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THE HOLY StPULCHRE.

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LINDSAY & BLAKISTON.

HISTORY

THE CRUSADES
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HUNDRED AND FIFTY ILLUSTRATIONS.

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would seem that the interest in still alive and the history of the Holy Wars of Palestine during a considerable portion of the Middle Ages. these places is It .^^§))»«»+- At the the present time. Under this impression Major Proctor's excellent "History 3 . the to the period mind naturally reverts when nearly all the military power of Europe made a descent on Palestine for the recovery of them from the possession of the infidels. may be supposed to form an attractive theme for the general reader. at when a misunderstanding concerning rise to Holy Places Jerusalem has given a war involving four of the great Powers of Europe.

and the edition is now respectfully sub- mitted to the public. . has been struck with the masterly. and lucid method in which the author has executed the work — a work of considerable difficulty. and the happy power of giving vividness. introduced. and entertaining a narrative in so reasonable a American Editor. in the performance of liis duty.4 PREFACE. of the Crusades" has been carefully revised. The editor. a series of illustrative engravings. when we consider the long period and the multiplicity of important events embraced in the history. some additions made. clear. so conspicuous in Major Proctor's history. colour and thrilling interest to the events which he narrates. executed by iBrst-rate artists. nor has the editor been less impressed with the vigorous style. No other historian of the Crusades has succeeded in comprising so complete compass.

55 The Crusade undertaken by Kings and Nobles 5 65 . Section Causes of the Crusades Section Page 17 II. Peter the Hermit. 41 —The Crusade undertaken by the People Section IV. Preaching of the First Crusade Section III.CHAPTER %]lt I. imi €xni\lt I.

Origin of the Orders of Religious Chivalry 194 Section III. Defence of Antioch by the Crusaders 130 Section X. 205 Louis VII. Fall of Edessa. Defeat of the Turks. —Preaching of the Second Crusade Section IV. Seige and Capture of Antioch by the Crusaders 119 Section IX. and Conrad III. Seige and Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders 153 CHAPTER II. in Palestine 214 .— Seizure of Edessa 105 Section VIII. Kingdom 176 Section II. Section State of the Latin I. The First Crusaders at Constantinople Page 79 Section' VI. The Siege of Nice 96 Section VII. Section V.6 CONTENTS.

Second Siege of Constantinople 4 327 . Germans. Richard Coeur de Lion in Palestine 257 CHAPTER IV. 7 CHAPTER III. . The French. The Germans undertake the Crusade 248 Section IV. II. The Rise of Saladin Page 224 Section Battle of Tiberias. Section I. Expedition against Constantinople 311 Section IV.CONTENTS. Section I. Empire 298 Section III. and Fall of Jerusalem 238 Section III. and Italians unite in the Crusade 285 Section Affairs of the Eastern II.

The Sixth Crusade 380 Section IV. Ik History of the Latin 'fast imx (Ln\$i\his- Section I. The Seventh Crusade Section V. 453 .8 CONTENTS. 401 The Eighth Crusade 428 CHAPTER Consequences of the Crusades VI. The Fifth Crusade 361 Section III. Empire of the East Paije 342 Section II. CHAPTER V.

Title. at the Council of Cler13 17 17 21 Sicily mont Head-piece to Chapter 1 Ornamental Letter A Norman Knight The Normans conquering Charlemagne 22 26 Mohammed Early Career of 30 Mohammed 31 Gregory VII 9 36 .'rusaders in sight of Jerusalem Frontispiece. The Holy Sepulchre Head-piece to Preface page 3 5 9 Head-piece to Contents Head-piece to Hlustrations Pope Urban II. preaching the First Crusade.

10 ILLUSTRATIONS. 58 G4 05 Armour Henry IV Godfrey of Bouillon Siege of 08 09 71 Rome Robert of Normandy and his Father 72 79 79 A Crusader Ornamental Letter The Emperor Alexius Regalia 90 90 90 104 103 105 Ornamental Letter Tail-piece Head-piece Ornamental Letter A Turkish Encampment Baldwin seizes 110 110 Edessa Tail-piece 117 . PAGE he burned Robert Guiscard ordering his ships Tail-piece to 38 40 41 41 42 45 55 Peter the Hermit Ornamental Letter Peter the Hermit and the Patriarch of Jerusalem Peter the Hermit preaching the First Crusade Norman Armour Ornamental Letter Peter the Hermit leading the First Crusaders Tail-piece 55 ^.

John of Jerusalem 194 1 Armour Ornamental Letter 94 195 . Ornamental Letter Tancred Funeral of Baldwin King of Jerusalem 188 190 193 Ruins of Tyre Tail-piece Institution of the Order of the Knights of St. 11 PAGE Antioch 118 118 Ornamental Letter KaraHissar Capture of Antioch by the Crusaders 124 128 129 Robert of Normandy slaying the Turk Head-piece 130 130 141 Ornamental Letter Bishop Adhemar blessing the Crusaders Tail-piece 152 153 153 157 Jerusalem Ornamental Letter Mount Sion Godfrey of Bouillon Capture of Jerusalem Godfrey of Bouillon elected King of Jerusalem Tail-piece 101 1G4 172 175 Ascalon 176 176 181 I..ILLUSTRATIONS.

defending himself against the Turks 218 219 221 223 Damascus Tail-piece Arab Encampment Ornamental Letter 224 224 228 231 23G 237 -38 Noureddin marching on Antioch Shiracouch Saladin Tail-piece Head-piece Ornamental Letter 238 Mecca Tail-piece 240 247 . 211 211 213 Bernard preaching the Second Crusade Tail-piece Head-piece 214 214 217 Ornamental Letter Conrad III Passage of the Meander Louis VII. PAGE 108 199 Grand-Master of the Knights of Malta Grand-Marshal of the Knights of Malta Malta -01 Knights Templars Head-piece 203 205 205 Ornamental Letter Queen Eleanor of Aquitaiue St.12 ILLUSTRATIONS.

at Azotus 272 275 Hebron Richard Coeur de Lion at Jaffa General View of Jerusalem Head-piece 280 284 285 Ornamental Letter. Doge of Venice Ornamental Letter 311 . Venice 293' 298 Street in Constantinople Ornamental Letter Isaac Angelus Tail-piece 298 304 310 311 - Dandolo.^ 285 of Henry VI. Richard I... 13 PAGE 248 248 Head-piece Ornamental Letter Frederic Barbarossa 252 257 257 Head-piece Ornamental Letter Richard Coeur De Lion 260 202 204 205 Rhodes Siege of Acre Movable Towers Capitulation of Acre 206 206 207 Tower and Battering-ram Richard Cceur'de Lion at Antiocli.ILLUSTRATIONS. St. Emperor Germany 287 Place of Mark's.

Mark's. raising an elected King ou a buckler 337 341 Gethsemene Baldwin I. King of Norway 404 405 416 Ships of the 13th Century St. PAGE u27 327 Theodore Lascaris Ornamental Letter Desecration of the Churclits 334 335 - Tower of St. Earl of Cornwall Frederic II Zingis 382 385 391 Khan Tail-piece 400 401 401 403 View on the Nile Ornamental Letter Blanche of Castile Ilaco. Venice Ceremony of Tail-piece.. Earl of Salisbur}Capture of Damietta by the Crusaders 3G1 3G4 367 Emperor Frederic Head-piece II 372 380 380 Ornamental Letter Richard.14 ILLUSTRATIONS. Louis in captivity . Emperor of the East 342 Ornamental Letter 342 354 3G1 Baldwin II Head-piece Ornamental Lcttir William Longespee.

428 431 Louis Edward L Attempt of England Edwari] 432 435 to assassinate Funeral of Robert Guiscanl Head-piece 452 453 Ornamental Letter Tail-piece 453 4G8 .ILLUSTRATIONS. St. 15 Louis entering Ptolemais 419 427 Tail-piece Head-piece 428 Ornamental Letter Death of St.

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JiEH.MONT. .T -.N(i TlIK ClUSADE AT <. I'KKA(lll.>-« POTK I KI5AN Jl.

CHAPTER t I.HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES. ^HE and term Crusade is derived from the French word Craisade. is employed to designate that series of extraordinary expeditions undertaken by the Western nations of Europe. 1099. during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Saracens and Turks. lirst A. D. 1095 Crttsabt TO A. 2 17 The space of time consumed in these strange enterprises . FROM SECTION I.— CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES. D.

Nothing like them had been seen the before in either the ancient or like modern world. they conone of the most interesting chapters that is stitute to be found in the annals of mankind. to de- by which they were accompanied. and thereby impressed such singular features on the history of the period. was prepared tration of atrocious crime to seek its atonement in exercises of the severest penance. and nothing . Amid the lawless violence which preceded and attended the settlement of the feudal system. the voice of religion could seldom be heard above the perpetual din of of being armed rapine. from and to estimate the consequences that followed them. Then. and her influence. stitious warrior.18 THE FIRST CRUSADE. felt was only with startling remorse in some brief interval of sickness or calamity. than in the occurrence of any particular events. the devotional of the . The predisposing circumstances wdiich led to those famous enterprises. and in whatever light we contemplate them. them has been to seen since and it is the object of the present volume to investigate the causes scribe the incidents which led them. Equally among spirit churchmen and laity. if extends over nearly. are to be sought rather in the general aspect and feelings of society during the ages immediately antecedent. instead habitually exercised over the consciences of men. not quite. two hundred years. the rude and super- with the same untempered energy of to rush at once from the perpe- passion.

in the eighth and ninth centuries. probably only indulged instead of creating a popular inclination. if many sought to expiate their it guilt in the passive austerities of the cloister. and course much diverted to Rome itself. knew no other mode cilement with offended Heaven. especially that of James at . for pilgrimages to Rome. seems. were wrought. the love of pilgrimages gradually became objects almost a universal passion. a curiosity too deeply implanted in our nature to belong to any particular time or condition of man . embrace the encounter with fatigue and as the surest test faith. and above desire of visiting the places all to Jerusalem. When this practice was communicated to the Gothic nations. times. indeed. they began to commute the more ancient penances enjoined by the canons of the church. peril. to sanctify this feeling and had rendered journeys in Jerusalem not uncommon some of the earliest ages of Christianity. and the most acceptable tribute of repentant The Romish clergy. and to those shrines in different countries at racles which pretended miSt. such as it 19 of recon- was.CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES. but the associations con- nected with the hallowed scene of human redemption with peculiar to were calculated interest. was more congenial ter to the restless and enterprising characto which marked the Northern mind. therefore. than in these acts of mortification. when. But. The where celebrated events have occurred. and though its were deformed by the grossness of its superstition. to the shrines of various saints.

" &c. vol. p.) even many of charters of the tenth century have for preamble. of Charles V. But the impulse which.) 2G2.) . had a tend- increase the ardour for pilgrimages.Guil. (^ITist. De Vic et de Vaisette. vol. Appropinquante mundi tcrmino. . p. When men an expedient so qui- eting to the consciences of in a state of society * 6%ron. vol. above ency to all others. in penance and it mage. note 13. de Languedoc. the stream of mistaken Compostella. that the reign of Antilast approached and that the terrors of the follow.20 THE FIRST CRUSADE. &c. as was concluded a that to visit the scenes of redemption was both meritorious and a preservative act. destruction which awaited the earth every delusive pilgri- form of propitiation for sin. i..* judgment would immediately In proportion as this erroneous interpretation of sacred prophecy gained wider credence. in yet sincere devotion continued to set steadily toward the shores of Palestine. As '^ E-obertson has remarked. tlio Hist. Spain. "was eagerly embraced and. the end of the world was at hand. (seeing that the end of the is world at hand. was imagined that the thousand years mentioned in the Apocalypse would speedily be christ fulfilled . arose early in the tenth century. . to revive and recover those hopes of salvation which withered under the remembrance of habitual guilt. the Western World became violently agitated with fearful forebodings of the . ii. that It from a growing belief.. multitudes annually flocked to Jerusalem..Godelli. (in RecuetldesJIistoriensFran^ais. x. 86-117.

its about the middle of the latter age. p. . 21 A Norman Knight. Historia. and the custom surpassed and survived and occasion. it is recorded of a company which visited Holy Sepulchre. that numbers were no fewer than seven thousand persons.* * Ingulfus. 903.CAUSES OF TDE CRUSADES. inducements were not wanting for its its repetition . the passion for pilgrimages was ever on the increase single . and the original impulse Throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries. 904. had once been discovered. equally fruitful of crime and superstition.

Man.'"' is. c. amoiiir the war- were the Normans. in That singular and high-spirited people.oo THE FIRST CRUSADE. which ori- ginated entirely in the casual return of their pilgrims from the Holy Land through that theatre of Saracen warfare. had no sooner be- come converts to Christianity. Cassiii. ii. as riors of the times. Chron. . p. a striking memorial both of their addiction to such religious journeyings. The conquest of Southern Italy. 7. 37. Foremost amoiiG: the devotees. every respect the most remarkable of the barbarian races. the same ardour adven- turous enterprise. ii. and of the * Leo Osticnsis. Giaunone. The Normans conquering Sicily. Is- NapoU. which had distinguished their pagan career. in itself. ioria di lib. than they strangely infused into their religious profession the same wild for and enthusiastic temper. vol.

an accom- plished modern writer (Hallam. was the institution of chivalry. the pil- grims were prepared alike. vol. either to crave hospitality in the blessed name of the Cross. in small but well-armed bands. The rude a state of manners so extraordinary in itself.CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES.* is obviously to be found in those ceremonies * The want of all resemblance to the spirit of chivalry in the manis ners and sentiments of classical antiquity so obvious. and so restricted to the descendants of the great Northern race. by the general expansion of a the organized result of which may be numbered among the This origin of most active and powerful causes of the crusades. attest their undiminished thirst of enterprise . that . though foreign to our present subject. was by no means confined Normans spirit. Italy in the route between their Traversing the own land and Norman Mediterranean ports which communicated with Palestine. throughout Western Europe. howto the ever. it might seem a work of supererogation to insist on the fact if p. or to force their way at the point of the lance. and we shall find the sons of the Norman conquerors of the Sicilies and England figuring among the chief promoters and Such a union of religious warriors of the First Crusade. Their victorious establish- ment in Italy tended to increase their intercourse with the East. . their daring assaults upon the Byzantine empire. Middle Ages. 23 equal readiness for either devout or martial achieve- ment by which they were animated. 482) had I . and martial ardour. and the eleventh century was marked. iii.

Finally. utterly repugnant to that principle of respectful idolatry for the fair. attri- hero. it common to the Grecian and the Gothic warrior. the resentment of Achilles is for the loss of Briseis merely as his captured property. the most irreconcilable distinction between the manners of the classical and Gothic ages rests. that Mr. as to remark. among their ancestors in the attended the assumption* of arms by the youthful not. the dead body of an enemy as the lowest depth of infamy. devotedto enemies. the portraiture of Achilles ness to is completely destitute of those qualities of loyalty. and courtesy is which Mr. altogether. in the first place. In fact. ric spirit to infuse was the singular peculiarity of the chivaland. Hallam. Hallam should number "a calm indifference to the cause in which he was engaged" among the qualities of the . would have been held utterly abhorrent from chivalric ideas of courtesy. inspired and displayed in by contempt of death and thirst for daring and magnanimous achievement. con- stitutes. gave a religious impression to the knightly character. Hallam himself That lofty justly specifies as virtues essential to chivalry. which. social. in rather an elaborate passage. indeed. cited the Achilles of Homer as a beautiful portraiture of the chivalric character " in its most general form. and Mr. energy of the soul which glory. has quoted a passage from a chronicler of the thirtcceth century. a few pages farther on. and loyal devotion in enterprise formed the peculiar In the next place. his body of the conduct of Achilles. on the totally opposite estimation we have before had occasion of woman. both in suffering the inferior herd of Greeks to strike the corpse of Hector.24 THE FIRST CRUSADE. woman. be remarked as singular. the vital essence of heroism under every form of society . and in dragging the lifeless noble and fallen antagonist at his chariot wheels." On this position it may. mistaken as it was. to say nothing of the absence of that dedication of the sword to the cause of Heaven. . which every true knight cherished as an indispensable article in his creed of love and honour. instead of sustaining the parallel the triple incentive and sentiment of religious. German forests. which denounces the act of insulting Thus. as suggesting a parallel with the knightly character enthusiastic butes. but into this lifespring of action. Homeric of which. which. and amatory obligation .

De Moribus Germanorum. are to be found sufficient evidencef of a common prac- the ceremonial investiture of knighthood.CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES. In the Lombard annals . and respectful tenderness to trace the woman. } Paulus Diaconus. might. dovici Piif ad Ann. in a recorded act. were preserved among the conquerors of the Roman empire. To growth of these beautiful attributes of chisocial system. 23. Vita Lu- . the Homeric representation. be selected for a sufficient example of the contrast between the heroic character in the two great romantic ages of the ancient and modern world. De Gcstis Langohard. 791. in later connection with feudal and social obligations. which converted it into a ready engine of superstitious excitement. protection to the feeble and the oppressed. c. imparted to the spirit of chivalry. present inquiry and will suffice to notice in this place that admixture of religious ideas and duties with a military institution. and in the chronicles of the Anglo-Saxon era. and singularly suggested. 13. belongs not to our it valry. 24. as a moral and .* 25 In subsequent ages the same forms of mar- tial investiture. generosity to enemies. its more graceful virtues of loyalty and honour. lib. which in the outset was only essentially martial. abounding as it does in native sublimity of conception. warrior. courtesy and benevolence. and perpetuated in every kingdom which they had founded. with more propriety. ii. We may here overleap the chain of circumstances which. 2. c. with little addition or variation. c. Malmsbury. as well as occasionally in the capitularies of Charle- magne tice in . * Tacitus.

The exact epoch gious character. disposed the public mind at is of Europe for any enterprise of fanatical warfare.26 THE FIRST CKUSADE. nor material. Charlaviagne. and in his the form of knightly investiture was empire at least. it which chivalry acquired a is it reli- neither easy. In the age of Charlemagne. to ascertain. certainly unattended by any vows or ecclesiastical .

it 27 had be- come common altar. f Dm Cange. or from hostility to the cause of Christianity itself. can discover only unmin- gled evil in the ecclesiastical policy of the Middle Ages. Anna. But. in short. Antiq. Muratori. Pii. in v. uLi siijjrd. preparations. its by the priest .* But. was designedly assimilated to that into the monastic profession. confession. before the Crusades. those by which the entrance into the knightly career. whether from indignation at the real corruptions of that church. Miles. formed the growth of rather later times. Miles. The more complete conversion religious of the whole process of investiture into a ceremonial. justice has scarcely been extended to the different classes of motives of the Romish clergy by writers.J CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES. vow dedicated use to the service of Heaven. apart from the lower and more interested purpose. liii. auguration of the knight his sword was laid on the and even sometimes girded and his solemn to his side. blessed.f But there is abundant proof of the suc- cess of the church. and receipt of the sacrament the bath and the robe all of white linen. Glossarium J Du Cange. jEvi. in the special defence of the church. in itself surely not unjustifiable. prayer. of converting the * Vita Lriidov. . the previous vigils. Diss. &c. ceremonies. in vv. who. as well as the general protection of the weak and the oppressed. as emblems of purification. in the eleventh century. Med. . to invoke the aid of religion in the in. in infusing some religious principle into the martial spirit of chivalry. For this.

* and there seems no reason to doubt that. in a period so turbulent that even the ordinary social virtues could be no better exercised and protected than at the sword's point. their policy was originally animated by a principle equally praise- worthy. into the monstrous error of believing that the sincerity of their faith and the cause of * Gibbon. xi. in mitigating a spirit sin- which the they could not subdue. Decline and Fall. to shield all the oppressed. vol. 41. by an easy and obvious transition. in- deed. are deserving of all praise . p. and to do justice to Christian men. engagements to ab- manded stain from secret perfidy and open wrong. was. as it was repugnant to every genu- ine precept of the gospel.28 THE FIRST CRUSADE. ferocity Their efforts to soften and harmonize the feelings of the times by their reprobation of private wars and judicial com- bats. as incompatible with the generally peaceful designs of the clergy. means martial temper of lawless communities into a of defence for the church. . <Scc. But. The ultimate ex- tension of these pledges into the imaginary duty of warring to the utterance against all infidels. the clergy of the eleventh century appear to have laboured with a zeal and cerity above suspicion. In the same knightly vows which they deor registered at the altar. fidelity were at least mingled with the obligation of to the and protection church itself. a warlike and ignorant race passed. in covering the ceremonies of chivalry with the sanction of religion.

They who can see nothing in the pil- grimizing and crusading madness of the tenth and eleventh centuries but the influence of a crafty sys- tem of ecclesiastical policy. indeed.CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES. ex- and it may well be questioned whether the clergy directed or merely shared or obeyed the impulse of the times. which prepared and prolonged the fanatical madness of Europe its . enlarge on the definition of a cele- we may. but more consist- ent with historical evidence. it In every sense. attribute to the clergy a far greater superiority of intellect over the spirit of their age than they apparently possessed. This doctrine was too congenial both to the manners and citement superstitious feelings of the laity to need its the suggestions of the ecclesiastical order for . the profession of arms became hallowed by presumed dedication to the service of Heaven . in general. is It not only more probable in itself. and the sincerity of the preachers and the warriors of those expeditions must. only to fix the deeper stigma upon the abuse of their power. first effected in the chivalric institutions. divine truth were to be proven and upheld 29 by the fierce same carnal weapon. was the union of religious and martial prin- ciples. be tried by the same standard of mistaken enthusiasm. and therefore. . to conclude that they were fervently imbued with the fanaticism which they are accused of having coolly excited : a vast number of prelates and inferior ecclesiastics shared in the toils and dangers of pilgrimages and Crusades.

Decline and Fall. f Jerusalem was captured by the Caliph Omar. 41. brated writer. 637. were the circumstances which predisposed the nations of Western Europe for any enterprise of fanatical warfiire. a.f Jerusavol. During a long its of above four centuries. Jio/iammcd. * Gibbon. in pronouncing chivalry to have been at once both a principal cause and an enduring conse- quence of the Crusades. then.TUE FIRST CRUSADE. xi. The immediate of both the occasion of the Crusades to the fall of Jerusalem. and by the Seljukian Turks. and by .'-' Such. through the united influence of martial and superstitious feelings. between cap- ture by Omar. must be and the related in retrospect affiiirs Byzantine and interval Mohammedan empires. &c. d. p.

D. to its sacred places. 1076. had subsided. A. lem had shared the vicissitudes of Saracen revoUition its and the treatment both of Christian inhabitants. affected by the temper of its Mussulman After the fierce spirit of intolerance. a Turkoman the cliieftain. no obstacle was op- posed either to the exercise of worship by residents. whence name Seljukian. 31 Early career of Mohammed. or to the resort of devout strangers. and during the more tranquil period of the Khalifate. . which animated the Saracens in their early career of proselyting conquest. CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES.. the grandson of Seljuk. The spot which Togrul Beg. and of the pilgrims who thronged was variously lords.

instigated third or. had assigned to the Holy Sepulchre. c. the Saracen governors even encouraged the periodical increase of population which swelled their revenues. p. I Eginharti Vita CaroJi Mayni. in the tenth century. 25. who were not insensible to the benefits of the commercial intercourse of the same fleets which conveyed these devout pas- sengers. its sovereign- was an elegant expression of esteem for the empe- ror of the "Western Christians. and the transmission of the keys of the city to Charlemagne by that Khalif.f 32 tradition THE FIRST CRUSADE.* were Christians tribute . 81. the Church of the Resurrection and the Rock of the Sepulchre. though assuredly not designed as a surrender of ty. at least. in Vita Constantin. left in and. . the horrors of a perse- * Eusebius. the Khalif. greatly to injure. 630. together possession of the with the Church of the Resurrection originally built by Constantino the Great. of Haroun Al Raschid was especially The reign marked as a pe- riod of undisturbed communication between the Latin world and Jerusalem.") p. 80. the resort of pilgrims to Jerusalem was equally protected by the first two princes of that dynasty. and a pledge of secure access for his subjects. Willermus Tyrensis Archiepiscopus. Fatimite him to destroy. iii. But when the frenzy of Hakem. Jerusalem fell under the dominion of the Fatimite Khalifs of Egypt. satisfied with the exaction of a small from every inhabitant and pilgrim. lib. (^Gesta Dei per Francos. When.

in the language of a contemporary chronicler. iv. just sufficient protection to encourage their concourse. princes. ruins . stimulated by repression. counts. and the return of his successors to a more tolerant policy. the Church of the Resurrection rose from . p.CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES. in the alternations of policy and caprice.* as well of noble as of poorer condi- During the remaining period of the Fatimite dominion in Palestine. with abundant * Glaber. the death of Hakem. vol. interrupted the devotional visits of their Western brethren first . tion. Frangais. An im- mense tide of population flowed from every Western country toward Jerusalem. the innumerable multitude of pilgrims comprehended the lowest and middle orders of the people. again opened the shores of Palestine to the devotion of Europe its . which afterward burst into action with an energy so tremendous. in Recueil des Hist. and. and dignified prelates. the Holy Sepulchre was repaired its and the custom of pilgrimage. these pious visitants continued to experience from the Mussulman tyrants of the land. temporary was renewed with tenfold ardour. and the report of his sacrilegious tyranny excited that indignation of the Latin world at the possession and profanation of the Holy Sepulchre by infidels. Before the institutions of chivalry were sufficiently matured to feed this kindling spirit. 50. lib. x. cution which he at the 66 same time inflicted on the Christians of Jerusalem. 3 . and even women.

with the sanguinary precepts of the Koran freshly engrafted on their native ferocity. and their entrance into Jerusalem was marked by an in- discriminate massacre. by any motives of toleration . vengeance which Predis- injuries to exasperate that desire of they communicated to the whole Western world. to which Asia.''' Those recent and Islamism. career of conquest. became the masters of fierce converts to Palestine. had acquired full strength. nourished by the general positions in the social state of Europe to which we vio- have referred. . the Seljukian Turks. the Christian clergy in Jerusalem were frequently tortured and imj)risoned in mere wanton fury. appearing as the cham- pions of the Abassidan Khalifs of Bagdad. p. like that of the more civilized Saracens. has been subject. w^re ani- mated with equal hatred against the Fatimite sors posses- and the Christian tributaries of Palestine. in an uncertain year toward the close of the eleventh century. The fanatical cruelty of a race of barbarians. were urged by pious impulses to visit the Holy Land. their sufferings wrung from their brethren and the still Latin pilgrims. in defiance of danger. was untempered. who. or for the sake of the ransom which . were and in their de- exposed in their journey through it. in every In their rapid age of her history.64: THE FIRST CRUSADE. cisely when this feeling. it was forced into impetuous action by one of those sudden and lent vicissitudes of revolution. G33. * Willermus Tyr.

