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Motivation involves triggering employee needs in a way that will arouse effort and direct behavior. Gontent theories of motivation identify the needs that employees might seek. Process theories, on tile other hand, explain the process'by which behavior is aroused and then directed. All motivation theories are culture-bound to some degree. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a content theory that argues that employees are motivated by five basic needs. These needs are triggered hierarchically, starting with basic physiological needs and working up to growth needs like self-actualization. Herzberg's two-factor theory is another content-oriented approach. It claims tilat hygiene factors (e.g., pay, working conditions) cause dissatisfaction, whereas motivating factors (e.q., challenge, responsibility) cause satisfaction. Despite its limitations, the theory's proscriptive emphasis is appealing to managers. Equity theory states that motivation is a function of comparisons we make with others. Specifically, this involves comparing pairs of input/outcome rates. If the ratios are in balance, employees are motivated to maintain the status QUO. If not, employees are motivated to reduce the inequity somehow (e.g., changeinputs, outcomes, or comparisons). Fairness concerns cut across many motivation issues facing firms today. . Reinforcement theory states tllat by using consequences, desirable behaviors can be strengthened and undesirable behaviors eliminated. Basically, managers have four options to choose from: positive reinforcement, negative reinlorcement, extinction, and/or punishment. Positive reinforcement is generally the most desirable option and a variety of partial reinforcement strategies are available for implementation purposes. Goals can be very useful in stimulating and guiding behavior. However, managers must determine the goal attributes (eg., clarity, difficulty), the goal-setting process (e.g., assigned, participative), and the type of reward (e.g., intrinsic or extrinsic) that will work best to produce goat commitment and motivated behavior for their subordinates. Stretch goats can be extremely motivating, but they usually require employee participation and supportive managers wllo are willing to provide the resources and latitude needed. Expectancy theory states that our assessment of expectancy (Does effort lead to performance?), instrumentality (Does performance lead to rewardS?), and valence (Are the available rewards considered valuable?) must be high for motivation to be high. If anyone of these three decision factors is zero, then motivation will be zero.

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A.w. Chesterton is a private, M'assachusetts-bascrJ maker 01 seals ancl pumps tilat's been around since 1884. Most .of its over $200 million in sales comes from other businesses. But ongoing consolidation in the industry has put a few big firms in a position to dominate, This dillicult environment has squeezed smaller players like Chesterton and its 1,500 employees. . As strange as it may seem, Chestertcn believes its approach to motivation is what allows the linn to thrive against larger competitors. That phllosophy can be summed up inlwo phrases: "Taking care of people" and "sharing the wealtll," At Chrislmas, CEOJim Chesterton walks around to personally hand out gilts and Ihank employees lor IIleir elforts, Benefits are outstanding, EmployeHsenjoy six weeks of paid vacation and six months of fully paid shortterm disability leave, Then there's the profit sllaring plan. Chesterton distributes 23 percent of its annual profits among its employees, with some veterans having racked up $500,000 in profit stlaring checks over tlie years. High performing employees are routinely rewarded with all-expense-paid trips to fancy resorts, In the past, when times got rough, Chesterton refused to lay people olf even if ". , . there was nothing to do but sweep up the parking lot.' So loyalty became a two-way street Iletween Chesterton and its employees, Turnover was so low that it wasn't even tracked. Nearly 50 percent of Chesterton employees at one point had been with the firm for 10 years or more. Despite calls to do so, the chesienon family has refused to sell out to larger firms, They argue ttlat their approach to employee motivation is a unique competitive advantage tllat will continue to ensure the firm's success, But others aren't so sure. Some lave retorled that Chr.slerlon needs to get l1igger fast so it can win the kinel of sole supplier deals enioyed by larger competitors, Becoming a larger company would allow Chesterton to provide the broader product mix critical for atlractin(l sole supplier status. To do this, some Ilave said Chesterton would be wise 10 cut its expensive motivation efforts and focus instead on the business strategies that would ensure survival (e,g., acquiring or merging with other lirms). Critics worry thot Chesterton's growth rate and profitability have dropped in recent years. So what would you recommend that Chesterton do? Can motivation ne a competitive weapon? If so, does Chesterton need to "ratchet up" its motivation etlorts to keep pace in its industry? As you read through this chapter, you'll be exposed 10 a variety of concepts and ideas relaled to mollvaton. Think about how they might be used to explain Cllcslerton's pliilosoPI1Y and what changes might be necessary as a result. Then take a look at the "Will It Work?" box al tIle end of this chapter for some steps that Chesterton has taken to purnp itself up, I

Motivation is arguably the most important issue in organizational behavior. Most American managers want to know the "secrets" to motivation. In fact, being able to motivate, inspire, and lead is one of the building block skills for behavior management presented back in Chapter 1. So this chapter scores a direct hit in terms of focusing on an important piece of the behavior management puzzle. In fact, our goal in this chapter is to help you develop motivation skills and show you how to use them effectively in the process of managing behavior. But first, a note of caution. As you'll recall from Chapter 2, perception processes can lead managers astray when it comes to motivation. For instance, managers often underestimate the complex connection between motivation and performance. In reality, many factors that affect performance have little or nothing to do with motivation. As a consequence, managers must identify-and then eliminate-factors that might prevent "motivated behavior" from actually improving performance. In other words, managers must be able to accurately diagnose both people and situations in order to be excellent motivators, This is consistent with the framework laid out in Chapter 1. For instance, let's say you're blessed with a "motivated subordinate" who is exhibiting a high level of effort. Unfortunately, that effort may have little impact on her performance. In



Part J



How Motivation Relates to Performance: Understanding What Can Get in the Way

fact, her performance may even drop. It might be that the employee lacks the necessary skills or abilities to actually perform at a higher level. And without those necessary skills, her effort is wasted. On the other hand, the context itself might explain why her performance doesn't improve, despite "high motivation." For example, work procedures may be inefficient or the appropriate equipment may be unavailable. These and many other factors may undercut an employee's best efforts. Exhibit 4-1 summarizes the complex link between motivation and performance. Compounding the challenge for managers is the fact that motivation can't be directly observed; motivation is a psychological state that reflects an intention to behave in certain ways. At best, a manager can accurately infer motivation from the behavior being observed. But since behavior may reflect several motives, an employee's performance may have nothing to do with that new bonus plan that management is so proud of. Fortunately, these challenges can be met-especially if the manager can craft a motivation approach that will fit both subordinates themselves and the context in which they work.

What Is Motivation?

We'll begin the process of developing motivation skills by pinning down what motivation is. The word motivation originates Irorn movere, which is Latin for "to move." And "getting people moving" is what many managers think about when motivation comes to mind. But sometimes managers focus too much on what will get folks moving (e.g., "What do my people want?") instead of how to steer them in a particular direction. Both the "what" and the "how" parts of motivation are important. Managers must know what will trigger motivated behavior, be it money, perquisites, challenges, or just interesting work. In fact, the bigger and more reliable the trigger, the better. After that, however, things get tricky. The how part of motivation is complex and, in some respects, more critical than the what part. Consider the trigger analogy again. What happens to the bullet after the trigger is pulled? How far and in what direction does it:go? What targets can it penetrate? And what happens the next time management pulls the trigger? Managers must understand how certain rewards will trigger employees' willingness to exert


We'll start with content theories of motivation-perspectives that identify specific needs that energize behavior. Ignore this and you end up with a lot of uncoordinated flopping around-like fish in a boat. So beware: The picture painted by those "best company" lists may be incomptete. inconclusive. It's the equivalent of the "easy installation" message plastered on the garage door opener box-all you need are a few tools and a couple of hours. And the deeper you dig. companies are scrambling like never before to appear on various "best" lists (e. Among other things. Glossy marketing brochures and dust jackets promise to reveal the secrets to motivation for "just minutes"of your time (once you part witt! a chunk of cash). For example.g. to make the top lists.tual use of corporate programs. best company to work for.3 maximum effort.Bookstores are futl of tomes that offer instant answers and motivation gimmicks. there are all too many places that managers can look to find simplified.. content theories answer the "what motivates" question. the many "quick and dirty" solutions to motivation have a cumulative effect: They undercut how important it is for managers to develop their own skills. The pace of work for today's managers continues to quicken and the amount of information we're hit with is nothing short of "e-normous. So motivation is often "custom work" in wtlich general principles are arJaptedto fit the idiosyncracies of a specific situation. Of course. Actually. Such appearances provide public relations value that is helpful in attracting outstanding employees. These theories explain the processes by which behavior can be aroused and then directed. although simplistic messages about motivation may be appealing. That said. In short. And time is often difficult to find. etc. The reality is that effective motivation interventions are usually the result of careful analysis. Of course. But just arousing a higher level of behavior isn't enough. most family-friendly. many gimmicky approaches are based on decent ideas. or otherwise misleading. Companies have unique contexts and employees can't be expected to respond uniformly since needs.). firms typically fill out elaborate surveys about company policies and programs. much less have good yardsticks in place to assess their effectiveness. The message of many books is that motivation is a straightforward affair that requires little time if you (lave the right grab bag of tec~niqlles. The sections that follow are organized around conceptual perspectives on motivation. that might involve shifting or changing triggers. Plus. As such. "cookbook" remedies for the inherent complexities of motivation. the American view of the manager as a "motivator" is surprisingly idiosyncratic." In fact. they come with cultural baggage that may get in the way when we leave American shores. Nevertheless. Behavior has to be channeled if goals are to be accomplished.just look at our reputation for motivating people. and abilities vary across individuals. .! In any case. But rest assured that we'll emphasize how practicing managers can apply these theories. another challenge with motivation involves sustaining a high level of focused effort over time. It's just that they have been simplified to tl18paint where they're functiorrally useless for specific situations. Next. "Don't dig any deeper. But we wonder whether the effort spent chas'Ing various rankings should be redirected toward doing the real work of motivating employees. the more likely you are to be skeptical about corporations that promote themselves as good motivators. we'll tackle process theories of motivation. experiences. they simply aren't accurate (didn't you really blow a weekend getting the door opener to work?). Although this sounds good. in Germany the manager is often seen as someone 85 172 ." An irony is that some companies are implicitly taking advantage of this by projecting an image that says. For instance. you're a busy manager and that's all the time you've got to worry about motivation. Plus. followed by employee surveys to reveal how things actually work. That inevitably means managers must carefully assess both the Motivation on the Quick context and their subordinates' needs and skills to do a good job of motivating in the long term. we also want to point out that these theories all reflect the American environment in which they were created. doing this takes time." Specifically. usually only a fraction of a firm's employees are queried. Take a look at the accompanying "Fads & Fixes" box to see what we mean. not all companies measurethe ac. After all. So it's best to view motivation as a process that uses "triggers" to arouse employee effort along with steps to channel behavior toward achieving goals.

