AC Drives Technical Guide Book

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This is the first AC Drives Technical Guide Book, a complete set of ABB's Technical Guides 1-8. We wish that the accumulated knowledge of world's leading AC Drives manufacturer will work for your benefit. The aim of this book is to provide you a solid tool for every day use in the arena of AC drives. Best regards,

Mika Kulju Product Management We updated existing Guides over time, so the latest versions and new Technical Guides can be found from our web site: http://www.abb.com/motors&drives

AC Drives Technical Guide Book

AC Drives Technical Guide Book

Contents
1. Direct Torque Control explains what DTC is; why and how it has evolved; the basic theory behind its success; and the features and benefits of this new technology. 2. EU Council Directives and Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems is to give a straightforward explanation of how the various EU Council Directives relate to Power Drive Systems. 3. EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System assists design and installation personnel when trying to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC Directive in the user's systems and installations when using AC Drives. 4. Guide to Variable Speed Drives describes basics of different variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in industrial processes. 5. Bearing Currents in Modern AC Drive Systems explains how to avoid damages.

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6. Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives describes harmonic distortion, its sources and effect, and also distortion calculation and evaluation with special attention to the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives. 7. Dimensioning of a Drives system. Making dimensioning correctly is the fastest way of saving money. Biggest savings can be achieved by avoiding very basic mistakes. These dimensioning basics and beyond can be found in this guide. 8. Electrical Braking describes the practical solutions available in reducing stored energy and transferring stored energy back into electrical energy.

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AC Drives Technical Guide Book

AC Drives Technical Guide Book

Technical Guide No.the world's most advanced AC drive technology . 1 Direct Torque Control .

2 Technical Guide No.1.Direct Torque Control .

..................... 10 Advantages ................................. 13 Questions and Answers ........................................................ 11 AC Drives ...................................Direct Torque Control 3 ............ 27 Step 1 Voltage and Current Measurements ...................................... 5 General .......Introduction ............... 15 Performance .................. 30 1 2 3 4 5 Technical Guide No................................ 5 Evolution of Direct Torque Control ............................................................ 10 AC Drives ......... 28 Speed Control ...................................................................... 5 This Manual’s Purpose ........................................... 10 Features.................................. 7 Drawbacks ......Direct Torque Control ....................................................................................................................................... 29 Step 7 Flux Reference Controller ....................... 26 How DTC Works ................................... 16 Operation ................................ 12 Comparison of Variable Speed Drives ............................................................. 29 Step 5 Torque Reference Controller ... 6 What is a Variable Speed Drive? ................................................................................... 8 AC Drives ..................Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 7 Features................. 15 General .................................... 5 Using this Guide ..................................................... 9 Features....................................................................... 11 Drawbacks ....................................... 12 Controlling Variables ......................................................................Flux Vector Control using PWM ..................................................Frequency Control using PWM .......................... 6 Summary ............... 27 Step 2 Adaptive Motor Model ............................... 22 Basic Control Theory .......................................................... 6 DC Motor Drives ....................... 29 Index .......................................................................... 9 Advantages ................ 8 AC Drives ........... 26 Torque Control Loop............. 7 Advantages ................... 29 Step 6 Speed Controller ............................................ 10 Drawbacks .....1............ 27 Step 3 Torque Comparator and Flux Comparator 28 Step 4 Optimum Pulse Selector .................................................

Direct Torque Control .4 Technical Guide No.1.

1 Using this guide This guide has been designed to give a logical build up as to why and how DTC was developed. In fact.is the most advanced AC drive technology developed by any manufacturer in the world. please go straight to Chapter 3 (page 15) Questions & Answers. Technical Guide No. air conditioning and other industries. why and how it has evolved. this guide does require a basic understanding of AC motor control principles. chemical. It is aimed at decision makers including designers. For an understanding of DTC’s Basic Control Theory.Direct Torque Control 5 . OEMs and end-users. and the features and benefits of this new technology. power generation. pulp and paper. For those readers wanting answers about DTC’s performance. specifiers. While trying to be as practical as possible.or DTC . turn to page 26.Introduction General This manual’s purpose Direct Torque Control . operation and application potential.Chapter 1 . The purpose of this Technical Guide is to explain what DTC is. the basic theory behind its success. in all markets such as the water. anyone using variable speed drives (VSD) and who would like to benefit from VSD technology will find this Technical Guide essential reading.1. Readers wanting to know the evolution of drives from early DC techniques through AC to DTC should start at Chapter 2 (page 6). purchasing managers. material handling.

flux vector control. the speed is determined by the load. 6 Technical Guide No. Initially.Evolution of Direct Torque Control What is a variable speed drive? To understand the answer to this question we have to understand that the basic function of a variable speed drive (VSD) is to control the flow of energy from the mains to the process. Two physical quantities describe the state of the shaft: torque and speed. the evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been driven partly by the desire to emulate the excellent performance of the DC motor. However. leading to a total picture that identifies the key differences between each. when operated in speed control. charting the four milestones of variable speed drives. Summary In this section we look at the evolution of DTC. either one of them is controlled and we speak of “torque control” or “speed control”. the torque is determined by the load. Likewise. while using rugged. When the VSD operates in torque control mode. PWM AC Drives. such as fast torque response and speed accuracy. Energy is supplied to the process through the motor shaft. frequency control. inexpensive and maintenance free AC motors. control these quantities. To control the flow of energy we must therefore. Direct Torque Control 7 9 10 12 We examine each in turn. PWM AC Drives.1.Chapter 2 . DC motors were used as VSDs because they could easily achieve the required speed and torque without the need for sophisticated electronics. ultimately. In practice. namely: • • • • DC Motor Drives AC Drives.Direct Torque Control .

Advantages • Accurate and fast torque control • High dynamic speed response • Simple to control Initially. Once field orientation is achieved.1. Technical Guide No. is needed to generate maximum torque. the magnetic field is created by the current through the field winding in the stator.the two main concerns of the end-user . measured DIRECTLY from the motor • Torque control is direct In a DC motor. This field is always at right angles to the field created by the armature winding.are controlled directly through armature current: that is the torque is the inner control loop and the speed is the outer control loop (see Figure 1). DC drives were used for variable speed control because they could easily achieve a good torque and speed response with high accuracy. This condition.Direct Torque Control 7 . The commutator-brush assembly ensures this condition is maintained regardless of the rotor position.Evolution of Direct Torque Control DC Motor Drives 1 Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Motor Drive Features • Field orientation via mechanical commutator • Controlling variables are Armature Current and Field Current. known as field orientation. the DC motor’s torque is easily controlled by varying the armature current and by keeping the magnetising current constant. The advantage of DC drives is that speed and torque .

and that they require encoders for speed and position feedback. the fact that brushes and commutators wear down and need regular servicing. that DC motors can be costly to purchase. • Rapid .1. Drawbacks • • • • Reduced motor reliability Regular maintenance Customer Motor costly to purchase Location Needs encoder for feedback Application Equipment Supplied The main drawback of this technique is the reduced reliability of the DC motor.Direct Torque Control . which would increase the cost of the motor controller.torque control is fast.e. there is no need for complex electronic control circuitry. Hence. A voltage fed drive still has a fast response. While a DC drive produces an easily controlled torque from zero to base speed and beyond. 8 Technical Guide No. while utilising the advantages offered by the standard AC motor. the drive system can have a very high dynamic speed response. the total inductance and resistance in the armature circuit) • Simple .the motor torque is proportional to the armature current: the torque can thus be controlled directly and accurately. the motor’s mechanics are more complex and require regular maintenance. Torque can be changed instantaneously if the motor is fed from an ideal current source.field orientation is achieved using a simple mechanical device called a commutator/brush assembly. such as fast torque response and speed accuracy. AC Drives Introduction • • • • • • Small size Robust Simple in design Light and compact Low maintenance Low cost The evolution of AC variable speed drive technology has been partly driven by the desire to emulate the performance of the DC drive.Evolution of Direct Torque Control A DC machine is able to produce a torque that is: • Direct . since this is determined only by the rotor’s electrical time constant (i.

Technical Guide No. without a feedback device. Such an arrangement. is called an “open-loop drive”. this method does not use a feedback device which takes speed or position measurements from the motor’s shaft and feeds these back into the control loop. the AC drive frequency control technique uses parameters generated outside of the motor as controlling variables.1. The inverter controls the motor in the form of a PWM pulse train dictating both the voltage and frequency. namely voltage and frequency. Significantly.Evolution of Direct Torque Control AC Drives frequency control using PWM 1 Figure 2: Control loop of an AC Drive with frequency control using PWM Features • • • • • Controlling variables are Voltage and Frequency Simulation of variable AC sine wave using modulator Flux provided with constant V/f ratio Open-loop drive Load dictates torque level Unlike a DC drive.Direct Torque Control 9 . Both voltage and frequency reference are fed into a modulator which simulates an AC sine wave and feeds this to the motor’s stator windings. This technique is called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and utilises the fact that there is a diode rectifier towards the mains and the intermediate DC voltage is kept constant.

field orientation of the motor is not used. The status of the rotor is ignored. Furthermore. AC Drives flux vector control using PWM Figure 3: Control loop of an AC Drive with flux vector control using PWM Features • Field-oriented control . such as pumps and fans.simulates DC drive • Motor electrical characteristics are simulated .Evolution of Direct Torque Control Advantages • Low cost • No feedback device required .simple Because there is no feedback device.“Motor Model” • Closed-loop drive • Torque controlled INDIRECTLY 10 Technical Guide No. Drawbacks • • • • Field orientation not used Motor status ignored Torque is not controlled Delaying modulator used With this technique. torque cannot be controlled with any degree of accuracy. This type of drive is suitable for applications which do not require high levels of accuracy or precision. Therefore.Direct Torque Control . meaning that no speed or position signal is fed back. the technique uses a modulator which basically slows down communication between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to respond to this changing signal. frequency and voltage are the main control variables and are applied to the stator windings. the controlling principle offers a low cost and simple solution to controlling economical AC induction motors.1. sometimes known as Scalar Control. Instead.

and feeds these through a modulator to the AC induction motor. The electronic controller of a flux-vector drive creates electrical quantities such as voltage. giving it a performance very close to that of a DC drive. Although the motor is mechanically simple. information about the rotor status is obtained by feeding back rotor speed and angular position relative to the stator field by means of a pulse encoder. Also. Technical Guide No. This can be costly and also adds complexity to the traditional simple AC induction motor. Firstly.e. a modulator is used. A drive that uses speed encoders is referred to as a “closed-loop drive”. Drawbacks • Feedback is needed • Costly • Modulator needed To achieve a high level of torque response and speed accuracy. Also the motor’s electrical characteristics are mathematically modelled with microprocessors used to process the data. which are the controlling variables. is controlled INDIRECTLY. to perform the field orientation process. With flux vector PWM drives. field orientation is achieved by electronic means rather than the mechanical commutator/ brush assembly of the DC motor. Torque.1. current and frequency. which slows down communication between the incoming voltage and frequency signals and the need for the motor to respond to this changing signal. 1 Advantages • • • • Good torque response Accurate speed control Full torque at zero speed Performance approaching DC drive Flux vector control achieves full torque at zero speed. the flux-vector drive needs to know the spatial angular position of the rotor flux inside the AC induction motor. i.Evolution of Direct Torque Control To emulate the magnetic operating conditions of a DC motor. the drive is electrically complex. a feedback device is required. therefore.Direct Torque Control 11 .

DTC uses the fastest digital signal processing hardware available and a more advanced mathematical understanding of how a motor works. The controlling variables are motor magnetising flux and motor torque. With DTC there is no modulator and no requirement for a tachometer or position encoder to feed back the speed or position of the motor shaft.1. The remaining sections in this guide highlight the features and advantages of DTC.Evolution of Direct Torque Control AC Drives Direct Torque Control Figure 4: Control loop of an AC Drive using DTC Controlling Variables With the revolutionary DTC technology developed by ABB.Direct Torque Control . The result is a drive with a torque response that is typically 10 times faster than any AC or DC drive. The dynamic speed accuracy of DTC drives will be 8 times better than any open loop AC drives and comparable to a DC drive that is using feedback. DTC produces the first “universal” drive with the capability to perform like either an AC or DC drive. 12 Technical Guide No. field orientation is achieved without feedback using advanced motor theory to calculate the motor torque directly and without using modulation.

But DTC has added benefits including no feedback device is used. 1 Figure 1: Control loop of a DC Drive Figure 2: Control loop with frequency control Figure 3: Control loop with flux vector control Figure 4: Control loop of an AC Drive using DTC The first observation is the similarity between the control block of the DC drive (Figure 1) and that of DTC (Figure 4). all the benefits of an AC motor (see page 8).Evolution of Direct Torque Control Comparison of variable speed drives Let us now take a closer look at each of these control blocks and spot a few differences.1. and no external excitation is needed.Direct Torque Control 13 . Both are using motor parameters to directly control torque. Table 1: Comparison of control variables Technical Guide No.

the dynamic performance is fast and easy. the controlling variables are frequency and voltage which need to go through several stages before being applied to the motor. Thus. for most applications.Evolution of Direct Torque Control As can be seen from Table 1. Thus. both DC Drives and DTC drives use actual motor parameters to control torque and speed. with PWM drives control is handled inside the electronic controller and not inside the motor. With PWM AC drives.Direct Torque Control . the main one being that no modulator is required with DTC.1. 14 Technical Guide No. Also with DTC. Comparing DTC (Figure 4) with the two other AC drive control blocks (Figures 2 & 3) shows up several differences. no tachometer or encoder is needed to feed back a speed or position signal.

• A comfortable working environment with a drive that produces much lower audible noise. similar to a DC motor. cuts out the middle man and dramatically speeds up the response of the drive to changes in required torque. in effect. DTC is the first technology to control the “real” motor control variables of torque and flux. For example. This. That is a truly “universal” drive.or DTC as it is called . but contrary to the way in which traditional PWM drives use input frequency and voltage. there is no need for a modulator. industry wants: • Better product quality which can be partly achieved with improved speed accuracy and faster torque control. DTC also provides precise torque control without the need for a feedback device.is the very latest AC drive technology developed by ABB and is set to replace traditional PWM drives of the open. 1 Technical Guide No. as used in PWM drives.Chapter 3 . DC or servo.1. Why is it called Direct Torque Control? Direct Torque Control describes the way in which the control of torque and speed are directly based on the electromagnetic state of the motor.and closed-loop type in the near future.Direct Torque Control 15 . to control the frequency and voltage. • Fewer products. Why is there a need for another AC drive technology? DTC is not just another AC drive technology. • Less down time which means a drive that will not trip unnecessarily. One drive capable of meeting all application needs whether AC.Questions & Answers General What is Direct Control? Direct Torque Control . a drive that is not complicated by expensive feedback devices. Industry is demanding more and existing drive technology cannot meet these demands. What is the advantage of this? Because torque and flux are motor parameters that are being directly controlled. and a drive which is not greatly affected by interferences like harmonics and RFI.

This is half that of other open-loop AC drives and equal to that of closed-loop AC and DC drives.Direct Torque Control . • Torque repeatability: . 16 Technical Guide No. many of which are obtained without the need for an encoder or tachometer to monitor shaft position or speed: • Torque response: . DTC leans on the theory of field oriented control of induction machines and the theory of direct self control. can provide 1 to 2% torque repeatability of the nominal torque across the speed range. without an encoder. DTC can deliver solutions to all these demands as well as bringing new benefits to many standard applications. with its torque response. For DTC. In fact. Who invented DTC? ABB has been carrying out research into DTC since 1988 foll owing the publication of the theory in 1971 and 1985 by German doctor Blaschke and his colleague Depenbrock.Questions and Answers These are just some of the demands from industry. ABB has spent over 100 man years developing the technology. a typical torque response is 1 to 2ms below 40Hz compared to between 10-20ms for both flux vector and DC drives fitted with an encoder. But most significantly. With open loop PWM drives (see page 9) the response time is typically well over 100ms.1.How quickly the drive output can reachthe specified value when a nominal 100% torque reference step is applied. speed can be controlled to frequencies below 0. as well as full load torque at zero speed without the need for a feedback device such as an encoder or tachometer.How well the drive repeats its output torque with the same torque reference command. DTC. response time cannot be any shorter.5Hz and still provide 100% torque right the way through to zero speed. • Accurate torque control at low frequencies. With DTC. DTC has achieved the natural limit. Performance What are the main benefits of DTC technology over traditional AC drive technology? There are many benefits of DTC technology. Even in the newer “sensorless” drives the torque response is hundreds of milliseconds. drives using DTC technology have the following exceptional dynamic performance features. With the voltage and current available.

for the same accuracy from DC drives an encoder is needed. If we furnish the DTC controller with an encoder. tension control can be achieved from zero through to maximum speed.Questions and Answers • Motor static speed accuracy: . used in the paper industry. the dynamic accuracy is eight times less and in practical terms around 3%sec. the dynamic speed accuracy will be 0. This satisfies the accuracy requirement for 95% of industrial drives applications. the static speed accuracy is typically between 1 to 3%. So the potential for customer process improvements is significantly higher with standard drives using DTC technology. 1 Technical Guide No. speed accuracy is 10% of the motor slip. which matches servo drive performance. DTC brings the cost saving benefit that no tachometer is needed. • Torque linearity: . However. A DTC drive using an encoder with 1024 pulses/revolution can achieve a speed accuracy of 0. which can be tuned to the process requirements.This is particularly beneficial to cranes or elevators. which with an 11kW motor. For DTC. where the load needs to be started and stopped regularly without any jerking. • Dynamic speed accuracy: . With a 110kW motor. where an accurate and consistent level of winding is critical.3 to 0. Also with a winder.Direct Torque Control 17 . with frequency controlled PWM drives. In contrast.3% static speed accuracy. This depends on the gain adjustment of the controller. • Torque control at low frequencies: .4%sec. bringing much improved process control and a more consistent product quality. equals 0.1.Time integral of speed deviation when a nominal (100%) torque speed is applied. With other open-loop AC drives.1% without encoder (open-loop). DTC open-loop dynamic speed accuracy is between 0. What are the practical benefits of these performance figures? • Fast torque response: .This significantly reduces the speed drop time during a load transient.Error between speed reference and actual value at constant load.1%sec.This is important in precision applications like winders. speed accuracy is 0.01%. Compared to PWM flux vector drives.

are there any other benefits of DTC drive technology? Yes. Reduced mechanical failures for machinery.1.Questions and Answers • Dynamic speed accuracy: . Less downtime. FEATURE Good motor speed accuracy without tachometer. Allows drive to be used in traditional DC drive applications. Smooth transition between drive and brake. provides position control and better static accuracy. Lower investment. Cost effective. Similar performance to DC but without tachometer.After a sudden load change. Increased reliability. Torque repeatability 1%. Higher product quality. Excellent torque control without tachometer. high performance torque drive. Standard AC motor means less maintenance and lower cost. RESULT Allows speed to be controlled better than 0. Servo drive performance. For example. Full torque at zero speed with or without tachometer/encoder. DTC drives do not need a tachometer or encoder to monitor motor shaft speed or position in order to achieve the fastest torque response ever from an AC drive. Can use AC drive and motor instead of DC.Direct Torque Control . 18 Technical Guide No. Allows required torque at all times. Leads to a true universal drive. High accuracy control with standard AC motor. Table 2: Dynamic performance features and benefits offered by DTC technology Apart from excellent dynamic performance figures. Better process control.5% accuracy. Better load control. Torque response time less than 5ms. BENEFIT Investment cost savings. No mechanical brake needed. the motor can recover to a stable state remarkably fast. No tachometer needed in 95% of all applications. Control down to zero speed and position with encoder. there are many benefits. Drive for demanding applications. Investment cost saving. This saves initial cost.

Guaranteed starting torque. Can be used for decelerating to other than zero speed.Direct Torque Control 19 . pumps. therefore acoustic noise reasonable due to “white” noise spectrum. Can accelerate and decelerate in quickest time possible without mechanical constraints. No harmful mechanical resonances. Less waste in continuous process. Resume control in all situations. RESULT Power loss ride through. Flux braking. Easy retrofit for any AC system.Questions and Answers FEATURE Rapid control DC link voltage. No parameter tuning required. Lower stresses in gearboxes. No restarting delay required. Automatic start (Flying start). Table 3: User features and benefits offered by DTC technology Technical Guide No. No fixed carrier. Controlled motor. Investment cost savings. Less motor noise. Less down time. No delay required as in DC braking. Motor losses minimised. Avoids process interruptions. Better process control. Better process control. No process interruptions. fans. BENEFIT Drive will not trip. Starting with motor residual inductance present. Can start into a motor that is running without waiting for flux to decay. Controlled braking between two speed points. 1 Automatic start (Direct restart). Reduced need for brake chopper and resistor. Cost savings in acoustic barriers in noise sensitive applications. Can transfer motor from line to drive. No predetermined switching pattern of power devices. Flux optimisation. Smooth control of machinery. Synchronises to rotating motor. No restart.1. No limits on maximum acceleration and deceleration rate. Self identification/ Auto-tuning. No interruptions on process. Tuning the motor to drive for top performance. Less commissioning time. Low noise. Easy and accurate setup.

water and food and drinks. 20 Technical Guide No. DTC technology can provide control to the drive input line generating unit.1. in screw pumps a drive using DTC technology will be able to adjust itself for sufficient starting torque for a guaranteed start. The DC link voltage must not drop below the lowest control level of 80%. The motor can be started immediately without delay. For example. DTC drives easily withstand huge and sudden load torques caused by rapid changes in the process.99. The low level current distortion with a DTC controlled bridge will be less than a conventional 6-pulse or 12-pulse configuration and power factor can be as high as 0. Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HeVAC). What is the impact of DTC on pump control? DTC has an impact on all types of pumps. For example. It appears that DTC drives are most advantageous for high performance or demanding drive applications. To ensure this. DTC technology allows a drive to adjust itself to varying application needs. where a conventional diode bridge is replaced with a controlled bridge. Two of the most common applications are in fans and pumps in industries like Heating. all pumps. This means that harmonics can be significantly reduced with a DTC controlled input bridge. the drive must remain energised. DTC provides solutions to problems like harmonics and noise. What benefits does DTC bring to standard drives? Standard applications account for 70% of all variable speed drives installed throughout industry. regardless of whether they are centrifugal or constant torque type (screw pumps) can now be controlled with one drive configuration. if there is a loss of input power for a short time. For standard applications. without any overvoltage or overcurrent trip.Direct Torque Control . In these applications.Questions and Answers Also a DTC drive features rapid starting in all motor electromagnetic and mechanical states. as can aerators and conveyors. Also. DTC has a 25 microseconds control cycle. Because DTC leads to a universal drive.

What is the impact of DTC technology on energy savings? A feature of DTC which contributes to energy efficiency is a development called motor flux optimisation. one of the world's largest web machine manufacturers tested DTC technology for a winder in a film finishing process.1.Direct Torque Control 21 . with 25% load there is up to 10% total energy efficiency improvement. 1 Technical Guide No. there are hundreds of thousands of installations in use. With this feature. The Requirement: Exact torque control in the winder so as to produce high quality film rolls. At 50% load there can be 2% total efficiency improvement. For example. The Solution: Open-loop DTC drives have replaced traditional DC drives and latter flux vector controlled AC drives on the centre drives in the rewind station. This feature also significantly reduces the motor noise compared to that generated by the switching frequency of a traditional PWM drive. Has DTC technology been used in many installations? Yes. For example.Questions and Answers Improved power loss ride through will improve pumping availability during short power breaks. the efficiency of the total drive (that is controller and motor) is greatly improved in fan and pump applications. The inherent torque control facility for DTC technology allows the torque to be limited in order to avoid mechanical stress on pumps and pipelines. This directly impacts on operating costs.

• DTC control DTC allows the motor’s torque and stator flux to be used as primary control variables.Questions and Answers The Benefits: Winder station construction simplified and reliability increased. • Controlling variables are taken directly from the motor (see page 27). a PWM modulator takes 10 times longer than DTC to respond to actual change. This provides significant investment cost savings.1. The cost of one tachometer and associated wiring equals that of one 30kW AC motor. there is no need for a separate voltage and frequency controlled PWM modulator. • No modulator is needed (see page 12). Why does DTC not need a tachometer or position encoder to tell it precisely where the motor shaft is at all times? There are four main reasons for this: • The accuracy of the Motor Model (see page 27). Another big advantage of a DTC drive is that no feedback device is needed for 95% of all drive applications. This modulator stage adds to the signal processing time and therefore limits the level of torque and speed response possible from the PWM drive. Typically.Direct Torque Control . with DTC. • The fast processing speeds of the DSP and Optimum Pulse Selector hardware (see page 28). 22 Technical Guide No. Operation What is the difference between DTC and traditional PWM methods? • Frequency Control PWM and Flux Vector PWM Traditional PWM drives use output voltage and output frequency as the primary control variables but these need to be pulse width modulated before being applied to the motor. both of which are obtained directly from the motor itself. Therefore.

A typical dynamic speed accuracy for a servo drive is 0. This is the best available. it is the fastest ever achieved. see page 26. To achieve a fast torque loop. Thus.1%s. A DTC drive can reach this dynamic accuracy with the optional speed feedback from a tachometer How does DTC achieve these major improvements over traditional technology? The most striking difference is the sheer speed by which DTC operates. For a clearer understanding of DTC control theory. But the main difference is that DTC provides accurate control even at low speeds and down to zero speed without encoder feedback. 1 Technical Guide No. What is the difference between DTC and other sensorless drives on the market? There are vast differences between DTC and many of the sensorless drives. Quite simply. the above features produce a drive capable of calculating the ideal switching voltages 40. the inverter’s semiconductors are supplied with an optimum switching pattern to produce the required torque. It is fast enough to control individual switching pulses. not the inverter.Direct Torque Control 23 . ABB has utilised the latest high speed signal processing technology and spent 100 man years developing the highly advanced Motor Model which precisely simulates the actual motor parameters within the controller. This update rate is substantially less than any time constants in the motor. Once every 25 microseconds. As mentioned above. At low frequencies the nominal torque step can be increased in less than 1ms.1. the torque response is the quickest available. How does a DTC drive achieve the performance of a servo drive? Quite simply because the motor is now the limit of performance and not the drive itself.000 times every second. the motor is now the limiting component.Questions and Answers When combined to form a DTC drive.

A drive using DTC technology is said to be tripless. The speed and accuracy of a drive which relies on computed rather than measured control parameters can never be realistic. thanks to the sophistication of the Motor Model and the ability to carry out 40. the problem with PWM is in the range 20-30Hz which causes torque ripple. The exceptions. mainly applications where extremely precise speed control is needed. As explained above. There is never any doubt as to the motor’s state. however. The dead time is measured and is taken into account by the Motor Model when calculating the actual flux. can be simpler than the sensors needed for conventional closed loop drives. where up to 30% of all switchings are wasted. Is this true with DTC? DTC knows the full picture. As DTC is controlling the torque directly. you are not getting the full picture. DTC achieves tripless operation by controlling the actual motor torque.Direct Torque Control . a drive using DTC technology knows precisely where the shaft is and so does not waste any of its switchings.1. a DTC drive knows precisely what the motor shaft is doing. current can be kept within these limits in all operating conditions.000 calculations every second. Unless you are looking at the shaft. How has this been achieved? Many manufacturers have spent years trying to avoid trips during acceleration and deceleration and have found it extraordinarily difficult. Therefore.Questions and Answers Does a DTC drive use fuzzy logic within its control loop? No. DTC can cover 95% of all industrial applications. This device. Fuzzy logic is used in some drives to maintain the acceleration current within current limits and therefore prevent the drive from tripping unnecessarily. Even with the fastest semiconductors some dead time is introduced. how accurate is the autotuning of a DTC drive? Auto-tuning is used in the initial identification run of a DTC drive (see page 27). If we compare to a PWM drive. will be catered for by adding a feedback device to provide closed loop control. Unlike traditional AC drives. This is reflected in the exceptionally high torque response and speed accuracy figures quoted on pages 16 and 17. 24 Technical Guide No.

We have defined the accuracies as follows: Torque accuracy: Within a speed range of 2-100% and a load range of 10-100%. it would be best to select the scalar control macro. 1 Technical Guide No.1. the arrangement operates as one large motor. If the number of motors varies or the motor power remains below 1/8 of the rated power.Questions and Answers What kind of stability will a DTC drive have at light loads and low speeds? The stability down to zero speed is good and both torque and speed accuracy can be maintained at very low speeds and light loads. What are the limitations of DTC? If several motors are connected in parallel in a DTC-controlled inverter. the speed accuracy is 10% of the motor slip.2%. Speed accuracy: Within a speed range of 2-100% and a load range of 10-100%. the torque accuracy is 2%.Direct Torque Control 25 . any type of asynchronous. It has no information about the status of any single motor. Motor slip of a 37kW motor is about 2% which means a speed accuracy of 0. squirrel cage motor. Can DTC work with any type of induction motor? Yes.

26 Technical Guide No. Now we will walk around the blocks exploring each stage and showing how they integrate together.1. shows the complete block diagram for Direct Torque Control (DTC). Walk around the block Figure 5: DTC comprises two key blocks: Speed Control and Torque Control The block diagram shows that DTC has two fundamental sections: the Torque Control Loop and the Speed Control Loop.Basic Control Theory How DTC works Figure 5. Let’s start with DTC’s Torque Control Loop.Chapter 4 .Direct Torque Control . below.

Technical Guide No. two motor phase currents and the DC bus voltage are simply measured. This makes it easy to apply DTC technology also in retrofits. There is no need to feed back any shaft speed or position with tachometers or encoders if the static speed accuracy requirement is over 0.1.Direct Torque Control 27 . This is called auto-tuning and data such as stator resistance.5%. as it is for most industrial applications.Basic Control Theory Torque Control Loop 1 Step 1 Voltage and current measurements Step 2 Adaptive Motor Model In normal operation. The measured information from the motor is fed to the Adaptive Motor Model. the Motor Model is fed information about the motor. together with the inverter’s switch positions. The extremely fine tuning of motor model is achieved when the identification run also includes running the motor shaft for some seconds. mutual inductance and saturation coefficients are determined along with the motor’s inertia. The sophistication of this Motor Model allows precise data about the motor to be calculated. which is collected during a motor identification run. The identification of motor model parameters can be done without rotating motor shaft. Before operating the DTC drive.

Also shaft speed is calculated within the Motor Model. Step 4 Optimum Pulse Selector Within the Optimum Pulse Selector is the latest 40MHz digital signal processor (DSP) together with ASIC hardware to determine the switching logic of the inverter. Furthermore. The Motor Model is. It is this processing speed that brings the high performance figures including a static speed control accuracy.5% and the torque response of less than 2ms. 28 Technical Guide No. Step 3 Torque Comparator and Flux Comparator The information to control power switches is produced in the Torque and Flux Comparator. to a torque and flux reference value. with DTC each and every switching is needed and used.Direct Torque Control . DTC has been referred to as “just-in-time” switching. key to DTC’s unrivalled low speed performance. an accurate motor torque. unlike traditional PWM drives where up to 30% of all switch changes are unnecessary. The correct switch combination is determined every control cycle. in fact. These signals are then fed to the Optimum Pulse Selector. without encoder. or maintaining. This configuration brings immense processing speed such that every 25 microseconds the inverter’s semiconductor switching devices are supplied with an optimum pulse for reaching. The Motor Model outputs control signals which directly represent actual motor torque and actual stator flux. because.Basic Control Theory This is a significant advance over all other AC drive technology. Both actual torque and actual flux are fed to the comparators where they are compared. This high speed of switching is fundamental to the success of DTC. all control signals are transmitted via optical links for high speed data transmission. There is no predetermined switching pattern. Torque and flux status signals are calculated using a two level hysteresis control method.000 times a second. This allows extremely rapid response on the shaft and is necessary so that the Motor Model (see Step 2) can update this information. of ±0. every 25 microseconds.1. The main motor control parameters are updated 40.

The external speed reference signal is compared to the actual speed produced in the Motor Model.Direct Torque Control 29 . The ability to control and modify this absolute value provides an easy way to realise many inverter functions such as Flux Optimisation and Flux Braking (see page 19). It also includes speed control for cases when an external torque signal is used. The error signal is then fed to both the PID controller and the acceleration compensator. An absolute value of stator flux can be given from the Flux Reference Controller to the Flux Comparator block. The Speed Controller block consists both of a PID controller and an acceleration compensator. The output is the sum of outputs from both of them.Basic Control Theory Speed Control 1 Step 5 Torque Reference Controller Within the Torque Reference Controller. The internal torque reference from this block is fed to the Torque Comparator. the speed control output is limited by the torque limits and DC bus voltage. Step 6 Speed Controller Step 7 Flux Reference Controller Technical Guide No.1.

8 acceleration compensator 29 accuracy control 18 aerators 20 air condition 5. 11. 18. 9. 16. 24. 20 loss of input power 20 low frequencies 16. 27. 9. 21 D DC bus voltage 27. 28 energy savings 21 external speed reference 29 external torque signal 29 F fan 10. 27. 10. 6. 22. 13. 15. 12. 24. 22 fuzzy logic 24 G gearbox 19 H harmonics 15. 17. 10. 6. 13. 24. 8. 24. 22. 10. 22 controlled input bridge 20 controlling variables 9. 12. 29 flux comparator 28. 20 DC motor 6. 14.Chapter 5 . 27 B Blaschke 16 braking 19. 14. 17. 18. 11. 20 heating 20 HeVAC 20 hysteresis control 28 I inertia 27 initial cost 18 input frequency 15 L load torque 16. 13. 7. 22 conveyors 20 costs 8. 27. 11. 9. 20 angular position 11 armature current 7 armature windings 7 ASIC 28 auto-tuning 19. 8. 16 closed-loop drives 10. 12. 21. 13. 12. 28. 22. 18. 22. 29 flux optimisation 19. 18 DC link voltage 19. 13. 22 motor controller 8 motor flux optimisation 21 motor magnetising flux 12 Motor Model 10. 11. 29 DC drive 7. 16. 19. 11. 19. 29 control variables 10. 15. 23. 10. 26. 13. 18. 26. 10. 21 feedback device 9. 14. 22 flux vector control 6. 21. 13. 21. 12. 12. 29 motor noise 19. 11. 24. 15 DC Motor Drive 6 Depenbrock 16 digital signal processing 12 diode bridge 20 diode rectifier 9 Direct Torque Control 5. 12. 25. 7. 29 C closed-loop 10. 21. 10. 11 AC motor 5. 8. 23. 11. 26 drive input line generating unit 20 DSP 22. 13. 8.Direct Torque Control . 11. 15. 16. 20. 15. 14. 11. 12 field oriented control 16 film finishing 21 flux braking 19. 9. 13. 12. 27. 6. 14. 23 M magnetising current 7 maintenance 6. 21 Motor static speed 17 30 Technical Guide No. 18 mechanical brake 18 modulator 9. 8. 13 flux vector PWM drives 11 food 20 frequency control 6. 11. 9. 14. 23. 28 dynamic speed accuracy 12. 28 AC drive using DTC 12. 11. 18 AC variable speed drive 6. 11 commissioning 19 commutator-brush assembly 7 control cycle 28 control loop 7. 15. 28 DTC 5. 15. 20. 29 Flux Reference Controller 29 flux vector 6. 16. 10. 10. 17. 24 field current 7 field orientation 7. 13 AC drive with flux vector control 10 AC drive with frequency control 9 AC induction motor 10. 13. 6. 11. 19. 8. 18. 14 elevators 17 encoders 8.1. 14. 17. 10. 8. 10.Index A AC drive 5. 23 dynamic speed response 8 E electrical time constant 8 electronic controller 11.

29 stator resistance 27 stator winding 9. 28 PWM AC drive 11. 25. 28. 28. 24. 19. 21 nominal torque step 23 O OEMs 5 open-loop drive 9 open loop AC drives 12 operating cost 21 optical link 28 Optimum Pulse Selector 28 output frequency 22 output voltage 22 P paper industry 17 PID controller 29 pipelines 21 position control 18 position encoder 12. 15. 9. 6. 28 Pulse Width Modulation 9 pump 10. 16. 16. 28. 20. 8. 18 restart 19 retrofit 19 RFI 15 rotor 7. 14. 14. 9. 16. 11. 25. 21 switching pattern 19. 27 stator 7. 19. 29 Speed Control Loop 26 speed control output 29 Speed Controller 29 speed response 7. 10. 7. 10. 12. 19. 28. 27. 22. 11. 19. 24. 14. 7. 17. 19. 15.response 6. 25. 26. 9. 18. 12. 29 voltage fed drive 8 VSD 5. 28 mutual inductance 27 N noise 15. 20. 17. 12. 12. 20. 22. 27 time constant 8. 22. 7.loop 23 . 15. 13. 19. 14. 13. 20 ventilating 20 voltage 8. 20 static accuracy 18 static speed accuracy 17. 6. 22 Z zero speed 11. 15. 17. 27 speed control 6. 27. 14. 22. 18.1 motor torque 8. 20. 11 rotor flux 11 rotor position 7 rotor speed 11 S saturation coefficient 27 scalar control 10. 28 switching pulses 23 T tachometer 12. 20 web machine 21 winder 17. 19. 29 Torque Control Loop 26 Torque Reference Controller 29 trip 15. 28 . 20 V variable speed drives 5. 18.full load at zero speed 16 . 16. 20. 24. 27. 23. 8. 23. 17. 12. 23. 22 position feedback 8 power factor 20 power loss ride through 19. 9. 10 stress 19. 23. 23. 18. 8. 11. 24 U universal 12. 18.Direct Torque Control 31 . 14. 17. 8. 22. 16. 25 sensorless 23 servicing 8 servo drive 18. 22 stability 25 start 5. 11. 20. 28 R reliability 8. 23 signal processing 12. 15. 25 Technical Guide No. 13. 11. 19. 12. 8.linearity 17 . 26 . 21. 21. 18. 8. 10. 29 . 9.repeatability 18 . 11. 15. 16. 10. 22. 21 predetermined switching pattern 19.ripple 24 Torque and Flux Comparator 28 Torque Comparator 28. 22. 24. 10. 28.control at low frequencies 16 . 21. 18. 11. 21 PWM 6. 26. 6. 22. 23. 29 stator field 11 stator flux 22. 24. 10. 26 starting 19. 23 torque 5. 18. 24. 29 speed accuracy 6. 26. 8. 21. 23.1. 10. 6 W water 5. 23 signal processing time 22 speed 5. 21. 7. 6. 23. 24.control 5. 20.

