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Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 11

CHAPTER 13 AB + DC = MB + AM + MC − AM
= MB + MC
bñÉêÅáëÉ=NP^=EéKVF
= MN + NB + MN + NC
1. (a) AB + BC + CD = AC + CD = AD
= 2MN + NB − CN
(b) OA + AH = OH
= 2MN + NB − NB
(c) AE − AD = AE + DA = DA + AE = DE
= 2MN
(d) AC + CE − AD − DE
= AE − ( AD + DE ) 5. CB = OB − OC = b − c
= AE − AE 1 1
CD = CB = (b − c)
=0 2 2
1 1
(e) BC − BA + CG = AC + CG = AG OD = OC + CD = c + (b − c) = (b + c)
2 2
1 1 1
DA = OA − OD = a − (b + c ) = a − b − c
2. GA = GE + EA 2 2 2
1 1 1
GB = GE + EB = GE − EA DG = DA = a − (b + c)
3 3 6
∴ GA + GB = GE + EA + GE − EA OG = OD + DG
= 2GE 1 1 1
= (b + c ) + a − (b + c )
GC = FC + GF = FC + EG 2 3 6
1
GD = GF + FD = − FC + EG = (a + b + c)
3
GC + GD = FC + EG − FC + EG = 2 EG
∴ GA + GB + GC + GD = 2GE + 2 EG 6. (a) BC + ED = BC + AB = AC
= 2GE − 2GE
=0 (b) AB + CD + EF = AB + BG + GA = 0

(c) BG − EF = BG + FE = BG + GD = BD
1
3. (a) AD = AB + BD = AB + BC (d) CD + DE − EF = CE − EF = BF + FE = BE
2
AD = AC + CD (e) GA + GE − DE = GA + BG − BA
= AC − DC = BA − BA
1 =0
= AC − BC
2
1 1
∴ 2 AD = AB + BC + AC − BC
2 2 7. (a) BE = 2 BG
1 = 2( AG − AB)
AD = ( AB + AC )
2 = 2( BC − AB)
(b) 4 AB + 3 BC + 2CA = 2( b − a )
= 2( AB + BC + CA) + 2 AB + BC
(b) CD = BG = b − a
= ( AB + BC ) + AB
= AB + AC (c) DF = CA = − AC = −( AB + BC ) = −(a + b)

= 2AD (by (a)) (d) BD = AD − AB


= 2 AG − AB
4. AB = MB + AM = 2 BC − AB
DC = MC + DM = MC − AM = 2b − a
12 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

(e) GE + GC = CD + GC = GD = BC = b 10. AC = AO + OC
= kOB − kOD
(f) GD − GF = GD + FG
= kOB + k DO
= FD
= k (OB + DO)
= AC
= k DB
= AB + BC
=a+b ∴ AC is parallel to DB.

1 1 1 1
8. (a) BC + CD = AD + BA = AD + EA = ED 11. (a) EC = OA = a
2 2 2 2
CA = −OB = − b
(b) BC − 1 CD = BC − 1 BA 1 1
2 2 CD = CA = − b
1 2 2
= BC + AB ED = EC + CD
2
1 1
= BC + EB = a− b
2 2
= EC 1
= ( a − b)
1 1 2
(c) AB + AD = AB + BC
2 2
1 1
= AB + BF (b) BE = BC = a
2 2
= AF OE = OB + BE
1
(d) AB −
1 1
AD = DC − BC = b+ a
2 2 2
1
1
= DC + CB = ( a + 2 b)
2 2
= DC + CF
= DF
12. (a) AC = AB + AD = a + b
1
9. (a) EF = EB + BF AQ = AC
4
1 1 1
= AB + BC = ( a + b)
2 2 4
1
= ( AB + BC )
2 DQ = AQ − AD
1 1
= AC = ( a + b) − b
2 4
1 3
= a− b
(b) HG = HD + DG 4 4
1 1 1
= AD + DC = (a − 3b)
2 2 4
1
= ( AD + DC ) DP = AP − AD
2
1 1
= AC = AB − AD
2 3
1
1 = a−b
(c) EF =AC = HG 3
2 1
= (a − 3b)
Q EF = HG and EF // HG 3
∴ EFGH is a parallelogram.
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 13

(b) DQ = r DP 16. EF = BF − BE
1 1
1 r
(a − 3b) = (a − 3b) = BC − BD
4 3 2 2
1

1 r = ( BC − BD)
= 2
4 3 1
3 = DC
r= 2
4 1
= ( AC − AD)
2
1 1
13. (a) AB = OB − OA = AC − AD
= 6b − 6a 2 2
= 6(b − a ) = AG − AH
= HG
OP = OA + AP
Q EF = HG and EF // HF
2
= OA + AB ∴ EFGH is a parallelogram.
3
= 6 a + 4( b − a )
= 2a + 4b
= 2 ( a + 2 b) 17. (a) BM = a − b
MN = ON − OM AN = AB + BN
1
= OP − OA
1 = b + k ( a − b)
2 2 = ka + (1 − k )b
= a + 2b − 3a
= 2( b − a )
(b) AC = AB + BC
= 2a + b
(b) Let MC = hMN , where h is a constant.
AN = r AC
MC = hMN = 2 hb − 2 ha and
= 2 ra + rb
MC = OC − OM = kb − 3a
ka + (1 − k )b = 2 ra + rb
−2 ha + 2 hb = −3a + kb
2 h = 3  k = 2r
 k = 2h 1 − k = r
 
3 2 1
∴ h= , k=3 ∴ k= , r=
2 3 3

1
14. BE = BA + AE (c) From (b), AN = AC
3
= CD + FC AP =
2
AC
= FD 3
4 2
Q BE = FD and BE // FD = a+ b
3 3
∴ BFDE is a parallelogram.
DP = AP − AD
15. Q m and n can be any real number. 4 2
= a + b − 2a
3 3
Put m = 0 , n = 1 , 2
= (b − a )
0 ⋅ a = 1⋅ b 3
b=0
and MB = b − a
Put m = 1, n = 0 ,
∴ MB // DP
1⋅ a = 0 ⋅ b
a=0
∴ a=b=0
14 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

bñÉêÅáëÉ=NP_=EéKNTF (f) a = −8j


1. (a) a = 4 i + 3j a =8
−8 0
a = 4 2 + 32 = 5 sin θ = , cosθ =
8 8
3 4 −1
sin θ = , cos θ = tan θ =
5 5 0
3 θ = 270°
tan θ =
4 ∴ The magnitude is 8 units and it makes an
θ = 36.9° (corr. to nearest 0.1°)
∴ The magnitude is 5 units and it makes an angle of 270° with the positive x-axis.

angle of 36.9° with the positive x-axis.


