They are all equipped to take photographs. show identification. You must carry your licence with you whenever you drive. The licence card has a photograph and signature of the driver. In this chapter • • • • • • • • Renewing your licence Senior drivers age 80 or older Graduated licensing requalification Changing your name or address Driver's licence laws The demerit point system Table of offences Other ways to lose your licence Renewing your licence You will get a renewal application form in the mail. call the Ministry of Transportation. You must carry it with you whenever you drive and produce it when a police officer requests it. You will be asked to sign the form.Diagram 3-9 *DIAGRAM 3-9* Add cyclist in right lane. Summary By the end of this section you should know: • • How pavement markings are used to control traffic What the different colours and types of markings are used to indicate *117* Keeping Your Driver's Licence Ontario has a one-piece driver's licence. Take the form into any Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office in the province. All drivers in Ontario should have a one-piece licence card. pay a fee and have your photograph taken. and your permanent one will be mailed to you.
cancelled or expired for more than three years. . You can renew an expired car or motorcycle driver's licence within one year without taking any tests.licence. you will be required to reapply for a licence in Ontario and meet all the requirements of graduated licensing. If your licence has been suspended. including passing all the required tests.
Peripheral vision and depth perception tend to decline over the years. You can also call the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Contact Centre at (416) 235-2999 or 1-800-387-3445.on. You may also be asked to take a road test if there is a chance you may pose a safety risk.gov. • • Avoid driving if you're experiencing pain. chronic or severe pain.*118* Senior drivers age 80 or older Licensing If you are 80 years of age or older. The renewal consists of a vision and knowledge test and a Group Education Session.especially at night Difficulty judging distance and speed Limited movement and range of motion Slower reaction time Difficulty focusing attention for long periods of time Easily distracted More time needed to understand what you see and hear More use of prescription and/or over-the-counter drugs that may impair your driving ability What you can do to make your driving safer Your health is a key factor in your ability to drive.ca. This renewal process helps keep seniors mobile and independent longer. To set up an appointment for your vision and knowledge test and the Group Education Session. frequent. Over-the-counter drugs and combinations of drugs can also impair your driving. while helping to ensure that unsafe drivers are identified and appropriate actions are taken. Report to your doctor: o o • vision changes. Have your hearing and eyes checked regularly. To help you handle the demands of safe driving: • Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure current and new medications will not negatively affect your ability to drive.mto. unexplained dizziness or fainting spells. There is no charge for any of the licence renewal requirements. you are required to renew your driver's licence every two years. . It can decrease your ability to concentrate and limit your movement behind the wheel. You will be notified by mail about your licence renewal. You only have to pay the licence renewal fee. More information that specifically addresses the concerns of senior drivers can be found at the Driver Licensing section of MTO's website at www. call the number for your MTO regional office that appears on your renewal notice. How aging affects driving safety • • • • • • • • Reduced vision .
cut back to certain times such as daylight hours. Ask yourself: How's my driving? *119* • Take this test and ask yourself these questions: • • • • • • • • • • • Am I experiencing an increasing number of near collisions? Have I been directly involved in minor collisions? Do I have difficulty driving through intersections. talk to your doctor or family and get their opinions. At the group education session. or stop driving altogether.ca or you can take the change of information to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. G2 and M2 drivers before their licence expiry date to inform them of their options.• Your doctor can recommend an exercise program to improve flexibility and maintain strength. M1and M2) progress through a twostep licensing process by completing the mandatory time periods for each level and passing the required road tests. you can regain or retain the same class of licence by passing a test and paying the five-year licensing fee. you will not have a licence to drive and you must reapply for a Level One licence. Except for Class M1. if your Class G1. which can help your ability to drive safely. G2 or M2 licence is about to expire and you have not completed the process. especially at night? Do I get nervous behind the wheel? Do other motorists frequently honk at me? Do family members express concern about my driving ability? How important is driving to me? Your answers to these questions can help you decide whether to continue to drive. P. You will need a new licence when you change your address. However.' A notice is sent to Class G1. G2 or M2 licence expires. If you have checked one or more of the warning signs and are concerned about your driving ability. you will learn more about these topics on senior driver safety. G2. If you do not complete the graduated licensing process or requalify before your G1. Consider taking a driver's course to refresh your knowledge of the rules of the road and safe driving practices. This is called 'requalification. novice drivers have five years to complete the graduated licensing process. road signs or other vehicles? Do I have difficulty concentrating while driving? Do I get lost or disoriented on familiar roads? Do I have difficulty coordinating hand and foot movements? Am I experiencing vision problems. novice drivers (Class G1.serviceontario.O. judging distance or seeing pedestrians. Box . *120* Changing your name or address You must tell the Ministry of Transportation within six days of changing your name or address. or mail it to the Ministry of Transportation. Graduated licensing requalification Under graduated licensing. You can change your address on the ServiceOntario website at www.
If you accumulate too many demerit points. 6 points You may have to attend an interview to discuss your record and give reasons why your licence should not be suspended. K7L 5K4. When your name changes. . ON. you need a new licence. but fines do. New drivers .Demerit Point System for Level One or Level Two Drivers 2 or more points You will receive a warning letter. Demerit points do not apply to cyclists. When you get it. your driver's licence can be suspended. The chart on this page shows the documents you will need to change the name on your driver's licence. A new photograph will be taken. Driver's licence laws It is illegal to: • • • • • • Lend your licence Let someone else use it Use an altered licence Use another licence as your own Have more than one Ontario driver's licence Use a fictitious or imitation licence *121* The demerit point system The demerit point system encourages drivers to improve their behaviour and protects people from drivers who abuse the privilege of driving.9200. There is no charge for getting a new licence because you change your name or address. Carry it with you whenever you drive. Kingston. The ministry will send you a new licence. Demerit points stay on your record for two years from the date of the offence. Take the documents you must show (see the chart on this page) and your current licence to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. your licence may be suspended. You will get a temporary licence to use until your permanent licence is mailed to you. destroy your old licence and carry the new one with you whenever you drive. If you do not go to the interview. Drivers convicted of driving-related offences have demerit points recorded on their records.
9 or more points Your licence will be suspended for 60 days from the date you surrender it to the Ministry of Transportation. You can lose your licence for up to two years if you fail to surrender your licence. After the suspension, the number of points on your record will be reduced to four. Any extra points could again bring you to the interview level. If you reach nine points again, your licence may be suspended for six months. As a Level One or Level Two driver, you will have your licence suspended if you accumulate nine or more demerit points during a two-year period. Fully licensed drivers - Demerit Point System for Fully Licensed Drivers 6 points You will be told about your record and urged to improve your driving skills. 9 points You may have to go to an interview to discuss your record and give reasons why your licence should not be suspended. You may also have to complete a driver re-examination. If you fail this test, your licence can be cancelled. If you fail to attend an interview, or fail to give good reasons for keeping your licence, your licence may be suspended. 15 points Your licence will be suspended for 30 days from the date you hand over your licence to the Ministry of Transportation. You can lose your licence for up to two years if you fail to surrender it. After the suspension, the number of points on your driver's record will be reduced to seven. Any extra points could again bring you to the interview level. If you reach 15 points again, your licence will be suspended for six months. *122* Table of offences Here are the demerit points for driving offences. 7 points
Failing to remain at the scene of a collision Failing to stop for police Careless driving Racing Exceeding the speed limit by 50 km/h or more Failing to stop for a school bus Driver of bus failing to stop at unprotected railway crossing Exceeding the speed limit by 30 to 49 km/h
• • • •
Following too closely
3 points • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • •
Exceeding the speed limit by 16 to 29 km/h Driving through, around or under a railway crossing barrier Failing to yield the right-of-way Failing to obey a stop sign, traffic light or railway crossing signal Failing to obey traffic control stop sign Failing to obey traffic control slow sign Failing to obey school crossing stop sign Failing to obey the directions of a police officer Driving the wrong way on a divided road Failing to report a collision to a police officer Improper driving where road is divided into lanes Crowding the driver's seat Going the wrong way on a one-way road Driving or operating a vehicle on a closed road Crossing a divided road where no proper crossing is provided Failing to slow and carefully pass a stopped emergency vehicle Failing to stop at a pedestrian crossing Failing to move, where possible, into another lane when passing a stopped emergency vehicle Driving a vehicle that is equipped with or carrying a speed measuring warning device (such as a radar detector) Improper use of a high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane Failing to lower headlight beam Improper opening of a vehicle door Prohibited turns Towing people - on toboggans, bicycles, skis, for example Failing to obey signs Failing to share the road Improper right turn Improper left turn Failing to signal
• • • • • • • •
Unnecessary slow driving Reversing on a highway Driver failing to wear a seatbelt Driver failing to ensure infant passenger is secured Driver failing to ensure toddler passenger is secured Driver failing to ensure child is secured Driver failing to ensure passenger under 16 years is wearing seatbelt Driver failing to ensure passenger under 16 years is occupying a position with a seatbelt
*123* Other ways to lose your licence Your licence may also be suspended for the following reasons:
• • • • • •
Medical suspension Discretionary HTA suspensions Mandatory HTA suspensions Administrative driver's licence suspension (ADLS) "Warn Range" suspension Novice driver violations
Medical suspension By law, all doctors must report the names and addresses of everyone 16 years or older who has a condition that may affect their ability to drive safely. For example, addiction to alcohol or drugs are conditions that affect your ability to drive. Doctors report this information to the Ministry of Transportation and it is not given to anyone else. Your driver's licence may be suspended until new medical evidence shows that the condition does not pose a safety risk. Discretionary HTA suspensions Your licence may be suspended by court order following conviction for the following:
If you don't tell the truth
in an application, declaration, affidavit or paper required by the Highway Traffic Act, its Regulations or the Ministry of Transportation. about vehicle liability insurance.
