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Submitted by: Anil Vishnu G K Allen Job Asish Oommen Abraham Ajmal V K 19th August

Contents

Introduction Principles Design Experimentation Observations and Calculations Inference Conclusion Bibliography 2 3 8 13 16 18 19 20

Introduction

The evolution and development of human beings as a race can be quite beautifully understood by the dierent modes of communication that we have employed over the centuries. From the invention of the telegraph machine in the mid 1800s to the modern day multi-utility mobile handsets, communication systems have come a long way. All communication systems basically deal with sending a given data from one point to another. For long distance communication (say across continents) this would essentially have to be done wirelessly, that is, the data would have to be transmitted. For the transmitting devices to be of adequate dimensions the signals would have to be of a minimum high frequency. Here comes the need for modulation, wherein the data or message signals have to be carried across the transmitting medium using some high frequency signal called the carrier, which will carry the required information through proportional changes in its parameters. There are three types of modulation schemes, namely amplitude, frequency and phase. In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in proportion to the message signal. It is the scheme used in our normal radio systems. Such an operation would imperatively introduce extra frequencies other than those in the carrier and message signals. So to map from the message signal to the amplitude modulated wave we would have to use some non-linear devices to introduce the extra frequencies. This is the basic idea with which we should go about designing an amplitude modulation generation circuit on which this report is based.

Principles

The transfer of an analog waveform containing information from one point to another, or between users, is the basic mechanism involved in Analog Communication. This analog waveform that carries the information is usually called the message signal.The rst step in understanding analog communication is to charecterise the message signal which we can denote as m(t). m(t) is a real valued energy signal with a fourier transform of M (f ), say. The bandwidth of this message signal may be baseband or bandpass. So for transmitting such a signal the equipments need not be practical as we know that the dimensions of the transmitting antenna depends inversely on the frequency of the signal that is to be transmitted and it has to be changed for dierent signals. If we could embed the information of the message signal in a particular high frequency signal it would solve the issue of transmission. Moreover we can use the same high frequency signal for sending a variety of messages. This is the basic idea of modulation. The high frequency signal referred to above is called the carrier signal. Modulation basically involves the systematic alteration of some of the charecteristics of this carrier signal according to the changes in the message signal. In continuous modulation schemes the carrier is usually a sinusoid. The three parameters of a sinusoid that can be varied are its Amplitude, Frequency , and Phase. Any modulation scheme involves alteration of one or more of these signal parameters in accordance with the message. In Amplitude Modulation the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied according to the message signal, the phase and frequency remaining constant. Our purpose is to nally design a circuit that give an amplitude modulated signal as the output. The rst step is to evolve a mathematical model of the overall process of modulation.

Let us denote the carrier frequency (a sinusoid) as c and the carrier amplitude as Ac . Then the carrier signal c(t) is given by c(t) = Ac cos(c t) (1)

now we are modulating the amplitude of the carrier according to the message. Say the amplitude of the modulated signal is A(t). Then A(t) = Ac + m(t) then the modulated wave is given by x(t) = A(t).cos(c t) or x(t) = (Ac + m(t)).cos(c t) = Ac cos(c t) + m(t).cos(c t) (4) Where k is called the modulation index which is a measure of the extent of modulation. It is a quantity which gives a measure of how much the modulated parameter (the amplitude in this case) of the carrier signal varies around its unmodulated level. Now the above equation can also be written in the foolowing form x(t) = Ac .(1 + k.m(t))cos(c t) (5) (3) (2)

In this case m(t) represents a normalised message signal of unit amplitude.We may denote it as mn (t) The gure given below gives a graphic description of a message signal and the corresponding amplitude modulated wave. Notice the way in which the message signal appears in the modulated wave and how it varies the amplitude of the carrier signal. From the equation above it is evident that the modulation index k is given k= max|m(t)| Ac (6)

where Am is the maximum amplitude of the message signal. In case of a single tone message signal the above equations can be simplied further. The modulation index for example will then be given by k= Am Ac (7)

now as we have seen earlier A(t) = Ac (1 + k.m(t)) , therefore A(t)max = 1 + k A(t)min = 1 k (8) (9)

As the minimum and maximum values of the normalised message signal m(t) or mn (t) to be precise is 1 and +1 respectively. Applying componendo and dividendo we get k= A(t)max A(t)min A(t)max + A(t)min (10)

If the single frequency of the message signal is given by m then the modulated signal can be further simplied and written as x(t) = Ac .cos(c t) + Ac .k Ac .k cos((c + m )t) + cos((c m )t) 2 2 (11)

From equation5 we can see that when the value of k is greater than 1 the total amplitude function will undergo a phase reversal as A(t) becomes negative. This is called overmodulation.And this leads to the loss of information contained in m(t) Once we have the time domain representation of the system the next logical step is to determine the frequency components present in the same. 5

For this we have the fourier transform tool. On taking the fourier transform of the time domain expression we get X(f ) as X(f ) = Ac k.Ac .((f fc ) + (f + fc )) + .(M (f fc ) + M (f + fc )) (12) 2 2

where M (f ) is the fourier transform of the message signal. In the case of a single tone modulation the frequency spectrum essentially consists of impulses at three distinct frequencies, namely c , c + m (called the upper sideband as it is of higher frequency), c m (called the lower sideband as it is below the carrier frequency), each being weighted by the abovementioned amounts. Now for the single tone modulation case we now know the time domain and frequency domain representations. The next information that we need is the amount of energy contained in each frequencies. From the frequency domain expression we see that useful information .i.e. information of the message signal is contained only in the two side frequencies and not in the central carrier frequency.So the power used in transmitting this carrier frequency is actually a wasteful energy.So as such general AM does not make an ecient use of the transmitted power. So, The eciency of the system is given by = total sideband power total power (13)

The carrier frequency term is weighted by the amplitude of the carrier, Ac . 2 c Hence the carrier power is given by A2 . Each side frequency is weighted by the amount Ac .k . Hence each sideband 2 power is given by root mean square of that value. thus ( Ac .k ) P ower in U SB/LSB = 2 2

2

(Ac )2 .k 2 8

(Ac )2 .k2 4

(14)

The total sideband power = Power in LSB + Power in USB = Total power is sideband power + carrier power T otal power = Ac 2 (Ac )2 .k 2 (Ac )2 .(2 + k 2 ) + = 2 4 4 6

(15)

Hence, eciency is =

(Ac )2 .k2 4 (Ac )2 .(2+k2 ) 4

k2 (2 + k 2 )

(16)

Now we have a sound mathematical model of the amplitude modulation system. The next step is to map from the mathematics to the actual physical realisation of a circuit that generates the same.

Design

From the mathematical model of the system that we have developed ,we nd that the resultant signal consists of three distinct frequencies (assuming that both carrier and message are pure sinusoids ).Hence we have a system that takes in two frequencies and gives out three frequencies.No system that behaves linearly can produce new frequency components from existing ones.So the physical implementation of amplitude modulation has to be done using nonlinear systems.A square law device is a nonlinear device following the input-output relation output = K.(input)2 for some constant K.If the input is the sum of two signals with distinct frequencies , the square law device produces ve frequencies at the output, which will contain the frequencies that correspond to an amplitude modulated wave.So square law devices are possible candidates for amplitude modulation systems. A JFET is a device whose output current (drain current) depends on the square of the input voltage (gate to source voltage). Amplitude modulation can also be achieved by using devices which have nonlinear input-output characteristics, like exponential relationships.A diode is another nonlinear device, having an exponential relation between input and output. Apart from all of these, the nonlinear behaviour can be achieved in a more controlled manner by varying the biasing of a BJT, preferably in an amplier circuit. When taking BJT as a possible solution to the design problem any class of ampliers can be used. But there comes the issue of power consumption by the amplier circuit.Taking this aspect into account a class C operation would give the necessary non-linearity while at the same time signicantly reducing the power consumed. A class C amplier is one whose output conducts load current during less than one half cycle of an input sine wave. The total angle during which the current ows is less than 180 degrees and is known as the conduction angle, c . Usually the output of a class C amplier 8

is a highly distorted version of the input.It is possible to make the output current of a Class C amplier proportional to the modulating voltage by applying this voltage in series with any of the dc supply voltages for this amplier.This property can be utilized to produce an amplitude modulated signal.To obtain the required amplitude modulation, the Class C BJT amplier is modied.The carrier is given as the input signal by applying to the base of the BJT using a capacitive coupling.Since the frequency of the input is high, a BJT capable of high frequency operation is to be used. A resistance of high value is connected across the base-emitter junction so as to keep the time period of the capacitor discharging very high.As a result, the capacitor will charge quickly,via the capacitor-base-emitter loop (which will essentially be a very low resistance path),but discharges very slowly via the capacitor-resistor loop as its time constant is designed to be very high.The capacitor now acts almost like a constant voltage source,shifting the base voltage level so as to drive the transistor to Class C operation. The BJT is initially biased in cuto and reaches active region only when input signal reaches appropriate levels owing to the charged capacitor connected in series to it. Under Class C operation, the BJT will be in the active region only for a time period less than a half cycle for one full cycle of the input signal. The conduction angle is given by c =2arccos(V c/V p) where c - Conduction angle; Vc - Conducting voltage ; Vp - Peak Voltage. From this,we see that the conduction angle of the amplier is very less and is related to the input at the base as well as the bias applied.

Now consider the amplitude of the output signal.The amplitude of the output signal must vary with the message signal.The output of the amplier depends upon the Vcc , the bias voltage, as well as the input given.So the modulating signal is applied at the collector via transformer coupling i.e.,using an Audio Frequency Transformer (since the message signal has a frequency which is in the AF range).A tank circuit is also connected in series between the collector terminal and the message signal. It can be regarded as a highly selective i.e. high quality lter that suppresses the harmonics in class C waveform and passes its fundamental frequency. The tank circuit is incorporated in the circuit by using an Intermediate Frequency Transformer (IFT). The tank circuit together with the amplier constitute a tuned amplier.The resonant circuit at the collector responds to an impulse by ringing

at its resonant frequency. The impedance,and hence the gain of the tank is high for the resonant frequency and is very low for the harmonics, desensitising the output from the harmonic distortion accompanying class C operation. The resonant frequency of the tank circuit is set to be the frequency of the carrier signal. The output at the collector terminal of the BJT is a series of current pulses with their amplitudes proportional to the modulating signal. The current pulses initiates damped oscillations in the tuned circuit. Each oscillation produced in this manner would have an initial amplitude proportional to the size of the current pulse and a decay rate dependent on the time constant of the circuit. The train of pulses fed to the tank circuit would generate a series of complete sine waves proportional in amplitude to the size of the pulses. Thus the output from the tank would be an amplitude modulated signal. Also, high power is required for amplitude modulated signal generation. The class C amplier has very high eciency and is used in high frequency, high power applications. Since the time of operation is very brief, the damage to device due to joule loss is negligible. As discussed above, we require the following components:

1. A high frequency BJT : BF195 2. A high value resistance: 1 Meg 3. A capacitor : 0.1F 4. An audio frequency transformer (AFT) 5. An intermediate frequency transformer (IFT, preferably with tank resonant frequency = IF 455kHz) Finally, the circuit to be assembled would be:

10

To obtain a higher modulation depth, one way would be to decrease the time of damping of the oscillations in the tank circuit. To do this we could trigger the tank more frequently. This can be done by increasing the frequency of the current pulses at the collector. This increases the number of consequent damped oscillations in the tuned circuit. Also this will increase the accuracy of the modulated output. This enhanced rate of current pulse generation can be achieved by connecting two identical collector modulated circuits back to back-each for one half cycle. In this case we use an intermediate frequency transformer with a center tap to input the carrier signal. As designed earlier, the message signal is to be input using an audio frequency transformer and the output is taken out using an intermediate frequency transformer again, with all other component values remaining the same. The circuit would essentially look like the one below:

11

12

Experimentation

As discussed in the previous section, the design of the circuit for generating an amplitude modulated wave was based on class C operation of a transistor. The circuit as provided was nally assembled and AM waves were observed. But many troubleshooting steps had to be taken to get the nal working circuit. A negative biased (Vbb ) RF Choke was planned to be kept at the base terminal of BJT so that the base emitter region of the amplier does not conduct until the input voltage is greater than 0.7+Vbb . Thus a nonlinear operation could be obtained with an additional Vbb voltage. But then rather than using RF Choke the use of an RC circuit was suggested. On using the RC Circuit the base terminal of the transistor eectively became a parallel combination of a diode and resistor, the combination being in series with the capacitor.The base emitter junction starts conducting after the input voltage crosses VBEon , which being generally 0.7 V.Then the diode starts conducting and the capacitor starts charging through a low resistance path in the base- emitter loop. Now during the negative half of the cycle the capacitor discharges through the resistor. But since the resistor,R is kept very high (in the order of M ) the time constant,RC is very high and so the capacitor discharges very slowly. Hence the capacitor retains most of its charge. In the next positive half cycle, since the capacitor has retained most of its charge, it will act like a voltage source and keep the base emitter junction reverse biased for an additional Vc (voltage across the capacitor in the steady state) voltage.So the base-emitter junction will not conduct until the input voltage is greater than a particular voltage, the point of conduction being determined by the voltage across the capacitor. In amplitude modulation,the output is tuned to the carrier frequency. So an LC tank circuit which could selectively bring out the voltage at that fre13

quency was needed.An Intermediate frequency transformer (IFT) which has an LC tank circuit in its secondary was used for this purpose. Now in order to tune the circuit a carrier was applied at the input terminal and the output was taken across the LC tank circuit. The frequency of carrier was changed and the output observed. At a particular frequency the amplitude of the output was maximum. This frequency was maintained as the carrier frequency. This tuning was done before applying the message signal. The Vcc was varied slightly and it was observed that the amplitude of the output varied quite satisfactorily with Vcc . While applying the message signal the voltage across the tank circuit varies so by changing the Vcc it was just as if a slowly varying message signal was applied. So the change in output voltage amplitude showed that the circuit was functioning properly upto that point.The message signal was fed to the collector through an Audio Frequency Transformer (AFT).On applying the message signal the desired output was not observed. While debugging the circuit we found that primary and secondary of the Audio Frequency Transformer (AFT) had been interchanged. Having noticed it, proper checking of the connections was done, and an amplitude modulated signal was observed. In order to make sure that the modulation was proper over a range of message amplitude values,the amplitude of the message was varied. The modulation depth was observed to be very small, so the function generator was replaced and then the amplitude of the output was observed to change in accordance with the message signal over a wide range of message amplitudes and frequencies. Once such a proper output was observed the amplitudes were varied to understand and observe normal modulation and overmodulation. After obtaining the output from a single Class C amplier, another design was made in which two identical Class C amplier circuits (each similar to the ones used above) were connected back to back through a center tapped IFT.In this circuit,the input(carrier signal) was coupled to these ampliers in such a way that a transistor was on in both half cycles. After carefully assembling the circuit the carrier was applied and the output was observed to change with changes in Vcc . Having seen the change, the message signal was applied. But the output did not show any change. So the message signal was taken and connected directly to the CRO .A distorted message signal was observed and hence the signal generator was changed. 14

Again the message signal was directly observed on the CRO,which showed a proper sine wave.Now the message was given to the assembled circuit. But still the output only showed the carrier wave as such,and no inuence of the message signal. The circuit design was checked and compared with the assembled circuit.Since this did not give any insight into the problem the circuit was debugged segment to segment and the voltages at each part of the circuit was veried. Then an anomaly was found that though the transistors were connected to the same carrier,the voltages seen at the base of both the transistors were dierent.These voltage were phase shifted by 1800 (as required) but their amplitudes were dierent. This was found to be due to the imbalance in the iron core used in the IFT. So the frequency of the carrier was changed to make the voltage amplitudes the same, thus tuning the circuit again.But since we had only changed the characteristic of the carrier,as expected the output didnot have the desired result.Thus the debugging process was continued. After the entire debugging process was completed, it was seen that the voltages at all the nodes of the circuit was proper except for the output node.So it was intuitively decided to change the IFT at the output.Then it was seen that the IFT which was being used had improper soldering which had caused all the trouble. As expected when the IFT was replaced,the desired amplitude modulated output was observed. Now the modulation index was calculated from the waveforms observed in the CRO using the formulae discussed earlier.

15

The following observations were made from the waveforms seen on the CRO:

For the single transistor circuit: 1. Carrier Frequency = 370 kHz 2. Message Frequency = 2.5 kHz 3. A(t)max = 3.2V 4. A(t)min = 1V 5. =

A(t)max A(t)min A(t)max +A(t)min

(1.1)2 4

6. Ac = 7. Am =

8. Carrier Power =

(2.1)2 2

= 0.3025 W

10. Total Power = CarrierP ower + T otalSidebandP ower = 2.5075 W 11. Eciency, =

T otalSidebandP ower T otalP ower

= 12.064 %

16

For the improved transistor circuit:(back to back conguration) 1. Carrier Frequency = 434 kHz 2. Message Frequency = 1.3 kHz 3. A(t)max = 0.9V 4. A(t)min = 0.1V 5. =

A(t)max A(t)min A(t)max +A(t)min

(1.1)2 4

6. Ac = 7. Am =

8. Carrier Power =

(2.1)2 2

= 0.04 W

10. Total Power = CarrierP ower + T otalSidebandP ower = 0.165 W 11. Eciency, =

T otalSidebandP ower T otalP ower

= 24.24 %

17

Inference

From the observations and calculations done using the waveforms seen at the output,the modulation depth and power eciency were calculated.It is quite evident from the results obtained that with the basic circuit not much depth can be obtained and even with an improved circuit (a back to back conguration) the power eciency was quite low.this should serve as an impectus for better modulation schemes that give higher depth and power eciency.

18

Conclusion

Amplitude modulation is one of the basic analog modulation schemes.It is beautiful in its simplicity.Though it has many short comings like a susceptibility to noise interferences it has survived the technological surge over the years as a rather modest modulation scheme for low cost systems.One of the best surviving examples is the Radio systems that still exist quite prominently.Thus the study of communication engineering would have to start with the historically and theoritically basic system. Doing the experiment with this view point and nally observing the output was an inspiring experience.

19

Bibliography

[1] A Bruce Carlson,Paul B. Crilly, Janet C. Rutledge, 2002. Communication Systems-An Introduction to signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, McGraw Hill,4th Edition. [2] John G Proakis and Masoud Salehi,1994. Communication Systems Engineering,Prentice Hall. [3] Michael P. Fitz. Fundamentals of Communication Systems,McGraw Hill,2007. [4] Leon W Couch. Digital and Analog Communication Systems,Prentice Hall India.

20

AM DETECTION

Submitted by: Anil Vishnu G K Allen Job Asish Oommen Abraham Ajmal V K 2nd September

Contents

Introduction Principles Design Experimentation Observations and Inferences Conclusion Bibliography 2 3 9 12 13 16 17

Introduction

The two basic components of any communication system are the transmitter and receiver blocks. The previous experiment dealt with the generation of a normal Amplitude Modulated wave. In practise once this wave is generated and transmitted, it needs to be received and demodulated to retrieve the encoded message information. Hence, this experiment, as a logical continuation deals with the designing of the detection block of an AM system and associated improvements that could be brought about in the demodulation. In an Amplitude Modulated signal, the message is encoded in the amplitude of the modulated signal. To detect the envelope of the modulated signal, the detector needs to interpolate the successive peaks (positive or negative) of the modulated signal. It is with this basic algorithm of detection in mind that one should go about designing the circuit. It is only when one encounters practical issues in the design process like varying incoming signal powers that one thinks about improvising and incorporating new blocks into the existing system. An example of such an improvisation is the concept of Automatic Gain Control which eciently utilizes the otherwise wasteful dc oset component in the demodulated signal to dynamically control the gain of an amplier stage preceding the detection block.This experiment aims to incorporate all the basics of detection and the above mentioned improvisations that have driven the wheel of development of communication engineering to bring it to where it stands now.

Principles

Once a method to eciently generate and transmit amplitude modulated waves is devised and designed, the next logical step would be to look for a system that faithfully reconstructs the encoded message information(viz. the simple low frequency sinusoidal signal in this case) from the amplitude modulated wave. As was observed in the previous experiment, in an AM wave the envelope of the transmitted signal carries the information of the message signal, the envelope being generated by the sinusoidal variations of the high frequency carrier. The equation of the AM wave is given by, xAM (t) = Ac (1 + km(t))cosc t (1)

Now to get the behaviour of the envelope of the wave we need its inphasequadrature representation. Say, the received AM wave has a small phase shift also associated with it. Then the expression for it is xAM (t) = Ac (1 + km(t))cos(c t + ) xAM (t) = mI (t).cos(c t) mQ (t).sin(c t) Then the envelope of the wave is given by E= E= mI (t)2 + mQ (t)2 (5) (6) (7) (8) (2) (4)

Detecting AM wave means detecting the envelope of the wave.The peaks of the AM waves appear at the carrier frequency. A continuous mapping of the peaks would give a rough estimate of the envelope and hence the message. Now, as discussed above we are interested only in the locus of the peaks, either the positive or the negative part. So to get one of these parts we can use a diode to clip o the positive or negative parts. Then we require a method to hold on to the current peak value until the next peak comes. Such a process would give a rough approximation of the envelope. So this would mean a charging element that charges up very quickly but discharges at a very slow rate so that between peaks the voltage is fairly constant. We can use a capacitor resistance combination with a high discharge time constant for this so that the capacitor charges up during the positive rise of the AM and discharges until the next positive rise comes. This is a fairly simple logical solution to the problem at hand. But there are many nuances that needs to be taken care o. One is that the circuit or system designed must be capable of detecting each positive/negative peak that arrives quite eciently or in other words it should be well responsive to the variations in the message signal. Another point is that while doing the same it must still maintain a fairly constant value between consecutive peaks. These are two opposing conditions. So we must arrive at an expression that relates the time constant of the capacitance-resistance block to the message frequency and the modulation depth.Now, as we use sinusoidal signals for the message and the carrier we shall derive the expressions using the same. So, xAM (t) = Ac (1 + kcos(2fm t))cos(2fc t) (9) where xAM (t) is the AM wave, fm - message frequency, fc - carrier frequency We assume the case of normal modulation (i.e. no over modulation) then k1 always So the (1+kcos(2fm t) term is positive for all t hence the envelope function can be written as A(t) = 1 + kcos(2fm t) Lets take a time t1 will be A(t1 ) = 1 + kcos(2fm t1 ) 4 (11) (10)

This voltage across the capacitor will discharge until the next positive peak. Since the time between consecutive peaks = f1c , the discharge time td = f1c The capacitor voltage at the next peak is, Vc (t1 +

1 1 ) = Vc (t1 ).e fc RL CL fc

(12)

Where CL and RL are the values of the capacitance and resistance used. But as per the requirement the discharge time has to be very high. fc RL CL now, e x for x expansion:

1

(13)

1 x

1 = 1 ( f or x x

1)

(14)

Here the equation becomes, Vc (t1 + 1 1 ) = Vc (t1 ).(1 )( fc RL CL fc A(t1 + x = RL CL fc ) (15) (16)

1 1 ) = 1 + kcos(m (t1 + )) fc fc

1 ) fc

Vc (t1 + f1c ) has to be less than or equal to A(t1 + message signal. A(t1 + but fm fc 1; sin( wm ) fc Vc (t1 + (1 + kcos(m t1 )(1

wm fc

(17)

cos( wm ) fc

2fm fc

1 1 ) A(t1 + ) fc fc

(18) (19)

1 wm ) 1 + kcos(m t1 ) k sin(m t1 ) RL CL fc fc

(20)

(21)

R L CL or

(22)

(23) (24)

2 m +

1 RL CL m

(25) (26)

1 kccos().sin(m t1 ) kcsin().cos(m t1 ) RL CL 1

2 2 RL CL

1 kc[cos().sin(m t1 ) sin().cos(m t1 )] RL CL 1 kc.sin(m t1 ) RL CL or kcRL CL .sin(m t1 ) 1 this must be true even when sin(m t1 ) = 1 kcRL CL 1 = k 1 = cRL CL 6 1

2 (m + 1

2 2 RL CL )

(31)

(32) ).RL CL

k 1+

1

1

2 2 2 R L C L m

(33)

1 2 2 2 1 RL CL m k2 = RL CL 1 m 1 k2 k2

(34)

(35)

The above given inequality is the condition that must be satised by the circuit parameters to eciently detect the incoming AM wave. Once this envelope has been detected we have to get the message signal as a proper sinusoid(provided it was transmitted as a sinusoid). Now the detected envelope waveform will contain distinct ripples arising from the discharging of the capacitor. The frequency of these ripples will be same as that of the carrier. So if this envelope wave is passed through a block that detects these ripples and smoothens them, the work is done. The block can be designed as a resistance capacitance combination with the output taken across the capacitor. The time constants of this combination must be much higher than the time period of the carrier. So that, between ripples the voltages is smoothed out. Once the signal is out of this block we have a fairly smooth sinusoid (that corresponds to the message) but with a dc oset. The dc oset can be removed by taking the output through a blocking capacitor of some distinct value. In practical circuits, before this detection block there will be a series of amplier stages and a receiver that receives the incoming transmitted AM wave. In usual transmissions the signals will have variable strength levels with low and very high strength components. If normal ampliers are used both the low strength as well as the high strength signals will be amplied to the same amount leading to a suppression of the low strength part which might contain valuable information. To resolve this issue we use a system called Automatic Gain Control (AGC).In AGC, we take the dc oset that is present in the detected envelope and feed it back to the amplier stage so as to control its gain in such a way so that for the stronger signal components the gain is reduced. To realize this we take the ripple free envelope output but with the dc oset and pass it through a low pass lter. The same resistor capacitor combination as described above can be used but with the time constant now much greater 7

than the time period of the message signal. So that we get a nearly dc voltage at the output of the AGC terminal. This is the concept of AGC.Another improvement that can be done is to keep a minimum value of the input wave ,signals below which will not be given the advantage of AGC by giving a delay to the working of the AGC block.This can be done by using a diode whose cathode is biased at the required voltage level so that only when the incoming envelope waves voltage value is greater than this set value,will the AGC block work. This is the working of the system referred to as a delayed AGC. These are the various principles required to construct a basic AM detection block with added features like the normal and delayed AGC.