2. (a) ( x − 2)i + ( y + 1)j = 7i − 3j
(b) a = 12i − 5 j
∴ x = 9 , y = −4
a = 12 2 + ( −5)2 = 13 The coordinates of B are (9, − 4) .
−5 12
sin θ = , cos θ = (b) − xi + (5 − y)j = −4 i − 2 j
13 13
−5 ∴ x = 4, y = 7
tan θ = The coordinates of A are ( 4, 7) .
12
θ = 337.4° (corr. to nearest 0.1°)
(c) (3 − x )i + ( −2 − y)j = −5i + 2 j
∴ The magnitude is 13 units and it makes
∴ x = 8, y = −4
an angle of 337.4° with the positive The coordinates of A are (8, − 4) .
x-axis.
(d) ( x − 1)i + ( y − 3)j = 6 i + j
(c) a = −i + 3 j
∴ x = 7, y = 4
a = ( −1)2 + ( 3 )2 = 2 The coordinates of B are (7, 4) .
3 −1
sin θ = , cos θ =
2 2
3 3. (a) a = 5 cos 45°i + 5 sin 45°j
tan θ =
−1 =
5 2
( i + j)
θ = 120° 2
∴ The magnitude is 2 units and it makes an
(b) a = 3 cos 150°i + 3 sin 150°j
angle of 120° with the positive x-axis.
3 3 3
(d) a = −3i − 3j =− i+ j
2 2
a = ( −3)2 + ( −3)2 = 3 2 3
= − ( 3 i − j)
2
−3 −3
sin θ = , cos θ =
3 2 3 2
−3 4. (a) AB = (2 + 3)i + ( 4 − 1)j
tan θ =
−3 = 5 i + 3j
θ = 225° x-component = 5 , y-component = 3
∴ The magnitude is 3 2 units and it makes
(b) AB = (6 − 2)i + ( −3 − 5)j
an angle of 225° with the positive x-axis.
= 4 i − 8j
(e) a = −5i x-component = 4 , y-component = −8
a =5
0 −5
sin θ = , cosθ = 5. x-component = r cos θ
5 5
0 y-component = r sin θ
tan θ =
−5 OP = OX + OY
θ = 180° = r cos θi + r sin θj
∴ The magnitude is 5 units and it makes an = r (cos θi + sin θj)
angle of 180° with the positive x-axis.
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 15

6. (a) 2 3i + 2 j 9. (a) u = 3i + 2 j
r = 12 + 4 = 4 v = −5i + 4 j
1 3 ∴ 2u = 6i + 4j
sin θ = , cos θ =
2 2 2 u − v = 11i
−1 2 2 1 1
θ = tan ( ) = 30° i = u − v = (2 u − v )
2 3 11 11 11
∴ 2 3i + 2 j = 4(cos 30°i + sin 30° j) 6 3
∴ u= u − v + 2j
(b) 6j 11 11
r = 6 , θ = 90° 5 3
2j = u + v
∴ 6 j = 6(cos 90°i + sin 90° j) 11 11
5 3 1
j= u+ v= ( 5 u + 3v )
(c) −4j 22 22 22
r = 4 , θ = 270°
(b) i + 8j = au + bv
∴ −4 j = 4(cos 270°i + sin 270°j)
2 1 20 12
(d) −5i − 5j ∴ u− v + u+ v = au + bv
11 11 11 11
r = 25 + 25 = 5 2 2 u + v = au + bv
∴ a = 2, b =1
−5 −5
sin θ = , cos θ =
5 2 5 2
θ = 180° + tan −1 (1) = 225° 10. (a) p = OA + AP = 8i +
8j
= 8i + 4 j
2
∴ −5i − 5j = 5 2 (cos 225°i + sin 225°j) 8i
q = OC + CQ = + 8 j = 4i + 8 j
2
3i + 4 j 3 4 (b) AB = 8j
7. (a) Unit vector = = i+ j
9 + 16 5 5 0 i + 8j = m(8i + 4 j) + n( 4 i + 8j)
= (8m + 4n)i + ( 4 m + 8n)j
−12 i + 5j 12 5
(b) Unit vector = =− i+ j 8m + 4n = 0
144 + 25 13 13 4 m + 8n = 8

3i − j 3 1 ∴ m=− , n=
2 4
(c) Unit vector = = i− j
3 +1 2 2 3 3
2 4
−5j ∴ AB = − p + q
(d) Unit vector = = −j 3 3
5
BC = −8i
−8i + 0 j = h(8i + 4 j) + k ( 4 i + 8j)
8. 9i + 6 j = m 1 (5i + j) + n 1 (i + 3 j) = (8h + 4 k )i + ( 4h + 8k )j
= (5m 1 + n 1 )i + ( m 1 + 3n 1 ) j
8 h + 4 k = −8
5m 1 + n 1 = 9  4 h + 8k = 0
m + 3n = 6 
 1 1 4 2
∴ h=− , k=
3 3 3 3
∴ m1 = , n1 =
2 2 4 2
∴ BC = − p + q
3 3 3 3
∴ a = u+ v
2 2
−3i + 5 j = m 2 (5i + j) + n 2 (i + 3 j)
= (5m 2 + n 2 )i + ( m 2 + 3n 2 ) j 11. (a) OP = 4 i − 3j

5m 2 + n 2 = −3 OQ = −2 i + 5j
m + 3n = 5
 2 2 PQ = OQ − OP = −2 i + 5j − 4 i + 3j = −6 i + 8j
∴ m 2 = −1 , n 2 = 2
PQ = 36 + 64 = 10
∴ b = −u + 2v
16 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

(b) PA = 6, PAQ is a straight line. 14. (a) Q u =


3 1
+ =1
4 4
PA 6 3 ∴ u is a unit vector.
= =
10 5
PQ Slope of u = 1 ⋅ 2
3 2 3
PA = PQ 1
5 =
3 3
= ( −6 i + 8j)
5 Equation of the line is
18 24
=− i+ j 1
5 5 y−0= ( x − 0)
3
1
y= x
12. (a) AB = OB − OA 3
= 3i + 14 j − i − 8j x − 3y = 0
= 2i + 6j
(b) Let v = ai + bj where v is an unit vector and
BC = OC − OB
u and v are perpendicular to each other.
= ki − 2 kj − 3i − 14 j
= ( k − 3)i − 2( k + 7)j a 2 + b 2 = 1 ................................(1)