• • •
If you fail to insure your vehicle. If you are convicted of some driving offences, included careless driving and driving 50 km/h or more over the speed limit. If you repeatedly travel at 50km/h or more over the speed limit.
Drivers can be suspended for up to 30 days for a first offence, up to 60 days for a second offence, and up to one year for a third or subsequent offence within a five-year period. Mandatory HTA suspensions
08). A $150 administrative monetary penalty is also imposed on drivers suspended for registering in the warn range. If you violate any of the graduated licensing conditions for your class of licence.05 to . It is an administrative suspension by the Registrar of Motor Vehicles and is separate from any criminal charges or prosecution which may also take place.) If you don't pay a traffic fine when ordered by the court. Your licence will be suspended for a minimum of five years. If you choose not to install an ignition interlock device. M1 or M2 licences must follow the specific rules for their class of licence. Your licence will be cancelled: • • • • If you fail a driver's re-examination.Your licence will be suspended: • If you are convicted of failing to stop for a police officer and the court believes you wilfully avoided police during pursuit . If your cheque for licence fees is not honoured by your bank. for 7 days for a second occurrence and you must undergo a remedial alcohol education program.that you tried to escape the police. Novice driver violations Drivers holding G1. your licence will be suspended for 30 days. you will receive an immediate driver's licence suspension at the roadside. A $150 administrative monetary penalty is also imposed on driver's who receive an ADLS. for 30 days for a third or subsequent occurrence in a five-year period and you must undergo a remedial alcohol treatment program and have an ignition interlock condition placed on your licence for 6 months. This suspension takes effect while you are still at the roadside or at the police station. you must not drive until the condition is removed from your licence. "Warn Range" suspension Drivers who blow in the warn range of . • • • for 3 days for a first occurrence. . If your blood alcohol concentration is more than 80 milligrams in 100 millilitres of blood (. This suspension takes effect from the time you surrender your licence on or after the date of the suspension.08 pose an immediate danger to themselves and other road users. If you don't pay your reinstatement fee or administrative monetary penalty following a suspension. If you voluntarily surrender your driver's licence to the Ministry of Transportation or it is surrendered or returned by another jurisdiction. *124* • Administrative driver's licence suspension (ADLS) Your licence will be suspended immediately for 90 days: • • If you fail or refuse to give a breath or blood sample when asked by police. (This is a Criminal Code offence. G2. If caught driving in the warn range. You can lose your licence for up to two years if you fail to hand over your licence.
Criminal Code suspensions You will receive a one-year licence suspension the first time you are convicted of a Criminal Code offence. there is a mandatory alcohol education for a second suspension which must be completed within 120 days of the suspension or an alcohol treatment program for a third or subsequent suspension which must be completed within 180 days of the suspension. The court can order a longer suspension if it believes that keeping you off the road will improve safety. under any circumstances.08) Failing to remain at the scene of a collision to escape criminal or civil liability Dangerous driving Causing bodily harm by criminal negligence Causing death by criminal negligence Failing to stop for police. . your licence will be suspended for three years.08. your licence will remain suspended until you have completed the remedial requirements. If your driver's licence has been suspended because of a Criminal Code conviction. you will have to pay a fine of $1. Fourth time offenders convicted of a Criminal Code offence are suspended from driving for life with no possibility of reinstatement. Remedial measures There are several types of remedial measures.000 for a 'subsequent' offence. motorized or not. A Driver Improvement interview is required for drivers convicted of non-impaired driving-related Criminal Code offences. Six months will be added to your current suspension as well.08) Driving or having care and control of a boat. Convictions will remain on your driver's record for a minimum of 10 years.000 to $5. A third Criminal Code offence will get you a lifetime suspension from driving with the possibility of reinstatement after 10 years. or you may have to pay a fine or do both.) The court can order you to spend up to six months in jail. For drivers who repeatedly blow in the warn range of .000 for a first offence and $2. Driving under suspension You may not drive. If you are convicted of driving while your licence is suspended for an HTA offence. The mandatory Back on Track program is for all drivers convicted of impaired driving-related Criminal Code offences. when your blood alcohol concentration is more than 80 milligrams per 100 millilitres of blood (.000 to $5. *125* Your licence will be suspended if you are convicted of any of the following Criminal Code offences: • • • • • • • • • • Driving or having care and control of a vehicle while your ability is impaired by alcohol or drugs Refusing to submit to a breath test for alcohol Failing or refusing to provide a breath sample for roadside testing Driving or having care and control of a vehicle when your blood alcohol concentration is more than 80 milligrams per 100 millilitres of blood (. when your licence is suspended. (A 'subsequent' offence is when you are convicted again within five years.05 to . If you are convicted of a second Criminal Code offence.
The owner of the vehicle must pay the towing and storage costs before the vehicle will be released. is a crime in Canada. Alcohol Drinking and driving is a deadly combination. you face a fine of $5.mto. You also face an additional suspension (one year for a first offence. which means driving when your ability is affected by alcohol or drugs. the vehicle you are driving will be impounded for a minimum of 45 days. trucks and buses. When convicted of violation of the order. especially inexperienced drivers.ca. This applies whether the vehicle is borrowed from a friend or family member.gov. This fee does not apply to reinstatement following a medical or administrative suspension of your driver's licence. even if you have not started to drive. That's why the graduated licensing system does not allow new drivers to drink any alcohol when they are going to drive. you will get a suspension of one year for a first offence or two years for a subsequent offence.000 for a first offence and $10. you can be convicted of several offences under the Criminal Code of Canada. rented or leased. used for business or employment purposes. must be able to concentrate on driving. . All drivers.000 to $50.If you are found guilty of driving while your licence is suspended for a Criminal Code offence. two years for a subsequent offence) under the HTA and up to two years in prison and three years licence suspension under the Criminal Code. Note: Suspended drivers must pay $150 to have their licence reinstated. you can be charged if you are impaired behind the wheel. If you are impaired. which will be matched in length by a suspension under the Highway Traffic Act.000 to $25. You can also get a driver's abstract at Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Offices or ServiceOntario Kiosks. Impaired driving Impaired driving. Your vehicle does not even have to be moving. This program applies to all motor vehicles. which include passenger vehicles. *126* Driving while prohibited This is a prohibition order under the Criminal Code conviction.on. The Vehicle Impoundment Program makes vehicle owners responsible for ensuring that anyone driving their vehicles is not suspended for a Criminal Code conviction. People loaning or renting their vehicles can verify that a driver's licence is valid by phone at 1-900-565-6555 or online at www. motorcycles. Courts can order longer prohibition.000 for a subsequent offence within five years. There is a nominal fee for each licence checked. Vehicle Impoundment Program If you are caught driving while your licence is suspended for a Criminal Code offence.