what's considered an important need can vary across cultures. Esteem needs are met when employees have confidence in their abilities.that we think have had the greatest impact: Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory. Self-actualization represents employees' motivation to realize their maximum potential (e. Even though communist institutions have vanished.. Maslow's theory docs alert managers to the possible needs that drive behavior. Mas/ow's Hierarchy of Needs According to Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. For instance. Plus. employees can then be motivated by safety needs.. drawing generalizations is risky indeed. food. II) Using Maslow Despite its limitations. what employees need or value can vary [rom culture to culture. all of us are motivated by five needs that are triggered hierarchically. Since American culture embraces individualism. The two highest order needs focus on personal growth. we're motivated by the lowest level need that has not yet been satisfied. shelter). for example. These arc satisfied when employees feci that they "belong" because they have good relations with co-workers.86 Part I MANAGING INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES whose mission is to distribute tasks and provide technical expertise rather than motivate employees. At anyone point. once physiological needs arc met (e. That's something we'll reinforce throughout this chaptcr ' WHAT MOTIVATES? In the discussion that follows." All or this underscores the criticism that Maslow's needs hierarchy reflects an "American" management philosophy. Some surveys suggest that challenging work is the "most important" motivator. Likewise.g. personal achievement. their impact still lingers. we concentrate on two content theories . it's no surprise that Maslow's ideas-and self-actualization in particular-have found a ready audience in the United States. Of course. needs aren't necessarily triggered in the exact hierarchical order specified by Maslow. Irs the drive to overcome challenges that makes self-actualization such a powerful and stimulating force. Chinese workers. by taking on and overcoming big challenges).' In fact." Maslow's Limitations Research paints a fuzzy picture about Maslow's needs hierarchy. caring bosses matter 173 . And managers should avoid generalizations when it comes to figuring out what motivates subordinates. Managers must figure out where subordinates' strongest unrne: needs are and then offer rewards that will tap into those needs.g. POI' all these reasons." Similarly. such distinctions are also simplifications that cannot fully capture the complexity of cultural contexts much less acknowledge differences across individuals. may rank social and affiliation needs above self-actualization. while others say it's money and yet another group suggests that friendly. Benefits like health insurance might satisfy safety concerns. and risk-taking. Germans who have grown lip under communism in the eastern half of the country tend to be less concerned about personal achievement than Germans raised in the western hall. Next come social needs. For instance. it suggests that improving motivation should start with a careful needs assessment.

4 MOTIVATINC. Herzberg's motivating factors are similar to Maslow's higher order needs. But doing a careful needs assessment in the first place is what's most important. and so on.. rank. with 69 percent saying that greater salary potential is a job "enticement" that motivates them.. In contrast.aptc . Frederick Herzberg's ideas 111 the bill. Nevertheless. The bottom line? Money still ranks first for many MBAs. and co-worker relations. The way you really push employees "over the top" in terms of their satisfaction and motivation is by providing challenge.':' Maslow's needs scriptive approaches. If. • Achievement.'? Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory hierarchy is descriptive. and recognition. tenure in the firm. pay.~. EXHIBIT 4-2 Maslow Herzberg Moiivating Factors: . a dull job would make most of us think you were unhappy and wanting to go elsewhere. EMPLOYF.Hygiene Factors: • Job security . whereas hygiene factors match up with Maslow's lower order needs. and so on. advancement . • Quality Of relationships • Pay/benefits Working conditions 174 . ••Recognition ~ Responsibility • The work itself Relaling Maslow's Needs 10 Herzberg's Two-Factor Approach . your job is challenging. Hygiene factors include working conditions. challenge. you won't necessarily be highly satisfied and motivated. type of work. Herzberg contends you'll be upset about it. even if hygiene factors are excellent. responsibility. if your work falls short in providing hygiene factors. According to Herzberg. Herzberg's two-factor theory classifies needs into two groups. However.ES TO DO TllElR BEST 87 rnost. As you can see in Exhibit 4-2.. hallenge C . But managers typically prefer prowhere the message is: "Here's what you must offer people if you want to build a motivated work force. But Herzberg's fundamental premise is controversial. such as pay. Specifically. that's where the motivating factors come in. Motivating factors include the need [or achievement. Most people believe that anyone thing is capable of causing both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. [or example.l1 These divergent results typically reflect differences across respondents' cultural values." And in that sense. Herzberg argues that what causes us to be dissatisfied is difFerent than what causes us to be satisfied and engaged in our jobs. most of us would probably think you were satisfied and motivated. One SUIV'CY that may especially interest you asked recent MBA graduates what would keep them happy in their jobs. education.Ch.

direct. And so today.600 companies found that nearly 60 percent usc both recognition awards (a motivating factor) and flexible schedules (a hygiene factor) to motivate employees. puts it. the French appear more interested in hygiene factors than the British.'? And firms routinely focus on hygiene factors like pay and benefits for senior management-all the talk about "challenge" notwithstanding." The fuzziness between hygiene and motivating factors also pops up in cross-cultural research. CEO of Europe's Siemens Nixdorf.88 Part I Mi\NAGING INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES Herzberg's views have helped spawn job enrichment. In fact. in which managers are trained to focus on retention and their compensation is tied to retention rates. and maintain employee behavior. "challenge" is a dirty word that must be avoided at all costs. it's also important to remember that ignoring hygiene factors can produce extreme resentment. There are people for whom money is the important motivator. many companies try to cast a wide net and effectively cover hoth motivating and hygiene factors. firms offer top managers a supplemental retirement plan that is over and above what everyone else gets.'? Herzberg's Limitations USing Herzberg's Ideas Perhaps it's best to view Herzberg as offering some general advice about what most engages employees. For instance. For some folks.S. some experts suggest a "preemptive strike" approach." Of course. What's interesting is that many retention strategies essentially combine hygiene and motivating factors. That's where process approaches to motivation come in. turnover is hardly unique to senior executives. Conversely. For instance. Still. In this section we examine four 175 ." Others. and related efforts designed to create more challenging work environments. But when more collective values hold sway. and offering cross-functional transfers to create meaningfulness in employees' work. likewise. one study showed that British managers are more interested in motivating factors than their French counterparts. As Gerhard Schulmcyer. however. the distinction between hygiene and motivating factors isn't as clean as it appears. money or other hygiene factors are a huge draw. providing growth-oriented assignments. over 60 percent of large U. the purpose of a corporation is to provide "a place where the individual can do what he is good at . such as making sure compensation packages stay level with those of competitors. hygiene factors like job security may act as "motivating factors. it's important to remember that values may vary considerably across individuais. For instance. Some studies tend to support Herzberg. paint a more complex picture... for other people. they want managers to take proactive steps."? Employees in individualistic cultures will probably be attracted to Herzberg's achievement-oriented focus." And within cultures. In other words. Maslow and Herzberg really don't address how to channel." MANAGING THE "HOW TO MOTIVATE" PROCESS While they offer some important insights. The stated reason [or such plans? To avoid giving managers a reason to look elsewhere. Companies like Target Stores and United Technologies encourage managers not to wait until an employee has an offer in hand before they react. The key message is that many people will respond more enthusiastically to Herzberg's motivating factors than anything else. a survey of 1. "18 However.

create pressure to restore balance. to preserve harmony and group cohesiveness. However.g.000 and a colleague makes $100. The most common is when we fed "underpaid" relative to someone else. experience. as long as you regard your job inputs as being proportionate (e. Some of the ways employees strive to reduce inequity are listed in Exhibit 4-3. But perceived similarity is often key.. In other words. regardless of performance. family. For instance. and co-workers). with same-job and same-sex comparisons being popular choices. we are "overpaid" or otherwise get more out of a job than we think we deserve. in collective cultures.000." Likewise. And balanced ratios make employees feel satisfied and motivated to retain the status quo. Managers need to be aware of how their own values affect the way they reward people and how subordinates' values might af-fect the way they respond. applying equity ideas abroad can be complex. Still.g. friends. in essence. and skills. on the other hand. managers should pay attention.. Job inputs might involve things like effort. rewards have historically been distributed equally. What Ihey compare are pairs of perceived input-outcome ratios. is the heart or equity theoryY But it also states that employees decide whether their situation is unfair or not by comparing themselves to others (e. and benefits. Job outcomes might include things like working conditions. Less common are circumstances when we feel guilty because. That. goal theory. the theory isn't precise about the inputs and outcomes people choose or which will be most important. You could still feel fairly paid and believe thai things arc balanced. The American emphasis on individual achievement makes' it easy to embrace equity concepts. Equity Theory: How Fairness Drives Motivation Have you ever complained about your payor other benefits? If so. your unhappiness was probably driven by feelings of unfairness-that your "share" should have been bigger. you are motivated to restore a sense of fairness. Basically. Say you earn $75. There are two scenarios. Nevertheless. Imbalanced ratios. Of course. and expectancy theory. in China. employees may be less sanguine about equity-based rewards. As before." Inequity Reduction Strategies: Implications for Managers Whenever employees express concerns about fairness. And when you feel unfairly treated. the person making the "big bucks" has a job requiring more skills than yours). reinforcement theory." Limitations of Equity Theory Equity theory doesn't precisely identify' who we choose to compare ourselves against. These inputs and outcomes are combined and weighed as more or less important by the person making the comparisons. But it's really the comparison of overall ratios that matters. Still. we will focus on how each theory can be used as well as highlight its drawbacks and limitations. employees compare what they put into their job and what they get out of it against what they think other people put into and get out of their jobs. equity theory does a good job of describing how fairness comparisons can drive motivation. relative to others.Chaplcr'" MOTIVATING EMPLUYEES TO DO TIIEIR BEST 89 process theories: equity theory. that practice has been changing over the past several years. pay. 176 . rewarding individual Chinese employees for their performance has caused problems for American managers running joint venture operations in China.