 3 1
(b) Let AB = mBC , where m ≠ 0 .  a + b = 0 .........................(2)
 2 2
2 i + 6 j = m[( k − 3)i − 2( k + 7)j] 1 3
= m( k − 3)i − 2 m( k + 7)j Solving (1) and (2), a = − , b =
2 2
m( k − 3) = 2 .......................(1) 1 3
2 m( k + 7) = −6 ..................(2) ∴ v =− i+ j
 2 2
By (2), m( k + 7) = −3
3 1
2 −3 u= i+ j
∴ = = m ( k ≠ 3 , −7) 2 2
k −3 k +7 2 u = 3i + j
2 k + 14 = −3k + 9
5k = −5 1 3
v=− i+ j
k = −1 2 2
2 v = − i + 3j

2 u + 2 3v = 4 j
13. D ∴ 
C 2 3u − 2 v = 4 i
40° j = 1
( u + 3v )
10  2
v  1
40° 115° v i = ( 3u − v )
25°  2
A B
u a = 5i + 5 3 j
10 sin 40° 5 1
AB = = ( 3u − v ) + 5 3 ⋅ ( u + 3v )
sin 115° 2 2
= 7.09 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.) = 5 3 u + 5v
10 sin 25° ∴ The component of a along a line
BC =
sin 115° perpendicular to u is 5 .
= 4.66 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)
∴ AC = 7.09 u + 4.66 v
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 17

bñÉêÅáëÉ=NP`=EéKOQF 1
4. d = ( b + c)
1 2
1. (a) b = ( 4 i + 6 j) = 2 i + 3j 1
2 e = (c + a )
2
1 1
(b) b = ( −2 i + 4 j − 6 i − 2 j) f = (a + b)
2 2
1 1
= ( −8i + 2 j) d + e + f = ( b + c + c + a + a + b)
2 2
= −4 i + j = a + b+ c
∴ a+b+c = d+e+f
(c) Let c = xi + yj .
1 1
3i + 5j = ( x + 1)i + ( y + 2)j
2 2 1
5. (a) g = (a + b + c)
∴ x = 5, y = 8 3
c = 5i + 8j 1
= (d + e + f ) (by question (4))
3
(d) Let a = xi + yj .
1
1 1 = (2 i − j + 4 i + 2 j + 2 j)
−3i + j = ( x + 2)j + ( y − 3)j 3
2 2 = 2i + j
∴ x = −8 , y = 5
1
a = −8i + 5j (b) d = ( b + c)
2
1
e = (c + a )
− i + 4 j + 2( 2 i + j ) 2
2. (a) p = = i + 2j 1
1+ 2 f = (a + b)
2
−4 i − 5j + 23 (6 i) 1
(b) p = = −3j e − d = (a − b)
1+ 2
3
2
∴ a =e +f −d
−3i + b = 4i + 2j + 2j − 2i + j
(c) 2 i =
1+1 = 2 i + 5j
b = 7i
b=f −e +d
i + j + r ( 4 i + 7 j) = 2j − 4i − 2j + 2i − j
(d) 3i + mj =
1+ r = −2 i − j
4r + 1 7r + 1
=( )i + ( )j c =d+e −f
1+ r 1+ r
= 2i − j + 4i + 2j − 2j
 4r + 1 = 3 .................................(1)
 r +1 = 6i − j
 7r + 1
 = m ................................(2)
 1+ r
Solving (1) and (2), r = 2 , m = 5 a+c
6. e = and
2
b+ d
1 e=
3. d = ( b + c) 2
2 a + c b+ d
1 ∴ =
= ( −3i + 2 j + 5i + 6 j) 2 2
2 a + c = b+ d
= i + 4j
a −b=d−c
AD = OD − OA BA = CD
=d−a Q AB // DC and AB = DC
= i + 4 j + i − 7j
= 2i − 3 j ∴ ABCD is a parallelogram.
18 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

7. (a) OD = 2b (b) EC =
1
OC = c
1
2 b + xa 2 2
OR = 1
1+ x CE = − c
xa + 2 b 2
= − 1 c + la
1+ x CF = 2
1+ l
(b) OB = 2a 2 la − c
=
2a + yb 2(1 + l)
OR = l
1+ y = a−
1
c
1+ l 2(1 + l)
(c) By (a) and (b),
(c) By (a) and (b),
x 2 2 y
a+ b= a+ b 2k k l 1
1+ x 1+ x 1+ y 1+ y a− c= a− c
3( k + 1) k +1 1+ l 2(1 + l)
 x = 2 .............................(1)  2k = l
1 + x 1 + y  3( k + 1) 1 + l
 2 y 
 = ............................(2) 
k 1
1 + x 1 + y =
 k + 1 2(1 + l)
Solving (1) and (2), x = 2 , y = 2 3 1
∴ k = , l=
5 3

a + rb 1 10. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.


8. (a) OF = = (a + rb) question because of the copyright reasons.
1+ r 1+ r

1 1 b + 3c 1
(b) OD = OA = a 11. (a) p = = ( b + 3c)
3 3 1+ 3 4
b + 3( 3 a ) 1
1
c + 23 a 1
OE = = (a + b) q= = (2a + 3c)
1+ 3 4 1+ 2 5
3
(c) OF = kOE r+b
=a
1 r k k 2
a+ b= a + b r = 2a − b
1+ r 1+ r 4 4
 1 = k .....................................(1) (b) PQ = q − p
1 + r 4 2 3 1 3
 r = a + c − b− c
k
 = .....................................(2) 5 5 4 4
1 + r 4 2
= a − b−
1 3
c
Solving (1) and (2), r = 1 . 5 4 20
1
= (8a − 5b − 3c)
20
2 2 PR = r − p
9. (a) OD = OA = a 1 3
3 3 = 2a − b − b − c
2 4 4
CD = OD − OC = a−c 1
3 = (8a − 5b − 3c)
k 4
CF = CD
k +1 Q PQ = PR
1
k 2 5
= ( a − c)
k +1 3 ∴ P, Q and R are collinear.
2k k
= a− c PQ
1 PR 1
3( k + 1) k +1 (c) = 5
4
=
QR 5
PR 4
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 19