Criminal Code and HTA suspensions apply to drivers impaired by alcohol or drugs. you will be charged under the Criminal Code. Level One and Level Two drivers must have a blood alcohol level of zero when driving. If you refuse. If you choose not to install an ignition interlock device. *128* Drugs Any drug that changes your mood or the way you see and feel about the world around you will affect the way you drive. If you register in the warn range of .05 to . The police will also notify the Registrar of Motor Vehicles and your licence will be suspended immediately for 90 days. Any more than .a roadside screening device. your mood. The maximum legal blood alcohol concentration for fully licensed drivers is 80 milligrams in 100 millilitres of blood (. you will be charged under the Criminal Code.08).*127* Even one drink can reduce your ability to concentrate and react to things that happen suddenly when you are driving. you may be taken to a police station for a breathalyser test. Meanwhile. The breathalyser uses your breath to measure the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream. When you are stopped by the police.08 is against the law. If you cannot give a breath sample for some reason. if there is no one else available to drive and no safe place to park your vehicle.08.08). you will be suspended for 3 days. If the reading on the machine shows you have been drinking. it will be towed at your expense. a justice of the peace may authorize a doctor to take a blood sample. you will receive an immediate driver's licence suspension at the roadside. For a first occurrence. They may also do roadside spot checks. you will be immediately suspended for 30 days and you must undergo a remedial alcohol treatment program and have an ignition interlock condition placed on your licence for 6 months. you must not drive until the condition is removed from your licence. you may be told to blow into a machine that tests your breath for alcohol . With more alcohol in your blood. They can also be charged under the Criminal Code. Even if your blood alcohol concentration is less than . If you are injured and cannot give your consent. you could have trouble judging distances and your vision may become blurred. The police have the right to stop any driver they suspect is impaired.08 on a roadside screening device. For a third or subsequent time in a five-year period. the police officer can ask you to let a doctor take a blood sample instead. For a second occurrence in a five-year period. . The police will also notify the Registrar of Motor Vehicles and your licence will be suspended immediately for 90 days. and how long ago you ate and how much. can make a difference in how alcohol affects your driving ability. If your blood alcohol concentration is more than 80 milligrams in 100 millilitres of blood (. Factors like tiredness. New drivers caught drinking and driving will get a 30-day suspension for violating a condition of their Level One or Level Two licence. you will be immediately suspended for 7 days and you must undergo a remedial alcohol education program. you can still be charged with impaired driving under the Criminal Code.
your licence will be further suspended until you have completed the remedial requirements.ask your doctor or pharmacist. For impaired driving that causes injury or death. you must complete an alcohol education and treatment program during your licence suspension.Illegal drugs such as marijuana and cocaine are not the only problem. delivered by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. The three-part program. You must pay for the program. as well as to out-of-province drivers who are convicted in Ontario. you must take the impaired driving program called Back on Track. For a third or subsequent occurrence of driving in the warn range. vehicle impoundment.05 to . diet pill. Here are some points you should remember: • • If you use prescription medicines or get allergy shots. Any stimulant. or equivalent offences in the states of Michigan and New York. heavy fines. You may have to pay substantial legal costs as well. If you have not completed the Back on Track program by the time your Criminal Code suspension expires. Some drugs that your doctor may prescribe for you and some over-the-counter drugs can also impair your driving. This program also applies to Ontario residents convicted of driving-related Criminal Code offences in any other province of Canada. tranquillizer or sedative may affect your driving. or for the damage to your or the other person's vehicle and your insurance costs may rise significantly. Even allergy and cold remedies may have ingredients that could affect your driving. you may be fined up to $50. nausea or drowsiness that could affect your driving. If you are required to drive on the job. a licence suspension could mean losing your job. you may suffer serious injury or cause serious injury to someone else. serve time in jail or lose your licence permanently. If you drink and drive and are involved in a collision. • Consider the consequences of impaired driving Ontario leads the way in combating drinking and driving through some of the toughest laws and programs in North America. mandatory alcohol education and treatment programs and the ignition interlock program. which is available across the province. you may be sentenced to up to 14 years in prison. You must pay for these remedial programs which are also delivered by the Centre . blurred vision. education or treatment. If your driver's licence has been suspended for driving in the warn range of . Do not take a chance . Read the information on the package of any over-the-counter medicine you take. *129* Mandatory alcohol education and treatment If you are convicted of an impaired driving-related Criminal Code offence. and follow-up. also referred to as a remedial measures program. including licence suspensions. the penalties are even more severe. even several days after you have taken the drug. ask your doctor about side effects such as dizziness. If you are convicted of impaired driving causing bodily harm. Your insurance company might not pay for your medical or rehabilitation costs. Impaired driving causing death can carry a sentence of imprisonment for life. you must complete a remedial alcohol treatment program within 180 days from the date of the suspension. If you are convicted of a drinking and driving related Criminal Code offence.08 for a second time in a five-year period you must complete a remedial alcohol education program in 120 days from the date of the suspension.000. Drugs and alcohol together can have dangerous effects. Depending on your number of prior convictions. involves assessment.
05 to .for Addiction and Mental Health. you must not allow a person with an ignition interlock condition to drive your vehicle or you could be convicted of an offence under the Highway Traffic Act.02). Summary By the end of this section you should know: . an ignition interlock condition is placed on your Ontario driver's licence. As a vehicle owner. At that time. Driver improvement interview The other remedial measures program is for drivers convicted of non-drinking and driving related Criminal Code offences who have no previous alcohol-related convictions. There is a fee for each licence check.08 for a third or subsequent time in a five-year period. which means that you must install an ignition interlock device in your vehicle.on. Failure to complete the required remedial program within the specified time period will result in a licence suspension until the remedial program is completed. If you have completed the minimum 6-month period without any program violations (tampering/driving without/missed appointment with service provider). If you have not completed the driver improvement interview by the time your Criminal Code suspension expires. You must apply to the Ministry of Transportation to have the condition removed from your licence. you must not drive until the condition is removed from your licence. After serving a licence suspension. You can find out if a driver has an ignition interlock condition on his or her licence by accessing MTO's website at www. the ignition interlock condition will be removed. completing a mandatory remedial measures program and meeting all licensing conditions. your licence will be further suspended until you have completed the remedial requirements. you will be eligible to have your driver's licence back. If you have completed the minimum period (one year or three years) without any program violations (tampering/driving without/missed appointment with service provider). This program also applies to Ontario residents convicted of driving-related Criminal Code offences in any other province of Canada. If your driver's licence has been suspended for driving in the warn range of . It prevents a vehicle from starting if it detects a blood alcohol concentration over a pre-set limit of 20 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood (. you must complete a road test in a vehicle equipped with the device.mto.gov. If you are convicted of impaired driving under the Criminal Code of Canada. You must undergo a Ministry of Transportation driver improvement interview.ca or by calling 1-900-565-6555. However. you will also have an ignition interlock condition placed on your licence for 6 months. or equivalent offences in the states of Michigan and New York. you do not need to apply to the Ministry of Transportation to have the condition removed from your licence. *130* If you choose not to install a device. If you are required to complete a road test while the ignition interlock condition is on your licence. you are subject to Ontario's Ignition Interlock Program. it will remain on your licence indefinitely. the ignition interlock condition will be removed. If you do not apply for removal of the licence condition. as well as to out-of-province drivers who are convicted in Ontario. Ignition interlock An ignition interlock device is an in-car breath screening device.
A police officer or Ministry of Transportation inspector can examine your vehicle. Daily or weekly checks • • • • Keep your vehicle clean. its equipment and any trailer attached to it. If you own a vehicle. inside and out. remedial measures. Properly inflated tires mean better mileage and safer driving. your licence plates can be taken away. it may be taken off the road until the problem is fixed. If the vehicle is then found to be unsafe.000. vehicle impoundment and jail time *131* Your Vehicle All motor vehicles on Ontario roads must be registered.Sample knowledge test questions Maintaining your vehicle It is illegal to drive a vehicle in dangerous condition. Check that all lights are working. But maintaining your vehicle also makes sense from an economic point of view: it can mean better mileage and a better price when you sell your vehicle. If you refuse to allow the examination. Check tire pressure. insured and maintained to meet certain basic safety standards. ignition interlock. Common circumstances where your licence can be cancelled or suspended How alcohol and drugs impact your ability to drive The consequences that can result from a suspended licence including reinstatement fees. In this chapter • • • • • Maintaining your vehicle Vehicle insurance and registration Buying or selling a used vehicle Towing Test yourself . you are responsible for making sure it meets the requirements. at any time. .• • • • • • Your responsibility to maintain a valid driver's licence with the most correct and up to date information How the Demerit Point System works for new and fully licensed drivers The driving offences that result in a loss of points upon conviction. The following types of regular maintenance will help keep your vehicle fit and safe. People who buy and sell vehicles also have certain responsibilities. Keep seatbelts clean to prevent dirt and moisture from damaging the mechanism. Maintaining your vehicle also helps to protect the environment. Check tires for damage or wear. If the vehicle is found to be unsafe. you can be fined up to $1.
valve clearances. Change oil and filter Change transmission fluid Change axle differential oil Check drive and axle shafts Check steering. Have your exhaust checked if it sounds noisy or rattles. mileage and safety. replace them. a bag of sand or kitty litter. whenever possible. These should include a shovel. With lights. Check under the hood when the engine is cold. emergency flares or warning lights. Faulty exhaust systems are especially dangerous in the winter when drivers are more likely to drive with windows and vents closed. including alignment and condition of ball joints. distributor and spark plugs Check fuel injection system and air filter element Check headlight aim Regular service • • • • • • • • • • • *133* Winter maintenance A well-maintained vehicle will generally start in all weather conditions. Carry emergency supplies. Have your battery checked and terminals cleaned at least twice during the winter. Cold weather puts extra strain on your vehicle's systems. and check your vehicle owner's manual or the tire manufacturer's guide for recommendations. Check all hoses for cracks or leaks and check fan belts for wear or slackness. Check that there is enough oil. booster cables. defroster and radio all working at once. shock absorbers and springs Check engine adjustments . Tires The type of tires you have and the way they are made are critical for good traction. steering rods. a blanket and a chain for towing. If idling in traffic for long periods. shelter your vehicle from direct contact with rain or snow when it is parked because even the best maintained vehicle can't run if the engine is soaked. if appropriate. shift to neutral and rev the engine gently. If your wiper blades leave streaks on the window. . heater. Keep these points in mind when you buy or replace tires. batteries do not get a good charge at idle speed. brake and clutch reservoirs Check cooling system levels Check brake system Check front suspension. water in the radiator. brake fluid and battery fluid. However. ignition timing. Always carry extra windshield washer fluid in the winter and refill the container when necessary. Tires must meet standards described in the Motor Vehicle Tire Safety Act.*132* • • • Check that windshield wipers are properly attached to wiper blades. windshield washer fluid.