2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.abb.ABB Oy Drives P. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www. .com/motors&drives 3AFE 58056685 REV B EN 26.O.4.

2 EU Council Directives and Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems .Technical Guide No.

EU Council Directives .2.2 Technical Guide No.

........... 16 Components with direct function .............. 9 How does EMC affect me? ........................... 18 If you are a Machine Builder buying a PDS ................... 8 Key Points ............................... will I meet the technical requirements of the Directives? .........2...................... 7 This guide’s purpose ......................................... 9 What is all the fuss about? ................................................................ 8 Responsibilities and actions... 17 Apparatus ..... 9 What is EMC? ............................. 9 What are these EU Council Directives? ..................................... 11 CE Marking ............................. 15 If drives are classed as components......... 7 How to use this guide .......................... 17 Systems . 17 Installation ................................... 14 What happens if............................... 16 Component ............... they cannot be EMC certified or carry a CE Mark.................... 11 How do I avoid electromagnetic interference? ............. 14 If I buy a CE marked drive. 8 Cross-referencing ....... 11 Drive manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then? ................. 22 2 2 3 4 Technical Guide No.. 14 What is the legal position regarding CE Marking? .................................................. 8 Tickboxes ................................................... 10 What is an electromagnetic environment? ....................................................................... 15 In Summary ....................................................................... 11 If a drive is CE Marked........................................................................................ 13 What is CE Marking and how relevant is it for drives? 13 What is CE Marking for? ........ 11 How is this emission seen? ............ as an End User....... I put together a system ...............................................................Contents 1 Introduction .............................................do I have to put CE Marking on? ............. is this true? ... 8 General questions and answers .................................. 16 Components without direct function .................................. 18 What you need to know and do ...................................... 14 Is CE Marking a quality mark? ................... 15 What about spare parts that I buy for a drive? Do I negate the CE Mark if I replace a component? ......................EU Council Directives 3 ................ 17 Purchasing decisions for PDSs .. 10 How does electromagnetic interference show up? 10 What emissions can drives cause? ................... 14 What is the importance of CE Marking for purchasers of drives? ............................ I need not worry.................................................... True? ..........................................................................................

.................. 40 How to make up a Technical File ....................................... Actions you must take ............................................................................ 34 Why is a TCF deemed to be important? .. If you are a Panelbuilder buying a CDM/BDM ...................................... 40 Drawings and diagrams ...................................... Description of the product ................ 36 1.......................................................... A report or certificate from a Competent Body ................. 36 2.....2....................... 37 4............. 34 Will customers always receive a TCF copy? ................................... 40 Standards ....................... 41 What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? 41 How to obtain the Technical Report or Certificate ...... Actions by the Competent Body ............ 39 Other certificates required ....................................................................... 35 How do I ensure that tests are always carried out? 35 Can drive manufacturers help more? ............. Additional actions ............ 41 4 Technical Guide No..... 39 Drawings and diagrams ...................................................... 34 What is a Technical Construction File? .............................................................EU Council Directives ........................................... 39 Machine design .............................................. 38 How to make up a Technical File ................................................................ 40 Certificate of Adequacy .......................................................................... Path 3 .............................. 34 Technical Construction File (TCF) ...... If you are a System Designer buying a PDS .............Actions you must take ................. If you are a Distributor buying a CDM/BDM ...... 41 Technical Report or Certificate ... 34 When do I use a TCF? .................................................. 40 Other requirements ............................................ Path 1 ......................................... Procedures used to ensure product conformity ...... 37 3...... 41 What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? 41 How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy .................................. You have the following responsibilities ........... Path 2 ............. 40 Electrical Safety Aspect ........................................ Actions you must take ................. 39 Health and safety ............. Actions you must take ..................... 38 Technical File (for mechanical safety aspects) .............. 35 Is there any way I can avoid the TCF? ........................................................................................ Actions you must take . 38 What is a Technical File? ....... If you are an Installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS .............. If you are an End-User buying a CDM/BDM or PDS .......... 35 How to make up a TCF .............................................................. 35 What is the shelf life of a TCF? ........... 40 What is a Technical File? ..................... 39 Technical File (for electrical safety aspects) ....................................................................... 5 23 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 32 32 32 Terminology .............

..... 49 What are the solutions to radiated emissions? ........................................................................... 46 Standards and Directives ................................. What a Declaration of Incorporation contains ..................... 50 Mode 1 ...... 50 Mode 2 ....................... 50 Mode 3 ................................................................................................................ 6 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 2 Authorities and Bodies ........................................ 53 Low Voltage Directive ...................................................................... What is a Declaration of Incorporation? ............... What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? How to obtain a Report ............ 48 Your questions answered ....................EU Council Directives 5 . 51 Machinery Directive 98/37/EC ............. 53 Why is the Declaration of Conformity important? ...................................................................................................... 53 How does the LVD affect my drive? .......... 51 Mode 4 ........ 52 How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive?52 Where can I obtain a Machinery Directive copy? .......................................................... 56 Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives .......................... 46 Competent Authority ................... Declaration of Conformity (for mechanical safety aspects) ..................................... 46 Competent Body ......... 57 Installation ....... 58 7 8 Technical Guide No.................. 48 What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives? ... 51 Applications of different Modes .. How to obtain Type Certification ..... 54 How does the EMC Directive affect my drive? .............................................................................................................................................. Type Certification ............................. 47 How to recognise a European Standard .......2.................................. 58 General installation concerns ....... 47 Harmonised Standards for PDSs ........................Report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... How to obtain a Declaration of Conformity .......................... 49 Can I be fined for not conforming? ....................................................... Is there no way out of this type of Declaration? . 49 Do I have to conform to the standards? ........................................... 54 Who has the responsibility to ensure CE Marking? 55 Summary of responsibilities ............... 46 Notified Body .. 54 EMC Directive ................... 50 The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3 ............ 48 Which standards directly relate to drives? ............................. How to obtain a Declaration of Conformity ...................................... 47 Directive or Standard? .................. Declaration of Incorporation ..................... Declaration of Conformity (for EMC and electrical safety aspects) .

EU Council Directives .................................................................... Earthing ..Technical requirements of the legislation ............................ 66 6 Technical Guide No........... Filtering ............. Testing and installation .......... What are the effects of multiple drives? .................................................................... Relay Outputs ................ Large installations with many drives can take up to 3 months and be costly................................................................................... What is the affect of varying impedance? ................................................................................ General installation practice ............................................................. Shielding ........................................ 9 58 59 60 60 60 61 62 63 64 65 65 65 65 Index ...................................... Your technical concerns answered ................2...................... How can EMC be improved? .. Cabling .................. What can we do? .............

End-Users or Installers some clear practical guidelines and courses of action. Distributors. For an explanation of the terminology of PDSs.6 Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives (3AFE 64292714) Technical Guide No.2* is to give a straightforward explanation of how the various EU Council Directives relate to Power Drive Systems (PDSs). see pages 18 and 19. Technical Guide No.EU Council Directives 7 2 .Introduction This guide's purpose The aim of this Technical Guide No.4 Guide to Variable Speed Drives (3AFE 61389211). Technical Guide No. we reserve the right to develop and evolve these interpretations as more details become available from Competent Bodies (see Chapter 6).1 Direct Torque Control (3AFE 58056685). *Notes 1 The content of this Technical Guide is ABB Oy's.Chapter 1 . Technical Guide No. organisations and from our own tests. it must be realised that the EMC Directive is only part of the overall EU initiative on common safety standards.7 Dimensioning of a Drive system (3AFE 64292714) Technical Guide No. However.8 Electrical Braking (3BFE 64362534) Technical Guide No.whether Machine Builders. System Designers. 2 Other Technical Guides available in this series include: Technical Guide No. While Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the subject of most concern within the industry.3 EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System (3AFE 61348280). OEMs. Drives interpretation of events as of November 1999.2. It is the intention of this Guide to offer users of AC or DC power drive systems . Competent Authorities (see Chapter 6).5 Bearing Currents in Modern AC Drive Systems (3BFE 64230247) Technical Guide No.

Purchasers can photocopy the relevant pages and use them as a checklist with each item being ticked off as it is achieved. Following the Responsibilities is a set of Actions. Please note the following about the structure of this section: Each type of purchaser is offered an explanation of their Responsibilities. If the purchaser follows these Actions. No action is needed.EU Council Directives . These can be referred to if the item is unclear but is not essential for achieving compliance. Because of the complexity of conforming to each Directive. 8 Technical Guide No.2. Crossreferencing KEY POINTS: Within the text you will see: Key Point These are key observations that must be observed. then conforming to the relevant Directives will be straightforward. this Guide inevitably carries a lot of cross-references to other sections. step-by-step. This is for awareness. In the margin you will come across: Defined on page XX You are advised to turn to the page number reference. Section 4 looks at Purchasing Decisions for PDSs. Responsibilities and actions Tickboxes Alongside the Actions are tickboxes. You will also notice other references within the text.How to Use this Guide The Guide is divided into 9 Sections.

How does EMC affect me? From January 1. Let us first explain EMC and look at some concerns of the industry. It applies to all electrical and electronic equipment sold within the EU and affects virtually all manufacturers and importers of electrical and electronic goods.General questions and answers What is all the fuss about? I have had no problems with drives in the past so why do I need to be concerned with EMC now? Beware! Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is only one of a number of EU Council Directives relating to common safety standards for electrically powered equipment like Power Drive Systems. That is the purpose of this Guide. So before answering this question.2. we need to look at the other legislation and how it affects the purchase and installation of drives. It is important to realise that EMC cannot be divorced from other European legislation. 2 KEY POINT: It is very important that users of PDSs fully understand all the various rules and regulations and how they apply to PDSs. Quite simply there are three Directives that mainly affect a drive’s safety against risks and hazards.Chapter 2 . Technical Guide No. These are: Applicable Mandatory 1995-01-01 1997-01-01 1996-01-01 Page pg 52 pg 53 pg 54 What are these EU Council Directives? Directive Machinery Directive 1993-01-01 Low Voltage Directive 1995-01-01 EMC Directive 1992-01-01 But more on each of these Directives later. 1996 the EU Council’s Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (89/336/EEC) has been compulsory.EU Council Directives 9 .

The electromagnetic environment is everywhere but it varies from place to place. the equipment must not disturb or interfere with any other products or systems within its locality. Natural sources consist of electrical discharge between clouds. page 58). lightning or other atmospheric disturbances. for example. The microprocessor and power electronic component.EU Council Directives . portable car telephones and Power Drive Systems (see page 18). an electric drill causing patterning on the TV screen. Electromagnetic interference shows up in a variety of ways. While drives manufacturers strive to make their products immune. each with its own emission characteristics. Typical examples of interference include a poorly suppressed automobile engine or dynamo. switch rapidly and therefore. digital systems like microprocessors. Man-made disturbances are those generated by. unless proper precautions are taken. electrical contacts and semiconductors. Likewise. the Directive lays down minimum standards for immunity. Such a variety of equipment. or crackling from an AM radio.KEY POINT: Electrical equipment that does not conform to the regulations may not be sold anywhere in the EEA (European Economic Area). mobile radio transmitters. How does electromagnetic interference show up? 10 Technical Guide No. EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. walkie-talkies. The reason is that there are many different sources of disturbance which can be natural or man-made. What is EMC? What is an electromagnetic environment? KEY POINT: It is important that all PDSs are immune to these natural and man-made disturbances. While we cannot influence these sources we can protect our products and systems from their effects (see Installation. is often used so near to other electrical equipment that the field strengths they create may cause interferences.2. It is the ability of electrical/electronic equipment to operate problem-free within an electromagnetic environment. can cause interference at high frequencies. thereby ensuring all manufacturers achieve the same basic level.

True? Again this is a big misconception. page 58. Drives manufacturers must comply with EMC standards then? Unfortunately. a system and an installation complies with the essential requirements of the EMC Directive. for more details. the process is not that simple.EU Council Directives 11 . Just because a drive has CE Marking does not necessarily mean it meets the EMC Directive.What emissions can drives cause? The normal operation of any drive involves rapid switching of high voltages and this can produce radio frequency emission.2. Radiation from the converter and conducting cables is another type of emission and it is especially demanding to achieve the radiated emission limits. • that the equipment is immune to outside effects. The key is to clearly understand who has responsibility for what. See Installation. You need to ensure two things: • that the equipment generates minimum emission. Virtually everyone in the supply chain has a responsibility to ensure a product. I need not worry. Modern equipment contains considerable communications and other digital electronics. Electromagnetic interference needs to be conducted to earth (ground potential) and no system can work unless it is properly connected. In the case of Power Drive Systems. Everyone from manufacturer to installer to user has a responsibility in complying with EMC rules. It is this radiation and emission that have been seen to have the potential to disturb other circuits at frequencies below 200 MHz. This can cause considerable emissions at frequencies above 200MHz. Technical Guide No. 2 How is this emission seen? How do I avoid electromagnetic interference? KEY POINT: The main emission is via conduction to the mains. a lot hinges on the quality of the installation. In the forthcoming pages we take a look at various types of purchasers and examine the steps each should take to meet all three Directives mentioned on page 9. If a drive is CE Marked.

2.EU Council Directives . page 18.KEY POINT: This will all become clear by referring to the section Purchasing Decisions for PDSs. 12 Technical Guide No. CE Marking according to the EMC-Directive cannot normally be applied to a module that is no more than a chassis with exposed terminals.

it is compulsory that it shows CE Marking.CE Marking What is CE Marking and how relevant is it for drives? CE Marking.Chapter 3 . is the official signature of the Declaration of Conformity (see pages 42 and 43) as governed by the European Commission. 2 CE Marking is a system of self-certification to identify equipment that complies with the relevant applicable Directives. then there must be a Technical File supporting the Declaration of Conformity.2. for example. please refer to pages 34 and 40. conforms with the Low Voltage Directive (see page 53).EU Council Directives 13 . Technical Guide No. then. However. shown below. For more on Technical Construction Files and Technical Files. from 1997. CE marking shall indicate conformity only to the directive(s) applied by the manufacturer. It is a very specific graphic symbol and must be separated from other marks. KEY POINT: NOTE: If the standards route is used. if standards cannot be complied with then a Technical Construction File (TCF) needs to be compiled. That marking shall indicate that the drive also conforms to the EMC Directive (page 54). If a drive is the subject of several directives and.

motor and load. the equipment that make up a “process” include cabling. drives and motor. Refer to pages 52. you will see drive products with CE Marking. a built drive does have functionality. a complete drive product. Is CE Marking a quality mark? What is the legal Anyone applying CE Marking is legally liable and must be position regarding able to prove the validity of his actions to the authorities. But it is important to understand just why the product was given CE Marking in the first place. 14 Technical Guide No. In practice. Most definitely not. There are three Directives that are relevant to drives. CE Marking shows that the product complies with the essential requirements of all relevant Directives. 53 and 54 for explanations of the three Directives. Thus. What is the importance of CE Marking for purchasers of drives? If I buy a CE marked drive. Basically a drive has no functional value.What is CE Marking for? CE Marking is mainly for the benefit of Authorities throughout the EU and EEA countries who control the movement of goods. will I meet the technical requirements of the Directives? As far as a purchaser of a drive is concerned. in the eyes of the Low Voltage Directive. a motor which in turn is connected to a load. through the drive's Parameters you can program the drive and obtain an input and output signal. which can be safely cabled and powered up on its own. as far as the Machinery Directive is concerned a drive cannot have CE Marking unless it is part of a “process” comprising the drive. you can be assured that certification has been carried out. As CE Marking is self certification. That is. Therefore.EU Council Directives . but CE Marking may be attached to indicate compliance with one (see the previous page). say. CE Marking confirms compliance with the Directives listed CE Marking? in the Declaration of Conformity (see pages 42 and 43). Thus. It is only of practical use when connected to. However. if a drive conforms to the Low Voltage Directive it can carry CE Marking. anything that carries the CE Mark must have a functional value to him. may carry the CE marking.2. CE Marking can only be affixed if all items forming such a “process” conform to the requirements of the Directive. As for the EMC Directive. mainly in the area of technical safety and conformity assessment.

However. it cannot be enhanced or reinstalled without meeting the Directives. I put together a system . Equipment supplied before the application of the Directives. machine builders). the use of the manufacturer's spare parts should not negate the CE Marking. The CDM shall be CE-marked if it is to be installed with simple connections and adjustments that do not require any EMC-knowledge. they cannot be EMC certified or carry a CE Mark. You need to first understand the terminology now being applied to drives. can be repaired and supplied with spare parts to bring it back to the original specification. Anyone putting together a system and commissioning as an End-User.What happens if. Instead installation instructions shall be supplied in order to help the professional manufacturers. 2 If drives are classed as components. as some actions could affect the CE Marking criteria.EU Council Directives 15 . Is this true? Technical Guide No. If awareness of the EMC implication is needed in order to install a CDM. it is not considered as an apparatus. Yes. See below and page 18 for this.2. For equipment supplied after the application of the Directives. it shall not be CE-marked according to the EMC-directives.do I have to put CE Marking on? KEY POINT: What about spare parts that I buy for a drive? Do I negate the CE Mark if I replace a component? Turn to page 29 for more details about the End-User's responsibilities. A Complete Drive Module (CDM) is normally a component in a system and as such has no functional value unless it is connected to the motor when it becomes a PDS. Thus. However. it is responsible for the appropriate CE Marking. nor is declaration of conformity given by the CDM/BDM manufacturer. the manufacturer or supplier should be consulted about upgrading. it shall not be CE-marked. If a CDM or BDM is intended for incorporation in PDS by professional manufacturers only (panel builders.

while required to satisfy various elements of the Directives. basic drive module (BDM). Components with direct function not available without simple adjustments and Components without direct function and Installations. In this context the interpretation of component can be divided into two main categories.EU Council Directives . which can be performed by any person not fully aware of the EMC implications. Such a component is an ‘apparatus’ and it is subjected to all provisions of the EMC Directive. Direct function: Any function of the component itself. e. Components with direct function available without further adjustment other than simple ones. a drive installed into a cabinet or drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit (CDM). The only requirement for such a component is to provide it with instructions for use for the professional assembler or manufacturer of the final apparatus into which the component will be incorporated. These instructions should help him to solve any EMC problems with his final apparatus.2. e. All provisions of the EMC Directive apply. Such a component is not an ‘apparatus’. shall not be CE marked. which can be performed by any person not fully aware of the EMC implications. Component Components with direct function Components with a direct function can be divided into two sub-groups: 1) The direct function is available without further adjustment or connections other than simple ones. The component can either deliver a ‘direct function’ or not. Apparatus and Systems have to be CE marked. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category. the component is considered equivalent to apparatus.In Summary Under the Directives. If a component performs a direct function that is not available without further adjustment other than simple ones. 2) The direct function is not available without further adjustment or connections other than simple ones.g. it is considered as a component. specified by the manufacturer in the instruction for use for an end user. which fulfils the intended use.g. These are meant to be assembled by a professional assembler 16 Technical Guide No. If a component performs a direct function without further adjustment other than simple ones. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category.

equipment and/or components put together at a given place to fulfil a specific objective but not intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit.EU Council Directives 17 . The EMC Directive does not apply to these.2. 2 Components without direct function Apparatus Components with no direct function are not considered as apparatus within the meaning of the EMC Directive. terminal blocks. Several items of apparatus combined to fulfil a specific objective and intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit. According to the EMC Directive. A finished product containing electrical and/or electronic components and intended to be placed on the market and/ or taken into service as a single commercial unit. the requirement for the BDM supplier is instructions for installation and use. etc. According to the EMC Directive the system manufacturer or panel builder is resonsible for CE-mark. Systems Installation Technical Guide No.(e. Declaration of Conformity and Technical Construction File. cables. These components include resistors.g. panel builder or system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery of the manufacturer of the BDM. A combination of items of apparatus.

Devices such as an incoming phase-shift transformer for a 12pulse drive are considered part of the CDM.EU Council Directives . you need to know the following IEC terms for PDSs and their component parts. we offer a step-by-step guide relating to your purchasing requirements for Power Drive Systems. Power Drive System. Basic Drive Module (BDM) consists of the converter section and the control circuits needed for torque or speed. A BDM is the essential part of the Power Drive System taking electrical power from a 50 Hz constant frequency supply and converting it into a variable form for an electric motor. Note: The load is not considered part of the PDS. Complete Drive Module (CDM) consists of the drive system without the motor and the sensors mechanically coupled to the motor shaft. filters. 2. motors. is a term used throughout this Technical Guide. panels and any other components needed to make the PDS work effectively. 18 Technical Guide No. all cabling. TERMS THAT YOU MUST KNOW 1.Chapter 4 . or PDS. 3. The CDM also includes the Basic Drive Module (BDM) and a feeder section.2. but the CDM can incorporate the supply sections and ventilation. Before turning to page 20. A PDS includes the frequency converter and feeding section (the CDM and BDM). which may be unfamiliar to many users.Purchasing decisions for PDSs What you need to know and do KEY POINT: Starting on page 20. sensors.

HOW THE TERMS FIT TOGETHER 2 Installation or part of installation Power Drive System (PDS) CDM (Complete Drive Module) control System control and sequencing BDM (Basic Drive Module) Control section Converter section Feeder section Field supply Auxiliaries Others Motor & sensors Driven equipment or load Now we strongly advise you turn to page 20.EU Council Directives 19 . to discover the type of person you are.2. Technical Guide No.

control and power circuits joined together for a specific application. WHO ARE YOU? IF THIS IS YOU. in particular for processing. PDS or CDM/BDM. 22 System Designer carries out all the electrical design of the Power Drive System. specifying all component parts which comprise a PDS.2. treatment.EU Council Directives . and assembles these into a machine. Please identify the type nearest to your job function and turn to the relevant section. including a CDM/BDM and sometimes the motor. the built enclosure does not constitute a machine. Machine Builder is a person who buys either a PDS... It includes the appropriate actuators. However. Note: A machine is defined as an assembly of linked parts or components. we have also identified certain types of people who will be involved in the purchasing of drives. 30 20 Technical Guide No.To make this Technical Guide easy to use. TURN NOW TO PAGE.. 26 End-User is the final customer who will actually use the machine. such as a pump. at least one of which moves. CDM or BDM and other mechanical or electrical component parts. moving or packaging of a material. 28 Panelbuilder constructs enclosures into which a panelbuilder will install a variety of components..

30 Installer . if you identify yourself as an OEM. OEM. 22 26 30 Drive Manufacturer Machine Builder or OEM p. System Designer or Panelbuilder...26 Panelbuilder p. Panelbuilder or System Designer. TURN NOW TO PAGE....32 End-User .p. refer to the relevant pages for each of these job functions.32 Distributor p. 2 32 Installer carries out the entire electrical installation of the PDS.p.22 System Designer .30 Installer .2.page 28 Technical Guide No. Distributor acts as the sales distribution channel between the CDM/ BDM manufacturer and the End-User. Therefore. Machine Builder..WHO ARE YOU? IF THIS IS YOU.32 Panelbuilder p. 32 Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) For the purposes of purchasing drives..p. an OEM will normally fall into the category of a Machine Builder.EU Council Directives 21 .

NOTE: Before reading this section we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 16-19. 6... 2. You must ensure that the PDS or its component parts carry Declarations of Conformity in accordance with the electrical safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive... 5. If you are a Machine Builder buying a PDS. but then you have the responsibility for compliance of parts. 4. You may choose electrical parts not in accordance with the EMC directive. 22 Technical Guide No. Because you are building a complete machine. You must be able to assure a Competent Authority and customers that the machine has been built according to the Machinery Directive. Therefore. Only then can CE Marking be applied to the whole machine. Note: Be aware that combining CE-marked subassemblies may not automatically produce an apparatus that meets the requirements. Nevertheless you are responsible for EMC for the machine. You must ensure electrical parts are manufactured in accordance with the EMC Directive. you are liable for the total mechanical and electrical safety of the machine as specified in the Machinery Directive. the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Directive. A Declaration of Conformity according the directives above must be issued by the Machine Builder and CE Marking must then be affixed to the machine or system. You must keep in mind that you and only you have responsibility for compliance with directives. which includes coupling up the motors to the PDS and providing the mechanical guarding and so on.You have the following responsibilities: 1. the PDS is ultimately your responsibility.EU Council Directives .2. The manufacturer of these parts is responsible for EMC for that particular part. You are also responsible for the electrical safety of all parts of the PDS as specified in the Low Voltage Directive. 3. You need to ensure that the entire PDS meets the Machinery Directive. It may be necessary to issue a Technical File and a Technical Construction File to demonstrate compliance. .

The manufacturer must take account of the operator’s constraints resulting from the use of personal protective equipment. Note: the detailed list is given in EN 60204-1.7. The aim is to eliminate any risk of accident throughout the machinery’s life. This is not a complete list. Machinery design.EU Council Directives 23 . 2 Technical Guide No. Any machine that does not comply must be withdrawn from the market. b. Machinery must be supplied with all essential equipment to enable it to be used without risk. controls. To meet the Machinery Directive (see page 52) you need to: a. Under the intended conditions of use. which is not necessarily complete. Actions you must take 1. This can be obtained from CENELEC or the National Standardisation Association. protection devices are given in Annex 1 of the Machinery Directive. Inform users of the residual risks. indicate whether any training is required and stress the need for personal protective equipment. the discomfort. taking the necessary protective measures if some risks cannot be eliminated. fatigue and stress of the operator must be reduced.2. construction and instructions must consider any abnormal use. the detailed list is contained within the Machinery Directive: Eliminate risk as far as possible. Comply with the following mechanical safety checklist. Detailed instructions relating to materials. Comply with the following electrical safety checklist: To ensure the electrical safety of all parts of the PDS as specified in the Low Voltage Directive (refer to page 53) you need to comply with the following safety checklist. lighting.

overspeed of machines/machine elements. abnormal temperatures. The equipment is protected against the effects of: overcurrent arising from a short circuit. loss of.EU Council Directives . • protective conductors in the equipment or the machine. Defined on page 38 c. the supply voltage.2. or reduction in. The equipment shall provide protection of persons against electric shock from direct or indirect contact. • conductive structural parts of the electrical equipment and the machine. 24 Technical Guide No. prevention of automatic re-start. The control circuits and control functions ensure safe operation including the necessary inter-lockings.The electricity supply should be equipped with a hand-operated disconnecting device and with emergency devices for switching off the supply in the event of an unexpected start-up. etc. emergency stop. including the PDS. Compile a Technical File for the machine. The electrical equipment is equipped with an equipotential bonding circuit consisting of the: • PE terminal. overload current.

5. referring to all three Directives. 2 Technical Guide No. For machines that pose a high risk of accident. Refer now to page 38. If buying a PDS from a System Designer (see below). the responsibility of demonstrating compliance according to EMC Directive or Low Voltage Directive lies on Machine Builder. Such machinery is included in Annex IV of the Machinery Directive. 7. Pass the Declaration of Conformity related to all three directives on to the End-User of the machine (refer to page 28).2.EU Council Directives 25 . Only then can you apply CE Marking (see page 13). Issue a Declaration of Conformity for the entire machine. Refer to pages 30-32 in this case. 3. 2. Defined on pages 42 and 43 4. Apply CE Marking to the machine. he should be able to provide all Declarations. The Type Certificate issued should be included in the Technical File for the Machine or Safety Component. If system designer or component supplier cannot provide Declaration of Conformity. Pass this Technical File to a Competent Body (refer to page 46). a Type Certification (see page 45) is required from a Notified Body (see page 46). Congratulations! You have successfully complied with the main requirements for safe and efficient operation of a machine. must carry CE Marking and have a Declaration of Conformity. 6. The Machine Builder SHOULD NOT pass the File on to an End-User. Declarations of Conformity from each of the component suppliers whose products make up the PDS and incorporate them into the Technical File. obtain a Certificate of Adequacy or Technical Report from a Competent Body. Based on the Technical File.KEY POINT: Generally.

2. 26 Technical Guide No. PDS is an System according to the EMC Directive (as placed on the market as a single funtional unit).You have the following responsibilities: 1. the Machinery Directive has to be complied with by issuing a Declaration of Incorporation. EMC behaviour is based on a component's performance. If you are a System Designer buying a PDS. The Declaration of Conformity as well as the instructions for use must refer to the system as whole.. The PDS is a complex component of the machine... 3. the delivery shall be classified as an installation (refer to page 16 . . 2. 2. The system designer assumes responsibility for compliance with the Directive. Because a PDS is not a machine. A. The responsibility for Declaration of Conformity and applying CE Marking rests with both the System Designer and the supplier of the component parts which make up the Power Drive System.17).. the delivery shall be classified as a system (refer to page 16 . Therefore.NOTE: Before reading the next section. the only Directives which need to be complied with are the Low Voltage Directive and the EMC Directive. If the delivery is classified as a system. we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 16 . the system designer has to choose one of two paths to follow: Path 1 All components have EMC compliance 1.17). Note 1: The system designer is responsible for producing the instructions for use for the particular system as whole. • if the answer is NO.EU Council Directives . 4.19. The System Designer has to decide if he is going to place his delivery on the market as a single functional unit or not • if the answer is YES. Responsibility lies with the Component Suppliers for CE Marking of individual complex components 3.

DO NOT issue a CE Mark. Follow the Installation Guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers. Follow all Installation Guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers. 4. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system.40 3. 2. Responsibility lies with the System Designer who decides the configuration (place or a specific filter etc). 5. Issue a Technical Construction File for the System. as long as each part bears the CE-mark. Actions you must take 1. 4. 4. No CE Marking is required for a system as whole. 2.e. 2 Actions you must take 1. 3.2. Issue a Declaration of Conformity. Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure the design meets the required EMC behaviour. Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking are required for the System.EU Council Directives 27 . Path 2 Components without EMC compliance 1. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system. Technical Guide No. i. PDS is a System according to the EMC Directive (as placed on the market as a single functional unit).Note 2: Be aware that combining two or more CEmarked sub-assemblies may not automatically produce a system that meets the requirements. Issue a Technical Construction File for the System. EMC behaviour is designed at the system level (no accumulated cost by device specific filters etc). 2. Defined on pages 34 . 5. Issue a Declaration of Conformity and CE Mark. 3. the location of filters. 5.

The supplier who acts as the Machine Builder will issue a Declaration of Conformity when the work is complete. 4. 2. NOTE: Before reading the next section. Follow all Installation Guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers.19. Responsibility lies with the Component Suppliers for CE Marking of individual complex components. we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 16 . (such as an outside broadcast radio station) DOC and CE marking are needed. to the Machine Builder. as issued by suppliers. EMC behaviour is based on a component's performance. DO NOT issue a Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking as this is not allowed for fixed installations. he creates a part of a PDS. 3.2. Once an intermediary Panelbuilder incorporates a CDM/ BDM into a panel. However. 2.EU Council Directives .B. PDS is an Installation according to the EMC Directive. the system designer has one path to follow: Path 3 All components have EMC compliance 1. No Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking is required for a fixed Installation. Transfer all Installation Guidelines and Declaration of Conformity (see page 42) for each of the components. 3. If you are an End-User buying a CDM/ BDM or PDS KEY POINT: An End-User can make an agreement with the drive's supplier so that the supplier acts as the Machine Builder. 28 Technical Guide No. Actions you must take 1. the End-User is still responsible for the machine's safety. If the delivery is an installation.

by following the manufacturer’s recommendations and guidelines.You have the following responsibilities 1. The manufacturer of the drive is responsible for determining the EMC behaviour of the drive. 2.. To meet the Machinery Directive (refer to page 52) you need to follow the Actions listed for a Machine Builder on pages 22-25.2.EU Council Directives 29 . 3.The Panelbuilder then has the same responsibilities as the drive’s manufacturer. To be able to demonstrate to the Authorities that the machine to which the drive is being fitted has been built to both the Machinery Directive and Low Voltage Directive. To ensure the drive carries a Declaration of Conformity in accordance with the electrical safety requirements of the Low Voltage Directive. 3. Technical Guide No. 5. For the electrical safety of the drive as specified in the Low Voltage Directive (see page 53). Follow installation instruction issued by manufacturers in order to fulfill the requirements of the EMC Directive and the Low Voltage Directive.. 2 Actions you must take The following needs to be completed by either the EndUser directly or the third party engaged to build the machine. 2. . For the total mechanical and electrical safety of the machine of which the drive is part of. The resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. Ensure that equipment (CDM/BDM/PDS) is operated according to manufacturer's instruction in order to guarentee right way of operation. 4. 6. 1. as specified in the Machinery Directive (see page 52).

tested components do not carry the CE mark but must carry suitable instructions for installation. However. the responsibility for EMC is then the Panelbuilder's and this will incur considerable costs as the entire panel needs to be tested.. If you are a Panelbuilder buying a CDM/ BDM . 92/31/EEC.NOTE: Before reading the next section. 2.You have the following responsibilities: 1. However.2. Option A .To buy non-CE marked components This could save the Panelbuilder money because he buys components which are not tested for EMC. we strongly urge you to familiarise yourself with the terms explained on pages 16 . It is these instructions which must be demonstrably met.If you choose to test yourself you must make reference to EMC Directives: 89/336/EEC. 3. the location of filters.e. the drive may be made to conform without further testing if the components themselves have been tested. Defined on pages 47 to 54 4. Harmonised standard: EN 61800-3. i.19.Follow the Installation Guidelines issued by each of the component suppliers. 91/263/EEC. 30 Technical Guide No. The Panelbuilder has two options: Option A ..EU Council Directives . 93/68/EEC. If the Panelbuilder buys non-CE marked components.Issue a Technical Construction File for the System.Actions to meet these responsibilities 1.Optimise the construction of the installation to ensure the design meets the required EMC behaviour.

7. You must then issue the Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking for the panel (refer to page 13). 5.Defined on pages 34-40 5. 6. a TCF must be created and results included for approval by a Competent Body.To buy CE marked components Option B . Issue a Technical Construction File. 2. Beware! These guidelines could differ greatly from those given for normal installation purposes because the components will be in close proximity to each other.Actions to meet these responsibilities 1. 4. Although the Panelbuilder does not have to carry out tests. Note: Be aware that combining two or more CEmarked components may not automatically produce a system. Apply CE Marking to your panel in the case of an apparatus. which meets the requirements. Issue instructions for use in order to operate the system or apparatus. In the case of a system DO NOT apply CE Marking. Buying CE marked components creates a system or an apparatus (refer to page 16-17) depending on the nature of the panel. Option B . 6. If testing is incomplete or full compliance cannot be demonstrated. 7. the results need to be included in the Technical Construction File (TCF) for the panel. he must ensure he conforms to the installation guidelines given by each of the component manufacturers.EU Council Directives 31 . Once testing is completed.2. 2 Technical Guide No. Issue a Declaration of Conformity. 3.

If a Distributor is selling boxed products. Both the Installation Guidelines and the Declaration of Conformity are available from the manufacturer. If you are a Distributor buying a CDM/ BDM.. Pass all Installation Guidelines and Declaration of Conformities to either the End-User. Machine Builder or System Designer. This is because CE Marking always needs a Declaration of Conformity. The Declaration of Incorporation must be supplied with the panel to the Machine Builder.. direct from the manufacturer. In addition. KEY POINT: The Declaration of Incorporation CANNOT be used to apply CE Marking. Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities 1. 2. If you are an Installer buying a CDM/BDM or PDS.. For each option there is a different requirement: 1. 3.Additional actions The Panel can be either sold on the open market or use as part of a machine. but CE Marking MUST NOT be affixed. like CDM BDMs (drives)... If you know that the panel is to be used as part of a machine then you must request from the CDM / BDM manufacturer a Declaration of Incorporation.You have the following responsibilities: 1. You must ensure that the Installation Guidelines of the Machine Builder and/or System Designer are adhered to.2. the Declaration of Conformity must be passed to the Machine Builder or System Designer... 32 Technical Guide No. his only responsibility is to pass on the Installation Guidelines to the End-user. The Machine Builder will need this Declaration of Incorporation because he has to construct a Technical Construction File (TCF) for the machine and in that file all the declarations need to be included.EU Council Directives . .You have the following responsibilities: 1.. . 2. Machine Builder or System Designer.

Chapter 8 for recommended installation guidelines.Actions you must take to meet these responsibilities 1. Turn to page 58.2. 2. 2 Technical Guide No.EU Council Directives 33 . Follow Machinery Builder and/or System Designer Installation Guidelines.