When the victorious career of the Seljukian Turks. 634. which gave the papal see an immediate motive of political interest in directing the strong impulse of the age to a religious war. assassin in 1072. under Alp Arslan. Through a mission to Pope Gregory * Willermus Tyr. agitated both of the of their afflictions of the church of Jerusalem and all own endured Christendom with an universal sentiment of mingled horror. the imaginary disgrace of suffering the scenes of human redemption to remain in the hands of sacrilegious infidels. and the conviction that the atrocities punishment of their impious was a duty enjoined equally by religion and by honour. and vengeance. as chief of the Seljukian Turks. The reports which they circulated on wrongs. oO votions at the Sepulchre. "the was the nephew and successor of Togrul Beg. grasped at a faint hope of succour by addressing himself to the ruler of the Latin church. to every variety of insult and spoliation from the savage and greedy Turks. of his distress and terror. in the extremity ple itself."^' While these cerity alike feelings were shared with deep sin- by the great body of the clergy and laity of Western Europe.-|- began to threaten the safety of Constantinothe Emperor Michael VIL. in 1071. and was by an . He defeated the slain Greek Emperor. events had arisen in the state of the Byzantine empire. at the profanation of the holy places of Jerusalem. their return. p. valiant lion/' t Alp Arslan. Diogenes Romanus. shame.CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES.

he exposed the common danger of Christendom from the new growth of the Mohammedan among power. and imj)lored its exercise for his aid the princes of to the West. declared his reverence for the papal authority.36 THE FIRST CRUSADE. opened views of aggrandizement. but in a single pas- . which seemed promise the submission of the Greek church to the papacy. by encyclical epistles. VIL. Such an application. to arm against the infidels. and he strenuously exhorted the sovereigns of Europe. In these letters the principal recommendation was the union of the two churches of Christendom ral for a gene- armament against the Turks . GTegory VII. too congenial to the towering ambition and adventurous spirit of Gregory to be received with indifference.

demanded the * It is Alexius . Fran^ais. Guiscard. was not yet. and. A renewal of the supplication which had been addressed to Gregory was produced by the increasing distress of the Eastern empire . VII.) . x. Urban II.f The proposal of Gregory VII. is first* plainly shadowed out the great subsequent design of the Crusades. i. though usual to infer that the first design of a crusade was conII. (Recueil des Hist. (in Labbe. Bpistolae Greg. sage 37 announcing that fifty thousand warriors had already declared their willingness to be led to the redemption of the Holy Sepulchre. vol. lib. of the . tained in an encyclical letter of Pope Sylvester at the comhave mencement of the eleventh century. with the earliest care of magnificent design of conquering the Eastern empire. vol. But the object of his epistle to 425) does not appear gone beyond the obtaining of some pecuniary succour from Christen- dom f for the distressed church of Jerusalem. at the outset of his reign. found his dominions assailed simultaneously on opposite extremities by the arms of the Normans of Italy and the Sel- jukian Turks. x. Concilia. directed with sufficient singleness of purpose to the shores of Palestine to inflame the kindling enthusiasm West and the opportunity of maturing his daring project was reserved for his successor and imitator. however. p. That prince. ii. the The invasion of Greece by Robert first Norman Duke of Calabria.CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES. &c. and the subsequent crusade requires connection of that its affairs with the first we should here briefly trace the thread of the Byzantine annals from the accession of Alexius Comnenus.

saved Constantinople from his assaults * but his enterprise : had fa- voured the progress of the Turks in the eastern provinces of the empire . v. Alexias. Ital. too. . (in Muratori. Galfridus Malatcrra. and. power his defeat by In the Norman in the great battle of Durazzo. Robert Giiiscard ordering his shiiix l'> he burned. iii. iii.-v.) 2-1-39. lib. perhaps.38 THE FIRST CRUSADE. war Robert Guiscard ordered his ships to be burned on the hostile shores of Illyria. his resistance was gallant and vigorous. Hist. from having any hopes of retreat face of and this. Rcr. Scrij). &c. in the an almost innumerable host of the Eastern for the defence of Durazzo. vol. lib. to prevent his soldiers . and Alexius was compelled to purchase their forbearance by the formal cession of * Anna Commena. shook the tottering fabric of Byzantine this to its centre. c. empire gathered together The distraction of an Italian war arrested Guiscard in the subjugation of Greece.

A hollow pacification did not pre- vent Solymon from meditating the passage of that channel filled .) Hist. vide i. De Guignes. (Gesta Dei per . and the Turkish outposts were separated only by the strait from the imperial capital. 1-12. p. and the decline of the Turkish power through intestine dissensions. 9. i. was fixed at Nice in Bythynia. the Sultan of Roum. c. &c. but his envoys were * For tlie history of the Turkish conquest of Asia Minor.''' the example of Michael VII. 475. 476. in that 39 The establishment wealthy re- gion. OF THE CRUSADES. f Guibert Abbat. Also the original ac- count of William of Tyre.. vol. and his preparation of a naval armament Following Alexius with reasonable alarm for the safety of the European remnant of his dominions. Hicrosol. p. 10.CAUSES Asia Minor. of the subordinate Seljukian kingdom of Roum. ii. within a hundred miles of Constantinople.-j- The inde- pendent partitions of the Seljukian conquests on the death of Malek Shah. Francos. The residence of Solyman. p.. lib. relieved the pressure on the Byzantine empire enabled" even to recover and Alexius was some portion of Asia Minor from the successor of Solyman . . he addressed the most earnest entreaties for succour to the Pope and the temporal princes of Western Christendom. vol. or of the Romans —a title in itself insulting to the proud pretensions and fallen majesty of the successors of Constantine —contracted the eastern frontiers of their empire to the shores of the Bosphorus and the Hellespont. 244.

0^ Sr-jU" . yet resident at the Papal Court. that spark was its struck into the enthusiasm of Europe which threw combustible elements into one jxeneral conflagration of religious warfare.. when. r:.40 THE FIRST CRUSADE. by an instru- ment apparently far more powerless.

man lord. of Picardy. ^^II^^M HE '^ name and this story of the ex- traordinary individual who be lit up ' unquenchable flame fa- of fanaticism. who. 41 Peter the Hermit. must miliar to every reader. in some moment either . had. Peter the Hermit was a poor gentle. PREACHING OF THE FIRST CRUSADE.PREACHING OF THE FIRST CRUSADE. SECTIOIT n. and vainly attempting to improve his fortunes by an alliance with a lady of noble family. after following in arms his feudal Eustace de Bouillon.

effects so But the produced which afterward memorable. of disappointed for ambition or of awakened remorse a profitless deeper guilt. led him shortly to delife sert the monastic profession for a of absolute soli- tude . escaped. to the refuge of the cloister. and to the character of an anchorite he next superadded that of a pilgrim to the Holy Land. The scenes which he witnessed.42 THE FIRST CRUSADE. in this expedition. cited At Jerusalem cruelties of the : his indignation w^as ex- by the Turks to the Christian at the in- residents and pilgrims his piety was shocked profanations with which the Holy Sepulchre was . the sufferings which he endured. from service and a distasteful marriage. were of a nature to confirm the mental distemper which had been nourished in his cell. Pcicr the Hermit and the Patriarch of Jerusalem. resistless fervour of spirit.

mean and clad those coarse weeds of a from whence he derived his surname of the Hermit. of Christendom/'' He possessed many notwithstanding an unpromising exterior. and.-]- popular passions of his * Willermus Tyr. 482. 11. in a conversation with the Patriarch of Jerusalem. p. he declared his purpose to rouse the princes and people of the West to avenge the disgrace qualities which. and burst upon the world he as the preacher of a religious war. described as emaciated by toil. self-inflicted austerities and wayfaring in appearance solitary. He was : inspired with the genuine spirit of fa- enthusiasm regardless of bodily privation tigue. f Willermus Tyr. suited by those barbarian infidels.personae coniemjitabilis. he was fluent in speech. above all. and. et p. But his eye beamed with supplied fire and intelligence . and the vehement sincerity of his feelings him with the only eloquence which would intelligible to the have been times. . which has deluded the he first When is emerged from obscurity. ])usillus. i. The archbishop's : lively portraiture of the fanatic has often been quoted Erat autem hie idem staturd quantum ad exteriorem hom!neni. fanatic of every age. animated by that admixture of pious inten- tions with personal vanity. diminuin tive in stature . lib. peculiarly fitted him for the task to which he thoroughly devoted and himself. steadfast in purpose. c. . 637. self inspired 4o He fancied him- by Heaven to eftect its deliverance from their hands . ardent in imagination. Guibert Abbat.— PREACHING OF THE FIRST CRUSADE.

ct qM7ite jJucns ei non deerat cloqnium. is increased by the assertion of a well-informed writer of his times. and had a quick. natural son of attended his father in his Robert Guiscard. and the desire of extending the authority of the Papal See over the churches of the East. who had in his own person proved the weakness of the Byzantine empire. craty ct Vivaci's enim ingenii Srd major in exicjuo rcfjnahat corjwre virtus. oculum hahens j^ei-sjnroccm . .'^' that he had recourse to a temperate counsellor. and whose ambitious spirit was now impatiently restrained within the narrow limits of a Neapolitan fief The Norman prince. This was Boemond. The probability that least schemes of mere worldly policy were at with the religious impressions of mingled Urban II. and motives of ambition. and found in Urban to his II.44 THE FIRST CKUSADE. Having obtained from the Patriarch of Jerusalem letters of credence and supplication for the cause which he had undertaken. . who had daring invasion of Greece.) * Malmsbury. (This man was little in stature and contemptible in appearance spirit. repaired at his return to once to the Papal Court. nor was he wanting in agreeable and ready eloquence. perhaps. p. but the views of Gregory VII. must have been suggested by the embassy of Alexius. yratumque. but there reigned within that slight body a very courageous clear eye . were not forgotten by his successor . the Divine authority of his . sincerely credited. and. sufficiently strong to induce his assent. on Europe. Peter. an astonished but ready listener project. magnanimous misabn The pope recognised. He 407 possessed a lively genius.

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V*.^_i5.y^/.^yyy. .yy :^.y. - .

uhi supra. the indignation excited in these mul- titudes by his picture of the wrongs of their Christian brethren. he every- where proclaimed the sacred duty of delivering the sepulchre of Christ from the hands of the infidels. II. at his voice tears. after merable crowds of ranks which thronged cities . 638. Pisanus.* been. Willermus Tyr. Vita Urhanii iii. PREACHING OF THE FIRST CRUSADE.) p. whose selfish 45 and wily character strikingly developed itself in little the subsequent events of the Crusade. Unless we bear in mind the prodigious influence of those superstitious and martial feelings which together absorbed the passions of a fierce and ignorant age. Her- mit's preaching and language has been exhausted in contemporary authorities. vol. the shame and remorse which followed his reproaches at the guilty supineness that had aban- * Pandul. (in Script. churches and highways. p. travelling over Italy and France. we may readily more upon believe the chronicler that it was founded political than religious considerations. the However this may have tion Hermit of Picardy quitted the Papal Court strengthened by the approba- and the promises of the . is difficult it to conceive the recorded effects of the . was influenced by the devotional fervour of the age and.. if his advice determined Urban to direct the enthusiasm of Europe to the shores of Palestine. and the hamlets. Malmsbury. Rerum Ital. 352. and the sacrilegious defilement of the Holy Sepulchre . spiritual chief of Christen- dom and. the innuall describing. the sighs. .

the eager reception of his injunctions to every sinner to seek reconcilement with Heaven by devotion to its cause . are computed to to the scene. the rude eloquence of speech and gesture. prelates of Italy and the neighbouring regions have flocked four thousand inferior clergy. 381. his withered form.') p. which flowed from impassioned were all in sincerity. the Christian chivahy of Europe. deep unison with the religious sentiments : of his hearers the appeal to arms roused. (^Gcsta Guibert. p. of austerity of the preacher. Urban first convoked the . 482. and the enthusiasm which Peter had awakened by his preaching was restrained from bursting into fulfilment of action. At Piacenza. . and thirty thousand lay persons.46 THE FIRST CRUSADE. Fulcherius Carno- Dei per Francos. * Willermus Tyr. tensis. which was proclaimed in attire. 638.* The pope had dismissed the Hermit with the as- surance that he would strenuously support his great design . only by eager expectation of the the pledge. to the insults doned the blessed scenes of redemption of infidels. and the rapture which his destern hearts of congregated nunciations of vengeance against the Saracen enemies God awakened in the The fanatical warriors. with a blended and in- separable principle. that double excitement of devotion as and valour which animated. p. with irre- sistible strength. and his abstemious diet the voluntary poverty which distributed signed for its to the indigent the arms vainly de- own relief. his squalid .

] and. x. Labbe. 47 1095. Concilia. was appointed for the seat of the Council. the capital of Auvergne. and preached the sacred duty of infidels. p. by the by the predominant martial and and by religious spirit of his native country. the legates of the Eastern to Emperor having been admitted into the assembly expose the dangers which menaced their country and all Christendom from the progress of the Turks. 353. vol. &c . by the au- thority of a more general Council. and to mature the design of a holy war.PREACHING OF THE FIRST CRUSADE. and to implore the aid of the nations of the West against the infidels. His fervent exhortations were addressed to a multitude already deeply imbued with t P.] laity of all ranks. p. 499. and an immense multitude of clergy and [Nov. France.attendance. from France. deeming the sepulchre of Christ from the and the certain propitiation for sin by devotion to this meritorious service. partialities of birth. the war . but. after the During the its first week were opening of the Council. the special invitation of Raymond. deliberations chiefly engaged in the enactment of some general pro- visions for the improvement of morals and the repres- sion of private session. 1095. in his choice of a place for its assemblage. Italy. Pisan. March. d. Vila Urban. [a. it was resolved to promote the demand. Clermont.'^ Urban was di- rected. at which the pope in person presided. gave their . and Germany. on the ninth morrow of the re- pope himself ascended an elevated pulpit in the open air. Count of Thoulouse.

" and Dieux slightly varied acclamations of Deus vuJt. . while it the warfare of the Croisse or Crusader. suggested to all Urban the idea that who embraced the sacred enterprise should bear on their shoulder or breast that symbol of salvation. green by the Flemings." . the Bishop of Puy first solicited the pope to affix the holy sign in red . and by the English. and Deus lo volt. that although cross. expressed the common it enthusiasm of the clergy and the people. The temporal prince who assumed the cross was the Count of Thoulouse. and his offers. while marks the pure had retention of the Latin tongue in the familiar speech of ecclesiastics. The proposal was eagerly adopted . different : Crusade red was the general colour of the hues were subsequently adopted as national distinctions u-hite red by the French. el volt. the cross became the invariable badge gave an enduring title to first of the profession. and proudly floats on that banner which ''a thousand years has braved the battle and the breeze. Yet the still red cross of St. through his ambassa- * It has been observed by Gibbon. to take up the cross of Christ. and the popular corruptions which it undergone into the two great northern and provengal dialects of France. the figurative injunction of Scripture to the sinner. At the instant when their cries resounded throughout the vast assembly.48 THE FIRST CRUSADE. after in the first Du Cange. fanatical purpose for the his inference of a divine command the holy war was interrupted by one universal and '- tumultuous cry of It is the will of God . cloth^' on his shoulder and the example being imme- diately followed. George was early our national emblem.

79-88. in an allusion to national habits Malinsbury wbimsically involves bis picture of the universal ex" The : Welshman vermin p. Italy. 61. x. 23.''-' The decision of the Council of Clermont was wel- comed throughout the Latin world with joyful assent and Europe echoed with the clang of warlike preparation for the sacred enterprise. as well as his person. Adhemar.. (Dugdale. •|" tent of the crusading ardour. p. to the cause. 382. forsook his hunting. Labbe. 49 dors. vol. and Germany were same spirit inspired with a common ardour . Baldricus Arch. . p. the Scot his companionship with . p. it was only because the Christian chivalry of Castile and Arragon were already occupied on a nearer theatre of religious hostility.) and perhaps {11 Art de Verifier Dates. (also in Gcsta Dei. Before the Council broke up. . the Bishop of Puy.f and penetrated the remoter region of Scandinavia and. vol. i. i. Guibert." first 416. papal legate for the conduct of the expedition and the following spring was appointed for the period of its departure to the East. p. were hailed with admiration.of Malcolm Ceanmore. Odo. in the long contest with their Sara- * Willcrmus Tyr. King of Scot4 land. 639-641. France. if Spain did not equally respond to the call. Concilia. the Dane his carouse and the Norwegian his raw fish. the was communicated to the British Islands. to devote his powerful resources. Bishop of Bayeux and Earl of Kent. Fuleher. 478^80. Among the distinguished personages who joined the Crusade from our own island. . were Stephen. vol. p. 842) a son. les Baronage. the English Norman Earl of Albemarle.) p. PREACHING OF THE FIRST CRUSADE. was invested by Urban with full authority as .

2. Med. P. the master passions of fanatical and martial tion.50 cen enemies. 91) that their auxiliary expedition should be numbered as the of the Crusades . Moshcim. d. Diss. (a. 1085. by the cupidity of the popes. even been contended (Mailly. by which the formance of the crusading vow was accepted as a equivalent for is all ecclesiastical penances. Cent. xii Ixviii. had been assisted by many foreign knights .f the feudal nobility and their followers. and among all ranks and conditions of men. and. and must have familiarized the French nobles with the idea of such enterprises —though x. 507. c. zeal were fed by various impulses of ac- The chief inducement. In the conquest of Toledo. beyond doubt. first and there is no doubt that is was considered as a holy war. first This decree memorable in itself as having suggested. The anathemas of the church * The sacred and meritorious character of the warftare against the Spanish Saracens had been already recognised by the popes. when pressed in the following year by the African Saracens.''' THE FIRST CRUSADE. vol. . JEvi. \o\. its memory has been eclipsed by the superior importance of the subsequent design for the redemption of the Sepulchre. Esprit des Croisades. It has p.) Alfonzo VI. Ecclcs. into so profitable an expedient for replenishing their cofiers. f hahhe. or at least rapidly extended. Concilia. he was succoured by the chivalry of France. Hist. was a perfull canon of the Council of Clermont. and became the most scandalous practical corruption of the Romish Church. Muratori. ii. Aiitiq. the idea of granting plenary after- indulgences : the sale of which for money was ward converted. the com- To mutation of penances for a military enterprise was peculiarly grateful. 3. In every country. p.

which the clergy often employed as a form of penance.. The filled exaggerated tales of pilgrims and traders were with pictures of oriental wealth . apits and so admirable. An injunction to religious warfare. was gladly embraced as the very easiest usual course of life mode of reconciling their its with expiation for disorders age.) f Idem. which relieved their while it promised free in- dulgence to their favourite pursuits. or to mount on horseback. p. (a new kind of sal- vation.* it as a new kind of salva- Nor were there wanting the worldly still incentives of avarice. Asia seemed an easy and glorious achievemnt and the chivalry of Europe already shared in imagination the countless treasures and fertile provinces of the gorgeous East. further to ani- mate the mistaken sense of religious duty. 554.f By the remaining classes of society. 555. PREACHING OF THE FIRST CRUSADE. the same min- gled influence of spiritual and temporal motives was equally felt. 51 against private wars. the enforcement of the truce of God. the subjugation of . and the prohibition to bear arms. that a chronicler emphatically eulogizes tion. salutis y Guibert. 471. While numbers of the clergy genus sincerely * '^ Novum p. in the judgment of the peared this discovery of a mode of atoning for prevalent crimes by their very repetition. and renown. fears. were all grievous to an order in whom the love of arms and rapine struggled with the terrors of superstition. ambition. .

under the special safeguard which the church threw over the performance of their vows.62 THE FIRST CRUSADE.'-' Lastly. or even alienated their vast do* Sec Du Cange. the conquest of Asia opened prospects of wealthy estabhshments to the higher order of ecclesiastics . shared the general fanaticism. in they alone. and the accumulation of interest during criminals were permitted to elude the . princes and high nobles mortgaged. and the authorities there cited. debt- was decreed were protected both from the present demands of their creditors their absence . all Yet these were but the secondary motives of all that one mighty impulse. even the speculations of an infant commerce assisted the general excitement. were enabled to defy the vengeance of the secular law. by the estabUshment and extension of a lucrative maritime trade. and the peasantry from feudal bondage to the purpose which ors it soil. were alike disregarded. . to kindred and possessions. all the tics which bind men to home and country. under which the ordi- nary considerations of life. To ol^tain funds for so dis- tant and expensive an enterprise. and the merchants of Italy. engaged with avidity in enterprises from effect. which. pursuit of justice and offenders of every degree. Under the pretence of a holy sinful to prevent. in particular. derived any solid and durable advantage. Crucis Pri'vilegiitm. in v. the monks found at least a meritorious occasion of escape from the irksome restraint of the cloister.

) 185. Nor was the contagion of to the chivalric order. at exorbitant and valuable property of sacrificed all kinds was reck- on the most inadequate terms to Yet.* * Guibert. p. irresistible among such. thirst of glory. Albertus Aquensis. swelled of helpless pilgrims. Guibert has a passage wliich too curiously illustrates the to madness of the prevalent fanaticism this place. or to was gradually imparted every bosom not wholly insensible to religion and honour. for weapons and women of all ranks. but mechanics and rustics forsook their occupations. 53 warriors of inferior rank either wholly aban- doned their feudal estates and obligations. which produced equal misery and scandal. be passed without notice in Deluded rustics yoked their oxen. the . arms. and encumbered the unwieldy masses Moreover. lands were everywhere converted into money and means of transport were collected prices lessly .PREACHING OF THE FIEST CRUSADE. the the dread of reproach. their benefices. . even often colder or craftier dealers. with an abanvirtues of donment of the more timid and becoming their sex. horses. (^Gesfa Dei 2^er Francos. and the prudent or designing purchaser in one hour. to . with their children. p. and exchanged their implements of industry of offence . force of example prevailed the awakening conviction of duty. or prepared to follow their lords in voluntary service . fanatical adventure confined ecclesiastics deserted Not only and monastic recluses their cells. 481. or. shod like horses. was himself the deluded seller in the next. mains . the superstitious either left their husbands behind them.

in Asia. p. murderers. and other criminals of the deepest dye. in an age so unfa- vourable for collecting the details of statistical calculation. life. By it is one chronicler . confidence of atonement for past crimes. which they placed their families and goods . p. the numbers which actually fulfilled their purpose justify the assertion that whole nations rather than the mere armies of "Western Christendom. f Fulcherius Carnot. and the expectation attracted of license for future enormities. it is vaguely estimated at less credulous six millions of persons f hy a all contem- porary denied that the kingdoms of the West could supply so vast a host . to perform the sacred journey and it vfusjilanh joco aptisslmum (very amusing) to hear the children inquiring. 386. Robbers. whether * Wilermus Tyr. J but even the exaggeration proves that the original design of enthusiasm would have totally depopulated for the Europe.54 THE FIRST CRUSADE. equally the vilest portion of mankind. returning reason. as they approached any that were Jerusalem. p. after making every deduction the influence of delay. and. 482. uhi mjjrdi. . city. X Guibert. p. and the accidents of first in cooling burst of fanatical fervour. 6-11. 556. were precipitated upon Moham- medan carts. Albertus Aquensis.'-' their guilt in the blood of the enemies of The aggregate of the cross could immense multitudes who thus assumed the scarcely be accurately computed. professed their design to wash out God.