12. (a) AB = OB − OA = b − a 3
CE = CD
2
OP = AP + OA 3 3m − 1 2
1 = ( a − b)
= AB + OA 2 3 3
3 3m − 1
1 = a−b
= (b − a) + a 2
3
2 1 (ii) OE = CE + OC
= a+ b
3 3 3m − 1 1 2
= a − b+ a + b
2 3 3
BQ = BA − QA 9m − 1 1
4 = a− b
= (a − b) − OA 6 3
5
4 (c) (i) AB // EO
= a − b− a
5 ∴ AB = rEO
1
= a−b 1 9m − 1
5 b − a = r( b − a)
3 6
1
(b) BR = mBQ = m( a − b)  r
=1
5  3
 9m − 1
2 1 r ( ) =1
OR = nOP = n( a + b)
3 3  6
1
OR = OB + BR ∴ r = 3, m =
3
2n n m
a+ b = b + a − mb 9( 13 ) − 1
1 1
3 3 5 (ii) OE = a − b = (a − b) = BC
2n n m 6 3 3
a+ b = a + (1 − m)b
3 3 5 Q OE // BC and OE = BC
 2n = m ∴ OBCE is a parallelogram.
3 5
 n
 = 1− m
 3 bñÉêÅáëÉ=NPa=EéKPNF
10 3
∴ m= , n= 1. (a) a ⋅ b = 40 cos 45° = 20 2
11 11
(b) a ⋅ b = 48 cos 120° = −24
(c) a ⋅ b = 6 cos 90° = 0
13 − 14. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
questions because of the copyright reasons. (d) a ⋅ b = 49 cos 0° = 49

a + 2b 2. (a) Scalar product = 20 cos 30° = 10 3


15. (a) OC =
2 +1 (b) Scalar product = 12 cos(180° − 30°) = −6 3
1 2
= a+ b
3 3 (c) Scalar product = 12 cos 45° = 6 2

(b) OD = ma (d) Scalar product = 30 cos 150° = −15 3

(i) CD = OD − OC
1 2 3. (a) a ⋅ b = (2 i − 3j) ⋅ (5i − 2 j)
= ma − a − b = 10 + 6
3 3
3m − 1 2 = 16
= a− b
3 3 (b) a ⋅ b = ( −4 i + j) ⋅ ( −2 i − 2 j)
=8−2
=6
20 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

4. (a) a = −2 i + 2 j 3 9
a ⋅ b = ( 4 u + 3v ) ⋅ ( u − 2 v ) = 4 − 4 + −6= −
b = 3i 2 2
a = 4+4 =2 2 9
∴ ( 37 )( 3 )cos θ = −
2
b =3 −9
a ⋅ b = −6 cos θ =
2 111
∴ (2 2 )(3)cos θ = −6 θ = 115.3° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
−1
cos θ =
2 7. a + b+ c = 0
θ = 135° a + b = −c
Length of projection of a on the line of b (a + b) ⋅ (a + b) = ( −c) ⋅ ( −c)
2 2 2
= 2 2 cos135° = 2 a + 2a ⋅ b + b = c
36 + 2a ⋅ b + 25 = 16
(b) a = 3i + j 45
b = i − 3j a⋅b= −
2
a = 9 + 1 = 10 = −22.5
b = 1 + 9 = 10 a ⋅b −22.5 −3
cos θ = = =
a⋅b= 3−3= 0 a b (6)(5) 4
∴ ( 10 )( 10 )cos θ = 0 θ = 138.6° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
0
cos θ =
10 8. (a) (3i + 4 j) ⋅ ( ki − 3j) = 0
θ = 90°
3k − 12 = 0
Length of projection of a on the line of b k=4
= 10 cos 90° = 0 (b) ( ki + 5j) ⋅ ( 4 i) = 0
4k = 0
k=0
5. BA = ( −2 i + 3j) − ( i + 2 j) = −3i + j
(c) [2i + ( k − 1) j] ⋅ [ 4i + (3 − k ) j] = 0
BC = (3i + 3j) − ( i + 2 j) = 2 i + j 8 + ( k − 1)(3 − k ) = 0
BA ⋅ BC k 2 − 4k − 5 = 0
cos ∠B = ( k − 5)( k + 1) = 0
BA BC
k = 5 or −1
( −3i + j) ⋅ (2i + j)
=
( 10 )( 5 ) 9. p = a + kb
−1 p ⋅ c = a ⋅ c + kb ⋅ c
=
2 0 = 3+ k
∠B = 135° k = −3

2
6. u ⋅ u = u =1 10 − 13. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
2 questions because of the copyright reasons.
v⋅v = v =1
1
u ⋅ v = (1)(1) cos 60° = 14. (a) BD = AD − AB = b − a
2
2
a = ( 4 u + 3v ) ⋅ ( 4 u + 3v ) AC = AB + BC = a + b
= 16 + 6 + 6 + 9
= 37 (b) AC ⋅ AC = (a + b) ⋅ (a + b)
2 2
∴ a = 37 = a + 2a ⋅ b + b
b
2
= (u − 2v) ⋅ (u − 2v) BD ⋅ BD = ( b − a ) ⋅ ( b − a )
= 1−1−1+ 4 = b
2
− 2a ⋅ b + a
2
=3
2 2
∴ b = 3 ∴ ( AC )2 + ( BD)2 = 2( a + b )
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 21

15. (a) AP : PB = r : 1 (d) Let xi + yj be the position vector of K.


a + rb 1 KA = OA − OK = (5 − x )i + (3 − y)j
∴ p= = (a + rb)
1+ r 1+ r
KC = OC − OK = (1 − x )i + (1 − y)j
(b) ( p − c) is perpendicular to (a − b) . KA ⋅ KC = 2
( p − c) ⋅ (a − b) = 0 ∴ (5 − x )(1 − x ) + (3 − y)(1 − y) = 2
By (a), x 2 − 6x + 5 + y2 − 4 y + 3 = 2
2 i + 3j + r ( 4 i − j ) x 2 + y2 − 6 x − 4 y + 6 = 0
p=
1+ r ∴ K always lies on a circle.
( 4 r + 2 ) i + (3 − r ) j
p− c = − ( − i − j)
1+ r
( 4 r + 2 + 1 + r ) i + (3 − r + 1 + r ) j 2a + b 2 1 1
= 17. (a) OP = = a + b = (2a + b)
1+ r 2 +1 3 3 3
(5r + 3)i + 4 j a + 2b 1
= OQ =
2 1
= a + b = (a + 2 b)
1+ r 1+ 2 3 3 3
a − b = 2 i + 3j − 4 i + j = −2 i + 4 j
−2(5r + 3) + ( 4)( 4) 2 1
( p − c) ⋅ (a − b) = (b) (i) OP = (11i) + (2 i − 18j) = 8i − 6 j
1+ r 3 3
∴ −2(5r + 3) + 16 = 0 1 2
OQ = (11i) + (2 − 18j) = 5i − 12 j
−5r − 3 + 8 = 0 3 3
5r = 5
r =1 (ii) OP = 64 + 36 = 10