2. This may be by a Technical File to show that the standards route has been complied with (see page 38). d. Alternatively the Technical Construction File (TCF) route is necessary. 3. b. claiming compliance without necessarily meeting the standards. A TCF allows the appropriate Declaration of Conformity to be drawn up.EU Council Directives . c. Why is a TCF deemed to be important? Anyone placing a product onto the market within the EU must be able to show that the product meets the requirements of the appropriate EU Council Directive and must be able to demonstrate this to a Competent Authority without further testing. A report or certificate from a Competent Body. A TCF is needed if you are: a. or where the system may be complex and involve the inclusion of more than one equipment.Chapter 5 . 34 Technical Guide No. KEY POINT: When do I use a TCF? The full contents of the TCF are given on pages 36-38. A description of the product. or where suitable standards do not exist.Terminology Technical Construction File (TCF) What is a Technical Construction File? APPLIED TO: Electrical equipment RESPONSIBILITY: Electrical Equipment Manufacturer REQUIRED BY: EMC Directive A Technical Construction File (TCF) must be provided for the entire equipment or system and if required is to show a Competent Authority that you have met the essential requirements of the EMC Directive (see page 54). 2. Procedures used to ensure conformity of the product to the requirements. The TCF consists of three parts: 1. or where the Equipment can have several variants.

he will obtain this assurance from the documentation delivered with the product. I can avoid the Although TCFs may appear onerous and time consuming TCF? there is often no way of avoiding their use. PLCs. How do I ensure that tests are always carried out? Can drive manufacturers help more? Technical Guide No. Competent Authorities can use the safeguard clause of the EMC-directive (withdraw the product from the market. Manufacturers accept that there is a need to work more closely with OEMs and Machine Builders where the converter can be mounted on the machine. intelligent motor protection relays and a host of other microprocessor based devices are subject to TCFs. life of a TCF? Is there any way Yes. the TCF is the preferred route. The whole system is based on self certification and good faith. In various parts of Europe the methods of ensuring compliance will vary. It is not required to supply a declaration of conformity with the product.2. Supervision of these regulations is achieved through market control by a Competent Authority.EU Council Directives 35 . if the manufacturer opts for that route. the idea of mounting drives in motor control centres (MCCs) must be much more carefully thought out by system specifiers. TCF copy? However. However. Use the standards route to compliance. A standard assembly or design should be achieved so that the TCF does not have to be repeated. as the customer needs to know whether the product is in conformance. always receive a and thus the electrical equipment manufacturer does not have to give the TCF or any part of it to the customer. 2 What is the shelf Any TCF must be accessible to the appropriate Authorities for 10 years from the last relevant product being delivered. it may well be possible to demonstrate compliance by the standards route and evidence of type tests using specified types and lengths of cable with fixing methods and segregation. but the end-user may ask for this from the manufacturer. Will customers The content of the TCF file is meant for the Authorities. Even soft starters.If there is any doubt in the manner of compliance. take legal action). For a straightforward single drive application. If the equipment fails to meet the requirements of the EMCdirective.

devices. the concept of mounting several drives in a motor control centre must be more carefully thought out. including circuit diagrams. installation diagrams. as the summing of high frequency emissions to determine the effects at the MCC terminals is a complex issue and the possibilities of cross coupling are multiplied. Description of the product (Note: You can photocopy these pages and use as a tickbox checklist) i. identification of product a. c. description of intended interconnections with other products. a description of the intended function of the apparatus. b. d. etc. assembly diagrams. c. name and address of manufacturer or agent. How to make up a TCF 1. b.2.This would only need a Technical File (see page 38). e. ii. otherwise the Technical Construction File route is still needed. description of product variants. 36 Technical Guide No. brand name. a block diagram showing the relationship between the different functional areas of the product. model number. a technical description a.EU Council Directives . However. relevant technical drawings. parts lists. d. any limitation on the intended operating environment.

test evidence where appropriate a. the use of cabling products known to minimise EMC problems). cross referenced with part 2 (ii) of the basic requirements of a TCF. etc. 2 3. a list of the EMC tests performed on the product. design features adopted specifically to address EMC problems. details of significant design elements a. an explanation of the procedures used to control variants in the design together with an explanation of the procedures used to assess whether a particular change in the design will require the apparatus to be re-tested.g. Technical Guide No. cross-referencing with Part I of the basic requirements of a TCF. b. comment on the technical rationale. and test reports relating to them. c.2. statement of work done to verify the contents and authenticity of the design information in the TCF. e. and test reports or certificates relating to them. A report or certificate from a Competent Body This will include: i.EU Council Directives 37 . c. details and results of any theoretical modelling of performance aspects of the apparatus. Procedures used to ensure product conformity i. ii. d. including details of test methods. ii. the description of the solution adopted in order to comply with the directive. a list of the tests performed on critical subassemblies. a list of standards applied in whole or part. relevant component specifications (e. iii. f. b. an overview of the logical processes used to decide whether the tests performed on the apparatus were adequate to ensure compliance with the directive. reference to the exact build state of the apparatus assessed.2.

an authorised third party. and the results obtained. 4. an analysis of the tests performed either by the manufacturer. it is possible to use this as a part of a Technical File. 38 Technical Guide No.e. This analysis will determine whether the tests show that the apparatus should comply with the essential requirements of the directive. TECHNICAL FILE (for mechanical safety aspects) What is a Technical File? APPLIED TO: Machines and Safety Components RESPONSIBILITY: Machine Builder/ System Designer REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive A Technical File is the internal design file which should show how and where the standards are met and is all that is needed if self certifying the equipment by the standards compliance route. or the Competent Body itself. Declaration of Conformity and Declaration of Incorporation depending on the parts.EU Council Directives .2. installation and maintenance factors that may be relevant. to ensure they carry CE Marking. i. where appropriate. If a Declaration of Incorporation (see page 43) is included in a set of papers and this claims to meet the appropriate parts of the standards and simply instructs the user to meet the standards with other parts of his machine. Actions by the Competent Body The Competent Body (see page 46) will study the TCF and issue the Technical Report or the Certificate and this should be included in the TCF. on the procedures used to control variants. and on environmental. Note: When compiling the TCF you may need all Declarations from suppliers. v.iv. comment.

4. calculations and test results used to check the machine’s conformity with essential health and safety requirements.2. 1. A copy of the instructions for the machine. A technical report or certificate issued by a Notified Body (see page 46) . All drawings. Description of methods used to eliminate hazards presented by the machine.if required. 2 Other certificates required 1. Harmonised Standards.EU Council Directives 39 . a technical report is issued by a Competent Body (see page 46). 1. the control measures that are used to ensure that subsequent manufacture remains in conformity with the Directive. Overall drawings of the machine. 2. 2. This technical report shall include test results. Control circuit diagrams. 3.How to make up a Technical File Drawings and diagrams Health and safety Machine design 1. other standards and technical specifications used when designing the machine. Technical Guide No. 2. If required by a Harmonised Standard (see page 47) to which conformity is declared. For series produced machines. Lists of the essential health and safety requirements.

or electrical equipment of machines.. 2. 3. Conceptual design and manufacturing drawings and schemes of components. 40 Technical Guide No. sub-assemblies. Description of methods used to eliminate hazards 2. Electrical Safety Aspect Other requirements 1. Results of design calculations made.if used. A list of the standards applied in full or in part. Test reports 4. How to make up a Technical File Drawings and diagrams 1. A technical report issued by a Notified Body or Competent Body (see page 46) . and descriptions of the solutions adopted to satisfy the safety aspects of this Directive where standards have not been applied. etc 3. If a Declaration of Conformity (see page 42) is included in a set of papers and this claims to meet the appropriate parts of the standards and simply instructs the user to meet the standards with other parts of his equipment. For series produced equipment. Standards 1. Descriptions and explanations necessary for the understanding of said drawings and schemes and the operation of the electrical equipment. it is possible to use this as a part of a Technical File. the control measures that are used to ensure that subsequent manufacture remains in conformity with the Directive. A general description of the electrical equipment.TECHNICAL FILE (for electrical safety aspects) What is a Technical File? APPLIED TO: Electrical equipment RESPONSIBILITY: Drive Manufacturer/System Designer/Panelbuilder/OEM/ Installer REQUIRED BY: Low Voltage Directive A Technical File is the internal design file which should show how and where the standards are met and is all that is needed if self certifying the equipment by the standards compliance route. etc. 1. examinations carried out.2.EU Council Directives . circuits.

The Certificate of Adequacy provided should be included in the Technical File. Once the Body has established that the Technical File contains all the necessary information. Once the Body has established that the Technical Construction File contains all the necessary information.APPLIED TO: CERTIFICATE OF ADEQUACY Machines/Safety Components RESPONSIBILITY: Notified Body/Machine Builder REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive What if standards In this case the adequacy of the Technical File (see page cannot be wholly 38) is proved by a Certificate of Adequacy issued by a Competent Body. implemented? How to obtain a Certificate of Adequacy KEY POINT: The Certificate of Adequacy is a document drawn up by a Competent Body (see page 46).2.EU Council Directives 41 . the Certificate of Adequacy will be issued. implemented? Technical Guide No. The Technical Report or Certificate is a document drawn up by a Competent Body (see page 46). This report is based on the Technical File (see page 38). the Technical Report or Certificate will be issued. 2 TECHNICAL REPORT OR CERTIFICATE APPLIED TO: Electrical equipment RESPONSIBILITY: Competent Body REQUIRED BY: EMC Directive What if standards cannot be wholly implemented? How to obtain the Technical Report or Certificate KEY POINT: In this case the adequacy of the Technical Construction File (see page 34) is proved by a Technical Report or Certificate issued by a Competent Body. The Technical Report or Certificate provided should be included in the Technical Construction File. REPORT APPLIED TO: Electrical equipment RESPONSIBILITY: Notified Body/Competent Body REQUIRED BY: Low Voltage Directive What if standards In the event of a challenge the manufacturer or importer cannot be wholly may submit a Report issued by a Notified Body.

Low Voltage Directive and EMC Directive How to obtain a Declaration of Conformity As a Machine Builder. Details of the Competent Body to which the Technical File was sent . Details of the Notified Body which carried out the verification .EU Council Directives . A list of Harmonised Standards. 5. the Report will be issued.if required. 2. 3. other standards and specifications used. Equipment description including name. 4. Safety function offered by the component. you must ensure you obtain all the Declarations of Conformity from each equipment supplier. The Declaration of Conformity must contain: 1. Details of the person authorised to sign on behalf of the responsible person. The Report provided should be included in the Technical File. 7. type and serial number. 8. if not obvious from the description. Details of the Competent Body and number of Type Certification .if required. Manufacturer's details and/or his authorised EU representative. KEY POINT: APPLIED TO: DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY (for EMC and RESPONSIBILITY: electrical safety REQUIRED BY: aspects) Electrical equipment and electrical equipment of machines Equipment manufacturer Machinery Directive.2.How to obtain a Report The Report is a document drawn up by a Notified Body (see page 46). 42 Technical Guide No. Once the Body has established that the Technical File contains all the necessary information and the equipment fulfils the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive.if required. 6.

Name and address of the responsible person.if required. All regulations complied with including. 3. 5. if appropriate. type and serial number.2. 2 APPLIED TO: Machines or equipment intended for DECLARATION incorporation into other machinery OF INCORPORATION RESPONSIBILITY: Drives Manufacturer/Machine Builder/Panelbuilder REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive What is a Declaration of Incorporation? Drives manufacturers must meet the appropriate parts of the Machinery Directive and provide a Declaration of Incorporation which states that the drive does not comply on its own and must be incorporated in other equipment. Technical Guide No. 8. Details of the Competent Body which has drawn up a Certificate of Adequacy . 6. 4.EU Council Directives 43 . 2. Details of any Competent Body used and number of Type certification.DECLARATION APPLIED TO: OF CONFORMITY (for mechanical RESPONSIBILITY: safety aspects) REQUIRED BY: How to obtain a Declaration of Conformity Machines Machine Builder Machinery Directive You need to provide the following: 1. A list of Harmonised Standards used or the other standards and technical specifications used. Identification of the Authorised signatory. Machinery description including the name. This Declaration will show the standards that have been applied to the parts of the system within the manufacturer’s scope. Details of the Competent Body holding the Technical File . a statement of conformity with the relevant health and safety requirements or with the example that underwent Type Certification. 7.if required.

It concludes that the entire equipment must meet the provisions of the Directive. The Declaration then lists the standards relating to the Machinery and Low Voltage Directives which the manufacturer has met. Details of the Notified Body and the number of the Type Certification . Machine description.if required. Name and address of the responsible person. such as the inverter. Details of the Notified Body to which the Technical File has been sent . 5. Only then can the Machine or System Builder use the Declaration of Incorporation in his Technical File of the machine. What a Declaration of Incorporation contains 44 Technical Guide No.e. 2. 6. A list of the Harmonised Standards (see page 47) used .2. the manufacturer passes on the responsibility to the machine or system builder. 4.if required. You must understand that because the manufacturer may be supplying only one part in a machinery. Is there no way out of this type of Declaration? No. 3. Quite simply.This Declaration includes a statement restricting the user from putting the equipment into service until the machinery into which it is to be incorporated. Details of the Notified Body which has drawn up a Certificate of Adequacy .if required. 1. KEY POINT: Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of Incorporation covering the Machinery Directive for all built PDS products.if required. as a whole including the equipment referred to in this Declaration. has been found. to be in conformity with the provisions of the Machinery Directive and the national implementing legislation. i. or of which it is to be a component. the manufacturer is legally obliged to ensure that whoever puts the system together must check that it is safe.EU Council Directives . and declared.

EU Council Directives 45 . A warning that the machinery must not be put into use unless the machine into which it is to be incorporated is the subject of a Declaration of Conformity.2.7. a Type Examination Certificate will be issued. APPLIED TO: TYPE CERTIFICATION 2 Machines and Safety Components RESPONSIBILITY: Machine Builder/Approved Body REQUIRED BY: Machinery Directive How to obtain Type Certification Type Certification is carried out by an Notified Body (see page 46) who will establish that the unit supplied. along with a Technical File. Technical Guide No. 8. Details of the person authorised to sign on behalf of the responsible person. Once the Type Certification has established this. may be used safely and that any Standards have been correctly applied.

then the Authorities can demand technical documentation to show that a product complies with the directives concerning the product.b. Rue de la Loi 200. To find a suitable Competent Authority or Notified Body you can contact: EU Commission. which have their own Directives and/or require type testing. 1049 Brussels Ph: +32 2 296 45 51 Notified Body A Notified Body issues Type Certificates for products. 46 Technical Guide No.Chapter 6 .Authorities and Bodies The responsibility for product conformity is given to the manufacturer. The following types of Authorities and Bodies exist: Competent Authority A Competent Authority in any EU or EEA country supervises markets to prevent hazardous products being sold and marketed. If there is any doubt about conformity.EU Council Directives .2.b. They also issue the Technical Report or the Certificate for the product’s Technical Construction File (see page 34). To find a suitable Competent Body contact your local Competent Authority or: EU Commission. Rue de la Loi 200. a manufacturer can use a third party to examine the conformity. 1049 Brussels Ph: +32 2 296 45 51 Competent Body A Competent Body is a third party which can be used to assess a product’s conformity. When assessing product conformity. They can also withdraw such products from markets.

for electrical equipment and ETSI. 2 KEY POINT: It is recommended to use a TCF even when standards are harmonised as it makes it easier to show conformity afterwards. if required by Authorities. Directive or Standard? Harmonised Standards for PDSs To remove technical barriers to trade in EU or EEA countries. or if all parts of a Harmonised Standard cannot be applied.2. but compliance with Directives without the use of Harmonised Standards is extremely difficult. the standards are Harmonised in Member States. CENELEC. The legislation of the European Union is defined by different Directives. In the harmonisation procedure. Standards give exact figures and limits for products. • By way of a Technical Construction File when no Harmonised Standards exist. all Member States are involved in developing the Committee's proposals for their own national standard. The responsibility for defining standards in Europe rests with three committees: CEN. for telecommunications.Standards and Directives The use of standards is voluntary. What they do include is essential requirements mainly for Health and Safety which make the application of the relevant Harmonised Standards mandatory. Technical Guide No. There are two ways to show that a Power Drive System or part of it conform: • Use of Harmonised Standards (EN). for areas of common safety. A standard becomes harmonised when published in the Official Journal of the EU.EU Council Directives 47 . The Directives concerning Power Drive Systems are known as New Approach Directives. which means that they do not include exact figures or limits for products. The requirements of Directives are firmly established in Standards.Chapter 7 .

it must be freely marketed in other member countries. Other important standards are EN 50178 according to Low Voltage Directive and EN 61800-2. which. Your questions answered Which standards directly relate to drives? At the moment. there is a Product Specific Standard (see page 50) covering EMC from Power Drive Systems. which gives rating specifications for Power Drive Systems.The idea is that if a product conforms to the Harmonised Standard. How to recognise a European Standard Harmonised Standards come in the following format: XX EN 60204-1 where XX = the national prefix (eg BS = UK. Electrical Equipment of Machines. The important standard for PDSs is EN 60204-1. it is legally manufactured and when placed onto the market in one country. SFS = Finland) EN = the abbreviation of Euronorm 60204-1 = an example of a standard number The first number in each standard index tells the origin of the standard: 2 40 50 60 = standards based on ISO = standards from CENELEC = standards from CISPR (a committee dealing with radio interference) = IEC based standards There is also some clue as to a standard's status: prEN 50082-2 = proposal for standard sent to Member States ENV 50 = pre-standard which is in force for 3 years to obtain practical experience from Member States. 48 Technical Guide No. is also an electrical safety standard under the Machinery Directive.EU Council Directives .2. in addition to being a Low Voltage Directive standard for all electrical equipment.

which will incur additional costs (See pages 34-38 for a full explanation of how to use TCFs).2. in most situations. • Other > The limits specified. While it is possible to make the drive enclosure into a Faraday cage and thereby have all radiation attenuated to earth. 2 What are the solutions to radiated emissions? Do I have to conform to the standards? The most important solutions are good installation practice. however. over 1kW => No limits. This does. The use of standards is voluntary. tight enclosure. Technical Guide No.EN 61800-3. There are two ways to show that a Power Drive System conforms: • use of Harmonised Standards . providing this is for a single drive. but compliance with a Directive without the use of Harmonised Standards is difficult in the majority of cases.2001.EU Council Directives 49 . (See page 58 for tips and advice). Important attenuation methods are shielded cables and 360o earthing. Conducted emissions at low frequencies are known as harmonics which have been a familiar problem to many users of a PDS.What are the issues of EN 61800-3 and drives? For emissions there are two main aspects to consider: Conducted emissions: these are seen on the power supply cables and will also be measured on the control connections. Conformity with conducted emissions can be helped by good product design and is readily achieved. Radiated emissions: These are more problematic.1. • if the Harmonised Standards cannot be applied. shielded cables and 360o earthing. it is necessary to use a TCF. At the moment two groups can be separated • Professional. in practice it is the outgoing connections where inadequate cabling radiates emissions and cross couples with other cables in the vicinity. using filters. Where harmonics are concerned EN 618003 refers to EN 61000-3-2 which does apply for equipment under 16 A per phase and after 1. while radiated emissions are air borne. involve third party (Competent Body) scrutiny of the file and a Certificate or a Technical Report from this body.

EC Declaration of Conformity required. the standard takes precedence over all generic EMC standards previously applicable.It is recommended to use the TCF where the Harmonised Standards are applied as it makes it easier to show conformity afterwards if required by the authorities. When PDS/CDM is going to be incorporated with another product. The PDS manufacturer is responsible for EMC behaviour of the PDS under specified conditions. Mode 1: A PDS with unrestricted distribution Complex component (PDS/CDM) sold “as built” to the End-User Description Placed on the market. 50 Technical Guide No. Additional EMC measures are described in an easy-to-understand way and can be implemented by a layman. The EC Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking are required. Free movement based on compliance with the EMC Directive. by following the manufacturer's recommendations and guidelines. Can I be fined for Yes. The manufacturer of the PDS (or CDM/BDM) is responsible for providing Installation Guidelines.2.EU Council Directives . Failure to comply with any of the Directives will be a not conforming? criminal offence. Mode 2: Restricted distribution A PDS (or CDM/BDM) sold to be incorporated into an apparatus. Description: Intended only for professional assemblers who have the level of technical competence of EMC necessary to install a PDS (or CDM/BDM) correctly. The Product Specific Standard EN 61800-3 This standard defines the required emission and immunity levels of PDSs and the test methods to measure the levels. It puts PDSs and their component parts into four modes depending on the functional characteristics. The standard defines two modes of sales distribution and applies them to the PDS. CE Marking required. In Europe. the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. system or installation.

Description: Not intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit. system or other components. The manufacturer of the PDS (or CDM/BDM) is responsible for the provision of Installation Guidelines. Therefore. either Restricted or Unrestricted. Although components are excluded from the Directive. components must have a sufficient degree of EMC. Description: Has an intrinsic function for the final user and placed on the market as a single commercial unit. EC Declaration of Conformity and CE Marking required (for the apparatus or system). brought together at a given place. Essential protection requirements of the EMC Directive apply regarding the neighbourhood of the installation.g. they will not have to worry about compliance when they fit it to their machine. 2 Mode 3: Installation One or more PDSs. the resulting EMC behaviour of that product is the responsibility of the assembler of the final product. Standard assembly: The manufacturer restricts the supply of equipment to suppliers. No Declaration of Conformity or CE Marking of the installation. Mode 4: Apparatus or system Includes one or more PDS(s) (or CDM/BDM). The manufacturer is responsible that sufficient EMC will be achieved even by a layman.When a PDS/CDM is to be incorporated with another product. the responsibility for CE Marking such components under EMC lies with the manufacturer.2. by following an appropriate EMC plan). if members of the public (End-Users) buy a component off the shelf. manufacturers or users who separately or jointly have technical competence of the EMC requirements for the application of drives. Technical Guide No.EU Council Directives 51 . BDM used in domestic or industrial premises. Applications of different Modes 1. it states that when sold without any control over the application (Unrestricted components). Thus. Resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the manufacturer of the apparatus or system. in or with an apparatus. sold without any control of the application. Resulting EMC behaviour is the responsibility of the Installer (e. Each apparatus or system included is subject to the provisions of the EMC Directive.

On their own they do not have an intrinsic function for the End-User. The conditions of use are specified at the time of the order. Conditions of use are specified in the manufacturer’s documentation. but are sold to professional Installers who incorporate them into a machine.EU Council Directives .2. fan. PDS combined with application device (machine) such as a vacuum cleaner. mechanics. ready to use apparatus. consequently an exchange of technical data between supplier and client is possible. process control etc).Restricted distribution. The Directive concerns all machines but not those like lifts. 52 Technical Guide No. They are not on sale directly to the End-User. where at least one part is moving and which have the necessary control equipment and control and power input circuits. which have a specific Directive. PDS or CDM/BDM for domestic or industrial purposes. apparatus or system. Machinery Directive 98/37/EC How does the Machinery Directive affect my drive? 89/392/EEC modified by 91/368/EEC. pump or such like. 4. Inverters come under the second category of components . 3. both for technical and economical reasons. apparatus or system. PDS for use in installations. This is sold as a sub-assembly to a professional assembler who incorporates it into a machine. i. 93/44/EEC and 93/68/EEC has been replaced by a new numbering scheme which simply refers to 98/37/EC This Directive concerns all combinations of mechanically joined components. Harmonic compensation is an evident example of this.2.e. Exchange of technical data allows optimisation of the EMC solutions. The combination of systems in the installation should be considered in order to define the mitigation methods to be used to limit emissions. It can consist of different commercial units (PDS.

the Declaration of Conformity is needed for each of its component parts. In the case of a Power Drive System. To guarantee that a product complies. It always needs its motor coupled to the driven load before it can function effectively. modified by 93/68/EEC This Directive concerns all electrical equipment with nominal voltages from 50V to 1kV AC and 75V to 1. fire and radiation hazards. the Declaration of Conformity for the Complete Drive Module (CDM) (see pages 18 and 19) and for the Motor have to be given separately by the manufacturer of each product.KEY POINT: As far as drives are concerned. see page 13). b-1049 Brussels. it cannot carry the CE Marking based on the Machinery Directive. Thus.5kV DC. If a product conforms to the Directive and has a Declaration of Conformity. the manufacturer must provide a Declaration of Conformity.EU Council Directives 53 . the Complete Drive Module (CDM) does not have a functional value to the user. The aim of the Directive is to protect against electrical.2. This is a Declaration that the product conforms to the requirements laid down within this Directive. Machinery Directive copy? Low Voltage Directive How does the LVD affect my drive? 73/23/EEC. On its own. Thus. It tries to ensure only inherently safe products are placed on the market. then it must carry the CE Marking (for more on CE Marking. 2000. All parts of a PDS from converters and motors to control gear must conform with the Low Voltage Directive. obtain a Rue de la Loi 200. 2 To obtain a copy of the Machinery Directive you can Where can I contact a local Competent Authority or EU Commission. the new version of EN 60204-1 will be in force after 1st October. mechanical. Technical Guide No.

2. which can be wired up to the supply and switched on without any further work being undertaken. The Directive aims to ensure emissions from one product are low enough so as not to impinge on the immunity levels of another product. KEY POINT: CE Marking CANNOT be given automatically on the basis of this Directive. At each stage of the manufacturing process.KEY POINT: Most manufacturers will include a Declaration of Conformity covering the Low Voltage Directive for all built PDS/CDMs.EU Council Directives .it can only be measured quantitively. each manufacturer is responsible for applying the 54 Technical Guide No. • the emissions from that product. but is always part of a machine or process. These are drives built into an enclosure. therefore. 92/31/EEC and 93/68/EEC The intention of the EMC Directive is. from component to system. in fact EMC cannot be designed . There are two aspects to consider with the EMC Directive: • the immunity of the product. has the final responsibility to ensure that the machine including any VSD and other electrical devices. Why is the Declaration of Conformity important? KEY POINT: Without the Declaration of Conformity the CDM could not carry the CE Marking and therefore it could not be used legally in any system. Although the Directive expects that EMC should be taken into account when designing a product. to achieve EMC compatibility with other products and systems. meets the EMC requirements. This is because the drive is not a final functional product to the customer. which is a component and needs an enclosure. The Machine Builder. This is in contrast to an open chassis (BDM). as its name implies. EMC Directive How does the EMC Directive affect my drive? 89/336/EEC modified by 91/263/EEC.

Technical Guide No. drives manufacturers are in a position to choose whether to put CE Marking on to a frequency converter to indicate compliance with the EMC Directive or to deliver it as a component without CE marking.EU Council Directives 55 . So. It does not imply that there is a string of Declarations of Conformity to be compiled into a manual. Either the Machine Builder or System Supplier has the final responsibility that the machine or system including the drive and other electrical and electronic devices will meet the EMC requirements. 2 KEY POINT: It is the responsibility of the person who finally implements the system to ensure EMC compliance. Who has the responsibility to ensure CE Marking? A frequency converter is likely to be only a part of a Power Drive System.2.appropriate parts of the Directive. This may be in the form of instructions on how to install or fit the equipment without causing problems. Yet it is the entire system or machinery that must meet the requirements of the EMC Directive.

Summary of responsibilities

Summary of Manufacturer's responsibilities in the application of EC Directives to systems containing a PDS:

Warnings & Guide

Power Drive System
Machinery Directive Any safety relevant standard such as EN 60204-1 etc

Low Voltage Directive
EN 60529, EN 60204-1 EN 50178

EMC Directive
EN 61800-3

TECHNICAL FILE

TECHNICAL FILE

TECHNICAL FILE or TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTION FILE

Apply Harmonised Standards as far as possible

Apply Harmonised Standards

Competent Body to review TCF or apply Harmonised Standards EU Declaration of Conformity CE Mark applied

Declaration of Incorporation No CE Marking as the PDS is a component of the machine

EU Declaration of Conformity CE Mark applied

If some of the Directives result in CE Marking, the PDS (or CDM or BDM) can be CE marked with the corresponding Declaration of Conformity.

An analogue of this procedure occurs for each end product which is to be combined with a PDS. However, check all Directives applicable to the end product.

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Achieving conformity with EC Safety Directives

2
Machine Technical File PDS Compliance by Application of Standards Declaration of Conformity

*

TCF for EMC

Competent Body

Report of Certificate

*

*
Competent Authority

* Only if required during market surveillance.

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Chapter 8 - Installation
General installation concerns
The aim of this section is to provide general installation guidelines to ensure the Power Drive System functions in accordance with the legislation detailed previously. It is worth highlighting some of the problems which industry now faces as a result of the EMC legislation. For example, • To avoid EMC problems it is now important that motor cables should be terminated in the inverter - not at a terminal board in a motor control centre. They certainly must not be run in parallel with unshielded conductors where some pick up is inevitable. • Implementing features like by-passes becomes difficult to prevent cross-coupling. • Where a panel builder puts a converter into a secondary enclosure, the ventilation louvres can quite easily become waveguides, if poorly designed or finished. • In theory, every small installation needs a Technical Construction File (TCF) (see pages 34-38) to confirm compliance with the EMC Directive and a Technical File for the LVD. This means that the idea of mounting drives into motor control centres must be much more carefully thought out by system specifiers. • Testing on site is likely to be needed on large installations. • In theory, the manufacturer can deliver, in conjunction with a Machine Builder, a perfectly good CE marked system which can be installed, and due to site problems we can still get problems of radiation blotting out someone’s radio.

Technical requirements of the legislation

There are several technical requirements of the proposed legislation: There must be an on-load disconnecting device in each supply, unless an auxiliary contact switches off the load (except for units up to 3kW/16A where a plug and socket connection is used). The isolator must be between 600 and 1900 mm from the floor.

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Means of preventing unexpected start, for example during maintenance, is required, i.e. padlocking the isolator in the off position. Electrical equipment has to be protected against direct and indirect contact. Doors must be locked by a tool or IP2X protection fitted internally with warning labels. The voltage inside must be below 60V after 5 seconds from switching off, otherwise special labels stating the time must be fitted (i.e. for DC-link capacitors). Every machine must be equipped to allow stopping by removing voltage from a circuit unless it is dangerous to do this. Programmable electronic equipment shall not be used for this function. The Stop and Emergency Stop function has to be selected by a risk assessment of the machine. Drawings must use standard IEC formats and symbols. Motors must comply with IEC 34-1/EN 60034-1 standards. Warning flash symbols shall be fitted to covers to show they contain electrical equipment.

2

How can EMC be improved? KEY POINT:
The best way is to follow good installation practice and to thoroughly read the Product Specific Manuals. This way you can be assured that the motor drive installation is within the limits of EN 61800-3. There are four main approaches to improving the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of drives and thereby reduce the emissions of susceptible equipment. These are: • good general installation practices. • good earthing. • good shielding. • good filtering.

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General installation practice Cabling
Motor cabling is a source of interference. Other cables also become sources if they run parallel with motor cables. Therefore, separate motor cables from other cables by 500 mm. Otherwise, the use of the RFI filter is almost useless. Power and signal cables should cross each other at right angles.

Relay Outputs

Relays, contactors and magnetic valves must be equipped with spark suppressors. This is also necessary when these parts are mounted outside the frequency converter cubicle.

Varistor

Device e.g. converter RC-filter

230 VAC

230 VAC Diode

+ 24 VDC -

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Earthing

You need to note that, just because there is a good safety earth at DC or at power frequencies, this does not imply a good earth at radio frequencies. There are several steps to ensuring good earthing improves EMC: Follow all local safety regulations on earthing. The largest possible area should be used as the earth conductor, e.g. the cabinet wall construction. The parts of the earth system should be connected together using low impedance connections. Flat braided wires have a much lower high frequency impedance than round wires. Earth connections should be kept as short as possible. Choose one central earthing point to which the wires can be star-connected. Paint or other insulating coatings must be removed from the area of the bond to achieve a low impedance connection. Low impedance earthing bonds should be checked as part of standard maintenance and service procedures.

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61

For a drive. To make the Faraday Cage effective. remove paint from the surface of cabinets or use EMC gaskets. The cable between the drive and the motor must be shielded. motor and signal cables with 360o earthing. Ensure that the shield is intact along the full length of the cable and that each end is bonded to earth through 360o terminations. The separate panels of the cabinet should be bonded together and have low impedance at high frequencies. To achieve low impedance bonding it may be necessary to use additional screws. c. it will act as an excellent transmitting aerial. The shield connections should have low impedance in the MHz range. all these elements must be connected together to form one shield. this shield consists of three elements: a.Shielding The principle of Faraday Cage is an attempt to provide a shield around a system to prevent radiated signals from entering or leaving. This means that: There should be no breaks in the cable shields. the tight drive cabinet. b. shielded supply.2. the motor housing. This cable carries more conducted noise than the input cabling of the drive and although it is a closed loop. Circuit diagram of a typical High frequency filter L Line Input Terminals R R C C Earth Earth C C L L Load Output Terminals 62 Technical Guide No.EU Council Directives .

You cannot achieve first environment (domestic) levels without using a filter on the line terminals. Many drives incorporate filter components as part of their basic design. In installations incorporating multiple drives in one enclosure. 2 Technical Guide No.2. Also.Filtering Filters are installed on the drive's power supply lines to prevent interference currents reaching the mains and affecting other equipment. a general purpose filter should be fitted at the housing cable to attenuate any additional coupled signals. Other drives have filters as standard options and these should avoid any problems of installation. Bond the filter to the same conductive panel as the drive. remove any paint or other protective coating from the area of the panel that will be in direct contact with the filter.EU Council Directives 63 . Here are a few tips to improve your filtering: A good quality filter must be mounted as close as possible to the drive input (Refer to the RFI filter manufacturer's instructions). Also note that a static shield between the windings of a transformer provides a very effective RF shielding and will help provide de-coupling between the conducted RF in interconnected circuits. Always segregate the input and output cabling of the filter and drive. Before mounting the filter. filters should be fixed to each drive.

b) c) d) e) 2. 64 Technical Guide No.EU Council Directives . Voltage test (2 x Unom. Electrical safety aspects a) Continuity of the protective bonding circuit for example. In this case it is possible to test sub-assemblies of the system before they are mounted together. Functional tests.Testing and installation There are basically two items that need to be tested when the electrical equipment is fully connected to the machine: 1. The levels of interference used shall be selected in accordance with the environment in which the machine is intended to be used. according to IEC 60364-6-61. 1s). It may not be necessary to do the tests in 1(c) and 1(d) above if the machine is tested in sections.these tests must be carried out in accordance with the product specific EMC-standard of the machine or in accordance with generic EMC-standards. Electromagnetic Compatibility .2. Note: EMC for large complex machines cannot always be tested with the complete system working. Protection against residual voltages. Insulation resistance test.

Your technical concerns answered What is the affect of varying impedance? What are the effects of multiple drives?
You can reduce the conducted emissions by reducing the source impedance. The impedance of the connection cables has some “filter effect” (1,5uH) but this is usually not enough to reduce the conducted emission. Therefore, extra reactors and filters are required. The higher the number of drives in parallel, the higher the emissions. Filtering of the conducted emissions is recommended at the point of common supply input. The common panel of the multiple drives must be bonded together as one Faraday Cage and the shields of all cables in and out of the panel must be bonded to the panel. The practical approach should be agreed with a Competent Body. This should be such that the worst case of larger panels are tested. The results shall be evaluated by the manufacturer. The basis of evaluation shall be assessed by a Competent Body. The same procedure and methods can then be used for the easier and smaller units.

2

Large installations with many drives can take up to 3 months and be costly. What can we do?

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Chapter 9 - Index
12-pulse drive 19 A ABB Automation Group 7 abnormal temperatures 24 apparatus 16, 17, 36, 37, 38, 50, 51, 52 authorised EU representative 42 B Basic Drive Module (BDM) 16, 17, 19, 20, 28, 30, 32, 50, 51, 52, 54, 57 C cables 17 CE Mark 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 38, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58 CE Marking 28, 31, 32 CEN 47 CENELEC 23, 47, 48 Certificate of Adequacy 25, 41, 43, 44, 46, 49 Competent Authority 7, 22, 34, 35, 46, 53, 57 Competent Body 7, 25, 31, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 46, 49, 56, 57, 65 Complete Drive Module (CDM) 15, 16, 19, 20, 28, 30, 32, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57 component 17, 28, 31 component supplier 25, 26, 27, 30 Components with direct function 16 Components without direct function 16 conducted emissions 49, 65 conducted noise 62 contactors 60 Control circuit diagrams 39 cross-coupling 58 D DC- link capacitors 59 Declaration of Conformity 13, 14, 15, 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 35, 38, 42, 43, 44, 45, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57 Declaration of Incorporation 26, 32, 38, 43, 44, 45, 57 direct function 16, 17 Direct Torque Control 7 Distributor 7, 20 Drive 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 26, 29, 30, 35, 43, 47, 49, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63 Drives manufacturer 10, 11, 43, 55 E earthing 49, 59, 61, 62 EEA 10, 14, 46, 47 electrical safety 22, 23, 29, 48, 64 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 35, 37, 42, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64 EMC Directive 16, 17, 28 Emergency Stop function 59 EN 61800-2 48 EN 61800-3 30, 49, 50, 59 EN 50178 48 EN 60204-1.2 23 EN 61000-3-2 49 End-User 7, 15, 16, 20, 25, 28, 29, 32, 35, 50, 51, 52 equipotential bonding circuit 24 ETSI 47 European Union (EU) 1, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 34, 35, 46, 47, 48, 50, 53, 57 EU Council Directives 1, 7, 9 F Faraday cage 49, 65 filter 19, 27, 30, 49, 59, 60, 63, 65 frequency converter 19, 55, 60 H harmonics 49 Harmonised Standard 30, 39, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 57 I IEC 18, 48, 59, 64 indirect contact 24, 59 input cabling 62 Installation 7, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 19, 20, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 38, 49, 50, 51, 52, 58, 59, 63, 64 Installation Guidelines 27, 30, 32, 33, 58 installation instructions 15 Installer 7, 11, 20, 32, 51, 52 Insulation resistance test 64 isolator 58, 59

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L Low Voltage Directive 9, 13, 14, 22, 23, 26, 29, 44, 48, 53, 54, 57 M Machine Builder 7, 15, 20, 22, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 35, 38, 41, 42, 43, 45, 54, 55, 58 Machinery Directive 9, 14, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 52, 53, 57 magnetic valves 60 Member State 47, 48 microprocessor 10, 35 mobile radio transmitters 10 motor 14, 15, 19, 20, 22, 36, 53, 58, 59, 60, 62 motor control centre 35, 36, 58 motor protection relays 35 N National Standardisation Association 23 New Approach Directive 47 Notified Body 25, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46 O OEM 7, 20, 35 overcurrent 24 overload current 24 P Panelbuilder 15, 16, 17, 20, 28, 29, 30, 31, 43, 58 Parameters 14 PE terminal 24 phase-shift transformer 19 PLCs 35 portable car telephones 10 Power Drive System (PDS) 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 R Relays 60 resistors 17 Restricted distribution 50, 52 RFI 60

S Safety Component 25, 38, 41, 45 shield 62, 63 shielding 59 self-certification 13, 35 sensor 19 shielded cable 49 short circuit 24 single commercial unit 17 single functional unit 17 soft starters 35 spark suppressors 60 Standards 7, 9, 10, 13, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 57, 59 star-connected 61 System Builder 44 System Designer 7, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 33, 38 Systems 16 T Technical Construction File (TCF) 13, 17, 22, 27, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 46, 47, 49, 50, 57, 58 Technical File 13, 22, 24, 25, 34, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 57, 58 terminal blocks 17 Type Certificate 25, 46 Type Certification 25, 42, 43, 44, 45 Type Examination Certificate 45 U unrestricted distribution 50 unshielded conductors 58 User Manual 59 V Variable Speed Drive 7 W walkie-talkies 10 warning labels 59

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Technical Guide No.2- EU Council Directives

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ABB Oy Drives P.O. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.abb.com/motors&drives

3AFE 61253980 REV C EN 27.6.2003 Specifications subject to change without notice.