1096. d. . 55 Norman Armour. set out The detachment under Godfrey. the PETER THE HERMIT— THE CRUSADES UNDERTAKEN BY THE PEOPLE. the See the interesting version of the speech of Urban.] Soon after the com- mencement of the new year. 1096. SECTIOIS' m before the season. an immense concourse of had thronged pilgrims. vio- lent for restraint. in by way of Hungary March.CRUSADES BY THE PEOPLE. first given by William of Malmsbury." as Gibbon has stated. March. Duke of Lorraine. chiefly of the lowest orders. * And not the " Feast of the Assumption in August. the impatience of the ruder multitudes of people grew too [a. in as Council of Clermont.''' fixed by Pope 'for the depart- ure of the Crusaders had expired. ONG end the of spring.

Guibert.) was that Bongarsius adopted latter whole were contemporaries. fanatic rashly accepted the perilous and. Fulcher. (^Gesta Fcrer/rmaniium Francorum) . and judgment with which lie compiled them. and second king of Jernsalcm.56 THE FIRST CRUSADE. already so often (juoted.* immense tide overflowed the ordinary channels of * Before ^ve accompany the. also a chaplain. to assume its conduct. in two folio volumes. although he was not contem- porary with the First Crusade.. the accumulating Its torrent began to sweep over Germany. Albert of Aix. during (^Ilht. 1. William. chaplain to the Count of Thoulouse. IHcrosoli/mitana. a designation which Jortin pithily The actual eye-witnesses Monk. whose history. of the First Crusade. disorderly march of thq thus commenced the First Crusade. . were. as the original preacher of the sacred enterprise. &c. and urged him.) is the work of an archbishop. Bobcrt the 2. have been revised by an abbot Ilierosol.) and it 6. perhaps from the materials of intlie formation to which he had access. Hierosorelation. title Expedidonis . under the general title of Gesta proposed to change into Gcsta Diaboli. Archbishop of TjTe. Dei i^r Francos. who did so. in 1611. who assisted at the Council of Clermont.) and 3. it communimob which behooves us to specify our principal guides throughout the expedition. for the Gesla Dei per Francos.') Raymond de Agiles. next in the order of testimony Ij/m. which he printed at Hanover. declared to (^Ilist. Ap- parently unconscious of his utter unfitness for com- mand. self to Baldwin. under his guidance. 4. 5. Baldric. Francorum . and afterward attached him- the Crusade. collection. who accompanied the Count of Chartrcs. (^Jlist. (^Ilist. was a keen observer and lively nan-ator. brother of the great Godfrey. the most valuable document in the whole collection. whose relations are to be found in the collection of Bongarsius. and lastly. is. (the of whose Chronicle. These are the original authorities contained in the great collection of Bongarsius. around Peter the Hermit on the western frontiers of France. and whose is although he did not himself accompany the expedition. and the 7. the charge.

CRUSADES BY THE PEOPLE. which were governed by a lieutenant of the Byzantine empire. Through Hungary. on their entrance into the wilder regions of Bulgaria. who forbade the supply of their necessities. office him the surname and who accepted the of lieutenant to the Hermit. a body of twenty thousand pilgrims preceded the march of the main host through stantinople. the means of subsistence were exhausted by their wants. still but. and their con- duct was as reckless as their condition was deplorable. to the friendly disposition of its and Christian people . and Peter was compelled to exhort them to separate into smaller masses. for a safe though toilsome passage. Carloman. and from the ferocious temper of the natives. garians flew to arms. 57 and devastation marked its course. or Walter. But in . cation. and the route of Walter and his followers was tracked in blood and flames. whose poverty procured for of Sans-Avoir. a Burgundian knight. Hunger comthe Bul- pelled the crusaders to resort to violence. The roads were obstructed by the multitude of passengers the country through which they moved was oppressed by their excesses. both from the treacherous policy of the imperial officers. they encountered every possible obstacle. or the Pennyless.. Hungary and Bulgaria toward Con- The wretched this quality of the advenis turers who composed advanced guard suf- ficiently indicated by the fact that there were only eight horsemen in the whole number. the Under command of Gualtier. they were indebted king.

Guibert. and were exposed rapine. amounting to forty thou- sand men. until they reached Malleville. under Peter the Hermit himself. roused to a furious vengeance. p. women. Willermus Tyr. The ramits parts of the city were scaled. the modern Zemlin. their march through his country was abundantly supplied. accele. G42. in reaching the Court of Constantinople. and children. . The second division of the crusading mob. the natives cut off hundreds of the miserable rabble. 483. that only b}'^ Walter and a few '"^ survivors succeeded. 384. p. who awaited their landin": on the Bulgarian bank of that * Fulchcr. every day's inarch. and tranquilly pursued. where the triumphant exhibi- tion sors on the walls of the spoils of some of their precur- who had been them slain in an affray with the inhabit- ants. to all for several days the survivors of violation the of horrors and large The approach Carloman with a army to punish their perfidious ingratitude. p. on its southern confines. Albert. rated the departure of the crusaders and their hasty to a and disorderly passage of the Save exposed them heavy loss from the attacks of the savage hordes. a flight through the forests. Aquensis. host. followed on the traces of the first body. p. before garia. 185.58 THE FIRST CRUSADE. Aided by the good offices of the Hungarian king. thousands of people were slaughtered. it and the destruction of the whole reached the southern confines of Bul- was so complete.

.

.

186-188. Enraged at some outrages. in an ineffectual attempt to renew the as at Zemlin. the people of Nissa pursued and massacred their rear-guard . under the walls of these places. where they were reunited to Wal* Albert. above ten thousand of the cruTheir camp was abandoned and plun- saders perished. 643-645. of their money. . their When they had ceased to helpless misery extorted some compassion. and. and despoiled of their baggage. river. voked a more open and fatal hostility. and. p. Tyr. The triumphant garrison and inhabitants issued forth upon them a general and total rout ensued sally. the and the pursuit. the wretched herd of continued its journey toward Constantinople. . the efforts of Peter could not dissuade the whole host from returning to avenge this quarrel . and their remains at length reached his capital. the assailants same scenes were repulsed from the walls with immense slaughter.* be formidable. Aquensis. 484. in the onset. Willermus Peter and his horde of banditti reached the neigh- bourhood of Constantinople in August. p.. 1096. Alexius interposed his protection. p. fugitives and of their arms. dered . Guibert. . CRUSADES BY THE PEOPLE. 59 Though they finally repelled these new ene- mies. the fortified towns were closed against for their and the purchase of provisions march. The them natives had retreated to their fastnesses and strong- holds . was the only intercourse which the imperial officers would permit the inhabitTheir excesses again pro- ants to hold with them. they found Bulgaria a wasted solitude.

used a decent pretext for escaping back to Constantinople.60 ter THE FIRST CRUSADE. by new acts of insolence. of his prudential warnings. licentiousto their and pillage . but here. sight of the Christian banners on its walls. Under the conduct of Peter and his lieutenant Walter. instead of being wel- comed by the ish cavalry. than they repaid their hospitable benefactor ness. and the survivors of the first division. . nor the advice of the emperor himself to await the arrival of the more disciplined chivalry of Europe. but Walter. vanced body of their pect of sharing in its spoils. by the Sultan of Roum. they blindly rushed into . they divided their forces to plun- der the Turkish provinces. Walter bravely. they found themselves surrounded by the Turkfell In the first onset. whose more martial ciated with qualities for ter fate. prevent their headlong advance. find- ing himself totally unable to control them. neither the exhortations of the Hermit could restrain their outrages against the religion and property of the subjects of Alexius. But they were no sooner refreshed. spirit was really asso- command to yield deserving of a betto their clamorous Des2:)ite was compelled demand to be led against the infidels. and Alexius gladly acceded desire to be transported across the Bosphorus. they were landed in Asia Minor. his capital. Peter. and reunited only on a report artfully circulated Nice. the heart of a hostile country but when they de- scended into the plain of Nice. that hands of an adAllured by the pros- had fallen into the associates.

89.CRUSADE BY THE PEOPLE. on their arrival in Hungary. and a huge mound. a remnant. named Godeschal. bert. 485. and more enormous waste of human life. repetition of p. Willermus Tyr. . but. p. At first he prudently supplied them with the means of accelerating their passage through his kingdom .* for succeeding hosts The disorders and destruction of these first two divisions of the crusading rabble were. indeed. but their march was attended with an aggravated * Albert. Gui- p. his followers The disorderly multitude of was immediately overwhelmed and slaugh- tered . 227. p. but a prelude to more atrocious scenes of guilt. Anna Comnena. no more than three thousand. they exits perienced a far different reception from sovereign. into which the savage victors piled the bones of the slain. This third division took the same route as the two preceding . 226. formed an ominous monument of disaster of crusaders. Baldricus Arcliiepiscopus. Stimulated by the example of Peter. by intelligence and example. 61 covered with wounds. that he allured about fifteen thousand of the peasantry to follow him to the East. preached the Crusade through the villages of his native land with so much effect. a German monk. the twofold duties of the leader and the warrior. escaped the general destruction by flight to the nearest Byzantine fortress . while vainly discharging. p. who was which justly exasperated at the outrages with his hospitality had been repaid. 645-647. 189-193.

his promise of forgiveness and protection induced them to lay down their arms. and this act of submission was immediately followed by superstition. which deeply sullied the merit of his earlier forbearance. the licen- their ruthless massacre. there gathered on the eastern confines of Germany one huge mass of the vile refuse of all these nations. Before the walls of Belgrade. accompany authentic their march. the worst crimes which had been perpetrated by the followers of the Hermit. 648. p.* But the numbers. the whole population of Hungary was rose in arms against them. but their leaders are undistin- and the most contemporary records of their proceedings compel us to repeat the incredible assertion that their motions were guided * Albert. amounting sons. and share their prey guishable . 194. were not ashamed . Willermus Tyr. all before the features displayed in the composition and conduct of the fourth and last division of the rabble of Europe.62 THE FIRST CRUSADE. from the Bhenish Pro- vinces and Flanders. p. the gross tious wickedness. . From France. with their to mounted fol- lowers. and Carloman at length provoked to deliver them over to the vengeance of his subjects. For this purpose he had recourse to a cruel act of perfidy. and from the British Islands. and the miserable extirpation of sink into insignificance these fanatical hordes. to no less than two hundred thousand per- Some bands of nobles.

they sought the blood and spoils of a helpless and unoffending people. Under the commencing their holy war by extir- pating the enemies of God in Europe. and their precious effects. pidity of fanatics. we find their actions as detestable as their superstition was blind victims and unholy.CRUSADE BY THE PEOPLE. the cities. which were believed to be If vinely inspired. Bishops of Mayence. and thousands were either barbar- ously massacred. or. protection of the eccle- siastical lords of these commercial places. Their riches tempted the cuprofessed a zeal for the pure who religion of the gospel. only that' they might violate its most sacred precepts of mercy and pretence of love. and the continued attested dulgence of brutal sensuality that . by ca 63 di- goat and a goose. the ruffian host pursued march from init the Rhine to the its Danube . to escape the outrages and dis- appoint the cupidity of their enemies. colonies of that outcast race had long enjoyed toleration and accumulated wealth. into the waters or the flames. Spires. we impatiently dismiss a circum- stance so revolting to every pious mind. their women and children. and other courage- ously endeavoured to shield the Jews from their fury and rapine . but their humane efforts were only par- tially successful. and so de- grading to the pride of human intellect. cities of The unhappy Jews Under the in the episcopal first the Rhine and Moselle were the of their ferocity. cast themselves. To the honour of the Romish Church. Sated with murder its and spoliation.

649. by flight and dispersion. and its waters dyed with the blood of the The contemporary who was appa- rently best informed of their execrable crimes and well-merited fate. that the course of the bodies. Willermus . and inexplicable panic produced a general unresisted slaughter. some sudden flight. Danube was choked with the chronicler. 196. Fulcher. saved their lives only * Albert. and so dreadful and was the carnage. the unruly and "wicked multitude proved as dastardly against an armed enemy as been ferocious toward the defenceless Jews. Aquensis. 386. whatever remnant sur- vived. fected the passages of the it had It ef- Danube only to encounter a tremendous defeat from the Hungarian army which had collected for the national defence . commis- But it was at length over- taken by the vengeance of God and man. Tyr. 195. In the hour of danger. slain. asserts that very few of the im- mense crusading multitude escaped death from the swords of the Hungarians or the rapid current of the river.64 THE FIKST CRUSADE. p. p. and it is certain that. for the needed not the impulse of fanaticism sion of every atrocity.* p. 650.

so dark and grovelling was their and superstition. at fifty Europe had already cost the putation. of the lowest com- two hundred and thousand of its people. and before a single advantage had been gained over the infidels. the fanatical enthusiasm of lives. . that all pity for is lost their fate in the disgust and horror Avith which we recoil from the contemplation of brutality and Hhtory of * Mills. and so flagitious their licentiousness.CRUSADE BY KINGS AND NOBLES.* But such were the stupid ignorance and folly still headlong tudes. so cruel and demoniacal their fanaticism. THE CRUSADE UNDERTAKEN BY KINGS AND NOBLES. p. i. which misguided these wretched multimore. 81. tlio Crusade!^. SECTION IV. Before twelve months had expired since the spirit of crusading was roused into action by the Council of Clermont. vol.

been or less infected with the general In more madness of the age but. was by the generous pursuit of martial fame. THE FIRST CRUSADE. the mailed and organized chivalry of Eu. opens to our view. while the first disasters lar ferment of Europe. and irreiru- powerfully evolved. ol dignified purpose or heroic achievement the myriads uho had perished in Ilungarj^. a splendid and interesting spectacle.. rope was arraying itself for the mighty contest and a far different. they had. were inspired by the twofold incentive . With maturer with steadier resolve than the half-armed and lar rabble. the motives. 66 guilt. we are no longer presented with the revolting sameness of a mere brutal also elevated ferocity. in Bulgaria. coarser rabble of every country struction and in their de- we behold only the ofTscouring of the popuBut. although mingled with superstition. their resolves of spiritual duty and temporal honour and their fa- naticism was regulated by foresight and prudence. entering on their purpose. they were composed chiefly of the . and not unstained by cruelty. Their zeal. of. were animated by none of the timents of the age . and in loftier sen- Asia Minor. In the characters. and the conduct of the princely and noble leaders who achieved the design of the first Crusade. the Crusade were sweeping this mass of corruption surfiice from the of society. The picture is relieved by no exhibition . the genuine spirit of reli- gious and martial enthusiasm was more slowly and preparation. in the guidance of the holy war. many of them . indeed.

of course refused authority by which I. (by an anonymous chronicler. i. Mas. and his duty of pressing the schism created or. the Crusade was preached. on the plea of his engrossing functions in the re- general government of the church. and as patient and constant under difficulties.. is and the heroism of impossible to withhold our sym- pathy and admiration. is condemned by our calmer reason cause the justice of their may be impeached on every true principle of divine and human law it . in Mabillon. on the more reasonable excuse of his age infirmities. the Bishop of Puy. Philip . Ital vol. as skilful in expedients. the personal The to Emperor Henry recognise the enemy of Urban. It has been deemed worthy of remark.'*' and but he deputed his spiritual autho- rity to his legate Adhemar. by the Antipope Clement. proved themselves as 67 politic in counsel. as they were adventurous in danger and courage- ous in combat.) p. declined the personal command of the ex- pedition. and protector of the antipope. from the magnanimous fearless devotion of their their exploits. perhaps. but their absence was determined by the accidents of individual character and position. but. 135. The wildness of their enterprise . that none of first the principal sovereigns of Euro^^e engaged in the Crusade. spirit. Pope Urban II. . IV. of France was absorbed in sento sual indulgence and renew the excommunication * Belli Sacri Hint.CRUSADE BY KINGS AND NOBLES.

and a kinsman also of the latter name . Hugh. The crafty irreligious character of William II. . Duke of the Lower Lorraine or Brabant.. Eustace and Baldwin. with his two brothers. and Raymond. brothers of the French and English kings Robert. of England (Rufus) also led less him rather to minister to his brother's reck- enthusiasm. Henry IV. than to join himself in the holy war. styled the Great Count of Vermandois. and Robert. already passed upon at the him was one of the acts of Urban and very Council of Clermont. Counts of Flanders. Duke of Normandy. 68 THE FIRST CRUSADE. by purchasing the mortgage of Duke Robert's Normaji dominions. Stephen. But the cause rejected by these dis: monarchs was eagerly embraced by the most tinguished feudal princes of the second order by Godfrey of Bouillon.

whom equally delighted to exhibit as the brightest examplar of knightly virtue. and.CRUSADE BY KINGS AND NOBLES.. in the conduct and the results of the Crusade. however. 69 Godfrey of Bouillon. Chartres. the highest place of honour must be conceded to the Duke of Brabant. during the war between the empire and papacy. and ranked. both . in which he adhered to IV. and Tlioulouse. In dignity and character. cousin Prince of Tarento. Godfrey of Bouillon was descended through females from Charlemagne. with his history Tancred. powerful feudatories reputation for of the among the most German Empire. and romance have son of the Guiscard. Henry at he had specially distinguished himself. and the Norman Boemond. alike by his great possessions and personal qualities. His and prowess in arms wisdom in counsel was deservedly high.

the pilgrimage to Jerusalem his illness dic- tated the renewal of an early purjDOse of performing : and he no sooner heard if of the projected Crusade. and promoted his personal influence. was sincere and fervent. . His political importance was increased by the position of his states on the frontiers of France and Germany and his consequent familiarity with the popular dialects of both countries. as life. and with valour. than. and though mistaken. the customary language of the church. calmed only by moderation. his conduct was just and disinterested. Since the siege of Rome his frame had been consumed by a slow fever. tempered by reflection and judgment. as well as his acquisition of the Latin. his was regu- lated by the strictest principles of morality and religion. facilitated his intercourse. the battle of Merseburg and at the siege of Rome.: 70 THE FIRST CRUSADE. among the nations of Europe. inspired with new and he suddenly shook off' disease from his limbs. if they had not been asso- ciated with energies capable of the loftiest designs with a head to conceive and a hand to execute the most arduous enterprises which his conscience approved. qualified These virtues might have cloister him rather for the than the camp. amid life the gross and violent disorders of the times. with resolution. his piety. pure. But the se^'ere integrity of his character disdained the selfish exercise of these advantages.. and benig- nant. and. which no difficulties could shake. His manners were gentle. which no perils could deter.

Malmsbury. Hugh of France these qualities. . were destitute of the religious humility and modest demeanour of Godfrey '* . 651. Guibert. sprang with renovated health and youth from a sick- couch to engage in so glorious and meritorious a work/^ The transcendent merits and accomplishments first : which adorned the principal hero of the have demanded an especial portraiture tures in Crusade the few fea- the characters of the remaining leaders. p. though supported attributes not by other unworthy of his royal birth. 71 Siege of Rome. p. In may be more briefly sketched. and the great Count of Ver485.CRUSADE BY KINGS AND NOBLES. zeal which varied their general resemblance in devout and warlike excellence. p. Willermus Tyr. 44S.

in and making him- and had only been prevented from putting him to death. nation had nearly His rashness and insubordia parricide. eloquent in debate. Guibert. and rash and unsteady in resolve. 34. his conduct during p. p. own William the Conqueror.f Robert of Normandy was generous and merciful. 485. f Anna Comnena. Although. unhorsed his battle. dissolute morals. mandois was remarkable chiefly for an arrogant and haughty deportment. 227. Robert of Normand./ and his Father. Robertus Monachus.72 THE FIRST CRUSADE. . therefore. self by his father's exclaiming known. and well skilled in military expedients. p. in but profuse in exequally pense. as he had made him father.

fitted These intellectual acquirements peculiarly for directing the general design him of the war. Gilles in Languedoc . and his exhis often attracted the general his admiration. Will. title f The history of this prince is very obscure. to equip self p. Chron.CRUSADE BY KINGS AND NOBLES. but he was enterprise. his fame was tainted by the questionable quality of his valour.f whose youth had been habitually exercised in arms * A well-known instance of Robert's careless spirit was the abovefive mentioned mortgage of his duchy to his brother William for years. Gemeticensis. and under that appellation exagge- . 73 the Crusade was thought in some measure to atone for the irregularities of his earher ploits life. 204. instability of mind prevented more maintaining the respect of his illustrious compeers. The veteran and sagacious Count of Thoulouse. whence Anna Comnena cor- rupted his name into Sangeles. without sharing any portion even of his abortive talents. 673. skill to preside in the council of its In the field. clear age. deemed the most learned tical in all the literate and prac- knowledge of the suggestions. experienced and wise in his and persuasive in discourse. The Count of Chartres.* His name- sake of Flanders resembled him in headlong valour. at the inadequate price of ten thousand marks. Sax. him- for the Crusade. vigorous and in the eyes of the fiery champions of the Cross. p. His original was Count of St. the superiority of his tactical deficient in was equally recognised. one of the wealthiest w\as also and most potent feudal princes of France. and he was accordingly chosen leaders.

&c. * Boemond pretended with surprise and admiration the it is news of the design of Urban.74 THE FIRST CRUSADE. as if he had been the principal personage of the Crufiefs sade. and the devotion of his old age. a proud and vindictive temper. all To him alone. which denied him the friendship of and alienated the affections of his noble confederates. perhaps. L^ Art do ks p. from that warfare a deadly hatred of the Mussuhnan name. vol. to receive title of Duke of Narbonne. of the movers and warriors of the Crusade. To the purely fanatical which predominated in the character of the Pro- vencal prince. genius enabled and unprincipled him feign'*'' some share in rates his rank. if their sincerity had not been attended by a cold and selfish nature. Yirijicr which he Dates. had brought against his Saracen neighbours in Spain. the Ulysses of the war. and . also bore. might have protected his motives from the suspicion of worldly ambition and avarice. may be attributed a systematic design of rendering the popular enthusiasm of Europe subservient to views of mere If his versatile to feel or to personal interest. the abandonment of his extensive the appropriation of his great riches to the service of the Crusade. bition may be opposed the unscrupulous am- and deep hypocrisy of the Norman Boemond. and was more fiercely animated than the other crusading princes by the spirit of religious intolerance. ii. which more than probable that he . In what manner he had acquired the extensive of Thou- louse and Provence. and arrogated the 280-294. seems undetermined. his zeal own native followers. His master passion was umitigated fanaticism dominions.

Ralph of Caen was the personal friend and companion of Tancrcd in Palestine after the Crusade. among the heroes of the holy war. Odo. p. as some of the writers in the Gesta Dei. rendered wTong and him the mirror of European chivalry . and no less rapacious than perfidious. . the whole re- corded tenor of his conduct betrays the settled and absorbing pursuit of temporal aggrandizement. less correctly informed than the biographer of the hero. * Tancrcd was the son of Matilda. the singular spectacle of a cool and crafty politician. the poet has here only echoed the praises which the qualities of Tancred extorted even from the Greek princes. sister of Kobert the Gruiscard. 45. 485. p. 277. At the siege of Amalfi. can. de Gestis Tancredi. 7o the prevalent sentiment of his time. His vices were odiously contrasted with the generous qualities of his youthful cousin Tancred.CRUSADES BY KINGS AND TEOPLE. La But Gerusal. he embraced : the Crusade in an apparent transport of zeal excited the fanatical ardour of his confederates and followers by an eloquent harangue. c. while their enthusiasm was at its height. above all a Norman name. 1." whose frank and courteous bearing. Llherata. (Radulphus Cadomensis. no of less than his love of glory and high-minded disdain perfidy. and therefore the cousin of Boemond. characteristic anecdote is told This curious and by Guibert. never unwilling to detract from the virtues of a Latin.f had secretly prompted." &c. he exhibits. i. The father of Tancred was an Italian marquess. —Anna Comncna. Fa- miliar with all the arts of dissimulation. rent his own robe into pieces in the shape of crosses for the soldiery. and. and Gibbon and Muratori after them supposed. f" pivi bel di maniere e di sembianti piu eccelso ed intrepido di core.) and not either his brother or nephew.