Design

From the concepts evolved in the previous section an exact circuit for AM detection can be designed. There are many basic blocks that are required whose theoretical sides have been discussed. The parts are: 1. A high frequency diode: To clip o the negative/positive half cycle, whichever is required. A high frequency type must be used as we are operating in the range of 0.5 MHz 2. A parallel combination of a capacitor and resistor immediately following the diode. This is put in such a way that while charging there is a low resistance path from the diode through the diode to the ground. While discharging it discharges through the resistance connected parallel to the capacitor. The time constant of this section is designed based on the relation derived: RL CL or R L CL = with k = 0.7 and fm = 2 kHz we get RL =33k ,CL =2nF The primary part of the detector is designed. 1 m 1 k2 k2 (37) 1 m 1 k2 k2 (36)

3. After the diode and capacitor resistor sections, we need the ripple remover circuit. This is a series combination of a capacitor and resistor with output taken across the capacitor. The time constant of this section must be much greater than the ripple time period R2 C2 = 100T R2 C2 = 100. R2 =2.2k ,C2 =0.1F After all these sections we get the message signal with an oset dc voltage. So at the terminal section a blocking capacitor Cb = 4.7F The circuit thus obtained is given below 1 fc (38) (39)

At the lab the single capacitor CL and resistor RL where split into a lter type section. The eective circuit is given below:

For getting the AGC voltage we need the dc oset message signal and it needs to be passed through a capacitor-resistor section whose time period is much greater than that of message. So eectively the dc -oset voltage is obtained. R3 C3 = 100T (40) 10

1 fm

(41)

For getting the delayed AGC as discussed earlier we can use a diode whose cathode is biased at the required positive level. The delayed AGC circuit is given below

The above given were the various circuits used at the lab.

11

Experimentation

First the circuit for the detection was assembled. As mentioned above the envelope detector circuit and the RC lter (ripple remover circuit) was combined and a lter circuit was assembled. Output at each point of the circuit was observed. Thus the waveforms with ripples and without ripples were observed. The output without ripples was the exact envelope of the modulated signal but with a dc oset. Then a blocking capacitor was kept and the output observed after it. The message signal without the dc oset was observed. Now to assemble the AGC circuit, the resistance capacitor path was kept and the dc voltage was observed across the capacitor. Observations were made from the output of AGC. Then it was observed that the AM generator was not put in the modulation mode. After correcting this error the observations were again made. These observations were tabulated and a graph was plotted between the carrier amplitude and the AGC output. Now after having made the observations the output of the AGC circuit, the delayed AGC circuit was assembled in which an external voltage was applied to the negative terminal of a diode through a potentiometer. But initially the change in the dc voltage couldnt be observed and so the circuit was checked for any errors. It was seen that a minor loose connection had caused the problem so after connecting the components properly the output was again observed. Then it was seen that as we increased the carrier amplitude, the output of the delayed AGC was constant for some range and then it varied linearly with carrier amplitude. The changes in the Delayed AGC were tabulated and a graph similar to the previous one was plotted.

12

The designed circuits were assembled and the message signal was observed for various frequencies and carrier and message amplitudes. The outputs were observed on the CRO with and without dc osets and also at dierent points of the circuit. Observations for the AGC output are:

13

14

It was observed that the output of the AGC was linearly varying with the carrier amplitude. It was observed that the output of the Delayed AGC was linearly varying with the carrier amplitude.

15

Conclusion

The AM detector circuit was designed and the output observed. The detection circuit is basically an envelope detector which gives a rippled output. Then it was passed through a resistance capacitor combination which removes the ripples and gives a signal with a dc oset. This signal is then passed through a blocking capacitor which removes the dc component. Now since this circuit doesnt take advantage of the dc component present in the output signal, the AGC circuit was designed. In this modied circuit the dc component of the output signal is obtained by passing the signal (with dc oset) through a resistance capacitor combination which only passes the dc component. The AGC output has been observed and tabulated. Now to improve it into a more practically applicable circuit the delayed AGC circuit was designed wherein the output of the delayed AGC is low for a particular range and then varies linearly with the carrier amplitude. This circuit will not give an output for small carrier amplitudes. The logical manner in which the experiment was done - introducing new blocks into the primitive circuit to improve the characteristics of the outputgave a basic experience of system design .Such a methodology could serve as a benchmark for designing better and more complex systems.

16

Bibliography

[1] A Bruce Carlson,Paul B. Crilly, Janet C. Rutledge, 2002. Communication Systems-An Introduction to signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, McGraw Hill,4th Edition. [2] John G Proakis and Masoud Salehi,1994. Communication Systems Engineering,Prentice Hall. [3] Michael P. Fitz. Fundamentals of Communication Systems,McGraw Hill,2007. [4] Leon W Couch. Digital and Analog Communication Systems,Prentice Hall India,2006. [5] Dennis Roddy, John Coolen.Electronic Communication,Tata McGraw Hill, India,2004,4th Edition. [6] Herbert Taub, Schilling.Principles of Communication Systems,Tata McGraw Hill,2004.

17

DSBSC GENERATION

Submitted by: Anil Vishnu G K Allen Job Asish Oommen Abraham Ajmal V K 16th September

Contents

Introduction Principles Design Experimentation Observations and Inferences Conclusion Bibliography 2 3 6 10 12 13 14

Introduction

The previous experiments dealt with the generation and detection of a general amplitude modulated wave. These served as a means to understand the use and need for modulation as a technique for transmitting the message information.The basic aim was to lay a foundation for linear continuous wave modulation schemes without as much focusing on the practical intricacies of the transmission and reception process. Once the basic idea of modulation is acquired the next step is to better the design as well as the theories so as to improve the practical feasibility.Two basic parameters that have to be looked into while designing any communication system are: 1. Bandwidth Requirement 2. Power requirement As it can be seen, in the basic AM case the carrier does not carry any useful information but at the same time immense power is wasted in transmitting it. This is the drive behind the modulation method called as Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier where only the sidebands are transmitted and not the unwanted carrier signal.This can be done by just taking the product of the message and carrier signals, mathematically. One logical way to produce such a wave would be to generate two AM waves modulated with the message signal and its inverse and then take the dierence of the two generated AM waves. This would mathematically eliminate the carrier. Practical realization would require non-linear devices for producing higher order terms and a bandpass lter for ltering out the sidebands alone. With this idea in mind the modelling of a DSBSC system can be done.

Principles

The equation of the basic amplitude modulated wave is given by xAM (t) = Ac (1 + km(t))cosc t (1)

where Ac is the amplitude of carrier signal, m(t) is the message signal, k is the modulation index and c is the frequency of the carrier. On evaluating the frequency domain expression of the above equation we obtain kAc Ac ((f fc ) + (f + fc )) + (M (f fc ) + M (f + fc )) 2 2

xAM (t) =

(2)

The power of the above wave is given by A2 k 2 A2 c c + (3) 2 4 The rst term is due to the carrier signal and the second is due to the modulated signal. PAM (total) = From the above expression we see that a sucient amount of power is contributed by the carrier to the total power. But at the same time it does not carry any information(message signal, m(t)) that we wish to transmit.Thus we waste a lot of energy in transmitting the unwanted carrier. From this it is clear that we only need to transmit the sidebands (M(f fc ) and M(f + fc )) for conveying the information. So we need to eliminate the carrier. Mathematically, this can be done by taking the product of the message signal and carrier. x(t) = m(t).c(t) 3 (4)

Thus it is the simplest in terms of the mathematical description of modulation and demodulation operations. Thus a DSBSC modulator will be basically a multiplier. If k is the amplitude sensitivity of the modulator then x(t) = k m(t).c(t) = k m(t).cosc t (5)

The frequency domain expression will then be given by evaluating the fourier transform of the above expression. X(f ) = Ac [M (f fc ) + M (f + fc )] 2 (6)

We observe that the modulation process only shifts the message spectrum by fc . If the message is also a sinusoidal signal then we will have the frequency domain expression as two weighted impulses at c + m and c - m where m is the angular frequency of the modulating sinusoidal message signal. From the time domain expression, we can see that wherever the message signal value reaches zero there will be a corresponding null in the modulated wave followed by a 180o phase reversal in the carrier wave in the modulated signal. This can be explained as follows. Till the rst zero crossing the message signal decreases from its most positive value to zero.So there will be a linear decrease in carrier amplitude in the modulated wave.After the zero crossing the message increases from zero to its maximum value.Thus there will be a phase reversal at the zero crossing owing to the inversion of the message (if it is sinusoidal) signal in its second half cycle. Now, when we look at the modulation process as such of the DSBSC system we see that the percentage of modulation is innite because there is no carrier component. Furthermore,the modulation eciency of the DSBSC signal will be 100 % since no power is wasted in transmitting a discrete carrier. Moreover, although the message and the carrier are periodic waveforms, the DSBSC itself need not necessarily be periodic. The phase reversal at the zero crossing may not be properly observable unless the zero crossing of the message is accompanied by the zero crossing of the carrier. This observation though small is signicant in a laboratory implementation of the DSBSC modulator generated using two independent signal generators for the carrier 4

and the message where the phase reversal can be observed only when message frequency is an integral factor of the carrier frequency. This is because phase coherence of two independent sinusoidal sources has an extremely low probability of occurring, and hence the generated DSBSC waveform usually does not reveal the phase reversal. This can be brought about by making the carrier signal an integral multiple of the message. This is a very delicate idea that is useful only for a laboratory implementation and not for evolving the theory as such. Overall it can be seen that the DSBSC can be modelled as a product of the message and carrier signal.As no device can produce only the product terms alone, there will be components in the higher degrees as well as standalone carrier and message components. These have to be properly ltered and the required sidebands obtained.