Technical Guide No. 3

EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System

2

Technical Guide No.3 - EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS

.............................................. 7 Definitions ......... 5 The responsibility of the manufacturer ................................................................................... 11 Installation ......................................................... 13 Restricted distribution ..................................................Contents 1 Introduction ............... 15 Conducted emission ............................ 16 Clean and dirty side .................. 11 Installation environments...... 11 First Environment ........ 8 Emission .................................. 17 3 2 3 Technical Guide No.......... 12 Unrestricted distribution .....................................3 ............................ 6 Earthing principles ............................................................ 6 Definitions ................ 13 EMC solutions .... 11 Apparatus & systems ........................................................................................................................................................... 11 CE marking for EMC .......................................................... 5 Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer ...................... 5 Who is the manufacturer? ............................................ 8 Immunity ................ 13 EMC emission limits ........................................ 13 EMC plan ........................................................................................ 15 Solutions for EMC compatibility ......................................... 15 Radiated emission ..... 17 RFI filtering ................................................. 5 This guide’s purpose ................ 5 General ............... 6 Practical installations and systems ............... 6 Product-specific manuals.......................................................................................... 5 The Directives concerning drives ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Components without direct function ................................................................. 5 OEM customer as a manufacturer .............. 12 Second Environment ...................... 10 Components with direct function ................. 8 Types of equipment .................................................................................................... 15 Emissions ... 8 Power Drive System ................................... 12 Propagation ......................................... 9 Component ............ 12 The drive’s route to market .......... 15 General ............................................................... 8 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of PDS ..............................................EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 3 ..................................................

........... 360O HF earthing .......................................3 ................................................. HF earthing with cable glands ......................................................... Conductive gaskets with control cables ...................... Use of Ferrite rings ..........................................................Selecting the RFI filter ......................... 360O earthing at motor end .......................................................................... Installation of the RFI filter ........ Holes in enclosures ............. 36 Bibliography .............................. Drives in IT-networks .................... 33 Typical example of a 12-pulse drive ............... Control cables and cabling ........................................................................... 4 18 18 19 19 19 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 30 30 Practical Examples ........................................... 34 Example of common DC bus fed sectional drive .......................... 37 Index ................ Power cables ........................ Selection of a secondary enclosure .......................................................... Installation of accessories .............. HF earthing with conductive sleeve ..................................................... 38 5 6 4 Technical Guide No.... Internal wiring.................EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS ............... 32 Example of By-pass system <100kVA ...................... 32 Simple installation ............................................................. Transfer impedance ............................. Arc suppressors .............

Changing the trademark. also becomes the manufacturer. The European Commission has published guidelines on the application of the EMC Directive.3 . According to part 2 the manufacturer is responsible for writing and updating the Technical Construction File (TCF). if the TCF route is used. Low Voltage Directive and EMC Directive. The requirements and principles of the Directives and use of CE marking is described in Technical Guide No. with a view to placing it on the EEA market.Chapter 1 . These guidelines give the following definition of a manufacturer: “This is the person responsible for the design and construction of an apparatus covered by the Directive with a view to placing it on the EEA market on his own behalf. switches. By following these instructions it is possible to fulfil EMC requirements and give CE marking when necessary.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 5 . 2 “EU Council Directives and Variable Speed Drives”. the manufacturer is responsible for attaching the CEmark to each unit. There are three directives which concern variable speed drives.Introduction General This guide assists design and installation personnel when trying to ensure compliance with the requirements of the EMC Directive in the user’s systems and installations when using AC drives. brand label or the type marking is an example of modification resulting in “as new” equipment. fuses. They are the Machinery Directive. The auxiliaries include contactors. The purpose of this guide is to guide Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM). Whoever modifies substantially an apparatus resulting in an “as-new” apparatus.” According to EMC Directive (89/336/EEC) article 10 part 1. This guide’s purpose 3 The Directives concerning drives Who is the manufacturer? The responsibility of the manufacturer OEM customer as a manufacturer Technical Guide No. It is well known that OEM customers sell equipment using own trade marks or brand labels. system integrators and panelbuilders in designing or installing AC drive products and their auxiliary components into their own installation and systems. etc. This document deals only with the EMC Directive.

A panel builder or system integrator typically undertakes this kind of work. It also includes a short description of interference phenomena. EN 61800-3 (or IEC 61800-3) is used as the main standard for variable speed drives. finished products. Panel builder or system integrator as a manufacturer According to the EMC Directive. ABB Oy offers services to help OEM customers to issue a TCF and a DoC in order to CE mark the product according to the EMC Directive. code 3AFY 61201998.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . Thus. The solutions can be directly used or applied by the OEM or panelbuilder. In order to help panel builder/system integrator. a system is defined as a combination of several types of equipment.Introduction Frequency converters sold as OEM products shall be considered components (Complete Drive Module CDM or Basic Drive Module BDM). This guide gives practical EMC examples and solutions which are not described in product specific manuals. ABB Oy offers installation guidelines related to each product as well as general EMC guidelines (this document). and he shall issue a Declaration of Conformity and Technical Construction File for the equipment. the panel builder or system integrator has sole and ultimate responsibility concerning EMC of the system. the OEM-customer has sole and ultimate responsibility concerning EMC of equipment. Practical installations and systems Earthing principles 6 Technical Guide No.3 . designed and/ or put together by the same person (system manufacturer) intended to be placed on the market for distribution as a single functional unit for an end-user and intended to be installed and operated together to perform a specific task. and/or components combined. Definitions The EMC Product Standard for Power Drive Systems. The terms and definitions defined in the standard are also used in this guide. Apparatus is an entity and includes any documentation (manuals) intended for the final customer. He cannot pass this responsibility to a supplier. The earthing and cabling principles of variable speed drives are described in the manual “Grounding and cabling of the drive system”. Thus.

3 Technical Guide No. This guide is intended to be used together with product specific manuals.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 7 .Introduction Product-specific Detailed information on the installation and use of products. can be found in the product manuals specific manuals.3 . cable sizes etc.

The terms used to define compatibility are shown in figure 2-1. Figure 2-1 Immunity and emission compatibility. The concept that a system is as weak as its weakest point is valid here. As variable speed drives are described as a source of interference. Likewise. High-frequency phenomena include electrostatic discharge (ESD). notches and imbalance. The source of high-frequency emission from frequency converters is the fast switching of power components such as IGBTs and control electronics. radiating electromagnetic field. This is a legal requirement for all equipment taken into service within the EEA.3 . it is natural that all parts which are in electrical or airborne connection within the PDS are part of the EMC compliance. the equipment must not disturb or interfere with any other product or system within its locality. The parts of a variable speed drive controlling driven equipment as a part of an installation are described in EMC Product Standard EN 61800-3. This high-frequency emission can propagate by conduction and radiation. conducting radio frequency disturbance and electrical surge. Immunity Electrical equipment should be immune to high-frequency and low-frequency phenomena. fast transient burst. Typical low-frequency phenomena are mains voltage harmonics. A drive can be considered as a Basic Drive Module (BDM) or Complete Drive Module (CDM) according to the standard.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . Emission Power Drive System 8 Technical Guide No. It is the ability of electrical/electronic equipment to operate without problems within an electromagnetic environment.Chapter 2 .Definitions Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of PDS EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility.

be extended to all installations. The solutions described in this guide are used within the definition of Power Drive System. Converter and Protection Feeding section Auxiliaries and others Motor and Sensors Driven Equipment Figure 2-2 Abbreviations used in Drives. 1050 Bruxelles. should. or in some cases.3 . or there can be many PDSs in a configuration. 35.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 9 . 3 System control and sequencing Basic Drive Module BDM Control. rue de Stassart.Definitions It is recommended that design and installation responsible personnel have this standard available and be familiar with this standard. All standards are available from the national bodies on standardisation and from CENELEC. The interpretation of the EMC Directive for different configuration in the area of drives can be divided into several levels: Technical Guide No. but the same solutions can. This guide gives principles and practical EMC examples which can be applied to a user’s system. Types of equipment The EMC Directive applies to “all electrical and electronic appliances together with installations containing electrical and/ or electronic components liable to cause electromagnetic disturbance or the performance of which is liable to be affected by such disturbance”. Systems made by an OEM or panelbuilder can consist more or less of the PDS parts alone.

2) The direct function is not available without further adjustment or connections other than simple ones. which fulfils the intended use. it is considered as a component (Case 2). Such a component is an ‘apparatus’ and it is subjected to all provisions of the EMC Directive. According to the EMC Directive. Declaration of Conformity). Direct function: Any function of the component itself. According to the EMC Directive the system manufacturer or panel builder is resonsible for CE-mark. Such a component is not an ‘apparatus’.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . These instructions should help him to solve any EMC problems with his final apparatus.g. 10 Technical Guide No. specified by the manufacturer in the instruction for use for an end user. If a component performs a direct function without further adjustment other than simple ones. basic drive module (BDM). which can be performed by any person not fully aware of the EMC implications. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category. which can be performed by any person not fully aware of the EMC implications.3 . The component can either deliver a ‘direct function’ or not.Definitions Component In this context the interpretation of component can be divided into two main categories. Declaration of Conformity and Technical Construction File. If a component performs a direct function that is not available without further adjustment other than simple ones. The only requirement for such a component is to provide it with instructions for use for the professional assembler or manufacturer of the final apparatus into which the component will be incorporated. All provisions of the EMC Directive apply (CE-mark. a drive installed into a cabinet or drive with enclosure and sold as a complete unit (CDM). the component is considered equivalent to apparatus (Case 1).g. e.g. panel builder or system manufacturer) into a cabinet not in the scope of delivery of the manufacturer of the BDM. e. Some variable speed power drive products fall into this category. These are meant to be assembled by a professional assembler (e. the requirement for the BDM supplier is to deliver instructions for installation and use. Components with direct function Components with a direct function can be divided into two sub-groups: 1) The direct function is available without further adjustment or connections other than simple ones.

The environment class depends on the way the PDS is connected to power supply. CE marking for EMC Figure 2-3 The CE mark. equipment and/or components put together at a given place to fulfil a specific objective but not intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit. Several items of apparatus combined to fulfil a specific objective and intended to be placed on the market as a single functional unit. but are not required to be CE marked. Technical Guide No. A component with a direct function that is not available without further adjustment than simple ones does not need to carry CE marking for EMC (Case 2). cables. These components include resistors.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 11 . Installations are required to satisfy various parts of the Directives. A component with a direct function without further adjustment than simple ones needs to carry CE marking for EMC (Case 1). A finished product containing electrical and/or electronic components and intended to be placed on the market and/ or taken into service as a single commercial unit. The EMC Directive does not apply to these.3 . Installation environments The PDSs can be connected to either industrial or public power distribution networks. terminal blocks. Apparatus and systems must be CE marked. etc.Definitions Components without direct function Apparatus and systems Components with no direct function are not considered as apparatus within the meaning of the EMC Directive. Note: The products may carry CE marking for other directives than EMC. The environment classes are First and Second Environment. 3 Installation A combination of items of apparatus.

The drive’s route to market The EMC Product Standard for PDS divides the drive’s routes to the market into Unrestricted and Restricted sales distribution classes.” “Second Environment includes all establishments other than those directly connected to a low-voltage power supply network which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes" Medium voltage network Second Environment Propagation of conducted emissions Public low-voltage network Point of measurement for conducted emission 1st Environment Industrial low-voltage network Point of measurement 2nd Environment Boundary of installation 10 m Point of measurement for radiated emission. the user shall ensure that excessive disturbances are not induced into lowvoltage network.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . The measurements are carried out only in case of dispute (see figure 2-5). Propagation “For PDSs in the second environment.Definitions First Environment “The First Environment includes domestic premises. 12 Technical Guide No.3 . It also includes establishments directly connected without intermediate transformer to a low-voltage power supply network which supplies buildings used for domestic purposes. even if propagation is through a medium voltage network. The situation is the same if a victim is in a Second Environment in another installation. see figure 2-5 Equipment (victim) PDS (emitter) Figure 2-4 Illustration of Environment Classes and propagation of disturbances.” Note: Figure 2-4 shows the case when a victim is in a First Environment.

3 EMC emission limits The EMC emission limits for PDS depend on the installation environment. type of power supply network and power of the drive. but without any specific EMC experience.” This means that the goods require EMC competence to be put into service. “These applications are: • IT networks in complex systems • Current above 400 A • Voltage above 1000 V • Where the required dynamic performances are limited because of filtering … the user and the manufacturer shall agree on an EMC plan to meet the EMC requirements of the intended application.3 .Definitions Unrestricted distribution “Unrestricted distribution is a mode of sales distribution in which the supply of equipment is not dependent on the EMC competence of the customer or user for the application of drives". Limits for certain conditions can be selected by using the following flow chart (see Figure 2-5). Restricted distribution “Restricted distribution is a mode of sales distribution in which the manufacturer restricts the supply of equipment to suppliers. The appropriate limits of the PDSs of the restricted distribution class in the second environment may not be met due to technical reasons.” This means that the manufacturer and the user make the EMC Plan in cooperation. EMC Plan Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 13 . customers or users who separately or jointly have technical competence in the EMC requirements of the application of drives. Goods can be placed in service by a person skilled in the operation of goods.

5 1 Frequency (MHz) 5 10 30 0.Definitions EN 61800-3 EMC Product Standard for PDS 1st Environment (public low-voltage network) 2nd Environment (industrial network) Either Unrestricted or Restricted Distr .15 0.3 .5 1 Frequency (MHz) 5 10 30 quasi-peak quasi-peak See also EMC Plan R A D I A T E D 70 10 m.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . quasi-peak 45 40 37 35 30 30 25 0 30 200 230 400 600 800 1000 20 10 0 30 Frequency (MHz) 200 230 400 600 See also EMC Plan Unrestricted (10 m). 14 Technical Guide No. quasi-peak 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) DISPUTE The polluter solves Figure 2-5 Emission limits for PDS. quasi-peak 60 50 40 quasi-peak quasi-peak I > 100A C O N D U C T E D 150 130 125 115 110 100 90 86 70 50 0. Unrestricted Distribution Restricted Distribution I < 100A Disturbance in power port dBuV 100 79 80 73 66 60 56 40 20 0 0.15 Disturbance dBuV/m 50 47 Restricted (10 m).

earthing and the metal frame of an enclosure. The emissions can be divided into two parts.3 . mechanical design. cable entries and other special points were all considered in great detail. etc. to attenuate switching sparks • Using ferrite rings in power connection points Technical Guide No. contactors. Conducted emission Conducted disturbances can propagate to other equipment via all conductive parts including cabling. Conductive emissions can be reduced in the following way: • By RFI filtering for HF disturbances • Using sparking suppressors in relays. the conducted emission and the radiated emission. Solutions for EMC compatibility 3 Emissions Drive products are normally immune to a majority of disturbances. valves. This all is referred to as fully integrated EMC. The disturbances can be emitted in various ways as the following figure shows: Figure 3-1 Emissions. These same principles were used when these products were initially designed and constructed. So in this context only emissions need to be handled. where such issues as printed circuit board layout. otherwise they would be affected by their own disturbances.EMC Solutions General The solutions used to fulfil immunity and both radiated and conducted emission requirements are described in this chapter. There are some basic principles which have to be followed when designing and using drive systems incorporating AC drive products.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 15 .Chapter 3 . wire routing.

plastic with conductive coating. unless they are not concerned. See product specific manuals. See product specific manuals. • Unpainted metal to metal contacts shall be used throughout. if a metal enclosure cannot be used. doors. Cabling & Wiring: • Use special HF cable entries for high frequency earthing of power cable shields. “dirty” side from the “clean side” by metal covers and design. motors. • Separate radiative i. Some methods for ensuring the continuity of the Faraday Cage are listed as follows: Enclosure: • The enclosure must have an unpainted non-corroding surface finish at every point that other plates. Covers should be secured at not more than 100 mm intervals where radiation could escape. being with a component without a direct function. • Use materials with good attenuation e. • Correct internal wiring methods. e. etc. • Use ferrite rings for disturbances. • Holes in enclosure should be minimised. ensuring all separate metal items are firmly bonded to achieve a single path to earth.EMC Solutions Radiated emission To be able to avoid disturbance through air.3 . • Selection and installation of accessories in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions.e. • Select and route internal wires correctly. Installation: • Auxiliaries used with CDMs should be CE marked products to both EMC & Low Voltage Directives. • Use conductive gaskets in doors and covers. auxiliary boxes. where appropriate.g.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . • Special attention must be given to earthing. • Use conductive gaskets for HF earthing of control cable shield. • 360° earthing at motor end. • Route power and control cables separately. • Use shielded power and control cables. make contact. with conductive gaskets. all parts of the Power Drive System should form a Faraday Cage against radiated emissions. The PDS includes cabinets. cabling. • Use unpainted installation plates. bonded to common earth point. NOT ONLY to LVdirective. 16 Technical Guide No. if necessary. • Use twisted pairs to avoid disturbances. etc.g.

Technical Guide No. e. When the Faraday cage is formed by cabling. isolators. fuses. the rules for cabling must be applied (see sections on cabling and wiring in this chapter and follow the product specific instructions for the drive).g. To be able to keep the clean side “clean” the dirty parts are separated into a Faraday Cage. The parts of the BDM which can cause disturbances are described as the dirty side. Some examples of solutions are described in chapter 4. in some cases makes it difficult to keep the clean and the dirty side separate.g.g. Output filters attenuate disturbances at the output of a PDS. etc. This can be done either with separation plates or with cabling. is referred to as the clean side. by-pass). contactors. Practical Examples. du/dt and common mode filters help somewhat.EMC Solutions Note: When selecting equipment for a configuration it is essential to check that both radiated and conducted emissions have been taken into account. The use of additional components.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 17 . Enclosed wall mounted drives are designed so that the circuit followed by output connection is the only dirty part. Clean and dirty side The circuit before the point where supply power is connected to the CDM and where the filtering starts. When using separation plates the rules for enclosure holes are applicable (see section Holes in enclosures later in this chapter).3 . This can happen when contactors or switches are used in circuits to change over from clean to dirty side (e. That is the case if the installation instructions of the drive are followed. 3 RFI filtering RFI filters are used to attenuate conducted disturbances in a line connecting point where the filter leads the disturbances to earth. E. even if they have not been designed for RFI.

as the measurement base for the two items of information will not correspond. 18 Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . Installation of the RFI filter Reliable HF/low impedance connections are essential to ensure proper functioning of the filter. Figure 3-2 shows an example of integral. Some drive products need a separate filter (see product specific instructions).EMC Solutions Note: Filters cannot be used in floating network (IT-network) where there is high impedance or no physical connection between the phases and the earth. and the insertion loss for a filter.3 . Figure 3-2 Example of filtering integrated in drive module. • The frames of the filter cubicle (if separate) and the drive cubicle shall be bolted together at several points. and must be separated from each other. It is not possible to compare the disturbances measured from a source. It is always necessary to test a filter in conjunction with the source of disturbance to ensure adequate attenuation and to meet applicable emission limits. therefore the following instructions shall be followed. distributed filtering. Selecting the RFI filter An RFI filter is selected to attenuate the conducted disturbances. • Filter shall be assembled on a metal plate with unpainted connection points all in accordance with filter manufacturer’s instructions. • The input and output cables of the filter shall not run in parallel. Paint shall be removed from all connection points.

Note that the cable type and size are critical. contactors and magnetic valves must be equipped with spark suppressors. This is also necessary when these parts are mounted outside the frequency converter cubicle. it is always necessary to provide an EMC enclosure. (e.g. and all the internal shielding parts are fitted. or if additional components are to be connected to the dirty side of an otherwise compliant unit. Drives in ITnetworks Check with a meter that there are no filtering capacitors connected to earth. 3 Figure 3-3 Examples of suppression. For enclosed chassis modules where the motor connections are made directly to the converter output terminals. Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 19 . there are no requirements for special enclosures.3 . Selection of a secondary enclosure Where the BDM is to be installed. • The filter must be earthed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Arc suppressors Relays.EMC Solutions • The maximum length of the cable between the filter and the drive must be according to the RFI-filter manufacturer's instructions. an IP 00 open chassis converter).

The paint must have metal to metal contact at each seam to other parts of the metal enclosure. • Doors: Sealed with conductive gasket. and adequately earthed.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . 20 Technical Guide No. As a reminder. Electrical Safety Standard EN 50178 or Product Standard EN 61800-2 and are not described here. In this document only the EMC aspect is handled. Not painted. The enclosure is sized according to several criteria: • • • • • • • • Safety Degree of Protection (IP Rating) Heat Rejection Capability Space for accessory equipment Cosmetic aspects Cable access EMC compliance General requirements for EMC compatibility The safety of people and animals together with degree of protection (IP-rating) requirements are mainly described in Machinery Safety standard EN 60204-1. From the EMC point of view it means that the enclosure is firm and proof enough to be a part of the Faraday Cage. The surfaces that make metal to metal contact shall not be painted.75 mm stainless (galvanised) steel (Normally recommended < 1. • Outside surface: Electrostatic powder coating e.g. • Louvres: holes in steelwork < 21 mm in width or proprietary RFI proof type. Thickness 60µ. then an EMC enclosure will be needed. for example. • Inside surface: Hot galvanised and chromated steel.EMC Solutions If drives are fitted with output switching devices. plastic boxes can also be used if they are painted inside with conductive paint. polyester powder paint (TGIC). otherwise metal boxes should be used.3 .5 mm for stiffness). The enclosure must adhere to the following parameters as a minimum: • Thickness: 0. or other cosmetic finish. Enough locks for high frequency earthing. EMC is only one part of enclosure selection. In small systems. External safety switches can also be in plastic boxes if the boxes form a good Faraday Cage and are conductive inside. as the integral Faraday Cage will no longer apply.

3 . Holes in enclosures In most cases. the maximum diagonal or diameter for any hole is 100 mm. some holes must be made in the enclosure e. The manufacturer’s guidelines for construction and earthing must be followed. Technical Guide No. A number of proprietary enclosure types are available. etc. if there is any possible doubt about problems with HF disturbances. cables. louvres. It is.g. locks. Holes bigger than 100 mm must be covered with a metal frame surrounding the aperture and earthed to the enclosure. Glazing must be connected to non painted metal surrounds with conductive double sided tape or conductive gasket.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 21 . all earthed. Larger viewing holes can be covered by proprietary glazing with conductive coating. When an EMC enclosure is to be used.EMC Solutions • Cover plates: Metal against metal (not painted). This dimension has been found acceptable in EMC tests. for door devices. 3 Figure 3-4 Enclosure detail. however. which equates to 1/10TH of the wavelength of a 300 MHz frequency. which use a variety of materials and methods of shielding against radiated emissions. also recommended to use metal framed devices if their assembly holes are between 30 mm to 100 mm.

otherwise twisted pair is acceptable o Figure 3-5 Typical enclosure aperture detail.EMC Solutions Maximum size 72 x 72 mm instrument Note: If front plate of door device is plastic. The cable glands which are specially designed for 360° HF earthing are suitable for power cables with a diameter less than 50 mm.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . The tape must cover the whole surface of the shielding. including pigtail. Only the outer insulation of cable should be removed to expose the cable screen for the length of the cable gland. HF earthing with cable glands 22 Technical Guide No. auxiliary connection box or motor. and should be tightly pressed with fingers after every single turn. 360° HF earthing 360° HF earthing should be done everywhere where cables enter the drive enclosure. Cable glands are not normally used for control cables due to the fact that the distance from the control connections to the cable glands is often too long for reliable HF earthing. the cable shielding should be covered with a conductive tape. There are different ways to implement the HF earthing. make 360 earthing for cable. The solutions used in ABB’s CDM/BDM products are described here. the cable shielding must continue as near to the control connections as possible. If the glands are used with control cables. To get the best possible result from HF earthing.3 . The glue must be conductive.

HF earthing with conductive sleeve 360° HF earthing in power cable entries can be done by using a conductive sleeve around the cable shielding.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 23 .3 .EMC Solutions wires as possible covered with conductive tape 3 Figure 3-6 Essential points of power connections. The sleeve is connected to the Faraday Cage by tightening it to the specially designed collar in the gland plate. The advantage of this solution is that the same sleeve can be used for cables with different diameters. Technical Guide No. Figure 3-7 360° earthing with conductive sleeve.

The shielding should be covered with conductive tape. Figure 3-8 shows a Faraday Cage solution at the motor end. 360° earthing at motor end The continuity of the Faraday Cage at the motor end must be ensured by the same methods as in cabinet entry. Note that the sleeve does not act as a strain relief clamp.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . etc. • Cable shielding should be sealed with conductive tape. When gaskets are mounted at a gland plate. the cable shielding must continue as near to the control connections as possible. • Conductive gaskets should be used for sealing both the cable gland plate and the terminal box cover for the Faraday Cage and IP 55 degree of protection. Figure 3-8 Essential points in motor cabling. 24 Technical Guide No. • Earthing pigtail conductors should be as short as possible.EMC Solutions The cable can be mechanically supported by clamps. such as in cooling form IC01. namely: • Cable gland must be used for clamping the cable. as the figure 3-9 shows. In this case the outer insulation of the cable should be removed to allow connection to the shield for the length of the gasket transit. and a specific cable gland is not required.3 . In this method the shielded control cable is led through two gaskets and pressed tightly together. IC06. the continuity of the Faraday Cage must be ensured in the same manner as for the converter enclosure. Conductive gaskets with control cables The 360° HF earthing for control cables can be done with conductive gaskets. For motors which are not totally enclosed.

Accessories can. Installation of accessories The variety of accessories which can be installed is so large that only basic principles for selection and installation can be given for them.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 25 . be divided into two categories depending on how immune/sensitive they are.EMC Solutions The best HF earthing is achieved if gaskets are mounted as near to the control connections as possible. Technical Guide No. and twisted in pairs where appropriate. The hole size in a gland plate required by these gaskets is typically 200 x 50 mm. however. The gaskets must be installed to connect with the earthed unpainted surfaces of the gland plate to which they are mounted. The cable shield should be earthed to the connection end by a short pigtail. All connection tails should be as short as possible. Twist the pairs up to terminals Control connections 3 Short pigtail PE Cable Cable shielding covered with conductive tape Pull the outer insulation required by gasket (about 3 cm) Press the gaskets together Unpainted gland plate Conductive gasket Continuity of Faraday Cage Clamp Control cables Figure 3-9 Essential points for control cabling transit.3 .

switch fuses. Do not allow spans over free air which could form an antenna. The rules for holes in the enclosure must then be applied.EMC Solutions The protected device in this context means its ability to keep the Faraday Cage closed. • Avoid mixing pairs with different signal types e. contactors etc. It is therefore recommended to use metal enclosed/shielded devices wherever such devices are available. • Use galvanically isolated (potential free) signals. In general. • Internal clean power connections with integrally filtered drive units. analogue.g. • If plastic trunking is used. 24 VDC. Internal wiring There are some basic rules for internal wiring: • Always keep clean and dirty side cables separate and shielded from one another. • Keep power and control wiring separate. • Use shielded twisted pairs for signal level outward and return wires exiting from the overall enclosure.. from contactor to converter input.3 . • Keep pigtails as short as possible. digital. • Use twisted pair wires wherever possible. do not require shielded cables but may require de-coupling ferrite rings where they enter the converter input. • Keep wires twisted as near the terminal as possible. secure it directly to installation plates or framework. • Run wires along the metal surface and avoid wires hanging in free air. 110 VAC. which do not have a metal covering around them. The rules for holes in the enclosure must be applied if there are devices forming a bridge between the clean side and the dirty side which can be disturbed.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . e. • Earthing connections should be as short as possible in flat strip. which can become an antenna. 26 Technical Guide No. such devices cannot be installed into the clean side without protective metallic shielding plates. 230 VAC. In some cases there might be some confusion between safety and EMC requirements.g. It is therefore important to remember the following basic rule: Safety is always the first priority and overrules the EMC requirements. Typical open devices are fuses. Some examples of protected and open devices are given in the chapter Practical Examples. multistranded or braided flexible conductors for low RFI impedance.

double shielded cable for analogue signals .EMC Solutions DIGITAL INPUTS 3 RELAY OUTPUTS (pot.free) RC filter or varistor for AC relay Avoid parallel running with control wires Cross in 90˚ angle Avoid parallel running with control wires Cross in 90˚ angle Figure 3-10 Principles of wiring inside CDM.single shielded for other signals is acceptable but double shielded cable recommended. Technical Guide No. • Don’t run 110/230 V signals in the same cable with the lower signal level cables.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 27 . In addition to correct HF earthing there are some basic rules for control cabling: • Always use shielded twisted pair cables: .3 . • Earth directly at frequency converter side. • Keep twisted pairs individual for each signal. Control cables and cabling The control cabling is a part of the Faraday Cage as described in the section Conductive gaskets with control cables.

Power cables As the cables are part of the PDS they are also part of the Faraday Cage. The purpose of the shield is to reduce radiated emission. power cables with good shielding effectiveness must be used.EMC Solutions If instructions for the device at the other end of the cable specify earthing at that end. the shield must have good conductivity and cover most of the cable surface. earth the inner shields at the end of the more sensitive device and the outer shield at the other end. If the cable shield is used as protective earthing. the shield cross area (or equivalent conductivity) must be at least 50 % of the cross sectional area of the phase conductor. 28 Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . There is more about control cabling in the documents “Grounding and cabling of the drive system” and in product specific manuals. To be able to meet the EMC requirements. Motor cable Mains cable Figure 3-11 Routing principles of control cables. In order to be efficient.3 . • Route signal cables according to figure 3-11 whenever possible and follow instructions given by the product specific manuals.

The suitability for certain drive types is mentioned in the product specific manuals. If such types are not available locally. Figure 3-13 Layer of copper tape with concentric layer of copper wires. The transfer impedance describes the shielding effectiveness of the cable. the types can be evaluated by the transfer impedance of the cable. 3 Figure 3-12 Galvanised steel or tinned copper wire with braided shield.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 29 . It is commonly used with communication cables. Technical Guide No. and the shield material should preferably be either copper or aluminium. The cable can consist of either braided or spiral shield.EMC Solutions The product specific manuals describe some cable types which can be used in mains supply and motor output. and because cable manufacturers have several different shield constructions. Figure 3-14 Concentric layer of copper wires with an open helix of copper tape.3 .

common mode inductors can be used in signal cables to avoid interfacing problems between different systems. To meet the requirements for radiated emission the transfer impedance must be less than 100 mΩ/m in the frequency range up to 100 MHz. The ferrite core increases inductance of conductors and mutual inductance. An ideal common mode inductor does not suppress a differential mode signal.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS .3 . so common mode disturbance signals above a certain frequency are suppressed. Use of Ferrite rings In particular cases due to high emission levels. The highest shielding effectiveness is achieved with a metal conduit or corrugated aluminium shield. Common mode disturbances can be suppressed by wiring conductors through the common mode inductor ferrite core (figure 3-16). Figure 3-15 shows typical transfer impedance values of different cable constructions. 30 Technical Guide No.EMC Solutions Transfer impedance Limit Figure 3-15 Transfer impedance for power cables. the lower the transfer impedance required. Figure 3-16 Ferrite ring in signal wire. The longer the cable run.

e. If for any reasons the installation instructions cannot be followed and therefore additional ferrites or filters are added afterwards. the ability to suppress HF disturbances) can be increased by multiple turns of the signal wire. The shielding and possible earth wire must be wired outside the ring to keep the common mode inductor effect. all phase conductors should be led through the ring.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 31 . The inductance can be increased by using several successive rings. When using a ferrite ring with power cable.3 . it is recommended that measurements be made to show conformance. With power cables it is not normally possible to make multiple turns through the ring.EMC Solutions The inductance (i. 3 Technical Guide No.

the cabinet is not required to be EMC proof. 32 Technical Guide No. Figure 4-1 Basic PDS Configuration. The supply is made through the RFI filter.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . because connections are made directly in an EMC compliant frequency converter.3 .Practical Examples Simple installation Shielded cables are shown interconnecting the primary parts. The Faraday Cage is earthed and all the emissions are drained to earth. In the case shown in figure 4-1.Chapter 4 . ensuring attenuation of radiated emissions.

Contactors are not RFI barriers.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 33 . and the coil circuits are also vulnerable.Example of By-pass system <100kVA In this case it is difficult to ensure that no cross coupling occurs between the dirty side of the converter and the clean side above the Direct On Line (DOL) contactor.3 . 3 Cabinet 1 Supply connection For more details. A suitable RFI filter at the supply input connections would require to be able to pass the DOL starting current. Technical Guide No. Ferrite cores used in the feeds to the contactor will help attenuate the coupled noise as shown in figure 4-2. which can be six to seven times the normal Full Load Current. see 360˚ MOTOR EARTHING Figure 4-2 Basic scheme with By-pass. and would be greatly oversized for normal running. which makes it difficult to design.

EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . the earth shield between the transformer windings is not quite adequate for conducted emissions attenuation for use in the first environment. a similar procedure can be used. For equipment fed from an IT system. unearthed of 12-pulse drive due to the delta winding. in this case. Therefore an RFI filter may be needed at the primary side of the transformer for EMC compliance.Practical Examples Typical example In this case a 12-pulse rectifier is an IT system. with short connections to the busbars. Low voltage supply Note: All equipment inside must be enclosed Figure 4-3 12-pulse converter system fed at LV. Experience has shown that. An isolating transformer allows the PDS to be earthed and to use a suitable filter. see section Installation Environments in chapter 2. therefore any filter in the line must be at the primary of the phase shift transformer. for use in the First Environment. 34 Technical Guide No.3 . The Point of Coupling is at a medium voltage and emissions may be considered at the next low voltage point of coupling in the system. The level of emissions should correspond to those for the appropriate environment. For definitions. RFI filter is not normally needed for second environment.

Practical Examples 3 Figure 4-4 12-pulse converter system fed at LV (CDM.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 35 . Technical Guide No. transformer and switch fuse have separate housing).3 . Figure 4-5 12-pulse converter system fed at medium or high voltage.

The enclosure is earthed to drain away all emissions.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . The enclosure must be EMC proof as the components inside are not. Cable entries must be 360° HF earthed. Common Earth Figure 4-6 Common DC bus fed sectional drive fed at LV 36 Technical Guide No.Practical Examples Example of common DC fed sectional drive This example features a common DC bus sectional drive which is supplied from an earthed network through an RFI filter.3 .

Sweden) Technical Guide No. Finland) 3 Technical Guide No. code 3BFE 61253980 (published by ABB Industry Oy.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 37 . EMC product standard including specific test (published by CENELEC. Brussels. Sten Benda (published by ABB Industry Ab. Västerås. Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems . Helsinki. published by European Commission DGIII .part 3. Finland) Grounding and cabling of the drive system.EU Council Directives and Adjustable Speed Electrical Power Drive Systems.Chapter 5 .Bibliography Various texts are referred to in this guide. They are recommended further reading to assist in achieving compliant installations: EN 61800-3. 2 .Industry. EN 61800-3:1996/A 11:2000 Guidelines by the Commission on the application of Council Directive 89/336/EEC. Interference Free Electronics by Dr. Helsinki. code 3AFY 61201998 (published by ABB Industry Oy. Belgium and National Standards organisations in EU member countries).3 .

12. 16. 14. 3. 19.Index 12-pulse rectifier A antenna 26 apparatus 11 B Basic Drive Module (BDM) 34 ferrite core 33 Ferrite ring 15. 17. 6. 9. 15. 28. 6. 6. 11. 16. 6. 22. 8. 23. 32. 26. 17. 24. 13. 15. 20. 29. 9 Power Drive System (PDS) 1. 24. 17. 27. 19 C cabinet 16. 21. 25. 10. 23. 15. 22. 13. 37 Complete Drive Module (CDM) 8. 26. 27. 24. 17. 35 cross coupling 33 customer 13 D delta winding 34 direct function 16 DOL 33 double shielded cable 27 drive 1. 37 E EEA 8 electrical surge 8 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 1. 33 Control Cable 16. 3. 21. 37 electromagnetic disturbance 9 electromagnetic environment 8 electrostatic discharge 8 enclosure 15. 17 M Machinery Directive 5 medium voltage network metallic screening 26 motor 24 N notches 12 8 O Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) 5. 9. 28. 26. 8. 21. 12. 13. 9. 30.3 . 20. 32. 18. 24. 17. 27.17. 33. 34. 5. 5. 16. 11. 19. 28 control connection 22.24. 25 control electronics 8 converter 8. 21. 17. 25. 28. 31 First Environment 3. 26 Environment Class 11. 24. 24 CE mark 3. 32 cable gland 22. 20. 26 G gasket 16. 9 P Panelbuilder 5. 17. 24. 11. 32 fuse 5. 34 frequency converter 8. 29. 19. 26. 19 conducting radio frequency disturbance 8 conduction 8 Conductive gasket 16. 30. 12. 18. 16. 27. 28. 16. 9. 19. 8. 31. 11. 25 H harmonics 8 high-frequency emission 8 High-frequency phenomena 8 I IGBT 8 imbalance 8 Installation Environment isolating transformer IT system 34 8. 26. 22. 19. 34. 26. 5. 24. 27 Contactor 5. 16. 16 CENELEC 9. 3. 22. 5. 27. 8.Chapter 6 . 32 fast transient burst 8 3. 19. 24.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS . 12 F Faraday Cage 16. 13. 27 Component 3. 34. 37 phase shift transformer 34 pigtail 24. 26 plastic trunking 26 Point of Coupling 34 power components 8 power distribution networks 11 power supply network 12. 13 38 Technical Guide No. 24. 19. 12. 17. 6. 20. 34 34 L Low Voltage Directive 5 low-frequency phenomena 8 low-voltage network 12. 20. 27 gland plate 23.