" . under the Counts of Vermandois and Chartres. and many other feudal lords. and Flanders f and their formidable asser- muster can be estimated only loosely from the tion of a contemporary. of Ilohj War. ranged themselves under the standard of Godfrey of Bouillon. The third host. The last * For " neither surely. Such were the leaders under whom the warlike array of the Western nations was marshalled for the First Crusade. the two Roberts. 48. 13. and Eustace. The hrst body.) were assembled the chivalry of Central and Northern France. i. " did the Irishmen's feet stick in their bogs." says old Fuller. whose forces numbered no less foot.) go also sings Tasso " Questi dair alte sclve irsuti inanda La t Guibcrt. lib. p. Normandy. that the number of lesser barons alone exceeded that of the Grecian warriors at the siege of Troy. Their confederate powers were to col- according the local convenience or pre- ference of the chieftains. Count of Boulogne. than ten In the thousand cavalry and eighty thousand second division. composed of the nobility of the Rhenish provinces and the more northern parts of Germany.: <b TUE FIRST CRUSADE. lected. That prince was accompanied powerful by the two Baldwins. the British Isles. (brother of Godfrey. in the order of Italians was composed of Southern under Boemond and Tancred. and formed an array of ten thousand horse and twenty thousand foot. c. into four great divisions. diyisa dal mondo ultima Irlanda." (Hist.f departure.

and Aries.'''• admixture of the Christian knighthood of the Pyre- nean regions of Spain : but in his route through Lombardy. division. the Arch- bishop of Toledo. Gascony. Ray- mond was accompanied by three rank the papal Legate Adhemar : prelates of high of Puy. the preparations of Bouillon were earliest completed . The reply of Carloman exposed the crimes by which the vengeance of his people had been roused. chiefly of his was originally formed own vassals and native confederates of with a small Languedoc. p. and his march from the banks of the Moselle was conducted with admirable prudence and order by the same route which had proved so disastrous to the preceding rabble. p. and the Bishop of Orange. his army was swollen by his banners all so great numhost bers of Northern Italians. he demanded of king by his envoys an explanation of the circumstances which had provoked their destruction. f Willermus Tyr. When he reached the its northern frontiers of Hungary. / I which assembled under the Count of Thou- louse in the South of France.CRUSADE BY KINGS AND NOBLES. 144. that the combined which marched under amounted to one hundred thousand persons of arms and conditions. GGO. comprehended under the general appellation of Provencals . and his just and amicable representations compelled the up- * Raymond des Agilcs. Besides several feudal chieftains of distinction. .f Of all the principal leaders of Godfrey of the Crusade.

198. dismissed hostages adieu. when the the Latin host had passed its southern confines. of his people. and left his own brother Baldwin and his family as hostages for the good faith and forbearance which he enforced on sincerity of Godfrey all his followers. p. their virtuous and able leader still succeeded in maintaining the same strict . The noble won the confidence of the Hunga- rian monarch. 199. 052 . and. tility and disarmed the suspicion and hosCarloman himself attended the cavalry. movements of the crusaders with a numerous march both to observe their behaviour and to protect their . disci- pline the Emperor Alexius by toilsome passage assisted and rewarded wants of his his efibrts liberally supplying the army in its through the desolate division of the its forests of Bulgaria.78 right THE FIRST CRUSADE. Willci-mus Tyr. the -whole of his kingdom was traversed without a single act of offence on either side. were courteously with a friendly AVhen the crusaders entered the Byzantine provinces. ness of the crusading mob had merited He accepted a friendly invitation from the Hungarian- king . and the first Eu- ropean chivalry peaceably accomplished into the fertile plains of Thrace. treated with him for a safe passage through his dominions with supphes of provisions on equitable terms. judgment of Godfrey to admit that the -wickedits fate. p.'-' entrance ^ Albert.

CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 79 SECTION V. THE FIRST CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. alacrity with The at which Alexius first facilitated the approach of his Latin allies. it is acknowledged that the host of Godfrey must have perished in their route through provinces al- imperfectly cultivated. ^^UT for the friendly succour of the Byzantine monarch. was succeeded by indications of a more du- . and ready exhausted by the feuds of their barbarous natives.

bious policy. His hospitable reception of the first disorderly masses of pilgrims had been re- quited by the ravage of his territories and the spoliation of his subjects : the very numbers and formida- ble array of the better-disciplined chivalry of Europe might alone have their justified a prudent apprehension of their fierce prompti- power and disposition. In weighing the justice of these charges. Instead of the reasonable aid which he had solicited from the pope and the temporal sovereigns of the West. and. alliance in the same enterprise with his ancient and dangerous enemy. and a still larger share of extenuation for the suspicious conduct of the emperor may be claimed for the difficulties and peril of his position. in the report of their chroniclers. the conduct of the emperor is branded with the re- proach of deliberate perfidy and systematic hostility. he found his dominions overwhelmed. which tude in resenting was by no means calculated to allay. at least an ominous The plea of delivering the Holy Sepul- chre from the hands of the Turks. and his throne shaken from its foundations. might easily cover •a design of subjugating the whole Eastern world to . some reduction from their truth must be made for the bigoted prejudice of the Latins against a schismatic monarch and nation . was conjuncture. Boemond. by the deluge of European fanaticism.80 THE FIRST CRUSADE. the spiritual dominion of the Latin Church the same . Of the personal characters and real designs of most and their of their leaders he was utterly ignorant .

a tedious matter to how great riches in all kinds of goods.! CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. however innocent in the breast of the good chaplain. were likely to prompt dangerous wishes and designs to the bold and unscrupulous imaginations of fierce and rapacious warriors. the rich spoils of Constantinople'" offer and its provinces might a more accessible and tempting prey than the distant relief of Jerusalem and plunder of Syria. contains how many works streets wonderful to behold. p. the recent distraction and rapid decay of the Seljukian power had terminated the alarm with which Alexius formerly anticipated the his empire gies .) The emotions ex- by the contemplation of such wealth. o8G." fine recitare quanta opulentia bonorum ! &c. entire ruin of and the subsiding of the Turkish enerin- had removed the immediate danger which duced him to implore the approach. religious hatred thus ani- mated by and temporal ambition. are to be found in tell its It would be. it palaces ! and monasteries. 81 pretext of fanatical zeal might be readily employed against the infidel Mohammedans and confident valour and heretical Greeks. and might have * Of the astonisliment and envy witli wliicli the splendour of Con- stantinople struck the rude Latins. ! Fulcherius. Moreover. quot etiam plateis vel in ad spectandum mirabilia sit ibi ! Tas- dium est quidem magnum omnium. . the chaplain and : companion of the Count of Chartres decora ! ''0 quanta civitas nobilis et ! quot monasteria quotque palatia in ea. of both gold cited and silver. auri et argenti. we may form a lively idea its from the burst of admiration which the remembrance of recalls magnificence to the mind of one of their chroniclers. indeed. and shops is its constructed with admirable art. — (Oh what a of and noble city is this How many skill. vious and to the the en- cupidity of the Western warriors. opere miro fabrcfacta vicis opera.

and only less to be dreaded. piously received his benediction. in Greek estimation scarcely more civilized.82 reconciled TUE FIRST CKUSADE. St. While he welcomed the approach of the army of Godfrey. by Hugh of Vermandois. division of the That second grand European chivalry. 35. and a command to the imperial lieu- tenant to make royal preparation for the arrival of * Fulcherius. '=' Peter into the hands of the and here the arrogance of first that prince furnished Alexius with a offence. for purpose of averting the ruin with which he was menaced. these chiefs. the two Roberts. his fleets in the Adriatic were pre- pared to dispute the passage of the French and Nor- man led crusaders from the Italian to the Grecian ports. . where Urban II. Count of Chartres. than the Mohammedan enemy. him to the presence of auxiliaries. in armour gorgeously inlaid razzo. 384. p. occasion of Twenty-four knights. with gold. prostrating themselves at the feet of the pope. com- mitted the standard of great Count of France . and the the purpose of embarkation. Robertus Monachus. the emperor appears to have had recourse to the timid and tortuous policy habitual in the Byzan- tine court. the double Under these critical circumstances. and of obtaining the advantages which he might yet hope to extract from the oppressive aid of the Western nations. p. had traversed France and Italy for At Lucca. were despatched by Hugh to Du- with a haughty intimation to Alexius himself of the approach.

his shore . the brother of the of the pope. impatiently put to sea. 229. p. p.. 228. CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. instead of offering the desired reception. xxvii. and note ad Alexiad. Joinville. with their consuming autumn in luxurious pleasure. When of * the intelligence of the captivity of the Count Vermandois reached the Anna Comnena. with the true comphicent siir vanity of a Frenchman.* 83 King of Kings. and the Counts of Flanders followers. in lieu of the magnificent descent which he had announced. The terms sage were resented as an insult and the Governor of Durazzo. was conceded through the respect of Europe during the Middle Ages par excellence to the t Anna Comnena. with outward demonstrations of respect but his per- son was for some time detained. he entered Durazzo as a suppliant. after and Chartres. camp of Godfrey in 228. 352) that the title of King of Kings thus arrogated by Hugh monarchs of France. indeed. and found himself a captive. The Duke the Normandy. p. resolved to defer their departure from Italy until the return of spring but Hugh. and standard-bearer of the letter and the mes. for his brother. regardless alike of the dangers of a wintry passage and the ambiguous disposition of the Greeks. Du Cange. until the commands of Alexius were received for his removal to Constantinople. stationed his navy of to prevent the egress of the great count and his followers from the Italian harbours. has amused himself by proving (Dissert. own vessel was wrecked on the and. . treated .f . His fleet was dispersed in a hostile storm. He was.

ened for provisions and Godfrey was again compelled to indulge the rapine of his followers. 84 Thrace. by his pompous reception was induced and Hugh to to despatch two of his own attendants Godfrey with the assurance that. and the empe- ror to arrest the sufferings of his people by concilia- tory measures. On the near approach of Godfrey and his host to the Byzantine capital. tion of hostilities . provoked Alexius to forbid all intercourse between his subjects and the strait- crusaders. The Latin camp was immediately . roused the violent anger of the crusaders .. he would find their master not a This message produced a cessa- captive. and seduced at the imperial court. A third and more dangerous quarrel . so and the mutual contempt and hatred of two dissimilar in manners and spirit. on the duke's arrival at Constantinople. but a guest. the Duke desire of Brabant was compelled to gratify the eager which was felt by followers to punish the imperial perfidy with the ravage of the fine province in which they were quartered. He had already soothed the captivity. and. speedily produced the This severe retalia^ tion submission of Alexius. it THE FIRST CRUSADE. after an incflectual demand liis for his release. the pride and vanity of the French prince. inflamed every mis- understanding. them to fly to arms on the slight- the Greeks were equally distrustful races. but the awakened suspicions of the crusaders prepared est provocation . the refusal of the duke and his fellow-chieftains to trust their persons unattended with the imperial walls.

Balcli-icus Arcli. To a state of hostility so inconclusive in * Albertus Aquensis. p. was produced by the fidious design of the 85 belief of the crusaders in a per- emperor to blockade and starve them byses. of the bridge of the Blachernae. 91. lermus Tyr. which was enclosed by the waters treachery. 654. Constantinople were strong and the . An fire indecisive contest was maintained until the close of day . . the of the Bosphorus. p. p. even attempted a headlong assault upon the walls. after setting to the suburbs. The hostile seizure of important post disappointed the intentions of the . they were repulsed and pursued to the city and the crusaders. withdrew from the walls. Anna Comnena. galled them with an incessant flight of arrows.* its objects. Wil- 653. the Black Sea. 232-234. securely directing an unerring aim. by an impe- tuous attack.CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. . The imperial troops issued from the gates of Constantinople to dispute the passage of the bridge . and the river Bar- To anticipate this suspected troops of Godfrey possessed themselves. But the ramparts of lofty . but at nightfall the assailants. Greeks sion or it more probably excited the their apprehen- against ulterior purpose of the crusaders themselves. p. inflamed with success and resentment. 200-202. in their camp. the only outlet and key of their communication with Constan- tinople this and the open country. Latins were unprovided with any battering engines and the Greek archers. after a bloody conflict.

which perhaps deserves more attention than has usually attracted. he proposed his friendship. him in self-defence to not to ruin the dreaded power of the cruto their chiefs. The very circumstance of this proposal it being made. which they were borrowed. and he had prepared the way for their acceptance by inducing the brother of the French king to offer an influential precedent. therefore. his earlier designs. yet the whole . * Anna Comncna. Alexius had ever really meditated the destruction of the crusaders. the Byzantine court need not shake our belief in the exclusiveh' barbarian and not Roman origin and existence of the system from fact is curious. and his desire of an accommodation might be increased by the approach of Boemond and his army."-' such of ancient provinces as they might recover from the infidels. a stop and injurious the was now put by If meditation of the Count of Vermandois. as a condition of saders. a proof. or more probably only shifting the jealous expedients of a policy which had prompted restrict. still was at this epoch familiar to the Eastern emperor. that the idea of the feudal relation.86 THE FIRST CRUSADE. its and swear either to restore or to hold in feudal dependence. It is more observable that the ceremonies with which the Latin and though their ready adoption on this occasion in princes subsequently took the oaths of fealty to Alexius were also strictly feudal . 235. Renouncing. whensoever received. an oath of fealty to the empire. that they should take to himself. Upon these terms. he engaged vigorously to suj)port the Crusade with the imperial forces and wealth. experience had shewn the fruitlessness of his efforts. to both parties. is p.

at first received in the The proposal was Latin camp with the indigall nation natural to the free and fiery spirit of high-born warriors. homage himself. and enforced propriety dis- on Godfrey. allegiance or re- subjection a foreign Godfrey himself in proached the baseness of to a degradation alike Hugh having consented his unworthy of haughty pre- tensions and real dignit}^. than sentiments worldly pride and honour yielded to the humbler dictates of religious duty. to await in their and chastise arms the insulting demand of . by arguments best adapted to the interested principles of that single-minded and jDious prince : such as the paramount obligation of their the difficulty of reducing Alexius to sacred vows. 87 So overcome was tlmt vain and inconsistent prince by the blandishments and presents of Alexius. of his ostentatious bearing and royal cused his birth. a Christian The reason all of Godfrey was of no sooner convinced. the impossibility of prosecuting the holy enterprise without the imperial aid . the Count of Thoulouse. and no subsequent persuasions. But the Count of Vermandois exits own compliance. more becoming terms. but undertook to obtain the that he not only stooped to the performance of the desired same submission from his confederates.CRUSADERS AT CONST ANTIOPLE. who spurned to the idea of lord. the probable ruin of the cause by delay and wasting hostility. with which he was addressed by the messengers of Boe- mond and arrival. and the very sinfulness of a contest with people.

with great probability. Alexius his son delivered as a hostage for their safe return . 657. but the daughter of Alexius has related an anecdote. was so disposed to repress his disgust at the pride of the Greek despot. more plainly marks the struggling emotions of the proud warriors. Alexius.'-' But these empty recognitions faintly concealed the real triumph it of Greek pride and policy. Anna Comnena. a private French baron. p. p. ing the ceremony of performing homage. was no fanciful degradation which converted the brave and chivalric princes and nobles of Western Europe into the vassals and liegemen of a Byzantine despot. filial adop- and investiture in imperial and robes. Their humiliation was relieved by a reception of studied honour. 203. and in return for the vows of fidelity "vvhich he repeated on his knees with clasped hands. sullen brevity with f That the humiliation was keenly felt may be inferred from the which the Latin chroniclers dismiss the transacwhich tion. and the compliance to which religious or political motives had induced the more responsible leaders of the Cru- . conjectured by Du Cange. 656. Willcrmus Tyr. 335. Albert. prostrated themselves in homage before the imperial throne.88 THE FIRST CRUSADE. and the example of his of his self-denial secured the acquiescence compeers.f * p. He declared his resolution to take the required oaths of fealty . To remove their lingering suspicions of treachery. Alexius distinguished the virtue and dignity of Godfrey by the ceremonies of tion. 238. repairing nople. Durwhile it amusingly illustrates the manners of Western Europe. little to have been Robert of Paris. could shako the sincerity of his purpose. and Godfrey to Constanti- and his principal companions.

His taunt and his advice were thrown away j and his daughter betrays some satisfaction in proceeding to record that the insolent barbarian fell in the foremost ranks of the Crusaders at the battle of Dorylaeum. by the other the divisions of the crusading host. in his crusading warfare. Before departure of Godfrey. the Count of Flanders and his followers had already reached the Byzantine capital from Italy . the Count of Chartres. 89 After this ceremony. he would do well to keep beyond reach of the Turkish arrows. he coolly retorted his con- tempt. " and of noble birth and I care only to know that in the neighbourhood from which I come there is a church. There have I often worshipped. says his daughter. and his new dependants. Anna Comnena. to reprove When the brother of Duke Godfrey attempted him for this rude disrespect. dissembled his resentment.. at short intervals. by remaining in the centre of the Christian host. and the sade to submit. whither they who design to prove their valour repair to pray until an adversary be found to answer their defiance. or rather vented it in an ironical caution." was the reply. while still under the walls of Constanti- nople. that if the Frenchman still desired to maintain the same boast with safety. that he audaciously seated himself beside Alexius on the imperial throne.CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. Alexius urged his adopted son. . and the emperor was so astonished by his insolence. through his dread of their being reinforced. and their arrival was speedily succeeded. because he well knew. j "I am a Frenchman. that he could only demand through an interpreter his name and condition. without finding that to accept man who dared my challenge. uhi svprd. and their passage of that side of the strait was ap- parently hastened. the fierce spirit of the Latins. to exchange their threatening position near his capital for more eligible and abundant quarters on the Asiatic Bosphorus." Alexius. by that of the Duke of Normandy.

Mabillon. p. The emperor had inquired that the count j many spoken much of the love he bore toward him and unknown house . t Albert.90 THE FIRST CRUSADE. vol.f and was then hurried * Even the Alexius. scattered residue of the great army which of Vermandois. There is extant a his curious apparently authentic epistle from Stephen to countess. each of these potent chiefs was persuaded in his turn to perform the same homage off to join as his precursors. to provide for the youth in all which the i wise count religiously confided. p. G58-GG0. had originally assembled under Hugh By the dexterous application of flatteries* and bribes. 237. Ital. politic them on the Asiatic arts of Count of Chartres was deluded by the who and contrived to make each of the Latin princes in turn believe himself preferred to all his confederates. 204. pretended his sons to be educated at the Byzantine court must send for one of and bade him reckon : on his imperial favour Baldric. Willermus Tyr. Mus. were his children his . 92. . The Emperor Alexius. in which he unconsciously shows how completely he was liow duped by the wily Greek. p.

and their march through that country. .* The belief of that monarch's duplicity in his reis ception of the other Latin princes increased by the equal cordiality with which he welcomed this hateful enemy. With as consummate hypo- Baldricus Arcliiepiscopus. under Boemond and Tanall cred. and the impetuous valour of Tancred more than once punished the secret perfidy or open aggression of a pusillanimous vicinity enemy. and cut off their detachments . p. left his army in charge of his gallant kinsman. p. with hovered over their route. p.CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. shore. and with a small train proceeded to the capital of Alexius. and intentions. being met by Godfrey himself with persuasions to satisfy the imperial de- mand of fealty. sometimes even attempted to obstruct their passage. were regulated by those dubious able leaders with higher martial conduct and discipline. but the skilful dis- positions of Boemond frustrated their attempts. 92. The whole march was to the of Constantinople triumphantly com- pleted. 488. 658. 91 The embarkation from the Apulian ports of the third grand division. and to express his satisfaction own at the pacific union which now effaced every feeling of enmity. Willermus Tyr. and here Boemond. He alluded to Boemond's earlier invasion of his empire only to extol the valour which he had dis- played in that enterprise. Large bodies of the imperial troops. 37. their passage of the Adriatic into Greece. Guibert. 36. * Robertus Monachus. p.

or General of the Byzantine armies in Asia. tion. that. as if accidently. designed to secure his allegiance by the only motives of selfish interest which could be binding on a nature so sordid. But Alexius. open when he passed. his avarice swallowed the His perform- ance of homage to Alexius was succeeded by dreams of ambition. was . the cunning monarch ordered the door of a chamber filled with heaps of gold and jewels to be left. After causing him to be lodged and en- tertained in the most magnificent style in one of the imperial palaces. A present compliance with this audacious de- mand. and his expressions of devotion to its were accompanied by a proposal that he office should be invested with the of Great Domestic of the East. gift He was immediately informed that the peror of the em- made them his own .92 crisy. and. THE FIRST CRUSADE. which startle shocked the pride. and his ruling im- pulses were betrayed in the involuntary exclamation. and his desire to prove his gratitude for so gracious an obHvion of injuries. The Norman was ravished with delight and envy as he gazed at the glittering hoards. after a slight hesitabait. Boemond on his part professed his self-reproach at the injustice of his former hostihty. which perhaps aspired to the imperial throne service itself. the conquest of a kingdom might be an easy achievement. to the possessor of such treasures. and suspicions might well prudently the of Alexius. as well aware of his ambitious and greedy character as of his habitual faithlessness.

p. Iladulphus Cadomensis. guise. daining. vigi- had been prosecuted with so much energy and lance. Willermus Tyr. to imitate the baseness of Boemond. but the suspicion and resentment of the emperor were not allayed until Boemond unscru- pulously pledged himself by oath for the allegiance of his cousin. 93 avoided with hollow assurances that the hidiest disnities of the empire should be the reward of future baffled or sanguine adventurer services . after exercising a passing ven* Baldric. 238-241. and successively harassed by the sa- vage Dalmatians.* homage and The arrival of the last army of crusaders under the artifices Count of Thoulouse. exhausted the imperial policy. and the was persuaded to join the Asiatic camp of his confederates. . 491. 289. 204. Anna Comnena. Tancred had quitted the capital unobserved. The opposite conduct of his high-minded Dis- relative had meanwhile excited equal alarm. Guibert. p.CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. and crossed the Bosphorus in dis- By this flight he had only designed to escape the degradation of owning himself the vassal of a foreign prince. p. of the Italy. 92-94. p. His march. and by the no less hostile Greeks. though distressed by the noxious climate and rugged obstacles of that mountainous region. that his host. After traversing Northern that skilful and veteran commander had led his forces into the Byzantine provinces. de Gcstis Tancredi. p. 659. p. Albertis Aquensis. on his arrival at Constantinople. 290. through the wild passes of Dalmatia.

Raymond complied with the invitation but. The Greeks were first and. on his arrival. geance on their treacherous assailants. its his resolution to succour even against his recusant To the milder expostulations of God- frey. reached the shores of the Bosphorus in unimpaired strength and discipline . the At some distance from Constanti- army was met by messengers both from Alexius and from Godfrey and his associates.. nal carnage. who now ostentatiously avowing himself the most faitliful champion of the empire. proclaimed turn his arms in confederate. surjDrise of its the Provencal camp and. and the news of his formidable approach at the head of one hundred thousand Provencals and revived the liveliest apprehensions in the Italians. imperial court. whatever was origin. the Count of Thoulouse restrained from was with difficulty vowing war to the utterance against so perfidious a race. with a united request to the Count of Thoulouse to repair to the capital. the aged count so far yielded as to tender an oath that he would abstain from all enterprises against . of having directed a treacherous . nor the solicitations of his confederates. could induce him is to kneel before the imperial throne. 94 THE FIRST CRUSADE. on his failure in this negotia- tion. He repelled with contempt the menaces both of Alexius and of Boemond. nople. Once more the emperor accused. a fu- rious collision ensued between the troops of Raymond defeated with sig- and of Alexius. in the suggestions of ven- geance. neither the arts of the emperor.

that he lingered at Constantinople tains. Anna Comnena. the life 95 and dignity of Alexius . p. him with assiduous and treated him with such real or affected confidence as to impart his secret hatred and suspicion of Boemond. p. Raymond de Agiles. 38. 241. after the departure of the other chief- and the Count of Thoulouse. 140.* last to quit its se- ductive hospitalities for the Asiatic camp of the cru- * p. 660-662. loaded attentions. either awed into personal respect by the firmness of his spirit. or desirous of conciliating so powerful a chief. Alexius so completely gained the ascendency over his mind. who had been loudest in his denunciations against the perfidy of the Byzantine court. irritated his jea- lous and his heated passions politic judg- unguarding the usual wariness of his ment. Guibert.CRUSADERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. was among the saders. The old Provencal prince listened with pleasure to these complaints of a rival whose interference had already and vindictive temper . He God declared that he had quitted his native dominions to devote the residue of his to life to the service of alone. Robert. p. but beyond this con- cession his cold and stubborn pride was equally im- penetrable to threats and entreaties. and Alexius. not submit himself to any earthly master . made him an easy dupe to the superior craft of the wily Greek. p. Willermus Tyr. suddenly changed his whole demeanour. 490. 141. .

