POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT OF SINGLE_PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER EMPLOYING EXTINCTION ANGLE CONTROL TECHNIQUE

Nabil A. Ahmed' and Emad H. El-Zohri2

Abstract - The general study of power converters is to improve the overall efficiency of the power system by some advanced methods of control techniques. Forced commutation of the power semiconductor switches leads to improved power factor in dc converters. Similar techniques may be applied to improve the performance of ac controllers. For example, an ac controller can be used to adjust the stator voltage of an induction motor running under variable load in order to maintain better efficiency. With the present semiconductor technology (MOSFET's, IGBT's, GTO's and improved bipolar transistors), many solutions exist to alter the power factor of dynamic ac loads through an ac controller. In this paper, the performance evaluation of the extinction-angle control technique has been illustrated as applied to a single-phase voltage converter by examples of static load and the widely used single-phase induction motor to verify the feasibility of the proposed technique. Observations on power factor, displacement factor and motor efficiency make up the results of this work. Index Terms - AC voltage controller, extinction angle control powerfactor, static load, single-phase Induction motor.

The extinction-angle control (EAC) is similar to that of phase-angle control wlhere there is only one pulse pcr lialfphase-angle control the conduction is started at AC voltage converters are widely used as one of the power cycle. In the delay angle (a the required ) electronics systems to control an output ac voltage; where a reaches zero value naturally, and continues until the current while in the EAC control the

power factor becomes poor. Such a behavior can be explained by the fact that a constant supply voltage is usually applied to the machine and under decreasing load conditions; the internal impedance of machine becomes mainly reactive [9]. Trying to solve this problem with simple ac voltage converters is an almost impossible task. On the other hand, adding a complex controller costing several times the price of the motor, is in itself an objectionable solution. Thus, the present paper describes a simple scheme to generate a variable ac voltage directly from the line with few commutations at each period for speed control of singlephase induction motors. This is achieved by using the extinction-angle control (EAC) control technique to control the extinction angle by making use of forced commutation nature of the switches while introducing a freewheeling path in parallel with the load terminals. The proposed ac voltage converter employs only two controlled switches with the aid of two diode bridge rectifiers. Reducing the number of controlled switches is essential for the point of view of the simplicity, cost, reliability, decreasing the switching losses; a matter which enhances the converter efficiency.

I. INTRODUCTION

variable ac voltage is obtained from a fixed ac voltage, for power ranges from few watts (as in light dimmers) up to fraction of megawatts (as in starting systems of large induction motors). Phase-angle control (PAC) line commutated voltage controllers and integral-cycle control of thyristors have been extensively employed in this type of regulators for many applications. Such techniques offer some advantages as simplicity and the ability of controlling large amount of power economically. However, they suffer from inherent disadvantages such as; retardation of the firing angle causes lagging power factor at the input side especially at large firing angles and high low order harmonic content in both of load and supply sides [1-3]. Moreover, a discontinuity of power flow appears at both input and output sides [4-8]. On the other hand, the efficiency of a squirrel cage induction motor often reaches its maximum value at rated load. At light loads the machine becomes quite inefficient and since the phase of the stator current is lagging, the
2

conduction is started at zero crossing of the supply voltage and forced commutated at a certain angle before the next zero crossing (/). Fig. I shows the voltage and current waveforms in the EAC. Of course a freewheeling path is provided for the load current to discharge the stored energy of the load inductance. The output voltage is controlled by varying the extinction angle /. The fundamental component of input current leads the input voltage, and the displacement factor (and power factor) is leading. In some applications, this feature may be desirable to simulate a capacitive load and to compensate for line voltage drops. Therefore, the performance of ac voltage converters with extinction-angle control is similar to that with phase-angle control, except the power factor is leading while in phase-angle control, the power factor is lagging. This study is concerned with the investigation of ac voltage controllers with EAC technique applied to a static load and the widely used squirrel cage single-phase

' Nabil A. Ahmed, Assuit University, Faculty of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Depattment, Assuit 71516, Egypt, Nabil eacc.aun.edu.eg Emad H. EI-Zohri, Egyptian Electricity Holding Company, Assiut 500 kV Substation,

emadelzohri@yahoo.com

0-7803-8294-3/04/$20.00 ©2004 IEEE
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induction motor. The operation of this controller as a variable voltage source employing EAC is evaluated and compared with conventional PAC from supply power factor improvement point of view. The simulation results are verified experimentally.
deed time
4

V.,

Ain

Si I--pm. .I'l i H
I2

r7*K~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
i i i
-4--

I I

U

.i

0

0

Fig. I Input voltage, output voltage, Input current and output current waveforms with extinction-angle control.

11. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
Fig. 2 shows the schematic representation of the power circuit configuration which consists of a single-phase induction motor connected to an ac source through an ac voltage controller. The forward switch S I is used periodically to connect and disconnect the load to the supply in the EAC technique, i.e. regulates the power delivered to the load. The parallel switch S2 provides a freewheeling path for the load current to discharge the stored energy of the load inductance when the forward switch SI is turned off. Switch S I is turned on at at = 0 and is turned off by forced commutation at (t0 = - p as shown in Fig. I to supply power to the load during the active mode. For an inductive load, a freewheeling path for the load current must be provided for the period from 1= ir_--fl toot=,r by the freewheeling switch S2 to discharge the load inductance

+/~ I
I'
-

S

ii

on

52

T

r''on

stored energy during the freewheeling mode. The fundamental component of the input current leads the input voltage, and the displacement factor (and hence the power factor) is leading. The switching pulses shown in Fig. I are synchronized with the supply voltage and the output voltage is controlled by varying the extinction ariile p from 0 to nc to vary the rms value of the output voltage from rated input voltage to zero. The gating pulses of thw freewheeling switch S2 are the complemenit of the gating pulsp of the forward SI.

mcivi. n,x,& fri-whcciistg mesde

I 1

t

I

Fig. 2 Configuration of ac voltage converter fed single-phase induction motor.

I

a path for the current during the dead tiime whien botli switches are opened. The operation is divided ilto tlhree modes: active, dead time and freewheeling modes. The current flows through the input and output sides, providing energy to the load during the active mode, freewheels through the freewheeling path during the freewheeling mode and bypasses during the dead time mode. Detailed analysis of the operation modes and circuit description can be found in [101

requiisite to avoid comimiliutationi problcim. A by-pass capacitor Cb is added parallel to the load in order to provide

Due to non ideality of the switching devices, a dead time is

111. PERFORMANCE OF THE TEST CONVERTER
This section presents the performance evaluation of the proposed ac voltage converter with the EAC technique by simulation using MATLAB Simulink package and experimentally by using a prototype model where the used power electronic switches are MG5OJ2YS1 (600V, 50A) IGBT'S and PSB 35/14 (1400V, 35A) diode bridge rectifier. An experiment on 1.1 KVA (220V, 5A) laboratory model was performed in order to verify the feasibility of the circuit and to investigate the validity of the simulated results. The ac voltage controller with the EAC technique is applied to a static load and a dynamiiic load represented by a

1076

squirrel cage single-phase induction motor. The obtained simulated and experimental results will be discussed in the following: (A) Static R-L Load Table I shows the simulated and experimental circuit parameters for the ac voltage converter with an inductive load.
SIMULATED AND TEST CIRCUIT PARAMETERS

Parameter Maximum supply voltage

Supply frequency
By-pass capacitor Bleeding resistance Load resistance Load inductance

Switching frequency

Fig. 3 shows the variation of the simulated and experimental rms values of the output voltage V0 with the extinction angle J over the complete range of control.
0
S.

0

- e - - --1- -- - z - - - e --

Extnction angle (p) Fig. 3 Variation of the rms output voltage with the extinction angle.

0°0

20

1

40

Fig. 4 shows the variation of the supply power factor versus the extinction angle over the complete range of control for three different load conditions, resistive (O = 00) and two inductive loads (D = 450, 60° ). The measurement of the input power factor is done by two ways, by using the power analyzer and for verification by using a digital wattmeter to measure the values of the input power and nms values of the voltage and current at the supply side. Dividing the measured input power by the product of the rms values of the supply voltage and current results the average input power factor and the two ways lead to the same results. A

lItf lAK
TABLE I
Symbol

Vsm

Value 220-li [V]

As

f

50 [Hz] 100 (Hz]
1 pF

Cb

Rb

Ro
Lo

2.1 kfi 18 [Q] 99 [mH]

good agreement between the simulated and measured results is evident. It is worth to mention that the input power factor is improved gradually from its lagging value and becomes leading after the extinction angle exceeds the load angle and as the extinction angle increases, the input power factor gets more improved and this feature gives more importance for EAC technique. The positive sign in Fig. 4 refers to lagging power factor while the negative sign refers to leading power factor. Fig. 5 shows the simulated and measured variation of the supply power factor with the rms output voltage for the same loading conditions as in Fig. 4. As the rms output voltage decreases, i.e. the extinction angle increases), the supply power factor is improved gradually from its lagging value and becomes leading after the extinction angle exceeds the load angle and goes more leading as the extinction angle increases. This feature in EAC technique is mainly due to the fact that the fundamental component of the supply current leads the supply voltage because the displacement angle goes from lag to lead as the extinction angle increases.
I

0.5
0 0
0.