Vehicles that weigh more than 4. .5 millimetres deep or when tread wear indicators touch the road.• Replace tires when the tread is less than 1.500 kilograms must replace their front tires when tread is less than three millimetres deep.
inspect tires for wear. Some combinations are illegal. unless the types and sizes are equivalent by industry standards.500. including: radial-ply tires on the front and bias-ply or belted bias-ply on the rear. Use similar tires on all four wheels. bulges. This means every vehicle registered in the province must be insured. winter tires perform better than conventional all season tires under all wintertime conditions. Research shows that studded tires are more effective than other tires under icy conditions. Proper tire maintenance will extend the life of a tire and delay its disposal. and practice good driving habits. exposed cords or tread and sidewall cuts deep enough to expose cords. "TG".*134* • • Replace tires that have bumps. "farm use only". The pressure of the spare tire should be the same as the pressure of the tire with the highest pressure. you can be fined $500 to $2. If you do not tell the truth about your insurance or if you show false documents. "competition circuit only". You may also lose your driver's licence for up to one year and have your vehicle taken away for up to three months. knots. This does not apply to a single spare tire used in an emergency. they give the best traction for vehicles in winter. Some tips for longer wear: maintain the right air pressure. Any tire on a vehicle must not be smaller than the vehicle manufacturer's specified minimum size. Install snow tires at least on the drive wheels. . Collision insurance to cover damage to your own vehicle is a good idea but not required by law. you can legally use studded tires on your vehicle. Overall. a mix of 50 or 60 series tires on the front with any other mixture on the rear. "SL" or any other words that mean the tire is not for use on the road must not be used on a vehicle that travels on roads. "NHS". You must show proof that you have insurance coverage before you can register a vehicle or renew your registration. and a combination of types or sizes on the same axle. particularly on wet ice. And it must not be so large that it touches the vehicle or affects its safe operation. Scrap tires are a serious environmental concern. If you live in Northern Ontario. You must insure all your vehicles for third party liability of at least $200. Four snow or all-weather tires are best for vehicles in snowbelt areas. This covers you in the event that you injure or kill someone or damage someone's property.000. Any tire with the wording "not for highway use". rotate tires regularly. • • • • • • *135* Vehicle insurance and registration • • • Insurance Registration New residents Insurance Ontario has compulsory automobile insurance. Although snow tires or all-weather tires are not required by law.
moped.ca. *136* • • Buying or selling a used vehicle If you are selling a used vehicle privately in Ontario. they must have: • Their licence plates validated . Licence plates in Ontario are based on a plate-to-owner system. Your vehicle permit must have an accurate description of your vehicle. from where you used to live. light truck. its registration and lien history in Ontario and the average wholesale and retail values for its model and year. New residents New Ontario residents have 30 days to register their vehicles. The package. a description of the vehicle. If you do not intend to use them on another vehicle.ca. which the seller must show to potential buyers. such as the colour. The buyer must take the package and the vehicle portion of the permit to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office to register as the new owner within six days of the sale. you may return your plates to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office.serviceontario. or by mail. you must notify the Ministry of Transportation within six days. You must show this card when a police officer asks for it. A Drive Clean Vehicle Emissions Pass Report may be required if the vehicle is being registered as "fit" in the Drive Clean program area. sign the vehicle transfer portion of their vehicle permit and give it to the buyer. ServiceOntario kiosks or the ServiceOntario website at www.serviceontario. go to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. When you sell or change vehicles. Sellers must keep the plate portion of the permit. Registration Vehicle registration includes licence plates and a vehicle permit. To get a vehicle permit and Ontario licence plates. you must report it at a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office within six days. This means that vehicle licence plates move with the vehicle owner. and light duty vehicles older than 1988 are exempt starting in 2007. Before buyers can put their own plates on their new vehicle. you can be fined up to $200. using the change of information stub attached to your vehicle permit. As well as giving the buyer the Used Vehicle Information Package. limitedspeed motorcycle or motorcycle. you must carry the pink insurance card from the insurance company for that particular vehicle. This applies to the private sale of any car. or ownership. This means that if you change your vehicle. It also includes information about retail sales tax. If you own a vehicle and you change your name or address. The package is available from any Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. van. you must buy a Used Vehicle Information Package.When driving your own vehicle or someone else's. Current and future model year vehicles are exempt. sellers must remove their licence plates. You must bring along: • • • A Safety Standards Certificate Proof of insurance A Vehicle Import Form 1 if you have brought the vehicle in from another country The vehicle permit. You can do this in person at a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. not the vehicle. If you do not. motor home. you must remove your plates. on the ServiceOntario website at www.
They must notify the ministry of the brand through a Notification of Vehicle Brand form. Mandatory Vehicle Branding Program Under the Mandatory Vehicle Branding Program. A Safety Standards Certificate is valid for 36 days after the inspection. auctioneers. salvagers and anyone who deals in used vehicles. *137* Safety Standards Certificate A Safety Standards Certificate is a document that certifies a vehicle's fitness. You can buy and register a vehicle without a safety certificate. and light duty vehicles older than 1988 are exempt starting in 2007. Current and future model year vehicles are exempt. vehicle abstracts and the Used Vehicle Information Package (UVIP) for that vehicle. Any inspection station in Ontario licensed by the Ministry of Transportation can issue a Safety Standards Certificate.com to view the Drive Clean emissions test history of a vehicle. but you cannot put your own plates on the vehicle or drive it without one. self-insurers (fleet owners). are required to determine whether severely damaged and written off ('total loss') vehicles they insure or obtain should be branded either 'Irreparable' or 'Salvage'. The ministry applies the brand to the vehicle's registration information so that it will appear on the vehicle permit. The brand identifies the condition of the vehicle to potential buyers. importers. provided your vehicle passes an inspection. . Vehicle owners may visit the Drive Clean website at www.look for a sign saying it is a Motor Vehicle Inspection Station. the certificate is not a guarantee or warranty that the vehicle will stay fit for any period. Many garages are licensed . This is how the program helps to protect consumers buying used vehicles.driveclean.• • • • • The vehicle portion of the permit issued for the vehicle Their own licence plate number recorded on the plate portion of the vehicle permit A valid Safety Standards Certificate The minimum insurance required under the Compulsory Automobile Insurance Act A Drive Clean Vehicle Emissions Pass Report may be required if the vehicle is being registered as "fit" in the Drive Clean program area. insurers. However.
reduces smog-causing pollutants by identifying grossly polluting vehicles and requiring them to be repaired. However. Trailers.visit www. . It cannot be registered as fit to drive in Ontario. the vehicle must pass a Drive Clean test to transfer the ownership and plate it for the road. If you are buying a used vehicle that is older than the current model year and is a 1988 or newer model. and if it can pass a structural inspection to ministry standards. this does not mean that the vehicle has never been damaged in a collision. Light Duty Vehicles manufactured before the 1988 model year are exempt from Drive Clean emissions test requirements. they cannot be branded 'Salvage'. If you own a light-duty vehicle in the Drive Clean Program area (Southern Ontario from Windsor to Ottawa) that is five years old or older and is a 1988 or newer model. The brand 'Salvage' means that the damaged vehicle can be repaired or rebuilt. street cars or motor vehicles with a model year of 1980 or earlier are exempt from the mandatory branding program. the owner can obtain a Structural Inspection Certificate and have the vehicle branded as 'Rebuilt'. vehicle owners will be charged. Once the vehicle has been repaired or rebuilt. Emissions inspectors who do so can be decertified. If you do not receive a claim settlement through an insurance company. but has been rebuilt and has passed a structural inspection to ministry standards. and it can never be driven in Ontario. Drive Clean. administered by the Ministry of the Environment. The brand 'Irreparable' means that damage to the vehicle was so severe that the vehicle can be used for parts or scrap only.ca for details. motor assisted bicycles.*138* If your vehicle sustains severe damage and is written off by your insurance company. *139* Ontario's Drive Clean program Vehicles are the single largest domestic source of smog-causing emissions in Ontario. It cannot be rebuilt. traction engines.mto. If the vehicle can pass a safety inspection (Safety Standards Certificate). The brand 'Rebuilt' means that the vehicle has been previously branded as 'Salvage'. farm tractors. you must take your vehicle for a Drive Clean test every two years in order to renew its registration. you must have the brand determined by an authorized mechanic at a Type 6 Motor Vehicle Inspection Station. the owner can have it registered as fit to drive in Ontario. • • • Motorcycles that have been written off must be branded 'Irreparable'.gov.on. The ministry website has a list of these facilities . distributing or using false Drive Clean passes is an offence under the Environmental Protection Act. Please note that the act of creating. There are four brands: • A vehicle which has never had a brand applied in Ontario automatically has the brand 'None' applied to its registration documents. motorized snow vehicles. your insurance company must notify you and the ministry of the brand requirement. was never branded in another jurisdiction or was not rebuilt prior to the mandatory branding program.