*<»^'- SECTIOiT VI. had. hosts of Christendom can be estimated hope of precision either from the tumid metaphors of the Grecian Princes. with Peter the Hermit himself. all the other great divisions of the crusading levies had already completed their junction on the plains of Asia Minor. EFORE the arrival of the Provencal forces. way from various places of refuge to the general The enormous numbers of the congregated with little .96 THE FIRST CRUSADE. THE SIEGE OF NICE. who. found muster. who has described their deso- lating course. their in recovered confidence. and their wants rather than their strength had been increased by the wretched remnants of the preceding mob. or from the positive assertions of the .

were used indifferently as occasion required * Fulcher. 6G4. + Guibert. one hundred thousand men. and whose astonishment at the view of so prodigious an array was sure to credit to be vented in exaggeration. p. and for archers. p.f and everj^ evidence of reason and probability. 491. If we were in some of our usual authorities. completed equijDped with the hehnet and shield. 7 . women. that the mailed tactics of the cavalry. The crowd of foot- men fought principally with the long and cross bow. p. this con- it may be suspected that the leaders of the to war were themselves unable ascertain the real .* of ecclesiastics. and their attendant men-at-arms. 387. the coat and boots of chain and scale-armour. formed the nerve of armies. t Willermus Tyr. according to the rude Middle Ages. the lance and the sword. Latin writers. Willermus Tjr. &c. esquires.THE SIEGE OF NICE. and But the report of the same party in other places. six or seven hundred thousand warriors were present besides arms. an innumerable multitude children. which. J This su- amounted to perb body of heavy horse was composed of the flower of the European chivalry : knights. numbers of a disorderly herd of irregular infantry and we can rely with safety only on the statement of the most judicious chronicler of the Crusade. whose ignorance of military 97 affairs might easily mislead their computations. are alike inconsistent with clusion . 693. the battle-axe and the ponderous mace of iron. p.

{ lloum.f to Jerusalem. in bold disregard of minor objects of attack. i. 392. d. and of which Nicaja. 212. p. which glittered in the blazonry of embroidered and ermiucd surcoats.) was the name given the to Mussulman kingdom. . Resting on the waters of the lake Ascanius. 103. 245. of the troops. and banners and pennons distinguishing the princely and noble rank of chieftains and knights. vol. the advance of the Christian hosts. 325. and pioneers . Aqucnsis. It was surrounded by a double wall of stupendous height and thickness. the chief city of Bythinia. THE FIRST CRUSADE. Turks. . A. 241. shields and headpieces inlaid with gems and gold. a corruption of Roma. and Hanked at intervals by no its less than three hundred and seventy towers garrison was numerous and brave Arslan. (Rome. or Nice. in Asia Minor by the Seljoukian this city. It was against where the first General Council of the Church was assembled under Cod- stantine. composition. the capital of the Sultan of situated in a fertile plain on the direct route Roum. and the Sultan retired to Solyman. (or Kilidge who had * Albert. This writer fondly dwells on the splendid array of the crusading hosts. about the year 1074. but their half-armed and motley condition formed a miserable contrast to the splendour of the chivalric array. the defensive capabilities of that city had been sedulously improved by art. founded was the capital. &c. directed was immediately against Nice.j. provided with a deep ditch..). &c. that the crusading army now marched.* From their first camp on the Asiatic shores of the Bosphorus. and affords us more information than any of the other chroniclers on the armament. 98 scouts. I De Guignes.

Contrary to the impressions which later historians have sometimes given. Notwithstanding their numbers. but the details and choice of execution were abandoned to the uncontrollable will of the different chieftains and their respec- tive followers. to all But the same subordination which were repugnant and unity of action. the Latin princes contended with . Nothing deterred by these difficulties. might with equal facility reinforce its defenders. preserving his communication with the phace by the lake. to brook any submission feelings to a foreign command. want with a generous emulation of glory and.THE SIEGE OF NICE. from thence directed and prosecuted his attacks. and too jealous of national distinctions. and harass the quarters of the besiegers. the immense circumference of the walls prevented a complete investment. The general plan of operations was sometimes debated and deter- mined in a council of princes. in the leaguer of Nice. undertook the siege with an energy suitable to the obstinacy which was anticipated in the defence. on their arrival before the city. it is here observable that no traces of such a in recognition of supremacy can be discovered narrative of contemporary chroniclers. who were alike too proud of personal rank. 99 the neighbouring mountains with his Turkish cavahy. in a great degree supplied their . but each independent leader. that a chief authority over the crusading hosts was conceded to Duke the Godfrey. the crusaders. suc- cessively encamping on the first quarter which he found unoccupied.

toward the south. were the only Byzantine camp. j GGG. wuth the French. .-\ or helfwis. the Provencal and Italian host of the . and German division eastward extended the quarters of the Counts of Vermandois and Chartres and the two Roberts. p. for- besiegers were wooden towers of several wheels termed helfredi. the city continued alignement was enclosed by the troops of Boemond and Tancred. which were moved ward on gration rollers or protected against confla. and Flemish crusaders . p. Albert. let down upon the walls. Norman. Two thousand men who had attended the march of the crusaders. Wil- Icrmus Tyr. on a nearer approach. Among the lofty principal machines of the stories.. and industry who should be foremost in urging his approaches to the walls. 40. under Taticius. Aquen. each of these diviits pushed forward attacks. v. Count of Thoulouse took up a and. as imperial lieutenant. 205. being * Robert. with all the mecha- nical expedients which the Middle Ages had im- perfectly preserved out of the martial science of classical antiquity. 100 rival valour THE FIRST CRUSADE. on the same front. p. 204. which. 39. by coverings of boiled hides filled with archers to dislodge the defenders from the ramparts and supplied with drawbidges. English. afforded a Mon. . Anna Comncna. side On the northern were encamped Duke Godfrey and his Rhenish . 247- Du Cango Bdfredus. p.sis.''' forces in the confederate From sions their respective quarters.

. Viilj^cs. artiller}^ and darts. Med. by means of a movable gallery or shed of similar materials. with the assistance of the garrison. beams of timber. Under cover of these gal- the walls could either be undermined by the slow operation of the sap. But his hope of surprising their quarters was frustrated by the capture of the messengers who were intrusted to convey his purpose to the city. Catus. 101 passage for the knights and their followers to rush to the assault. vv. . THE SIEGE OF NICE. descending from the mountains which overhang the plain of Nice with a swarm of thousand horse.-j* in destroying the hostile The mechanical for a operations of the crusaders were while arrested by the gallant efforts of the Sul- tan of Roum. endeavoured by a sudden and fifty impetuous attack. The advance of these helfrois was some- time preceded. masses of rock. but lower structure. f Muratori. jEvi. called indifferently a fox or cat. he everywhere en- * Idem. and the ditch of a fortress filled up. also by a tower. or breached by the violent blows of the battering-ram. who.* or cliat-cliateil when sur- mounted leries. composed the ordinary both of the assailants and besieged and the most effectual means of defence were afforded fire by the use of the Greek machines. xxvi. Diss. rious sizes Balistic engines of vafor hurling and denominations stones. Antiq. &e. to overpower the Eastern camp of the Christians. the road levelled.

manned by seamen and archers in the imperial pay. At their Alexius caused a number of small vessels to be prepared in his arsenals. 667. nena. to one of the towers of * Albert. desire. or burned by the Greek sumed in Some weeks had already been confruitless labour and slaughter. p. their projectile engines disabled. and launched upon the lake. This flotilla. and intercepting com- munication by water with the exterior country. insured the command of the lake. by the science of clait- Lombard engineer.102 THE FIRST CRUSADE. transported over land.'=' Meanwhile the renewed spirit. Anna Com- 245. alarmed the city on that side all its with desultory attacks. resolutely maintained siegers to breach the and the attempts of the walls be- were repeatedly foiled. in attaching with safety a chateil. position of the city on the lake Ascanius suggested to the besiegers a more successful expedient. re- countered a determined resistance and a bloody pulse . galleries crushed and their towers and by fragments of rock. 205. Willermus Tyr. . The defence of the city was not the less . skill whose approaches had been conducted with most and pertinacity. a at length succeeded. 206. when the fire. p. and his first experience of the valour of the to Western Christians compelled him its abandon Nice to fate. or castellated gallery. completed the investment of the place. p. besiegers continued their works with The A^eteran Count of Thoulouse.

and the first impulse of the crusaders was to continue the assault. commander. endeavoured on the . the Provencals imprudently delayed the assault until the following morning. 103 the city. disembarking were admitted and when the crusaders. they were captured by the imits and Butomite. whom he had left in first the citv until this moment. were prepared to tower. 1097. a yawning breach. if the city were surrendered to his master. not only their honourable release. and the supports being then a tremendous crash. The wife and sister of the Sultan. and instead of seizing the left fired. alarm to escape over the lake perial flotilla . which had been injured in a former siege. the first mount the breach of the its fallen spectacle which they beheld was the walls. THE SIEGE OF NICE. The miners of the besiegers ^Dropped the superincumbent mass with strong timbers while they loosened the foundations . first moment of consternation by which the garrison were paralyzed. But a prudential con- sideration of the ulterior objects of the war induced . and an val to rob artful Greek contrived in the inter- them of the fruits of success. imperial banner floating on [20 th June. imme- diately offered. with returning day.. The now despairing inhabitants accepted his terms flotilla the troops of the into the city . and was bent forward from its base. the whole fell with But. but protection to the people of Nice against the fury of the Latins.] In their wounded pride and disappointed cupidity at being thus cheated of the honour spoils of victory.

491-193. and to appease the louder resentment of their followers after a . 246-250. 20G-208. p. Bal- Arch. dric. p. own emotions of disgust at their princes to stifle their the artifice of Alexius or his lieutenant. pursued the destined route toward Jerusalem/^' * Fulcher. 97. Albert. . Guibert.104 THE FIRST CRUSADE. Willermus Tyr. 142. few days of repose. p. Raymond dc p. Anna Comncna. Agiles. the whole crusading host. Carnot. p. 668-672. and. p. 387. breaking up from the camp before Nice.

DEFEAT OF THE TURKS— SEIZURE OP EDESSA. and spirit the. to whose had only been roused increased energy by the loss of his capital and the danger of his kingdom. His ap- both to his own subjects and to the independent chieftains of his kindred race. ^N their passage through Asia Minor. 105 SECTION vn. Sultan of Roum. was already prepared to a formidable resistance peal.DEFEAT OF THE TURKS. ofier to their progress. i^ a march of five hundred miles was still to be accomplished before the crusaders could touch the confines of Syria . for assistance in repel- .

p. 251. while their strength fresh and their array undivided. 215. G72. the Duke of Normandy. Anna Comnena. and the day was held in suspense efforts. while reposing in a valley. he merely hovered on . by the Turkish swarms. struck dismay and disorder into the Christian fate of the ranks . From . . the yells. their flanks but his forbearance ceased when the con- venience or the necessities of their march induced them to separate into two distinct columns on different routes. With this immense was cloud of cavalry. was suddenly enveloped. the Counts of Vermandois and Thoulouse other. and their nation with a common destruc- had been eagerly answered. who so unexpectedly menaced the their faith tion. and the Counts of Flanders and Chartres. the desperate and * Albert. all sides Turkish hordes flocked to his standard and so innu- merable was the force which he collected. in the Boemond and Tancred. only by the gallant example. unearthly The first astonishment of the surprise. p. and the furious onset of the barba- rians. that by some of the Latin writers it is supposed to have exceeded three hundred thousand horse. new invaders. p. In one division were now Duke Godfrey and .'=' Before the latter and less numerous of the two co- lumns had reached Dorylaium ker —the modern Eskischeit —about fifty miles from Nice. Willennus Tyr. during the first few days' advance of the crusaders from Nice.106 ling these THE FIRST CRUSADE. Aqucnsis.

flushed with camp and commenced an children. 107 Norman While Boemond. In the first alarm he had. and fainting under the intense heat anc^ burning thirst of the climate. Overwhelmed oppressed by own equipment. with the dense confusion of the the ponderous weight of their field. the personal prowess of the three leaders of blood. the weary and despairing crusaders with difficulty sustained an equal conflict. the women and the In this extremity. Tancred. their leaders could only cover a retreat and draw oflf their exhausted success. To regain some degree of order. despatched notice of the danger to the other division under Godfrey and the his con- Count of Thoulouse. the lightly armed and active cavalry of the Asiatics easily evaded a close encounter with the heavy array of the Europeans.DEFEAT OF THE TURKS. squadrons. with cool foresight. and the penetrated into their Turks. and with resistless impetuosity upon the triumphant and . their clouds of arrows slew the unbarded horses. saved the whole crusading host from destruction. and pierced every opening in the body armour of the Christian warriors. the of skilful and valorous conduct with Boemond. and Duke Robert. he fell rushed again at their head toward the camp. and now reanimating federates less and followers to rescue or revenge the help- victims whose shrieks pierced tlioir ears. indiscriminate massacre of the aged and infirm pilgrims. never elsewhere so nobly contrasted the baser qualities of his character.

at the utmost speed to the succour of their confederates. quivers of the length . was now the war-cry which rang the courage which a sense of again through the Christian squadrons. and the light was renewed with religious all duty could add to the stern resolves of vengeance and despair. in fresh.. at the first summons. had urged their cavalry.'' which had been heard at the Coun- cil of Clermont. But the Crusaders were still encountered with equal resolution and superior force and the tide of Turkish victory was arrested at this tlie juncture only hy opportune approach of Duke Godfrey and the Count of Vermandois. their to inferiority the warriors of the West in bodily dis- strength played. who. and martial equipment was signally The supple dexterity of the Asiatic was now feebly opposed to the ponderous strokes of the . 108 sanguniary THE FIRST CKUSADE. in- fused new life into the sinking energy of their brethren. barbarians. and ardent array. infidels The . firm. The junction of this formidable reinforcement. and in the same proportion depressed the confident spirit of the Turks. European arm the curved scimitar and light javelin could neither parry nor return with effect the deadly thrust of the long pointed sword and gigantic lance ^ . The first Duke of Normancly bravely supported his charge. forty thou- sand strong. were already emptied the of the in struggle close had worn down their activit}' and the combat which they could no longer escape. the inspiring shout of " Deus I'lilt.

whose rank was proclaimed by the value of the spoils found on their bodies. 494. in the and the pursuit.* By the general confession of the Latins themselves. on the flank or rear of the disordered enemy. infidels first burst into the Among the Turkish host. but they were for the most part of humble condition and the number included persons of both sexes who were massacred when the Christian camp. and other beasts of burden. and were compelled to abandon their camp querors. 293. 1097. and in a direct charge. p. directing his Provengals and Count Raymond and ruin. arms and apparel. battle slain . Willer- mus Tjr. 493. completed their terror [4th July. DEFEAT OP THE TURKS. the weight 109 and compactness of the Latin chivalry overpowered the loose order and desultory tactics of the Turkish hordes. Radulphus Cadomensis. war-horses. 41. p. 674.. four thousand had fallen . p. . thirty thousand had been and no less than three thousand of these were chieftains or warriors of distinction. in camp immense offered a still quantities of gold and silver. were pursued until the close of day with unremitting slaughter. the Crusaders arrived on the field. 294. Guibert. 42. p. the Turks had displayed a valour and warlike skill *Robertus Monachus. While the of the infidel host bent and wavered before the last division determined assault of the Christians. to the possession of the con- Of the crusaders. The pillage of the Asiatic richer reward to the victors. camels.] They broke and fled in every direction.

and the surprise produced by the unex- pected discovery nation all is of these qualities in an Asiatic evinced in the assertion. after the battle of Doryla3um. that they alone of Eastern people were worthy of contending in arms with the Christian chivalry.no Tlir: FIRST CRUSADE. a more unequivocal testimony of the respect with which the prowess of the Crusaders had Abandoninsr all and fear impressed the infidels themselves. The conduct of the Sultan of afforded Roum. and of sharing with the warriors of the West a common superiority in martini virtues over the despicable Greeks. . A wliicli excited their Turkish Encampment. astonishment and deserved their admiration.

The horrors which attended the passage of so un- wieldy a host. of want and . baggage-animals. Ill further hope of successful resistance to the conquerors Solyman wreck of his flight hastily his . provided Of the poorer and worse among the crusaders. map by and of Aksheer. undisciplined and unprovisioned by any of the arrangements science which are flimiliar to the military and economy of our own times. frequently intervened were parched with sand and destitute of water. Konich. plains of Asia Minor skirted the base of the great mountain range which stretches across that celebrated region from the sea of Marmora to the Syrian gates and the their route cities may Kara be traced on the modern Hissar. every where ravaging the land left and the crusaders were without oppo- sition to continue their advance through a desolated Their march over the wasted and deserted country.. DEFEAT OF THE TURKS. and hounds and hawks —the indispensable incumbrances of a chivalric camp— perished from a scarcity of alike water. of raging thirst or its fatal gratification war-horses. admit but of imperfect description. and their followers. Ereckli. hundreds died on every day's march. may only faintly be ima- The towns had been swept of their inhabitants the cultivated districts converted into a and stores. nobles. which on the field of Nice . evacuated his kingdom with the in army. scathed and hungry solitude. and gined. fatigue. and the more natural deserts which. and of the splendid cavalry of the princes.

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the division of Tancred p. two bodies of their cavalry had been separately detached in advance under Tancred. the crusading host was suffered. Willermus Tyr. 113 lances. . to explore the neighbouring and make a diversion against the Turkish After both had wandered in some uncertainty the mountains. their straggling divisions were safely reunited in the same encampment on the Syrian the soil. 215. and intolerable thirst. Carnot.DEFEAT OF THE TURKS. p. 99. even a small band of resolute men might have successfully maintained the steep and narrow defile against the armed but feebled toil. unassailed. in the precipitation of their flight. so completely exhausted and disorganized was the whole host before its approach to the Syrian frontiers that. and Baldwin. 675. in the tre- mendous pass of Mount Taurus. But the panic- stricken Turks. p.* While the main army of the crusaders prepared to penetrate through Tauridian pass. slowly wound in a length- ened and disorderly train through the mountain chain which here bars the southern route. Guibert. Duke Godfrey. Fulcber. and every natural obstacle of the country and the climate being gra- dually surmounted. power. the bro- ther of regions. to complete the most toilsome and dangerous portion of their march. Bal- dricus Arcb. 495. had mustered one hundred thousand under the walls of Antioch. p. nearly thirty thousand were dismounted before their arrival In a word. 389. among first * Albert. neglected the opportunity of defence. multitudes who. p. staggering under the oppression of heat.

in obtaining pos- session of the city. repressing abandoned the place to his rival . had exposed them to be mas- sacred b}^ the retreating infidels. The young chieftains had already arrived before Tarsus. pursued a new course of enterprise with so much rapidity. and continued southern descent into the coasts of Cilicia. turning eastward. led them to a furious assault upon forces of their treacherous confederate. of the cross having succeeded to their of anger. that several important towns submitted to his arms. to the and granted a capitulation Turkish garrison. but feelings of mutual compunction at so irreligious a fued between brethren first . an accommodation emotions was effected and the . was outraged beyond endurance when he learned after his departure from Tarsus. his indignation. its succeeded in effecting a passage. But his forbearing temper that. unexpectedly artifice made appearance succeeded. vicinity who had by another . the selfish refusal of Baldwin to receive a party of his followers within the protection of the walls. and the jealous b}' of their leader infidel opening an intrigue with the and Christian inhabitants. and. no sooner came up with his division than Tancred. leaving a garrison in Tarsus. the Italians were repulsed by a superiority of numbers . and the Rhenish chieftain.114 THE FIRST CRUSADE. After a bloody encounter. yielding to the natural impulse of resentment which he shared with his enraged the soldiers. The generous Italian. route. reached the when same their the troops of Baldwin.

that the Turkish garrisons were few and feeble. 297- 301. and respect for the virtues of his brother Godfrey alone saved him from condign punish- ment. Aquensis. 115 two detachments together rejoined the grand army before it reached the SjTian frontier. and a more considerable body of in- fantry. he justly incurred the execrations of the whole host. and victoriously overran whole country as far as the Euphrates. did not tend to lessen his selfish disregard for the general interests of the Crusade. boldly directed the march eastward.DEFEAT OF THE TURKS. the Christian population everywhere rose in arms. p. p. 677-680. 214-219. Radulphus Cadomensis. At the instance of a fugitive Arme- nian noble. The guilt of the original ag- gression lay so clearly with the former. Willermus Tyr. he quitted the crusading his camp. circumstances of his when conduct became known in the the crusading camp. and at the head of only two hundred of his own lances. and pursue an independent career of ambition. p.* This quarrel of Baldwin and Tancred had one important consequence. Encouraged by the sight of the banners of the cross. . A consciousness of the aversion in which he was held by his confederates. and he gladly availed himself of the first advantageous opening to separate from the main army. for revolt against and that the inhabitants were ripe their oppression. opened the gates * Albert. that. learned that He the Christian cities of Armenia and Mesopotamia endured with impatience the Mussulman 3'oke .

Turkish tribute. The its means by which he next possessed himself of vernment are variously related favourable . though tive prince. * For the particulars of the singular ceremony by which this adoption was declared. the event may justify the darkest suspicions of his guilty ambition. though his posable Latin forces were now reduced was to eighty horse and a small band of foot. obliged their his aid in delivering them from the . he aided by these so vigorousl}' new allies. fled or submitted to his arms the fame of his suc- cessful exploits soon spread beyond the Euphrates. Excited by the dread that their deliverer first would forsake them. we are indebted to the lively narrative of Guibert.116 THE FIRST CRUSADE. and the people of Edessa. the most considerable city of Mesopotamia. Baldwin eagerly accepted the invitation he was received with dis- enthusiasm by the Edessenes. and the old the people of Edessa adopt'^" compelled their duke to . him in of their cities on his approach. and. After a slight and ineffectual opposition. who. first In full assembly of the people. the Turkish Emirs either . He was next obliged to submit to precisely the same forms of adoption by the . who then folded him to his breast and gave the filial kiss. under their most construction. that he found no difficulty in establishing the independence of their state. him as his son and successor prince was then murdered in a popular insurrection. go- but. and assisted expelling the common infidel enemy. still governed by a na- had long groaned under the exactions of aged duke to implore infidels. Baldwin was state of nudity under the same shirt with his hiiii made to enter in a new father.

BALDWIN SEIZES EDESSA. .

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389. honouring the homage of Godfrey with the filial also received him between the xxii. first Latin principality in the his Under his able and vigorous government. as well as a formidable champion . He the ducal crown on the following day and thus be- came the founder of the East. new subjects soon discovered that they had chosen a severe and absolute master. Guibert. p. relation. It is supposed that the Emperor Alexius. 496. extended the limits of their state by his conquests from the Turks of the intermediate city territory between their and Antioch its . for above fifty years. p. in Guibert. 496. 220- Willermus Tyr. 683. Albert Aquensis. fited not the less by the catastrophe. shirt and the skin. 682. see Du Cange.* wife of the Duke had of Edessa. . * Fulcherius Carnotensis. p.SEIZURE OF EDESSA. and rendered the Principality of Edessa. p. If 117 he proreceived Baldwin was really innocent of his death. p. sur Jolnville. Diss. one of the most important outworks of the Christian power in the East. 390. . 497. but he at least completed their emancipa- tion from the hated tyranny of the infidels . by position beyond the Euphrates. But 222.

The city. SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF ANTIOCH BY THE CRUSADERS. a prince of Seljukian lineage whose power and was maintained by a Turkish garrison of about ten thousand horse. and contained a numerous Christian population. TITLE Baldwin was engaged establishing his in power on the ad- banks of the Euphrates. and twice as many infantry. the main 1 host of the Crusaders had vanced to Antioch. . which still presented the appearance of pristine grandeur. was possessed . and undertaken the siege of that ancient capital of Syria. by Baghasian. SECTION ^^n.118 THE FIRST CRUSADE.

The formidable the leaders of first dispirited the Crusade. and the iron gates of the bridge over the Orontes. p. which commanded the access north. within a circumference of about by a strong wall. and overspread the adjacent plain. rose to the height of sixty feet. At this epoch. 225. . wherever the natural obstacles of the ground did not afford a sufficient defence. 142. Raymond des Agiles. p. their whole host passed the river. was embraced four miles. impede the approach of the invaders. 303.CAPTURE OF ANTIOGH. he retired within the walls. Arch.* * Albert. whose courage and energy were worthy of After some brave but ineffectual efforts to 119 his station. and the re- mainder by a deep and wide aspect of these works at ditch. p. occupying an irregular site of precipice and valley. Cad. the lateness of the season — for the in summer and autumn had been already consumed the passage of Asia Minor —was unfavourable for the commencement of an arduous siege. Baldric. Part of the circuit was covered by the river and a morass which received the torrents from the neighbouring hills. and a proposal to defer the enterprise until the return of spring was only rejected in their council through the energetic remonstrances of the Count of Thoulouse against the dangers of delay and inaction. 226. having been forced to the city from the by the advanced guard of the crusaders under the Duke of Normandy. Willer- mus Tyr. 684-689. p. Antioch. Radulpb. p. 498. p. 101. Guibert. which.