(c) Q r =1 OQ = 25 + 144 = 13
2 i + 3j + 4 i − j
∴ p= = 3i + j 40 + 72 56
1+1 (iii) cos θ = =
∴ The coordinates of the foot of the (10)(13) 65
perpendicular from C to AB are (3, 1) .
18 − 20. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
questions because of the copyright reasons.
16. (a) AB = (7i + 3j) − (5i − 3j) = 2 i + 6 j
DC = ( i + j) − ( − i − 5j) = 2 i + 6 j
Q AB = DC and AB // DC oÉîáëáçå=bñÉêÅáëÉ=NP=EéKPSF
∴ ABCD is a parallelogram.
a
1. A B
(b) AC = ( i + j) − (5i − 3j) = −4 i + 4 j
BD = ( − i − 5j) − (7i + 3j) = −8i − 8j b

AC ⋅ BD = ( −4 i + 4 j) ⋅ ( −8i − 8j) = 32 − 32 = 0
D
∴ AC is perpendicular to BD. C

(c) MA + MC = 0 F
OA − OM + OC − OM = 0
1
OM = (OA + OC ) E
2
1 AE = AD + DE = b + a + b = a + 2 b
pi + qj = (5i − 3j + i + j)
2
= 3i − j AF = AD +
1 1 1 3
DE = b + (a + b) = a + b
∴ p = 3 , q = −1 2 2 2 2
22 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

BF = AF − AB ∴ AB = − i − 3j , BC = − i − 3j
1 3
= a + b− a AB 1+ 9
2 2 = =1
1 3 BC 1+ 9
=− a+ b
2 2 ∴ AB : BC = 1 : 1
1
= ( −a + 3b)
2
a + 12 (7i + 10 j)
CF = BF − BC 5. (a) 3i + 4 j =
1 + 12
1 3
= − a + b− b 9 7
2 2 i + 6 j = a + i + 5j
1 1 2 2
=− a+ b a = i+j
2 2
1
= ( −a + b) i + αj + 2βi + 4 j
2 (b) 3i + j =
3
9 i + 3j = (1 + 2β)i + (α + 4)j
2. (a) Let c = xi + yj ∴ α = −1 , β = 4
1 1
3i − 6 j = ( x + 5)i + ( y − 2)j
2 2 6. (a) a ⋅ b = a b cos θ = 12 cos 60° = 6
x = 1 , y = −10
∴ c = i − 10 j (b) a ⋅ b = a b cos θ = 40 1 −
9
= 32
25
(b) Let a = xi + yj

4 i − 3j =
1 1
( x − 5)i + ( y + 4)j 7. a ⋅ b = 0
2 2 ∴ (2 k − 1)(3k − 1) − 7 = 0
x = 13 , y = −10
6 k 2 − 5k + 1 − 7 = 0
∴ a = 13i − 10 j
6 k 2 − 5k − 6 = 0
(2 k − 3)(3k + 2) = 0
3 2
3. L e t a = i + j , b = i + 2 j , c = 2 i + 4 j a n d k = or −
2 3
d = − i − 3j be the position vectors of A, B, C and
D respectively.
AB = i + 2 j − i − j = j 8. (a) a ⋅ b = 6 − α = 0
BC = 2 i + 4 j − i − 2 j = i + 2 j ∴ α=6

CD = − i − 3j − 2 i − 4 j = −3i − 7j (b) a ⋅ b = 5 9 + α 2 cos180° = 6 − α or


DA = i + j + i + 3j = 2 i + 4 j = 2( i + 2 j)
a ⋅ b = 5 9 + α 2 cos 0° = 6 − α
∴ DA = 2 BC .
∴ 5(9 + α 2 ) = 36 − 12α + α 2
DA // BC and DA = 2 BC .
∴ The points are the vertices of a trapezium 4α + 12α + 9 = 0
2

whose parallel sides are in the ratio 1 : 2. (2α + 3)2 = 0


3
α=−
2
4. AB = (2 − 3)i + ( x − 4)j = − i + ( x − 4)j
π
BC = (1 − 2)i + ( −2 − x )j = − i + ( −2 − x )j (c) 6 − α = 5(9 + α 2 ) cos
3
x − 4 −2 − x
∴ = 12 − 2α = 5(9 + α 2 )
−1 −1
x =1 α 2 + 48α − 99 = 0
α = −24 ± 15 3
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 23

9. (a) BA = − i + 3j − i + 2 j = −2 i + 5j 15. (a) AE = AB + BE


BC = 2 i + 2 j − i + 2 j = i + 4 j (b) BF = BC + CF
−2 + 20
cos ∠B = (c) AE ⋅ BF
29 17
∠B = 35.8° (corr. to 1 d.p.) = ( AB + BE ) ⋅ ( BC + CF )
= AB ⋅ BC + AB ⋅ CF + BE ⋅ BC + BE ⋅ CF
AC = 2 i + 2 j + i − 3j = 3i − j
= 0 − AB CF + BE BC + 0
AB = 2 i − 5j
6+5 = −2 BC CF + 2 CF BC
cos ∠A =
10 29 =0
∠A = 49.8° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
∴ AE ⊥ BF
∴ ∠C = 180° − 49.8° − 35.8°
= 94.4° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
16. (a) AB = 5i + 3j − i − 4 j = 4 i − j
(b) AB = ( 4 − 6)i + ( −1 − 1)j = −2 i − 2 j ,
BC = 4 i − j − 5i − 3j = − i − 4 j
BA = 2 i + 2 j
AC = 4 i − j − i − 4 j = 3i − 5j
BC = (8 − 4)i + (0 + 1)j = 4 i + j ,
CB = −4i − j (b) AH = k AC