Otherwise. Make sure it is capable of towing both the trailer and the load you intend to carry. Almost half of the reported collisions while towing a recreational vehicle are single vehicle collisions. If your trailer and load exceeds the size and weight specified in the Highway Traffic Act. consider the size. and that your trailer and hitch meet all the requirements described in this chapter. about 30% of the drivers had "lost control" of their vehicle. if the 'check engine' or 'service engine' lights come on. Attach the licence plate to the back of your trailer where it is clearly visible. Oversize permits are available at some MTO Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Offices. *140* Towing This chapter tells you what you need to know to tow a trailer behind a car. Licence and permit You must have a valid driver's licence (Class G1. trailer size and characteristics. Before you can tow one on any public road. or a copy of it. a police officer may remove your trailer from the road until it is made safe to operate. van or small truck in Ontario. When you register your trailer you will receive a licence plate and vehicle permit.600 kilograms. vehicle and load of 1. to show to a police officer when asked. G2 or G) or higher class of licence to tow a trailer with a gross vehicle weight of up to 4.driveclean. Lights Your trailer must have: • a white licence plate light. For more information on Ontario's Drive Clean program. Another 20% involve rear-end collisions. It is against the law to tow more than one trailer behind non-commercial vehicles.com or call the Drive Clean Call Centre toll-free at 1-888-758-2999. For example. Always carry your permit. you could face costly repairs to the vehicle's engine or emissions control system. Keeping your vehicle well maintained according to the manufacturer's recommended service schedules is an important part of driving clean. it must have brakes strong enough to stop and hold the trailer. In collisions where the driver was determined to be at fault. . power and condition of your vehicle. as well as safety tips to follow when towing a trailer. Before you attempt to tow a trailer.360 kg or more. Brakes If your trailer has a gross trailer weight. you must register it and pay a one-time registration fee at a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. you may need a higher class of licence or an oversize vehicle permit to tow it. Registering your trailer A trailer is considered a separate vehicle. have your engine looked at by a qualified repair technician as soon as possible. If it is not. visit www.You don't have to wait for a Drive Clean test to do something positive for the environment. Towing a trailer brings unique challenges to drivers. This includes licence and registration requirements. Make sure your trailer is in good condition Your trailer must be in safe operating condition.
You may also be able to shift some of the load in the trailer to the rear to reduce the load on the rear of your vehicle. to let drivers coming toward you know the width of your trailer. they must be crossed under the tongue to prevent the tongue from dropping to the road if the primary hitch accidentally disconnects. it must also have: • • *141* Your trailer must have mudguards. No passengers You may not carry any person in any trailer. as far apart as possible. and. In addition to a ball and hitch. Trailer hitch Use a good quality trailer hitch. two red reflectors at the rear of the trailer. you may need to use a load-equalizing trailer hitch.• • a red tail light. The class of trailer hitch you use depends upon the gross weight of your trailer . as far apart as possible. be sure to use safety chains or cables strong enough to hold the trailer and load. to let drivers behind you know the width of your trailer. fenders and flaps or be designed in such a way that it does not spray or splash traffic travelling behind you. and. or reflectors. The chain hooks must have latches or devices that will not accidentally become detached. in case the ball and hitch accidentally come apart. If the load in your trailer blocks your vision to the rear. If your trailer is wider than 2. Loading your trailer . you must have additional mirrors that provide a clear view of the road to the rear. The hitch-ball should be installed so that when the trailer is attached and tightened. as far apart as possible.05 metres. It should be securely attached to your vehicle following manufacturer's recommendations. when it is being towed. it is level with no tilting. If the hitch pulls down the rear of your vehicle. two red clearance lights. Attaching your trailer Your trailer must have two separate ways of attaching to your vehicle so that if one fails or comes loose. two yellow clearance lights. the trailer will stay attached. one on each side at the rear of the trailer. one on each side at the front of the trailer. Load your trailer carefully so that nothing comes loose or falls off while you are moving. including a house or boat trailer. Make sure you use the right trailer hitch for the weight of your trailer.the gross weight being the total weight of the trailer and its load. If safety chains are used.
check traffic. the trailer. Look in your right mirror. wheels.Diagram 5-4-1 When loading your trailer. lights. About 5 to 10 per cent of the trailer's total weight should be supported on the hitch. swing wide by driving well into the intersection before turning. Keep out of the . When you make your turn. Signal and slow down. When carrying a boat on a trailer. load distribution and load security to make sure they are safe. accelerate carefully. check the trailer hitch. tires. inside. When you start to drive. Starting out Before each trip. Too much weight in the trailer can put a strain on your vehicle and damage your tires. *142* The distribution of the weight in your trailer is also very important. If the turn is sharp. do not carry cargo in the boat unless your trailer is designed and equipped for the extra weight. more of the trailer load should be in front of the trailer axle than behind it for proper hitch weight. Check your tire pressure with the trailer loaded while the tires are still cold. *143* Curves and turns Stay close to the middle of your lane when taking a curve. increase the following distance between you and the vehicle ahead. strap everything down. To avoid sudden stops. Do not overload your trailer. It may also affect the aim of your headlights so that your low beams blind approaching drivers. Poor load balance can cause your trailer to sway or fishtail. especially in wet and slippery conditions. The ball and hitch may also become separated. The alignment of your mirrors may also be affected. check traffic. Heavy and improperly placed loads can pull down the rear of your vehicle. It is an offence to have a load that may become dislodged or may fall off. When making a left turn. When making a right turn. Proceed slowly. lifting the front end and affecting your steering. within the weight limit marked on the hitch. move ahead until your vehicle's front wheels are well ahead of the curb before turning to the right. as well as outside. especially if there is too much weight in the rear of the trailer. Slowing down and stopping A sudden stop can cause your trailer to jackknife or slide sideways or the load to shift. wheel bearings and axle. Drive slowly and carefully. Generally. Signal.
fast lanes and maintain a speed that will allow you to slow down and stop smoothly in any situation. Passing You cannot accelerate as quickly when you are towing a trailer. You also need more space because the length of your vehicle is much longer with a trailer attached. Before you pass, make sure you have enough time and room to complete the pass. Once you have passed, allow more room before you move back to your lane. Do not cut back into the lane too soon. This can cause your trailer to sway and make it difficult to control. Being passed If you are holding up a line of traffic, signal, pull over and let the other vehicles pass. Fastmoving trucks and buses create a strong air disturbance behind them. If a large bus or truck passes you, the wall of wind behind it may whip your trailer to the side, pushing it out of control. When you experience this, do not brake. Carefully steer your vehicle and trailer back into position. A slight increase in speed may help. Backing up Back up very slowly and have someone outside the vehicle direct you. Use a series of small turns to steer. It is a good idea to practice this skill off the road in an empty parking lot until you are comfortable with your ability. To back up to the right, steer to the left. The front end of the trailer will go left, but the rear end will go right. To back up to the left, steer to the right. The front end of the trailer will go right, but the rear end will go left. Towing disabled vehicles If your vehicle breaks down, you should get help from a tow truck designed to tow vehicles. If you must use another vehicle to tow, use warning signals or emergency flashers and make sure you attach the vehicles securely. Someone must sit in the disabled vehicle and use the brakes to keep the tow cable tight. If the engine cannot run, don't tow vehicles that have power braking and steering. Without the engine, braking and steering is difficult and towing may lead to a collision. Trying to start a disabled vehicle by towing is dangerous and could damage both vehicles. Summary By the end of this section you should know:
• • • • • • • •
The checks that need to be performed on your vehicle: daily/weekly, at its regular servicing and for its use in the winter How to buy the right tires for your vehicle and how to know when they need replacing Your responsibility to ensure that the vehicle you are driving is properly registered and insured Information about buying and selling used vehicles including the Safety Standards Certificate Licensing requirements to properly tow a trailer or disabled vehicle Vehicle requirements such as brakes, lights, mirrors and trailer hitches The proper way to load a trailer and attach it to your vehicle Driving techniques for driving with a trailer attached
*145* Add Question #9 re: sharing the road with cyclists and pedestrians. Test yourself - Sample knowledge test questions The following questions will give you an idea of what to expect on the knowledge test. All knowledge tests questions follow this multiple-choice format. The answers to these sample questions are provided at the bottom of the page. 1. To get your vehicle out of a skid, you should first: a. Steer straight ahead. b. Steer in the opposite direction of the skid. c. Steer in the direction you want to go. d. Apply brakes hard. 2. When may you lend your driver's licence? a. In emergencies. b. To a person learning to drive. c. It is not permitted. d. For identification purposes. 3. What must a driver do before entering a highway from a private road or driveway? a. Enter or cross the highway as quickly as possible. b. Yield right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on the highway. c. Sound horn and proceed with caution. d. Give hand signal then take right-of-way. 4. Never change lanes in traffic without: a. Looking in the rear view mirror only. b. Giving proper signal and looking to make sure the move can be made safely. c. Blowing your horn and looking to the rear. d. Decreasing speed and giving correct signal. 5. When the driver of another vehicle is about to overtake and pass your vehicle, you must: a. Speed up so that passing is not necessary. b. Move to the left to prevent passing. c. Signal to the other driver not to pass. d. Move to the right and allow such vehicle to pass. 6. When you are deciding whether or not to make a U-turn, your first consideration should be to check: a. Traffic regulations. b. Presence of trees, fire hydrants or poles near the curb. c. Turning radius of your car.