. For example..... One 1998 survey of some 800. . .90 EXHIBIT 4-3 Part I M........MI"LOYF. ...'. .\NAGING INDIVIDUAf . . Likewise. Employees who change their behavior to "compensate" for perceived inequity can inflict real damage.. Restoration Strategy Change inputs Change outcomes Alter input thoughts Alter outcome thoughts Alter thoughts about comparison person inputs Alter thoughts about comparison person outcomes Change comparisons "I'm Underpaid" Equity or Balance Exists: Motivation to maintain the status quo .. find a new job).... . . absenteeism is costly and equity considerations are increasingly a part of employees' thinking when they decide to not show up. "Their jobs are dull" .... Work less Ask for a raise "I'm not working that hard" "This is a high status job" "They work like dogs" .. These inequity reduction strategies can have serious implications. Find a new comparison person that will result in a more balanced ratio..... . employee theft is an expensive problem.g. ....000 workers in 400 companies found that nearly 20 percent of employee absences reflect an entitlement mentality. Theft often occurs when employees rationalize that stealing from the company is "fair" because of' poor pay or lousy working conditions.ES Resloring Balance Inequily Reduclion Siralegies Inequity or Imbalance Exists: Two Examples "I'm Overpaid" Work more Take a pay cut "I'm working like a dog" "This job is very dangerous" "They don't work as hard" "Their jobs are more interesting" Upward . employees simply decided to not show up because they felt "entitled" to time off given all their hard work. Engage in a variety of cognitive gymnastics to change their perceptions about inputs and/or outcomes (either their own or someone else's). In other words... Change venues to find better ratios (c. Downward employees can: II II II II Change their inputs and/or outcomes... 177 ... .' 1.

S TO IJO nmm fJEST 91 That's about double the rate of entitlement found just three years earlicI:l~ absences that the same survey Creating an Equitable Workplace Perhaps the best way to create a sense of fairness is to convince employees that outcomes will be distributed fairly over the long haul. most policies allow for only a few days off. For example. a lousy pay raise) can be survived." The firm also trains managers to be flexible and sensitive and to grant time off on an as-needed basis." Never mind that employees rarely lie about death. For some employees.OYEf'. that grieving isn't something you "get over" in a few days. bereavement leaves are a touchy subject in many companies. If procedures are seen as clear and fair.S. over two million Americans held jobs that involved two or more wage classifications as part of a tiered wage system. partners) can be devastating." But when bad procedures are seen as causing unfair outcomes." Overall. Since higher tier employees often have similar skills as lower tier employees.r" Bereavement policies and issues like it are really about fixing old inequities. For example. companies may take steps that inadvertently create new equity problems. employees lying to scam some time oro. and so on are fair may be more critical than what employees actually receive. "Unresolved grief is expensive.g. Although nearly 90 percent of employers offer bereavement leaves. they will remain committed and motivated. The next trend may be to offer employees temporary work reassignment during the grieving process. firms as a way to reduce labor costs in the face of rising international competition and cheaper foreign labor. And if employees perceive that procedures are fair. As one human resources consultant puts it. Ohio. Good procedures mean that employees will "get a fair shake" in the future. look out. work assignments. friends. area-all Wage Tiers: Building in Unfairness 178 . however. two wage tiers exist.Chapter 4 MOTIVATING EMI'I. Fortunately. and lost time. feelings of inequity often result. Sometimes. On top of that. In their simplest form. with workers hired after a particular date being paid much less than those already on the payroll (sometimes as much as 80-100 percent less). focus on catching "cheaters" (e. substance abuse. In 1999. some enlightened companies have recognized the problem and created more flexible bereavement policies. has dropped its once-a-year "death limit.g. in which employees doing the same work are paid at vastly different rates. implementing a tiered wage system may cause employees to feel that the procedures used to distribute pay are inherently unfair. For instance. And ensuring that the procedures used to distribute raises.. on-the-job accidents. then even poor outcomes (e.000 mile trek requiring several days off.. Charlottebased First Union. That's the case among low-tier employees who work in the 10 auto parts and assembly plants in the Dayton. a mobile work force means that family members arc dispersed. These systems are often viewed by U. a death might mean a 3. unfair rules may explain why complaints about such leaves arc estimated to be rising 10 percent a year." It's important not to overlook the side effects of tiered wage systems. The aging of the work force and the changing definition of "family" also contribute to this perceived inequity issue. and that death outside of the traditional family (e.. even if current outcomes aren't very good. a financial services company.g. You see depression. and restrict leaves to the "immediate family.

or pursue "lifelong dreams. even in good economic times. In fact." Not surprisingly. which has 2. companies are increasingly churning employees-a process wherein many people are fired and many others are hired at the same time. can significantly reduce the effects of inequity. And these problems often grow in proportion to the number of low-tier employees in the work force.:" Consider DaimlerChrysler's Dayton Thermal Products (DTP) plant. cooperation is often a casualty.lo On the information side. switch careers. and low productivity are common among low-tier employees. compared to just over 110. and other cost-cutting measures also can prompt equity concerns. announced layoffs in 1998 and 1999 were the highest in the decade (companies said they intended to dump 675. In the past few years. Employees fed this approach is fair because everyone. but they are less committed to the firm and tend to distrust managemerit.000 people each year. And it's especially important 179 . and educational assistance for departing employees who want to start new businesses.000 unionized employees in three wage tiers. In addition. high turnover rates. earning a maximum of $22 an hour. Today. And in the new millennium.MPLOYFES of which use tiered wage systems. especially because people often have good options elsewhere in the job market. F.92 Part I MANACIN(. but after 1985) and low-tier (hired after 1992) employees can earn a maximum of $22 arid $14 an hour. Churning is a major reason why layoffs remain prevalent. For instance. For instance. rcspectively" Research also suggests that low-tier workers not only feel that their pay is unfair. The wage gaps in these plants can approach or exceed 100 percent. And even without strikes. Being bid off is also more acceptable today than it used to be. in terms of both information and resources.l~ Of course. both the departed and the survivors often must deal with anger and feelings of unfairness. and PricewaterhouseCoopers are churning away. Allstate. tying everyone's pay directly to corporate performance might work better: At Nucor Steel.S. BelJSouth." Similarlv." Our view is that firms should consider flexible alternatives to tiered wage systems that both preserve jobs and cut costs in tough times. Bankfloston's Transition Assistance Program provides technical. financial. employee paychecks soar when the company docs well and drop when it doesn't. Employees hired before 1985 are on the high tier. Granted.. having senior managers personally provide detailed explanations for painful events such as layoffs can improve the performance of survivors and reduce theft rates. But properly handling such events. churning still creates plenty of stress and uncertainty. cornpanics as diverse as Amazon. layoffs. companies that are repositioning themselves sometimes need to hire employees with very different skills. providing significant help to laid-off employees actually can help motivate those who remain because it demonstrates procedural fairness and encourages trust. Medium-tier (hired before 1992.000 in 1989). Swiss pharmaceutical giant Novartis allocated $68 million to fund projects and business proposals submitted by employees whose jobs had been climinated . INDIV[(iIIAJ. experiences "the thrill 01' victory and the agony of defeat" togcthcr" "Churning" Employees and Other Equity Concerns or course. poor morale. including executives. mergers. dozens of strikes have resulted because of problems with tiered wage systems across the U.

Ideally. a consequence like praise) or negative reinforcement (e. Overall. taking home some $575 million (or $1.' . like eliminating time-consuming paperwork). Mr. In many cases. Negative'. outstripping increases in both corporate performance and the pay of lower ranked employees. desired behaviors can be strengthened and undesirable ones can be eliminated.\T1NCEMPLOYEES TO DO THEIR BE.6 million per day). managers who want to strengthen a positive behavior can administer either positive reinforcement (e. the theory goes. Reinforcing Positive Behavior As you can see. in 1993. CEOs take home tens-if not hundreds-of millions of dollars per year. -:-. positive reinforcement is the most powerful tool that managers have. And. The four basic consequences available to managers are illustrated in Exhibit 4~. reinforcement should immediately follow the positive behavior and should be large enough to matter to the targeted subordinate. Total CEO compensation skyrocketed 440 percent between 1990 and 1998. - reinforcement . because executive compensation packages are often surprisingly loose when it comes 180 . stopping something unpleasant. Consider executive compensation." Reinforcement Theory: Using Consequences to Motivate If equity theory is about fairness.ST 93 Example of Consequence EXHIBIT 4-4 Controlling Behavior by Controllinq Consequences: Four Basic Options for Managers Subordinate Behavior Type of Consequence Available Manager praises the subordinate . By linking consequences to behavior. These huge sums spark obvious concerns about fairness in regard to the rest of the work force. Manager no longer requires salesperson to cold-cal: potential new accounts Manager does nothing or removes all consequences reinforcing the behavior Manager administers a reprimand to tile subordinate for managers to take responsibility and apologize for making mistakes or otherwise having to take difficult steps to address business problems.38 These ideas help shed light on pay and performance controversies.g.Chapter 4 MOT1V. Eisner practiced one-upmanship on himself in 1998. then reinforcement theory is about consequences..g. For instance.. Disney CEO Michael Eisner pocketed just over $200 million.