CA = (6 − 8)i + (1 − 0)j = −2 i + j , h = k AC + a
= k (3 i − 5 j ) + ( i + 4 j )
AC = 2i − j = (3k + 1)i + ( 4 − 5k )j
−4 + 2
cos ∠A =
8 5 (c) Q AC⊥ BH
∠A = 108.4° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
∴ (3i − 5 j) ⋅ [(3k + 1 − 5)i + ( 4 − 5k − 3) j] = 0
8+2 3(3k − 4) − 5(1 − 5k ) = 0
cos ∠B =
8 17 9k − 12 − 5 + 25k = 0
∠B = 31.0° (corr. to 1 d.p.) 34 k = 17
8 −1 k=
1
cos ∠C =
17 5 2
∠C = 40.6° (corr. to 1 d.p.) 5 3
(d) By (c), h = i + j
2 2
Let h = mAB + nBC .
10. (a) OA ⋅ OB = (2)(3)cos120° = −3
5 3
∴ i + j = m( 4 i − j) + n( − i − 4 j)
(b) Let OA = ai + bj , OB = ci + dj 2 2
= ( 4 m − n) i − ( m + 4 n) j
2OA + OB = (2 a + c)i + (2 b + d )j
 4m − n = 5
2OA + OB  2
 3
− m − 4 n =
= (2 a + c) 2 + (2 b + d ) 2  2
= 4( a 2 + b 2 ) + (c 2 + d 2 ) + 4( ac + bd ) ∴
1
m= , n=−
1
= 4( 4) + 9 + 4( −3) 2 2
1 1
= 13 ∴ h = AB − BC
2 2

11 − 14. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E. 17. (a) AP : PB = t : 1 − t 0 ≤ t ≤1


questions because of the copyright reasons.
ta + (1 − t )b
∴ p= = ta + (1 − t )b
t +1− t
24 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

(b) BP 2 = BP ⋅ BP b − ra ra + b
(ii) AD ⋅ OC = ( )⋅( )
= [ta + (1 − t )b − b] ⋅ [ta + (1 − t )b − b] r r +1
= [t (a − b)] ⋅ [t (a − b)] ra ⋅ b + b ⋅ b − r 2 a ⋅ a − ra ⋅ b
=
= t 2 (a ⋅ a − a ⋅ b − a ⋅ b + b ⋅ b) r (r + 1)
= t 2 ( a 2 + b 2 − 2a ⋅ b) r −r
2 2
=
r (r + 1)
(c) AP 2 = AP ⋅ AP = 0 for r > 0
= [ta + (1 − t )b − a ] ⋅ [ta + (1 − t )b − a ] ∴ AD is always perpendicular to OC
= (t − 1)2 ( a 2 + b 2 − 2a ⋅ b) for r > 0.

OP 2 = t 2 a 2 + 2t (1 − t )a ⋅ b + (1 − t )2 b 2
20. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
1 1 question because of the copyright reasons.
Put t = , AP 2 = ( a 2 + b 2 − 2a ⋅ b)
2 4
1 1 1
OP 2 = a 2 + a ⋅ b + b 2 21. (a) OC =
1
a
4 2 4 4
1 2
2OP + 2 AP = ( a + b − 2a ⋅ b)
2 2 2 1
OD = b
2 4
1 1
+ a2 + a ⋅ b + b2 a−b
2 2 DC = OC − OD =
4
=a +b
2 2

∴ OA2 + OB2 = 2OP 2 + 2 AP 2 (b) (i) AB = OB − OA = b − a


1 1
CD = ( b − a ) = AB
3a + xb 1 4 4
18. (a) OR = = (3a + xb) ∴ AB // CD
1+ x 1+ x
2 b + ya 1 (ii) AB = 4CD
(b) OR = = ( ya + 2 b)
1+ y 1+ y ∴ AB : CD = 4 : 1

 3 = y (c) FB = OB − OF = b − ma
1 + x 1 + y
(c)  OE = DE + OD
x 2
 = 3 1
= (a − b) + b
1 + x 1 + y 4 4
3 3 1
∴ x = 4, y = = a− b
2 4 2
(d) Put x = 4 into (a), EB = OB − OE
3 4 3 1
∴ OR = a + b = b − ( a − b)
5 5 4 2
3 3
= b− a
2 4
ra + b FB = hEB
19. (a) OC =
r +1 3h 3h
b − ma = b− a
1 2 4
AD = b− a
r  1 = 3h
b − ra  2
= 
r 3h
− m = −
 4
(b) (i) a ⋅ a = a 2 = 1
2 1
2 ∴ h= , m=
b⋅ b = b = r2 3 2
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 25

5 1
22. (a) OC = b 23. (a) OP = a
3 2
AB = b − a a+b a+b
OQ = =
1+1 2
DC = OC − OD
5 2 1
= b− a (b) BP = OP − OB = a−b
3 3 2
5 b − 2a
= BR = OR − OB
3 2 a+b
= ( )−b
3 2
(b) (i) DA = DE − AE a − 2b
=
= m(5b − 2a ) − n( b − a ) 3
= ( −2 m + n)a + (5m − n)b
1 1 1 2
DA = OA = a (c) (i) BR = a− b
3 3 3 3
1 2 1
a = ( −2 m + n)a + (5m − n)b = ( a − b)
3 3 2
2
−2 m + n = 1 = BP
3
 3 ∴ B, R and P are collinear.
 5m − n = 0
2
∴ m= , n=
1 5 (ii) BR = BP
9 9 3
1
5 RP = BP
(ii) AE = (b − a) 3
9 ∴ BR : RP = 2 : 1
AB = b − a (d) OS = 2 BP
4
∴ EB = ( b − a ) OS = a − 2 b or −a + 2 b
9
= −2 i − 8j − 2( 4 i − 16 j) or
∴ AE : EB = 5 : 4
2 i + 8j + 2( 4 i − 16 j)
5 b − 2a
DC = = −10i + 24 j or 10i − 24 j
3
1 1 5 b − 2a
DE = (5b − 2a ) = ( )
9 3 3 24 − 29. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
2 5b − 2a questions because of the copyright reasons.
∴ EC = ( )
3 3
∴ DE : EC = 1 : 2
båêáÅÜãÉåí=NP=EéKQPF
(c) ∆ADE ~ ∆ODF
1. OM = ON
DA EA
∴ = MN = ON − OM
OD OF
1
Q OF // EA OX = (OM + ON )
2
OD
∴ OF = EA 1
OX ⋅ MN = (OM + ON ) ⋅ (ON − OM )
DA 2
5
= 2[ (a − b)] 1 2
= ( ON − OM )
2
9 2
10 =0
= (a − b)
9 ∴ OX ⊥ MN
26 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