d. Height of curb. 7. It is more dangerous to drive at the maximum speed limit at night than during daytime as: a. Your reaction time is slower at night. b. You cannot see as far ahead at night. c. Some drivers unlawfully drive with parking lights only. d. The roadways are more apt to be slippery at night. 8. You should under all conditions drive at a speed which will allow you to: a. Stop within 150 metres (500 feet). b. Stop within 90 metres (300 feet). c. Stop within 60 metres (200 feet). d. Stop within a safe distance. Include a cycling-related question such as: 9. When approaching a cyclist where there is no passing lane, you should: a. Speed up to pass quickly b. Honk your horn for the cyclist to move over and allow you to pass c. Slow down and wait to pass when a break in oncoming traffic allows Answer Key: 1-c, 2-c, 3-b, 4-b, 5-d, 6-a, 7-b, 8-d, 9-c *147* The Level Two Road Test Statistics show that new drivers of all ages are far more likely than experienced drivers to be involved in serious or fatal collisions. To help new drivers develop better, safer driving habits, Ontario introduced graduated licensing in 1994 for all drivers applying for their first car or motorcycle licence. Graduated licensing lets you gain driving skills and experience gradually, in lower-risk environments. The two-step licensing system takes at least 20 months to complete and includes two road tests. Passing the Level Two (G2) road test gives you full Class G driving privileges. While the Level One road test deals with basic driving skills, the Level Two road test deals with advanced knowledge and skills that are generally gained with driving experience. When you take the test, the examiner will give you directions. As you complete the driving tasks, the examiner will watch to make sure you successfully perform the actions associated with them. The G2 road test includes a component of expressway driving. To proceed with the G2 road test, you must complete and sign a "Declaration of Highway Driving Experience" to ensure that you have sufficient expressway driving experience to complete this component. On the form you will indicates how many times in the three months before the road test you have driven on a freeway and/or on a highway with a speed limit of at least 80 km/h. You are required to indicate what was the average length of these trips (i.e. under 5 km, between 5 and 15 km, over 15 km). Freeways include: 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 409, 410, 416, 417, 420, 427, Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), Don Valley Parkway (DVP), Gardiner Expressway, E. C. Row Expressway and the Conestoga Parkway.
When traffic conditions allow. remember to check your blind spot by looking over your shoulder. ** Is this still in use? Edit if not. keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. Signal Turn on your signal before slowing down for the turn unless there are vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and the intersection. In order to reschedule. The book Road Worthy** can also help. you will have to pay the 50% of the road test fee lost through the out-of-order. . Left and right turns The approach This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to make a left or right turn and ends at the point just before you enter the intersection. the examiner must declare the road test "out-of-order" and cancel the test. this chapter tells you the various tasks and actions that you will be expected to perform in your Level Two road test. If stopped You will need to do this driving task if you cannot complete your turn without stopping. For more information on the driving tasks. either because the way is not clear or you face a stop sign or red traffic light. *149* Space While slowing down. Make sure you obtain the required highway driving experience before rescheduling your test.* 1. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you are turning before the intersection. Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal.*148* If you do not have sufficient highway driving experience. you should review chapters 2 and 3. look all around you. Lane Move into the far left or far right lane as soon as the way is clear. To help you prepare. If you change lanes. do not back up. This is only a guide. move forward to check that the way is clear or to start the turn. If you have to stop after you have passed the stop line. Speed Steadily reduce speed as you approach the turn. You will lose 50% of your prepaid road test fee. Make sure you take the following actions: Traffic check Before slowing down. In a vehicle with manual transmission. Do not let your vehicle roll forward or backward. Remember to follow these actions: Stop Come to a complete stop. you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Use your rear view and side mirrors to check traffic behind you.
keep checking traffic all around you. At a large intersection with curved sidewalks where you are turning right. Speed Move ahead within four to five seconds after it is safe to start. *150* Both hands Use both hands to turn the steering wheel throughout the turn. If it is possible for another vehicle to overtake you while you are turning. keep your front wheels straight. marked or not. check your blind spot before starting to turn. You may also shift gears in an intersection wider than four lanes if not doing so would slow down other traffic. Remember to do the following: Traffic check If you are stopped. Wheels When waiting to make a left turn. If there is any doubt about the right-of-way. If there is no sidewalk. If you need to. With your wheels turned left. look left.Space When stopped behind another vehicle at an intersection. waiting for a green light or for the way to be clear. do not shift gears during the turn. An exception to this is if you have a disability that prevents you from using both hands. Just before entering the intersection. stop at the crosswalk. Using both hands on the wheel gives you maximum steering control when you need it most. keep the wheels straight if there is a risk of being pushed into pedestrians crossing the intersection. Stop line If you are the first vehicle approaching an intersection with a red light or stop sign. Generally. stop at the edge of the intersection. and it reduces the risk of collision if the vehicle ahead rolls backward or backs up. When waiting to turn right. stop behind the stop line if it is marked on the pavement. Make the turn at a steady speed. Drive slowly enough to keep full control of your vehicle without slowing down other traffic. try to make eye contact with nearby drivers or pedestrians. it helps prevent you from being pushed into the vehicle ahead if you are hit from behind. leave enough space to pull out and pass without having to back up. angle your vehicle to follow the curb so that no other vehicle can fit between you and the curb. . Making the turn The driving task involves your actions as you make the turn. If there is no crosswalk. you may shift gears immediately after the vehicle is moving but before it is well into the turn. If there is no stop line. your vehicle could be pushed into oncoming traffic. stop at the edge of the sidewalk. You have not properly checked traffic if another vehicle or pedestrian has the right-of-way and must take action to avoid your vehicle. You are most at risk from other traffic when turning. ahead and right to check that the way is clear. Leaving this space protects you in three ways: it lets you pull around the vehicle in front if it stalls. increasing speed as you complete the turn. not changing gears gives you more control over your vehicle when turning. Gears In a vehicle with manual transmission.
It begins when you enter the intersecting road and ends when you return to normal traffic speed. you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Use your mirrors to check traffic behind you. In light traffic. move directly to the next available lane. In a vehicle with manual transmission. shift gears as you increase speed. If you are turning right onto a road where the right lane is blocked with parked vehicles or cannot be used for other reasons. check your mirrors to become aware of the traffic situation on the new road. It begins at the point where you can see the intersection and ends just before you enter the intersection. If you are turning left onto a multi-lane road. The stop This driving task includes the actions you take while stopped and waiting to move through the intersection. Take the following actions: Lane End your turn in the lane that corresponds to the lane you turned from. Speed Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In a vehicle with manual transmission. keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. you may have to accelerate more quickly. Traffic check As you return to normal traffic speed. Space While slowing down. Stop intersection *151* Add pedestrians to image (in book) Stop Intersection The approach This driving task is done at intersections where you must come to a stop. look all around you. return to normal traffic speed and move into the curb lane when it is safe to do so.Wide/short Turn into the corresponding lane on the intersecting road without going over any lane markings or curbs. Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal. Be sure to follow these actions: Traffic check Before slowing down. accelerate moderately. Speed Steadily reduce speed as you approach the intersection. Completing the turn This driving task completes the turn. Remember these points: . In heavier traffic.