Design

As seen earlier the mathematical expression for a DSBSC signal is a product expression of the message and the carrier. x(t) = Ac m(t).c(t) = Ac m(t).cosc t (7)

So we basically need a multiplier. This can be done using any non-linear device. But the output of the non-linear device will contain several higher order terms. As discussed earlier DSBSC can be generated by a process called Balanced Modulation wherein two modulators are connected back to back and the modulating signal is injected with reversed phase in one modulator compared to the other. The carrier is injected into both the modulators in the same phase. Thus there will be two non-linear devices connected back to back which will act as the modulators mentioned. The inputs to each of them will be x1 (t) = c(t) + m(t) (8) & x2 (t) = c(t) m(t) (9) The phase reversed message can be given by applying the message at the primary of an Audio Frequency Transformer and taking two outputs from the two ends of the secondary with the centre tap as a common terminal. Then the upper half of the secondary will couple message signal to the circuit and the lower half will couple message signal to the circuit. If x(t) is the input to the non-linear device say a JFET then its output will be given by the general expression s(t) = a + b(x(t)) + c(x(t))2 (10) We know that x(t) has two values for the 2 non-linear devices used, namely x1 (t) and x2 (t) So denoting the two corresponding outputs as s1 (t) and s2 (t) s1 (t) = a + b(c(t) + m(t)) + c(c(t) + m(t))2 6 (11)

s1 (t) = a + b(c(t) + m(t)) + c(c(t)2 + m(t)2 + 2c(t).m(t)) s2 (t) = a + b(c(t) m(t)) + c(c(t) m(t))2 s2 (t) = a + b(c(t) m(t)) + c(c(t)2 + m(t)2 2c(t).m(t))

Now if these outputs are given to the two ends of the secondary of a transformer the net voltage applied at the secondary will be s(t) = s1 (t) s2 (t) = s(t) = 2bm(t) + 4c(t).m(t) (15) (16)

Now the message frequencies used in DSBSC are usually in the audio frequency range and are usually very small as compared to the carrier frequency which is in the intermediate frequency range. So if we use an Intermediate Frequency Transformer(IFT) as the transformer mentioned above will be ltered out and we get the required DSBSC signal at the output. For the diodes also similar analysis ensues. The only dierence being that there will be even more higher order terms as its output characteristic is exponential. But the basic idea and block structure is the same. If we take single tone sinusoidal modulation and ignoring higher order terms and the fundamental input signal(by assuming that the necessary lters are available at the output) the output from each of the modulators will be given by: V1 = Ac cosc t + V2 = Ac cosc t Am Am cos(c + m ) + cos(c m ) 2 2 Am Am cos(c + m ) cos(c m ) 2 2 (17) (18) (19)

Vo = V1 V2 = Am cos(c + m ) + Am cos(c m )

The carrier signal has to be obviously applied at the centre tap of the secondary of the input transformer so that it is commonly coupled to the 2 non-linear blocks. For the diode circuit the components required are: 1. 2 high frequency diodes :OA79 2. 1 IFT for coupling the carrier 7

3. 1 AFT for providing the message 4. 1 IFT for taking the output The circuit thus obtained is as given below:

If they are perfectly balanced i.e. have equal carrier outputs, the carrier will be completely suppressed and only the modulation sideband remains about all multiples of the carrier frequency. However, in most cases these components and modulating signal coupled through from the input are very easily removed by ltering. The circuit operation is as follows. The input transformer introduces the audio signals to the balanced diodes, which are turned o and on by the carrier voltage introduced in an In phase relationship . If the carrier amplitude is large with respect to the modulating input voltage, the only current owing in the output transformer is due to the action of the modulating voltage added to the carrier voltage. Because of the push-pull arrangement, the carrier components will be balanced out, and the output will consist of sideband components around all harmonics of the carrier frequency as well as the original modulating signal. If the carrier frequency is greater than twice the highest modulating frequency, these components can be removed by ltering to leave only the desired DSB signals. The shortcoming of the diode circuit is that it does not provide any scope for ne tuning of the output and observation of the phase reversal at the zero crossing. For this a transistor can be used in place of the diode either a FET or BJT. A JFET can provide a very high gain so it can be used. 8

While using a JFET special care has to be taken to ensure that the Gate to Source junction is always reverse biased. For this either a negative voltage can be given across the gate and source or more preferably a resistor can be inserted in the source to keep it at the required higher potential as compared to the gate. The main issue in using transistors is the diculty in matching the two components used. If they are not matched then we cannot observe the DSBSC output as these will always be a stray carrier components that prevents the output from having a zero crossing. For this a variable resistor is inserted between the two source resistors of the JFETs so that tuning the pot will bring about matching of the 2 devices used. The components required for the JFET circuit are: 1. 2 high frequency JFET : BFW10 2. 1 IFT for coupling the carrier 3. 1 AFT for providing the message 4. 1 IFT for taking the output 5. DC supply to bias the JFETs 6. 10k resistors : 2 nos 7. A variable resistor(of 10k or 470k) The circuit thus obtained is as given below:

The capacitors are inserted across the source resistors to increase the gain of the response. The analysis and behaviour of the circuit is similar to the diode case except that in this case the output of the JFET will have only second order terms.

10

Experimentation

As per the design evolved in the previous section the diode based circuit was assembled on a breadboard. A message signal of 2kHz was coupled through the AFT to the circuit and a carrier wave of 455kHz was coupled though as IFT. The output was taken from the 2nd IFT. At rst only basic AM was observed but on adjusting the message frequency as an integral factor of the carrier wave a rough version of the DSBSC was observed. But the problem with the output was that the phase reversal at the zero crossing could not be clearly observed as the output seen was not properly resolvable. Since the circuit did not present any further scope for netuning (owing to the use of a diode) the circuit using JFET was next assembled. After assembling the JFET circuit on the breadboard special care was taken to ensure that the gate-source junction was never forward biased. For this the dc supply was rst applied without giving any signal. The gatesource voltage was checked and veried to be negative. Now the carrier was applied without giving the message. A sinusoidal output at the carrier frequency was obtained. Ideally as per the design no output should be seen as the carrier has to be suppressed. But owing to the mismatches in the FETs used some carrier components were still present in the output. The pot connected across the source resistances was adjusted so as to minimize the output amplitude of the carrier. It was kept in the minimum possible value Now a message signal of 2kHz frequency was applied. There was initially only a feeble eect of the message on the output. On slightly reducing the bias voltage of the JFET, a proper output was able to be observed. But still the output observed was only basic AM and not DSBSC. On increasing the message frequency the output was found to be varying and at frequencies 11

that were integral factors of the carrier frequency, the nearest output to DSBSC was observed. But still the phase reversal at the zero crossing was not observed. The reason was nally attributed to the presence of the slight carrier component at the output. Since the JFETs were already matched the reason for the problem was the error in the output IFT. Owing to improper insertion of the core of the transformer into the windings, the two halves of the secondary were not symmetric. This was the explanation evolved for the carrier components presence. The frequency of the carrier was now slightly adjusted to reduce the carriers presence and at 464 kHz it was nearly zero. Now the message was again applied and its frequency was varied. Only at a single frequency of 11.06 kHz was proper DSBSC observed and the phase reversal at the zero crossing was clearly seen. It was ensured that the output obtained was not a case of over modulation. In the circuit many trouble shooting steps had to be performed before a proper output was obtained. The nal tuning to observe the phase reversal was a very delicate and critical process and it was a great experience in practical assembly.

12

= For the diode circuit a DSBSC output was observed but the output could not be properly resolved and the phase reversal could not be clearly noted. = The output obtained for the JFET circuit is as given below.

The message frequency used was 11.06 kHz The carrier frequency used was 464 kHz The phase reversal in the zero crossing was clearly observed. 13

Conclusion

Observing a proper output for the DSBSC circuit demanded several ne tunings of the primarily designed circuit.Once such a system is properly evolved it is much better than a basic AM system as the power requirements are drastically reduced owing to the suppression of the carrier components at the output by the use of a balanced modulation scheme.But the circuit designed does not allow for any compromises in matching.Hence the components used have to be perfectly matched as we use two symmetric sections for the process and a slight imbalance can hamper the entire output. Further transforming reveals that the information contained in both the sidebands are the same.This intuitively suggests that we need to transmit only one of the sidebands as the information in the other is the same.This would further reduce the power of transmission.Hence we arrive at single sideband modulation which is a further improvement of the DSBSC system.

14

Bibliography

[1] A Bruce Carlson,Paul B. Crilly, Janet C. Rutledge, 2002. Communication Systems-An Introduction to signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, McGraw Hill,4th Edition. [2] John G Proakis and Masoud Salehi,1994. Communication Systems Engineering,Prentice Hall. [3] Michael P. Fitz. Fundamentals of Communication Systems,McGraw Hill,2007. [4] Leon W Couch. Digital and Analog Communication Systems,Prentice Hall India,2006. [5] Dennis Roddy, John Coolen.Electronic Communication,Tata McGraw Hill, India,2004,4th Edition. [6] Herbert Taub, Schilling.Principles of Communication Systems,Tata McGraw Hill,2004.

15

COLPITTS OSCILLATOR

Submitted by: Anil Vishnu G K Allen Job Asish Oommen Abraham Ajmal V K 23rd September

Contents

Introduction Principles Design Experimentation Observations and Inferences Conclusion Bibliography 2 3 6 14 15 16 17

Introduction

In all of the experiments that are done in any electronics lab we frequently encounter the necessity to use sinusoidal, square or other types of periodic waveform as inputs to dierent stages of an assembled circuit . This experiment deals with that class of circuits that can produce as output such periodic waveforms, namely oscillators. They form the basic block of any function generator that we use in our labs. So it is imperative that the design of a common oscillator be done so that a better understanding of the overall picture is obtained. To oscillate means to uctuate between two states or conditions. An oscillator would then imply a device that produces oscillations. In electrical or electronics domain an oscillator would be a device that produces repetitive continuous changes in voltage or current. There will be a periodic rate associated with the output waveform obtained. Now if the oscillations (other than possibly a dc supply) they are called free-running oscillators. Thus essentially it converts a dc input voltage to an ac output voltage. They can be designed in a variety of ways. But for a free-running oscillator a logical method would be to use a feedback loop to sustain the oscillation. It should also have frequency determining components like resistors, capacitors, inductors etc. One eective circuit would be a tuned circuit that is composed of inductors and capacitors. A Colpitts oscillator is one such circuit that employs a tuning block as its frequency determining circuit block.

Principles

An oscillator basically represents a circuit that generates a periodic signal that uctuates between voltage levels or current levels. As discussed above, one way to implement this would be by using a feedback amplier with some part of output being fed back to the input and then again gets amplied. Imperatively, there can be two types of feedbacks , namely positive and negative. While a positive feedback is regenerative, in the sense that it cumulatively increases the amplitude of the output. A negative feedback is degenerative, that is it reduces the input voltage and keeps the amplitude of the output in check. A negative feedback is normally used in all stable system designs as in a positive feedback network there is possibility for device saturation. So, let us rst look at a negative feedback system as a block structure and try to arrive at the conditions for oscillations. It is quite clear that for self sustained oscillations to occur the feedback has to be positive as then only the input voltage would be replenished each time with a portion of the output. stands for the fraction of the output that is actually fed back

V = Vi Vo Vo = Ao (Vi Vo ) Vo = Ao Vi Ao Vo or

Vo Ao = = Af (5) Vi 1 + Ao Af is the net gain with feedback. > 0 for all practical circuits as it denotes just a fraction. Af < Ao This shows that applying a negative feedback reduces the gain of the amplier . Af is also called the closed loop voltage gain. Now if Ao and are functions of frequency then we can write Af = Ao (s) 1 + Ao (s)(s) (6)

In this case,if at any frequency Ao (s)(s) becomes equal to -1 then the denominator of the equation above becomes zero. Or Af (s) = = Vo = Vi This mathematically means that there is an output for a zero value of the input voltage. Or that the circuit is able to generate an output. The term Ao (s)(s) is called loop gain and is denoted as T(s). As T(s) approaches -1 the actual circuit becomes nonlinear, which means that the gain does not go to innity. If T(s) -1 so that positive feedback exists over a particular frequency range. If a spontaneous signal (due to noise or mismatches) is created at the input in this frequency range the resulting feedback signal will be in phase with the input signal, say Vs . Therefore, the input to the amplier stage is reinforced and increased. This cumulative process of reinforcement continues for only those frequencies for which the total phase shift around the feedback loop is zero(so that the input and output are in phase).All the other feedbacks will diminish with time owing to phase dierences. Thus the condition for oscillation would be that at a specic frequency we have T (jo ) = A(jo )B(jo ) = 1. 4 (7)

This is often referred to as Barkhausen criterion. From the above expressions it is evident that two conditions are necessary to sustain oscillations. 1. The total phase shift around the feedback loop should be an integral multiple of 2. 2. The magnitude of the loop gain must be unity. Once this basic block model of the oscillator is decided upon, the next focus must be on the feedback network used. We have seen that the feedback network has to be a frequency selective one. One common frequency selective network is the LC tank circuit. The basic tank circuit operation involves the exchange of energy between kinetic and potential (like in a simple pendulum). Once a current is injected into the LC network the energy the derived from it is exchanged between the inductor and capacitor producing a corresponding ac output voltage. When net impedance = 0 , the output will be maximum. This condition is called resonance and the frequency at which this happens is called the resonating frequency. 1 =0 (8) Ls + Cs 1 = s2 = =0 (9) LC or 1 = (10) LC 1 = f = (11) 2 LC is the resonating frequency. Thus we can use an LC block as the frequency selective feedback circuitry and a BJT circuit as an amplier block. One common oscillator conguration that employs the LC tank circuit is called the Colpitts oscillator which uses a capacitive divider arrangement to give the necessary feedback.