2. C (c) u ⋅ v = (cos θi + sin θj)(cosφi + sin φj)


= cos θ cos φ + sin θ sin φ
a (d) By (a) and (c),
u⋅ v
A B cos(θ − φ) =
b O u v
= cos θ cos φ + sin θ sin φ
Let OA = b , OC = a
∴ AC = OC − OA = − b + a
5. (a) (i) ( i + 2 j) ⋅ ( xi + yj) = x + 2 y
BC = OC − OB = b + a
∴ AC ⋅ BC = ( − b + a ) ⋅ ( b + a ) (ii) OA = 1 + 4 = 5
= −b⋅ b + a ⋅ b − a ⋅ b + a ⋅ a
= a 2− b 2 OP = x 2 + y 2

Since a and b are the radius of the semi- x + 2y


(iii) cos ∠AOP =
circle, 5( x 2 + y 2 )
∴ AC ⋅ BC = 0
i.e. AC ⊥ BC (b) OB ⋅ OP = ( 4 i − 2 j) ⋅ ( xi + yj)
= 4x − 2y
∴ The diameter of a circle subtends a right angle
at the circumference. OB = 16 + 4

3. (a) BN ⊥ AC =2 5
4x − 2y
∴ BN ⋅ CA = 0 cos ∠BOP =
2 5( x 2 + y 2 )
( BC + CN ) ⋅ CA = 0
2x − y
BC ⋅ CA + CN ⋅ CA = 0 =
5( x 2 + y 2 )
(b) BA = BC + CA
(c) Q ∠AOP = ∠BOP
(c) BA ⋅ BA = ( BC + CA) ⋅ ( BC + CA) ∴ x + 2 y = 2x − y
2 2
= BC + 2 BC ⋅ CA + CA x − 3y = 0
∴ The equation of the angle bisector of
2 2 2 ∠AOB is x − 3 y = 0 .
(d) BC = BA − 2 BC ⋅ CA − CA
= −2 BC ⋅ CA
= 2CN ⋅ CA 6. (a) a + b + c = 0
(By the result of (a)) a = − ( b + c)
a ⋅ a = ( b + c) ⋅ ( b + c)
4. (a) A graph of the two vectors is drawn as a2 = b2 + 2b ⋅ c + b2
follows.
y Similarly, b 2 = c 2 + 2c ⋅ a + a 2
c2 = a2 + 2b ⋅ a + b2

u
∴ a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = 2( a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )
+ 2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a )
v
θ
φ a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = −2(a ⋅ b + b ⋅ c + c ⋅ a )
x
O
(b) As −a ⋅ b = a b cos C = ab cos C
∴ The angle between u and v is θ − φ .
− b ⋅ c = b c cos A = bc cos A
−c ⋅ a = c a cos B = ca cos B
(b) u = cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1
v = cos 2 φ + sin 2 φ = 1 ∴ a2 + b2 + c2
= 2 ab cos C + 2 bc cos A + 2ca cos B
∴ Both u and v are unit vectors.
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 27

1 `ä~ëëïçêâ=O=EéKRF
7. ∆= ab sin ∠AOB
2
2 ∆ = ab sin ∠AOB (a) AE = AD + DE
4 ∆ = a b sin ∠AOB
2 2 2 2 = AD + CD
4 ∆2 = a 2 b 2 (1 − cos 2 ∠AOB) = BC + CD
= a b − a b cos ∠AOB
2 2 2 2 2 = BD
2 2 2 2
= a b − a b cos ∠AOB
2
(b) (i) AD, BC
2 2
= a b − ( a b cos ∠AOB)2
2 2 (ii) CE
= a b − (a ⋅ b))2
a = i + 2j , b = 4i − 4j (iii) EB
∴ 4 ∆2 = (5)(32) − ( 4 − 8)2 = 144 (iv) AA, BB, CC, DD, EE
∆ = 36
2

∆ = 6 , −6 (rejected)
−4 1 `ä~ëëïçêâ=P=EéKVF
cos ∠AOB = =−
5 32 10
∠AOB = 108.4° (corr. to 1 d.p.) 1. (a) BC, AB

AB = b − a = 3i − 6 j (b) Consider BE + EA = BA
9 BE + EA + DC − BE = BA + DC − BE
cos ∠OAB =
45 5
EA + DC = CB + DC + EB
∠OAB = 53.1° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
= DB + EB
∴ ∠OBA = 180° − 108.4° − 53.1°
= 18.5° (corr. to 1 d.p.)
2. (a) BE = AE − AB
= AF + FE − AB
8. (a) OR ⋅ OP = ( x1i + y1j) ⋅ ( x 0 i + y0 j) = 2p − q
= x1 x 0 + y1 y0
(b) BC = AC − AB
(b) OR ⋅ OP = OR OP cos θ = AF + FE + EC − AB
= 3p − q
= r OP cos θ
1 3 1
Since PR is tangent, OR ⊥ PR . (c) BD = BC = p − q
2 2 2
OP cos θ = OR = r
∴ (d) DE = BE − BD
x1 x 0 + y1 y0 = r 2
3 1
= 2p − q − p+ q
2 2
1 1
`ä~ëëïçêâ=N=EéKPF = p− q
2 2
(a) (i) FB, EI , IG, DH , HC
3. (a) MA = b − a
(ii) DI , IB, HG
(b) (i) PQ = pMA = pb − pa
(iii) IA, CI , HE
(ii) BA = CA − CB
(b) (i) EI , AF, FB, IG, DH , HC
= CA − (CM + MB)
(ii) GH , BI , ID, FE = b − 2a
BQ = qBA
(iii) HE, IA, CI , GF
= qb − 2 qa
28 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