3 . 11. 12 Shielded cable 26. 18. 16 Restricted Distribution 3. 8. 13 RF impedance 26 RFI filter 15.R radiating electromagnetic field 8 radiation 8. 12. 27 U Unrestricted 3. 12. 32. 9. 13 V Variable Speed Drives (VSD) 6. 13 3. 37 5. 17. 32 single commercial unit 11 single functional unit 11 strain relief clamp 24 suppliers 13 System Integrator 5 T transformer twisted pair 3 12. 13 Second Environment 3. 22. 13 Unrestricted Distribution user 5. 16. 22. 26. Technical Guide No.EMC Compliant Installation & Configuration for a PDS 39 . 34 16. 12. 17. 33 S Sales distribution 12.

ABB Oy Drives P.2003 Specifications subject to change without notice.com/motors&drives 3AFE 61348280 REV C EN 11. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.abb.O. .6.

Technical Guide No. 4 Guide to Variable Speed Drives .

2 Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives .4..

.. 6 Industrial segments with VSD processes ................Contents 1 Introduction .......................................... 6 Why variable speed control? .......... 24 2 4 3 4 Technical Guide No......................................................... 23 Higher quality ........................... 9 Well defined shape ............13 The efficiency of the drive system ....................16 The motor has to overcome the loading torque ......................................... 22 AC drive ... 23 Productivity ...................... 22 DC drive ........................................................................................................................... hydraulic and electrical VSDs ...........................15 The load................ 20 The best control method is VSD ................14 Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required ...... 18 Variable volumes require some form of control 19 Variable material flow and input/output requirements 19 Simpler control methods ...... 7 Variables in processing systems ...... 11 Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy ...................................................................................................... 21 Mechanical...................................4.................... 5 General ...............11 Electric motors drive most machines ........................................................12 Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction ................ 22 Hydraulic coupling .......... 8 Machines are used to alter materials' properties ............ 9 Indefinite shape ............................. 9 and to transport materials ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Liquid materials .......................................... 22 Electrical VSDs dominate the market .... 10 Solid materials .............................................................. 5 Processes and their requirements ..... 23 The AC drives market is growing fast ................. 23 Energy saving .................................................................................. friction and inertia resist rotation ............................ 23 Maintenance costs .......................10 The workhorse of industry: The electric motor ............................ 17 The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed ............................. 10 Gaseous materials ..........................Guide to Variable Speed Drives 3 .

..................................... Slip compensation ............ Technical differences between other systems and AC drives .............. The motor ................................... Operational costs: Maintenance and drive energy ................. Torque control .... Flying start ............................... Installation costs: Throttling compared to AC drive ................................................................................................................ 40 4 Technical Guide No................................................. No mechanical control parts needed ............5 AC drive: The leading control method .................................................. Stall function ...................................................4...... Eliminating mechanical vibrations ............ EMC ......................................................Guide to Variable Speed Drives .................................. A motor's load capacity curves with an AC drive ............................. Environmental features ....................................................... Cost benefits of AC drives ................................... The basic functions of an AC drive ........................... Factors affecting cost ..................... AC drive features for better process control ........... Power loss ride-through .................. Total cost comparison .... 25 25 26 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 35 36 36 36 37 38 39 6 7 Index ................................................ The AC drive ................................................ Investment costs: Mechanical and electrical components ............ Reversing ....................

describing different variable speed drives (VSD) and how they are used in industrial processes. No special knowledge of VSDs is required. The guide tries to be as practical as possible. 4 Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 5 .4. Special attention has been given to electrical VSDs and especially to AC Drives.Chapter 1 .Introduction General This guide continues ABB’s technical guide series. although basic technical know-how is required to fully understand the terms and descriptions used.

material treatment and material transport. This chapter describes the main industrial and nonindustrial processes using VSDs. although there are many different sub-categories that come under these two basic headings. Common to both main categories.Processes and their requirements Why variable speed control? To understand why variable speed control is necessary.4.Chapter 2 . 6 Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . however. This is accomplished with VSDs. These processes can be divided into two main categories. we first need to understand the requirements of different processes. is the need to be able to adjust the process.

Fans are also used in power plants and the chemical industry. the fans need to be adjusted according to the main process. air flow requirements change according to the humidity and temperature in the room. These can be met by adjusting the supply and return air fans.Processes and their requirements 4 Industrial segments with VSD processes Industrial processes are numerous. and the list above mentions just some of the industrial segments with VSD processes. In power plants. What they have in common is that they all require some kind of control using VSD. the main process changes due to varying demands for power at different times of the year. Likewise. In both cases. Technical Guide No. day or week. the need for VSDs differs according to the process. These adjustments are carried out with VSDs.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 7 .4. in air conditioning applications (part of HVAC). For example.

in the form of energy and/or material. thermal influence. chemical and biological reactions or even nuclear power. in which the hot air temperature must be constant. but in every process. The product or final material state is the output of the process.Processes and their requirements Variables in processing systems This diagram shows what kinds of variables affect the processing system. These variables can be divided into energy and material variables. A good example is a drying kiln.4. material or energy is processed by means of mechanical power. In the processing system itself. Material treatment can also be controlled by VSDs.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . is also produced. VSDs are used to control the mechanical power of the different machines involved in the process. electromagnetic influence. The process is controlled by controlling the speed of the hot air fans using VSDs. In processing systems. waste. 8 Technical Guide No. Each process needs the material and energy supplied to accomplish the required process.

.4. metal and wood. Examples of this kind of equipment are margarine stirrers.. Processing apparatus can be divided into two groups according to the resulting shape of the material being treated. are processed with machinery. Well defined shape As mentioned earlier in this guide. Examples are paper machines. such as various food products. The first category is material treatment. Materials with a well-defined shape. rolling mills and saw mill lines. are processed with plant equipment. plastics etc. working machine processes can be divided into two categories. Indefinite shape Technical Guide No..Processes and their requirements 4 Machines are used to alter materials' properties. which is accomplished using various types of processing apparatus to alter a material’s properties into another form. and different kinds of centrifuges and extruders. Materials with an indefinite shape. The shape can be either well defined or indefinite.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 9 . such as paper.

and to transport materials The second category consists of machines which transport material to a desired location.Processes and their requirements . This group consists of conveying. In the diagram above. Solid materials. wood. metal. conveyors and elevators.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . A special application of these machines is air conditioning. water. are transported by pumps. liquid or gas. such as shipping containers.. dosing and pressure changing apparatus.4. Solid materials Liquid materials Gaseous materials 10 Technical Guide No. These machines can be divided into three different subgroups according to whether the type of material being treated is a solid. Liquid materials. oil or liquid chemicals. are transported by conveying apparatus. five different types of machines are presented. They either shape or transport different types of material. compressors or blowers. but all of them can be potentially used with Variable Speed Drives. minerals and of course people. Gaseous materials such as air are transported using fans. Such apparatus includes cranes.. for example.

Together. This drive system can transform a given type of energy. using a frequency converter as the energy control component. These components are energy control. for example. which is then used by the working machine. a two speed motor as the motor component and gears as the transmission component. In this chapter.Chapter 3 . variable speed control is possible. usually electrical. As mentioned earlier. Variable speed control can be accomplished. the first three components comprise the so called “drive system”. Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 11 .The workhorse of industry: The electric motor All of the machines mentioned earlier in this guide are commonly driven by electric motors. Energy is supplied to the drive system from the power supply. Electric motors can be divided into AC and DC motors. transmission and the working machine. are the most commonly used motors in industrial processes. particularly squirrel cage motors. AC motors. 4 Electric motors drive most machines Every machine consists of four different components. In each of the three drive system components. the motor. into mechanical energy. we will take a closer look at electrical motors .4. shown in the diagram.especially the squirrel cage AC motor. most machines are driven by an electric motor. It can be said that the electric motor is the workhorse of industrial processes. which is the most common motor used in industrial processes.

The flux has turned 60° counterclockwise. By changing the voltage direction in the three phase motor windings in the correct order. Regular 50Hz 3-phase current is fed in to the rectifier part. the circuit will short circuit. the direction of the flux can also be changed. switches V1. This control can be achieved using a frequency converter. If switch V5 is not opened. a frequency converter changes the frequency of the alternating current and voltage. The motor’s rotor will then follow this flux with a certain slip. The DC voltage is fed into the DC bus circuit.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy An AC motor’s ability to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy is based on electromagnetic induction. To receive the flux direction shown in the diagram. The voltage in stator windings forms the current and magnetic flux. The inverter unit then connects each motor phase either to the negative or the positive DC bus according to a certain order. switch V6 has to be closed but V5 has to be open. which converts it to direct current.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . A frequency converter consists of three parts. 12 Technical Guide No. which filters the pulsating voltage. V4 and V5 should be closed. The direction of this flux can be determined using the right hand rule from the stator current. As the name suggests.4. By changing the direction of the voltage in stator windings. This is the basic principle used to control AC motors. the magnetic flux of the motor starts to rotate. To make the flux rotate counterclockwise.

In practice. In two positions. either negative or positive. with today’s technology and knowhow.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor 4 Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction There are eight different switching positions in the inverter. such as energy savings.e. These rotor currents complicate the situation. can also cause some control difficulties. such as temperature or load changes. the voltage is zero. and this voltage creates magnetic flux. Furthermore. External interference. because the motor does not use more electrical energy than required.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 13 . The diagram shows these six switching positions and the flux directions. Voltage also generates current in the windings. Nevertheless. So in the remaining six switching positions there is voltage in the motor windings. control is not quite as simple as presented here. when all the phases are connected to the same DC bus. the directions of which are marked with arrows in each phase. Magnetic flux generates currents in the rotor. control is better than with conventional methods. because electrical VSDs also provide the possibility for stepless control. it is possible to effectively deal with interference.4. Electrical VSDs also provide many additional benefits. i. which the voltage in the windings generates in each case. Technical Guide No.

97 depending on the motor size and its rated speed.Guide to Variable Speed Drives .4. so they appear as heat. The power factor tells us what proportion of the total electric power is active power and how much is so called reactive power. So it can be said that the total efficiency of the drive system is always above 0. and in this way directly controls the power used in the motor as well as in the process being controlled. current (I) and the power factor (cosϕ). Input power to the drive system is electrical in form. from 0. active power is required. the frequency converter regulates the voltage. so the efficiency of the frequency converter is very high. This has a direct effect on how much power the drive system draws from the electrical supply. Motor efficiency is typically between 0. while output power is mechanical. Electrical input power Pin depends on voltage (U). Reactive power is needed to produce magnetisation in the motor.99. The greater the speed or torque required. 14 Technical Guide No.8 when controlled by a frequency converter. Electrical switching with transistors is very efficient.82 and 0. Both drive and motor losses are thermal. Mechanical output power Pout depends on the required torque (T) and rotating speed (n). As mentioned earlier. That is why calculating the coefficient of efficiency (η) requires knowledge of both electrical and mechanical engineering.97 to 0. To produce the required mechanical power. which is fed to the motor.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The efficiency of the drive system The total efficiency of the drive system depends on the losses in the motor and its control. the greater the power required.

reversed rotation of the motor is required. With a frequency converter. torque direction requirements might change. torque direction changes can be implemented independent of the direction of rotation. These factors combined form the so called “four quadrant drive”. some kind of braking arrangement is required. but the torque is in the opposite direction. To produce an efficient four quadrant drive. so the drive is decelerating. II quadrant: In the second quadrant. the drive is accelerating.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 15 . where the rotation direction might change. depending on the torque direction. In addition. the motor is still rotating clockwise. This kind of torque control is especially required in crane applications.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor 4 Reversed rotation or torque is sometimes required In some cases. I quadrant: In the first quadrant. the motor is rotating counterclockwise and the drive is again accelerating or decelerating. Technical Guide No.4. The name comes from the four different quadrants (I to IV) shown in the diagram. III & IV quadrants: In the third and fourth quadrant. Because the torque is in the same direction as the speed. the motor is rotating clockwise. but the torque direction remains the same.

if the box is to rise. In fans and blowers. friction and inertia resist rotation The motor must produce the required torque to overcome the load torque. the motor torque has to be greater than the load torque. which depends on the application. Load torque consists of friction. Load factors change according to the application. in a crusher. but also on the hardness of the crushed material. and so on. which is dependent on the mass of the box.4. For example.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The load. air pressure changes affect the load torque. inertia of the moving parts and the load itself. In the example in the diagram. the load torque is dependent not only on friction and inertia.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . 16 Technical Guide No.

The required speed also has to be known. a motor that is too small may not be able to lift the required load quickly enough to the desired height.4. For example. It might even drop the load completely. the loading torque has to be known before selecting the motor for the application. as shown in the diagram. If the motor is too small.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The motor has to overcome the loading torque In any case. To calculate the rated torque of the motor the following formula can be used: P [kW] n[1/min] 4 T[Nm]=9550 x Technical Guide No. Only then can a suitable motor be selected for the application. This could be disastrous for people working at the harbour or site where this crane would be used.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 17 . the requirements cannot be met and this might lead to serious problems. in crane applications.

With a frequency converter. The motor will automatically accelerate until the load torque and motor torque are equal. Actual torque (Tact) is shown on the y-axis and actual speed (nact) on the x-axis. the maximum load torque is reached just below nominal speed. 18 Technical Guide No.The workhorse of industry: The electric motor The drive torque and load torque are equal at nominal speed A motor’s torque/speed curve is unique and has to be calculated for every motor type separately. This point is shown on the graph as the intersection of Tm and Tl. Depending on the application it can be linear or quadratic. optimal control performance can be obtained from the motor and the whole drive system. This will be introduced later in this guide. These are the principles that govern how an ordinary squirrel cage motor works.4. As can be seen. Load torque Tl usually increases with speed.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . A typical torque/speed curve is shown in the graph as Tm.

Guide to Variable Speed Drives 19 .Variable volumes require some form of control In most processes there is at least one variable. As discussed in the first chapter. if the output parameters need to be changed. then variable speed control might be the solution to fulfilling the process requirements. In this chapter we will look at processes and their variables. The above table lists some processes in which variable speed control is required. in almost every case.4. However. 4 Variable material flow and input/ output requirements There may be many different parameters involved in a process. output and interference. input. It also shows the reasons for the control. the input is variable or there is interference present. the most common being input. We will also examine different control methods. These parameters may need to be constant or they may need to be changed according to a preset pattern. interference as well. This variable causes the need for process adjustment.Chapter 4 . Therefore variable processes and material volumes need some form of control. interference or output. In some processes there is no interference and the input is constant. This kind of process works without any variable speed control. there are always inputs and outputs present in a process and. Technical Guide No.

the total life-cycle cost of investment in simple control methods is much higher than with VSDs. The construction of such equipment is usually very simple and the investment may look cost effective at first. However.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . such as CO 2 emissions from power plants. is very difficult to achieve with simple control. the environmental effects. For example the optimal process capacity.4. there are many drawbacks. 20 Technical Guide No.Variable volumes require some form of control Simpler control methods There are many simpler control methods in existence such as throttling or bypass control. which gives the best quality of the process. so in addition to the total operating cost being higher than with VSDs. Therefore. An increase in production capacity usually requires reconstruction of the whole process and with each direct on-line start-up there is a risk of electrical and/or mechanical damage. also increase. The simple control methods are also energy consuming.

if necessary. This would not only cause wear on the engine and brakes. keep your foot on the gas and reduce speed simply by braking. the original goal of reducing speed without risking your own and other peoples' lives would not have been achieved. you need to reduce speed so that you don’t risk your own and other peoples’ lives. Technical Guide No.4. but also use a lot of fuel and reduce your overall control of the vehicle. Imagine you are driving a car for example.Variable volumes require some form of control 4 The best control method is VSD The best control method for most systems is VSD. Another possibility would be to use the same gear. changing to a lower gear.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 21 . Furthermore. The best possible way to do this is of course to reduce motor rotation speed by taking your foot off the gas pedal and. If you are driving on a highway and entering a populated area.

and is controlled by moving conical pulleys manually or with positioning motors. In the DC drive. the control equipment is located between the motor and the working machine. In mechanical and hydraulic VSDs. changes direct current to alternating current. hydraulic and electrical VSDs Hydraulic coupling Above are the four most common VSDs in the industrial sector. This is just one benefit of electrical VSDs. all control systems are situated in an electrical equipment room and only the driving motor is in the process area. Other benefits are presented on the following page. In electrical VSDs. The oil amount is controlled with pumps and valves. which makes maintenance very difficult. By changing the volume of oil in the coupling. as presented earlier in this guide. the turbine principle is used. a DC converter changes the motor supply voltage fed to the DC motor. In the motor.4.Variable volumes require some form of control Mechanical. a standard squirrel cage motor is used.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . Mechanical variable speed control usually uses belt drives. In hydraulic coupling. The frequency converter itself is controlled with electrical signals. so no mechanical inverters are required. DC drive AC drive 22 Technical Guide No. a commutator. The speed of the motor is regulated by a frequency converter that changes the frequency of the motor voltage. a mechanical inverter. In the frequency converter or AC drive. The diagram shows the location of the control equipment for each type of VSD. the speed difference between the driving and driven shafts changes.

AC and DC drives together account for over 75%. Due to these benefits. presented along with estimated VSD market shares in Europe in 2000. Direct on-line starting stresses the motor and also the electrical equipment. Process equipment is usually designed to cater for future productivity increases. changing the production volume can be achieved by changing the motor speed. 4 Productivity Energy saving Higher quality Technical Guide No. This saves a lot of energy particularly in pump and fan applications. The optimal process control leads to the best quality end product. and the production increase can be achieved without any extra investment. The accurate speed control obtainable with electrical VSDs results in process optimisation.4. of the total VSD market in Europe in 2000. speed increases of 5 to 20 percent are not a problem. With electrical VSDs. as can be seen from the table above.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 23 . The four main benefits of using electrical VSDs are highlighted at the turning points of the speed curve.Variable volumes require some form of control Year 2000: Europe (estimate) Electrical VSDs dominate the market Maintenance costs Here are the four most important arguments for using electrical VSDs. With electrical VSDs. which means the best profit for the customer. smooth starting is possible and this has a direct effect on maintenance costs. production volumes change. electrical VSDs are dominating the market. With the AC drive. and AC drives for more than 50%. In many processes. Changing production volumes by mechanical means is usually very inefficient. because the shaft power is proportional to the flow rate to the power of three. Changing constant-speed equipment to provide higher production volumes requires money and time.

which accounts for the entire growth of the electrical and VSD market. 24 Technical Guide No. As presented earlier in this guide. These brushes need regular maintenance and the commutator itself complicates the motor structure and consumes energy.Variable volumes require some form of control The AC drives market is growing fast This diagram shows the projected development of the electrical VSDs market to the year 2000. utilising carbon brushes.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . The market share of DC drives is diminishing. and the total DC market size remains approximately constant. the AC drive has many benefits over other process control methods. the AC drives market is growing at almost 10% per year. As can be seen. This progress is due to the development of AC drives technology. These are the main reasons why the AC drives market share is growing in comparison to DC drives.4. The difference between the AC and the DC motor is that the DC motor has a mechanical commutator.

one selection criteria for the drive is the supply voltage and its frequency. Technical Guide No. the electrical supply and the process interface. and the levels of performance the drive can offer. the basic functions of an AC drive are presented. There are four different components in AC drive motor control. The user interface provides the ability to observe the AC drive and obtain different process information via the drive. This conversion process is controlled by signals from the process or user via the process and user interfaces. we can confidently say that the AC drive is the leading control method. This makes the drive easy to integrate with other process control equipment and overriding process control systems. the motor. 4 The basic functions of an AC drive In this diagram. These components are the user interface.AC drive: The leading control method Taking into account everything presented so far.Chapter 5 . In the following chapter we will take a closer look at the different features of the AC drive. The AC drive converts the frequency and voltage and feeds the motor.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 25 . An electrical supply feeds the required electricity to the drive.4.

It will produce a specified torque at certain speed and maximum torque cannot be exceeded. its load capacity curves cannot be modified. Curve 1 in the diagram. To be able to use these features it is very important that the load. Other curves can only be used for certain periods of time. as much as twice the amount of torque is required when starting. With a frequency converter this is possible. because the motor’s cooling system is not designed for this kind of heavy use. the AC drive and the motor are compatible. This reduces the investment cost. meaning that a motor can be dimensioned according to its normal use. In certain applications. Otherwise the motor or the converter will overheat and be damaged. during start-up. for example.4. With a frequency converter drive.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . The standard curve. These higher load capacity levels might be needed. there are different loading options. can be used continuously. 26 Technical Guide No.AC drive: The leading control method A motor's load capacity curves with an AC drive If the motor is driven without a frequency converter.

4. Technical Guide No. With inputs and outputs for example. In the following sections the listed features are presented in more detail. different kinds of process information can be fed to the drive and it will control the motor accordingly. Examples of these features are listed in the diagram. the load can be limited to prevent nuisance faults and to protect the working machine and the whole drive system.AC drive: The leading control method Important features: • inputs and outputs • reversing function • ramp times acceleration/deceleration • variable torque V/Hz settings • torque boosting • eliminating mechanical vibrations • load limits to prevent nuisance faults • power loss ride-through • stall function • slip compensation • flying start 4 AC drive features for better process control AC drives also have other internal features and functions which are sometimes required for better process control. Alternatively.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 27 .

it is possible to set different acceleration and deceleration ramp times. With ABB’s frequency converters it can be achieved simply by pressing one button.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . Torque control Eliminating mechanical vibrations 28 Technical Guide No. the motor will return to the regular curve very quickly and pass the critical speed. Furthermore. The ramp form can also be modified according to the user’s wishes. which was presented earlier. the drive will not allow the actual speed of the motor to follow the reference speed. Another possibility could be a linear ramp. Torque control is relatively simple with an AC drive.4. Variable torque U/f settings mean that maximum torque can be achieved at a lower speed of rotation than normal. Torque boosting.AC drive: The leading control method Reversing Reversing the motor rotation is simple to accomplish with an AC drive. In the diagram (above. This means that when a motor is accelerated close to its critical speed. is necessary if a very high starting torque is required. left) an S-ramp has been presented. Mechanical vibrations can be eliminated by by-passing critical speeds. When the critical point has been passed.

Protection is activated if three conditions are met at the same time. It is possible to adjust supervision limits and choose how the drive reacts to the motor stall condition. In such a situation. the motor can be protected in a stall situation with the stall function.4. the AC drive will continue to operate using the kinetic energy of the rotating motor. 2. 1. With an AC drive. The final condition is that the motor has been in the stall limit for longer than the time period set by the user. The drive frequency has to be below the preset stall frequency. Stall function Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 29 . The motor torque has to rise to a certain limit.AC drive: The leading control method Power loss ride-through mains Stall function Torque dc Tstall Intermediate circuit voltage (U dc ) Output frequency (f) Motor torque (Tm ) Stall Frequency 4 Power loss ride-through The power loss ride-through function is used if the incoming supply voltage is cut off. 3. calculated by the drive software. The drive will be fully operational as long as the motor rotates and generates energy for the drive.

4. the speed of the motor will decrease as shown in the diagram (above. In case of rotating motor. After synchronised the voltage and the speed are increased to the corresponding levels.AC drive: The leading control method Slip compensation If the motor load torque is increased. the inverter is first started with a reduced voltage and then synchronised to the rotating rotor. left). The flying start feature is used when a motor is connected to a flywheel or a high inertia load. To compensate for this slip.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . the torque/speed curve can be modified with the frequency converter so that torque increase can be accomplished with the same speed as previously. Flying start 30 Technical Guide No. The flying start works even without a speed feedback.

This means that the drive system can bear conductive and radiative disturbances. and that it does not send any conductive or radiative disturbances itself either to the electrical supply or the surrounding environment. The frequency converter usually has an IP 21 degree of protection. please refer to ABB's Technical Guide No.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 31 .4. The IP 54 degree of protection guarantees that it can work in a dusty environment and that it can bear sprinkling water from any direction. EMC Another important environmental feature is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). If a higher degree of protection is required. If you require more information about the EMC directives and their effects on drives. by installing the drive inside a cabinet with the required degree of protection. The squirrel cage motor is very compact and can be used in very hostile conditions. It is very important that a drive system fulfills the EMC directives of the European Union.AC drive: The leading control method 4 Environmental features Any drive system has to handle different environmental stresses such as moisture or electrical disturbances. In such cases. for example. This means that it is not possible to touch the live parts and that vertically dripping water will not cause any harm. it can be obtained. EMC Compliant Installation and Configuration for a Power Drive System. Technical Guide No. 3. it is essential to ensure that the temperature inside the cabinet will not exceed the allowed limits.

with the costs divided into investment. Only 3% of motors in this power range are sold each year with a frequency converter. these benefits are reviewed. 32 Technical Guide No. This is astonishing considering what we have seen so far in this guide. In this chapter. But first let’s review AC drive technology compared to other control methods. This pie chart shows how many motors below 2. At the moment there are still plenty of motors sold without variable speed AC drives. installation and operational costs.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . and how many without.Chapter 6 .4.2 kW are sold with frequency converters. 97% are sold without an AC drive. AC drives also provide many cost benefits.Cost benefits of AC drives In addition to their technical advantages. Even more so after closer study of the costs of an AC drive compared to conventional control methods.

simpler control methods. It can be compared.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 33 . Technical Guide No. We could also compare AC drive technology to the development from a floppy disk to a CD-ROM.4. AC drive technology is based on a totally different technology to earlier control methods. a floppy disk can only handle a small fraction of the information that a CD-ROM can. Although it is a simpler information storage method. In this guide. to the difference between a zeppelin and a modern airplane. for example. Similarly. we have presented the benefits of the AC drive compared to simpler control methods.Cost benefits of AC drives 4 Technical differences between other systems and AC drives AC drive technology is completely different from other. The benefits of both these innovations are generally well known.

In throttling you need fuses. when speaking of power below 2. the same electrical components are needed.4. which is much cheaper than the single phase motors used in other control methods. contactors and reactors on the electrical side and valves on the mechanical side. because all control is already on the electrical side. The AC drive provides a new solution. there is always a mechanical part and an electrical part. In traditional methods. as well as a pressure tank on the mechanical side.2 kW. when thinking about cost.Cost benefits of AC drives No mechanical control parts needed To make a proper cost comparison.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . We can still use 220 V single phase supply. In On/Off control. is that with an AC drive we can use a regular 3-phase motor. 34 Technical Guide No. No mechanics are needed. Another benefit. Here we have used pumping as an example. we need to study the configurations of different control methods.

only one electrical component .no mechanical parts. maintenance is a very important cost item. This directly affects maintenance costs and in the long run. In conventional methods there are both electrical and mechanical components.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 35 . Furthermore. no wear and tear . This not only helps reduce costs.all in one .mechanical parts need regular maintenance . but also helps minimise environmental impact by reducing emissions from power plants. The costs are usually higher than if everything could be purchased at once. The installation cost is at least doubled when there are several different types of components rather than only one.saves energy Factors affecting cost This list compares the features of conventional control methods with those of the AC drive.4. In conventional methods there are also many electrical components. which usually have to be purchased separately.many electrical parts . mechanical control is very energy consuming. while AC drives practically save energy.Cost benefits of AC drives Conventional methods: . And last but not least.both electrical and mechanical parts . mechanical parts wear out quickly. 4 Technical Guide No.mechanical control is energy consuming AC drive: . as well as their effect on costs.

This is due to the 3-phase motor used with the AC drive and the single phase motor used in other control methods. when compared to different control methods. which reduces costs dramatically. the motor is much more expensive for traditional control methods than for the AC drive. there are two possibilities depending on whether the pump is used in industrial or domestic use. After taking all costs into account.Cost benefits of AC drives Investment costs: Mechanical and electrical components In this graph. the investment structure as well as the total price of each pump control method is presented. Only the pump itself is not added to the costs because its price is the same regardless of whether it’s used with an AC drive or valves. Together with investment costs we need to look at installation and operational costs. Only throttling in domestic use is as low cost as the AC drive. As can be seen.4. These are not the total costs. but electrical parts also need to be added to the total investment cost. Mechanical parts themselves are almost always less costly than a frequency converter. The AC drive does not need any mechanical parts. The motor The AC drive 36 Technical Guide No. In throttling. In an industrial environment there are stricter requirements for valves and this increases costs. an AC drive is almost always the most economical investment. however.Guide to Variable Speed Drives .

As mentioned earlier.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 37 . To install a mechanical valve into a pipe is not that simple and this increases installation time. The commissioning of a throttling-based system does not usually require more time than commissioning an AC drive based system. in throttling there are both electrical and mechanical components. Technical Guide No. As you can see.4. To have a mechanical valve ready for use usually requires five hours compared to one hour for the AC drive. the AC drive saves up to USD 270 per installation.Cost benefits of AC drives Throttling Installation material Installation work Commissioning work Total 20 USD 5h x 65 USD = 325 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 410 USD AC drive 10 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 1h x 65 USD = 65 USD 140 USD Savings in installation: 270 USD! 4 Installation costs: Throttling compared to AC drive Because throttling is the second lowest investment after the AC drive. we will compare its installation and operating costs to the cost of the AC drive. So now we can summarise the total installation costs. One hour is usually the time required in both cases. Installation work is also at least doubled in throttling compared to the AC drive. Multiply this by the hourly rate charged by a skilled installer to get the total installation cost. the AC drive would pay for itself before it has even worked a second. So even if the throttling investment costs were lower than the price of a single phase motor (approximately USD 200). This means twice the amount of installation material is needed.

Cost benefits of AC drives Throttling AC drive saving 50% 0. which varies depending on the country.Guide to Variable Speed Drives .37 kW 1500 kWh 150 USD Power required Annual energy 4000 hours/year Annual energy cost with 0. throttling would need 3000 kWh and the AC drive 1500 kWh of energy per year. This means that where power requirements with throttling would be 0. the total savings in operating costs would be USD 185. 38 Technical Guide No.1 per kWh has been used. To calculate the savings. This means that the payback time of the frequency converter is two years. mechanical parts wear a lot and this is why they need regular maintenance. So it is worth considering that instead of yearly service for an old valve it might be more profitable to change the whole system to an AC drive based control. As mentioned earlier. In many cases however.75 kW. we need to multiply the energy consumption by the energy price. It has been estimated that whereas throttling requires USD 40 per year for service.75 kW 3000 kWh 300 USD 40 USD 340 USD 5 USD 155 USD Operational costs: Maintenance and drive energy In many surveys and experiments it has been proved that a 50% energy saving is easily achieved with an AC drive. To retrofit an existing throttling system the pay-back time is two years. maintenance costs for an AC drive would be USD 5. If a pump is used 4000 hours per year. there is no maintenance required for a frequency converter. which is approximately half of the frequency converter’s price for this power range. Therefore. with the AC drive it would be 0.1 USD/kWh Maintenance/year Total cost/year Savings in one year: 185 USD! 0.4.37 kW. Here USD 0.

The usual time for an operational cost calculation for this kind of investment is 10 years. and these savings are realised as soon as the drive is installed. it is very difficult to understand why only 3% of motors sold have a frequency converter. and especially from the energy savings. Most of the savings with the AC drive come from the operational costs. In this guide we have tried to present the benefits of the AC drive and why we at ABB think that it is absolutely the best possible way to control your process. all the costs have been summarised. Technical Guide No. Taking the total cost figure into account. Here the operational costs are rated to the present value with a 10% interest rate.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 39 . It is in the installation that the highest individual savings can be achieved.4. In the long run. the conventional method will be more than twice as expensive as a frequency converter.Cost benefits of AC drives 4 Total cost comparison In the above figure.

31. 37. 9 mechanical power 8. 25. 28. 25. 14. 32. 24. 13 40 Technical Guide No. 13 flying start 27. 28 motor efficiency 14 motor load 30 motor losses 14 motor phase 12 motor size 14 motor stall condition 29 motor windings 12. 35. 10. 18. 27 magnetic flux 12. 15. 38. 20. 30 flywheel 30 four quadrant drive 15 frequency converter 11. 28. 39 AC drives market 3. 11 inertia 16. 35. 22. 36. 8. 22. 10 B belt drives 22 blowers 10. 24. 31. 9. 15. 23. 32. 13 electromagnetic influence 8 elevators 10 EMC 31 EMC directives 31 energy 8. 33.Chapter 7 . 29. 31 drying kiln 8 E electrical disturbances 31 electrical equipment room 22 electrical supply 14. 14. 14 mechanical vibrations 4. 27. 13. 12. 16 braking 15. 13. 21 bypass control 20 C CD-ROM 33 centrifuges 9 chemical industry 7 coefficient of efficiency 14 commissioning 37 commutator 22.Guide to Variable Speed Drives . 27. 39 extruders 9 F fans 7. 34. 26.Index A ABB 5. 30. 13 maintenance 22. 11. 6.4. 38. 14. 22 D DC bus 12. 24 DC motor 11. 38. 12 active power 14 air conditioning 7. 23. 17 critical speed 28 crusher 16 current 12. 31 electromagnetic compatibility 31 electromagnetic induction 12. 12. 30 input power 14 interference 13. 10. 36. 16 floppy disk 33 flux 12. 24 AC motor 11. 31. 22. 8. 22. 24 Direct on-line starting 23 dosing 10 drive frequency 29 drive software 29 drive system 11. 30. 18. 23. 13 DC converter 22 DC drive 22. 27. 35. 7. 23. 24. 22 IP 21 31 IP 54 31 L linear ramp 28 load capacity curves 26 M machine 8. 39 friction 16 fuses 34 G gears 11 H harbour 17 humidity 7 HVAC 7 hydraulic coupling 22 I industrial processes 5. 24 compressors 10 contactors 34 conveying 10 conveyors 10 crane 10. 19 inverter 12. 11. 38 margarine stirrers 9 material transport 6 material treatment 6. 44 AC drive 5. 13. 29. 26. 39.

23. 31 stall frequency 29 stall function 27.N nuclear power 8 nuisance faults 27 O output power 14 P paper machines 9 power factor 14 power loss ride-through 27. 19. 18. 30 VSD 5. 37. 36. 28. 20. 34. 29 power plants 7.13. 15. 23. 14. 36 Variable Speed Drives 5. 21. 17. 27. 7. 13. 29 stator 12 stepless control 13 T temperature 7. 38 torque 14. 34. 29. 24. 8. 31 thermal influence 8 throttling 20. 26. 22. 25. 30 transistors 14 V valves 22. 18. 34. 39 voltage 12. 8. 6. 22. 29. 10. 22. 35 power supply 11 process control 23.4. 22. 25. 36. 13. 38 R rated speed 14 reactive power 14 reactors 34 rectifier 12 reference speed 28 reversing function 27 right hand rule 12 rolling mills 9 S S-ramp 28 saw mill lines 9 shipping containers 10 slip 12. 27 processing system 8 pump 10. 29. 37. 27. 38 variable speed control 11.Guide to Variable Speed Drives 41 . 36. 30 squirrel cage motor 11. 16. 22. 24 Z zeppelin 4 33 Technical Guide No.

Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.O.ABB Oy Drives P. .abb.2. 2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.com/motors&drives 3AFE 61389211 REV B EN 8.

5 Bearing Currents in Modern AC Drive Systems .Technical Guide No.

5 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .2 Technical Guide No.

.. 7 Capacitive discharge current ................ 7 Stray capacitances ...................................... 6 Faster switching ............................................................................................................................ 20 Index ............................................................................................................................................ 18 Leave the measurements to the specialists ............................................................................................ 9 How does the current flow through the system? ............5 ........................ 15 Three approaches ...............................Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 3 ................................. 15 Multicore motor cables ................. 5 Generating Bearing Currents ............................ 17 Follow product specific instructions ........ 13 Preventing high frequency bearing current damage .............. 7 Shaft grounding current ....................... 5 Avoiding bearing currents .............................................. 17 Additional solutions ........................................... 7 Circulating current ... 21 2 5 3 4 5 Technical Guide No... 16 High frequency bonding connections ............................. 15 Short impedance path .........Contents 1 Introduction ................. 5 General ......................................................................................................... 6 How are HF bearing currents generated? ............................. 11 Capacitive voltage divider ......................... 10 Common mode transformer ......................................................................... 6 High frequency current pulses ...... 10 Voltage drops .. 19 References ........................................ 17 Measuring high frequency bearing currents ................. 7 Common mode circuit ......

4 Technical Guide No.5 .Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems .

Avoiding bearing currents To avoid damage occurring.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 5 . the incidence of damage they cause has increased during the last few years. Failure can be caused by high frequency currents.Introduction General Some new drive installations can have their bearings fail only a few months after start-up. 5 Technical Guide No. While bearing currents have been around since the advent of electric motors. This is because modern variable speed drives with their fast rising voltage pulses and high switching frequencies can cause current pulses through the bearings whose repeated discharging can gradually erode the bearing races.Chapter 1 . it is essential to provide proper earthing paths and allow stray currents to return to the inverter frame without passing through the bearings. Proper insulation of the motor bearing construction breaks the bearing current paths.5 . which flow through the motor bearings. The magnitude of the currents can be reduced by using symmetrical motor cables or inverter output filtering.

Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . 6 Technical Guide No.Generating Bearing Currents High frequency current pulses Bearing currents come in several different guises. within one to six months. the gearbox or the drive controller. is the product of sophisticated manufacturing techniques and normally carries a favourable Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) rate. such as the motor. the bearing may need replacing after only a short time in service. Faster switching Current AC drive technology. It is when these components are combined and the installed system is looked upon as a whole. Figure 1: Bearing currents can cause “bearing fluting”. If the energy of these pulses is sufficiently high. metal transfers from the ball and the races to the lubricant. but a tiny EDM pit is an incontinuity that will collect more pulses and expand into a typical EDM crater. As a result. Each individual item involved. the rapid switching in modern AC drive systems may generate high frequency current pulses through the bearings. The effect of a single pulse is insignificant. that it becomes clear that certain installation practices are required. incorporating Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT).5 . This is known as electrical discharge machining or EDM. High frequency bearing currents have been investigated by ABB since 1987.Chapter 2 . The switching frequency of modern AC drives is very high and the vast number of pulses causes the erosion to quickly accumulate. The importance of system design has been highlighted in the last few years. However. The extent to which this occurs depends on the AC drive system architecture and the installation techniques used. while modern motor design and manufacturing practices have nearly eliminated the low frequency bearing currents induced by the asymmetry of the motor. a rhythmic pattern on the bearing’s races. Recent years have seen a rising number of EDM-type bearing failures in AC drive systems relatively soon after start up. creates switching events 20 times faster than those considered typical ten years ago.