Design

In a Colpitts oscillator the capacitor of LC circuit is split and the feedback is taken between the two split capacitors.As seen in the previous section the feedback oscillator can be designed using an LC circuit as a frequency generating circuit.This circuit is the one given as the feedback. In a Colpitts oscillator the capacitor of the LC section is split into two and there is a voltage feeding from the centre of the two split capacitances. To start designing the circuit we have to rst analyse the basic conguration that we plan to use and nd out its poles and zeroes.Thereby generate the conditions for the circuit to operate with the desired parameters.As seen earlier lets look at the feedback block but this time taking the special case of the oscillator: Theoretically, for the oscillator the input voltage is zero and there is only the feedback voltage.We have to look at both the open loop and closed loop cases(Open loop used to determine the loop gain) Open Loop Case From open loop analysis, we know that the loop gain is given by T = Return V oltage T est V oltage Vf Vo = = A(s) Vi Vi k.N (s) D(s) (12)

hence the return voltage is Vf and test voltage is Vi T = lets generalize A(s) = (14) (13)

Now from these basic blocks if we consider an oscillator circuit with an amplier and feedback stage(with the feedback given as the closed-loop analysis above then the circuit will be

R represents total resistance in collector circuit. That is,Rc ||ro = Rc . = In the closed loop C will be part of C2 = C negligible (compared to C1 and C2 ) = r large (as compared to C1 ) If we consider the open loop 2 case the circuit will be

The above circuit can be used for the loop gain analysis.The equivalent circuit will be as given in the next page.

(19)

(20)

Node equation at V1 , (gm sC )V + Node Equation at Vf : Vf V1 + sC2 Vf = 0 sL Rearranging the two equations: (sC1 + 1 1 1 + )V1 Vf = (sC gm )V sL R sL (22) V1 V1 Vf + sC1 V1 + =0 R sL (21)

sL

1 1 V1 + (sC2 + )Vf = 0 sL sL s2 C 1 L + 1 1 1 ( + )V1 Vf = (sC gm ) sL R sL 1 s2 C 2 L + 1 V1 + ( ))Vf = 0 sL sL Multiplying equation 25 with adding we get ((

1 sL

2 LC +1 1

1 ) R

and

(27)

Multiplying throughout by sL2 , expanding and arranging in terms of powers of sn ,we get (1 + s4 C1 C2 L2 + s2 (LC1 + LC2 ) + s3 L2 C2 sL + = 1)Vf = (sC gm ).sL.V R R (28) 9

R ,we sL

get (29)

(s3 RC1 C2 L + sR(C1 + C2 ) + s2 LC2 + 1)Vf = (sC gm )RV making the coecients of the highest power of s = 1,we get (s gm )RC s(C1 + C2 ) s2 1 C (s + + + )Vf = V C1 C2 L RC1 RC1 C2 L RC1 C2 L

3

(30)

RC (s gm ) RC1 C2 L C s(C1 +C2 ) s2 + C1 C2 L + RC11C2 L RC1

(31)

Next we do the closed loop analysis,from results obtained earlier Af (s) = D(s) = s3 + k= Denominator of Af (s) D(s) k.N (s) = s3 + s2 s(C1 + C2 ) 1 + gm R + . + RC1 C1 C2 L RC1 C2 L (35) A(s) k.N (s) = 1 A(s) D(s) k.N (s) s2 s(C1 + C2 ) 1 + + RC1 C1 C2 L RC1 C2 L (32)

(33) (34)

RC gm , N (s) = s RC1 C2 L C

since the open loop system is a passive RLC circuit,its poles are in the left half of s-plane.So the open loop A(s) is stable with three poles-one is negative real and tthe other two can be negative real or complex conjugates.

2 D(s) = (s + a)(s2 + x ) 2 2 D(s) = s3 + as2 + ax + sx 2 2 D(j) = j(x 3 ) + (ax a 2 )

10

For oscillation and real parts are individually zero.Now for the closed loop case the denominator is D(s)+k.N(s).For this to be stable we can compare it with the open-loop case and arrive at the conditions. D(s) + k.N (s) = s3 + s2 s(C1 + C2 ) 1 + gm R + + RC1 C1 C2 L RC1 C2 L (39)

comparing with open - loop case we get a= 1 1 + gm R 1 2 2 , x = C1 C2 , ax = RC1 RC1 C2 L ( C1 +C2 )L (40)

(42)

C2 (43) C1 gm R is the gain of the BJT amplier circuit. x is the oscillating frequency and to ensure startup of oscillation gm R C2 . C1 Now the circuit with dc biasing for the transistor and practical feasibility is given below: gm R = Now, as we have all the formulations required for the dierent parameters we can now design the circuit for specic design values. We need an oscillating frequency of 1.5 Mhz. Therefore , 1 f = (44) 2 LCT putting L= 1mH we get CT = 11.25pF Now to design the biasing of the transistor amplier, we rst x the gain x the gain, Av = 185 Gain from the equivalent circuit is gm Rc = 185 11

let ICQ = 4mA ( for BF195) For the transistor BF195,typical = 60. gm = ICQ = 0.1538 VT (45) (46)

Rc = 1.164k 1.2k

Now if we take thevenin equivalent of R1 and R2 at the base of the transistor we get the base emitter equations as : VT H IC +1 .RT H VBE (ON ) IC RE = 0 (47)

VCC = 12V and VCE = 6V (the xed Q point) Ve =0.1VCC = 1.2V RE = 300 RE 330 Now R2 IC R1 R2 +1 VCC RC RE = 0 R1 + R2 R1 + R2 For stability, RT H = 0.1( + 1)RE From these conditions, we get R1 47K, R2 10K C2 Now AV > C1 . 12

(48)

let us x C2 = 100 (as AV = 185) C1 C That is, CT = C11 C22 . +C Therefore C1 = 11pF, C2 = 1.1nF. Standard values C1 = 12pF, C2 = 1nF. All other external capacitances = 0.22 F Once the calculation of the values of components is done, the design is complete. The values of the components used in the lab are R1 = 47K, R2 = 10K in series with 1K pot. C1 = 4.7pF, C2 = 1nF. L = 60 H RC = 1.2K , RE = 330 Coupling and Bypass capacitances = 0.22 F

13

Experimentation

The circuit with the designed values as given in the previous section was rst assembled on the breadboard. The variable inductance box was connected as the inductance element. Once the assembly was veried, the DC voltage was applied. Now the DC conditions were veried with the designed values. But at the output only very feeble oscillations were observed. After checking the circuit again and adjusting the inductances in the inductance box a rough sinusoid was observed but with a frequency of nearly 8 Mhz. So the capacitance values were changed and the inductance was varied. Finally a proper sinusoidal output was obtained but it had some harmonics. It was then suggested to put a variable resistor as the emitter resistor. On doing so a distorted output was obtained. This was the problem with the biasing. So a pot was inserted in place of R2 and varying it reduced the distortions. This was done till a proper sinusoid of desired frequency was obtained.

14

The frequency of the sinusoid observed was 1.42 Mhz. The design was for 1.5 Mhz. The waveform observed was

The distortions in the output were rectied using a variable resistor to adjust the biasing .

15

Conclusion

Using a feedback ampliers oscillating conditions the required circuit was designed and the output sinusoid was observed. Many frequency selective circuits could be employed . Here an LC tuning circuit was used. It is seen that delicate troubleshooting steps have to be taken to produce a pure, sustained sinusoid at the output. With this experiment we get the idea of the internal circuitry of the devices used in the labs to generate various functions. This circuit is not used as a standalone one but rather its output is given to other circuits or subsequent stages. At that point loading eects, namely the output impedance of the oscillator circuit and the input impedance of the subsequent stages are very critical for sustaining a clear, undistorted sinusoid. At that time loading compensations would have to be done.

16

Bibliography

[1] A Bruce Carlson,Paul B. Crilly, Janet C. Rutledge, Communication Systems-An Introduction to signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, 2002. [2] John G Proakis and Masoud Salehi, Communication Systems Engineering,Prentice Hall,1994. [3] Donald A Neamen Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design,McGraw Hill,2nd Edition,2005. [4] A S Sedra, K C Smith Microelectronic Circuits,Oxford University Press,5th Edition,2005. [5] Dennis Roddy, John Coolen.Electronic Communication,Tata McGraw Hill, India,2004 [6] Lecture Notes from ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics,University of Pennsylvania

17

RF MIXER

Submitted by: Anil Vishnu G K Allen Job Asish Oommen Abraham Ajmal V K 14th October

Contents

Introduction Principles Design Experimentation Observations and Inferences Conclusion Bibliography 2 3 8 10 12 13 14

Introduction

Many a times while designing circuits, situations are encountered wherein it is necessary to generate or change the existing frequency components in the circuit so as to feed this altered frequency value to subsequent stages of the circuit. This process can be accomplished if we have two or more manipulated to get the required frequency. Such a process is termed as mixing . An intuitive way of implementation would be to utilize the non-linear nature of any three-terminal device(such as BJT) to generate the harmonics of the dierence frequencies which could be suitably ltered to get the required frequencies. This experiment deals with such an implementation.

Principles

To begin with, a mixer circuit, when considered as a black box, will have two input terminals and one output terminal. One input would correspond to a signal of some frequency that is existing in the circuit whereas the other input would correspond to a local oscillator that is designed to generate a denite frequency value tailor made for the required output frequency. So the designer will have the liberty of deciding at which frequency the oscillator should work so as to get the required output provided the mathematical model of the mixer block is known. The mixer is then a non-linear resistance having two sets of input and one set of output terminals. All mixer circuits make use of the fact that when two sinusoidal signals are multiplied together the resultant consists of sum and dierence frequency components. This can be demonstrated as below: If we have two frequency signal say, v1 = V1 sin1 t v2 = V2 sin1 t Then the signal obtained on multiplying these two signals is v1 .v2 = V1 V2 (cos(1 2 )t cos(1 + 2 )t) 2 3 (3) (1) (2)

We are usually interested in the term containing the frequency 1 - 2 and that is usually the frequency which is ltered out. This frequency is also usually desired to be located in the Intermediate Frequency (IF) as it is required for various applications. For an ideal mixing operations neither of the two initial input frequencies are present in the output, only the sum and dierence frequencies will be present. Now, to produce such a multiplication eect of sinusoidal signals as described above,we can use the non-linearity in the output characteristics of devices such as the BJT. The voltage/current relationship for the transistor is IC = IS e

VBE VT

(4)

where IC is the collector current (usually taken as the output current), IS is the reverse saturation current, VB E is the base emitter voltage and VT the thermal voltage. The collector current equation written above can be factored into a dc bias term and a periodic term IC = IS e VT .e VT cost or generalizing, IC = IS ea .eb cost where a= (6)

VA Vi

(5)

VA (7) VT Vi b= (8) VT Now, since is a periodic function it can be expanded into a fourier series as below eb cost = I0 (b) + 2I1 (b)cost + 2I2 (b)cos2t + ... (9) Where the fourier coecients In (b) are also modied Bessel functions. Here I0 (b) can be regarded as the bias current of the amplier circuit. If I0 (b) is stabilised then IC = IS ea I0 (b)(1 + let IQ = IS ea I0 (b) 4 (11) 2I1 (b) 2I2 (b) cost + cos2t + ...) I0 (b) I1 (b) (10)

IC IQ

(12) (13)

IQ bcost e I0 (b)

current waveform becomes more and more peaky and the peak value can be exceed the dc bias by a large factor. Now if we can plot the rates of harmonic Vi frequencies to the dc coecient current against b, ie. VT , We get the curve below:

All the above, shows that the BJT output spectrum is rich in harmonics. Again, the exponential can be approximated to the rst three terms 5

of its expansion. That is, we model the BJT as having a second order I-V characteristic iC = a + bvBE + cvBE 2 (14) as a general case. Now, if we make the vBE voltage as the sum or dierence of the two signals of dierent frequencies which are given as inputs, the vBE voltage becomes vBE = v1 v2 = V1 sin1 t V2 sin2 t Substituting this vBE in the output/input equation iC = a + b(V1 sin1 t V2 sin2 t) + c(V1 sin1 t V2 sin2 t)2 (16) (15)

c c c iC = a + bV1 sin1 t bV2 sin2 t + V1 2 + V2 2 + V2 2 sin21 t (17) 2 2 2 c + V2 2 sin22 t c sin(1 + 2 )t c sin(1 2 )t 2 Since the RF input applied will be small, the circuits response to it will be linear (or weakly non-linear). But the oscillator input is substantial and it varies the operating point of the circuit periodically. So the overall response to the RF input is a linear-time varying one. i0 (t) = g(t).vin (18)

where g(t) is the transconductance. The transconductance varies periodically and can be expanded in a fourier series. g(t) = g0 + g1 cosO t + g2 cos2O t + ... O frequency of local oscillator. when vin = V1 cosS t is applied iO (t) = g(t) V1 cosS t. Hence we get, iO (t) = g0 V1 cosS t + g2 g1 V1 cos(O S )t + V1 cos(2O S )t + ... (22) 2 2 6 (21) (20) (19)

This again shows that the output of a mixer has various harmonics of the sum and dierence frequencies. From the above equation we see that a lot of other frequencies are present at the output which needs to be ltered out by providing a suitable tuned circuit at the output. The output frequency is decided by our needs whether we need a higher frequency than the reference frequency input frequency or a smaller frequency than the reference. Accordingly we select the sum or dierence term and lter it out. Fine tuning of the local oscillator over which we have some control. While connecting the oscillator stage and the RF mixer stage the loading issues have to be taken care of. Otherwise there is a possibility of the local oscillators output not being fed to the input of the mixer. This is ne tuning done during circuit assembly. This is the basic mathematical foundation for designing a mixer circuit.