company policies. and inordinately expensive for shareholders. This abdication of responsibility makes managers "enablers" of unacceptable performance.. preventing the potential side effects of punishment requires extra care. many managers underestimate the negative long-term side effects of punishment. then the choice is between extinction (i. be absent or tardy more often. Some managers avoid confronting subordinates because it's uncomfortable. They also may leave. skills. and so 011. Therefore. or display passive-aggressive behavior (e. Punishment is seductive since it appears to work quickly to snuff out behavior. administer a sanction-like docking an employee's pay-in an effort to extinguish the behaviorj.VIANACrNG [NDlliIQlIAL EMPLOYEES to tying pay and bonuses to performance. . To use punishment effectively. especially if the penalty is severe. For example. Don't forget to belp subordinates learn "replacement" activities for negative behaviors. Is the behavior really that serious? Why is it OCCUlTing? Is punishment the best option? Perhaps the behavior isn't that bad or is being reinforced by co-workers. but then not follow through).t" Snuffing Out Negative Behavior On the other hand.. Consider these recommendations: III III A!wilYs punish ill private. That will create resentment and is irrelevant in any case.steps or behaviors that will help prevent mistakes [rom being repeated. Plus. Some of that looseness is clue to cronyism on boards of directors and the granting of stock options-the exercise of which may have little to do with firm performance. Focus specifically on the behavior in question and why it needs to be changed. Managers should act quickly and punish in a way that's both proportionate to the undesirable behavior and gets the subordinate's attention. managers must overcome any discomfort and confront the problem immediately. find a private location before you approach the subordinate... resentment. if poor III 1. thereby letting it atrophy on its own) or punishment (i.cynicism. But if the behavior is destructive. Discuss or specijy alternative . then extinction might be a better bet.. engage in sabotage. if behavior is counterproductive or negative. Public spectacles cause embarrassment and increase the odds of a backlash. wildly capricious in their distribution of rewards. then it must be stopped. and fear. Connecting the behavior to "deficits" in personality.. However. remove what is reinforcing the behavior. ".g.94 "art I .c. Employees may react with anger. Berkshire Hathaway CEO Warren Bullet characterizes executive compensation packages as "."41 .. they can fall short in terms of providing positive reinforcement. perform poorly. But even managers who use punishment frequently may experience emotional turmoil when punishing subordinates. Managers may feel like they've failed subordinates in some way or that they arc hurting their families.:" Punishment is especially difficult to execute well. If that's the case. or other employee attributes is a bad move. Nevertheless. To establish the link between behavior and consequence. For example. punishment can be useful in "sending a message" to other subordinates about their competence OJ' "drawing a line in the sand" about certain behaviors. Even some CEOs are appalled. As one manager puts it." Other managers punish too much.81 .c. say they will do something. you always keep in the back of your mind that this is (their] livelihood. inefficient as motivators. managers must diagnose the situation correctly.

With continuous reinforcement. He had to write Hewlett-Packard a check for $2.. six months). earnings growth). how to structure the document. diagnosis is absolutely essential and should 182.. end of 1998 the company had fallen short and Platt was held responsible. unpredictability is an asset in terms of producing high performance levels that are resistant to extinction.g. if employees aren't sure how many times they must perform a behavior in order to receive a reward.Chapter 4 MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES TO DO THEIR HE.g. Specifying alternative behaviors avoids a downward spiral of ineffective punishment. Once continuous reinforcement is removed.. Be consistent when enjorcing policies. ronnel' Hewlett-Packard CEO Lew Platt was given a big chunk of company stock-s-but with strings attached. leaving early on Fridays) and then suddenly "cracking down" without warning can cause resentment. we want to share one final example. remember that positive reinforcement is generally your most powerful tool. First. this discussion begs the question of how managers can usc reinforcement ideas on a systematic basis. We've chosen executive compensation again to illustrate how tying pay to performance can work for senior managers. hut to actually hold on to the stock permanently.. the behavior often stops in short order.P Understanding Reinforcement Schedules Of course. he still took home $1. at the . explain that a more severe consequence (e. Next. understand that you can choose between continuous and partial approaches to reinforcement. their level of output will continue at a high level.4 million-the value of the shares he had to return. Closely tying behavior to rewards works best: which is why the ratio schedules are most effective. where to obtain information. The basic options are listed in Exhibit 4-5. He could collect and keep dividends. however. So partial reinforcement strategies often will be more practical and desirable.g. To that extent. However. like when a salesperson is paid a commission on every sale. etc. Employees shouldn't be blindsided by the unexpected enforcement or previously ignored policies.T 95 II1II II1II documentation costs the firm a contract. That's the essence of the variable ratio schedule-and it explains why some people will stand mesmerized in front of slot machines for hours. then punishing the subordinate without specifying how to better prepare a proposal next time (e. . Before we leave this section.g. every desired behavior is positively reinforced. he had to make sure that the company met its performance benchmarks over the next three years (e. Although Platt's total compensation dropped 75 percent in 1998.) is shortsighted.8 million. Explain what will happen if the behavior doesn't improve by a specific deadline. termination) will occur if the behavior doesn't improve within a certain time frame (e. They keep plunking in quarters because that $5 million jackpot might be just one pull away" Using Reinforcement Strategies to Modify Behavior With an understanding of reinforcement strategies under your belt. Unfortunately.. If serious enough. III l 996.g. Once again. you're ready to use what amounts to a more focused version of the general behavior management framework presented in Chapter 1. Letting commonly unheeded rules go unpunished (e. or until their money runs out.. chump change by CEO standards.

stable performance Slow extinction..OYEES Palfial Reinforcement Schedule Options Least Effective Fixed inlerval Reward after flxed amount of time elapses Reward after lixed number of behaviors or responses occurs Reward after a varying amount of lime elapses Reward after a varying number of behaviors occurs Paycheck Fast extinction. these problems resulted from reinforcement 183 .g." Before we go on. a manager might have several subordinates. In effect. stable performance Extremely slow extinction. stable perlorrnance Fixed ralio Piece-rale system Inspeclions randomly conducted each month Bonus given after an average number of sales occurs Variable interval Most Effective Variable ratio precede any attempt to actually change behavior: Also keep in mind that the need [or diagnosis is ongoing. it may help reinforce behavior to the extent that it signals the possibility of future tangible rewards. Just giving employees accurate performance feedback and recognizing their accomplishments often works about as well.96 EXHIBIT 4-5 Pan I MANAGING INDIVIDUAl. procedures that may interfere with performance) can also complicate this task for managers. Exhibit 4-6 remains a useful guide for managers' behavior modification efforts. each of whom may respond best to different reinforcement contingencies. Despite these complexities. In addition. moderately high. Or a manager might want to extinguish some negative behaviors while at the same time reinforcing other positive ones in the same subordinate. And in manufacturing firms. veryhigil. Specifically. this reinforcement-based approach can have a consistent and positive impact on task performance. Feedback. its execution isn't always easy nor does the process outlined capture the complexities inherent in many management situations.g. EMPI. Reinforcers rarely last forever and si tuations are always changing. Individual differences (e.. high. So a manager must be ready to tweak any reinforcement strategy as necessary. if not better. desired rewards) and context factors (e. inconsislent performance Motierate rate of extinclion. and social rewards like praise) may be overkill. let's walk through the exhibit using Scars as an example. the nature of the rewards and the context in which they are used impact how much leverage managers have. at least in the short run. If used well. And when approval comes from a manager who also controls financial rewards. Take a look at the application process for diagnosing and modifying behavior outlined in Exhibit 4-6. the approach in Exhibit 4-6 tends to have a bigger impact in manufacturing firms than in service firms. the combination of feedback and social rewards appears to work well in service contexts. Likewise. using a bundled set of rewards (a method that includes financial incentives. For instance. or course. In part. social rewards and feedback represent a type of approval that many employees value highly. Sears Automotive got into trouble some years ago for allegedly performing unnecessary auto repairs.

knowledgeable. It put t 20 senior managers on teams charged with figuring out desired behaviors. III III III III AaJpled IrOIll: Slajko'lic. 3. ideas that worked too well. In this way. . II Be sure behaviors are measurabte and observable. Analyze current behavioral contingencies.. Assess how the context may impact your strategy. the impa_ctof rewards tends to fado. Sears assessed the current frequency of desired behaviors and found that they were inadequate. And retention rates predicted store sales. III You can't improve performance untess you know what specific behaviors are involved. So Sears programmed the registers to kick out coupons for a random percentage of all transactions. III III II. 6. Clearly describe the system you've created." Be prepared to switch/modify reinforcement contingencies/ schedules if needed. and helpful ser'vice)... Measurement can include direct observation or the collection of historical/archival data. 0 . The coupons offered a merchandise discount if customers called an 800-number and answered a few questions about their sales associate. 1. A meta-anelvsls of Ille eHeds of organilalional behavior modificalion on lask performance. customer service behaviors were associated with customer retention. Sears identified behaviors that predicted financial measures for each of its stores. 40. Don't confuse outcomes with behaviors. But Sears learned from this experience. current frequency of desired behsviors and understand why those behaviors are occurinc.g. Then choose rewards that employees want and make them substantial enougl1 to have an impact.Chapter 4 MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES TO no THEIR BEST 97 EXHIBIT 4-6 Modifying Behavior Using Reinforcement Principles ~. . Then the firm selected a reinforcement strategy and used its cash registers to implement it. trust. Instead of rewarding employees for behaviors that would result in repeat business (e. fairness. III l1li III 5. Accurately assess behaVior levels and administer rewards as promised. For instance. and more rapid behavior change. Don't overlook the power of social (e. Measure thr. Figure out what behaviors are important for individuOlt and firm success. Make your goal the promotion of understanding.q.. 2. Each sales associate could be given feedback 184 . Next came figuring out how to measure those behaviors. II III You can't tell if behavior has improved unless you know where you're starting from. so be prepared to 'up the ante. feedback). Every sale produces a receipt with a code identifying the sales associate who processed the transaction. Select a leward and Iype of reinforcement schedule. III -1.g. Sears focused on the dollar value of repairs. Over time. 1122-·1140. An all-too-common mistake for managers is choosing to focus solely on financial outcomes rather than on the behaviors that lead to them. and F tuthans (1997). Adjust or replace the reinforcement system if behavior doesn't improve or if problems occur. Measure the frequency of important hehaviors once the reinforcement svsern is in place and administer rewards when appropriate.4caoemy uf Management Juurnal. Explain nle reinforcement system to targeted subordinates and begin implemenlation. friendly. A. Involve subordinates in the development process. This system allowed Sears to measure improvements in behavior for individual employees. Be alert for differences in skills or situational barriers that might inhibit performance. praise) or nonfinancial reinforcers (e. . So employees apparently did whatever they could to pump up repairs.