This current is a circulating type of high frequency bearing current. the increase of the motor frame voltage is seen over the bearings. meaning a suitable cable type and proper bonding of the protective conductors and the electrical shield. high frequency voltage is induced between the ends of the motor shaft by the high frequency flux circulating around the stator. it is normal Technical Guide No. Du/dt of the AC drive power stage components and the DC-link voltage level affect the level of bearing currents. This flux is caused by a net asymmetry of capacitive current leaking from the winding into the stator frame along the stator circumference. Any route back contains impedance. are the size of the motor and how the motor frame and shaft are grounded. part of the current may flow via the drive-end bearing.Generating Bearing Currents How are HF bearing currents generated? The source of bearing currents is the voltage that is induced over the bearing. the shaft and the driven machine back to the inverter. the vector sum of the three phases always equals zero. the internal voltage division of the common mode voltage over the internal stray capacitances of the motor may cause shaft voltages high enough to create high frequency bearing current pulses. That is. circuit A typical three-phase sinusoidal power supply is balanced and symmetrical under normal conditions. Thus. This can happen if the shaft is not earthed via the driven machinery while the motor frame is earthed in the standard way for protection.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 7 . Circulating current 5 Shaft grounding current Capacitive discharge current Common mode High frequency bearing currents are a consequence of the current flow in the common mode circuit of the AC drive system. a current that tries to compensate the net flux in the stator starts to flow in the loop formed by the shaft. this voltage can be generated in three different ways. The most important factors that define which mechanism is prominent. In small motors. The voltage between the shaft ends affects the bearings. If it is high enough to overcome the impedance of the bearings’ oil film. If the motor shaft is earthed via the driven machinery. and therefore the voltage of the motor frame increases in comparison to the source ground level. the bearings and the stator frame. This current is a shaft grounding type of high frequency bearing current. The current leaking into the stator frame needs to flow back to the inverter. In the case of high frequency bearing currents. plays an important role. In large motors. The electrical installation.5 . which is the source of this current. If the voltage rises high enough to overcome the impedance of the drive-end bearing oil film.

8 Technical Guide No. However. This voltage may be defined as a common mode voltage source. a current proportional to this voltage change is forced to flow to earth via the earth capacitances of all the components of the output circuit. in a modern AC drive system. this is not the case with a PWM switched three-phase power supply. which are external to the three phase system. Any time one of the three inverter outputs is changed from one of the possible potentials to another. Figure 2: This schematic shows the phase voltages of a typical three phase PWM power supply and the average of the three. Even though the fundamental frequency components of the output voltages are symmetrical and balanced.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . is called common mode current. the star point of the motor winding. it is impossible to make the sum of three output voltages instantaneously equal to zero with two possible output levels available. eg. The current flows back to the source via the earth conductor and stray capacitances of the inverter.Generating Bearing Currents that the neutral is at zero volts. which flows through the system in a loop that is closed externally to the system. It is measurable at the zero point of any load. where a dc voltage is converted into three phase voltages. The voltage is proportional to the DC bus voltage. This type of current. The neutral voltage is clearly not zero and its presence can be defined as a common mode voltage source.5 . or neutral point voltage. and has a frequency equal to the inverter switching frequency. The resulting neutral point voltage is not zero.

Generating Bearing Currents Figure 3: An example of the common mode current at the inverter output. fast rising pulses produced by modern power supplies contain frequencies so high that even small capacitances inside the motor provide a low impedance path for current to flow. Common mode current (CMC) flows through Technical Guide No. and the motor winding turn is insulated from the frame by enamel coating and slot insulation.5 . The capacitances within a cable and especially inside the motor are very small. and so has a value of capacitance to the motor frame. thus blocking the low frequency stray currents.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 9 . The pulse is a superposition of several frequencies due to the different natural frequencies of the parallel routes of common mode current. However. for example. the cable phase wire has capacitance to the PE-wire separated by PVC insulation. A small capacitance means high impedance for low frequencies. Stray capacitances A capacitance is created any time two conductive components are separated by an insulator. The inverter power supply acts as a common mode voltage source (Vcm). 5 Figure 4: Simplified loop of the common mode current of a PWM inverter and induction motor. For instance.

the shaft and the driven machinery back Voltage drops 10 Technical Guide No. like the PE-connection of the motor frame. through the building. combined as Cin. Lc Lm and through the stray capacitances between the motor windings and motor frame. Most have a minor effect on the value of common mode current or bearing currents. The common mode current will seek the path of least impedance. can support voltage drops of over 100 volts between the motor frame and the inverter frame. in such a case. 50 kHz to 1 MHz.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . then it is possible. cable shielding or PE-conductors and possibly steel or aluminium parts of the factory building structure. the reactance at the upper range of typical common mode current frequencies. back to the common mode voltage source.Generating Bearing Currents the common mode cable and motor inductances. All these elements contain inductance. If a high amount of impedance is present in the intended paths. combined to be Cm. This motor frame voltage is a portion of the inverter’s common mode voltage. Lg is also fed common mode current from the stray cable capacitance Cc. From the motor frame. the motor frame voltage will cause some of the common mode current to be diverted into an unintended path. the current proceeds through the factory earth circuit which has the inductance Lg. How does the current flow through the system? The return path of the leakage current from the motor frame back to the inverter frame consists of the motor frame. that part of the inverter common mode current flows via the motor bearings. The inverter frame is connected to the factory earth and couples the common mode current/ earth currents through stray inverter to frame capacitances. but may be significant in coping with EMC-requirements. the motor shaft is connected through a metallic coupling to a gearbox or other driven machinery that is solidly earthed and near the same earth potential as the inverter frame. If the value of this inductance is high enough. In practical installations a number of parallel paths exist. The flow of common mode current through such inductance will cause a voltage drop that raises the motor frame potential above the source ground potential at the inverter frame. If.5 .

These bearings may be damaged before the motor i+∆ i bearings. Figure 5: A schematic presentation showing the circulating current and shaft grounding current. the latter resulting from high motor frame voltage with superior machine earthing. Technical Guide No.5 . This leads to a net magnetising effect and flux around the motor shaft. The largest share of the motor’s stray capacitance. current may flow via the gearbox or machine bearings.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 11 . As the current leaks into the stator along the coil. D i-∆ i ∆i N ∆i Common mode transformer Figure 6: Source of circulating high frequency bearing current. Current leakage through distributed stator capacitances gives a non-zero current sum over the stator circumference.Generating Bearing Currents 5 to the inverter. If the shaft of the machinery has no direct contact to the ground level. This capacitance is distributed around the circumference and length of the stator. is formed between the stator windings and the motor frame. the high frequency content of the current entering the stator coil is greater than the current leaving.

be thought of as a transformer. in which the common mode current flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary.Generating Bearing Currents This net current produces a high frequency magnetic flux that will circulate in the stator laminations. instead of circulating completely inside the motor. The motor can. An example of this “vagabond” circulating bearing current is shown in figure 8. internal to the motor. 12 Technical Guide No.5 . a high frequency circulating current can flow. the current. If the voltage becomes large enough. Figure 7: The high frequency axial shaft voltage can be thought of as the resultant of a transformer effect. in this case. where the common mode current flowing in the stator frame acts as a primary and induces the circulating current into the rotor circuit or secondary. The origin of the current is the same as in the current circulating inside the motor. through the shaft and both bearings. and induces the circulating current into the rotor circuit or secondary. Another version of circulating bearing current occurs when. flows via the shaft and the bearings of the gearbox or driven machinery and in a structural element that is both external and common to the motor and the driven machine. du/dt of the AC drive power stage components and DClink voltage level. This bearing current is considered to be the most damaging with typical peak values of 3 to 20 amps depending on the rated power of the motor.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . inducing an axial voltage in the shaft ends.

which is also connected to the shaft and the bearing’s inner races. Capacitive voltage divider Other stray capacitances are also present in the motor. rotor and bearing stray capacitances. Fast changes in the common mode current from the inverter can not only result in currents in the capacitance around the circumference and length of the motor.5 .Generating Bearing Currents Figure 8: “Vagabond” circulating bearing current. Technical Guide No. where the current loop is external to the motor. The bearings themselves may even have stray capacitance.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 13 . 5 Figure 9: Common mode loop of variable speed drive. such as the capacitance between the stator windings and the rotor. The existence of capacitance between the stator windings and the rotor effectively couples the stator windings to the rotor iron. or that existing in the motor’s airgap between the stator iron and the rotor. but also between the stator windings and the rotor into the bearings. showing stator.

where the induced shaft voltage builds up. temperature. For instance. the bearings have metallic contact since the balls have not risen on an oil film. as this depends on the physical state of the bearing at any one time. This capacitance.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . the bearing impedance governs the voltage level at which the bearings start to conduct. This impedance is a non-linear function of bearing load.5 . the presence of stray capacitance in the bearings is only sustained for as long as the balls of the bearings are covered in oil or grease and are nonconducting. Generally. and the impedance varies from case to case. speed of rotation and lubricant used. can be short-circuited if the bearing voltage exceeds the threshold of its breakover value or if a “high spot” on a ball breaks through the oil film and makes contact with both bearing races. At very low speed.Generating Bearing Currents The current flow into the bearings can change rapidly. 14 Technical Guide No.

Chapter 3 - Preventing high frequency bearing current damage
Three approaches
There are three approaches used to affect high frequency bearing currents: a proper cabling and earthing system; breaking the bearing current loops; and damping the high frequency common mode current. All these aim to decrease the bearing voltage to values that do not induce high frequency bearing current pulses at all, or damp the value of the pulses to a level that has no effect on bearing life. For different types of high frequency bearing currents, different measures need to be taken. The basis of all high frequency current mastering is the proper earthing system. Standard equipment earthing practices are mainly designed to provide a sufficiently low impedance connection to protect people and equipment against system frequency faults. A variable speed drive can be effectively earthed at the high common mode current frequencies, if the installation follows three practices:

5

Multicore motor cables

Use only symmetrical multicore motor cables. The earth (protective earth, PE) connector arrangement in the motor cable must be symmetrical to avoid bearing currents at fundamental frequency. The symmetricity of the PE- conductor is achieved by a conductor surrounding all the phase leads or a cable that contains a symmetrical arrangement of three phase leads and three earth conductors.

Figure 10: Recommended motor cable with symmetrical core configuration.

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

15

Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

Short impedance Define a short, low impedance path for common mode current to return to the inverter. The best and easiest way path
to do this is to use shielded motor cables. The shield must be continuous and of good conducting material, i.e. copper or aluminium and the connections at both ends need to be made with 360° termination. Figures 11a and 11b show 360° terminations for European and American cabling practices.

Figure 11 a: Proper 360° termination with European cabling practice. The shield is connected with as short a pigtail as possible to the PE terminal. To make a 360° high frequency connection between the EMC sleeve and the cable shield, the outer insulation of the cable is stripped away.

Figure 11 b: Proper 360° termination with American cabling practice. An earthing bushing should be used on both ends of the motor cable to effectively connect the earth wires to the armour or conduit.

16

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

High frequency bonding connections

Add high frequency bonding connections between the installation and known earth reference points to equalise the potential of affected items, using braided straps of copper 50 100mm wide; flat conductors will provide a lower inductance path than round wires. This must be made at the points where discontinuity between the earth level of the inverter and that of the motor is suspected. Additionally it may be necessary to equalise the potential between the frames of the motor and the driven machinery to short the current path through the motor and the driven machine bearings.

5

Figure 12: HF Bonding Strap.

Follow product specific instructions Additional solutions

Although the basic principles of installations are the same, for different products suitable installation practices may differ. Therefore, it is essential to carefully follow the installation instructions given in product specific manuals. Breaking the bearing current loops is achieved by insulating the bearing construction. The high frequency common mode current can be damped by using dedicated filters. As a manufacturer of both inverters and motors, ABB can offer the most appropriate solution in each case as well as detailed instructions on proper earthing and cabling practices.

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

17

Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

Measuring high frequency bearing currents

Monitoring the bearing condition must be conducted with established vibration measurements. It is impossible to measure bearing currents directly from a standard motor. But if high frequency bearing currents are suspected, field measurements can be taken to verify the existence of suspected current loops. Measuring equipment needs to have wide bandwidth (minimum 10kHz to 2 MHz) capable of detecting peak values of at least 150 to 200A and RMS values at least down to 10mA. The crest factor of measured signals is seldom less than 20. The current may flow in unusual places, such as rotating shafts. Thus, special equipment and experienced personnel are needed. ABB uses a specially designed, flexible, air-cored, Rogowski-type current sensor with dedicated accessories and has vast experience of over one thousand measured drives in different applications worldwide. The most important measurement points are within the motor. During measurements, the motor speed needs to be at least 10% of the nominal for the bearings to rise on the oil film. As an example, basic measurements are shown in figure 13. Figure 14 shows examples of measured current waveforms. GTO inverters were used mainly in the 1980s and IGBT inverters are used today. Note the different scale in the various graphs.

Figure 13: Basic measurements: A) circulating current measured with a jumper, B) shaft grounding current.

18

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

Preventing high frequency bearing current damage

A) Circulating current

GTO-inverter, 5µs/div, 2A/div

IGBT-inverter, 5µs/div, 2A/div

B) Shaft grounding current

GTO-inverter, 2µs/div, 10A/div

IGBT-inverter, 5µs/div, 500mA/div

Figure 14: Examples of current waveforms at the measuring points shown in Figure 13.

5

Leave the measurements to the specialists

Since suitable commercial measurement equipment is not available on the market and specialised experience is needed to make the measurements and interpret the results, it is advisable that bearing current measurements are made by dedicated personnel only.

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

19

Chapter 4 - References
1. Grounding and Cabling of the Drive System, ABB Industry Oy, 3AFY 61201998 R0125 2. A New Reason for Bearing Current Damage in Variable Speed AC Drives by J. Ollila, T. Hammar, J. Iisakkala, H. Tuusa. EPE 97, 7th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, 8-10 September 1997. Trondheim, Norway. 3. On the Bearing Currents in Medium Power Variable Speed AC Drives by J. Ollila, T. Hammar, J. Iisakkala, H. Tuusa. proceedings of the IEEE IEDMC in Milwaukee, May 1997. 4. Minimizing Electrical Bearing Currents in Adjustable Speed Drive Systems by Patrick Link. IEEE IAS Pulp & Paper Conference Portland, ME, USA. June 1998. 5. Instruction on Measuring Bearing Currents with a Rogowski Coil, ABB Industry Oy, 3BFA 61363602.EN. 6. Laakerivirta ja sen minimoiminen säädettyjen vaihtovirtakäyttöjen moottoreissa, I. Erkkilä, Automaatio 1999, 16.9.1999, Helsinki, Finland. (In Finnish). 7. High Frequency Bearing Currents in Low Voltage Asyncronous Motors, ABB Motors Oy and ABB Industry Oy, 00018323.doc. 8. Bearing Currents in AC Drives by ABB Industry Oy and ABB Motors Oy. Set of overheads in LN database “Document Directory Intranet” on ABB_FI01_SPK08/FI01/ABB 9. The Motor Guide GB 98-12.

See also product specific installation manuals.

20

Technical Guide No.5 - Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems

17 inverter frame 5. 10 conduit 16 crest factor 18 current pulses 5 D DC bus voltage 8 dedicated filters 17 drive controller 6 driven machine 7. 12. 11. 15. 8. 17 driven machinery 7. 18 motor bearings 5 motor cable 15. 10. 8. 15.Index 360° termination 16 A ABB 17. 18 AC drive 6.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 21 . 7. 14 bonding connections 17 braided straps 17 C cable 15 cable capacitance 10 cable shield 16 circulating current 12 common mode cable 10 common mode circuit 7 common mode current 8. 17 Common Mode Loop 9. 7.5 . 9. 12.Chapter 5 . 13 common mode voltage 7. 12 E earthing paths 5 EDM crater 6 electric motors 5 electrical discharge machining (EDM) 6 electrical shield 7 F field measurements 18 flat conductors 17 frame 17 G gearbox 6. 10 inverter output filtering 5 inverter power supply 9 inverter switching frequency 8 L low frequency bearing currents 6 M magnetic flux 12 Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) 6 metallic coupling 10 motor 6. 15. 9. 12 GTO inverters 18 H high frequency bearing currents 6. 17. 8 armour 16 axial shaft voltage 12. 10. 6. 10. 18 5 Technical Guide No. 13. 10. 13. 9. 11 motor shaft 5. 13 axial voltage 12 B ball 14 bearing current loops 15. 13. 7. 12. 18. 11. 16 motor frame 7. 16. 6. 19 bearing fluting 6 bearing races 5 bearing voltage 14 bearings 5. 10. 12. 7. 7. 16. 7 High frequency bearing voltage 7 high frequency circulating current 12 high frequency current mastering 15 high frequency flux 7 high switching frequencies 5 I IGBT inverters 18 induced shaft voltage 14 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) 6 internal voltage division 7 inverter 7. 10. 10 motor windings 10 N neutral point voltage 8 O oil film 7. 13. 17 bearing current paths 5 bearing currents 5. 9.

13 stray capacitance 7. 8. 9. 15 T three phase power supply 7. 11. 11. 10. 13 stator frame 7. 11. 8 transformer 12 V variable speed drive 5. 12. 8. 13 rotor circuit 12 S secondary 12 shaft 7. 14 Rogowski-type current sensor 18 rotor 12.P primary 12 PWM 7. 13. 14 stray currents 5 symmetrical motor cables 5. 12 stator laminations 12 stator windings 11.Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems . 10. 13 shaft ends 12 shaft voltages 7 shield 16 stator 7. 11. 9 R races 6. 13 22 Technical Guide No.5 . 13. 15 voltage drop 10 voltage pulses 5 W winding 7.

Bearing currents in modern AC drive systems 23 .5 .5 Technical Guide No.

1999 . EN 1.com/motors&drives © Copyright ABB Automation Group Ltd.12.abb.O.ABB Oy Drives P. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www. 1999 3BFE 64230247 Specifications subject to change without notice.

Technical Guide No. 6 Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .

2 Technical Guide No.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .6 .

.........................3 5..1 7................. 10 Inverter supply unit data ..........2 7...... 7............................ 12 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems .......6 ... 4.....................Contents 1...........................5 4...................2 4.... 4........... 7........... 17 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics ...............5 5...... 11 Standards for harmonic limits ................................ IEC1000-3-4.....................4 5...................... IEC1000-2-4.....3 7............. 6 Harmonic distortion sources and effects .....9 5................... Evaluating harmonics .......... 11 Part of the printed report ...... 5 Basics of the harmonics phenomena ..... 11 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form .Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 3 ..... IEC1000-2-2.............6 6 12 13 13 13 13 14 6............................................. IEC1000-3-2.................4 4......... 3..... 2..........1 5.......3 4...................................................... Introduction .8 4....... Using 12-pulse or 24-pulse diode rectifier .. 8 Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software ......... Using 6-pulse diode rectifier .... IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems ...... 9 Circuit diagram for the calculation example ............... 5. Table: List of the different factors and their effects ....6 4............. 10 Inverter selection ...... 10 Calculated harmonic current and voltage ................. 16 How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system ..............................7 4....... Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) . Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ...............1 4.........4 17 18 18 19 Technical Guide No.......... 10 Network and Transformer data input . IEEE519. 9 Input data for motor load . 9 Motor selection ...2 5..................... Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ....................... Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ....

............................ 30 4 Technical Guide No.....5 9............................... 24 Tuned multiple arm passive filter ..4 9. 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer .. 20 Using larger DC or AC inductor .................. Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier ..... 11.....1 8.......... 25 Summary of harmonics attenuation ....... 6-pulse rectifier with inductor ..........3 9... 28 Index ....................................... Active IGBT rectifier ......3 9........ 26 6-pulse rectifier without inductor ................ 24 External active filter ........ 8....................6 .....Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .. 26 26 26 26 26 27 Definitions .........................2 8........................................7 8............. 12-pulse with double wound transformer ....... 21 Other methods for harmonics reduction .........2 9............. 19 Using IGBT bridge ..6 10.. 24 Tuned single arm passive filter .......................6 7............ 24-pulse rectifier ........................ 9...........................5 7...1 9................7............................

describing harmonic distortion.Chapter 1 .Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 5 .Introduction General This guide continues ABB's technical guide series.6 . its sources and effects. and also distortion calculation and evaluation. Special attention has been given to the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives. 6 Technical Guide No.

1 shows how the current harmonics (ih) in the input current (is) of a power electronic converter affect the supply voltage (ut).Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .1 Plant with converter load.Chapter 2 . All power electronic converters used in different types of electronic systems can increase harmonic disturbances by injecting harmonic currents directly into the grid. . where the total RMS current and direct current output from the rectifier. The line current of a 3-phase. (valid for ideal filtered DC current) The fundamental current is then 6 Technical Guide No. Harmonic distortion is a form of pollution in the electric plant that can cause problems if the sum of the harmonic currents increases above certain limits. 6-pulse rectifier can be calculated from the direct output current by using the following formula. mains transformer and other loads.6 .Basics of the harmonics phenomena Harmonic currents and voltages are created by non-linear loads connected on the power distribution system. is(t) = i1(t) + Σ ih(t) Converter load Rs Ls u(t) Point of Common Coupling (PCC) Other loads Mains Transformer Figure 2. Figure 2.

The principle of how the harmonic components are added to the fundamental current is shown in Figure 2.3 The total current as the sum of the fundamental and 5th harmonic.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 7 . Figure 2. HarmonicCurrent (%) 6 Order of Harmonic Component Figure 2. Technical Guide No.6 . where only the 5th harmonic is shown. The line current is then rectangular with 120° blocks. The order numbers n are calculated from the formula below: where The rms values of the harmonic components are: and the harmonic components are as shown in Figure 2.2.3. The information given below is valid in the case when the line inductance is insignificant compared to the DC reactor inductance.2 The harmonic content in a theoretical rectangular current of a 6-pulse rectifier.Basics of the harmonics phenomena In a theoretical case where output current can be estimated as clean DC current. the harmonic current frequencies of a 6-pulse three phase rectifier are n times the fundamental frequency (50 or 60 Hz).

Harmonic distortion sources and effects Common non-linear loads include motor starters. computers and other electronic devices. The effects are likely to show up in the customer's plant before they show on the utility system.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . If the cause of the above mentioned symptoms is not known. circuit breakers can trip. The effects of harmonics can be overheating of transformers.6 . generators and capacitors connected to the same power supply with the devices generating the harmonics. variable speed drives. electronic lighting. computers may fail and metering can give false readings. Electronic displays and lighting may flicker. This Technical Guide has been published to help customers to understand the possible harmonic problems and make sure the harmonic distortion levels are not excessive.Chapter 3 . cables. 8 Technical Guide No. motors. then there is cause to investigate the harmonic distortion of the electricity distribution at the plant. welding supplies and uninterrupted power supplies.

torque/power One overload min Speed [rpm] Power [kW] Overload [%] 0 0 base 1450 100 100 max 1500 100 100 Overload time [s] 60 every [s] 600 Figure 4.2.1. The circuit diagrams in Figure 4. The data for this example is on the left.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software The harmonic currents cause a distortion of the line voltage.1. Network supplying a frequency converter in the middle and its equivalent diagram on the right.5 % Cable: Length = 60 m R = 0.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 9 .Chapter 4 . The most important motor load data for harmonics calculation is the base power in kW.1 Circuit diagram for the calculation example Supply Sk = 150 MVA U = 22 kV Transformer: S = 400 kVA U1 = 22 kV U2 = 415 V z = 4. In principle the voltage harmonics can be calculated at any point of the network if the harmonic currents and the corresponding source impedance are known. Technical Guide No.007 mΩ/m Motor: P = 100 kW IN = 200 A Xk S'k Xt X'k 6 I Figure 4. show the network supplying the converter and the other essential parts of the installation. 4.2 Input data for motor load Motor load Load type Overload type Const. ABB DriveSize software is used for the calculation example. 4.6 .

2 Power factor 0.5.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software 4.6 . For standard ABB transformers the data is shown automatically. If required there is an option to select a different motor than that selected by the DriveSize. The supply unit data is defined by DriveSize according to the inverter type selected.speed [rpm] 2300 Current [A] 197 Torque [Nm] 1060 T max/Tn 3.0 Transformer Zk [%] 3.6 Insulation class F Figure 4. 3. 4.8 Supply cable type Cable quantity Cable lenght [m] Cable 3 60 Busbar Impedance [µΩ] 70 Figure 4. The network and transformer data input is given here. 4. The software makes the motor selection for the defined load.4 Inverter selection Selected inverter data ACS607-0140-3 Selection Selection method Voltage [V] Drive power [kVA] Pn [kW] Normal Icont [A] Normal Imax [A] User Current (normal) 400 140 110 216 238 Phd [kW] 90 Heavyduty Icont [A] 178 Heavyduty Imax [A] 267 6 Pulse R8 Frame type P&F 12Nsq [A] 260 Figure 4. 4.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . 10 Technical Guide No.3 Motor selection Selected motor data M2BA 315 SMC 6 Selection Voltage [V] Connection Frequency [Hz] Power [kW] Poles Speed [rpm] DriveSize 415 D 50 110 6 992 Max mech.82 Efficiency [%] 95.6.4.6 Network and Transformer data input Network and Transformer data Primary voltage [V] Frequency [Hz] Network Sk [MVA] 22000 50 150 unknow Secondary voltage [V] 415 Transformer Sn [kVA] 400 Transformer Pk [kW] 3.95 560 191 Figure 4.5 Inverter supply unit data Supply unit data Pulse # Lv [µH] Cdc [mF] Udc [V] Idc [A] 6 110 4. The inverter selection is based on the previous motor selection and here also the user has an option to select the inverter manually.

2 %/15.0% 0. Technical Guide No.5 % 8.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 11 .6 % 5. The input data and calculated results can be printed out as a report.0 0. There are also models for 6.1 8. 4.Harmonic distortion calculation by using DriveSize software 4.1 % THD Current 0. The results of calculations can be shown in table form as above or as a graph.0 % 41.0 0.1 0.6 . one for SingleDrive with AC inductors and one for diode and thyristor supply with DC inductors.8 Cable 3 60 Supply unit data Pulse # Lv [µH] Cdc [mF] Udc [V] Idc [A] Result Cosfii Tot. 4.2 0. power factor Unmax mot.6 0.2%/ 0.9.6 % Voltage [V] 21996.7.2 0.2 % THD Voltage 1750 1850 calc/limit 0.3 Figure 4. which is partly shown here.1 11.0 0.7 11.2 % 0. 12 and 24 pulse connections.7 % 2.8 Calculated harmonic currents in graphical form [%] 50 40 30 20 10 0 6 1150 1250 250 350 550 650 850 950 1450 1550 6 110 4.2 5.6 32.999 0.2 % 2. Different kinds of circuit models are used.1% 0.8.0 3.2 0.3 % 1.5 5.0 % 0.1 0.2% IEEE Calc 0.7 15. 0.95 560 191 Frequency [Hz] Figure 4.90 98 % THD Current THD Voltage IEEE 519 limits 47.6 % 4.7 3.1 0.2 % 19.9 Part of the printed report Network check ACS607-0140-3 Network and Transformer data Normal voltage [V] Frequency [Hz] Network Sk [MVA] Transformer Sn [kVA] Transformer Pk [kW] Transformer Zk [%] Supply cable type Cable quantity Cable lenght 22000 (primary side) 50 150 400 3.8 % 0.0 0.4 % 1.0 3.2 %/5.2%/ IEEE Limit 15.8 1.3 8.7 Calculated harmonic current and voltage THD Current Voltage Result 47.0 In/I1 100.5 % 0. The harmonics are calculated by making discrete Fourier transformation to the simulated phase current of the incoming unit.0 % Figure 4.5% Data Primary side Secodary side Show Mode Table Graph n 1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 f [Hz] 50 250 350 550 650 850 950 1150 1250 1450 1550 1750 1850 Current [A] 2.9 21.3 3.

Chapter 5 .1 is shown as an example for harmonic distortion limits. 5. the limits and requirements of IEC1000-3-2 apply for equipment with rated current ≤ 16 A. shall be used. The current THD (orders up to and including 40). under rated conditions. or on request.6 . that the manufacturer shall provide in the documentation of the PDS.1 EN61800-3 (IEC1800-3) Adjustable speed electrical power drive systems Part 3: EMC product standard including specific test methods The countries of the European Economic Area (EEA) have agreed on common minimum regulatory requirements in order to ensure the free movement of products within the EEA. the current harmonic level.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . If PDS is used in an industrial installation. which the supply can deliver at any time. In a low voltage public supply network. 12 Technical Guide No. Standards specify the requirements that must be met. EN61800-3 states. The internal impedance of the network shall be assumed to be a pure reactance. the PDS shall be assumed to be connected to a PC with Rsc = 250 and with initial voltage distortion less than 1%. EN61800-3 is the EMC product standard of adjustable speed electrical power drive systems (PDS).Standards for harmonic limits The most common international and national standards setting limits on harmonics are described below. The referenced values shall be calculated for each order at least up to the 25th. as a percentage of the rated fundamental current on the power port. which considers the total installation. The directives state the principles that must be followed. This approach is based on the agreed power. is the minimum condition for free trade of power electronics converters inside the EEA. The CE marking indicates that the product works in conformity with the directives that are valid for the product. For these standard calculations. The compatibility limits given in IEC1000-2-4 may be used as the limits of voltage distortion. The use of the future IEC1000-3-4 is recommended for equipment with rated current > 16 A. Meeting the requirements of this standard. Figure 5. and its high-frequency component PHD (orders from 14 to 40 inclusive) shall be evaluated. a reasonable economical approach. The method for calculating the harmonics of the total installation is agreed and the limits for either the voltage distortion or the total harmonic current emission are agreed on.

voltage fluctuations. Work is going on to convert it into a standard. inter-harmonics.2 IEC1000-2-2. Part 3: Limits . IEC1000-2-2 is in line with the limits set in EN50160 for the quality of the voltage the utility owner must provide at the customer's supply-terminals. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 5. and amounts to the minimum immunity requirements of the equipment. It gives the harmonic current emission limits for individual equipment having a rated current of more than 16 A up to 75 A.Section 2: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment current <16 A per phase) This standard deals with the harmonic current emission limits of individual equipment connected to public networks. The disturbance phenomena include harmonics. It applies to public networks having nominal voltages from 230 V single phase to 600 V three phase. This standard has been published as a Type II Technical report. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 2: Environment . but it gives compatibility levels for industrial and non-public networks. The date of implementation of this standard is January 1st 2001. It covers low-voltage networks as well as medium voltage supplies excluding the networks for ships.Standards for harmonic limits 5. voltage dips and short interruptions voltage inbalance and so on. offshore platforms and railways. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 6 5.5 IEC1000-3-4.4 IEC1000-3-2. The two main reasons for the revision are the need for the standard to cover also the voltage below 230 V and the difficulties and contradictions in applying the categorisation of the equipment given in the standard. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Technical Guide No. 5.3 IEC1000-2-4.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 13 . Part 2: Environment . but there is extensive work going on at the moment to revise the standard before this date. aircraft.Section 4: Compatibility levels in industrial plants for low frequency conducted disturbances IEC1000-2-4 is similar to IEC1000-2-2.6 . Basically this standard sets the design criteria for the equipment manufacturer.Section 2: Compatibility levels for low frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage power supply systems This standard sets the compatibility limits for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public lowvoltage power supply systems.

5.11 MW # 415 kW (830 kW) (830 kW) 250 350 450 400 kV Net (26 MVA Assumed) # 760 kW (215 kW) # 108 kW (215 kW) >600 <=0.66 MW # 2.02 VOLTAGE %THD ** 33 kV Net (400 MVA Assumed) Typical Values # 4. 132 kV Net (600 MVA Assumed) # 6. especially in the municipal public works market. Meeting the individual harmonic limits of Stage 1 allows the connection of the equipment at any point in the supply system. This standard is also recognised as American National Standard and it is widely used in the USA.6 .06 0.97 1.50 MW (5. The limits are classified and tabulated by the short circuit ratio. It is very probable that the structure of the standard will remain as it is.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . IEEE Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems The philosophy of developing harmonic limits in this recommended practice is to limit the harmonic injection from individual customers so that they will not cause unacceptable voltage distortion levels for normal system characteristics and to limit overall harmonic distortion of the system voltage supplied by the utility.Standards for harmonic limits The standard gives three different stages for connection procedures of the equipment. based on the agreed active power of the consumer's installation. 14 Technical Guide No.91 PCC **Contribution to existing THD level at selected PCC Figure 5. but the version having the status of actual standard. The structure of this standard is generally seen to be good.36 1. will contain different limits for single and threephase equipment.1 Limits on Harmonics in the proposed EN61000-3-4. If the rated current is above 75 A.0 MW) # MAXIMUM LOAD 12p 6p STAGE 2 LIMITS % I1 Min’m Rsce 66 120 175 I5 I7 I11 I13 6 12 10 9 2.3 MW) 15 12 12 8 20 14 12 8 30 18 13 8 40 25 15 10 50 35 20 15 60 40 25 18 11 kV Net (100 MVA Assumed) # 1. Stage 3 applies in any case.69 1.6 IEEE519. The third stage of connection is based on an agreement between the user and the supply authority. but it may justly be questioned whether single and threephase equipment should have different limits in Stage 2.3 MW) (3.0 MW) (5.65 MW (3. Stage 2 gives individual harmonic current limits as well as THD and its weighted high frequency counterpart PWHD.25 1.40 MW # 1.

6 Technical Guide No. The allowed individual harmonic currents and total harmonic distortion are tabulated by the ratio of available short circuit current to the total demand load current (Isc/ IL) at the point of common coupling. the PCC is clearly defined as the point between the non-linear load and other loads.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 15 . The limits of the table should not be used this way. Total harmonic distortion is called total demand distortion and also it should be calculated up to infinity. The table 10. since the ratio of the short circuit current to the total demand load current of an installation should always be used.Standards for harmonic limits The standard does not give limits for individual equipment.3 of the standard is sometimes misinterpreted to give limits for the harmonic emissions of a single apparatus by using Rsc of the equipment instead of Isc/IL of the whole installation.6 . The total demand load current is the sum of both linear and non-linear loads. Within an industrial plant. but for individual customers. The customers are categorised by the ratio of available short circuit current (Isc) to their maximum demand load current (IL) at the point of common coupling. Many authors limit the calculation of both the individual components and TDD to 50. The limits are as a percentage of IL for all odd and even harmonics from 2 to infinity.

The procedure is shown in the flowchart in Figure 6.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .Evaluating harmonics The "Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power Systems" P519A/D6 Jan 1999 introduces some general rules for evaluating harmonic limits at an industrial facility.1.1 Evaluation of harmonic distortion.Chapter 6 .6 . Analysis) Stage 2: Does Facility meet Harmonic Limits? No Design Power Factor correction and/or Harmonic Control Equipment (include resonance concerns) Verification Measurements and Calculations (if necessary) Yes Stage 1: Is detailed Evaluation necessary? Estimate Weighted Disturbing Power (SDW) or % Non-linear Load No Yes Figure 6. UTILITY Choose PCC CUSTOMER Calculate Short Circuit Capacity (SSC. 16 Technical Guide No. ISC) Yes Is Power Factor Correction existing or planned? No Calculate Average Maximum Demand Load Current (I L) Calculate Short Circuit Ratio (SCR=(I SC /IL) Characterise Harmonic Levels (Measurements.

CSI Motor Rated Power and Load kW % LOAD Figure 7. 12-p.1 shows the factors in the AC drive system which have some influence on harmonics. LINE Short circuit power MVA 6 TRANSFORMER Rated Power and Impedance Alternative Type of Rectifier MVA % 6-p. The structural modifications can be to strengthen the supply.1 Factors in the AC drive having an effect on harmonics Figure 7. The current harmonics depend on the drive construction and the voltage harmonics are the current harmonics multiplied by the supply impedances.Chapter 7 . to use a controlled rectifier or to improve the internal filtering in the drive. 24-p DIODE. THYRISTOR.6 .How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Harmonics reduction can be done either by structural modifications in the drive system or by using external filtering. INVERTER: AC DRIVE Reactor Inductance mH Inverter Type of Inverter PWM.1 Drive system features affecting harmonics. to use 12 or more pulse drive.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 17 . Technical Guide No. 7.

It consists of six uncontrollable rectifiers or diodes and an inductor.2. Often some harmonics filtering is needed.2 Table: List of the different factors and their effects The cause The larger the motor… The higher the motor load… The larger the DC or AC inductance… The higher the number of pulses in the rectifier… The larger the transformer… The lower the transformer impedance… The higher the short circuit capacity of supply… The effect the higher the current harmonics the higher the current harmonics the lower the current harmonics the lower the current harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics the lower the voltage harmonics 7. The current form is shown in Figure 7. which together with a DC-capacitor forms a low-pass filter for smoothing the DC-current. the supply transformer needs to be oversized and meeting the requirements in standards may be difficult.2 Harmonics in line current with different rectifier constructions.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system 7. 18 Technical Guide No. 6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier Current Waveform Current Waveform Current Waveform Figure 7. The 6-pulse rectifier is simple and cheap but it generates a high amount of low order harmonics 5th.6 . The most common rectifier circuit in 3-phase AC drives is a 6-pulse diode bridge.2. 7th. The inductor can be on the DCor AC-side or it can be left totally out. If the major part of the load consists of converters with a 6-pulse rectifier.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . 11th especially with small smoothing inductance.3 Using 6-pulse diode rectifier The connections for different rectifier solutions are shown in Figure 7.