Design

As discussed above a BJT can used to design the circuit. At the output(collector) side in order to lter out the required output frequency an Intermediate Frequency Transformer(IFT) can be kept. Now in order to take care of the problem of loading we have to give a substantial amount of resistance at the emitter of the transistor, where the oscillator output will be fed. The input frequency will be given to the base of the transistor so that the base-emitter voltage will be the dierence of these two voltages. There has to be a resistor from collector to base for giving the necessary bias. The dc biasing is designed as below. BF195 high frequency transistor is used. ICQ = 4mA, VCC = 9V, VCE = 5V , = 60 IB = The circuit will be as below: IC = 66.6A. (23)

RE 1K. VCC IB RB 0.95 = IE RE = RB = 64.5K 62K. The capacitors used for coupling are 0.1uF each. This is the design for the circuit.

The dierence frequency if it falls in the IF range will be ltered out by the IFT and observed as a sinusoid at VO . While doing the experiment a variable resistor needs to be kept at the emitter to properly give the output impedance for the oscillator and to ensure that the oscillations are properly coupled to the emitter. The oscillator circuit used is given below:

The components required for the mixer are 1. BF195 -1 no 2. 62k resistor -1 no 3. 1k resistor -1 no 4. 10k potentiometer -1 no 5. IFT -1 no 6. 0.1uF capacitor -2 nos With these components the circuit is assembled and output is tested/observed. 9

Experimentation

The circuits designed in the previous section were assembled step by step. At rst the oscillator circuit was setup and ne tuned to get an output frequency of 1.5 Mhz. Fine tuning was done in the sense that the inductance values needed to be varied from the designed values to get the required frequency. This was possible as a variable inductance was used through an inductance box. The smaller value of capacitance in the colpitts oscillator circuit used (in the picofarad range) was also slightly changed for the same. Finally it was ensured that the output of the oscillator circuit was a pure, distortion free sinusoid of 1.5 Mhz. After this the mixer circuit given in the previous section was assembled on the breadboard. At rst only a constant value of emitter resistance was used. The IFT used was tested seperately for its tuned frequency and the clarity of the output. It was found to be tuned to 476 Khz. Once the circuit was setup and DC conditions veried, the output from the oscillator stage was fed to the emitter of the mixer transistor while at the same time observing the output of the oscillator on the oscilloscope. It was seen that as soon as the connection between the oscillator and mixer stages were made the output of the oscillator got highly distorted. The problem was attributed to the reduced impedence oered by the mixer stage to the oscillator stage. To resolve this issue an 1 K pot was connected in series with the xed emitter resistance and varied to improve the output of the oscillator stage. Adjustments were also made in the pots in the oscillator circuit. Once the output of the oscillator stage was made satisfactorily distortionless the signal of the input frequency was applied at the base of the mixer transistor. In the beginning no proper output was observed. This was because the dierence frequency did not fall in the tuned range of the output 10

IFT. To do this the input frequency was varied starting from 900 KHz. All the time it was ensured that the ouptut of the oscillator was proper. Only when the input frequency was 1.023 MHz was a sinusoidal signal observed at the ouptut. The frequency of the ouptut observed was 477 KHz which was exactly the dierence frequency. Thus the mixing action was observed. But it was a very delicate arrangement as even a slight change in the input frequency distorted the output observed.

11

The circuits were assembled and after various troubleshooting steps the required outputs were observed.

The frequency of signal produced by the local oscillator was 1.5 M Hz.

The emitter resistance used was a series combination of 2.2 K and an 1 K variable resistor.

A sinusoidal signal of 477 KHz was observed at the output of the IFT connected across the collector and supply voltage.

12

Conclusion

The mixer is a very important circuit in the communication sphere in the sense that it is capable of altering or transforming one frequency to the other. This is a necessity of paramount importance as it is desirable to operate many circuits in the IF or some other range and when such circuits come as a part of some bigger circuits it is imperative to alter frequency from previous stages and transform them into the IF range for proper circuit operation. Using BJTs non linear nature to implement the same is just one way of doing it. Even a diode can be used for the same but ne tuning and circuit improvisation would be dicult. This experiment is also a very signicant example of how loading can adversely aect circuit operations in a big way. Troubleshooting the issue was an enlightening learning process.

13

Bibliography

[1] A Bruce Carlson,Paul B. Crilly, Janet C. Rutledge, 2002. Communication Systems-An Introduction to signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, McGraw Hill,4th Edition. [2] John G Proakis and Masoud Salehi,1994. Communication Systems Engineering,Prentice Hall. [3] Michael P. Fitz. Fundamentals of Communication Systems,McGraw Hill,2007. [4] Leon W Couch. Digital and Analog Communication Systems,Prentice Hall India,2006. [5] Dennis Roddy, John Coolen.Electronic Communication,Tata McGraw Hill, India,2004,4th Edition. [6] Herbert Taub, Schilling.Principles of Communication Systems,Tata McGraw Hill,2004.

14

IF AMPLIFIER

Submitted by: Anil Vishnu G K Allen Job Asish Oommen Abraham Ajmal V K 5th November

Contents

Introduction Principle Design Experimentation Observations and Inferences Conclusion Bibliography 2 3 14 16 19 21 22

Introduction

One aspect of design that is integral and imperative in the design of any communication system is the frequency selectivity of the system proposed to be designed. Oftentimes than not the specications demand the emphasis on certain frequency components at the output as compared to others. that is the ouptput of certain stages of the circuit has to be frequency selective. Implementation of such a selectivity is oftentimes referred to as tuning. That is we tune the circuit to operate at a particular frequency. Such a block (Tuning) nds its application in almost all kinds of communication systems. One practical example would be the radio systems that have been in existence for some time now. The type of receiver that is employed in such systems is referred to as the superheterodyne receiver. They usually employ an tuned amplier to amplify the Intermediate frequency range (455 KHz). Even if we take any general circuit design situation we would always require to give importance and emphasis to certain frequencies. Hence the necessity for designing such blocks. An intuitive exploration would immediately bring one to the conclusion that there are only two blocks required to design a simple yet working single stage tuned amplier. One would need an amplier to take the input obtained to the necessary signal levels and a tuning circuit (like an RLC circuit ) to zero in on the required frequency. It is with this basic idea that the design of the circuit be approached.

Principles

When we go about designing such a tuned amplier circuit the rst logical step to which we reach is selection of circuit blocks that will be required. There is the necessity for an amplier circuit to enhance the signal frequencies received and then of course the tuning block for tunig the output to the desired frequency plus or minus some allowed side frequencies. The coupling of the amplier block and the tuning block is another point to be taken care of-in what part of the amplier circuit should the tuning block be kept. Before we go into those complexities what is required rst is a detailed analysis of the tuning block itself. The section that follows gives an analysis of the common parallel R-L-C tuning circuit.

R-L-C Analysis

Consider a parallel R-L-C circuit combination as given below. We have to see both the zero state response and the zero input response of the circuit to a standard input signal say an impulse.An analysis based on impulse response is what is particularly important as it is the only input that can excite all the poles and zeroes of a given circuit. There is the need to see both the transient as well as the stable state responses.We may distinguish the transient behavior of an electrical circuit from its steady-state, in that during the transients all the quantities, such as currents, voltages, power and energy, are changed in time, while in steady-state they remain invariant, i.e. constant (in d.c. operation) or periodical (in a.c. operation) having constant amplitudes and phase angles. The cause of transients is any kind of changing in circuit parameters and/or in circuit conguration, which usually occur as a result of switching (commuta- tion), short, and/or open circuiting, change in the operation 3

of sources etc. The changes of currents, voltages etc. during the transients are not instantaneous and take some time, even though they are extremely fast with a duration of milliseconds or even microseconds. These very fast changes, however, cannot be instantaneous (or abrupt) since the transient processes are attained by the interchange of energy, which is usually stored in the magnetic eld of inductances or/and the electrical eld of capacitances. Any change in energy cannot be abrupt otherwise it will result in innite power (as the power is a derivative of energy, p = dw ), which is in dt contrast to physical reality. All transient changes, which are also called transient responses (or just responses), vanish and, after their disappearance, a new steady-state operation is established. In this respect, we may say that the transient describes the circuit behavior between two steady-states: an old one, which was prior to changes, and a new one, which arises after the changes. There are basically two methods of transient analysis the classical dierential equation based and the transform based.Comparing the classical method and the transformation method it should be noted that the latter requires more knowledge of mathematics and is less related to the physical matter of transient behavior of electric circuits than the former.The basic RLC analyis here will be done using the classical method whereas in later sessions the analysis of the entire tuning circuit including the amplier stage will be done using the transform method so as to introduce both. The parameters L and C are characterized by their ability to store en2 ergy:magnetic energy wl = .i = L.i (since = L.i), in the magnetic eld 2 2 2 and electric energy wc = q.v = C.v (since q = C.v ), in the electric eld of 2 2 the circuit. The voltage and current sources are the elements through which the energy is supplied to the circuit. Thus, it may be said that an electrical circuit, as a physical system, is characterized by certain energy conditions in its steady-state behavior. Under steady-state conditions the energy stored in the various inductances and capacitances, and supplied by the sources in a d.c. circuit, are constant; whereas in an a.c. circuit the energy is being changed (transferred between the magnetic and electric elds and supplied by sources) periodically.When any sudden change occurs in a circuit, there is usually a redistribution of energy between L s and C s, and a change in the energy status of the sources, which is required by the new conditions. 4

These energy redistributions cannot take place instantaneously, but during some period of time, which brings about the transient-state. The main reason for this statement is that an instantaneous change of energy would require innite power, which is associated with inductors/capacitors. As previously mentioned, power is a derivative of energy and any abrupt change in energy will result in an innite power. Since innite power is not realizable in physical systems, the energy cannot change abruptly, but only within some period of time in which transients occur. Thus, from a physical point of view it may be said that the transient-state exists in physical systems while the energy conditions of one steady-state are being changed to those of another. Our next conclusion is about the current and voltage. To change magnetic energy requires a change of current through inductances. Therefore, currents in inductive circuits, or inductive branches of the circuit, cannot change abruptly. From another point of view, the change of current in di an inductor brings about the induced voltage of magnitude L. dt . An instantaneous change of current would therefore require an innite voltage, which is also unrealizable in practice. Since the induced voltage is also given as d , dt where is a magnetic ux, the magnetic ux of a circuit cannot suddenly change. Similarly, we may conclude that to change the electric energy requires q a change in voltage across a capacitor, which is given by v = C , where q is the charge. Therefore, neither the voltage across a capacitor nor its charge can be abruptly changed. In addition, the rate of voltage change is dv 1 i = C . dq = C , and the instantaneous change of voltage brings about innite dt dt current, which is also unrealizable in practice. Therefore, we may summarize that any change in an electrical circuit, which brings about a change in energy distribution, will result in a transient-state. In other words, by any switching, interrupting, short-circuiting as well as any rapid changes in the structure of an electric circuit, the transient phenomena will occur. Generally speaking, every change of state leads to a temporary deviation from one regular, steady-state performance of the circuit to another one. The redistribution of energy, following the above changes, i.e., the transient-state, theoretically takes innite time. However, in reality the transient behavior of an electrical circuit continues a relatively very short 5

period of time, after which the voltages and currents almost achieve their new steady-state values. The change in the energy distribution during the transient behavior of electrical circuits is governed by the principle of energy conservation, i.e., the amount of supplied energy is equal to the amount of stored energy plus the energy dissipation. The rate of energy dissipation aects the time interval of the transients. The higher the energy dissipation, the shorter is the transient-state. Energy dissipation occurs in circuit resistances and its storage takes place in inductances and capacitances. In circuits, which consist of only resistances, and neither inductances nor capacitances, the transient-state will not occur at all and the change from one steady-state to another will take place instantaneously. However, since even resistive circuits contain some inductances and capacitances the transients will practically appear also in such circuits; but these transients are very short and not signicant, so that they are usually neglected.

