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Obesity is another term for excess body fat.

Normal body fat


percentages range from 18%-23% in men and 25%-30% in women. Men
with body fat percentage greater than 25% and women with a body fat
percentage greater than 3% are considered obese. Obesity occurs when
intake of calories exceeds the daily caloric requirement. The National
Institute of Health (NIH) classifies obesity as a chronic disease, which
requires a lifelong effort.

Determining if an individual has excess body fat can be done by various


methods. These methods include body density using underwater body
weight, dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), measuring skin-fold thickness,
computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The
DEXA test and weighing an individual underwater are most accurate
methods, although they can be expensive, time consuming and are not
always practical.

The two most common methods for measuring a person’s excess body
fat are “weight-for-height” tables and body mass index (BMI)
measurement. The weight-for-height tables provide a range of
acceptable weights for a person of a given height. There are many
versions of these tables with different weight ranges, which limit their
use. Because of variability of these tables, BMI has become the
measurement of choice for many doctors and researchers. BMI is
calculated using a mathematical formula that accounts for a person’s
height and weight. BMI is equal to a person’s weight in kilograms (kg)
divided by height in meters squared (BMI=kg/m²).

For both men and women, normal BMI is between 20 and 24.9.

Individuals with a BMI of 25 to 29 are considered to be overweight.

Individuals with a BMI of 30 or higher are considered to be obese.


Student Height(m) Weight(kg)
1 1.73 43
2 1.77 54
3 1.62 50
4 1.58 45
5 1.65 48
6 1.78 50
7 1.60 50
8 1.63 53
9 1.68 44
10 1.75 85
11 1.69 75
12 1.58 35
13 1.76 57
14 1.74 73
15 1.68 50
16 1.55 44
17 1.62 38
18 1.62 46
19 1.6 49
20 1.69 53
21 1.6 58
22 1.67 43
23 1.69 56
24 1.71 68
25 1.71 56
26 1.75 50
27 1.68 52
28 1.65 54
29 1.55 50
30 1.7 52
31 1.68 70
32 1.63 45
33 1.65 50
34 1.88 75
35 1.72 54
36 1.59 41
37 1.6 47
38 1.52 45
39 1.58 52
40 1.74 62
41 1.75 50
42 1.71 49
43 1.58 45
44 1.67 50
45 1.7 75
46
Weight 1.72 Frequency 54
35-44 6
47 1.88 75
45-54 28
55-64
48 1.72 6 70
65-74 4
49
75-84 1.76 4 60
85-94
50 1.86 1 104
95-104 1

Weight of the student in class

3 statistical graphs:
Histogram

Polygon
Frequency
30

25

20

t
n 15
e Frequency
d
u
tS
10

0
35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85-94 95-104

Weight(kg)

Bar Chart

Weight Frequen Midpoint, Midpoint x Cumulativ Upper


, cy, χ Frequency, e Boundary
(kg) ƒ ƒχ Frequency
35-44 6 39.5 237 6 44.5
45-54 28 49.5 1386 34 54.5
55-64 6 59.5 357 40 64.5
65-74 4 69.5 278 44 74.5
75-84 4 79.5 318 48 84.5
85-94 1 89.5 89.5 49 94.5
95-104 1 99.5 99.5 50 104.5

Means,  = sum of (frequency x class mark)


Total frequency
= Σƒχ
Σƒ
= 237+1386+357+278+318+89.5+99.5
6+28+6+4+4+1+1
= 2765
50
= 55.3kg

Median Class = 45-54

Therefore , median, m = L + N/2-F x C



= 44.5 + 50/2-6 x 10
28
= 44.55 + 6.79
= 51.29kg

From the histogram, mode = 49.5kg

Comments on values obtained:

Mean - mean is the best measure of central tendency because all


the value in a set of data are taken into consideration while
calculating the mean. Mean is also suitable representing data
which are evenly distributed.

Median - median is used when there are extreme values because


median eliminates the effects of extreme values in the set of
data.

Mode - mode is used to represent a set of data containing a large


number of values which take only some specific values and
many repeated values.

Therefore,I will choose mean because it is the best measure of central


tendency.

Standard deviation

Method 1 : Using calculator

n  Σχ Σχ² Standard
deviation
50 55.3 27.65 161722 13.28

Method 2 : Using formula 1

Weight (kg) Frequency,ƒ Midpoint , χ ƒχ ƒχ²


35-44 6 39.5 237 936105
45-54 28 49.5 1386 68607
55-64 6 59.5 357 21241.5
65-74 4 69.5 278 19321
75-84 4 79.5 318 25281
85-94 1 89.5 89.5 8010.25
95-104 1 99.5 99.5 9900.25
Σƒ = 50 Σƒχ = 2765 Σƒχ² =
161722