The major drawbacks are special transformers and a higher cost than with the 6-pulse rectifier. The benefit with this arrangement is that in the supply side some of the harmonics are in opposite phase and thus eliminated. In I1 6 6-pulse rectifier 12-pulse rectifier 24-pulse rectifier Harmonic order Figure 7. By delaying the firing angle over 90o. In the case of a high power single drive or large multidrive installation a 24-pulse system may be the most economical solution with lowest harmonic distortion. The input to the rectifiers is provided with one three-winding transformer.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 19 .2. It has two 12-pulse rectifiers in parallel with two threewinding transformers having 15o phase shift.4 Using 12-pulse or 24pulse diode rectifier The 12-pulse rectifier is formed by connecting two 6-pulse rectifiers in parallel to feed a common DC-bus. This allows regenerative flow of power from the DC-bus back to the power supply.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system 7.3 Harmonic components with different rectifiers. 7.5 Using phase controlled thyristor rectifier A phase controlled rectifier is accomplished by replacing the diodes in a 6-pulse rectifier with thyristors. In theory the harmonic component with the lowest frequency seen at the primary of the transformer is the 11th. Since a thyristor needs a triggering pulse for transition from nonconducting to conducting state. The transformer secondaries are in 30o phase shift. the phase angle at which the thyristor starts to conduct can be delayed. The principle of the 24-pulse rectifier is also shown in Figure 7. The benefit is that practically all low frequency harmonics are eliminated but the drawback is the high cost. the DC-bus voltage goes negative. Technical Guide No.6 .

The current waveforms of phase controlled rectifiers are similar to those of the 6-pulse diode rectifier. Values may vary case by case. 20 Technical Guide No.High dynamics of the drive control even in the field weakening range.8 Distortion is in % of RMS values Figure 7. brings several benefits and opportunities compared to phase commutated ones. The main benefits are: .How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Standard DC-bus and inverter configurations do not allow polarity change of the DC-voltage and it is more common to connect another thyristor bridge anti-parallel with the first one to allow the current polarity reversal.4 Distortion of different supply unit types. In this configuration the first bridge conducts in rectifying mode and the other in regenerating mode. In addition to these problems. Like a phase commutated rectifier.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . but since they draw power with an alternating displacement power factor. . this hardware allows both rectification and regeneration. phase-controlled converters cause commutation notches in the utility voltage waveform.6 . made of self commutated components. The poor power factor causes high apparent current and the absolute harmonic currents are higher than those with a diode rectifier.2 IGBT Supply Unit 4 8 1. but it makes it possible to control the DC-voltage level and displacement power factor separately regardless of the power flow direction. The angular position of the notches varies along with the firing angle.Safe function in case of mains supply disappearance. Supply type Current TDH (%) Voltage TDH (%) RSC=20 10 Voltage TDH (%) RSC=100 2 Current Waveform 6-pulse rectifier 30 12-pulse rectifier 10 6 1.6 Using IGBT bridge Introducing a rectifier bridge. 7. the total power factor with partial load is quite poor.

5 Harmonics in line current IGBT line generating unit. Line Generating Unit 3~ In I1 Line Generating Unit 6 Harmonic order Figure 7. Measured results for one drive is shown in Figure 7. When comparing with Figure 7. Current without Inductor Current with Inductor Figure 7.Voltage boost capability.6.7 Using a larger DC or AC inductor The harmonics of a voltage source AC drive can be significantly reduced by connecting a large enough inductor in its AC input or DC bus. but somewhat higher at higher frequencies. The trend has been to reduce the size of converter while the inductor size has been also reduced.5.Possibility to generate reactive power. The effect of this can be seen from the curve forms in Figure 7. or in several cases it has been omitted totally. IGBT has very low harmonics at lower frequencies.3 we can see a clear difference.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system .Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 21 .Nearly sinusoidal supply current with low harmonic content. Technical Guide No. The main drawback is the high cost coming from the IGBT bridge and extra filtering needed. . . 7.6 . In case of low supply voltage the DC voltage can be boosted to keep motor voltage higher than supply voltage.6 The effect of the inductor on the line current.

This can be seen in Figure 7. Load 60 A. This is 0. 50 Hz).7 Harmonic current as function of DC inductance.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . The higher the ratio. Practically sensible is about 25 mH divided by motor kW. 50 Hz DC Inductance/mH = This Figure/Motor kW Figure 7. 12-pulse Short Circuit Ratio Figure 7.25 mH for a 100 kW motor.7 shows the effect of the size of the DC inductor on the harmonics. the lower the voltage distortion. 6-pulse Large inductor. which gives a THD of about 45%.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system The chart in Figure 7. line fault level 150 MVA No inductor. 22 Technical Guide No. For the first 25 harmonic components the theoretical THD minimum is 29%. Harmonic Current (pu) 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th THD 415 V.8 THD Voltage vs Type of AC drive and transformer size. 6-pulse Large inductor. The voltage distortion with certain current distortion depends on the Short Circuit Ratio Rsc of the supply. Transformer power 50-315 kVA. That value is practically reached when the inductance is 100 mH divided by the motor kW or 1 mH for a 100 kW motor (415 V. 6-pulse THD of Voltage (%) Small inductor.6 .8.

6-pulse Small DCInductor. 12pulse Input Data to Calculations: Rated Motor for the Drive Constant Torque Load Voltage 415 V Drive Efficiency = 97% Supply Impedance = 10% of Transformer Impedance Supply Transformer (kVA) TURN LEFT TURN UP START Motor kW 6 Example: 45 kW Motor is connected to ”a 200 kVA Transformer. E = Large DC-Inductance Small DC-Inductance Without DC-Inductance Figure 7.6 . Total Harminic Voltage Distortion STOP No DC-Inductor. On the graph below right select first the motor kilowatt. Harmonic current with different DC-Inductances. 6-pulse TURN LEFT Large DCInductor.10. then the transformer kVA and then move horizontally to the diagonal line where you move upwards and stop at the curve valid for your application. Then turn left to the y-axis and read the total harmonic voltage distortion.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 23 .9 Total harmonic distortion nomogram.10. C = D. ”THD = ca. 6-pulse Large DCInductor. 11% with a “No Inductor Drive” Figure 7. Technical Guide No.9 introduces a simple nomogram for estimation of harmonic voltages. 3% with a “Large Inductor Drive” and ca. Results from laboratory tests with drive units from different manufacturers are shown in Figure 7. drives with no inductor installed have the highest distortion. A= B. Drive A with large DC inductor has the lowest harmonic current distortion.How to reduce harmonics by structural modifications in the AC drive system Figure 7.

1 Tuned single arm passive filter The principle of a tuned arm passive filter is shown in Figure 8.1. 8.Other methods for harmonics reduction Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or as a total solution in a new plant.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter.6 . Detuned . 8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter The principle of this filter is shown in Figure 8.2. There are two basic methods: passive and active filters.Chapter 8 . The multiple filter has better harmonic absorption than the one arm system. Capacitive below tuned frequency/Inductive above Better harmonic absorption Design consideration to amplification harmonics by filter Limited by KVAr and network Figure 8. For systems that mostly supply an industrial load this would probably be the fifth harmonic. This solution is not normally used for new installations.1 Tuned single arm passive filter.Single tuning frequency Above tuned frequency harmonics absorbed Below tuned frequency harmonics may be amplified Harmonic reduction limited by possible over compensation at the supply frequency and network itself Figure 8. This filter has several arms tuned to two or more of the harmonic components which should be the lowest significant harmonic frequencies in the system. 24 Technical Guide No. This kind of filter consists of an inductor in series with a capacitor bank and the best location for the passive filter is close to the harmonic generating loads. A tuned arm passive filter should be applied at the single lowest harmonic component where there is significant harmonic generation in the system. Above the tuned frequency the harmonics are absorbed but below that frequency they may be amplified.

Other methods for harmonics reduction The multiple arm passive filters are often used for large DC drive installations where a dedicated transformer is supplying the whole installation.3. They are relatively expensive compared to other methods. see Figure 8.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 25 . 8.3 External active filter principle diagram. Waveforms Clean feeder current Harmonics Load current Active filter current Figure 8. Technical Guide No.4.4 External active filter waveforms and harmonics. provide compensation for harmonic components on the utility system based on existing harmonic generation at any given moment in time. These active filters.3 External active filter A passive tuned filter introduces new resonances that can cause additional harmonic problems. New power electronics technologies are resulting in products that can control harmonic distortion with active control.6 . The active filter compensates the harmonics generated by nonlinear loads by generating the same harmonic components in opposite phase as shown in Figure 8. Fundamental only Supply idistortion Load icompensation Active Filter 6 Current waveforms Figure 8. External active filters are most suited to multiple small drives.

2% 1.7% 1.7% 4. The costs are valid for small drives.4% 1.0% 2. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 11% 5.1% 9.2% 1. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 63% 54% 10% 6.6% 7.6 .Chapter 9 . In the following tables different internal actions are compared to the basic system without inductor. 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th Fundamental 5th 100% 30% 12% 8.5 24-pulse rectifier with 2 3-winding transformers Manufacturing cost 200% Typical harmonic current components.5% 5.4% 26 Technical Guide No. For multidrive the 12-pulse solution is quite a lot cheaper. AC or DC choke added Typical harmonic current components.4% Manufacturing cost 210% Typical harmonic current components.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .1% 6. the supply to the site and the standing distortion. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 3.2% 4.3% Manufacturing cost 250% Typical harmonic current components.Summary of harmonics attenuation There are many options to attenuate harmonics either inside the drive system or externally.1 6-pulse rectifier without inductor 9.7% 1.4 12-pulse with double wound transformer 9.6% 4.0% 0.8% 6.2 6-pulse rectifier with inductor Manufacturing cost 100% Typical harmonic current components.6% 2.3 12-pulse rectifier with polycon transformer 9. They all have advantages and disadvantages and all of them show cost implications.4% 4.7% 1.8% Manufacturing cost 120%. The harmonic content is given with 100% load.9% 5. The best solution will depend on the total loading.7% 1. Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 4. 9.

6% 3.4% 3. Not significant if electrical braking is anyway needed. Typical harmonic current components.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 27 .6 Active IGBT rectifier Manufacturing cost 250%.0% 0.6 . Fundamental 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 100% 2.Summary of harmonics attenuation 9.2% 6 Technical Guide No.1% 2.1% 2.

∞. where f1 is fundamental frequency (eg. Harmonic frequencies are defined as wn = n*ω1. Here is an example for the 25 lowest harmonic components with the theoretical values: PWHD: Partial weighted harmonic distortion is defined as: 28 Technical Guide No. RMS-value of n:th harmonic component of line current.Chapter 10 . 50Hz or 60Hz). .Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives .. Rsc = Ss / Sn. Impedance at frequency n*ω1. The THD in voltage may be calculated in a similar way. Angular frequency of fundamental component ω1 = 2*π*f1. Harmonic voltage component as a percentage of fundamental (line) voltage.6 .Definitions S: P: Q: Rsc: Apparent power Active power Reactive power Short circuit ratio is defined as the short circuit power of the supply at PCC to the nominal apparent power of the equipment under consideration. 3. Total Harmonic Distortion in the input current is defined as: ω1: n: In: Zn: %Un: THD: where I1 is the rms value of the fundamental frequency current.. Integer n = 2.

Definitions PCC: Point of Common Coupling is defined in this text as such a point of utility supply which may be common to the equipment in question and other equipment. Displacement Power Factor defined as cosφ1.6 . The definition chosen here is seen as technically most sound. PF: DPF: 6 Technical Guide No. There are several definitions of PCC in different standards and even more interpretations of these definitions in literature.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 29 . where φ1 is the phase angle between the fundamental frequency current drawn by the equipment and the supply voltage fundamental frequency component. Power Factor defined as PF = P/S (power / voltampere) = I1 / Is * DPF (With sinusoidal current PF equals to DPF).

10. 19. 24. 7. 20 24-pulse rectifier 18. 22. 21. 17. 12. 21 low-pass filter 18 M mains transformer 6 manufacturing cost 26. 11. 26 C calculation 5. 28 harmonic limit 12. 15. 16. 9. 14. 10 AC inductor 21 active filter 5. 19. 25 inverter selection 10 inverter supply unit data 10 L laboratory test 23 line current 6. 25. 11 E effect 5. 28. 24. 13 computer 8 consumer's installation 14 converter 6. 14. 25. 12. 24. 9. 16.Index 3-winding 26 5th harmonic 7 6-pulse rectifier 7. 23 inductor 5. 15. 21 converter load 6 D DC-capacitor 18 DC-current 18 displacement power factor 20. 28 American National Standard 14 anti-parallel 20 apparent power 28 attenuation 5. 23 CE marking 12 circuit breaker 8 common DC-bus 19 commutation notch 20 compatibility limit 12. 19. 29 fundamental frequency 7. 15. 24. 22. 26. 20. 21. 12. 25 harmonic voltage 23. 29 distortion calculation 5. 8. 6. 24. 16 harmonics reduction 17. 19 A ABB 6. 18. 27 metering 8 motor load 9 motor selection 10 motor starter 8 multiple arm passive filter 5.6 . 18.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives . 25 30 Technical Guide No. 25 active power 14. 21 inductance 17. 13. 22 electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 22 electronic device 8 electronic display 8 electronic lighting 8 EMC product standard 12 European Economic Area 12 evaluating of harmonic 16 external filtering 17 F filtering 17. 13. 12. 11. 15. 19. 13. 19. 24 frequency 9. 28. 18. 18. 26 industrial installation 12 installation 9. 28 harmonics phenomena 6. 9. 21. 23. 8. 14. 6 distortion nomogram 23 DriveSize 9. 18. 29 H harmonic component 7. 24. 24. 23. 12. 12. 15. 19. 23. 21. 22. 27 harmonic distortion 6. 20.Chapter 11 . 18. 22. 20 6-pulse three phase rectifier 7 12-pulse rectifier 18. 14. 18. 9. 7 I IGBT bridge 20. 28 harmonic currents 6.

18. 15. 23 supply authority 14 supply cable 18 supply transformer 18 supply voltage 6. 23. 23 voltage boost 21 W welding supply 8 6 Technical Guide No. 20. 28 rectifier 5.Index N network 10 non-linear load 6. 17. 21 source impedance 4. 18. 27 rectifying mode 20 rectangular current 7 regenerating mode 20 report 11 S short circuit power 14. 10 tuned arm passive filter 24 two-winding transformer 19 U uninterrupted power supply 8 V variable speed drives 8 voltage 6. 22. 20 total demand distortion 15 total harmonic distortion 10. 13. 21. 16. 19. 28 source 6. 14. 28 transformer 9. 8.Guide to Harmonics with AC Drives 31 . 11. 26. 18. 20. 19. 28 R reactive power 21. 12. 29 structural modification 17. 20. 21. 15. 8. 29 power port 12 public supply 12 PWHD 14. 19. 13. 29 power distribution 6 power drive system 12 power factor 16. 17. 20. 14. 19. 14. 18. 9. 9 standard 12. 15. 23.6 . 29 T TDD 15 THD 12. 17. 22. 21. 25 phase commutated rectifier 20 PHD 12 point of common coupling 15. 7. 28 three-winding transformer 19 thyristor 17. 20. 9. 22. 28 short circuit ratio 22. 6. 16 O overheating 8 P passive filter 24.

abb. .O.com/motors&drives 3AFE 64292714 REV B EN 17. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.ABB Oy Drives P. 2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.5.

7 Dimensioning of a Drive system .Technical Guide No.

Dimensioning of a Drive system .2 Technical Guide No.7 .

................ Technical Guide No..................................................... Introduction ..1 Constant flux range ...................... 8......... 27 Constant power application (Example) ........................... 14 Basic mechanical laws ............................................... 15 Rotational motion ...................1 9. 34 Index ....................... 7 An induction (AC) motor ............................3 5................... 6 General description of a dimensioning procedure .................................. 12 4........1 8............ 4................ 9 Motor current ..............2 Field weakening range.................1 5................Dimensioning of a Drive system 3 .... 2............................................ 15 Gears and moment of inertia ........................7 ....................... 24 Pump and fan application (Example) ......Contents 1.... 33 Rectifier ..... 23 Selecting the frequency converter and motor ...2 4.....................2 10... 9 Fundamentals ............ 5 Drive system .................... 7.......................... 3.... 36 4....... 11 4........................................................ 24 Constant torque application (Example) ................................................................................. 29 Input transformer and rectifier ..2.... 5...................... 9........................ 20 Motor loadability ......................... 18 Load types ...........2 8..................2....................................2 6..........1 4............ 33 Transformer ......................3 9............. 13 Motor power ...... 7 8.................................

Dimensioning of a Drive system .7 .4 Technical Guide No.

Dimensioning of a Drive system 5 . Time spent at the dimensioning phase can mean considerable cost savings. environmental conditions.7 . driven machine.Introduction General Dimensioning of a drive system is a task where all factors have to be considered carefully. Dimensioning requires knowledge of the whole system including electric supply. 7 Technical Guide No.Chapter 1 . motors and drives etc.

1 A single frequency converter consists of 1) rectifier. 3) inverter unit and 4) electric supply.Drive system A single AC drive system consists typically of an input transformer or an electric supply. 2) common DC-link. In multi-drive systems a separate rectifier unit is commonly used.Chapter 2 . 6 Technical Guide No. Inverter units are connected directly to a common DC-link. Figure 2. frequency converter. DC-link and inverter unit. Figure 2.Dimensioning of a Drive system .2 A drive system which has 1) a separate supply section. Inside the single frequency converter there is a rectifier. 2) DC-link. 3) drive sections and 4) electric supply. an AC motor and load.7 .

The mains supply network's frequency doesn't limit the speed range of the application. The motor's thermal overloadability should not be exceeded.Chapter 3 . 7 Technical Guide No. The motor must withstand process overloads and be able to produce a specified amount of torque. An electrical motor should be seen as a source of torque. 4) Select the frequency converter The frequency converter is selected according to the initial conditions and the selected motor. 3) Select the motor. 1) First check the initial conditions. Advantage should be taken of the frequency converter's potential overloadability in case of a short term cyclical load. check the mains supply voltage level (380 V …690 V) and frequency (50 Hz … 60 Hz). It is also necessary to leave a margin of around 30% for the motor's maximum torque when considering the maximum available torque in the dimensioning phase.General description of a dimensioning procedure This chapter gives the general steps for dimensioning the motor and the frequency converter. The frequency converter's capability of producing the required current and power should be checked.Dimensioning of a Drive system 7 .7 . Is there a need for starting torque? What is the speed range used? What type of load will there be? Some of the typical load types are described later. 2) Check the process requirements. In order to select the correct frequency converter and motor.

60Hz UN=380.Dimensioning of a Drive system .690V TS Tload n min n max 2) Choose a motor according to: • Thermal loadability • Speed range • Maximum needed torque 3) Choose a frequency converter according to: • Load type • Continous and maximum current • Network conditions Imax IN T TS Tload n min n max n min n max Figure 3.General description of a dimensioning procedure Dimensioning phase Network Converter Motor Load 1) Chek the initial conditions of the network and load T fN=50Hz.7 . 8 Technical Guide No.1 General description of the dimensioning procedure...

Direct-On-Line). In this chapter some of the basic features are described.Chapter 4 . c) is the maximum motor torque. At the nominal point the slip is nominal: (4.L.1) where ns is the synchronous speed: (4. 4.. The slip is often defined at the motor's nominal point (frequency ( fn ). Technical Guide No.O. speed ( nn ). voltage ( Un ). torque ( Tn ). Because of the induction phenomenon the induction motor has a slip. Tmax and d) is the nominal point of the motor. In the picture a) is the locked rotor torque.1 Typical torque/speed curve of an induction motor when connected to the network supply (D.Dimensioning of a Drive system 9 .An induction (AC) motor Induction motors are widely used in industry. b) is the pull-up torque. current ( In ) and power ( Pn )).2) 7 When a motor is connected to a supply with constant voltage and frequency it has a torque curve as follows: Figure 4. Converting the energy is based on electromagnetic induction.1 Fundamentals An induction motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.7 .

The maximum torque of an induction motor is proportional to the square of the magnetic flux ( Tmax ~ ψ 2 ). also called pull-out torque and breakdown torque) is typically 2-3 times the nominal torque.2 Torque/speed curves of an induction motor fed by a frequency converter. TORQUE SPEED Figure 4. This means that the maximum torque is approximately a constant at the constant flux range.7 . Frequency converters. Controlling can be done with a frequency converter.An induction (AC) motor A standard induction motor's maximum torque ( Tmax.. Above the field weakening point the maximum torque decrease is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency ( Tmax ~ ). s max..Dimensioning of a Drive system . The frequency range below the nominal frequency is called a constant flux range. The maximum torque is available with slip smax which is greater than the nominal slip.smax . Above the nominal frequency/speed the motor operates in the field weakening range. T max is available for short term overloads below the field weakening point. This can be achieved by controlling voltage and frequency. 10 Technical Guide No. typically limit the maximum available torque to 70% of Tmax. however. In order to use an induction motor efficiently the motor slip should be in the range . In the field weakening range the motor can operate on constant power which is why the field weakening range is sometimes also called the constant power range.

An induction (AC) motor

Tmax

Flux

Voltage

Constant flux range

SPEED

Field weekening range

Figure 4.3 Maximum torque, voltage and flux as a function of the relative speed.

4.2 Motor current

An induction motor current has two components: reactive current ( isd ) and active current ( isq ). The reactive current component includes the magnetizing current ( imagn ) whereas the active current is the torque producing current component. The reactive and active current components are perpendicular to each other. The magnetizing current ( imagn ) remains approximately constant in the constant flux range (below the field weakening point). In the field weakening range the magnetizing current decrease is proportional to speed. A quite good estimate for the magnetizing current in the constant flux range is the reactive ( isd ) current at the motor nominal point.

7

Figure 4.4 Stator current ( is ) consists of reactive current ( isd ) and active current ( isq ) components which are perpendicular to each other. Stator flux is denoted as ψs.

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

11

An induction (AC) motor

4.2.1 Constant flux range

Below the field weakening point the current components can be approximated as follows:

(4.3) (4.4) The total motor current is: (4.5) It can be seen that with zero motor torque the active current component is zero. With higher torque values motor current becomes quite proportional to the torque. A good approximation for total motor current is: , when 0.8 * Tn ≤ Tload ≤ 0.7 * Tmax

(4.6)

Example 4.1: A 15 kW motor's nominal current is 32 A and power factor is 0.83. What is the motor's approximate magnetizing current at the nominal point? What is the total approximate current with 120 % torque below the field weakening point. Solution 4.1: At the nominal point the estimate for the magnetizing current is:

The approximate formula for total motor current with 120 % torque gives:

The approximate formula was used because torque fulfilled the condition 0.8 * Tn ≤ Tload ≤ 0.7 * Tmax

12

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

An induction (AC) motor

4.2.2 Field weakening range

Above the field weakening point the current components also depend on speed.

(4.7) (4.8)

Total motor current is: (4.9) The motor current can be approximated quite accurately within a certain operating region. The motor current becomes proportional to relative power. An approximation formula for current is: (4.10)

7
Approximation can be used when: (4.11) and (4.12) In the field weakening range the additional current needed in order to maintain a certain torque level is proportional to relative speed. Example 4.2: The motor's nominal current is 71 A. How much current is needed to maintain the 100 % torque level at 1.2 times nominal speed (Tmax = 3 * Tn). Solution 4.2: The current can be calculated by using the approximation formula:

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

13

An induction (AC) motor

4.3 Motor power

The motor's mechanical (output) power can be calculated from speed and torque using the formula: (4.13) Because motor power is most often given in kilowatts (1 kW = 1000 W) and speed in rpm revolutions per minute, 1 rpm = rad/s), the following formula can be used:

(4.14) The motor's input power can be calculated from the voltage, current and power factor: (4.15) The motor's efficiency is the output power divided by the input power:

(4.16) Example 4.3: The motor nominal power is 15 kW and the nominal speed is 1480 rpm. What is the nominal torque of the motor? Solution 4.3: The motor's nominal torque is calculated as follows:

Example 4.4: What is the nominal efficiency of a 37 kW (Pn = 37 kW, Un =380 V, In =71 A and cos(ϕn) = 0.85) motor? Solution 4.4: The nominal efficiency is:

14

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

Chapter 5 - Basic mechanical laws
5.1 Rotational motion
One of the basic equations of an induction motor describes the relation between moment of inertia ( J [kgm2]), angular velocity ( ω [rad/s]) and torque ( T [Nm]). The equation is as follows: (5.1)

In the above equation it is assumed that both the frequency and the moment of inertia change. The formula is however often given so that the moment of inertia is assumed to be constant:

(5.2)

Torque Tload represents the load of the motor. The load consists of friction, inertia and the load itself. When the motor speed changes, motor torque is different from Tload . Motor torque can be considered as consisting of a dynamic and a load component: (5.3) If the speed and moment of inertia are constants the dynamic component ( Tdyn ) is zero. The dynamic torque component caused by acceleration/ deceleration of a constant moment of inertia (motor's speed is changed by ∆n [rpm] in time ∆t [s], J is constant) is:

7

(5.4)

The dynamic torque component caused by a variable moment of inertia at constant speed n[rpm] is:

(5.5)

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

15

Basic mechanical laws

If the moment of inertia varies and at the same time the motor is accelerating the dynamic torque component can be calculated using a certain discrete sampling interval. From the thermal dimensioning point of view it is however often enough to take into account the average moment of inertia during acceleration. Example 5.1: The total moment of inertia, 3 kgm2, is accelerated from a speed of 500 rpm to 1000 rpm in 10 seconds. What is the total torque needed when the constant load torque is 50 Nm? How fast will the motor decelerate to 0 rpm speed if the motor's electric supply is switched off? Solution 5.1: The total moment of inertia is constant. The dynamic torque component needed for acceleration is:

Total torque during acceleration is:

If the motor's electric supply is switched off at 1000 rpm the motor decelerates because of the constant load torque (50 Nm). Following equation holds:

Time to decelerate from 1000 rpm to 0 rpm:

Example 5.2: Accelerating of a fan to nominal speed is done with nominal torque. At nominal speed torque is 87 %. The fan's moment of inertia is 1200 kgm2 and the motor's moment of inertia is 11 kgm2. The load characteristics of the fan Tload is shown in figure 5.1. Motor nominal power is 200 kW and nominal speed is 991 rpm.

16

Technical Guide No.7 - Dimensioning of a Drive system

7 .2 rpm) torque is assumed to be constant. Solution 5. Speed and torque are shown using relative values.1 Torque characteristics of a fan.Dimensioning of a Drive system 17 . This is quite acceptable because the quadratic behaviour is approximated to be linear in the sector.Basic mechanical laws TORQUE SPEED Figure 5. Torque for each sector is taken from the middle point of the sector. The time to accelerate the motor (fan) with nominal torque can be calculated with formula: Technical Guide No.2: Motor nominal torque is: 7 The starting time is calculated by dividing the speed range into five sectors. In each sector (198. Calculate approximate starting time from zero speed to nominal speed.

When calculating the motor torque and speed range gears have to be taken into account.2 Gears and moment of inertia Gears are typical in drive systems.6) (5. Gear ratio is n1:n2.2 rpm 198. 5.7) (5. 18 Technical Guide No.Dimensioning of a Drive system .2 A gear with efficiency η.6 rpm 594.8 rpm 792.8-991 rpm The total starting time 0-991 rpm is approximately 112 seconds.4 rpm 396.8) Direction of energy Figure 5. Gears are reduced from load side to motor side with following equations (see also figure 5.Basic mechanical laws Acceleration times for different speed sections are: 0-198.4-594.7 .2 ): (5.2-396.6-792.

radius=0.Basic mechanical laws Also all the moments of inertia ( J [kgm2]) within the system have to be known. The following example shows how to reduce gears and hoists.4: Reduce the moment of inertia to the motor shaft of the following hoist drive system. J2=30 kgm2.Dimensioning of a Drive system 19 . etc. The moment of inertia J2 and mass m are behind a gearbox with gear ratio n1:n2=2:1. If they are not known they can be calculated which is rather difficult to do accurately.4. Solution 5. What is the inertia of a rotating cylinder (mass=1600 kg. Example 5.2 m and m=100 kg. the moment of inertia to the motor shaft has to be reduced.3 A Hoist drive system used in example 5.3: The inertia of a rotating cylinder (with mass m [kg] and radius r [m]) is calculated as follows: In the case of a gear.7 m)? Solution 5. The mass m of the hoist is reduced by multiplying it with square of the radius r and because it is behind the gearbox it has to be multiplied with the square of the inverse of the gear ratio.7 . 7 Figure 5. too.3: A cylinder is quite a common shape for a load (rollers.). Example 5. Typically machine builders can give the necessary data. In basic engineering books other formulas are also given. Thus the total moment of inertia of the system is: Technical Guide No. The moment of inertia J2 is reduced by multiplying with the square of the inverse of the gear ratio.4: The total moment of inertia consists of J1=10 kgm2. drums. r=0. couplings.

Figure 6.Dimensioning of a Drive system .7 .Chapter 6 . Quadratic torque Quadratic torque is the most common load type. Typical applications are centrifugal pumps and fans. For example screw compressors. Constant torque A constant torque load type is typical when fixed volumes are being handled. and the power is cubically proportional to the speed. 1. torque and power) is essential when selecting a suitable motor and frequency converter for the application. Some common load types are shown. Figure 6. The torque is quadratically. 2. There may also be combinations of these types.1 Typical torque and power curves in a constant torque application.2 Typical torque and power curves in a quadratic torque application. Knowing the load profile (speed range.Load types Certain load types are characteristic in the industrial world. 20 Technical Guide No. Torque is constant and the power is linearly proportional to the speed. feeders and conveyors are typical constant torque applications.

Typical applications for this load type are for example extruders and screw pumps.7 .Load types 3. This load type is often a consequence of dimensioning the system according to the need for certain power at high speed. Constant power A constant power load is normal when material is being rolled and the diameter changes during rolling. Technical Guide No. 5. Constant power/torque This load type is common in the paper industry. The power is constant and the torque is inversely proportional to the speed. This has to be considered in dimensioning. 4.3 Typical torque and power curves in a constant power application. 7 Figure 6.4 Typical torque and power curves in a constant power/torque application. Starting/ breakaway torque demand In some applications high torque at low frequencies is needed. It is a combination of constant power and constant torque load types. Figure 6.Dimensioning of a Drive system 21 .

there are different symmetrical (rollers.Dimensioning of a Drive system . Just to mention a few. as well as the average torque of the motor. etc.Load types Figure 6.) and unsymmetrical loads. They are however hard to describe in a general presentation. These kinds of load types must be dimensioned carefully taking into account the overloadability margins of the motor and the frequency converter.5 Typical torque curve in an application where starting torque is needed. Symmetry/non-symmetry in torque can be for example as a function of angle or time. There are also several other load types.7 . 22 Technical Guide No. cranes.

Short term overloads are mainly limited by Tmax (check the safety margin). Generally speaking.7 . a frequency converter's short term loadability is often more critical than the motor's.1 A standard cage induction motor's typical loadability in a frequency controlled drive 1) without separate cooling and 2) with separate cooling. Technical Guide No. The frequency converter's thermal rise times (typically few minutes) are given in the product manuals. The motor thermal rise times are typically from 15 minutes (small motors) to several hours (big motors) depending on the motor size.Dimensioning of a Drive system 23 . A standard induction motor is self ventilated. Because of the self ventilation the motor thermal loadability decreases as the motor speed decreases. This kind of behaviour limits the continuous available torque at low speeds. The thermal loadability defines the maximum long term loadability of the motor.Chapter 7 . Cooling is often dimensioned so that the cooling effect is the same as at the nominal point. With both self and separate cooling methods torque is thermally limited in the field weakening range.Motor loadability Motor thermal loadability has to be considered when dimensioning a drive system. T / Tn 7 Relative speed Figure 7. A motor with a separate cooling can also be loaded at low speeds. An AC-motor can be overloaded for short periods of time without overheating it.

The corresponding current values can be calculated from the torque profile and compared to converter current limits. .1 Pump and fan application (Example) Some stages in pump and fan application dimensioning: . If the supply voltage is lower than nominal the field weakening point shifts to a lower frequency and the available maximum torque of the motor is reduced in the field weakening range.Check the speed range and calculate power with highest speed.Dimensioning of a Drive system . It isn't however always the best possible dimensioning criteria because motors might for example be derated (ambient temperature. reactors. 8. . Frequency converter manufacturers normally have certain selection tables where typical motor powers for each converter size are given.Choose the pole number of the motor. etc. Speed range. The frequency converter may limit the motor torque earlier than stated in the motor manufacturer's data sheet.Chapter 8 . hazardous area. cables. Often it is worth comparing different motors because the selected motor affects the size of the frequency converter.). The motor's nominal current gives some kind of indication. The most economic operating frequency is often in the field 24 Technical Guide No. The maximum available torque is often limited by the frequency converter. The dimensioning current can also be calculated when the torque characteristics is known.7 . etc.Check the starting torque need.Selecting the frequency converter and motor The motor is selected according to the basic information about the process. ventilation method and motor loadability give guidelines for motor selection. This has to be considered already in the motor selection phase. The available supply voltage must be checked before selecting the frequency converter. torque curves. Supply voltage variations affect the available motor shaft power. When selecting a suitable frequency converter there are several things to be considered. The maximum available torque is also affected by transformers. The system's power losses need to be compensated also by the frequency converter rating. in the system because they cause a voltage drop and thus the maximum available torque may drop.

1) motor p=2 For a 2-pole motor the loadability at 2000 rpm according to the loadability curve is about 95 %. Remember the thermal loadability.Dimensioning of a Drive system 25 . 7 Figure 8.Choose motor power so that power is available at maximum speed.1: A pump has a 150 kW load at a speed of 2000 rpm. .1 Motor loadability curves in a pump and fan application. Solution 8.Choose the frequency converter. The motor nominal torque must be at least: Technical Guide No. There is no need for starting torque.Selecting the frequency converter and motor weakening range. Comparison of 1) 2-pole and 2) 4-pole motors. Use pump and fan rating.1: The necessary torque at 2000 rpm is: It seems that 2-pole or 4-pole motors are alternative choices for this application. If the pump and fan rating is not available choose the frequency converter according to the motor current profile. .7 . Example 8.

Selecting the frequency converter and motor The corresponding nominal power must then be at least: A 250 kW (400 V.Dimensioning of a Drive system .7 Hz) is: The exact current should be calculated if the selected frequency converter's nominal current is close to the approximated motor current.81) fulfills the conditions. Thus it is probably a more economical choice than a 2-pole motor. 1480 rpm and 0. 26 Technical Guide No. A 4-pole motor requires less current at the pump operation point. 2) motor p=4 For a 4-pole motor the loadability at 2000 rpm is 75 %.7 . 50 Hz. 431 A.87) motor is selected. The nominal torque of the motor is: The motor current at 2000 rpm speed (constant flux range) is approximately: The minimum continuous current for the frequency converter is then 384 A. 305 A. 50 Hz. 2975 rpm and 0. The approximated current at a speed of 2000 rpm (66. The minimum nominal torque of the motor is: The minimum power for a 4-pole motor is: A 160 kW motor (400 V.

.7 .Check the possible starting torque required. Acceleration time from zero speed to 1200 rpm is 10 seconds. The load at 1200 rpm is 48 KW.2 Constant torque application (Example) Some stages in dimensioning of a constant torque application: . If accelerations are needed check the moments of inertia.Dimensioning of a Drive system 27 . Typically the nominal speed of the motor is in the middle of the speed range used. Solution 8.2: The constant torque requirement is: 7 A suitable motor is a 4-pole or a 6-pole motor. .2 Motor loadability curves in a constant torque application. .Check the constant torque needed.Choose the motor so that torque is below the thermal loadability curve (separate/self ventilation?).Choose a suitable frequency converter according to the dimensioning current. .Selecting the frequency converter and motor 8. The motor is self-ventilated and the nominal voltage is 400 V. Technical Guide No. .2: An extruder has a speed range of 300-1200 rpm.Check the possible accelerations. Figure 8. comparison of 1) 4-pole and 2) 6-pole motors.Check the speed range. The starting torque requirement is 200 Nm. Example 8.

Dimensioning of a Drive system .Selecting the frequency converter and motor 1) Motor p=4 At 300 rpm speed the thermal loadability is 80 %.7 . If the motor's moment of inertia is 0. 50 Hz.82) motor. Thus the minimum nominal torque of the 6-pole motor is: The minimum value of the motor nominal power is: 28 Technical Guide No. The motor nominal torque is: Motor current is approximately (T/Tn ≈ 0. 2) Motor p=6 At speeds of 300 rpm and 1200 rpm the motor loadability is 84 %. 1473 rpm and 0.8): According to the calculated motor current a suitable frequency converter can be selected for constant torque use. The estimated minimum nominal torque is: The minimum motor nominal power is: A suitable motor is for example a 75 kW (400 V.72 kgm2 the dynamic torque in acceleration is: Thus the total torque during acceleration is 391 Nm which is less than the nominal torque of the motor. The starting torque requirement (200 Nm) is not a problem for this motor. 146 A.

82) motor.Dimensioning of a Drive system 29 .3 Constant power application (Example) Some stages in dimensioning of a constant power application: .Selecting the frequency converter and motor A suitable motor could be for example a 55 kW (400 V.3: A wire drawing machine is controlled by a frequency converter.Dimension the motor so that the field weakening range is utilized. Select a suitable motor and converter for this application. .Calculate the power needed. 110 A. There is a gear with gear ratio n2 :n1 =1:7. Example 8. The final frequency converter/motor selection depends on the motor and frequency converter frame sizes and prices.7 . . The surface speed of the reel is 12 m/s and the tension is 5700 N. Technical Guide No. The diameters of the reel are 630 mm (empty reel) and 1250 (full reel).98. 984 rpm and 0. The starting torque requirement is less than motor's nominal torque. 50 Hz. Winders are typical constant power applications.12 and the efficiency of the gear is 0. The motor nominal torque is: The dimensioning current can be approximated at a speed of 1200 rpm: The nominal (continuous) current of the frequency converter must be over 96 A.Check the speed range.2 kgm2 the dynamic torque in acceleration is: The total torque needed during acceleration is 397 Nm which is less than the nominal torque of the motor. 7 8. A 6-pole motor current is 19 A smaller than with a 4-pole motor. If the inertia of the motor is 1.

7 . Figure 8.3: The basic idea of a winder is to keep the surface speed and the tension constant as the diameter changes.Selecting the frequency converter and motor Solution 8. In rectilinear motion the power is: In rotational motion the power is: P = Fv P = Tω The relation between surface speed and angular velocity is: Torque is a product of force and radius: T = Fr By using the above formulas the motor can be selected: 30 Technical Guide No.3 Basic diagram of a winder.Dimensioning of a Drive system .