discrete steps. In this case. with bonus money also paid out as a reward for behavior improvement. Scars's managers conducted a series of "town meetings" around the· country. this. the challenge that comes with such a job can't he imbedded in some kind of managementrun reinforcement contingency. Scitor has created a flexible reward system that focuses on citizenship instead of performance per se. while Mexicans are 185 . think about this.. Of course.47 Cultural differences also can he challenging in a reinforcement context. bonuses) can be used. The recipient then treats the bonus as an expense that's charged back to the company. To explain the system."something beyond the call of duty.. And no approvals are needed. Americans may be more likely than their Mexican counterparts to respond to positive feedback with better performance. that will make Sears a shopping experience we can all look forward to in the years ahead!" Limitations of Reinforcement Theory Before you run off to plan a behavior modification system. Managers often find it easier to apply reinforcement ideas when the jobs involved arc relatively simple and financial rewards (c. a partial reinforcement schedule might be tough to pull off because the work doesn't involve clear. a Sunnyvale-based consulting finn. monetary rewards may not be necessary. In one survey. Nevertheless.g. The result? It all seems to be paying off. The system relics on "Be Our Guest" rewards that mix praise· and small bonuses ($lOO-$BOO).. Hopefully. The giver simply writes the amount in a "Be Our Guest" card. Imagine trying the same thing with a software designer charged with developing an elegant new program=-somcone who enjoys the creative challenges associated with the work. a piece-rate system paid out extra money for every bundle of suit (oats sewed to quality specifications.g. Americans often see praise as implying that better performance is possible. On top of that. rewarding someone based on the number of lines of code produced would be a bad strategy). like Scitor." as defined by the giver.g. But Sears has decided to keep adjusting the reinforcement system and stay focused on improvement. which thanks employees and suggests that they pamper themselves (e. with a gourmet dinner or a day at a spa). Likewise. As we'll see in the next section. we visited a factory that produces suit coats. For example. some firms that do sophisticated creative work. Bonus cards also can he saved up and used to buy big ticket items. type of work might be better served by a goal-oriented approach. Sewing machine operators were paid on an hourly basis. Sears had the firth biggest jump in customer satisfaction out of 200 companies. For example. Nor is it really quantifiable (e. some years ago. as we've said. Typically. pragmatism is one reason why reinforcement applications like piece-rate systems are so commonly used when job behaviors can be dearly measured. Over 30 percent of Scitor's 650 employees receive at least one bonus card per year. Nevertheless. Ci tizenship behaviors are those that go beyond one's official job dutics-v-such as volunteering to help colleagues without being required to do so. These jobs required tremendous skill and yet because they could be broken down into discrete steps they could be easily tracked. behavior like pitching in and staying late to finish a project prompts a bonus. have sidestepped these issues to an extent.98 Part I MANACING INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES on a quarterly basis about his service. Any employee can give a bonus to a co-worker f01.

This approach was based on reintorcernent theory. One inlerostin[l study exposed workers i~ a Russian colton mill to lhree different techniques that have been shown 10work well in the U. cornpanies need to assess their degree of fit with local values. participative management led to poorer performance. These resulls highlight both the benefits and risks associated with using American-based motivallon concepts in Russia. the researchers thoughl participative management would be less consislent with Russian cultural tendencies. and directing behavior. a combi·· nation of nonfinancial and social rewards). In exchanqe for hitting pencrmaace tarQels. ' l1li l1li The researchers felt that extrinsic rewards offered in exchange for performance would dovetail nicely with the prernium tlla·t Russians place on hard work Similarly." Take a look at the accompanying "Culture Clash" box for another example of cross-cultural motivation challenges. But there's more to goal setting than just a Iew simple ideas." more likely to sec it as signaling that current performance is good. including the inllux of foreign capital and businesses. And to the extent that Mexicans are less individualistic than Americans. However.e. And goals can be extraordinarily useful for stimulating. wilh employees expecting managemenl to provide guidance and approval for even small decisions. so As the exhibit suggests. and variety.: l1li Moving the Bear: Motivation in Russia Extrinsic rewards.g.e. F\ussian workers received American consumer gooiJs and other valued rewards. They clarify what Our roles are. they may pay closer attention to informal performance norms in their work groups.S. This lias brought American managers and RlJ:)si31l employees togetlmr. Production jumped after the exlrinsic reward and hehavioral manaqoment spproacbes began.that goals can improve motivation. and help organize and structure the efforts of our company. tile amount of cotton fabric produced per employee). performance was measured again for another two weeks. Employees men were allowed to actually implernent their suggestions. It performance improved. Nonmaterial behaviorall77tJna£lemcnt. provide challenges. Russian supervisors were trained to give employees corrective feedback in response to poor behavior and 10provide praise and encouragernent when positive actions were oxllibited (e. Also based on relnlorcernenl theory. but then fell back to the baseline level after the motivation approach was removed. The difficult part 99 186 . goal setting is an ongoing process that's strength. Distrust of people outside one's work group is also characteristic of the Russian employee-as is an historical reluctance to share information. decision control. but tile results haven't always beerI pre~y. Once these approaches were removed. Tile message is tilat. Here's what actually happenecl. behavioral management parallels Rus$i~n human resource management approaches. but it fell back after they were removed.This approach was based 011 providing challenges and increased responsibility. guiding. It's no WOflC1cI. Next. III cnntrast. Sometimes American managers cant explain why ttleir Russian employees fail to respond to "effective" motivation techniques. So participative management. regardless of what a manager says.In Ihe last decade. a reasonable conclusion would be lhat tflG approach caused performance to change. To lest mese ideas.. before implementing American-style motivation interventions in Russia. Goal Theory: Using Targets to Motivate Establishing future performance targets is what goal theory is all about. realized rewards). Exhibit 4-7 shows how goals actually work. in keeping with Herzberg's two-factor theory. The exlrinsic reward and behavioral management interventions appeared more consistent witfl Russian valucs··-unlike participative management. research has examined how well American motivalion techniques work with Russian employees. The problem may be that these managers need to choose motivation tools mat better lit tile Rus"ian context. whictl encouraqe aCi:OflIplisflrnenl aimed at a common good. it was argued. would threaten Russian employees' cnnmunal values and traditio naI relalionships with management ratller lhan motivale lhem.. Russian workers in lhe cotton mill were ran~ dornly assigned to one ot Ihe three motivalion approaches. Ihen the motivalion approaches were lried tor two weeks. two weeks' worth of baseline pertormance data wore collected (i. Russia has experienced wrcllclling changes as it lurches toward a market economy. For instance. ened by the availability of expected rewards as well as rewards that have been received in prior goal-setting episodes (i. Participativemal1J£lemt. Communal work led by slrong and forceful managers is a RUSSianlradilion. Meetings were called during which Russian employees were asked for input regarding how their lobs might be changed so 3S to provide increased ctlallenge.llt..

more manageable componcntsj.4 tlreory ot goat-selling . challenging (but not impossible) goals promote higher performance than ambiguous. employees may be frozen by paralysis (i. but it's especially important when goal setting is involved. the more valuable such feedback becomes. P. But while that advice might hold with relatively simple tasks.1111i task tetkunana: Englewood Clills. and G.). compare these goals: (1) "Increase sales of conventional big-screen TVs by 30 percent a year" and (2) "Within two years.lI'LOYEES EXHIBIT 4-7 How Goal Setting Works Adapted from: Locke. complex. the "But where do r start?" reaction). a subordinate's characteristics (e.. experience. break down the goal into smaller. subordinates' willingness to pursue a goal. Plus. etc.. . extrinsic versus intrinsic)." Both goals are specific and challenging.. simple versus complex). it may work less well when tasks are novel.F Goal Commitment and the Goal·Setting Process Our discussion about goal attributes also relates to goal commitment-that is. feedback to adjust subordinates' efforts may be critical when challenging goals exist for complex tasks.. In addition to everything else.g. and the amount of feedback provided may impact whether goals actually lead to better performance. F. For example.1'. managers need to suggest ways to tackle the problem (c. A . To do that.g. the methods for achieving the first goal are fairly clear.100 Part J MANAGING INDIVIDUAL L'. the type of rewards involved (e. NJ: Prentice Hall. managers must accurately diagnose their particular environment. is creating a goal-setting process that continually increases employees' willingness to embrace more challenging goals.g.. The more uncertainty there is about how to attain a goal. However.e. Goal Attributes So what types of goals work best? The old rule of thumb was that clear. the nature of the work (c. Such novel and complex tasks tend to be timeconsuming. That's part of the behavioral management framework we presented in Chapter I. In contrast. "do your best" goals. So for tasks such as these.f In addition. or involve working with others interdependently. the second goal involves overcoming technical and marketability challenges associated with new product development. skills.g. design a new high definition television (HDTV) format that improves picture acuity 50 percent and can be sold for less than 120 percent of the cost of conventional TVs. And to the extent that commitment is a prerequisite for better 187 . Lalham (199"0). desire to achieve. at least to a decent salesperson.