Now, with this basic knowledge of transient responses in mind we go about doing the analyis of the above given R-L-C circuit. The circuit given above has no driving input given to it. So the analysis that results can be called a zero input response.Let the currents through the inductor, capacitor and resistor be il , ic and ir and the respective voltages across them be vl , vc and vr . On observing we see that vl = vc = vr and, from KCL ic + ir + il = 0 vr = R.ir or ir = G.vr vl = L. di , il (0) = I0 dt 6 (2) (3) (1)

Therefore,

t

1 il (t) = I0 + . L

0

vl (t).dt

t

(4)

1 dvc , vc (0) = V0 + ic = C. dt C

0

ic (t).dt

(5)

From the above given equations we take one convenient variable and write the most convenient equation in terms of that variable and solve for the other variables using this. If we choose the inductor current il as the variable the following two equations are obtained from which we get the third second order dierential equation. C. since vl = vc = vr , we get C. dvl + Gvl + il = 0 dt (7) dvc + Gvr + il = 0 dt (6)

and hence we get following second order dierential equation LC d2 i l dil + GL + il = 0 2 dt dt (8)

The above given second order equation may be considered as the homogenous part of a general second order equation with some nite RHS value. The RHS value should then intuitively correspond to any excitation to the system ( that is some arbitrary source). If we adopt a generalised representation of the above given homogenous dirential equation as below with arbitrary parameters and 0 then the equation becomes d2 il dil 2 + 2 + 0 il = 0 2 dt dt (9)

Then is called the damping factor and 0 as the resonating frequency given by G = (10) 2C 7

and

1 LC The solution of the given dierential equation will be of the form 0 = ih = k1 .es1 t + k2 es2 t

(11)

(12)

where ih is the homogenous solution for the current, k1 , k2 are constants and s1 and s2 are given by s1 , s2 = 2 2 (13) Based on the values of above two variables the circuit will demonstrate overdamped, underdamped or critically oscillating conditions. To understand this better lets take the impulse response of the circuit.

impulse response

As described earlier with an input applied tothe previous R-L-C circuit the dierential equation gets modied only in its RHS, with the RHSs 0 replaced by the excitation applied. So for an impulsive current (t) applied to the R-L-C circuit the dierential equation gets modied as LC d2 i l dil + GL + il = (t) 2 dt dt dil (0 ) = 0 dt (14)

for t > 0+ The impulse input is charecterised by the conditions for t > 0+ (t) = 0 8 (16)

An impulse at t = 0 creates an initial condition at t = 0+ The impulse response for t > 0 is simply the zero input response due to the initial conditions created by that impulse response Integerate from t = 0 to t = 0+ to get the initial conditions we get

0+

0

il .dt = 1

(17)

The inductor current cannot jump at time zero or that the inductor current is a continuous function therefore the integeral above is zero and il (0+ ) = il (0 ) (18)

If it were not continuous the derivative of the current would contain an impulse and the second derivative would contain a doublet and the second equation above wont be satised. Now applying all the initial conditions we get the solution for the current as il (t) =

2 0 t .e .sin dt d

(19)

2 2 d = 0 2

(20)

As is evident the mathematics of the analysis has been cut short for a qualitative description of the situation. Suppose we approximate the impulse response as a pulse that extends for a very short duration . As tends to zero the pulse approaches an impulse Thus at t = 0+ all current from source goes to capacitor. Therefore ic (0+ ) = is (0+ ) = 1 (21) (22)

ir (0+ ) = il (0 ) = 0

Current in the capacitor forces a gradual rise of voltage across it at an initial rate given by dvc ic 1 (0+) = (0+) = (23) dt C C 9

With the assumption that in a small interval slope of the voltage curve re1 mains constant. That is at time voltage reaches C Then at that point current in the resistor, ir is proportional to vc . Thus it is linear in t. And, il vc (24)

Thus il will be parabolic in t Now as 0 the input becomes an impulsive current 1 vc jumps from 0 to C ic becomes an impulse 1 ir undergoes sudden change to RC il (0+ ) = il (0 ), dil dil 1 (0 ) = 0, (0+ ) = dt dt LC (25)

This is the general behaviour of the parallel R-L-C Circuit to an impulse response leaving aside the mathematical intricacies and considering it intuitively Now the next step is to couple this tuning circuit to a basic amplier. Let us put the tuning block at the collector of a BJT based amplier. Once this is done we need to locate where the poles aqnd zeroes of the entire circuit are and how the introduction of a tuning block modies the already existing poles of the amplier. To analyse this circuit we make use of the Laplace transform method. The analysis ensues

For the tuned amplier analysis, we have to make use of the incremental model of the BJT.This is required to take into account the poles and zeroes contributed by the active device.For simplied analysis, the Base-Collector capacitance C is analyzed by considering Miller eect.Miller eect introduces a gain dependent capacitance into the circuit.

10

V (s) =

1 R1

1 R2

I(s) + r1 + C s + C1 s I(s) + C s + C1 s

(26)

V (s) =

1 R1 ||R2 ||r

(27) (28)

VO (s) =

1 R

gm V (s) 1 + Ls + C2 s

VO (s) =

1 (R

1 Ls

gm I(s) 1 + C2 s)( R1 R2 r + C s + C1 s)

(29)

1 R

1 +

1 Ls

+ C2 s

= VO (s) =

1 (R

1 Ls

C2 s)( R1 eq

(30)

= VO (s) =

1 (R

1 Ls

C2 s)( R1 eq

1

1 1 + Ls +C2 (s) R

))

(31)

(32)

VO (s) gm RLs = 2 + Ls + R)( 1 + C s + C s) + g C RLs2 I(s) (RLC2 s m Req (33) gm RLs H(s) = RLC2 2 R s + RLC2 (C + C )s3 + RL s + L(C + C )s2 + Req + R(C + C )s + gm C RLs2 Req eq 11

H(s) =

RLC2 (C + C

)s3

( RLC2 Req

R Req

From the expression for transfer function that has been obtained it is clear that the system under consideraton has one zero and three poles.The zero is at s = 0.To nd the nature of the poles consider the coecients of sn in the following expression: L R RLC2 2 s +RLC2 (C +C )s3 + s+L(C +C )s2 + +R(C +C )s+gm C RLs2 Req Req Req (34) All the coecients are real and positive for the present system.If there is a complex root for this equation, another root will be its complex conjugate.The circuit contains poles from both the RLC circuit as well as the amplier circuit.These poles of the circuit can be expressed as a + jb,a jb and c.The expression becomes (s a jb)(s a + jb)(s c) = ((s a)2 + b2 )(s c)6 = (s2 2as + a2 + b2 )(s c) = s3 2as2 + a2 s + b2 s cs2 + 2acs ca2 cb2 = s3 (2a + c)s2 + (a2 + b2 + 2ac)s c(a2 + b2 ) = 0 Since all the coecients are positive for the present system, we have (2a + c) > 0 a2 + b2 + 2ac > 0 c(a2 + b2 ) > 0 From equations (15) and (17) = 2a + c < 0, c < 0 = a < Also = a2 + b2 > 2ac 12 (45) c 2 (43) (44) (40) (41) (42) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39)

The pole c lies on the left hand side of the j axis.The value a can be c any value less than 2 .That it can either be positive,zero or negative.If a is positive then the poles a + jb and a jb lie on the right side of the j axis and the system becomes unstable.If a = 0, the poles lie on the j axis.The sytem will now oscillate.For the system to be stable, we have to restrict the poles to the left hand side of the j axis.Hence a has to be > 0 for stable operation. In the tuned amplier incremental model we have analyzed, it was found out that the real pole c depended on the gain of the amplier.So it is possible for the pole to migrate to the right hand side of the j axis and hence cause unstability.The root-locus plot of the transfer function gives the overall picture of the system behaviour.To examine this behaviour - or the impulse response - of the system ,the output of the tuned amplier for dierent gains is to be observed. The variation in gain is bound to change the position of the poles and hence the nature of the output response.

13

Design

From the earlier discussion, it is clear that the circuit we need is a amplier circuit with an R-L-C circuit at the load, designed such that its gain can be adjusted.One of the methods used for controlling the gain is feedback.The feedback from the emitter stabilizes the amplier and varying this feedback can help vary the gain.Partial feedback method is employed in this circuit.The design of the amplier is as follows: Take VCC = 9V,IE = 2mA From the dc analysis of the circuit,we have a short between the collector and the power supply due to the inductor. Taking VCE = 0.5 VCC ,we get VCC VCE IE RE = 0 = RE = 2.2K Now R1 and R2 are designed so as to provide the necessary bias. VCB R1 = R2 VBE R1 3.8 = R2 5.2 (48) (49) (50) (46) (47)

= R1 = 1.8k, R2 = 2.2k

The emitter resistor along with the potentiometer is used to provide the partial feedback which modies the gain.Making use of a variable resistance at the emitter will allow varying of the gain to some extent. The bypass capacitor value is 0.1F .An Intermediate Frequency Transformer is used in the place of the load.The IFT comprises of a transformer and a capacitor tuned to an intermediate frequency,preferably 455KHz.This internal L-C 14

circuit also has some inherent resistance which acts as the resistive component for realizing the required R-L-C circuit load. The circuit thus obtained is as given below:

For the tuning amplier circuit the components required are: 1. 1 high frequency transistor :BF195 2. 1 IFT for the R-L-C load 3. 2 Resistors of 2.2 K 4. 1 potentiometer of 1 K 5. 1 capacitor of 0.1 F for providing partial feedback

15

Experimentation

As per the design described above the circuit was planned to be assembled. At the lab the circuit was assembled in stages. Since the amplier was to tune to the Intermediate Frequency (455 Khz) an IFT was planned to be kept as the tuning block described earlier. First the IFT obtained was tested seperately to ensure that it was tuning and not giving just some response to an input that increased with frequency. The tuning frequency of the IFT was found out to be 420 KHz. Next the amplier circuit using BF195 was assembled with the designed values of resistors and capacitors. Between the collector of the transistor and the supply voltage the secondary of the Intermediate Frequency Transformer was connected. After this the supply voltage was given and the DC conditions of the transistor was checked. Now a very small input of 100 mV peak to peak was given at the base of the transistor. The input frequency was gradually increased from a few Hertz. The output voltage was very small (almost negligible ) for almost all the frequencies. A very high gain (160) was obtained at 408 KHz. this was close to the tuning frequency of the IFT ( 420 KHz ). A Very small yet signicant peak was observed at 205 KHz. But this was found out to be due to the side lobes of the frequency response function. With this we got an idea about the location of the poles and zeroes. Once the basic working of the IF amplier was veried and observed it was time for proper testing. What was required was to observe the damping eect in the output or the ringing. As discussed earlier there are three poles in the circuit. One pole located on the real axis and two on the left half of the s plane. Now from the expressions of each poles it is clear that the real axis pole has a dependancy on the miller capacitance which inturn depends on the transconductance gm of the transistor and hence its gain. So theoritically adjusting the gain of the circuit would move this pole along the real axis 16

which would inturn move the other two poles. The other two poles have a weak and opposite dependancy on the gain of the transistor arising from the other miller capacitance put across the collector and emitter. The eect of this capacitance is usually ignored in all analysis. So the horizontal motion of these two poles dominates the vertical motion. This is graphically shown below.