The want of all warlike stores for the siege. While this and other partial successes raised the courage of the garrison. than the Turks. and the unskilful attempts were reduced. three only were blockaded .: 120 THE FIRST CRUSADE. set it fire and reduced it to ashes. all to which the crusaders betray the extent of their obligato tions at the preceding siege of Nice the aid of Alexius and his Greek engines and artificers. was walls. suddenly issuing from one of the uninvested gates. and by some unexplained negligence or necessity. Their few battering and without effect . left From these the resolute and active Baghasian rear of the besiegers harassed the sallies. of the five gates in its circumference. the city was vested. At first they had . the besiegers themselves were beginning to suffer the most grievous distresses from want and disease. which on the they were enabled to construct with assistance from some Italian vessels no sooner advanced on lately arrived to the coast. and operations against it were commenced but. the communication of the garrison with the exterior country through the other two was open. the consequent tardiness of the approaches. soon as the exhortations of that prince renoin- As vated the ardour of his confederates. with perpetual frequently cut off their supplies. and burned the materials which were with difhculty collected for their operations. and their intercourse with the country secured the constant renewal of their supplies. projectile machines were now used and the single movable tower.

305. numbers of warriors of inferior rank fled to the establishments Baldwin in Mesopotamia. Guibert. exhausted the means of support in the and when the approach of winter increased the difficulty and expense of transporting distant supplies. . 45. 499. fell the more indigent of the crusading multitude all a prey to the horrors of ftimine. 101. p. exorbitant and their horses were either starved or killed for food in so great numbers. 227-233. and to the delivered * Robertus Monachus. as usual. Cad. before its third month was com- more than two thousand remained. p. Baldric. that of the seventy thousand cavalry with which they com- menced the pleted not siege.CAPTURE OF ANTIOCH. p. The ravages of hunger were. camp. found abundant food in the fertile district 121 which was and commanded by rioted in their : camp . 304. and their whole host had and plenty but the improvident waste wanton speedily vicinity. produced a contagious off which swept thousands of its squalid population. Willermus Tyr. Radulph. Albert. p. destruction. 143-145. Raymond 690-693. Carnot. both of provisions forage. Agiles. p. p. 500. p. Even the fare at rich were glad to purchase the most disgusting prices.* From of this scene of accumulated misery. Fuleher. The plain of Antioch was deluged effect with the wintry rains. des p. Arch. followed by those of pestilence. 46. 390. and the putrifying of moisture in an Asiatic climate upon the filthy condition of the Christian disease.

but. . The dangerous effect of example w^as prevented by the activity of Tan- cred. required several citations and a . who. threat of excommunication to induce his return and the Count of Chartres. obtain * This full He could scarcely credit for the assertion that his motive not worthy was surnamed the Carpenter . But the sacred cause w\as still more deeply disgraced by the flight of the valiant Viscount of Melun .'•' together with the great fanatic Peter the Hermit. The retreat of Taticius. was foremost this in attempting to abscond from the pri- vations of the enterprise. Guibert. after exciting the warriors of Europe to devote themselves to the imaginary service of Heaven. The Duke of Normandy having with- drawn to the coast. upon their swearing never to abandon tlie holy eximperial pedition. because he are his followed that mechanical occupation careful to tell us. 501. who intercepted the escape both of the Hermit . was permitted with mingled emotions of hope and contempt. ice by retiring from the camp with his division to Alexandretta. and his companion and their desertion w^as only pardoned in the council of the indignant princes. at a later period. the lieutenant. but the shame of their Christian towns in Cilicia. battle-axe Jiammercd the heads of llobcrt. 47. . as the chroniclers by reason of the weighty strokes with which his antagonists.122 THE FIRST CRUSADE. under the excuse of illness. w^ith the small body of Greek auxiliaries which he commanded. p. confirmed the suspicion of his coward. desertion was exceeded by that of some of the leaders themselves. p.

and Ems. terrified him into a belief that the Latin princes designed to massacre him and his troops on some suspicion that Alexius had betrayed them to the Turks. On one occasion. the continued freedom of tercourse between the garrison of Antioch and their Syrian confederates. in Raymond and Boemond. 47. p. in an attempt to enter the and defeated with signal slaughter by Count But. under the three emirs of Aleppo. was intercepted city. 694. 103. p. was to 123 impress Alexius. they prudently dissembled in peace. but if the princes were not deluded by this shallow pretext. 252. . But all the Latin writers agree in giving the account copied in the text. 501. indeed. to the arts of The Grecian princess.* their suspicions. Baldric. an army of twenty thou- sand men. p. perpetually exposed the besiegers to desultory attacks in front and rear. month. while escorting a * Robert. though he ofiered the pledge of his oath that he would himself return with the convoys . the same crusading the following leaders. Guibert. p. early in February. 502. CiBsarea. p. who fearing interruption on the part of the imperial lieutenant in his scheme for acquiring the sovereignty of Antioch. 48. by the but the on the coast of supplies from Europe activity of the Turks and in harassing their convoys was in- undiminished . refers the flight of Taticius Boemond. Willermus Tyr.CAPTURE OF ANTIOCH. Raymond. by his personal influence. p. with the necessity of forwarding immediate supplies of provisions for the Syrian war. and dismissed him With the return crusaders arrival of spring the sufierings of the were in some degree mitigated . Anna Comnena. 146.

fought with desperation. he satisfied the incredulity of a noble Saracen. buscade of the Godfrey. made an impetuous sally from the walls. with a single blow of his falchion. who had lately risen from a sick couch. he an down from the top of the head to the saddle. traced his J march his to the camp with so great celerity. we are gravely informed how Godfrey. fell into the Orontcs the legs kept their city. and forced the Christian Hues. after the capture of Jerusalem.''' * Thus. and posted forces with so much . and even cut through both that and the back-bone of the horse. but their qually opposed to the heroic sj)irit The infidels courage was uneand sinewy force of the Christian knighthood. and the ever-enterprising Baghasian.124 THE FIRST CRUSADE. infidel At one stroke of his sword. The upper half of the miscreant scat. the supply of provisions and military stores from coast. are recorded to have performed the most incredible feats of corporeal strength and valour. gallant Tancred. . Again. seizing the occasion of this absence of the best troops of the crusaders from the beleaguer. Godfrey. clave a Turk their in twain from shoulder to hip. as to intercept the retreat of Baghasian flict and a furious con- ensued under the walls of Antioch. and were borne by good steed into the Nor was slit this the only feat of the hero. . The bravery lie re- and conduct of the Duke of Brabant were never more vigorously displayed than on this occasion. and the vidual prowess of its leaders. were suddenly assailed and routed by an aminfidels. was compelled to fly to their succour with the remains of the Latin chivalry. ability. animated by the indi- among whom the two dukes. and Robert of Normandy.

And Malmsbury. The chroniclers are eager in ascribing Godfrey as great a superiority in bodily strength as in intellectual virtues over the other chieftains of the war. by the construction of a or intrenchment opposite to each. off and diverted and the whole surrounding country being of his prowess.) and confirmed 701. and encouraged by they formed and successfully accom- plished the design of barring the egress of the garrison from the two gates which had hitherto been fortified left unblockaded. many and two thousand warriors of this sanguinary flight.) feats by so dignified an authority as the Archbishop of Tyre. exploits scarcely less astounding are recorded. Count of Thoulouse rison of Antioch severally undertook nourable duty of guarding the new posts the gar- was thenceforth effectually confined within the walls. and like with that. (p. for instance. a son of Baghasian.) first two with minute particularity. 448) the slaying of a lion in combat near Antioch. the supplies of provisions which their brethren had hitherto introduced by these gates to the refreshment of the were cut Latins. 770. mound ho- Tancred and the the . who made single to a careful collection of the of Godfrey.CAPTURE OF ANTIOCn. borrowed his own weapon. stories are not related by some one obscure fabler only. who had heard to the with his sword in a The unbeliever still ascribing more virtue temper of the blade than it. But of some of these leaders. adds to the number (p. inferior degree. fell in of the Christians. by sweeping of the head of a camel trice. 404 . cut through the head and shoulders of a . (p. the -50. The Duke of Normandy. more than half that number were their victory. (p. to the strength of the arm which These are wielded Godfrey to convince him. decapitated a second camel. in manner. but avouched. by the monk all and by Ralph of Caen. 125 other emirs. Of the infidels. not slain . Robert.

the use of this opening. little or no impression . abjuring his religion. but unprincipled Among the man of noble and sordid character. who. 503-506. Baldric. p. Albert. The Norman made to be expected spirit. army for the relief At this dangerous crisis. the alliance of an apostate and a traitor served the cause of the crusaders more beneficially than their arms. and Ralph of Caen was prevented from detailing only by the silence which esfjuirc. Christian population of Antioch. to betray his post to the besiegers. 147. Raymond. abun- dance again reigned in their camp. .126 THE FIRST CRUSADE. p. p. 49-53. on the promise of a large reward. had been made upon the and the council defences of the city ineffectually seven months had already been in the siege. was a birth. named and intrusted with the com-' Stimulated by avarice or dis- Phirouz. affection from the service which he had embraced. p. mand of three towers. 104-107.* Still. claimed the principality of Antioch for blow Turk at a . p. 237-243. Willermus Tyr. had been received into the Turkish ranks. consumed of princes was disturbed by intelligence that the Sul- tan of Persia was collecting a large of the garrison. in now unmolested possession of the besiegers. which selfish was from his to and intriguing He declared the council of his compeers his possession of a plan for the surprise of the place its . he . opened a secret correspondence with Boemond and consented. but. 695-703. before he would reveal nature. the stupendous deeds of Tancred the modesty of that hero had imposed on his * Robert. Guibert.

the Count of Flanders. 127 himself as the just recompense of his successful merit. Mills has pithily observed.. own magnanimity always proof This is against the sense of a amusingly shown in a story related by Albert superb Turkish pavilion. could not escape a collision with the selfish meanness of Boemond nor was his petty injury. at jected . The ungenerous preference of his own interest to the common cause of the Crusade. first indignantly re- but the increasing urgency of the danger with which the army was menaced by the approach of the * Even the good Godfrey himself." . Count of Thou- who entertained views similar to his own. 242. usually so ready to sacrifice his own interests and feelings to the advancement of the sacred cause. is at variance with the dignified forbearance of his o-eneral conduct. (p. CAPTURE OF ANTIOCH. and had left The whole scene may recall to the reader's mind some of the squabbles of the Homeric heroes but the impatience of Godfrey in endangering the harmony of the camp for Europe in order to die in Asia. which the Prince of of Aix. therefore. as Mr. Boemond to deThe covetous Norman refused the council of princes. but not before. at last compelled to deliver up the disputed property (^Ilist.* but especially excited less dignified and splenetic feelings in the breast of the louse. of the Cru- 189. was intercepted by an gift to Armenian chieftain. compliance.) A Edessa had captured and sent as a present to his brother Godfrey.) a "piece of silk excited the passions of thoudespised all sands of men who had worldly regards. which was apparent through this reservation. vol. Godfrey. . so frivolous a cause. His stipulation was. accompanied by his friend. . disgusted those among his confederates who were it actuated by loftier motives of conduct . and despatched as his own Boemond. and regarded his pretensions with the hatred of a rival. i. and Godfrey complained to Boemond was sades. paid an angry visit to the quarters of mand the restitution of the tent.

128 THE FIRST CRUSADE. The escalade was effected in safety the Turkish guards of several neighbouring towers were slain before they could give the alarm and the gates of the city were opened crusading host. Bal- 108. Willermus Tyr. he led his own troops towers. prevailed over the reluc- tance of the council to comply with the extortionate demand. until the crusaders burst of savage fury. and Boemond received the solemn if pledge of the princes that. 109. p. * Robert. p. rage his wavering followers. 509. Guibcrt. In the dead of night. 510. 54. and quiring possession of the city or of suspending the siege before their arrival. 704- 707. .. he should be invested with sove- reignty. Radulph. to the whole A horrid and indiscriminate slaugh- ter of the infidel garrison and the Christian inhabithad exhausted the ants ensued first . The Count of Thoulouse was compelled by his brother chieftains to stifle his jealousy and aban- don his opposition all . Albert.* Upon project. the crafty Norman disclosed his and prepared its accomplishment. roused by the remembrance of their own sufferings in the siege. and the obstinacy p. . to the base of the . p. 309. 308. was himself the man who ascended the walls. plot. p. dric. the necessity of either ac- Turkish succours. rope-ladders were to encoufirst and the future Prince of Antioch. Antioch were gained its by his means. 244. where Phirouz held his watch by the traitor and some associates of his lowered . this promise. p.

«!^i..'41': i i il I' '^m.i' ..

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CAPTURE OF ANTIOCH. Guibert. 55.] The remains of the Christian population were then protected from further outrage .''' * Robert. but numbers of the garrison effected their retreat into the citadel its . p. Albert. 511. Radulph. p. 245-247. of the lengthened defence. 129 [3d of June. 708-712. Willermus Tyv. p. 109-112. Baldric. 1098. Robert of Norma7idy sirying the Turk. p. the refugees there despe- rately maintained a protracted resistance. fugitives who escaped beyond the walls were immediately intercepted and slaughtered by the Latin detachments and Syrian Christians who held the surrounding plains. 308. . closing gates before the victors bethought themselves of completing their success. and. 309. p. Such was the fate of the gallant ve- teran Baghasian himself. but the massacre of the Turks was and the still pursued with relentless vengeance.

HE divided state of the Mohamfa- medan world had ^ sade. and Mesopotamia . DEFENCE OF AXTIOCII BY THE CRUSADERS. but the Sultan of Roum had been unassisted in his struggle to arrest the invasion of the Latins by any succour were disunited from that kindred dynasty. SECTIOX IX.130 THE FIRST CRUSADE. The monarchs Seljukian race remained the nominal chiefs of the . the numerous emirs of Syria. hitherto voured the progress of the Cru- The dismemberment of the dominions of Malek Shah had ral fatally weakened the geneof Persia power of the Turkish Em- pire. Armenia.

the strange rumour reached Cairo of the Christian invasion of Asia. to have encouraged their prosecution of the siege of Antioch. the Khalif of Egypt.* When. protectors. and the advance of the crusading myriads into Syria. as tending to precipitate the of the Turkish . had already despatched an army into Palestine. his readiness to His envoys also expressed admit the Christian pilgrims to worbut this proposal was ship in peace at Jerusalem. by one authority. was grateful to the Egyptian Prince is and he said. among throw 131 themselves. Before the arrival of the crusaders in Asia. and even to have offered his co-operation. DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. * De Guignes. and agreed only in the effort to off their dependence on the court of Ispahan and the Fatimite or Ommiadan princes of Egypt were the natural enemies of the whole Turkish nation. as the disciples. vol. to culti- vate their alliance against a common enemy.. the Ahassidan Khalifs of Bagdad. 249. to discover their further designs. to their by sending an embassy camp before Antioch. power. and succeeded in wresting Jerusalem itself and other places therefore. i. the overthrow of the Sultan of Roum. to ascertain their force. the khalif endeavoured. fall It is not improbable that the news of their previous successes. and tyrants of their fallen rivals. and. from their Turkish conquerors. perhaps. availing himself of the distractions of the Seljukian Empire to recover the ancient possessions of his house. .

twenty-eight powerful emirs with their swarms of cavalry obeyed the summons of the sultan to range themselves under the standard * Robert. and he accepted an embassy from the crusaders betrayed his enmity and his of the destruction but his conduct in the vicissitudes of the siege alternately fears. by the divine aid. .* for the principal lead- The report of the danger of Antioch was received with other emotions by the Sultan of Persia. When he heard with which the besiegers were threatened by famine and pestilence. p. off. and declared their resolution. Willcnnus Tyr. and the alarming progress of the Christian arms had the effect of exciting the Turkish states into a transient union against the invaders. Raymond. he released the ambassadors and loaded them with presents ers of the Crusade. p. 69G. by the leaders of the Crusade. The negotiations which he had opened were not. broken . From the banks of the Eu- phrates and the Tigris. bold and unreserved an avowal of their hostile pur- pose was not calculated to secure the friendship or to allay the jealousy of the khalif. indeed. Albert. who heri- liaughtily rejected replied that the Holy Sepulchre was the lawful recover and preserve tage of Christendom alone. p. 146. p. he imj)risoned their envoys : when their princes despatched the heads of the slaughtered Turkish emirs to Cairo as the trophies of victory. to it from So further profanation by infidels of whatever race. 236-237.132 THE FIRST CRUSADE. 49-52.

as the lieutenant of the Persian monarch . give the lowest and highest estimate in the text. 133 of their prophet. 243. 714. 502. Prince of Mosul on the Tigris. he was joined by Kilidge Arslan. which some in- of the Latin writers are contented to describe as numerable. p. delayed their advance of Antioch. Guibert. but the undaunted heroism with which Baldwin defended until the fall his capital. p. the leaders of the Crusade withdrew their diminished forces within the defences of the city. with the remains of his forces . and Radulphus. p. p. Baldric. and hasten his march to the relief of the Syrian citadel. 512.| DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. Fulcher. The supreme command was as- signed to Kerboga. Guibert. 319. or even four hundred thousand cavalry . 392. Willer- mus Tyr. and the whole host. * Robert. f Albert. and the startling intelli- gence of that disastrous event roused Kerboga to break up from the unsuccessful siege of Edessa. and the Turkenclosed all ish cavalry. 242. ofi" the Latins in their position.f rations of this The first ope- overwhelming multitude were directed Christian Principality beyond the against the new Euphrates. p. I Albert. p. and cut their com- munications with the sea-coast and exterior country. and to avenge the cause of their faith and nation. p. three.* is estimated by others at two. . reof inforced the garrison the citadel. the Sultan of Roum. 112. p. filling all the surrounding plains. 56. p. On the approach of his host toward Antioch.

. to devour greedily the vilest offal of slaughter-houses and sewers. and the old leather of belts and harness. had endured A repetition of the same narrative of distress. By and now besieged in to a second their turn. 134 THE FIRST CRUSADE. and twenty days. and the reader will gladly be spared the re- shocking and loathsome details of misery which duced a famishing host to satiate the cravings of hunger with leaves and weeds. the ravening and perishing multitudes suffered every frightful extremity of want which language may privations paint. who. would be equally revolting and profitless. the crusaders. herd of soldiery and camp followers and the whole host was stricken with one universal sentiment. Desertions again became numerous. of weakness and despondency. the noble. or imagination conceive the princely. these measures. were fortunate enough to escape the cimeters of the Turks. with many aggra- vated horrors. in which they could find refuge. and the fugitives. with the hides of animals. and the fair were exposed to only less horrid in their intensity than the inferior those of . these apostates to their Among vows were many persons of . far were immediately subjected more grievous fomine than that which they in the preceding winter. letting themselves down by ropes at night from the walls. and even For five to prey upon human flesh. spread their dismal tale of the impending ruin of the crusading cause throughout the few Christian establishments on the sea-coasts and in the interior.

Guibert. communicated the panic to that monarch. 153. 512-517. . who had lately so publicly renewed his devotional oaths. p. 135 including that Lord of Melun. by numerous squadrons of fresh crusaders from Europe. 57-59.DEFENCE OF ANTIOCII. 248-251. in addition to his own forces. p. p. his and the numerous companions of shame are consigned to indignant oblivion by one historian. The pusillanimous Count of Chartres. or the influence of fear. . Baldric. who had terrified hitherto lingered at Alexandretta. p. and claim the paramount sovereignty of their conquests. William the Carpenter. only under the conviction that their un- worthy names were eternally blotted from the Book of Life. calculated to extinguish the faint gleam of hope which the cruthe knowledge that the his saders might have felt in Byzantine emperor was large now on march with a army through Asia Minor to support their ope- rations. 714-717. made him resolve not to risk his resources or the safety of his person for the deliver* Robert. Though the emperor had been joined. who were still eager to advance to the relief of their confederates at Antioch. p. 113-117. that he immediately continued his retreat and meet- ing Alexius in Phrygia.* The conduct of the fugitives was. was so by the wretched aspect and more deplorable report of the deserters who had reached his quarters. baser the suggestions of his selfish policy. Willermus Tyr. distinction. indeed. Albert. p. Raymond.

Raymond the Papal Legate Adhemar of Puy. Albert. Baldric. p. 253. p. ance of his Latin their fate. p. nor the threat of punishment. abandoning them and to re- in des^^ite of the remonstrances proaches of their countrymen in his camp. 517. p. p. Willermu. allies . . 60. could rouse the soldiery to the requisite exertions for the common it defence.13G THE FIRST CRUSADE. Neither the dread of the enemy. and. p. ncna. he enforced a general retreat upon tidings of his retrogade Constantinople. spirit this prostration of mental and corporeal distinctions which levelled the proud of between the gallant chivahy^ and the meaner multitude of the crusading host. Anna Comp. 718-720. The fortitude of Godfrey religious was sustained by the purest strength of a * Robert. and Antioch one quarter of was necessary to fire the houses over their heads before they could be driven out to ramparts. p. Guibcrt. Willermus Tyr.f man the Amid energies. 119. the names of five only of the leaders of the war deserved the honourable record of its chroniclers. 720. t Albert. Boemond and Tancred. they shut themselves in up in gloomy expectation of death. 255-257.'-' The first evil movement were not slow . of Thoulouse. 253. by their unshaken con- stancy and courage: Godfrey of Bouillon.s Tyr. in reaching the crusaders at Antioch and the burst of fury at his treacherous or cowardly desertion of his engagements was succeeded by a general apathy of hopeless resignation or sullen despair.

who. Peter at Antioch. that the steel head of the very lance which had pierced the side of the crucified Redeemer might be found buried beneath the high altar in the Church of St. may in- differently justify the presumption that he was the original mover. if they had not invoked the all-powerful aid of superstition. 137 mind. special interposition of required the belief of a Heaven in their behalf to re. and the valorous resolves of these master-spirits of their cause. that the Count of Thoulouse to bear the sacred was appointed weapon against the . was a priest of Marseilles. would have proved alike ineffectual to reanimate the hopes and efforts of their desponding confederates and fol- lowers. the vault- ing ambition and cupidity of Boemond were inextinguishable save with life . Andrew had shown him in a vision. But the example. Peter Barthelemy by name. and in the generous soul still of Tancred. the exhortations. When every prospect it of earthly succour had vanished. that of the count and bishop might be inspired bj the fiercer confidence of fanatical zeal . presenting himself before the council of princes. In the Provencal division of the crusaders. the love of glory shone through the darkest adversity with a steady and unfading light. declared how St. kindle the expiring fanaticism of the multitude and the character of the Count of Thoulouse.DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. as well as his share in promoting the popular delusion. or the willing dupe of a pretended revelation.

and insure a complete victory to the people of God. The steel head of a lance was then dis- brought up from the excavation. The minds reception itself of the crusaders had been prepared for the of this tale. exclaimed that he had found the precious object of their search. and that its mystic presence in the battle should penetrate the hearts of the unbelievers. he. spent by the whole army in religious exercises and early on the third the princes. the expedient pre- had been suggested by rumours of several vious apparitions of the saints both to clerical and lay individuals in the army. were appointed to search for the sacred relic. Peter. with his chaplain and ten select companions. Barthelemy himself descended into the and. after a plausible delay. Two days of solemn preparation were . without discovering the promised instrument of But. and. and Raymond himself. patient in procession to the Church The . all leading to the expectation that some visible act of Almighty favour for their deliverance was at hand. enemy . If the Count of Thoulouse was not privy to the original imposture. Peter pit. attended by the clergy and lay multitude. doors were closed against the im- crowd and relays of workmen dug until depth of twelve feet under the high nightfall to the altar. soon as the increasing darkness favoured the deception. perhaps. and reverently . went of St. eagerly lent his countenance to its success the policy or conviction of the other chiefs gladly accepted the tale. as victory. at least.138 infidel THE FIRST CRUSADE. .

p. p. Baldric. deportment and language of the tion of furious indignation The ebulli- which prompted the reply of the Emir will excite less of our surprise than the forbearance which enabled a Turkish barbarian to respect the character of an ambassador. 517-520. Fulcher. Willermus Tyr. rage. p. affords a curious picture of fanatical confidence. The ambassador the selected to convey these proposals to . Raymond. 254. or declaring their conversion to the Christian faith. p. camp of Kerboga was Peter the Hermit and the astonishment. Radulphus. Albert.* The first measure by which the leaders of the Cru- sade showed the sincerity of their renovated hopes. arid contempt which their nature provoked. 391- 393. 317. were. p. p. All previous incredulity was drowned in a general burst of superstitious enthusi- asm . and to dismiss in safety the bearer of a message so insulting to his pride and faith.DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. 139 played in a web of cloth of gold to the enraptured gaze of the multitude. 253. and the devout and firm assurance of approach- ing victory succeeded with wonderful rapidity to the abject despair with which the starving host had pre- viously been overwhelmed. 60-62. 316. p. Guibert. if possible. . 721. 151. * Robert. The defiance of the Christians was 150. It was charitably resolved portunity of escape to offer the infidels one op- from the destruction to which they were otherwise doomed. 119. increased by the arrogant fanatic. p. in the alternative of withdrawing altogether from the sacred land of Syria.