a subordinate may feel that. participation and challenge may explain why stretch targets are successful motivators. But mixing participation with extrinsic rewards is tricky. and participativcly set goals all call produce goal commitment and higher performance. and so on. Clearly. By definition. stretch targets arc virtually unattainable goals that are often designed to encourage "doing it differently" rather than "doing what we already do better. difficult goals result in higher performance. if managers assign difficult goals. In other words. Overall. "Support" means supplying the resources that employees need to test radically different solutions.. skilled people who thrive on challenge. In fact. 51 Perhaps the safest course for managers would be to proceed as if goal commitment were important for performance. For example. and shipped) in less than one yeac Stretch targets defy the notion that impossible goals will be rejected. "My goal is to convince my boss that my easy goals are hard!" On the other hand. experience. a participative or self-set process may be best for obtaining commitment.. how goals . The next big question. For instance. a monetary reward may work best when modest improvement is acceptable. If a bonus is on the table. S6 188 . totally new soap-pad product was brought to market (designed. Whcn rewards arc intrinsic (e. Managers should match the method to the subordinate's needs." A manager also must determine the rewards that will be used. self-set goals. As you might suspect. produced. money is commonly used to reward goal attainment. And the results were impressive-c-one. In the right context.g. if your subordinates are highly experienced. the answer also is complex. That. producing. assigned goals. when commitment is high. participation in goal setting tends to result in more difficult goals being set and greater goal commitment than when rewards are extrinsic (e. That incredibly ambitious goal stimulated employees to invent completely new ways of developing. means doing your best to encourage such commitment. but when commitment is low.g. especially if the tasks in front of subordinates are complex. For instance. 3M relies on innovation to reach the market first. In other words. these are high hurdles for companies and managers that want to make the impossible possible. and marketing products.v Of course. test-marketed. It also means giving subordinates autonomy and removing bureaucratic procedures when they interfere with goal attainment. subordinates may "negotiate" lower targets to increase the odds of getting the bonus in the first place. money). is how to do that. the manager's "goal" with goal setting is really to obtain employee commitment. values. Some experts argue that commitment moderates the relationship between goal difficulty and performance." Stretch goals challenge people to create new ways of doing things that can ultimately help the finn leapfrog the competition. That will ensure a degree of commitment no matter how goals are set. of course. Recently. challenge). But stretch targets also require the support of top management and a culture of encouragement. But how goal commitment actually effects performance is less clear. difficult goals result in lower performance. subordinates may feel that the odds of hitting the target-and getting the money-are low. are actually set can impact goal commitment. 3M set a stretch target calling for 30 percent of all sales to be generated by products invented in the previous four years.Chapter 4 MOTIVI\TING EMPLOYEES TO DO THEIR BEST 101 performance.

Basically.. requiring some modifications in how goal setting is used. such as training for managers as to how to conduct a goal-setting session with subordinates. MBO is a generic name for the systematic usc of goal setting throughout the firm. making "measurable" goals the focus and giving employees precious little input. Usually. Discuss and agree 011 how periormaucc will be assessed. including reinforcement and goal-setting ideas. Even relatively simple jobs may have several areas in which goals can be set. MBO programs have also been linked to productivity gains in dozens of flnns. an MBO program will include a developmental component. But these assumptions may bump up competing values in certain countries. followed by. Establish a time [rame [or achievement. expectancy theory can be viewed as an extension of the motivation framework presented in Exhibit 4-1.'iS But some of these programs prove to he unwieldy and expensive'. Since mostjobs have multiple goals. individual differences. When standards aren't quantifiable. and Hewlett-Packard. the participation found in American-style MBO programs may disrupt the more hierarchical management approach often round ill French companies.i" Cultural Barriers to Using Goal Setting and MBO Programs A basic assumption behind many MBO programs in the (j . is that employees feci comfortable having a "two-way" chat about goals with their superiors. For instance. Often.OYEES Applying Goal Setting: Management by Objectives Companies often practice goal setting through a management by objectives (MBO) program. Discuss and establish periormauce targets.S. Expectancy theory starts with the assumption that employees arc rational. and red tape. forms. the MBO process involves joint goal setting between managers and subordinates. American Express.102 Pat·t I MANAGING INDIVlDUAL EMPl.Y Common suggestions for a successful MBO program include: II1II II1II Identity subordinate responsibility areas awl how they lit together. And it is explicit in taking the position that motivation. It suggests that employees will choose to give maximum effort if there's a 189 . sagging under the weight of onerous procedures. An MBO system also assumes that employees embrace risk since reaching goals isn't guaranteed. use behaviors OJ' activities that result in success as indicators . The result is a win-lose situation where bonuses either are won if goals are reached or lost if they arcn't. and situational factors all impact performance. Feedback about progress is supposed to be provided throughout. Deadl ines usually should he set for all goals . Some managers usc them as de facto performance appraisal systems."! Expectancy Theory: Pulling Things Together We saved expectancy theory for last because it's the most inclusive of the motivation approaches we've reviewed. So the theory integrates many aspects of motivation. II1II II1II II1II Many companies report success with IVIBO programs. one benchmark is prior performance. implementation and performance appraisal. Prioritize goals.. rankordering them in terms of importance is useful for focusing subordinates' efforts. In fact. For example. including PepsiCola. although "success" in certain jobs may be subjective or open to interpretation.

the more willing we'll be to "give 100 percent.~.: Expectancy:: ~: . If.lIIilljCflill allill/(tes ami jJl!rlormanr. for example. II' Irwin. First.J. motivation also depends on whether we think performing at a certain level has any instrumentality. Adapled Imm: Porler. In other words.000 .Instrumentality:" & Perceived strength of tlie. Performance. . if anyone of these pieces is missing. But this judgment rests on three separate decisions. a bonus. On the other hand. perhaps you want more challenging assignments. then there's little connection between effort and performance. For instance.performance. !vI.l. f. and Rewards Reward outcome A . Reward outcome 'B .. or work procedures are in"efficient. perhaps a promotion is available but you cringe at the thought of shouldering more responsibility. flom()wolJri. recognition by our superiors-or whatever-will result from performance. 190 .n. but if it were $10. whether available rewards have any value (or us). then motivation will be zero. What if rewards are strongly connected to performance. W. No matter how hard we try. The more likely we are to think that a pay raise. which are illustrated in Exhibit 4-8. ). and F.Reward ou~c9me . Lawler. our equipment is lousy. ' performance'linlCl. . we also need to perceive that outcomes are strongly connected to performance. instrumentality. .Chapter 4 MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES TO DO THEIR BEST 103 EXHIBIT 4-8 Expectancy Theory: Linking Effort.. Overall." But that's still not enough.0 v Perceived strengtli of tile effort·. decent chance that their jobs will give them what they want.000 isn't much. but all your boss does is pat you on the back Maybe money is what motivates you-but the available bonuses aren't big enough to make a difference ($1. Furthermore. that's not enough to motivate us to give our best shot That brings us to the second decision.e. In essence. So why bother? But even if we expect that increased effort will lead to improved performance. and valence all must be strong for motivation to be high. What's the point of an effort-performance connection if nothing happens as a result? So. we have to believe that improved performance will lead to some type of reward. L. III (I\lG8). ~ reward IinR ~. we must feel that there's a strong probability that our efforts will result in better performance. we have to believe that a reasonable expectancy exists between effort and performance. our performance won't improve. expectancy theory says our assessments of expectancy.. we feel that performance targets are too high. So.'. To be highly motivated. but you don't care about them-or don't care enough? That idea captures the third decision we make according to expectancy theory: valence (j.

As workers' skills increase. Plus. some gray areas can be "filled in" using other models. I n fact. and. or anything else that interferes with employees' ability to do well. Managers must be quick to detect policies. lIIII III For an in-depth example of a company that's "done things right" from a motivation standpoint. bonuses) than scientists. how cia people decide what rewards they value?). the answers will vary. parts of the theory are controversial.S. motivation is a multiplicative {unction of all three components. Other ways to maintain high expectancies include involving employees in decision making. usually in manufacturing operations. When employees show that they've acquired a new skill. Without management support and good training. engineers tend to be local in their outlook. firms often enjoy hefty productivity gains as a result (nearly 60 percent according to one study).1. in skill-based pay programs. As a result. clarifying job duties.04 Part I M. b3 Make Slife valued rewards are clearly linked to perjormance.62 Take steps to maintain high expectancies anzong subordinates. For example. such as its emphasis on rationality. identifying more strongly with their company.g. In other areas. an increase in payor a bonus results. Consistent with good reinforcement principles. yes. Still.g. Nevertheless. And there are ways to systematically strengthen the link between performance and rewards. For example. scientists and engineers often have surprisingly different motivations. resource issues. take a look at the accompanying "Succeeding Outside the Lines" box about the turnaround at Continental Airlines. the theory offers good practical advice." Find out which rewards have valence {or subordinates. engineers may respond better' to local rewards (e. and providing developmental opportunities. the idea is to deliver on your promises. so does their creativity and flexibility. the desired "performance" is skill acquisition. there's little motivation to Jearn new skills (e.g.. Consider the following specific suggestions: lIIII in many cases. Today. And they have good reason for doing so.. Obviously.\NAGING INDIVllll!AL EMPLOYEES according to expectancy theory. Performance barriers undercut motivation by weakening the link between effort and performance. and it's management's job to remove them. the theory provides little guidance (e. Scientists. Skill-based pay also illustrates bow important expectancies are. often have strong professional norms and may identify more with their field than with their employer: Providing challenges that allow scientists to contribute to and be recognized by their professional communities can be very motivating. as well as lawyers. college professors. In fact. doctors. We're merely pointing out that motivation differences may pop up in surprising ways.v' Using Expectancy Theory: Advice for Managers Expectancy theory includes several implications for managers regarding various aspects of motivation. more than 50 percent of large U. 191 . In contrast. firms with an "invest in people" culture tend to have higher performing employees than companil'S that don't. firms use skill-based pay.. pay increases may seem irrelevant if learning is slow or impossible). these generalizations won't hold up for every person.