Now when the gain of the amplier circuit is increased, owing to the inverse dependance of the real axis pole on gain, the pole moves towards the origin or we can say its magnitude decreases. As a result the other two poles move in the oppositte direction that is away from the imaginary axis. The distance of the two conjugate poles from the imaginary axis is a measure of the damping introduced in the circuit. As these poles determine the tuning frequency of the circuit as well their location from the imaginary axis determine the decay rate of damped oscillations when they occur. Continuing, as the poles move away from the imaginary axis on increasing the gain the damping factor increases, the decay rate increases and hence the time constant of damped oscillations decreases. This was observed in the lab by giving a pulse input at comparitively lower frequencies (10-20 KHz) to observe the ringing caused due to damped oscillations. The time constant of the decay was observed. The opposite phenomenon was also observed. That is the gain was decreased and as a result the decay rate decreased and the time constant increased owing to the movement of the conjugate poles towards the imaginary axis.As a critical condition when the gain was continuously decreased the system became unstable and sustained oscillation was observed at one point. This 17

was due to the crossing over of the conjugate poles to the right half plane. Measurements with the increased time constant and reduced gain were also taken tabulated. Thus an exhaustive experimental study of the assembled circuit was done and the correlation with derived theoritical points were veried.

18

The designed circuit was assembled in the lab and the dc conditions were veried. To this a small input signal of 100 mV peak to peak amplitude was given from a very low frequency. The frequency was then gradually increased and output observed.

Proper sinusoidal output of gain 160 was observed at 408 KHz. The normal tuning frequency of the IFT was 420 KHz. Only one very small side lobe was observed at 205 KHz

Pulse input at a lower frequency of 45 KHz was given to observe the damping and ringing eects. The outputs observed were like those given below

19

The gain of the amplier was varied to study the pole movements. The movements were veried by measuring the decay rate and time constants of the damped oscillations observed on the CRO. The tabulated results are given below.

For all the damped oscillations observed the frequency was nearly equal to 406 KHz.

20

Conclusion

The design and implementation of the intermediate frequency amplier was performed by analyzing the basic behaviour of a R-L-C circuit rst alone and with an amplier.The process progressed by observing the behaviour of the poles and zeroes of the system.The dierent possible responses of the system for dierent congurations were examined.The pulse testing of the circuit gave a picture about the present state of the system.The ringing in the output was observed and analyzed qualitatively and quantitavely.The gradual changes in decay rates and damping constants with variations in gain were observed.

21

Bibliography

[1] John G Proakis, Masoud Salehi. Communication Systems Engineering,Prentice Hall,1994. [2] Charles A. Desoer, Ernest S. Kuh.Basic circuit theory,Tata McGraw-Hill, 1984 [3] Donald L Schilling,Charles Belove.Electronic Circuits, Discreet and Integerated,McGraw-Hill, 1979 [4] Dennis Roddy, John Coolen.Electronic Communication,Tata McGraw Hill, India,2004,4th Edition. [5] A S Sedra, K C Smith Microelectronic Circuits,Oxford University Press,5th Edition,2005. [6] Paul E Gray , Campbell L Searly Electronic Principles: Physics, Models and Circuits

22

FM GENERATION

Submitted by: Anil Vishnu G K Allen Job Asish Oommen Abraham Ajmal V K 21st October

Contents

Introduction Principles Design Experimentation Observations and Inferences Conclusion Bibliography 2 3 6 9 11 12 13

Introduction

The concept of modulation is the backbone of analog communication principles.The need for modulation is obvious from the power, SNR and bandwidth considerations in signal theory.Fourier analysis enables any information signal to be broken down to a series of sinusoidal variations, added up after multiplying with corresponding weights. Each distinct component is characterized by two parameters - the amplitude and the angle. The description of the signal is obtained from the values of the amplitude and angle.The parameter angle can be resolved into the function of two new parameters frequency and phase.So for modulating a given signal, we can either vary the amplitude or angle of the carrier with the modulating signal.That is both amplitude and angle modulation is possible. The amplitude modulation scheme was discussed by considering the DSBSC and DSBFC AM. To implement angle modulation, we can vary the frequency of the carrier signal with the message signal. Such a modulation scheme is called frequency modulation.Frequency modulation is more complex than amplitude modulation. This arises from the higher number of frequency components generated in frequency modulation.

Principles

Consider a signal s(t) given by s(t) = As sin(t) (1)

here, As is the amplitude and (t) is the angle of the signal.In amplitude modulation schemes, we had varied the parameter As with the message signal.Now by varying the value of the parameter with the message signal, we can generate angle modulated waves.This variation can be done in two ways : (t) = k1 .m(t) + s t (2) or d(t) = k2 .m(t) + s (3) dt where k1 and k2 are constants. The former gives rise to phase modulated signal whereas the latter gives rise to frequency modulated signal. Now, consider the scenario where the signal s(t) is obtained by frequency modulating a carrier wave c(t) with a message signal m(t). The message signal is given by m(t) = Am sinm t = Am sin(2fm t) and the carrier signal c(t) = Ac sinc t = Ac sin(2fc t) Then the angle modulated signal is given by s(t) = Ac sin(c t + (t)) 3 (6) (5) (4)

where (t) is a function of the modulating signal m(t).More specically, for a frequency modulated wave,from equation (3), we get the phase (t) varies as d(t) m(t) (7) dt

t

r(t) = Ac sin(c t + k3

m( )d ))

(8)

where k3 is a constant. That is, the frequency deviation is proportional to m(t).Now for realizing a FM generator, a circuit which can vary the frequency with the message signal is required. Consider the circuit given below: The circuit is a LC tank circuit with an

inductor of value Lo , a xed capacitor of value Co and a variable capacitance of value C.The frequency of oscillation of this tank circuit is given by f= 1 2 Lo (Co + C) (9)

Now assume that the value of the capacitance varies with the message signal m(t).That is, C = k.m(t) (10) = f = 1 . 2 Lo Co 1 1+

k m(t) Co

(11)

Now, the frequency of the tank varies with the message.Hence we get a frequency modulated output from the LC oscillator. For realizing a capcitive impedance exhibiting this behaviour, we can make use of an active device such as a BJT.Consider the circuit given below: From the circuit, Vo Z2 r V = (12) Z2 r + Z1 4

Also Vo = Io Rc Vo = Vi .

Io Now, Io = gm Vi and Vi = gm

(13) (14)

Z2

r + Z1 Z2 r

Vo =

Io Z2 r + Z1 . gm Z2 r 1 Z2 r + Z1 . gm Z2 r Z1

(15)

= Zo =

(16)

(17)

(18)

This circuit gives the required capacitive impedance.So we can provide this reactance in parallel to an oscillator to obtain the required FM circuit.

Design

The design is done by providing the varying capacitive reactance from a modied BJT amplier to a colpitts oscillator,whose design had been done earlier. Take gain,Av = 200. Also, Xc R (19) = Take R =1K = 1 = 10 1 103 . C 2 2 103 = C = 7.9nF. The dc biasing is designed as in the case of the Mixer circuit. BF195 high frequency transistor is used. The circuit will be as below: (21) (22) 1 = 10R. C (20)

let ICQ = 4mA ( for BF195) For the transistor BF195,typical = 60. gm = ICQ = 0.1538 VT (23) (24)

Rc = 1.164k 1.2k

Now if we take thevenin equivalent of R1 and R2 at the base of the transistor we get the base emitter equations as : VT H IC +1 .RT H VBE (ON ) IC RE = 0 (25)

VCC = 12V and VCE = 6V (the xed Q point) Ve =0.1VCC = 1.2V RE = 300 RE 330 Now IC R1 R2 +1 R2 RC RE = 0 VCC R1 + R2 R1 + R2

(26)

For stability, RT H = 0.1( + 1)RE From these conditions, we get R1 47K, R2 10K C2 Now AV > C1 . let us x C2 = 100 (as AV = 185) C1 C That is, CT = C11 C22 . +C Therefore C1 = 11pF, C2 = 1.1nF. Standard values C1 = 12pF, C2 = 1nF. All other external capacitances = 0.22 F Once the calculation of the values of components is done, the design is complete. The values of the components used in the lab are R1 = 47K, R2 = 10K in series with 1K pot. C1 = 4.7pF, C2 = 1nF. L = 60 H RC = 1.2K , RE = 330 Coupling and Bypass capacitances = 0.22 F

The oscillator circuit used is the same as in the mixer design and is given below: For the FM generator, the following components were used. 1. BF195 -1 no 2. 47 k resistor -1 no 3. 10 k resistor -1 no 4. 1.2 k resistor -1 no 5. 330 resistor -1 no 6. 10 k potentiometer -1 no 7. 1 k potentiometer -1 no 8. 0.22 F capacitor -3 nos 9. 7.9 nF capacitor -1 nos The above components were assembled and the circuit was tested.

Experimentation

The circuit as described and designed in the previous sections was assembled. First the oscillator circuit was assembled and the variable resistors in the circuit was adjusted to obtain a distortion free sinusoidal signal of frequency 3.7 MHz. After this the reactance modulating circuit was assembled. First the dc conditions of this circuit were checked to be concordant with the designed values. Next this circuit was tested for its basic amplier action without connecting the external impedances that make its output impedance purely reactive. Next the external impedances were connected namely a resistance from base to ground and a capacitance across the base and collector. To the collector of this circuit the output of the oscillator circuit was coupled. The output of the oscillator suddenly got distorted on connecting. As in the previous experiments the biasing of the amplier was adjusted to bring the output of the oscillator back to distortion- free state. Next the required message signal was given across the base biasing resistor R2 and ground. Now the output of the output was observed. It was observed that at high frequencies not much dierence from normal oscillator output was observed. Then the frequency was consistently reduced. On bringing it into Hertz range the output started wobbling indicating a frequency variation. Now the frequency was slightly increased. After suciently increasing the frequency the output was observed. Near the maximum amplitude points of the message signal the output was shifting and changing faster than in the other parts indicating an increased frequency and hence frequency modulation. Now to conrm the above inference a square wave was given as input. Since the square was has only two discreet voltage levels, frequency modulation of such a wave would eectively result in an output with only two frequencies. This was clearly observed on the oscilloscope. 9

Next a ramp signal was given as the input. For a ramp the amplitude goes on linearly increasing and after its maximum value it suddenly drops to. So its frequency modulated wave would be a signal with continuously increasing frequency upto a certain point and then sudden change in frequency to a low value. A similar result was observed on the oscilloscope on applying an input ramp. Thus by applying dierent kinds of input signals the characteristics of frequency modulation was clearly observed and studied.

10

The circuits were assembled and after various troubleshooting steps the required outputs were observed.

The frequency of signal produced by the local oscillator was 3.7 M Hz.

Output waveform observed was frequency modulated, showing pronounced wobbling at very low frequencies.

The output waveforms for various amplitude variations - square,ramp and sinusoidal waveforms - were observed.

11

Conclusion

Frequency modulation requires the mapping of voltage levels to frequency values.Such a mapping can be obtained in dierent ways.This can be achieved by employing a circuit that performs reactive modulation.The frequency modulation generator was designed using a colpitts oscillator and a modied BJT amplier.The idea is to introduce a variable reactance into a LC oscillating circuit in such a way that the variable reactance message.The design of the varying reactance makes use of network analysis techniques to synthesize a viable solution.

12

Bibliography

[1] A Bruce Carlson,Paul B. Crilly, Janet C. Rutledge, 2002. Communication Systems-An Introduction to signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, McGraw Hill,4th Edition. [2] A Bruce Carlson,Paul B. Crilly, Janet C. Rutledge, 2002. Communication Systems-An Introduction to signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, McGraw Hill,4th Edition. [3] John G Proakis and Masoud Salehi,1994. Communication Systems Engineering,Prentice Hall. [4] Michael P. Fitz. Fundamentals of Communication Systems,McGraw Hill,2007. [5] Leon W Couch. Digital and Analog Communication Systems,Prentice Hall India,2006. [6] Dennis Roddy, John Coolen.Electronic Communication,Tata McGraw Hill, India,2004,4th Edition. [7] A S Sedra, K C Smith Microelectronic Circuits,Oxford University Press,5th Edition,2005. [8] Herbert Taub, Schilling.Principles of Communication Systems,Tata McGraw Hill,2004.

13

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