try to make eye contact with nearby drivers or pedestrians. Using both hands on the wheel gives you maximum steering control when you need it most. leave enough space to pull out and pass without having to back up. stop at the edge of the sidewalk. Traffic check As you return to normal traffic speed. If there is no crosswalk. You are most at risk from other traffic when you are crossing the intersection. stop at the crosswalk. and it reduces the risk of collision if the vehicle ahead rolls backward or backs up. Generally. Leaving this space protects you in three ways: it lets you pull around the vehicle in front if it stalls. waiting for a green light or for the way to be clear. If there is no stop line. accelerate moderately. Space When stopped behind another vehicle at the intersection. Both hands Keep both hands on the steering wheel as you drive through the intersection. Stop line If you are the first vehicle approaching an intersection with a red light or stop sign. When traffic conditions allow. not changing gears gives you more control over your vehicle. look left. An exception to this is if you have a disability that prevents you from using both hands. If you need to. ahead and right to check that the way is clear. do not back up. stop at the edge of the intersection. *152* Driving through This task includes the actions you take as you drive through the intersection and return to normal traffic speed. In light traffic. move forward to check that the way is clear or start across the intersection. you may shift gears immediately after the vehicle is moving but before it is well into the intersection. Gears In a vehicle with manual transmission. If there is any doubt about the right-of-way. do not shift gears crossing the intersection. If you have to stop after you have passed the stop line. Do not let your vehicle roll forward or backward. If there is no sidewalk. Just before entering the intersection. keep checking traffic all around you.Stop Come to a complete stop. check your mirrors to become aware of the traffic situation after you have gone through the intersection. You may also shift gears in an intersection wider than four lanes if not doing so would slow down other traffic. stop behind the stop line if it is marked on the pavement. . Make sure to follow these actions: Traffic check If you are stopped. You have not properly checked traffic if another vehicle or pedestrian has the right-of-way and must take action to avoid your vehicle. marked or not. Speed Move ahead within four to five seconds after it is safe to start. Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. it helps prevent you from being pushed into the vehicle ahead if you are hit from behind.
Remember to do the following: Traffic check As you approach the intersection. . You may also shift gears in an intersection wider than four lanes if not doing so would slow down other traffic. Both hands Keep both hands on the steering wheel as you drive through the intersection. Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. Watch for pedestrians about to cross the intersection and vehicles edging into the intersection or approaching at higher speeds.In heavier traffic. You are most at risk from other traffic when you are crossing the intersection. check your mirrors for traffic behind you. do not shift gears while crossing the intersection. Speed Keep at the same speed as you go through the intersection unless there is a chance traffic may cross the intersection in front of you. you may have to accelerate more quickly. *154* Gears In a vehicle with manual transmission. Using both hands on the wheel gives you maximum steering control when you need it most. If you need to. If you have to slow down for the intersection. you may shift gears immediately after the vehicle is moving but before it is well into the intersection. slow down or hold your foot over the brake. If your lane is blocked by a vehicle turning left or a vehicle edging into the intersection from the right. ready to slow down or stop. An exception to this is if you have a disability that prevents you from using both hands. It begins at the point where you can see the intersection and ends just before the entrance to the intersection. Remember these points: Lane Do not go over lane markings or change lanes in the intersection. In a vehicle with manual transmission. If so. Driving through This driving task includes your actions from the time you enter the intersection until you have crossed it and are returning to normal traffic speed. shift gears as you increase speed. slow down or stop instead of pulling out to go around the vehicle. Generally. *153* Add pedestrians to image (in book) Through intersection The approach This driving task is done at intersections where you may not need to stop. not changing gears gives you more control over your vehicle. look left and right for traffic on the intersecting road.
. gradual movement to the centre of the nearest freeway lane. Signal If you have not done so already. keep inside the lane markings. watch any vehicles in front of you on the ramp and keep back a safe distance. keep your speed slow enough so that objects and people inside your vehicle are not pushed from the force created by turning the curve. Space While on the ramp and merging with freeway traffic. keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. Freeway Entering This driving task begins on the entrance ramp to a freeway and ends when you have reached the speed of the traffic on the freeway. Time your merge so you do not move in beside another vehicle or into the blind spot of another vehicle. *155* Speed On the curve of the entrance ramp. check your mirrors again before returning to normal traffic speed. Driving along This driving task checks your actions driving along the freeway (but not merging. check your mirrors and blind spot for a space to merge safely. Merge Merge with freeway traffic in a smooth.Traffic check If you slowed down for the intersection. Continue to divide your attention between watching in front. At the same time. control your speed to blend smoothly with freeway traffic. Be sure to remember the following points: Traffic check While driving along. Cancel signal Turn off your signal as soon as you have merged with freeway traffic. increase your speed to match that of freeway traffic. turn on your signal as soon as traffic on the freeway is able to see your vehicle on the ramp. as soon as you can see freeway traffic approaching from behind. Remember to do the following: Traffic check While on the ramp. While on the ramp and in the acceleration lane. keep checking traffic all around you and look in your mirrors every 5 to 10 seconds. checking your mirrors and looking over your shoulder to check your blind spot until you can merge safely with traffic. adjust your speed to get the best spacing possible. If traffic is heavy or moving at such a high speed that it is difficult to keep an ideal following distance. While merging. changing lanes or exiting). While in the acceleration lane.
Speed Avoid exceeding the speed limit or driving unreasonably slowly. Whenever possible, drive at a steady speed. Look ahead to where you are going to be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing your speed. Space Always keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. If another vehicle follows too closely behind you, give yourself even more room in front or change lanes. Try to keep a space on both sides of your vehicle and try not to drive in the blind spots of other vehicles. Avoid driving behind large vehicles. Because of their size, they block your view of traffic more than other vehicles. Exiting This driving task begins when you are driving in the far right lane of the freeway and can see the exit you want to take. It ends when you reach the end of the exit ramp. Remember to do the following: Traffic check Before moving into the exit lane, look left and right and check your mirrors. If there is a lane of traffic on your right, such as an acceleration lane from an entrance ramp or a paved shoulder, remember also to check your right blind spot. *156* Add pedestrians to image (in book) Signal Turn on your signal before you reach the exit lane. Exit lane Enter the exit lane at the beginning of the lane with a smooth, gradual movement. Stay inside the lane markings. If there are two or more exit lanes, do not cross solid lines on the pavement to change lanes. Speed Do not slow down before you are completely in the exit lane. Once you are in the lane, slow gradually without causing traffic to pile up behind you. On the curve of the exit ramp, keep your speed slow enough so that objects and people inside your vehicle are not pushed from the force created by turning the curve. In a vehicle with manual transmission, downshift as you reduce speed. Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. Cancel signal Turn off your signal once you are on the exit ramp.
V. Lane change
This driving task begins as you look for a space to change lanes and ends when you have completed the lane change. Remember to follow these actions: Traffic check While waiting to change lanes safely, look all around you. Divide your attention between watching in front, watching the mirrors and checking your blind spot. If there is another lane beside the one you are moving into, check traffic in that lane to avoid colliding with a vehicle moving into the lane at the same time as you do. *157* Signal Turn on your signal when there is enough space for you to change lanes. After signalling, check your blind spot one more time before starting to move into the other lane. Your signal should be on soon enough to give traffic behind you time to react to the signal. If traffic in the lane you are moving into is heavy, you may turn on your signal before there is enough space to change lanes. This will let traffic behind you know that you are looking for a space to change lanes. Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. If there is another lane beside the one you are moving into, be careful not to move in beside another vehicle or into the blind spot of another vehicle. Speed Adjust your speed to match the speed of traffic in the new lane. Change Change lanes with a smooth, gradual movement into the centre of the new lane. Both hands Keep both hands on the steering wheel as you change lanes. Using both hands on the wheel gives you maximum steering control. An exception to this is if you have a disability that prevents you from using both hands. Cancel signal Turn off your signal as soon as you have changed lanes.
VI. Roadside stop Add pedestrians to image (in book) – img. from pg. 63 The approach This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to stop and ends once you have come to a stop. Make sure you take these actions: Traffic check Before slowing down, check your mirrors and scan to see if it is legal (look for signs) to make the roadside stop. Ensure you will not be stopping in a bike lane or other prohibited area. Then scan the road for traffic approaching from the front and rear of your vehicle. A 150 metre gap in both directions provides enough space to perform the move safely. If there is a chance of traffic
or pedestrians overtaking you on the right, check your right blind spot just before pulling over. *Use language from before re: cyclists and bike lanes. * *158* Signal Turn on your signal before slowing down unless there are vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and the point where you intend to stop. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you are turning before the stopping point. Speed Steadily reduce speed as you approach the stop. In a vehicle with manual transmission, you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal. Position Stop parallel to the curb and not more than about 30 centimetres away from it. If there is no curb, stop as far as possible off the travelled part of the road. Do not stop where you will block an entrance or other traffic. The stop This driving task includes the actions you take after stopping. Remember to do the following: Signal Turn off your signal and turn on your hazard lights. Park If your vehicle has an automatic transmission, put the gear selector in park and set the parking brake. If your vehicle has a manual transmission, set the parking brake and shift into neutral if not turning off the engine, or shift into low or reverse if turning off the engine. When parking on a hill, turn your wheels in the appropriate direction to keep your vehicle from rolling. Resume This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to move back onto the road and ends when you have returned to normal traffic speed. Take the following actions: Start Turn on the engine. Release the parking brake and select the correct gear to move back onto the road. Signal Turn off your hazard lights and turn on your left turn signal. Traffic check Just before pulling away from the stop, check your mirrors and your left blind spot. *159* Speed Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In light traffic, accelerate moderately. In heavier traffic, you may have to accelerate more quickly. In a vehicle with manual transmission, shift gears as you increase speed.