So much for valence and instrumentality! ing goals. Almost immediately. Bethune agreed this would happen-but only gotta go. But just prior to turn Ihings around. solving problems on their own became the responSibility way. some managers worried that Continental was "giving away part. cleaning. agent to never put a flight in that position again. thus began to soar as well. Employees trusted management had 10figure out a creative way to satisfy the five customers Who wouldn't and were empowered to figure out what needed to be done to accomplish be getting meals. ContliJefita/ Airlines. were merely costs to be . The lesson? No motivation scheme lasts foreverplane was five meals snort just before takeoff. Bethune realized that the on-time bonus was causdelaying me !light. Invariably. the flight allendant could ing employees to focus all their attention on getting planes out. but we loud-mouthed passengers. president. to stick his neck out and solve problems because nothing good would bags were being left behind. il was left up to employees to make the rigllt from $65 to $100. Continental sent for years. tile flight would end up constant tweaking and linkering are lacts of life. dropping the target back tile problem. For instance. and offering them free drinks in lieu . among other things. etc. of mousands of Continental employees and you havea hU(Jeimprovement Meanwtlile. baggage' handling irnproved. This to reward. lines-not a policy manual--that offered advice for gray areas and diffiOne year after the program had begun. people would plication of it does help explain Continental's resurbe motivated because Itley were trusted and empowered SUCCEEDING genee: Since Bethune joined Continental as president in to make IIle right decisions. This was ranked arnong the top five airlines tor its monthly onthe legacy of a cost-cutting mentality that had been pretime percentage. Tell him 10sit down. whictl made finishing in tile top able on-lime record. In short. Bethune loid Ihern 10 make decisions on the front lines lilat were good bonus. One of Bethune's was $65. going to make Continental late. cent of the savings from improved on-time performance would be given Another management legacy was a rule-bound culture that made It back to employees." . On-time planes with losl bags and do the right thing. Mortified. That might involve approaching business class passentheir mission. And that would free managers to fOGUS on problem ernployees. The other 95 percent of the time. the important than five missing meals. the fligllt attendant without any loss in on-time performance. No one was about 5 percent of the time. The agent's response? "That'svery nice. Rigid policies and a lack of trust had contributed to three more difficult. Continenlal offered lillie exevery employee an extra $65 every time Continental was cept lousy service and chronically late tl8cause they were free 10manaqe themselves. So the cornpany started paying iJringing Bethune aboard. As Bethune at Conlinental is trying to stay auf of employees' meals.). 11e reasoned. But his apevp. "We had cut cnsts so much Ihat we simply had nothinrl to offer fced and house stranded passengers. it was lett up to the flight attendant to need to focus on the whole system. The established procedure was to notify the catering agent Another lesson leamed was to be careful in choosing a specific goal and wait for tile delivery of more meals. This modest reward was a tangible symbol 01 Conlinenlal's imfor both Continental and the customer. There was no incentive for an employee a plane to get a few bags on board threatened to cause a late departure. explaining the situation. if 110iding simply blame Ihe catering agent. and maintaining finished first a scant lhree months alter tho payments planes. Bethune. Continental's Comeback 105 192 . that meant realizing that being on time was more dirty seats weren't going to cut it.rytJodyin a rule bound snaicnt jacket. gers. It18yhad control over 1I18irown perlorrnance. Then comMuch 01ttlis empowerment effort was aimed at Continental's miserpetitors started copying the program. That was literally true for Bethune on one Continental flight. in the old days. That was management's fault lornot clarifyhappen. ranked third or higher in its on-time percentage each month. But employees received tile bonus only if Continental (jecision--in other words. there were none. He then explained tilat 50 peranymore." They envisioned gate agents giving away tickets just to shut up pany president to sit down. A commhlee then wrote new guideproving fortunes and employees' role in it. the company upped the ante cult decisions. if a flight attendant saw that tile to fifth place or better. Employees were cut separate checks for their $65. what you measure and reward is what you ge(Gordon Bet/wile. agent politely told Bethune to sit down immediately so the plane could deHowever. Painting.of Today." Bethunewent to his seat happy. nental's poor on-time performance cost lne airline $5 million a month (to self said. Multiply these small decisions by tens at the last minute. Why $65? Bethune told employees Ihal Contisqueezed And that perspectve nearly killed Continental. Continenlal adjusted. The in service.5 million for every employee tOU(lll for employees to connect effort amf performance. But it also meant telling the catering message hit home. lhe company has enjoyed several years 01record Bethune also wanted to reward peoplr! for helplnq LINES performance and seen its stock soar. ano tax defirst moves was to literally burn Ihe old policy manual in fronl of employductions were taken from their regular paycheck---so as nol to diliJte the ees. So Bethune went out on the stump. he stuck his head in the cockpit to chat with the pilot. began. Again. OUTSIDE THE 199'1. Arriving of every emaloyee at Continental. the gate agentwas scrambling to get the flight out on time. tile number of bags lost would force the catering agent to send a truck to letch more meals.. Instead 01 dumbing ttlinqs down and puttinO This principle isn't original to Mr. Not even its president" employees would easily balance doing right by both the customer and the · . If questioned about tile delay. Next. leaving late. But ultimately. a flight attendant told the agent that he'd just told the comthe store. Without any additional incentives. And an equal share of $2. telling employees about the But under the new guidelines. Coming from dead last. First. Even as on-time percentages soared.

Keep in mind that many people find interesting work. To avoid the motivation problems that often accompany equity concerns. take steps to convince employees that work outcomes will be distributed fairly over the long haul. they're free! 3. Nevertheless. To sustain commitment when tasks are complex. In addition.M On the other hand. All of the American managers in the study had complex compensation contracts that put a considerable amount of their pay at risk. and increased responsibility motivating. Many German managers express concern that big bonuses prompt unnecessary risk taking and promote destructive competition. especially if big leaps in performance are required or if employees participate in goal setting. Consider using Take a diagnostic perspective on motivation. Specific and difficult goals tend to work well. and set deadlines for improvement. This means ensuring that . many Saudi Arabians believe that what they experience directly reflects the will of God. In comparison. When rewarding. task conditions. For example. Extrinsic rewards should be used with care."? But things are changing in Europe. it stresses achievement and implies that employees arc in control of their own destinies. or self-set goals will work best under the given circumstances.H BEHAVIOR AND THE BOTTOM LINE: 1. For example. assigned. Few of the French and Dutch managers even had compensation contracts. A SUMMARY OF ACTION STEPS 4. For instance.106 Part 1 MANACING INt:lIVlIllJAL ElvlPI. Research underscores this point. Likewise. and be sure to focus on the behavior. specify alternative behaviors. These intrinsic motivators are often the most potent-and best of all. French. many Chinese believe 1 hat fate determines their destiny. 5. and Dutch managers found that the Americans most valued money and felt that bonuses should directly reflect their performance. and other situational factors. managers need to provide more feedback and offer suggestions for task performance. especially for simple tasks. For example. 193 . employees' perspectives may be dilTerent. policies and procedures are fair. Rewards and punishments should be administered immediately following the relevant behavior and they should be large enough to attract subordinates' attention. German managers still tend to receive smaller bonuses than their counterparts in American firms. Understand the potential universe of employee motivators. When punishing. 2. try to avoid situations that create built-in inequity. So much 1'01' the American philosophy of "going for the home run" and "winner take all" !t. a study comparing American. But in other cultures. the theory also implicitly suggests that reward systems should reflect employees' cultural values. Behavior can also be modified on a systematic basis by following reinforcement principles. Conduct a careful needs assessment to find out which motivators might be attractive to subordinates.()YEES Culture and Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory generally fits American culture well. Understand that motivation and performance are related in complex ways. German financial institutions such as Deutsche Bank and Bayerischc Vcreinsbank recently have put bonus systems into place that tic managers' compensation 1110re closely to performance. a challenge. Whether higher motivation leads to better performance depends 011 a subordinate's skills and needs. Managers also must decide whether participative. consider a variable ratio reinforcement schedule. "One gets what one deserves" is a key idea in both expectancy theory and American culture. do so in private.

You are not required to Purpose: (1) To assess the priorities of work values for partici(2) To compare the work values of men and women. Alter hearing aoou the problem al 10:30 PM on a Saturday uvcning. As we noted. WHAT DO WE VALUE IN WORK? Advance preparation: FiJl out the questionnaire "What Do We Value in Work?" on pages 108-109. Motivation at A. But how can Chesterton sustain this? Do you see any problems in the future? What if Chesterton starts slipping again or nas setbacks lhat arc beyond the direct control of its employees? How would you respond then without underclJtting ttle tirms motivational philosophy?" (i:mttUit$%13Ii.000 annually was saved by reducing the material used in a key product line). including confidenlial material. this medium-sized firm was at risk because a few big companins were threatening to dominate lhe industry. jointly establish performance criteria and how they'll be measured. $200.stertoll watr~r pump:. two employees voluntarily worked around the clock to construct new parts by hand. 1110 Navy ordered it 10 soil as scheljule(j.000 was rr. and provide feedback to An expectancy approach to motivation suggests that managers need to find out which rewards are of value to subordinates.M'PLOYEES TO DO THEIR BEST 107 stretch goals when needed. They produced new ideas-and new cost savingsfor Chesterton (e.g" IIlanks to employee suggestions. R3ther than delay the ship. To save rnoney. But tile firm also bp. Rather inan start over..W. two Cllp. wo oullined tile challenges faced by AW Chesterton. follow up. Manaqemenl argued l113t if employees were given all relevant business information. once their pursuit of the goals has When sitting down with' a subordinate Lo discuss goal setting. they'll be inspired by tile challenge of creating new solutions and directions for tile cormanv So Chesterton's top management tJe(jan meeting every 90 days willl 80 employee representatives.w 10 live Wittl emergency water rationing. Be sure to indicate whether you arc female or male. Chesterton did even more to involve employees in solving the firm's problems. saying that it must provide a "comfortable and progressive" workplace "where communication is open" if employees are to succeed. 0018 supplier of seals based on tile firm's record of outstanoinu service ~nd responsiveness. Chesterton recently cornploteo its first restructuring-laying off 200 employees and closing lour plants. and discuss time frames for achievement. failed nn a Nl:ivy aircralt CArrier just 48 hours belnre its sr. pants.gan to reco(jnize that parts of the philosoplJy had to yield 10 business realities. A key question lor Chesterlnn was whether il could still alford ils share-the-wealth mentality and its palemalistic concern lor employees Chesterton regards this motivation philosophy as tlaving buill tho company and crealed its earlier successes. comp3ny rnanagement decidc(J to explore new ways 01 using Ihe same philosophy to tJeat back tile latest cermetitive threats. nounced these first-ever cutbacks to employees. 6.Chapter 4 MOTIVATING F. ensure that subordinarc expectancies stay high. On one occasion.turned in one YCilI alone).tlp." Today. And customers have noticed thw. subordinates begun. be sure to monitor.(luled departure. "It was just one of ttle ways I'd like to pay back Chesle lun for all tlley have done lor me. Boise Cascade has selected Chesterton 3S it~. To move tile company back on a high growth track. Employees were given information about firm performance and then they peppered managernent with queslions.e moves. At the beginning 01 this chapter. I hat service. This open process was intrinsically motivating for employees and they rose to the challenge. prioritize goals that have been set. Make a copy of your rankings to be turned in. As one 01 them put it. They then rushed the parts to the sh ip and installed them illst before tile departure deadline.ellurts which have led loyal employees do extraordinary things to help !lIe company withl)ut even tJeing asked. even 1I10U(Jh!llat wonld force ttll~ 5. and closely link the delivery of valuable rewards to performance. Cheslerton focuses on its motivating environment. Chesterton argues. is tho result 01 its motivation nfillils'. new ways of doing things arc 7. CEO Jim Chestarton was in tears when 118 an . identify responsibility areas.OOO-mernller crr. Also. But Chesterton employees carne to lhe rescue. 194 . Chesterton: Taking Things One Step Further Chesterton also began 3 "Safely Wins" prooran wtlereby 251lercenl 01 the money saved from accident reductions goes back to employees ($500.