Speeds. 50 Hz.Dimensioning of a Drive system 31 . The minimum nominal power of the motor is: 7 A 200 kW (400 V.86) motor is selected.Selecting the frequency converter and motor The gear must be taken into account before choosing the motor. The motor nominal torque is: The dimensioning current is calculated according to a torque of 511 Nm: 2) Motor p=4 If a 4-pole motor is selected it can be seen from the loadability curve that loadability at a speed of 1305 rpm is about 98 % and about 60 % at 2590 rpm. The minimum nominal power of the motor is: Technical Guide No. 2975 rpm and 0. 353 A.7 . torques and power have to be reduced: 1) Motor p=2 If a 2-pole motor is selected loadability at a speed of 1305 rpm is about 88 % and 97 % at 2590 rpm.

7 .Selecting the frequency converter and motor A 90 kW (400 V. The motor current is: With a 2-pole motor the field weakening (constant power) range was not utilized which led to unnecessary overdimensioning. A 4-pole motor is a better choice for this application. 172 A. 50 Hz.Dimensioning of a Drive system . 1473 rpm and 0. 32 Technical Guide No. The motor nominal torque is: Dimensioning in this case is done according to the motor current at 1305 rpm.83) is selected.

the energy needs to be absorbed. Thus high overloads do not necessarily mean high power from the rectifier point of view.1) In drive systems where there is a common DC-link.1 Rectifier Rectifiers are dimensioned according to motor shaft power. Line current is small at low speed. 9. there can be motoring and generating power at the same time. a true 4-quadrant rectifier is needed.Dimensioning of a Drive system 33 .2) Technical Guide No. If however the load is generating all the time. TORQUE 7 LINE CURRENT Figure 9. For short generating loads the traditional solution has been a braking resistor where the power generated has been transformed into heat losses.1 Line current in a constant torque application. A single drive's input rectifier can be selected using the approximation formula: (9. Rectifier power is then calculated approximately as follows: (9. Diode rectifiers only support motoring loads where the power flow is one way only. The rectifier type might limit the operation.7 . Both the input transformer and the rectifier are dimensioned according to the motor shaft power and system losses.Input transformer and rectifier There are several types of input rectifiers. In certain processes where the load can also be generating. For example if high torque at low speed is delivered the mechanical power is nevertheless quite low. A conventional rectifier is a 6 or 12 pulse diode rectifier.Chapter 9 .

Dimensioning of a Drive system .2 .35.3) In the above formulas: Ptotal is the total motor shaft power k is the transformer loadability (k-factor) 1.Input transformer and rectifier 9. A 55 kW motor and 70 kVA inverter unit was selected. A 6-pulse diode supply is used (efficiency 0. inverter efficiency is 0.7 .2 Transformer An input transformer's power can be calculated as follows: (9.05 stands for transformer voltage drop (impedance) ηr is the rectifier efficiency cos(α) is the rectifier control angle (=1. there is a DC-choke in the DC-link.97 and motor efficiency is 0. Example 9.1: For the rectifier the estimated power is: 34 Technical Guide No. Solution 9.95.985).1: In a constant torque application the maximum shaft power needed is 48 kW at a speed of 1200 rpm.0 for diode rectifier) ηc is the AC choke (if there is one) efficiency ηi is the inverter efficiency ηm is the motor efficiency Typically total shaft power is multiplied by a coefficient 1.1. Specify the rectifier and input transformer.

95) is: 7 Technical Guide No.Dimensioning of a Drive system 35 . Because of diode supply unit cos(α) =1. The power of the input transformer (k=0.7 .Input transformer and rectifier The choke efficiency is included in the inverter efficiency.

Index 4-quadrant 33 A AC motor 6 acceleration 18 active current 11 angular velocity 14 B break down torque 10 C centrifugal pumps 20 constant flux range 10 constant power 10. 7 supply voltage 7. 12 O overloadability 7 P power 9. 21 constant torque 20 coupling 19 cubically 20 cyclical load 7 D DC-link 6 decelerate 16 diode rectifier 33 drum 19 E efficiency 14 electric supply 6 F fan 16.7 . 24 36 Technical Guide No. 14 power factor 12 pull-out torque 10 pull-up torque 9 Q quadratically 20 quadratic torque 20 R reactive current 11 rectifier 33 rectifier unit 6 roller 19 S scalf ventilated 23 separate cooling 23 shaft power 24 slip 9 speed 9 speed range 7 starting/breakway torque 21 starting torque 7 supply 6. 20 friction 14 field weakening range 10 flux range 10 frequency 7. 9 frequency converter 6 G gear 18 gear box 19 generating 33 I induction 9 induction motor 9 input transformer 6 inverter 34.Chapter 10 .35 K kilowatt 14 L load 6 load profile 20 load type 20 locked rotor torque 9 M motor 9 maximum torque 10 mechanical 14 moment inertia 15 motoring 33 N nominal point 9.Dimensioning of a Drive system .

Dimensioning of a Drive system 37 . 10 V voltage 9 7 Technical Guide No.7 .Index T thermal loadability 23 transformer 6 torque 9.

O.com/motors&drives 3AFE 64362569 REV A EN 17. . Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.abb. 2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.ABB Oy Drives P.5.

8 Electrical Braking .Technical Guide No.

8 .2 Technical Guide No.Electrical Braking .

.........................Contents 1............................ Evaluating the investment cost .................................................... 3.............Electrical Braking 3 ................2 Evaluating brake torque and power .............2 IGBT based regeneration-control targets ............8 ....... 3. Calculating the life cycle cost .................4....... 3.......2..2 3................................................. Index ......4....................................................... 2....... 2...... General ................ 3...............................2 Principle of the braking chopper .... IGBT bridge configuration ..... Drive applications map according to speed and torque .... Calculating the direct cost of energy ..........1 4..........1 3....... Evaluating braking power ..... Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking .................. 5 5 5 7 2.... General dimension principles for electrical braking ..................1 Constant torque and quadratic torque .....1 2.....3 5.......... Technical Guide No. Symbols and definitions .........1 General principles of IGBT based regeneration units ................................ Electrical braking solutions in drives ................................................2....................4........ 2.............................3 Summary and Conclusions .....5 4.......3 Direct torque control in the form of direct power control .1 The energy storage nature of the frequency converter .... 3.......................................................... Anti-parallel thyristor bridge configuration .. 3.......4........... Motor Flux braking .....4 Dimensioning an IGBT regeneration unit .....2............................... 24 24 24 25 29 30 4...2. Common DC .......................................2 Introduction ...............2 4....... 6.2 7 8 8 8 12 13 13 14 14 15 17 19 19 19 20 22 22 3....................2....... 1.............4 8 3..... Braking chopper and braking resistor .................1 1........................ Basics of load descriptions . 2................................3 3............ 3.........

Electrical Braking .8 .4 Technical Guide No.

the power flow may be from drive to motor or vice versa. The most common AC drive application is a single quadrant application where speed and torque always have the same direction.Chapter 1 . The single quadrant drive may turn out to be two quadrants for example if a fan is decelerated faster than mechanical losses could naturally achieve. i. The second category is two-quadrant applications where the direction of rotation remains unchanged but the direction of torque can change.8 . but many machinery processes such as cutting. The purpose of this guide is to give practical guidelines for different braking solutions. weaving. 8 Technical Guide No. One can also mention single quadrant processes where the power flow is mainly from machinery to inverter such as in a winder or an uphill to downhill conveyor. i. winches and cranes.e. These applications are typically pump and fan applications having quadratic behaviour of load torque and thus often called variable torque applications. the power flow (which is speed multiplied by torque) is from inverter to process. i.Introduction 1.1 General This guide continues ABB's technical guide series. the load torque does not inherently change when speed changes.Electrical Braking 5 . but how this braking energy could be utilised in the most economical way has not been considered. However.e. and engine test benches may require repetitive speed and torque change. bending.e. describing the practical solutions available in reducing stored energy and transferring stored energy back into electrical energy. Some single quadrant applications such as extruders or conveyors are constant torque applications. The third category is fully four-quadrant applications where the direction of speed and torque can freely change. It is commonly understood that from the energy saving point of view the AC motor combined with inverter is superior to mechanical control methods such as throttling. 1. In many industries also the requirement for emergency stopping of machinery may require two-quadrant operation although the process itself is single quadrant type. less attention is paid to the fact that many processes may inherently include power flow from process to drive. These applications are typically elevators.2 Drive applications map according to speed and torque Drive applications can be divided into three main categories according to speed and torque.

6 Technical Guide No.1 Drive applications map according to speed and torque.Electrical Braking .Introduction Decelerating Accelerating Accelerating Decelerating Figure 1.8 .

The higher the speed the higher the power. This power is then transferred at a certain specified voltage and current. This fact means that on the supplying side the cosφ is typically near 1. The mechanical braking power depends on braking torque and speed.1 General dimension principles for electrical braking The evaluation of braking need starts from the mechanics.Chapter 2 . formula (2.2) Technical Guide No. There are some losses in this conversion. 8 (2.2) it has been assumed that no loss occurs when DC power is converted to AC power. or there are subcycles in the process where the motor operates on the generator side at constant or slightly varying speed.0.2). but in this context the losses can be ignored. This term defines how much motor current is used for magnetising the motor. Note that in formula (2.1).8 . formula (2.1) (2. The current is the primary component defining the cost in low voltage AC drives. The magnetising current does not create any torque and is therefore ignored.e. Typically. The higher the voltage the less current is needed for the same power.Electrical Braking 7 . i. this motor magnetising current is not taken from the AC supply feeding the converter.Evaluating braking power 2. the requirement is to brake the mechanical system within a specified time. On the other hand. In formula (2. the current to the inverter is lower than the current fed to the motor.2) we see the term cosφ. It is important to note that devices used in electrical braking are dimensioned according to braking power.

3) (2.8 .8) In practice. it is difficult to define the effect of friction exactly.6) 2. friction and load torque is in the opposite direction to the motor torque. the drive itself is single quadrant type.7) underlines that the torque needed for inertia accelerating (or decelerating). Please note that formula (2.e. 8 Technical Guide No.2 Evaluating brake torque and power In the case of steady state operation (the angular acceleration α is zero) the motor torque has to make friction torque correspond proportionally to the angular speed and load torque at that specific angular speed.2.7) Let us first consider the case where the load is constant torque type and the drive system is not able to generate braking torque. (2. Quadratic load torque means that the load torque is proportional to the square of the speed.4) Quadratic torque: (2. i. In order to calculate the braking time needed one can apply the following equation. (2. the power is directly proportional to speed.1 Constant torque and quadratic torque 2. It also means that the power is speed to the power of three.Evaluating braking power 2. Constant torque: C: constant (2. By assuming friction to be zero the time calculated is on the safe side. The braking torque and power need in respect to time varies greatly in these two different load types.Electrical Braking .2 Basics of load descriptions Typically loads are categorised as constant torque or quadratic torque type.5) (2.2. In constant torque applications.

the conveyor belt is broken) the kinetic energy of the mechanics remains unchanged but the load torque that would decelerate the mechanics is now not in effect. increases dramatically in comparison to the speed change from 1000 rpm to 900 rpm. If the cumulative braking time is presented as a function of speed.8 . one sees that the natural braking time at the lower speed.1 Cumulative braking time.9) By solving t one ends up with the formula: (2.10) Assuming that the load inertia is 60 kgm2 and the load torque is 800 Nm over the whole speed range. e. If the motor torque is forced to zero the load torque decreases in quadratic proportion to speed.g.11) This applies for those applications where the load torque remains constant when the braking starts.Evaluating braking power Power [10 * kW]. the load goes to zero speed in the time: 8 (2. but where the load torque changes in a quadratic manner.Electrical Braking 9 . if the load is running at 1000 rpm and the motor torque is put to zero. Torque [100 * Nm] Natural braking curve with constant load Cumulative time Natural braking power [kW] * 10 Natural braking torque [Nm] * 100 Speed [rpm] Figure 2. from 200 rpm to 100 rpm.g. In that case if the motor is not braking the speed will only decrease as a result of mechanical friction. braking load power and torque as a function of speed. Technical Guide No. Time [s]. In the case where load torque disappears (e. (2. Now consider the case with the same inertia and load torque at 1000 rpm.

The fan is required to be stopped within 20 seconds.g.Evaluating braking power Power [10 * kW]. 10 Technical Guide No.3 Cumulative braking time for.12). The average braking power can be calculated by dividing this braking energy by time. The 90 kW fan has an inertia of 60 kgm2.8 . a 90 kW fan.. Let us now consider the case where the requirement specifies the mechanical system to be braked in a specified time from a specified speed. Time [s]. on the very safe side due to the fact that the fan load characteristics are not taken into account. This value is. e. Torque [100 * Nm] Natural braking curve with quadratic load Braking power [kW] * 10 Braking torque [Nm] * 100 Speed [rpm] Figure 2. The nominal operating point for the fan is 1000 rpm.6).5) and (2.2 Natural braking curve for a 90 kW fan braking load power and torque as a function of speed. The maximum energy of inertia can be calculated from formula (2. Natural braking curve with quadratic load Time [s] Braking time Speed [rpm] Figure 2.Electrical Braking . A natural braking curve can easily be drawn based on the power and speed at the nominal point applying the formulas (2. The natural braking effect caused by the load characteristics is at its maximum at the beginning of the braking. of course.

4 kW. As can be seen from figure (2. At that point of time the load torque is only 25 % of nominal and the kinetic energy conserved in the fan is also only 25 % of the energy at 1000 rpm.2 kW. This clearly indicates that it is not necessary to start braking the motor with the aforementioned 16 kW power in the first instance.12) (2. To summarise. Setting the drive regenerative power limit to 8. it can be seen that the braking power in order to achieve deceleration from 500 rpm to 0 rpm is appr.14) (2. As stated in previous calculations this is also on the safe side because the natural braking curve caused by the load characteristics is not taken into account.13) When the braking chopper is dimensioned for this 16. This function is available in some drives. If one wants to optimise the dimensioning of the brake chopper for a specific braking time one can start by looking at figure (2.3) the speed comes down from 1000 rpm to 500 rpm without any additional braking within less than 10 seconds.3).4 kW value and the motor braking capability at a higher speed is far more than 16.Evaluating braking power (2.2 kW sets the level of braking power to an appropriate level. 8 (2. 8 kW.15) Technical Guide No.Electrical Braking 11 .8 . If the calculation done at 1000 rpm is repeated at 500 rpm. The natural braking effect is at its maximum at the beginning of the braking. the target for a 20 second deceleration time from 1000 rpm down to 0 rpm is well achieved with a braking chopper and resistor dimensioned for 8. The speed reduces quickly from 1000 to 500 rpm without any additional braking. the drive has to include a supervision function for maximum regeneration power.

Typical quadratic torque applications: fans and pumps.Electrical Braking . Typical constant torque applications: cranes and conveyors. Quadratic torque application: The load torque increases to speed to the power of two. When the speed increases.3 Summary There are two basic load types: constant and quadratic and conclusions load torque. This affects the dimensioning of the braking chopper. The constant load torque characteristic is constant natural deceleration.Evaluating braking power 2. Constant torque application: The load torque characteristic does not depend on the speed.8 .2. If the load torque disappears when braking starts the natural braking effect is small. 12 Technical Guide No. Dimensioning the braking chopper according to peak braking power typically leads to overdimensioning. The quadratic load torque means that at low speeds the natural deceleration is mainly due to friction. The braking power is a function of torque and speed at that specified operating point. The load torque remains approximately the same over the whole speed area. Braking power evaluation: The quadratic load characteristics mean fast natural deceleration between 50-100 % of nominal speeds. the power increases to speed to the power of three. That should be utilised when dimensioning the braking power needed. The power increases linearly as the speed increases and vice versa. The braking power is not a function of motor nominal current (torque) or power as such.

1). In the DC injection method DC current is injected to the motor so that control of the motor flux is lost during braking. The braking power is therefore also increased although the braking power delivered to the frequency converter is not increased. 8 Technical Guide No. The control of flux can be easily achieved through the direct torque control principle (for more information about DTC see Technical Guide No. The amount of energy stored in DC capacitors is very small compared with the power needed. The increased current generates increased losses in motor resistances. When braking in the drive system is needed. In other words. i.1 Motor flux braking Flux braking is a method based on motor losses.8 .Electrical Braking 13 . The process power needed flows through the rectifier. The higher the power or the voltage of the motor the less the resistance value of the motor in respect to motor current. The inverter converts the DC voltage back to AC voltage feeding the AC motor at the desired frequency. the motor flux and thus also the magnetising current component used in the motor are increased. 3. With DTC the inverter is directly controlled to achieve the desired torque and flux for the motor. This is very different to the DC injection braking typically used in drives. in low power motors (below 5 kW) the resistance value of the motor is relatively large in respect to the nominal current of the motor.Chapter 3 . flux braking is most effective in a low power motor. Typically. the rectifier has to constantly deliver the power needed by the motor plus the losses in drive system. During flux braking the motor is under DTC control which guarantees that braking can be made according to the specified speed ramp.Electrical braking solutions in drives The modern AC drive consists of an input rectifier converting AC voltage to DC voltage stored in DC capacitors. The flux braking method based on DTC enables the motor to shift quickly from braking to motoring power when requested.e. DC bus and inverter to the motor. In flux braking the increased current means increased losses inside the motor. The higher the resistance value the higher the braking energy dissipation inside the motor.

14 Technical Guide No.Electrical Braking .1 Percentage of motor braking torque of rated torque as a function of output frequency.1 The energy storage nature of the frequency converter In standard drives the rectifier is typically a 6-pulse or 12pulse diode rectifier only able to deliver power from the AC network to the DC bus but not vice versa. The capacitance C is a relatively low value in an AC drive resulting in fast voltage rise. The main benefits of flux braking are: No extra components are needed and no extra cost.g.1) and the DC bus voltage starts to rise. and the components of a frequency converter may only withstand voltage up to a certain specified level. using DTC control method. Flux braking is useful mainly in low power motors. resistance value. Braking power is limited by the motor characteristics e. If the power flow changes as in two or four quadrant applications.8 .Electrical braking solutions in drives Braking torque (%) No flux braking Rated motor power Flux braking Figure 3.2. The motor is controlled during braking unlike in the DC injection current braking typically used in drives. The main drawbacks of flux braking are: Increased thermal stress on the motor if braking is repeated over short periods. 3.2 Braking chopper and braking resistor 3. the power fed by the process charges the DC capacitors according to formula (3.

If the drive is supplied by 400 V AC the DC bus has the value of 1.8 .1) (3. This operation is called overvoltage control and it is a standard feature of most modern drives. Also the activation of the regeneration or braking chopper has to be very fast when used in drive configuration.35 * 400 = 565 V DC.3) This range of values applies generally for all modern low voltage AC drives regardless of their nominal power. this means that the braking profile of the machinery is not done according to the speed ramp specified by the user. For example.2.Electrical braking solutions in drives (3. two possibilities are available: the inverter itself prevents the power flow from process to frequency converter. for a 90 kW drive the capacitance value is typically 5 mF. the time which 90 kW nominal power can be fed to the DC capacitor can be calculated from: (3. In practice this means that the overvoltage controller and its 'work horse' torque controller of the AC motor has to be a very fast one. This is done by limiting the braking torque to keep a constant DC bus voltage level. Assuming that the capacitors can withstand a maximum of 735 V DC.2) In order to prevent the DC bus voltage rising excessively. The energy storage capacity of the inverter is typically very small.2 Principle of the braking chopper The other possibility to limit DC bus voltage is to lead the braking energy to a resistor through a braking chopper. However. Technical Guide No. 8 3. The braking choppers are automatically activated when the actual DC bus voltage exceeds a specified level depending on the nominal voltage of the inverter. The braking chopper is an electrical switch that connects DC bus voltage to a resistor where the braking energy is converted to heat.Electrical Braking 15 .

Electrical Braking . May require extra investments in the cooling and heat recovery system. Low fundamental investment for chopper and resistor. The main drawbacks of the braking chopper and resistor are: The braking energy is wasted if the heated air can not be utilised.Electrical braking solutions in drives UDC+ V1 R+ Control Circuit C1 R- UDCFigure 3. 100 % power 1/10 minutes. The amount of braking energy with respect to motoring energy is extremely small. When to apply a braking chopper: The braking cycle is needed occasionally.g. e. 16 Technical Guide No. The main benefits of the braking chopper and resistor solution are: Simple electrical construction and well-known technology. long braking times require more accurate dimensioning of the braking chopper. The chopper works even if AC supply is lost. e. The braking chopper and resistors require additional space. The increased DC bus voltage level during braking causes additional voltage stress on motor insulation. UDC represents DC bus terminals and R the resistor terminals. Braking during main power loss may be required.2 Circuit diagram example of braking chopper. in elevator or other safety related applications.8 . Increased risk of fire due to hot resistor and possible dust and chemical components in the ambient air space. Braking operation is needed during main power loss.g. Braking choppers are typically dimensioned for a certain cycle.

3 Anti-parallel thyristor bridge configuration In a frequency converter the diode rectifier bridges can be replaced by the two thyristor controlled rectifiers in antiphase. The DC reactor filters the current peaks of the intermediate circuit. e. supply voltage and the intermediate circuit voltage. This configuration allows changing the rectifier bridge according to the power flow needed in the process.Electrical braking solutions in drives When to consider other solutions than braking chopper and resistor: The braking is continuous or regularly repeated.8 . the other one is blocked. Only one bridge operates at a time. The instantaneous braking power is high. Forward Reverse 8 3 Udc L Figure 3. The ambient air includes substantial amounts of dust or other potentially combustible or explosive or metallic components. The thyristor-firing angle is constantly regulated to keep the intermediate circuit voltage at the desired level. The main components of the thyristor supply unit are two 6-pulse thyristor bridges. The forward/reverse bridge selection and intermediate circuit voltage control are based on the measurement of the supply current. The forward bridge converts 3phase AC supply into DC. The reverse bridge converts DC back to AC whenever there is a need to pass the surplus motor braking power back to the supply network.3 Line diagram of anti-parallel thyristor supply unit.Electrical Braking 17 . Technical Guide No. several hundred kW for several minutes. 3. It feeds power to the drives (inverters) via the intermediate circuit. The total amount of braking energy is high in respect to the motoring energy needed.g.

The main drawbacks of the anti-parallel thyristor bridge are: The DC bus voltage is always lower than AC supply voltage in order to maintain a commutation margin. However.Electrical braking solutions in drives The main benefits of the anti-parallel thyristor bridge are: Well known solution. Example of anti-parallel bridge current and voltage waveforms during braking. Less investment needed than for an IGBT solution. Current / A Sinusoidal phase voltage Distorted phase voltage Line current Time / ms Figure 3. The current distortion flows through other network impedance and can cause undesired voltage distortion for other devices supplied from the point where voltage distortion exists. The DC voltage can be controlled to a lower value than the network. If the supplying AC disappears a risk of fuse blowing exists. due to the failure in thyristor commutation.4. Total harmonic distortion higher than in IGBT regenerative units.8 . Voltage / V. The cosφ varies with loading. this can be overcome by using a step-up autotransformer in the supply.Electrical Braking . In certain special applications this can be an advantage. 18 Technical Guide No. The braking capability is not available during main power loss. Thus the voltage fed to the motor remains lower than the incoming AC.

19 Technical Guide No. This ensures that inverters feeding AC motors can work in an optimum way regardless of the operation point thanks to a stable DC bus voltage.4) The formula indicates that in order to transfer power between these two systems there has to be a phase difference in the angle between the voltages of the two AC systems. In a configuration 3. (3. Line generating unit Line generating unit 8 Harmonic order Figure 3. 3. This control of appropriate power flow is achieved by controlling the power angle between the two AC systems. One can assume that at the point of connection the power network is a large synchronous generator having a fixed frequency.2 IGBT based regeneration control targets There are three general control targets in IGBT based regeneration units.4 IGBT bridge The IGBT based regeneration is based on the same principles as power transmission within a power network.Electrical braking solutions in drives 3. The input IGBT bridge of the drive (later line converter) can be considered as another AC voltage system connected through a choke to the generator. The first one is to keep the DC bus voltage stable regardless of the absolute value of power flow and the direction of power flow. In order to control the power flow between the two systems the angle has to be controlled.4.4. Typical line current waveform and harmonics of an IGBT line generating unit.4).Electrical Braking . The DC bus voltage is stable when the power flow into the DC bus equals the power flow out of the DC bus.5. The principle of power transfer between two AC systems having voltage U and connected to each other can be calculated from figure (3.8 .1 General principles of IGBT based regeneration units power network several generators and load points are connected together.

i. 3.e.5) Torque_REF Flux_REF Hysteresis Direct torque and flux Hysteresis control ASICS Torque_BITS Flux_BITS Control_BITS Optimal S1. i. to operate at cosϕ = 1. Fast change from regenerating to motoring operation. (3. 20 Technical Guide No. The control principal turns IGBT switches on and off directly based on the difference between the actual AC motor torque and the user’s reference torque (Technical Guide No. S3 Switching Logic Flux_ACT Torque_ACT DC-Voltage S1.Electrical braking solutions in drives Load step Power / kW.8 . 1). S2.e. S3 Current L Model of power transmission Calculate actual values DC voltage control Figure 3.0.7.3 Direct torque control in the form of direct power control Direct torque control (DTC) is a way to control an AC motor fed by an inverter. S2. The second control target is to minimise the supply current needed. The third control target is to minimise the harmonic content of the supply current.4. The main design criteria here are the impedance value of the choke and an appropriate control method. Fundamental control diagram for DTC based IGBT regeneration unit. The power is torque multiplied by angular frequency. This is achieved by controlling the output voltage of the line converter. which in the network is constant. The very same principle can be applied in a line converter controlling the power flow from power network to drive and vice versa.6. Note how stable the DC bus voltage is during this transition. Voltage / 10 * V DC Measurement Power Times / ms Figure 3.Electrical Braking . In some applications it is desired that the IGBT line converter also works as an inductive or as a capacitive load. controlling torque means also control of power flow.

No extra voltage stress on insulation of motor winding during braking. High dynamics during fast power flow changes on the load side. which are typically used for reducing current harmonics on the supply side. Power loss ride through operation with automatic synchronisation to grid.Electrical braking solutions in drives The DTC control method combined with IGBT technology contributes to a low amount of current harmonics. Full compensation of system voltage drops thanks to voltage boost capability. Technical Guide No. This can be used to compensate for a weak network or increase the motor’s maximum torque capacity in the field weakening area. DC bus voltage has approximately the same value during motoring or braking.8.8 .Electrical Braking 21 . Possibility to control the power factor. For that reason the IGBT supply unit can be used to replace single quadrant 12-pulse or 18-pulse supply configurations. The main benefits of an IGBT regeneration unit are: Low amount of supply current harmonics in both motoring and regeneration. 8 Voltage / V Actual DC voltage Reference DC voltage Times / ms Figure 3. Possibility to boost the DC voltage higher than the respective incoming AC supply. Boosting capability of supplying voltage. An IGBT supply unit is therefore also a solution for those cases where current harmonics rather than the handling of braking energy is the issue.

When space savings can be achieved compared to the braking resistor solution. However. the common DC bus solution is a very effective way to reuse the mechanical energy.Electrical Braking 22 . 3. the required supply current is calculated based on the 370 level. The braking capability is not available during main power loss.5 kW. The braking power is very high. The supplying current can be calculated from the formula: (3.6) The IGBT regeneration unit is selected based solely on the calculated current value.4 Dimensioning an IGBT regeneration unit The supply current dimensioning of the IGBT unit is based on power needed. Let us assume that the motoring shaft power needed is 130 kW and braking power 100 kW. To dimension the IGBT supply unit the maximum value of motoring or braking power is selected. The minimum value for the supplying network is 370 V. 3.8 . With appropriate design and arrangement of feeding transformers for different devices these phenomena are eliminated. High frequency voltage harmonics due to high switching frequency. the total power needed from the grid is 136. When to use an IGBT regeneration unit: The braking is continuous or repeating regularly.e. In this case the voltage boost capability can be utilised. Assuming that there are 5 % system losses in the motor and drive. When network harmonics limits are critical. These several kilohertz voltage components can excite small capacitors used in other electrical devices.Electrical braking solutions in drives The main drawbacks of an IGBT regeneration unit are: Higher investment cost. the DC bus voltage is raised to correspond to an AC voltage of 400 V. and inverters feeding AC motors connected to the common DC bus. in this case 130 kW. The motor voltage is 400 V.4.5 Common DC When a process consists of several drives where one motor may need braking capability when others are operating in motoring mode. i. the DC Technical Guide No. A common DC bus solution drive system consists of a separate supply rectifier converting AC to DC.

Low system losses in conversion of braking energy thanks to common DC bus.Electrical braking solutions in drives bus is the channel to move braking energy from one motor to benefit the other motors. Even if the instantaneous braking power is higher than motoring power the braking chopper and resistor do not need to be dimensioned for full braking power. 8 Technical Guide No. When to use common DC bus solution with single quadrant rectifier: The number of drives is high. The braking chopper and resistor are needed if instantaneous braking power exceeds motoring power.9). The main benefits of the common DC bus solution are: Easy way to balance power flow between drives. The basic configuration of the common DC bus arrangement can be seen from figure (3.9. The main drawbacks of the common DC bus solution with single quadrant rectifier are: The instantaneous motoring power has to be higher than or equal to braking power.Electrical Braking 23 . The motoring power is always higher than braking power or only low braking power is needed by the braking chopper. If the number of motors is small the additional cost of a dedicated inverter disconnecting the device from the DC bus raises the investment cost. Supply section Braking sections Drive sections Auxilliary Incoming Filter unit DSU/TSU/ Braking unit (optional) control unit with IGBT IGBT unit supply only Supply unit Common DC bus ACU ICU FIU Chopper 24 V Supply unit Resistor Inverter Inverter AC Figure 3. If braking power is likely to be needed for long periods a combination of rectifiers can be used. The basic configuration of the common DC bus solution.8 .

However.1 Calculating the direct cost of energy The direct cost of energy can be calculated based. The annual direct cost of braking energy is 1668 Euros.8 . The following investment cost components should be evaluated. The following examines the economic factors for different electrical braking approaches. This basic function of AC drives means savings in energy consumption in comparison to other control methods used. a 100 kW drive is running 8000 hours per year and braking with 50 kW average power for 5 minutes every hour. 4. In pump and fan type applications braking is seldom needed.1) For example. modern AC drives are increasingly being used in applications where a need for braking exists. but a typical estimated price level of 0. 4.Electrical Braking .2 Evaluating the investment cost The required investment objects needed for different braking methods vary. The price of energy varies from country to country. The annual cost of energy can be calculated from the formula: (4. 24 Technical Guide No. on the price of energy and the estimated braking time and power per day.e. Braking chopper: The additional investment cost of braking chopper and resistor plus the cost of additional space needed for those components.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking It has become increasingly important to evaluate the total life cycle cost when investing in energy saving products. i. The AC drive is used for controlling speed and torque. 1 Euro ~ 1 USD. for example.05 Euros per kilowatt-hour can be used.Chapter 4 . The investment cost of additional ventilation needed for the braking chopper. 667 hours per year. Several technical criteria are mentioned above.

Calculating the braking torque needed for the motor: 8 (4. The absolute values of prices given in the following examples are solely used to illustrate the calculation principles.Occasional braking Consider the following application case: The continuous motoring power is 200 kW at a shaft speed of 1500 rpm. The inertia J of the drive system is 122 kgm2.2) The typical torque value for a 200 kW.8 . The investment cost difference between common DC bus solution and the respective single drive solution.3 Calculating the life cycle cost The life time cost calculation supports the purely economic decision in making an investment. interest ratio. Based on the experience of the process an emergency stop happens once every month. utility. To achieve higher torque values a proportionally higher motor current is also needed. In the event of an emergency stop command the application is required to ramp down within 10 seconds. size of company. the time the investment is used and the overall macroeconomic situation. 4. The price level of energy as well as the price of drives varies depending on the country. 1500 rpm motor is about 1200 Nm. Technical Guide No. A normal AC motor instantaneously controlled by an inverter can be run with torque at 200 % of nominal value.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking Thyristor or IGBT based electrical braking: The additional investment cost of thyristor or IGBT regenerative braking in respect to the same power drive without electrical braking capability. Case 1 .Electrical Braking 25 . Common DC bus: The additional investment cost of braking chopper and resistor including the space needed for those components if needed in a common DC bus solution. When the emergency stop is activated the load torque can be neglected.

As expected.5) Cost of resistor braking: The braking chopper needed is for a maximum braking power of 300 kW.3 kW. The additional cost of the braking chopper and resistor is 4000 Euros. 4000 Euros. The cost of floor space is 500 Euros/m2. The braking resistor requires 0. the cost of additional cooling is considered negligible. Due to the small total heating energy and emergency use of braking. the energy savings cannot be used as an argument to cover the additional investment required. 26 Technical Guide No.4 m2 additional floor space. (4. The average braking power is calculated below.8 . The total cost of wasted energy during one braking is: (4.3) The braking chopper and resistor have to withstand instantenously the current for a power of 300 kW.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking The braking power is at its maximum at the beginning of the braking cycle.4) (4. Floor space 0. Cost of 4Q drive: The additional cost of a respective investment for electrical braking with anti-parallel thyristor bridge in comparison with a drive with braking chopper is 7000 Euros.Electrical Braking . If the drive has a power limitation function the braking resistor can be dimensioned according to the 150. The total additional investment cost consists of: Braking chopper and resistor in cabinet.4 m2 * 500 Euros/m2. (4.6) In this case the cost of braking energy is negligible. 200 Euros.

No extra cost due to floor space. Technical Guide No. The total cost of wasted energy is: (4.7) Cost of 4Q drive: The IGBT 4Q drive is recommended for crane applications. The additional investment cost for electrical braking with IGBT input bridge in comparison to drive with braking chopper is 4000 Euros.Electrical Braking 27 .e.Centrifuge application Consider the following application case: Sugar Centrifuge with 6 pole motor 160 kW rating. i.8 .4 h/day.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking Case 2 . The crane needs full power on both the motoring and generating side. an average 2. 8 Case 3 . The average on duty time over one year for the hoist is 20 %. The motor needs full torque for a period of 30 seconds to accelerate the charged basket to maximum speed of 1100 r/min. The direct payback calculation indicates that an additional 4000 Euros investment brings the same amount of energy savings during the first year of use. Once the charge is dry motor decelerates the centrifuge as fast as possible to allow discharge and recharging. The mechanical construction of the crane allows having cabinets with braking chopper. It is assumed that for 50 % of the duty time the crane operates on the generator side. The longest hoist operation time can be 3 minutes. centrifuge then spins liquor off the charge for 30 seconds at high speed.Crane application Consider following application case: Crane with hoisting power of 100 kW. Cost of resistor braking: The braking chopper and resistor have to be dimensioned for continuous 100 kW braking due to the 3 minutes maximum braking time. Braking chopper and resistor in cabinet 7800 Euros. Typically the maximum braking chopper dimensioning is made for a braking time of 1 minute in 10 minutes.

so the only opportunity to increase production is to increase the rates of acceleration and deceleration.8 . This allows an increase in throughput meaning that the productivity of the process is improved. spin and discharge times are fixed.Electrical Braking . The cost premium for IGBT is 10 %. therefore reducing cycle time from 110 seconds to 107 seconds.Evaluating the life cycle cost of different forms of electrical braking In a batch cycle the charge. 28 Technical Guide No. This can save around 3 seconds per cycle. This is achieved by using an IGBT 4Q drive as the DC link voltage can be boosted for operation in the field weakening range (1000 to 1100 r/min).

W] Power Factor defined as PF = P/S (power/voltampere) = I1 / Is * DPF (With sinusoidal current PF is equal to DPF). U: W: ω: Voltage [V] Energy [Joule. Nm) Time 8 T: t: THD: Total harmonic distortion in the current is defined as (5. I: J: n: P: PF: Current [Ampere.Chapter 5 .8 .1) where I1 is the rms value of the fundamental frequency current. Torque (Newton meter. 1/s] 29 Technical Guide No. A] Inertia [kgm2] Rotation speed [revolutions per minute.rpm] Power [Watt. J] Angular speed [radian/second.Symbols and Definitions AC: B: C: Alternating current or voltage Friction coefficient Constant or coefficient cosφ: Cosine of electrical angle between the fundamental voltage and current DC: Direct current or voltage DPF: Displacement Power Factor defined as cosφ1. where φ1 is the phase angle between the fundamental frequency current drawn by the equipment and the supply voltage fundamental frequency component.Electrical Braking . The THD in voltage may be calculated in a similar way.

12 H harmonic distortion 18. 13. 12. 25. 22. 24. 20 N natural braking 10. 10. 12. 29 I IGBT 18. 17. 14 four-quadrant 5 friction 8.Index A AC power 7 B braking chopper 11. 17. 27. 19. 8. 28 impedance 18. 29 inverter 13. 19. 25.8 . 12 R rectifier 13. 27 D DC injection braking 13 DC power 7 direct torque control 13. 27 braking power 7. 9. 16. 12 30 Technical Guide No. 23. 26. 20 E energy storage 14. 23 S single quadrant 5. 23. 11. 21. 14. 25 O over dimensioning 12 overvoltage control 15 P pumps 12 Q quadratic torque 8. 26 C centrifuge 27 common DC 22. 22. 18. 23. 15. 24.Chapter 6 . 18. 17. 11. 12 conveyors 12 cosφ 7. 15 F fans 12 flux braking 13. 20. 22. 15. 15.Electrical Braking . 16. 26 two-quadrant 5 L line converter 19. 23. 20. 20 inertia 9. 23 T thyristor bridge 17. 21. 25 constant torque 8. 29 crane 12.

8 .Electrical Braking 31 .8 Technical Guide No.

ABB Oy Drives P.8.O. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.2002 Specifications subject to change without notice.abb. .com/motors&drives 3AFE 64362534 REV A EN 16.

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abb.O.11. Box 184 FIN-00381 Helsinki FINLAND Tel: +358 10 22 11 Fax: +358 10 222 2681 Internet: http://www.com/motors&drives Price: 50 EUR 3AFE 64514482 R0125 REV C EN 21. 2003 Specifications subject to change without notice. Ad agency Piirtek#11246 .ABB Oy Drives P.

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