Curve This driving task begins when the curve comes into sight and ends when you have gone completely around it. forcing you to constantly correct your steering. Follow these actions: Speed As you approach the curve. Not changing gears gives you more control over your vehicle and reduces the risk of your wheels locking while downshifting. look across or as far around it as possible. Slow down to the safe speed for the curve by the time you are 30 metres into it. This helps you stay in a smooth line and centred in the lane throughout the curve. Lane As you enter the curve. Diagram 6-7-1 *160* VIII. begin accelerating to return to normal speed. VII. To do this. do not shift gears in the curve. If you look only at the road directly in front of you. Be sure to remain in your lane. Near the end of the curve. you are likely to wander back and forth across the lane. keep your speed steady and slow enough so that objects and people inside your vehicle are not pushed from the force created by turning on the curve. While in the curve. try to determine the safe speed for the curve. look for clues such as a sign that shows the safe speed. Slow down before the start of the curve to avoid braking in the curve. In a vehicle with manual transmission. Business section . the shape of the curve and the type of road you are driving on. In a blind curve where you cannot see all the way around it. drive more slowly in case oncoming traffic wanders into your lane or the curve is tighter than you expected.Cancel signal Turn off your signal as soon as you are back on the road.
Look ahead to where you will be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing lanes. Residential section . Look ahead to where you will be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing your speed. there are many places other than intersections where vehicles or pedestrians are likely to enter the road. try to keep a space on both sides of your vehicle and try not to drive in the blind spots of other vehicles. However. Keep to the centre of the lane and within the lane markings. Lane Drive in the safest lane for through traffic. When you stop behind another vehicle. These include entrances to businesses. Check your mirrors more often in heavy traffic or where vehicles are moving at different speeds. if the curb lane is blocked by traffic or there are many curbside hazards. institutions and construction sites. On a multi-lane road. IV. In slow traffic. Be sure to do the following actions: Traffic check In a business area. look left and right to check for vehicles or pedestrians about to enter the road. Increase the distance if another vehicle follows too closely behind you. This is usually the curb lane. At all these locations. check your mirrors every 5 to 10 seconds. avoid driving behind large vehicles that block your view of traffic ahead of you. Whenever possible. *161* Speed Avoid exceeding the speed limit or driving unreasonably slowly. Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you.Diagram 6-8-1 *Add cyclist in front of blue car* This driving task is done on straight sections of road where a number of businesses are located. Mirror check While driving along. the centre lane may be a safer choice. as well as pedestrian and railway crossings. drive at a steady speed. leave enough space to see its rear wheels or to pull around it without having to back up.
Look ahead to where you will be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing your speed. On a rural road. In slow traffic. watch out for entrances to schools. drive at a steady speed. Motorist should allow at least one metre between your car and the cyclist. move right to avoid colliding with an oncoming vehicle that is over the centre line. *162* Speed Avoid exceeding the speed limit or driving unreasonably slowly. look left and right to check for vehicles or pedestrians about to enter the road. keep to the centre of the travelled part of the road. businesses and industrial sites. At all these locations. Lane Keep to the centre of the lane. avoid driving behind large vehicles that block your view of traffic ahead. watch for entrances to residences. Look ahead to where you will be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing lanes. Increase the distance if another vehicle follows too closely behind you. Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. it is recommended that they ride one metre from the curb. When cyclists are present. If there are no lane markings. X.Diagram 6-9-1 Add car next to cyclist. When you stop behind another vehicle. This driving task is done on straight sections of residential or rural road. leave enough space to see its rear wheels or to pull around it without having to back up. Where you cannot see far ahead on the road because of a curve or a hill. away from parked vehicles or pedestrians. Whenever possible. sidewalks and any other locations where there might be traffic hazards. pedestrian crossings. Check your mirrors more often in heavy traffic or where vehicles are moving at different speeds. Illustrate one metre rule between car and cyclist and cyclist and curb.Parallel park . check your mirrors every 5 to 10 seconds. farms. driveways. Mirror check While driving along. Remember these points: Traffic check On a residential road.
Before pulling into position to back up. Leave at least 60 centimetres between your vehicle and the parked vehicle. Remember these points: Traffic check Before slowing down. Back up Begin reversing into the space. park off the travelled part of the road. Stop when your vehicle is completely in front of the empty parking space. Do not hit the curb or touch another vehicle while entering your parking space. steer to bring your vehicle in line with the curb. When your vehicle is about halfway into the space. Stop Stop beside . Speed Steadily reduce speed. Remember to do the following: Traffic check Before backing up. check your blind spot. ready to back into the parking space.or parallel to . Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal.the parked vehicle (real or imaginary) in front of the empty parking space. Pedestrian on sidewalk. Signal Turn on your signal before slowing down unless there are vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and your stopping point. move forward or backward to fit within the pavement markings or to allow room for the vehicle in front or behind you to pull out. Where there is no curb. Once you are in the parking space. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you are turning before your parallel parking position. look all around the vehicle and check your mirrors and both blind spots. turning the steering wheel towards the curb. check your mirror for traffic behind you. In a vehicle with manual transmission. . The approach This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to park and ends when you have come to a stop.Diagram 6-10-1 *Add cyclist in right lane. you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Do not start reversing until the way is clear or traffic has stopped to let you park. *163* Park This driving task includes the actions you take to park in a parallel parking space.
Remember these points: Start Turn on the engine. *164* . Signal Turn on your signal before slowing down unless there are vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and your stopping point. . Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal. check your blind spot before pulling over to the right side of the road to stop. Traffic check Just before pulling out of the parking spot. Release the parking brake and select the correct gear to move back onto the road. check traffic in front and behind you. Cancel signal Turn off your signal after you leave the parking space. In heavier traffic.* ‘Roadworthy’ information at the end should be removed if not still in use* XI. ready to start the turn. or shift into low or reverse if turning off the engine. turn your wheels in the appropriate direction to keep your vehicle from rolling. accelerate moderately. put the gear selector in park and set the parking brake. Resume This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to move from the parking space and ends when you have returned to normal traffic speed. set the parking brake and shift into neutral if not turning off the engine. When parking on a hill. Speed Steadily reduce speed. Three-point turn The approach This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to stop and turn your vehicle around. In a vehicle with manual transmission. It ends when you have almost stopped.Park If your vehicle has an automatic transmission. Be sure to do the following: Traffic check Before slowing down. check your mirrors and your blind spot. you may have to accelerate more quickly. Signal Turn on your signal. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you are turning. shift gears as you increase speed. If necessary. you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Speed Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In a vehicle with manual transmission. In light traffic. If your vehicle has a manual transmission.
accelerate moderately. Turn around With the steering wheel turned sharply left. Do not stop where you will block an entrance or other traffic. Use the whole road to make your turn. Stop and shift into forward gear to move ahead. With the steering wheel turned sharply right. Turn around This driving task includes the actions you take to turn around and ends when you are ready to drive away in the opposite direction. Each time you stop while turning. stop and put your vehicle in reverse. Wait until the way is clear or traffic has stopped to let you turn. Do not reverse over the edge or shoulder of the road or into the curb.Position Stop so you are parallel to the curb and not more than 30 centimetres away. Where there is no curb. ready to move ahead and ends when you have returned to normal traffic speed. reverse so the vehicle is facing in the new direction. Diagram 6-11-1 . check traffic in both directions. Resume This driving task begins when you are turned around. In light traffic. In heavier traffic. Signal Turn on your left signal before starting to turn. shift gears as you increase speed. you may have to accelerate more quickly. reversing only once. move slowly and smoothly across the road. Speed Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. Make sure you take these actions: Traffic check Check your mirrors before increasing speed. Remember these points: Traffic check Check your mirrors and your blind spot just before starting the turn. When you have reached the far left side of the road. stop as far as possible off the travelled part of the road. In a vehicle with manual transmission.
* . This text should be eliminated. This book with 168 pages of information will help you maintain your safe driving skills and enhance your driving enjoyment long after you pass your final road test. Road Worthy is used in high school driver education classes in Ontario and by many commercial driving schools.) Diagram 5-4 * Apparently this book is now dated and no longer used. skills for driving on any road. basic vehicle maintenance. driving at night and in bad weather.Road Worthy Road Worthy is a comprehensive guide to responsible driving for new and experienced drivers.ca. (Available for purchase by calling Publications Ontario at (416) 326-5300 or 1-800-668-9938. jump starting a vehicle. and changing a flat tire. It includes the rules of the road.publications. with many helpful diagrams and photographs. The text is clear and easy to understand. Or visit the website at www.serviceontario.