0 | -S§mtJlaled + Meas

0

_K

0 o6

-0.5

as

v

r

X

.1

)s

Extinction angle (A)

1-

-- - - w

txI

60

..

t_

Fig. 4 Variation of the Input Power factor with the extinction angle. I
1

80

100

120

140

160

0.5
0

S.

0

4-.5
-1

Output volage [V]

Fig. 5 Variation of the Input power factor with the otitput voltage.

1077

Fig. 6 demonstrates the simulated and mecasured variation of the total harmonic distortion factor TIlDF of the input current versus the rms output voltage for different load conditions. In this Figure as the output voltage decreases; the extinction angle increases and hence the THDF in the supply current increases. Also, as the load power factor decreases, the THDF increases. However, it is a compromise between the increase in THDF and the improvement in displacem-ent factor. It can be concluded that for the same load condition, although the increase in the THDF with increase in the extinction angle, the input power factor goes from lag to lead as well as displacement factor. Althoughi the increase in THDF will reduce the value of the supply power factor, however, it will not affect its leading nature.
4
I
.................
........
........

varying the extinction anigle, a wide range of motor speed
conitrol can be achieved.
200

ISO.....

Simulated
Measured

>

14go

....

6

......... ....

420 .

.

. . . . .

200

.:.
.

. .

...
...

.

...

.

.

. . .

. . .

. .

.

..

..

.....

.

............

II

z

3.5 -I t! 3 4 v
t:

...................

:3 2.5
2
I
-

Simulated Measured
...

0

18

36

54

72 90 log 126 Extinction angle ( 0 )

144

162

180

Z 0

Om

=1

..............I........ I........I

.......

1.5 El,
Q

I

Fig. 7 varilation of the motor applied voltage. OR8
V.

-

0.
........
... .......

.6

...

..... ....

..

.

.

.

..

....

0.5

..........
-,
--

0.
4

4

~~~~~~~~~~Measured

A u.-

20

40

60

80

Output voltage [VI

100

120

140 160 180 200 220

to0

4.0 -0

Fig. 6 Variation of TI-IDF of Input current with the outpuit voltalge.

.2 4 3 4 .. .

.

7

. ~

198 1?6

(II) Induction Motor Control The proposed extinction-angle control technique has been applied, also, to a dynamic load represented by a 1/6 Hp, 180 V, 1.8 A, 50 Hz split-phase squirrel cage induction motor coupled to a fan as a mechanical load to obtain variable speed operation. The test motor
paramneters are:
Xm =7.8lI 2 Rm=7.2 5 C P= 2 M l01.81 C2 7.08 (l Xr 3.9fl Rr= R 1 5.6 Ql Xa IL.2 Detailed analysis of the motor performance equations

1.6

~~~~~~~~~~.........

l

62 2
....

0

.I

I.
&Extinction angle ( fi)

Fi'g. 8 Variation

of the

input

power factor with the extinction

angle.

0.1.8
..6. 0.1 .6
..

.

0.
.

4~~~~~~L~~~MeasuMasred
..
.

.

.

.

.

..

.

..

SimFulated.
..

can be found in literature

[I11]. The obtained simulated and experimental results will be discussed in the following: Fig. 7 depicts the variation of the computed and measured rms value of the motor applied voltage with the extinction angle. A significant improvement in the input power factor with the extiniction angle control is showni in Figs. 8 and 9. Fig. 10 gives the variation of the computed and mneasured THDF of the input current withi the mnotor

0.
L.

2

06

.0. 0.0

~.4

....60 .0

lI $o

120

140

160

.6~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..............
IV]
niotor voltage.

applied voltage. The computed and measured variation of the motor speed versus the extinction angle is shown in Fig. Il1. By

-fix
RMS notor

voltage

Fig.