When all items have 2. Form groups of five to nine persons. as a group. Votes are taken whenever the men indicate that they are ready. You will also have a chance to look at data on the prtorit ies of other people. Put a "2·' hv the second most· important. The men in the group develop a consensual ranking ofthe items as they think the women in the sample ranked them. The group then works on the item to be ranked second. which of the items was ranked number 1 by members of the opposite gender (from the gender of your group members). eighth. When all candidates have been identified. Procedure or Option The group leader will designate two to he followed. and so on. was ~()t the ono ranked first. and so on. The ranking proceeds as follows: l. suggestions. to present" the group's conclusions tn the entire group. Introduction What do people want to get out of their work? What values do they want to fulfill through work? In this exercise you will have an opportunity to think about )'OUI· own priorities for what you want from work.. proponents of each candidate offer arguments as to why they think a particular value should be ranked first. When you have finished ranking the items for yourself. and so on. Next. Group size: A single large group of up to 50 participunts. the data for the ern ire group will be tabulated anonymously. (add 5 minutes per group if been ranked.108 Part I MANAGING INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES put your name on the copy you turn in. What Do We Value in Work? Instructions: Please rank order the nine items in terms of how important they would be to you in a job. Option two: Separate meeting moms for discussion groups or a single large room -where groups can hold discussions separately to the extent necessary to minimize disturbance. Encourages continued development of knowledge and skills. (see "Both Op- Special physical requirements: Option one: Single large room for all participants. Time required: 45 minutes Option two is followed). Items receiving the least votes are dropped from the list.. Each group meets separately in a place designated by the instructor.) The instructor will lead the ranking process. and each group is to perform the following tasks: I. Appoint a spokesperson Step 2: 5 minutes per group. rank order the items as you think most Iernalc business students would rank them ill column C. Identifv the main reasons why vour group feels that ea<ch one of the other vaILl-e. A Myself B Men C Women 3. Option One Step t: 20 minutes. on a black board or easel. Indicate the most importanr : reason by putting the number "I" by that item in column i\ ("Mvself"). making the rankings and comment on these in the discussion afterward. (The women should take note of I he primary issues raised while the men are. Is respected by other people. Option two uses subgroups of five to nine· persons. 2. until all items have been ranked. Each group presents to the entire group its choice for number I and the reaSOilS fOI· rejecting the other values. The same procedure is followed uutil one of the remaining values receives a majority vole for last place. The women in the group do not participate in the ranking.~e putn "9" by the least important (no tics please). Discuss till' issues raised by using the discussion questions that folluw. (Think ill terms or the "average person" rather than of individuals holding particular jobs.) Finally. 195 . Both Options the exercise. 20 minutes. a vote is taken by a show of hands. Option one Option Two Step I: 20 minutes. The men nominate caudidatcs from the list of nine work values for the value they believe women in general would rank first. When all arguments have been heard. When one item finally receives a majority vote. and discussion is resumed. I. How Important Is It to You to Have a Job That . tallying votes. the group considers which item should be ranked last." below). 3. rank them in column 13 as you think most male business students would rank them. until you hc. Rejoin the other mcrnhers or the entire group at the end of the allotted IS minutes for discussion. Group meetings should last 15 minutes. Decide. 2. begin the discussion tions. Each group should be composed entirely of men 01· women. it is ranked first.

Compare the results obtained to those been reported for 01 her gl'OLIpS. In a broad sense. Permits ve 5. c. S.) Do the results theories 3. men's estimates or the value ranked number I by other men and by women. D. ami organirational YOlk Wiley. --.). What do people in the group rank first for themselves? POI' men in general? For women ill general? (Tabulare. 33--37. be sure you understand the instructions. of class. work motivation 4.. advancement to high administrati responsibility 9. Provides the opportu 11 i ty to earn a high income. 11-1'0 only: Are women any more likely t o rank the values accurately when they rank them rot' other women Ihan men are? Did the men rank the values for other men . Ball (19')7). Provides joh security. women? 'Why? What docs this mean? . 2. 111<1thave My sex: -. and F. ) Do both groups generally assume that other men and women want something different from work than they themselves want? Why? (Tabulate. Rewards good performance with recognition. 6. Before you begin. Hall. 4. Turn in the paper on the date designated structor. D. 7. The person's responses to the questions asked.· J. Lewicki. Developed by Purpose: of work to people in different Advance preparation: signed by the instructor Group size: Groups To develop an understanding of the meaning occupational categories.Male ____ Female Source: Bowen. Provides comfortable working conditions. separately by sex. TIme required: Several days outside The assignment: Each team is to interview six people and write a short paper (length to be announced by instructor) summarizing the interviews. by the in- 196 . you will be asked to conduct interviews with a sample of people from different occupational walks of life.Chapter 4 MOTIVi\l'INC EtdPl. Donald Bowen. tabulate the WfJ1lWn'S estimates for men and other wornen. T. Similarly. R. Each paper is to describe: a. especially those defining the job categories to be sampled. marital status. The occupation. Experiences in 111£/1'1<1.YEES TO DO THEIR BEST 109 A Myself 13 Men C Women Discussion Questions 1.. 5. For Option seem consistent with theories of that YOLI know about? Wou.ld any predict different results? S. arid age (approximately) of each person interviewed. Procedure 1. Is intellectually stimulating. In this assignment. D. Complete the readings asbefore starting the assignment. Form teams of three to five persons already 2. Introduction b.morc accurarclv than . A brief summary of the major points or issues of interest you have identified in the process of collecting and analyzing your data.:"111(:1'1/ NLOW behavior (4th ed. Provides a lcclins of b accomplishment. you will be trying to find out what work means in their lives.O. 3. working in groups). tluitems milked number I by cad! person for themselves. (if you are not of three to five. separately.

D. Businesses compete In make thc' grade as good workplaces. if you have difficulty classifying an occupation. personally. INDlVT1. New York: Wiley.o you give your children on preparing lor II career? If you do not. W. lind at least two women to talk to: i( you are black.)ke it PO$S ible to take more comprehensive notes. W. 4. plumbers.110 Part 1 MANi\CINf.EMPLOYEES 3. R. good Steers.). August 27.dor Engineel' Foreman Ma nugcr College professor Insurance What arc the major frustrations into the sallie line Ilyou had your li le to live over again. Choose two people each Irorn the following occupational categories: a. and so on. what advice d.I. (1998). choose at least two blacks. because their work is not a major component of their lives. six people and ask them if they will talk to you about what their job I'Ilel11lS /0 dLCII1. Cultural constraints ment theories.) will be difficult to catcgoJ"i%C because.. 4. 38-40. (J 997). Don't interview pan-time workers. include it with the highest possible category. Proprietors of small businesses are another group difficult to classify. After the interview. Motivation ami work behavior: New York: Mc Graw-l lill. I. but not industrial) Receptionist Bank teller Insurance salesperson Managerial or Professional Occupations Lawyer have present at least two members o( the group. dOOI' experience in working as employees before starting their own businesses. R . their responses are more likely to sound Iike those of clerical or professional workers. People sometimes have difficulty in dcterrnining into which category a job lits. ask the following questions: Required I. Conducting the interview: For each interview. DUling the interview. Blue collar (unskilled Wh ite collar (clerical to-door sail'S). 6. what advice should people give to their children? Source: Bowen. C. and L. S. 2. 3. Having present at least two people will also 111. h. Porter (19117). ctc. Developed hv Donald Bowell. Questions satisfactions you get in your in your work? . 2. Symonds.lUA1. such as college students. c. What are the major work? Dc . (1998). (1')93). G. Blue-Collar Occupations Service station attendant Steelworker Cusroclian Machine oper~ltor (hut not machinist or tool maker) Bartender Security guard or police officer White-Collar Occupa Iions File clerk Secretary Salesperson (door tn-door or retail. T. B I. D. 161~4-16F. The following exnrnples arc intended to help you different iatc between categories. S. Business Week. Hall. Managerial or semiskilled workers. The list is not exhaustive: it is merely intended to give you a general idea of wherejobs Ill. ACIl<i<!I1IV a( MWl<Ig'~I1IL'lIC 81-94.6. 8. check your impressions with the other person. 7. Ptclfer: and Shellenbarger. would you go or work? Why? What effect dues yonr work have on ymw family lile? How do you reel about this? Questions on these) broker Accountant Optional direction 5.. tool makers. you can. workers). try to find people with whom you have something in common. for Bub Nelscm's RewardSan Francisco: Josscy-Bass/ 197 . If you are female. Where paternulisrn equals business. Lewicki. (follow the Instructor's to get into this lint' changing pow did you happen or work? Have you ever considered Iield or occupation? to another As a general rule. Their attitudes toward work are likely to reflect their varied prior Do you think most people are as satisfied (dissatistied) with their work as you are? Why'? Do you haw children? If you do. in manageExecutive. M . The sample: Each group is to seck out. In other words. although we frequently think of them as blue-collar workers. Hall ( 1997). 3. 4. D. Marketing illg Eniplovees brochure newsletter. 7. Hofstede. 711<' Wall Strec: Ionrnal. Skilled tradespeople (machinists. . Experiences ill iuanugement lind organizational bchnvior (41" cd. try to retail or or professional people. July 20. and f<.

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