Mean, = 55.3kg
σ ² = Σƒχ² - (Σƒχ)²
Σƒ
= 161722/50-(2765/50)²
= 176.35kg

σ = 176.51/2
=13.28kg

Method 3 : Using formula 2

Weight (kg) Frequency, Midpoint, χ ( χ -  )² ƒ( χ -  )²


ƒ
35-44 6 39.5 249.64 1497.84
45-54 28 49.5 33.64 941.92
55-64 6 59.5 17.64 105.84
65-74 4 69.5 201.64 806.56
75-84 4 79.5 585.64 2342.56
85-94 1 89.5 1169.64 1169.64
95-104 1 99.5 1953.64 1953.64
Σƒ = 50 Σ( χ -  )² Σƒ( χ -  )²
= 4211.48 = 8818

 = 55.3kg

σ² = Σƒ( χ -  )²
Σƒ
= 8818
50
= 176.36kg

σ = 176.361/2
= 13.28kg

D) Conclusion:
The value of the standard deviation σ = 13.28kg indicates that there is a
wide dispersion from the value of mean obtained.

Student Height (m) Weight (kg) BMI


1 1.73 43 14.37
2 1.77 54 17.24
3 1.62 50 19.05
4 1.58 45 18.03
5 1.65 48 17.63
6 1.78 50 15.78
7 1.60 50 19.53
8 1.63 53 19.95
9 1.68 44 15.59
10 1.75 85 27.76
11 1.69 75 26.26
12 1.58 35 14.02
13 1.76 57 18.4
14 1.74 73 24.11
15 1.68 50 17.72
16 1.55 44 18.31
17 1.62 38 14.48
18 1.62 46 19.53
19 1.60 49 19.14
20 1.69 53 18.56
21 1.60 48 18.75
22 1.67 43 15.75
23 1.69 56 19.6
24 1.71 68 23.26
25 1.71 56 19.15
26 1.75 50 16.31
27 1.68 52 18.42
28 1.65 54 19.83
29 1.55 50 20.81
30 1.70 52 18
31 1.68 70 24.8
32 1.63 45 16.93
33 1.64 50 18.37
34 1.88 75 21.22
35 1.72 54 17.84
36 1.59 41 16.22
37 1.60 47 18.36
38 1.52 45 19.48
39 1.58 52 20.83
40 1.74 62 20.48
41 1.75 50 16.33
42 1.71 49 16.76
43 1.58 45 18.03
44 1.67 50 17.93
45 1.70 75 25.95
46 1.72 54 18.25
47 1.88 75 21.22
48 1.72 70 23.66
49 1.76 60 19.37
50 1.88 104 30.06
From the investigate and the report made, the problems of obesity
must be persevere since obesity cause not only physical change but also
endanger the life of the person. In order to prevent obesity, diet control
is very important. Have a balanced diet everyday for enough nutrition
and energy especially for those who undergone adolescence. Eat more
fruit and vegetables to gain enough vitamins and fibre, taken enough
amount protein and carbohydrate from meat and rice and also noodle.
Prevent from drinking too much carbonate drink since it contains a lot of
sugar that might cause obesity. We also prevent from taking too much
junk food since there are no nutrition.

Moreover, we must have enough exercise for our body. Exercise


twice or three times in a week for a healthy body. Not only sit on the sofa
but taking a walk after dinner or lunch to improve digestion of food
inside the stomach.
BMI Frequency Cumulative Upper boundary
frequency
6-10 0 0 10.5
11-15 3 3 15.5
16-20 34 37 20.5
21-25 9 46 25.5
26-30 3 49 30.5
31-35 1 50 35.5
From the ogive above, it shows that

• About 52 % of the student are underweight

• About 40% of the student are normal weight

• About 2% of the student are overweight

• Only 2% of the student are obese

• The mean of the BMI = Σƒχ


Σƒ
= 965.43
50
= 19.3
• Most of the student are not obese but underweight or normal
weight.

From the investigation and the report made, the problem of


obesity must be dealt with the right measures since obesity can cause
not only physical change but also endangers the life of the person.
Therefore, everyone must work together to overcome this crucial
problem. As student, we must play our respective role too.

In order to prevent obesity, a good diet is very important.


Having a daily balanced diet, especially for those who are undergoing
adolescence, is a positive step towards a healthy lifestyle. Avoid drinking
too much carbonated drinks since they contain lots of sugar that might
cause obesity. We should also avoid eating too much junk food since they
are not nutritious.
Moreover, we must exercise regularly. Exercising twice or three
times a week will lead to a healthy body. We should take a walk after
dinner or lunch to improve digestion of the food inside our stomach.
Swimming is also a much-recommended exercise for obese people as it
takes away much pressure from the feet.

Should the problem persist, we should encourage them to seek


proper medical advice from qualified dieticians. These dieticians will be
able to recommend the most appropriate and safest diet for each
individual to lose weight. After all, doctors know best.

In conclusion, the problem of obesity should not be taken


lightly as it can be life-threatening. As student, we should show our full
support to help make the “ Obesity Awareness Campaign ” a success.