9Variation of the

Input

power factor with the

1078

3.S
3

^

900, . . ,

~~~~~~~~~Simulated80
...........

a2.5 .......... 2
.

.......... ... ... ..........0...........

........0
5- 00

0

2-i600

_700

-Cmue

0--Measured

o.400-

0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ o300
100 200*
0 0.05 0.1 0.15

.....

.

.....

.

......

.........

0
20

I 40

1 60

1 1 § 100 120 80 RMS motor voltage [VJ

1 140

160

1

180

slpl

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Fig. 10 THDF of the input current with the output voltage.
1600___________________________________________ _
140 .7........
. . . ..

Fig. 13 Variation of the input power with slip.
I
0.8
_

$

...........G5-

1200-> @
goo
............ ............

8

i >

Measured

<,, Q~

~

~

-Computed

*Measured ~~~~~~~~~~~~.2

.............I.............I...........

,600t-teX -@--------...........

'
........
...

0.05 ....-0.2 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
*.0.4 -¢ ,,, -0.4

,*4

....

t

200 -........................-...........-

.........................

V

0

.1 . 18 36

54

72

. 90

-......... .8 --f . 126 108
2.5

Slip I p.u .Fig. 14 Variation of the input power factor with slip.
-

Extincton angle ( p )

Fig. IiVariation of the motor speed loaded by a fan with
the extinction angle.

2

-Computedl

Meaured

The steady state characteristics of the test motor with extinction angle control technique, such as motor input current, input power, input power factor developed torque and motor efficiency, are shown in Figs. 12-16. It must be mentioned that the supply power factor is improved gradually and becomes leading after the extinction angle exceeds the load 0.0 .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ angle as shown in Figs. 8 and 14.
Copue

Z 1.5
0.5
0

0

'

0.1 .l -- 0 15o- 0.2 o0.25 SlipIpuI
0

0

0.3 0

0.35 0

0.4 0

Fig. 15 Torque-slip characteristics.
0.7

0.1
0

0.05

0 -Computed 0.1 00.

7

-

0O

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Slip [P.UI

0

O.OS

0.1

0.1S

Slip [ p.u I

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Fig. 12 Variation of the motor input current with slip.

Fig. 16 Variation of the motor eMciency with slip.

1079

V. CONCLUSIONS
The paper presents the EAC technique for singlephase ac-ac voltage converters. The EAC technique provides a considerable improvement in the input power factor. This improvement is mainly due to the improvement in the displacement factor. The ac

[61 A. M. Hashem, "An Efficient Approach to Dynamic Modeling and
[7]

voltage controller with the EAC technique has been applied to a static load and a dynamic load which is a squirrel cage single-phase induction motor loaded by a fan. A full control range of the ac output power and a wide control range of the motor speed can be achieved. Thus, this technique is suitable for speed control of single-phase induction motor as it is required a simple and less costly technique. A good agreement is obtained between the simulated and the experimental results.

[8]
[91

[10]

REFERENCES
[11 S. Willliams, "Reduction of the Voltage and Current Harmonics Introduced by a Single-Phase Triac ac Controller," IEEE Trans. Ind.
Electron. Contr. Instrum. Vol. 28, no. 4, 1981. [2] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and applications, 2nd edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1993. [31 1. 1. Barbi and J. C. Fagundes, "A Compact AC/AC Voltage Regulator Based on AC/AC High Frequency Flyback Converter," in Proc. IEEE PESC'91, 1991, pp. 846-852.

[II]

[12]
[131

[14]

[4] K. S. Lock, Thyristor Control of Shaded-Pole Induction Motors", Electric Machines and Power Systems, pp. 185-193, 1987. [5] C. V. Abroal and S. S. Sharama, "Integral-Cycle Control of SinglePhase Induction Motor Using SCR's", International Conference on I.lectrical Machines, ICEM, pp. 35-37, 1988.

Transient Analysis of SCR Controlled Induction Motors", International Conference on Electrical Machines, ICEM, pp. 365370, 1988. E. El-Bidweihy, K. Al.-Bidweihy M. S. Metwally and M. El.Bedwiehy, "Power Factor of AC Controllers for Inductive Loads," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Contr. Instrum., vol. IECI-27, no. 3, pp. 210-212, June 1980. Longya Xu., "Dynamic Model of an Integral-Cycle Controlled SinglePhase Induction Machine", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 761-767, December 1992. G Roy, P. Poitevin and G. Olivier, "A Simple Topologies for SinglePhase AC Line Conditioning," IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. IA30, no. 2, pp. 406-412, March./April 1994. A-R A. M. Makky Nabil A. Ahmed Emad H. El-Zohri., "Ac Voltage Controller-Fed Siingle_phase Induction Motor with Power Factor Improvement Employing Modified Phase Angle Control Technique," Proceeding of the Ninth International Middle-East Power Systems Conference, Mepcon'2003, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, December 16-18,2003. S. S. Shokralla, "A New Modeling Approach for Speed Control of Single-Phase Capacitor Motor Using Proportional Controller," ICECS'94, Dec. 19-22, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. A-R A. M. Makky, G. M. Abdel-Rahim, and N. A. Ahmed, "A Novel DC Chopper Drive for Single-Phase Induction Motors," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 33-39, Feb. 1995. Nabil A. Ahmed, K. Amei and M. Sakui, "A New Configuration of Single-Phase Symmetrical PWM AC Chopper Voltage Controller," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 942-952, Oct. 1999. Nabil A. Ahmed, Kenji Amei and Masaaki Sakui, "AC Chopper Voltage Controller-Fed Single-Phase Induction Motor Employing Symmetrical PWM Control Technique," Electrical Power Syslems Research Journal, Vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 15-25, July 2000.

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