Paul was chosen for the reopening of the gates of Antioch. preceded by a body of the clergy chanting a psalm. and refresh the physical strength of their lowers for the approaching combat. with that admixture their of politic wisdom which generally tempered no exertion fanaticism. 140 THE FIRST CRUSADE. freely shared with each other their their rusted . the host was arrayed. the in twelve divisions dawn of the festival of St. But the Latin chieftains. Thus nerved in body and mind. spared to excite the religious fol- ardour. G2. p. p.. hurled back upon them and the Hermit was for fiercely admonished that there remained them the choice only between submission to the law of or servitude and death. Willermus Tyr. the army issued from the city and formed in order of battle on the plain. and. and grim desperation and the whole army betook them- selves to prayer. were carefully fed on the last remains of their provender ers last . no further On this reply. * Robert. the lead- and soldiery meal . their cavalry. arms were whetted anew with confession of their sins. p.''' Mohammed. Guibert. 520. in honour of the apostolic number. the crusaders entertained doubt that the vengeance of Heaven had delivered the whole obstinate host of the infidels into their hands. . The horses of now reduced from seventy thousand to no more than two hundred in number. made received the absolution of the sacrament. Peter and St. 722. .

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notwithstanding their late haughty embassy. was lulled into a delusive security that their necessities must compel them little to a speedy submission and he was so prepared for their assault. blessing them. that . so well The tians distress and consequent weakness of the Chris- had been known in the Turkish camp. Tancred. and promised the succour and recompense of Heaven.. It is singular that the Count of Thoulouse. All the army shouted their approbation and assent. as bearer of the papal standard. DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. nine respectively by Godfrey. the des- tined bearer of the holy lance. addressed a pathetic discourse to the soldiers of the cross. The venerable prelate. the Bishop of Puj. . and surrounded by the symbols of religion and war. that Kerboga. divisions. 141 Adhemar. the two Roberts. headed the fourth division. was left within the walls with a detachment of the Provengals to watch the citadel . and accompanied display to the eyes of the whole host with the thrilling exhortation to fight that day as became the chosen champions of Heaven. He walked at its head. in complete armour. bore weapon its at the head of one division . and the other chieftains of renown and the reserve was intrusted to Boemond. the Of the other eleven vanguard. but his place was supplied by the martial aloft the sacred Legate who. pausing before the bridge of the Orontes. one. because it carried the holy lance. was led by the Count of Vermandois. clothed in the robes of a pontiff. the most honourable.

they fell impetuously upon the advancing line of Christians.142 THE FIRST CRUSADE. or discern the real causes of victory. . marvellously referred to the personal prowess of its chiefs. the pursuit was as sanguinary as the combat had been obstinate. for the desperation of one army and the surprise of the other. In the confused pictures of the chroniclers. for Yet. the extrication of the crusading army from imminent peril is. gained the rear of the reserve to inflict a bloody under for Boemond. charged. as usual. stupendous deeds of heroism in the and enormous exaggeration reported numbers of the Asiatics. the asto- nishing issue of the struggle can only be explained by the supposition of some gross misconduct or fatal dissension among the Moslem leaders. wheeling round his flank. the foremost corps of his the main body could hasten to support But as soon as the Turks recovered from their consternation. and the brave Sultan of Nice. and put to flight the myriads of Turkish cavalry. it is and perhaps a hopeless attempt to follow the fluctuating tide of battle. and the whole immense host. and eulogies of intelligible their valour supply the place of more details. two hundred Latin horsemen. Thus enveloped in a cloud of Tartar cavalry. army was cut to pieces before it. routed. in the disorderly tactics of the age. If we are to believe the narrative of their own chroniclers. supported by the unwieldy array of dismounted knights and men-at-arms. and began vengeance the rout of DoryUvum. with every allowance in the Europeans.

The sequel efforts of of the history curious. Guibert. and sharpened the princes and their adherents. with a loud voice. but political jealousy overcame the superstition. p. and the triumphant charge was in- by the imaginary presence and champions. p. Maurice. p. 723-726. p. Tancred and Boemond. 155." burst from the crulast sading ranks spired lestial . also evinces boldly exposes the fraud. After the victory of Antioch. bade the army. Albert. While the victory yet hung in suspense. But less their credulity with regard to the discovery of the holy lance was general or lasting. p. Fulcber. the the Count of Thoulouse . The archbishops Baldric and William of Tyre. p. 120-122. as the holy martyrs St.DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. 393-395. and while intellect of some of the Raymond des Agiles. the fanatical ardour of the crusaders assisted was by a new accident or stratagem. betray no distrust of the genuineness both of the vision and the relic. St. in the opposite interest of Ralph of Caen. A belief in tial tbe reality of the apparition and aid of the three celes- warriors seems to have been universal among the crusaders. indeed. and the papal legate pointing them out and St. Willermus Tyr. was suddenly destroyed or dissipated in a single morning. Raymond. George. Responsive behold the promised succour of Heaven. which had been permitted for twenty-five 143 days to hold the crusaders besieged in famine and despair within the walls of Antioch. the chaplain of the Count of Thoulouse. 154. 254-258. ticity of is loud in maintaining the authen- a miracle of which his patron was the appointed instrument. p. horsemen in bright Several visible figures of armour became on the adjacent hills. Baldric. Fulk of Chartres more than is one suspicion of the imposture. 63-66. Theodore.* aid of these ce- * Robert. 520-523. shouts of " It is the will of God. with several of the other chroniclers.

confederate chieftains to forego his pretensions and Boemond was pality : formally installed in his new princi- but the rankling jealousy of the Provengal less to disturb continued not the the harmony of the common cause. By the recovered command of the surrounding territory. and was so dreadfully burned on his passage that he expired on the next day. was rashly induced to appeal piles judgment of Heaven by the fiery ordeal. and the captured horses of the Turks served to remount the cavalry of the victors. availed prince. still prosecuting his rivalry against the stipulated claims of of Antioch.144 THE FIRST CRUSADE. He was again compelled by the other . and to embarrass the ulterior operations and his Provencals to perpetuate a delusion which conferred a sort of spiritual superiority upon the chosen guardians of the sacred to lance. Two burning being prepared with a narrow path between them. who. proclaim The example . defeat and dispersion of the host of The Kerboga was immediately followed by the capitulation of the citadel of Antioch. rushed through the flames. the crusaders were enabled for a time to relieve their wants with plentiful supplies of provisions. or fanatic. the wretched impostor. of their skepticism shook the faith of the whole army and to maintain the truth of the revelation. . Boemond to the sovereignty himself of the absence of that and the duty with which he had been intrusted of watching the citadel. Peter Bartheleiny. provoked the envious rivalry of Boemond and his friends their disbelief. to hoist his own standard on the walls. as to the its original publisher. general joy was interrupted The only by the obstinate of the Count of ambition and quarrelsome temper Thoulouse.

discord. and even the pious Godfrey himself for the deliverance of the suffered his ardour to be sus- Holy Sepulchre * It is a remarkable proof of tlie disgrace whicli.''' Baldwin and Boemond were Edessa and Antioch wholly engrossed in securing the establishment and extension of their new states of the envious ambition of the Count of Thoulouse led him to imitate their example by undertaking the . Adhemar. on his arrival at Constantinople. desertion. which was originally produced by devotional feelings. they were 10 . of the Crusade. selfish pursuit of private and the interests. in which. was vented in an embassy of remonstrance and reproach . The resentment which the Greek the crusaders cherished toward Emperor for his failure of succour in their hour of need. abortive conquest of some Syrian towns the death of the papal legate. attended such an abandonment of the cnasading to re- vow. took advantage of the opportunity. as slain.: DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. now succeeded to the unity of purpose. and the great Count of Verm and ois being selected for this mission. and had been supported by the pressure of imminent danger. to escape the further perils and privations of the Crusade by returning to France. shortly deprived the cru- sading cause of one of supporters. and to deem both their fame they were compelled undertake a second expedi- tion to Palestine. 145 In the council of princes. that both the Counts of Vermandois and Chartres found in their high rank no exemption from contempt and obloquy . we shall hereafter observe. and its most popular and zealous most skilful and politic counsellors. in the chivalrie ideas of the age.

fThe practices to which the multitude were driven by hunger are to the circum- almost too horrible for belief. many gallant lives were assaults consumed in the profitless or unsuccessful of detached corps upon the Turkish garrisons.''' Fulchcr. Willermus Tyr. Guibert. and the prudence of consolidating the dominion which had already been won. inaction. p. 729-732. 394. Baldric. and many of them eye-witnesses . p. But the losses and calamities far which flowed from division and weighed any attendant advantages. p. 395. p. have perished. out- Numbers of the bravest knights and best soldiers were seduced from the general service of the Crusade by the prospect of a profitable establishment in the new Christian States. that the arduous conquest of the Holy City itself might be the more surely effected. yet the evidence afforded by chroniclers contemporary with. pended by the temptation of gratifying his troops with the more accessible spoils of adjacent districts/-' The delays thus generated by disunion and di- versity of objects among the leaders of the Crusade : were not without some plausible pretexts such as the necessity of reposing and refreshing the after army at the fatigues and distresses of the to siege Antioch.146 THE FIRST CRUSADE. the rific combined effects of which were so ter- that no fewer than one hundred thousand persons are declared to Albert. 2G0-2G3. p. 525. 122. 123. and the usual improvidence of the crusaders occasioned a third famine and consequent pestilence. the difficulty of advancing Jerusalem through the intervening desert during the drought of a Syrian summer.

DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. and reached famine of Antioch. Radulphus. of all the miseries which they endured throughout the war. and the union of fanaticism and profligacy in men who believed themselves the chosen champions of a sacred cause is among the most sacred objects of contempla- tion in the spirit of the times. or of murdered captives. and afterward devoured their flesh. and in the pages of their chroniclers charges of universal intem- perance and debauchery are intermingled with the dreadful picture of their distress. At the outset of their enterprise. and Albert. so unanimously attests the prevalence of cannibalism througli- out the first Crusade. The cannibalism its of the Crusaders was not confined to one season of distress. p. as to make it impossible to doubt the fact. This loathsome indulgence of hunger was sometimes associated with that of an avarice almost equally disgusting. Nor can the feel- ing be condemned as an irrational superstition which ascribed the calamities of the crusaders to the anger of offended Heaven . and that the often ripped open the human savages into whose hands they bodies of the slain. p. The dulged 147 ravages of this plague were assisted by the previous excesses in which the whole host had insince the victory of Antioch. 70 : . 267. when in their desultory attacks upon the Turkish garrisons. they regularly ate the dead bodies of the See Robert. infidels. 69. for. but had become familiar height during the third to the rabble of the camp. own slain companions. to search for gold. We fell are told that the Turks on the eve of battle were used to swallow their money. 268 the of whom record these brutalities with horror. 125. p. . the greater portion were only the faithful consequences of their crimes. Baldric. and even three of their p. first 315. and the last with indifference. while the sense of pious duty was fresh and stances.

into under the hardening of want and danger. bear testimony to the prevalence of virtue The leaders of the an edifying spectacle of humility and fraternal concord the obedient soldiery. tian and their conduct was such as their lives to the became warriors who had devoted service of God. liam of Tyre.. war. and patiently expected the crown of as firmly believed martyrdom which they the reward of the the sufferings of the would be slain. article excluded from their mistaken in Chris- But among themselves they dwelt brotherhood. march through Asia Minor tended to relax the bonds of this voluntary discipline and the previous self-denial of all effects ranks degenerated. and perils of the siege. uncorrupted. . were sober. chaste. GG7-G72. presented subsequent disorders of the host. privations. The transition from 95 and Wil- * See particularly the two Archbishops. watches. emulating their example. extend to their common enemies. Baldric.''' But both the license and first . the morals of the crusaders were comparatively pure. all shared alike with undistinguishable zeal and devotion in the labours. and vigilant. and. p. 148 THE FIRST CRUSADE. for their fanaticism was fierce and cruel. &c. in general. p. . during the siege of Nice. rapacious and selfish brutality. and mercy to the heathen was an creed. indeed. Tliese sentiments of mutual charity and forbearance did not. the same authorities which are loudest in reprobating the and decorum in their camp. and from the proudest chieftain to the lowest warrior.

and the most and tem- and enormous crimes were openly perpetheir spiritual The only hold which rulers poral could exercise over the minds of the multitude was through their gross and extravagant * As long as ecclesiastical discipline was preserved by the author- ity of the Legate Adhemar. in the extremity of despair.DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. the multitude. army before Antioch . the clergy set an edifying example of pious resignation and morality . every divine and reli- human law was disregarded and violated clergy. was lamented by the whole army. and pestilence gave a frightful completion to the public iniquity. Among great pro- masses of men. the princes. the enervating influence of the Syrian climate the absence of any unity of command or disciplined restraints over a host composed of various and independent nations . after the loss of their spiritual chief. were equally despised licentious trated. in the third pestilence of Antioch. and whose death. as vicious as the people. the gious exhortations of the and the authority of . the alliance of misery and vice verbial . . became utterly deaf to the voice of religion and conscience. and that they became. so far from being awed into virtue. whose virtues are extolled by all the chroniclers. with some bright exceptions. but the Archbishop of Tyre acknow- ledges (p. is and the subsequent calamities of famine and In the hourly contemplation of death. their con- duct in general relaxed into indifference and dissoluteness. and the temptations the riotous in- offered by a rich and fertile district to . scarcity to luxurious 149 abundance on the arrival of the ."^' . 763) that. dulgence of every sensual passion all assisted in pro- ducing a general corruption of morals.

and who. and a person of condition. Count of Lunenbourg. it Gibbon has dwelt upon fate of in his own peculiar way. and to if pretended revelation were success- employed animate the fanatical courage of the soldiery.150 superstition fully . and all the women. The good Adhemar went further on another occasion he considered that * Among anger of . Albert of Aix. in Provence. He calls the fair partner of Alberon matrona. (xi." The unfortunate ecclesiastic. 131. but from their .) and has transferred to a foot-note an allusion to the " tragic and scandalous by the Turks as an archdeacon of royal birth.f in the crusading other things. son of Conrad. and truth and imposture were equally powerless in efiecting any permanent reformation of manners camp. Albertus Aqucnsis. Albert. or served to excite a transient ebullition of remorse. Tyr. L' Eqjrit Dcs Croisades. According him. 68. i. The story is told by e. 234. who thus suffered himself to be seduced from his vow. See upon this subject generally. f The dissoluteness of the crusading it army before Antioch would surpass belief were not confirmed by unquestionable testimony. and who paid with his life the penalty of his folly. though not a crusader himself. because Paynim women were the partners of their amours and the fair infidels were accordingly for a time sent away from the camp. a monk was assured in a vision that the God was speciall}'^ kindled against the crusaders. Mailly. . : he was procuring an acceptable wives sacrifice to Heaven by obliging the warriors to separate not only from the paramours. Archdeacon of Metz. and a relation of the Emperor of Germany. p. were confined in a remote quarter of the camp. was Alberon. Willermus. virtuous as well as vicious. a canon of the church. THE FIRST CRUSADE. derived his information from trustworthy sources. and Michaud. p. her fate was horrible. i. —whence we may infer that she to was a married woman. 695. Ilistory of the Crusades. who was slain ho reposed in an orchard playing at dice with a Syrian concubine. iv.* denunciations of the heavenly wrath al- ways failed to correct the public depravity. 101.

opposed to their impatience. and of delay to the army. The popular it discontent at the continued procrastination of the enterprise was shortly displayed in a temper which was no longer safe to provoke. place might not. were loud in their demands to be led without further loss of time to the conquest of Jerusalem. together with the Albara on the Orontes. their selfishness with indignation and the soldiery and pilgrims who had survived the third famine and pestilence of Antioch. the Count of Thoulouse had captured and intended to retain. of the single-minded Godfrey. Amidst all 151 the demoralization of the multitude. perhaps. the declining ardour. no decay of fanatical zeal in pursuing the great ultimate object of the war is justly chargeable upon them. than to complete the purpose of the Crusade. finding his prize untenable. or the private views of their leaders. After the first burst of enthusiasm had expended itself in the sieges of Nice and Antioch. the gallant and disinterested Tancred.DEFENCE OF ANTIOCH. and a few congenial spirits. which. Raymond. They. indeed. the latter. with the exception. was compelled to yield to the wishes of his . The ramparts of the city of Marra. were ever clamorous against the delays which the caution. that the itself. were razed to the ground by his own troops. But the people discovered and regarded and disgust . evinced more desire to indulge their love of pleasure and rapine. like the possession of Antioch be rendered an object of contention to the chiefs. their mutual enmities and personal ambition.

525-527. 126. p. Willcrmus Tjt. Albert. 267. Mon. 125. 69. .* * Robert. p. and put in combined motion toward Jerusalem. p. 70. p. since the final reduction of Antioch. p. were the cru- sading forces once more concentrated. 731-736. Provencal followers. 268. p.152 THE FIRST CRUSADE. Guibert. Baldric. 160-164. and declared his readiness to lead them to the deliverance of the Holy Sepulchre . rtaymond des Agiles. the same tardy resolution was embraced by the other and not until eight months had expired princes .

d. F the immense host. desertion force and conquest. perhaps hundred thousand men.] so enormous had been the losses by the sword and the climate. which had originally formed the siege of Nice.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. that the total which advanced from Antioch amounted to only fifteen hundred cavalry and tv^enty . 153 Jerusalem. seven 1099. SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM BY THE CRUSADERS. [a. by fjimine and pestilence. SECTION X.

Boemond. for the convenience of supplying their wants from the Italian vessels which traded on the coast. pleading the cares of his new prin- cipality. a distance of about three hun- dred miles. contributions of money and provisions. whose zeal and constancy had triumphantly surmounted the fiery trials of peril and temptation Godfrey of Bouillon. either fled their strongholds. and whatever contempt and indignation personal abandonment of his his aid. for the Turkish Emirs of Gabala. they might feel at this vows. the two Roberts of Normandy and of Flanders. soldiers. the crusaders. Beritus. Sidon. or. Tyre. Raymond of Thoulouse. deprecating assault. with about an equal number of followers. At their turning from the coast. and Tancred. chose their route along the seashore. unarmed pilgrims and camp nant of the myriads But this rem- who had assumed the cross was composed of veteran and devoted warriors.: 154 thousand foot THE FIRST CKUSADE. did its not accompany their march far beyond confines . Their advance was easy and unopposed . and led by those renowned chieftains and champions of the sacred war. received his excuses and accepted From Antioch to Jaffa. Acre. Tripoli. despairing of successful resistance. and directed . from by submis- sion purchased the forbearance of the invaders with large Jaflji. Tortosa. and other intervening places. common cause . but he freely rendered his contributions and support to the success of the his confederates. the exulting host struck into the interior of the country.

317-319. the itself. were as quickly succeeded by feelings of deep humiliation and self-abasement. as with one impulse. CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. p. every suffering repaid. Bethlehem. p. p. Baldric. The proud noble. 127-131. By the admixture of truth with imposture. 736-745. and these first gladsome emotions. p. Albert. every The single mighty passion of a host suddenly broke forth in joyful exclamations and embraces filled . was forgotten. and soil. the Mussulmans themselves had been * Robert. the clergy succes- sively directed the religious attention of their more ignorant brethren to the memorable scenes of Ramula. confessed their common uuworthiness even to look upon the scene which had witnessed the sufferings of the Redeemer of mankind and the whole armed multitude. prostrated themselves. sinking on their knees. Radulplius Cad. the long-cherished object. In that glo- sight. which every heart with pious thanksgivings. the fierce soldier. and toil reward of their hopes.''' poured out their tears over the consecrated But the deliverance of the Holy City and Sepulchre from infidel bondage and profanation still re- mained to be achieved. march awful 155 upon Jerusalem curiosity. 71. . Raymond des Agiles. and at length the holy upon their enraptured gaze. 269-274.. p. Willermus Tyr. With devout and rude warriors of Europe now traversed a region filled with places which hourly recalled some sacred association . and the lowly pilgrim. 165-173. and city burst rious Emmaus . promise. p.

he had prepared the vigorous defence of the city. Al Cvds. p. . honour. which increased site. but. or the Holy. Al Cods. alliance Finding. his most distinguished and favourite lieutenant. including the Golgotha. under Lstakar. for No less than forty thousand of the best troops of Egypt. pre. Sion was no longer embraced within their hills the city. his repeated offers of and peaceful admission into Jerusalem as unarmed pilgrims contemptuously spurned by the haughty warriors of the West. were its assigned for regular garrison . It its was abundantly supplied with had been provi- and ancient fortifications. Moria.''' and every motive of religion. and this force citizens was and swollen by twenty thousand Mussulman district. forbade the Khalif of to the Christians that Egypt session to 3-ield ancient pos- which his arms had recently recovered from the Turks. on the southern and eastern the craggy precipices . on the approach of the Christian invaders. sions . took refuge within the walls. equally defied assault and obstructed any sally and * D'llcrbdot. Bezetha. therefore. 209.156 TDE FIRST CRUSADE. and policy. peasantry of the surrounding who. diligently As Mount circuit. of Acra. and sented the form of a parallelogram faces. was the Anibic designation of Jerusak'ni. taught to revere Jerusalem as inferior in sanctity only to Mecca and Medina. the natural strength of the restored or repaired. BiUiotUque Orientah v.