(c) Q MA // PQ and MB = 3MP Unit vector in the direction of PQ is


∴ AB = 3 AQ
PQ −4 i + 3j 4 3
2 = =− i+ j
∴ BQ = BA PQ 5 5 5
3
PQ = PB + BQ (b) PQ = (11i − 5j) − ( −4 i + 3j) = 15i − 8j
2 2
= MB + (b − 2a ) PQ = 152 + ( −8)2 = 17
3 3
2 2 4
= a+ b− a −8 15
3 3 3 sin θ = , cos θ =
2 17 17
= (b − a ) −8
3 tan θ =
2 15
∴ p= θ = 360° − 28.07°
3 = 331.93° (corr. to 2 d.p.)
Unit vector in the direction of PQ is
PQ 15i − 8j 15 8
`ä~ëëïçêâ=Q=EéKNRF = = i− j
PQ 17 17 17
1. (a) AB = OB − OA
= ( 4 i + 6 j ) − ( i + 3j )
= 3i + 3j 2. (a) Let OC = xi + yj
OC = OA
(b) AB = OB − OA
= ( −3i − 7j) − ( −2 i + 5j) x 2 + y 2 = 32
= − i − 12 j
x 2 + y 2 = 9 ...........................(1)
y
tan ∠AOC =
2. Let A be (x, y), i.e. OA = xi + yj , then x
y = 3 x .....................(2)
AB = OB − OA
Substitute (2) into (1),
= − i + 4 j − ( xi + yj)
= ( −1 − x )i + ( 4 − y)j x 2 + 3x 2 = 9
3 3
It is given that AB = 4 i + 6 j . x= or − (rejected)
2 2
∴ −1 − x = 4 and 4 − y = 6 3 3
x = −5 and y = −2 ∴ y=
2
∴ The coordinates of A are ( −5, − 2) . 3
∴ OC = ( i + 3j)
2

(b) OB = OA + OC
`ä~ëëïçêâ=R=EéKNTF
3 3 3
= 3i + i + j
1. (a) PQ = (3i + 4 j) − (7i + j) = −4 i + 3j 2 2
9 3 3
PQ = ( −4)2 + 32 = 5 = i+ j
2 2
3 −4
sin θ = , cosθ = AC = OC − OA
5 5
3 3
tan θ = = ( i + 3 j ) − 3i
−4 2
θ = 180° − 36.87° 3 3 3
=− i+ j
= 143.13° (corr. to 2 d.p.) 2 2
Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space 29

(c) Applying the result of example 10 (a), 3


Q MN = BC
a ⊥ b if and only if x1 x2 + y1 y2 = 0 7
9 3 3 3 3 3 ∴ MN // BC and MN : BC = 3 : 7
Q ( )( − ) + ( )( )=0
2 2 2 2
∴ OB ⊥ AC
1
2. (a) AD = OD − OA = b− a
3

`ä~ëëïçêâ=S=EéKOOF AB = OB − OA = b − a
2
1. (a) OA = BC = ( 4 i + 5j) − ( −3i + 2 j) = 7i + 3j AB = AC
5
∴ The coordinates of A are (7, 3) . 5
AC = ( b − a )
2
(b) OA = BC = ( −2 i + 3j) − ( −6 i + j) = 4 i + 2 j
∴ The coordinates of A are ( 4, 2) . (b) (i) OE = OA + AE
k
= a + b − ka
3
a + 2b 1 k
2. (a) p = = ( a + 2 b) = (1 − k )a + b
1+ 2 3 3
a + 2d 1 OC = OA + AC
q= = ( a + 2 d)
1+ 2 3 5 5
= a + b− a
c + 2d 1 2 2
r= = ( c + 2 d) 3 5
1+ 2 3 =− a+ b
2 2
c + 2b 1
s= = ( c + 2 b)
1+ 2 3 (ii) If O, E and C are collinear, let

(b) PQ = q − p OE : OC = 1 : m , then
1
= (a + 2d − a − 2 b) mOE = OC
3
mk 5 3
2
= (d − b) m(1 − k )a + b = b− a
3 3 2 2
SR = r − s m(1 − k ) = − 3
 2
1
= (c + 2d − c − 2 b)  mk 5
3  =
2  3 2
= (d − b) 5
3 ∴ m = 6, k =
4
Q PQ // SR and PQ = SR
∴ PQRS is a parallelogram.
`ä~ëëïçêâ=U=EéKPMF
`ä~ëëïçêâ=T=EéKOPF 1. (a) a ⋅ b = (5)(2) cos 30° = 5 3

1. BC = c − b (b) a ⋅ b = (3)( 4) cos 150° = −6 3


MN = AN − AM
3 3
= AC − AB 2. (a) a = 20
7 7
3 b = 2
= (c − a + a − b)
7 a ⋅ b = ( 4 i + 2 j) ⋅ ( − i + j)
3 = ( 4)( −1) + (2)(1)
= (c − b)
7 = −2
30 Chapter 13 Vectors in the Two-dimensional Space

a b cos θ = a ⋅ b OF = OC + CF
( 20 )( 2 ) cos θ = −2 1
= OC + CB
−1 2
cos θ = 1
10 = OC + OA
θ = 108.4° 2
1
(corr. to nearest 0.1°) = ( i + 3j ) + ( 6 i + 2 j )
2
(b) a = 29 = 4i + 4j
b = 17 13 7
(b) OE ⋅ OF = ( i + j) ⋅ ( 4 i + 4 j) = 40
a ⋅ b = ( −2 i + 5j) ⋅ ( i − 4 j) 2 2
= ( −2)(1) + (5)( −4)
= −22 OE ⋅ OF
(c) cos ∠EOF =
OE OF
a b cos θ = a ⋅ b
40
( 29 )( 17 ) cos θ = −22 =
−22 ( 109 )(
32 )
cos θ = 2
493 10
θ = 172.2° =
109
(corr. to nearest 0.1°) ∠EOF = 16.7° (corr. to nearest 0.1°)

3. (a) AB = [2 − ( −3)]i + (1 − 4)j


= 5 i − 3j

BC = (5 − 2)i + (3 − 1)j
= 3i + 2 j

(b) AB ⋅ BC = (5i − 3 j) ⋅ (3i + 2 j)


= (5)(3) + ( −3)(2)
=9

(c) Let OD = 5i + yj , then


BD = OD − OB
= (5 − 2)i + ( y − 1)j
= 3i + ( y − 1)j
If AB ⊥ BD ,
AB ⋅ BD = 0
(5i − 3j) ⋅ [3i + ( y − 1)j] = 0
15 − 3( y − 1) = 0
y=6
∴ BD = 3i + 5j

4. (a) OC = OB − CB
= ( 7 i + 5j) − (6 i + 2 j)
= i + 3j

OE = OA + AE
1
= OA + OC
2
1
= ( 6 i + 2 j ) + ( i + 3j )
2
13 7
= i+ j
2 2