In . the two remaining sides presented the only accessible points of operation. two Roberts and Tancred continued the blockade from that point to the .:"»3^ri-^ ._ 157 /^^^^^^ Jloit/it i>ioii.verge of the Eastern precipices. his station The Count of Thoulouse from Mount Sion along the western chose side Eustace of Boulogne extended his troops from the conclusion of the Provencal lines toward the north. CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. until he adjoined the quarters of his brother. whose standard was planted on the north- western angle at the foot of Mount Calvary . Before these fronts the besiegers impatientl}^ pitched their camp... -/ry-\ . Duke and the Godfrey.

less dels. hurled destructive variety of projectiles on the down every finally beat heads of the exposed and devoted Christians. perceiving the inability of the assailants to approach them. had nearly Disregarding the delivered the city into their hands. superior numbers. confidence of their fanatical valour. to a furious assault of the walls of Jerusalem. without art. The leaders of the Crusade. without scaling ladders. sufficiently large for and the surrounding country' was ex- . main rampart. or lower outward gate.158 the first THE FIRST CRUSADE. they burst through the barbi- can. and the deadly missiles of the garrison. their fanatical delusion by this repulse. recovered their courage. but the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem afibrded no timber these works . fully expecting the miraculous aid of Heaven. for now prepared to proThey resolved breaching or over- to construct the usual machines towering the walls. de- spite of every probability and obstacle. and even penetrated to the foot of the arrested. secute the siege by the rules of art. the safe position. on the fifth morning after the investment. and them back with slaughter and confusion awakened from to their camp. rushed. without battering engines. The Mussulmans. any of the ordinary applications of the besieging The astonishing impetuosity of their rash onset. efforts of But here they were the panic-stricken infi- by any than by the mere inaccessible height of the bulall warks and the absence of means of escalade. the cru- saders.

plored for materials. and the burialIt place of the patriarch Jacob. (Gerusal. (xx. where afterward stood the Flavia Neapolis of Herod. The crews were landed was despatched to bring at Jaffa . Liberata. when the fortunate arrival of some Ge- noese galleys at Jaffa supplied this deficiency. It 159 was only at the distance of thirty miles that.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. and. and subsequently of Samaria. of their labours in anx- for now again were the sufferings of their former sieges repeated under a horror. frequently mentioned in Scripture.* trees could be found of suitable dimensions. general a superiority in So mechanical skill had the commercial people of Italy attained over the ignorance of the times. these being felled were transported by the painful but zealous labour of the soldiery to the camp.) . that the whole Latin host were dependent on the fortuitous services of these mariners. and battering or scaling the walls. an escort of troops coast . in the grove of Sichem. It was one of the cities of refuge appointed by Joshua. with pro- per engines for throwing missiles. of water the rocky soil yielded few springs the * A city of Canaan. under the direction of the indefatigable Tancred. undermining the ramparts. 7. now the Nablous of the Arabs.) and was the enchanted grove of the poet Tasso. new variety of destitute . they undertook the construction of three great movable towers. was situated on Mount Ephraim. them up from the and. as soon as they reached the camp. canto xii. The country round Jerusalem was . Competent artificers were yet wanting. The army awaited the completion ious suspense .

respectively manned and worked by the troops of Godfrey and Raymond. who could not pay were obliged to for its transport in gold. two. The former leader chose his point the great depth of the ditch had rendered the garrison negligent of its of attack where the rampart had least elevation. before the readiness of their engines of assault enabled the crusaders to put a triumphant con- summation to their labours. and the streams of b^' Siloe and Kedron were dried up siegers the intense heats of summer. of the springs. and the poorer multitude.160 THE FIRST CRUSADE. and defence. The be- were agonized by a scanty supply of water could be procured only at a distance of several miles . w^ere slowly moved forward toward the walls. each of three stories. amid this horrid drought. p. Three days were laboriously * These expressive proofs of the height of the people's sufferings are given by Robert the Monk. wander in quest. thirst . by abstaining from extreme was the food. fountains and reservoirs had been destroyed by the infidels .'='' For forty days. at the hazard of being cut off by the fleet Mussulman hordes which scoured the whole Numbers. 75. voured to lessen the intolerable thirst which consumed them . that many gasping wretches were fain to lick up the dews of night from the rocks. had the siege endured. endea- country. When the lofty mova- ble towers. . and to excavate holes in the earth that they might but press their lips against the moister soil. and so distress. were completed.

besieged with projectiles and But several ap- proaches were prepared against different fronts of the main ramparts of the place with battering and raining engines . b}^ for a general assault of the full the whole host. . and preceded 11 made a religious procession round the walls to invoke the . consumed in filling up this fosse . new level.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. and the eager warriors only awaited the sig- nal of final attack. Mean- less skilful or fortu- for their tower was repeatedly damaged by the fire. On the eve of the day appointed city. and the tower was then successfully rolled over the while the Provencals had been nate . ' armament. in the clergy. 161 Godfrey of Bouillon.

the sading host advanced on the following assault of Jerusalem. Ascending the Mounts of Olives and of Zion. But the onset was received by the Moslems with a courage guided by skill. and sustained by confi- . crucifixes were borne head of the troops . the crusaders halted on each of those holy places. and when these solemn rites had elevated the devotional and warlike enthusiam of the soldiery to the highest pitch of excitement. every instrument of martial music was hushed. and knelt in prayer. dis- playing crucifixes on the ramparts. religious hope. the battering and mining all machines and huge movable towers of the latter filled with chosen — the stages of knights bodies and men-at-arms —were impelled toward the walls.1G2 divine aid. the spectacle which was presented from the walls still further inflamed their fanatical feelings with a deadly thirst of revenge against the infidels. Instead of banners. and the crusaders with shouts of fury vowed insults in the to wash out these impious perpetrators. The garrison. incentive of natural vacru- and fanatical vengeance. aloft at the THE FIRST CRUSADE. blood of the Thus animated by every lour. and covered them with filth . dawn to the While showers of arrows and and balistic engines stones from the archers were di- rected against the defenders on the ramparts to cover the principal operations. and the only sounds to which the army moved were sacred chants of psalmody. derided those re- vered emblems of salvation.

the machines of the besiegers fire and the dreadful Greek was poured in liquid streams against the movable towers. but. saders far exceeded that of the infidels the great tower of Count and disabled . and defence were tlie re- newed increased with fury conflict at noon. Yet their heroic spirit was undismayed. desperate was still balanced in appalling indecision. the barbican having been beaten down. that of Duke Godfrey was undamaged. upon the more exposed bodies of the Latin masses of rock were successfully hurled upon . and had been brought into threatening contiguity the rampart . the tower of Godfrey was forced sufficiently near to the inner rampart to enable . their labour indefatigable. dence or despair.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. Raymond had been partially burned many of the other engines of assault reluc- had been destroyed. and already imperfectly of the city breached in several places. at the third hour of the evening. and the besiegers were tantly compelled to desist for the night from further efforts. their replied with murder- ous effect archers . At daylight. the slaughter among . their confidence unabated. But. incessant flights 163 From behind of missiles the defences. Though The Provencal tower had been arrested in its advance. the assault . During the day the struggle raged without intermission. at even. to and on other fronts of attack the walls were shaken. and the event still hung in tremendous the cru- expense. by the violent strokes of the battering-rams and the more insidious use of the sap.

Letoldus and Englebert. the a^d strength of the Mussulman defenders of Jerusalem. in Flan- ders. so critical for the susspirit pended cause of Christendom and Islam. Capture of Jerusalem. were the and second of the crusading war- . In that moment. quailed before the personal prowess of the cross. of Tournay. down upon first the solid rampart two bro- thers.^ the iron-nerved chivalry of Europe to close hand to hand for the mastery.164 THE FIRST CRUSADE. with the less vigorous warriors of the East. champions of the tower was let The frail drawbridge of the . despite of their superior numbers and securer footing.

De De Raimbaud told These took the lead in the order in which they are named. the sacred The victors pursued them pas- with a relentless fury. riors 165 who sprang upon the battlements third. The and unresisting despair with which the helpless miserable and crowds awaited their fate. —Godfrey. followed closely by D'Amanjeu 420. viz. d'Albret. and Leo- and Englcbert of Tournay . and Godfrey of Bouillon^ himself the planted his banner on the walls. Abandoning domes of all further hope. the ensign of the cross floated over the towers of Jerusalem. and. in quick succession the Duke of Normandy. gallantly inspired his Provencals to carry the rampart in their front by escalade defeat of their brein all the defenders. Valier. women. quarters. . Stephen into the city and at every breach in the works a passage was imfol- petuously forced by their emulous associates and lowers. the fleeing multitude of the Moslems thronged to die under their Mosques. and children sive to indiscriminate slaughter. Meanwhile. the Count of Flanders. and Tancred. wavered and fled . which consigned men. neither awakened the pity nor * satiated the bloody vengeance series of the The author of L' Esprit des Croisades arranges the somewhat differently.* with irresistible His victorious example was followed energy . and Baldwin de Burgh. burst through the gate of St. EuGuicher. dis- daining to enter the place in the train of his more successful confederates. . . appalled by the thren. iv. CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM.. the Count of Thoulouse. : successful assailants stace. thus St. Bernard de Croton.

William of Tyre. in pope. t By the IMussulman writers (De Guiges. and Abulfeda. vol.166 THE FIRST CRUSADE. ii. and the horrid computation of the total carnage on the battlements. The outrages which the pil- of their savage destroyers. p. 319). the very sight of the sacred places their false which they had profaned with ors against the fugitives edifices. 281. the numbers massacred are stated as high as seventy or even one hundred thousand souls : but last these were traditional estimates long after the event. and in the churches and houses. p. who alone of the Latin chroniclers attempts a precise enumeration. i. were sternly remembered and fearfully avenged. sand persons were massacred every minor retreat in the city was explored with equally fierce diligence by the swords of the crusaders. sw VAncicnne Jerusalem. and the probably exceeds the amount of the whole population of Jerusalem at the period. ^. ten thou. vol. iii."''' a public letter which they addressed to the that. in the splendid mosque erected by the Khalif Omar on Infidels. 42-53. the site of the Temple of Solomon.J * Martcnne. gives twenty thousand as the number . vol. f D'Aiiville.-)* they rode up to their horses' knees in the blood of the In that principal sanctuary alone. Thesaurus Novus. through- out the streets. worship served to heighten the fanatical rage of the conquer- who sought shelter in those and it was the boast of the Latin princes. p. has been variously extended to an incredible number of both sexes and all ages. 99. and the insults with which they had recently derided the cross. Infidels had formerly inflicted on the Christian grims. apud KcLskc. Diss.

.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. exchanged his armour white linen tunic. into a flood of contrite was all at once relaxed . of whom in the Mosque Omar. and tearful devotion and the whole host in turn. sade. re- the Church of the Sepulchre. ferocious intolerance. were fol- lowed by a sudden transition of passion. 1G7 These dreadful scenes of fanatical cruelty. moved in procession to the Hill of Calvary. the events of the single day on which Jerusalem way stormed. as humble and repentant pilgrims. the inhuman fanaticism which had so lately steeled their hearts against every softer emotion. The same religious impulse was quickly communicated to his fellow-warriors. and fervent piety. at that hallowed monument of redemption. Duke Godfrey. with bare head and paired in pious humiliation to feet. which produced the Cru- The mailed warriors who had sworn and ac- complished the deliverance of the Holy Sepulchre in arms. forcibly exemplify the unnatural union of those motives of martial achievement. threw aside washed his bloody hands. from which reason and humanity equally revolt. and. for their sins. for a merciless slaughter. discarding their arms and purifying their persons from the signs of recent slaughter. as strangely but less painfully characteristic of the times. and in for mingled penitence of victims in the of first and thanksgiving one half fell massacre. after him- self staining the example of heroic his courage with reeking sword. to complete their vows of adoration. and. hastened.

was the Patriarch of Jerusalem. . in any contemporary or to notice the authentic record and history has altogether forgotten subsequent fate of the man who had moved the population of Europe from its foundations. lie structed his flock to honour. who had either been retained in the city during the gathered latter siege. after his reception of this public homage. as a revered and chosen servant of God who. in the person of Peter the Hermit. had seeking a retreat from the Mussulman tyranny in in in- Cyprus. Among * It is the conscious offences which humbled the singular that. wept over the tomb of the Saviour of After these religious exercises. was given to the general joy both of the Latin con- querors and the native Christians. and. the faithful missionary whose indignation and piety had been moved by the spectacle of bondage to their the Infidels. to . of Heaven. perform this service. the name of the Hermit occurs not again . The grateful multitudes pros- trated themselves before the poor Solitary of Amiens.168 their victoiy. or had the after in the crusading quarters. lately arrived the camp. the his success may be mea- sured by his indefatigable labours in the imaginary cause spiritual triumph which re- warded quisite must have surpassed the most ex'=' enjoyment of temporal ambition. Among wdio. and whose holy zeal had roused the nations of the Western World to undertake their deliverance. if the sincerity of the fanatic. had twice traversed Europe and Asia. THE FIRST CRUSADE. a loose the world.

and remorselessly butchered.— CAPTUIIE OF JERUSALEM. Scenes of bloodshed similar to those which had preceded. with so ferocious and dark a superstition. they were so far from numbering their cruelties to the Infidels. that they offer- deemed the ing to the lightened plation late work of slaughter a meritorious of Mercies. children. souls of the crusaders in contrition 169 and prayer before the altar of the Sepulchre. and. were now dragged from their prisons and and the hiding-places. sale as slaves. the former passion was only second to their cruelty. though mj^taken. who rescued them for and incurred the censure of the army his avarice to that of by preferring the indulgence of his fanaticism. and the work of pillage proceeded simultaneously with . alive in The Jews of the city were burned their synagogues. not to the humanity. except a few wretched Mussulescape mans. All even women. which. and infants at the breast shared the same fate. God mind To every pious and en- there can be few subjects of contem- more offensive and painful than this alliance of a devotion. but to the covetous- ness of the Count of Thoulouse. who owed their from the general slaughter. also followed the interval of worship. the Mussulman lassitude. the crusaders delibe- rately renewed the massacre of the Infidel garrison and inhabitants. was sincere. captives who had been spared by the fugitives who had eluded the first search of the victors. With the rest of the crusaders. on the morning after the capture of Jerusalem.

or dread of public censure. By previous agreement. con- verted to the purposes of Christian worship and.) before the costliness of the prize had seduced of unwonted frailty. the earliest care of the leaders of the Crusade was given to the duty of *In the Mosque of Omar. the rich plunder of the mosques. but not. had divided the possession of the Holy streets her of" were cleansed from the horrid pollution recent slaughter by the labour of some Mussulman slaves.'^ The infidel inhabitants of . make restitution of his booty . the churches to the clergy and mosques were delivered up afresh. (p. that of bloodshed. either by the reproaches of his own con- science. no fewer than seventy massive lamps of gold and silver were found by Tancred. the ser^dce of the church and the relief of the poor but each house became the property of the first warrior who burst its door. Jerusalem had been ex- tirpated and the law of conquest supplied a new and Christian population. in a of his virtue. After the occupation of the city. and surrendered to the prescribed uses of religion and charity. and suspended his shield from its walls. tenanted by the various population of her martial citizens from every Western nation. 443. moment He attempted to secrete the spoils for his private profit. was dedicated to .170 THE FIRST CRUSADE. until he was driven. When the victorious soldierjCity. or and dedicated now first . which abounded with lamps and vases of gold and silver. if wc may believe Malrasbury. Jerusalem pre- sented the novel aspect of an European settlement. to to the Ecclesiastical Treasury. to forget the usual purity the hero.

upon one of their bod}^ The accidents of war had diminished the number of by those great leaders of the European chivalry wdio. tlie feudal sovereignty of Jerusalem. by their free voices. the strong array of their retainers. with its future dependencies. therefore. and had withdrawn themselves from immediate participation in the crowning glories of the Holy War. in chivalric fame. the Count of Thoulouse. were to entitled to aspire this honour. Boemond and Baldwin were already seated in the principalities of Antioch and Edessa.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. of princes. tains of the On the eighth day. the two Normandy and of Flanders. their hereditary rank. and the Duke of Brabant. securing their 171 conquest. if w^e may believe our Anglo-Norman first to waiters. after the capture of the city. The establishment of a feudal kingdom in Palestine was obviously suggested by the familiar example of the same form of polity system of tenures in the Western monarchies. the princes of sovereign rank who remained with the army were four only in number. altogether deserted expedition . and by the necessity of organizing a martial for the de- fence of the Christian state and the protection of the Holy Sepulchre. with deeper reproach. the princely and noble chief- crusading host assembled to confer. or the influence of personal character. the great Count of Vermandois the sacred and the Count of Chartres had. the crown of Jerusalem was offered the brave . and al- though. Of these Roberts. Tancred was at least their equal.

"'' must be ascribed Count of is But the by the . p. Aquensis. in opposition to the intrigues of the wily and jealous Provencal. was at least no equality of merit and. but prodigal son of the Conqueror.172 THE FIRST CRUSADE. on the other hand. 179. the general voice of the assembly proclaimed Godfrey of Bouillon as the most deserving. tale of Robert's election entirely discredited silence of every immediate chronicler of the Crusade and the grasp- ing ambition and selfish cupidity ever displayed by fall the Count of Thoulouse. fWillermusTyr. among all the princely champions of the Cross. there . by his less praiseworthy indolence. if there existed any rivalry in pretension.to are expressly stated by a better have occasioned the rejection claims. and declined by his modest distrust of his own merits. p. p. are not only incompatable with the disinterestedness imputed to him by of his his adherents. the same proffer to the refusal of the regal dignity Thoulouse. or by his preference of his European Duchy. 283. to receive the crown of Jerusalem and the guardianship of the Holy Sepulchre. both before and after the of Jerusalem. Between Robert of Flanders and his friend the Duke of Brabant. and If. . 763. both by his prowess and piety. The spirit of Godfrey was too magnanimous to shrink from the perilous and unquiet charge which intrusted dcs Agiles. but authority-j. 537. bert. we credit the Proven9al chroniclers of the Crusade. to him Gui- * Raymond Albert.

.GODFREY OF BOUILLON ELECTED KING OF JERUSALEM.

.

When by a alone in the dense part of a forest. till the noise rough t others to the spot. The army. under that term.] He was in immedi- ately conducted in solemn procession to the church of the Sepulchre. but. hastened to his tim to attack his the cloak when the bear quitted his vicnew enemy. with his humility which to distin- guished character. being entangled between his Godfrey wounded himself severely in the thigh in attempting to draw it. duke heard the attacked who had been Godfrey bear. His sword legs. relief. [July 23. 1090. it was cus- tomary for ecclesiastical bodies to purchase the protection of some prince or powerful noble. and the * The title of Advocate or Defender of a church or monastery : was familiar to the age of Godfrey when. A knight. he title would accept no prouder or Defender of the than that of Advocate '=' tomb of Christ. . and modestly declining the name with the decoration of a king. despatched the bear with his sword. and there inaugurated the pious his new office. the cries of a poor pilgrim. He seized the duke by and dragged him to the ground. 173 rather the sword of the crusader than the sceptre of a feudal king. estimation in which Godfrey was held by the known from the universal lamentation which prevailed when he met with a disaster in Asia be may Minor. however. he refused have a regal diadem placed on his brows in that city.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. Advocaius. named Hase- quin. 1) Ho continued the fight. while cutting wood. wherein his Saviour had worn a crown of thorns. But see Du Cenge v.

and Jerusalem. was converted into the capital of a Christian state. 746-703. of the Crmades. Guibert. 275-289. stability was given to the recent conquests of the crusaders. had been wrested out of the hands of the disciples of Moham- med. and ecclesiastical institutions of the new kingdom. 175-178. . remained for the crusaders only to secure their maintenance and extension by regulating the martial. p. almost exhausted duke was borne to the camp. 132-134. p. masterly sketch of the spirit and transactions of the First to the Crusade. 533-537. 396-400. p. civil. p. 320-324. After the worthy choice of a sovereign to deit fend and govern their conquests. W\\h. p. Kaymond p. Albertus Aquensis. &c. p.174 TUE FIRST CRUSADE. Carnot. and executed his design with equal truth and ability. The religious zeal * Robertus Mon.'=' the election of Godfrey of Bouillon may be dated the foundation of the Latin Kingdom of Jeru- By that event. Fulchrius. p. 1-6) has industriously exhausted the stores of the Latin chroniclers. dcs Agiles. and {Historij more recent and ample work of Mr. after a possession of more than four hundred and fifty years since its surrender to Omar. who vol. Willermus Tyr. which. the present compilation indebted to the labours of our modern English historians of the same events to the LVIIIth chapter of Gibbon. From SELEM. Kadulphus Cad. c. where the loss of a battle would scarcely have spread more consternation than the unhappy spectacle he afforded to the eyes of the Christians. which. 74-77. Biildricus Arch. is also throughout the above narrative. But. largely These references embrace the original jriven in the autliorities for all the details test of the siege and capture of Jerusalem. i. though not : exempt from some offers a errors of fact and more obliquities of sentiment.

. and the great sign of the First Crusade had been concluded in the triumphant recovery of the Holy Sepulchre.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. 175 and the prudential policy of the conquerors were yet to be exercised in providing for its defence . but their de- vows were already accomplished.

. (irusabf. roused to equal indignation and alarm by the intelligence of the fall of Jerusalem.. CHAPTER %\ft . ITIIIN tion to a short fill month after his elec- the throne of Jerusalem. which title. was summoned into the field to 3 sustain that arduous office of defender his of the Holy Sepulchre.§cf0nij n..176 THE SECOND CRUSADE. SECTION I. had immediately despatched a . the pious and gallant Godfrej' of Bouillon .— STATE OF THE LATIN KINGDOM. modesty had pre- ferred to the regal The Khalif of Egypt.

were flushed with recent victory. Of the infidel host. after the discharge of a galling flight of arrows from an am- bush. 1099 :] and the organized and mail-clad chivalry of Europe once more triumphed over the disorderly multitudes of Egypt. however inferior in numbers. . the desperate courage and rude weapons of these barbarians were vainly opposed to the sharp lances and physical weight of the Chris. terrific effect. since the capture of the Holy City.STATE OF THE LATIN KINGDOM. But the champions of the cross. first charge of Godfrey and Tancred and the only resist- ance which the crusaders encountered was from a band of five thousand black Africans . who. astonished the Latins by a novel mode of close combat with balls of Iron fastened to leathern thongs. The more usual exaggeration of the Latin chroniclers has swollen the infidel host into countless myriads : their authentic record of the Christian force shows that the bands of the crusaders had already dwindled. The- armies met at Ascalon [August 12. The Fatimites fled at the . and the influence of a common religion and cause attracted numerous hordes of Turks and Saracens to the Fatimite standard. great 177 army into Palestine. after the moment of surprise. to five thousand horse and fifteen thousand foot-soldiers. Syria. the incredible 12 numbers . and animated by the unconquerable energy of religious and martial enthusiasm. and Arabia. which they swung with first But. tian gens-d'armerie and their destruction or flight completed the easy and merciless victory of the crusaders.

: 178 THE SECOND CRUSADE. being alone reserved the division of the plunder. killed. hastened to deprecate the hostility of the crusading king tribute. all and Baldwin but of his compeers. by submission and The remainder of Godfrey's brief reign was disturbed only by the intrigues of Daimbert. were piously suspended by Godfrey over the salem. are declared to have been slaughtered while of the Latins scarcely a man had been . at Boemond was Edessa. Arch- * Albertus Aquensis. most of the surviving princes chieftains of the holy war departed for Europe. Godfrey could in. of thirty thousand in the battle. the Mussulmans were easily expelled . 290-294. into the hands of the victors and the standard from and sword of the khalif. p.* altar of the Sepulchre at Jeru- The victory of Ascalon was the last combined ex- ploit of the heroes of the first Crusade. Willermus Tyr. p. 763-773. established at Antioch. and as many thousand of Palestine. a sufficient protection to the new state . Caisarea. for a season at least. the spoils of the Egyptian camp. An immense fell booty. remained for the defence But the terror of the Christian arms proved. Having ac- comjDlished their vow. from the shores of Lake Genesareth and the emirs of Ascalon. and Acre. and bidden a farewell to their magnanimous and leader. foot soldiers. . duce only the devoted Tancred to share his fortunes and no more than three hundred knights. and sixty thousand in the pursuit.

Even the Archbishop of Tyre. But even this submission did not satisfy the pride and cupidity of Daimbert he claimed the entire possession of Jerusalem and Jaffa. Daimbert auda- ciously claimed the disposal of those acquisitions which the heroes of the Crusade had carved out with their own good swords . that besides the intense and disinterested de- votion of Godfrey to the church. who shrank with superstitious horror from the idea of a contest with the church. vol. in this double capacal to succeed city. however. Mills has observed. as Mr. died of joy on learning the conquest of Jerusalem. 11/'' 179 who had been appointed by Pope PasAdhemar of Puj as legate of the holy see. pontiflF oc- curred only fifteen days after the capture of the too soon to have been produced and therefore by the receipt of the glad intelli- gence in |" Italy. of the Latin church in the East.) the decease of that city. the feudal investure of the states of Jerusalem and Antioch. Pope Urban 11. despite of the zeal for the suto premacy of the church which he may be supposed naturally felt. Willermus Tyr. is have disgusted by the audacious pretension of the patriarch. and which was one of the characteristics of the age. nor . as vas- mond condescended to receive sals of the church. 268.f by the surrender of the whole of the to * According to the vulgar belief. As chief. bishop of Pisa. but. and both Godfrey and Boefrom his hands.. and had now been invested with the patriarchate of Jerusalem. STATE OF THE LATIN KINGDOM. and Godfrey. of the Crusades. and relates the tale with indignant candour. i. who were wholly under the control of Daimbert. was glad cious compound with the demand of the rapaprelate. he could not dispense with the aid of the Pisans and Genoese. 771. (^Hist. The truth is. p.

including the sepulchre of the sacred capital. 775. 773- . in case Godfrey died without issue. and to the sorrow not only of the Christian inhabitants of Palestine. territories whose he had unjustly invaded. p. Will. at this been made prisoner by an Armenian chieftain. THE SECOND CRUSADE. for the 1100. whose emissary the patriarch was. Tyr. A. and a portion. or to abandon his newly acquired kingdom. alternative. [July 11. he breathed his at the early age of forty years. p. it was resolved that the unimpaired sovereignty.180 latter city. * Albert.] That event occurred too shortly hap- piness of a people whom the good prince governed with paternal benevolence. 537-554. five days prefirst ceding the anniversary of his reign. Prince critical junc- of Antioch ture. but to act as he did act. p. that the unreserved dominion of all Jerusalem should escheat to his see. Guibert.* On the death of Godfrey. The patriarch further extorted the monstrous condition. He had no 294-299. decided the choice of venture upon a quarrel with the Holy See. but that prince had. but even of their Mussulman last tributaries. itself. the barons of the Latin kingdom of Palestine indignantly refused to ratify the promised cession which the patriarch demanded and . D. . rights of the its crown over Jerusalem should be bestowed with temporal Tancred desired that the election should fall on his relative Boemond. and a general feeling that some preference was due to the claims of the house of Bouillon.

Prince of Edessa. Baldwin du Bourg. the barons in favour of Baldwin. after some fruitless opposition. inspired Tancred with a more excusable and lasting repugnance to his pretensions 5 and refusing to swear allegiance to au enemy. The memory of the wrongs which he had sustained from Baldwin. 181 Tancred.STATE OF THE LATIN KINGDOM. and. Resigning his principality to his relative and namesake. crowned the new hastened to the Holy City.. the brother of Godfrey. the patriarch solemnly King of Jerusalem in the church of Bethlehem. the Italian chieftain .

and the king and the regent of Antioch were left at leisure to provide for the security of their states against the common Mussul- man who by a enemy. During a reign of eighteen years.— 182 retired TUE SECOND CRUSADE. 77G. he. Tyr. and magnanimous devotion to his regal which won the respect and love of his people. and Stephen of Chartres tired — the same leaders first who had re- with little honour from their expedition the Dukes of Aquitaine and of Bavaria. displayed a dis- interested duties. 775. in Imrned with course the of a few years. which may be regarded as a supplement to the first Crusade. during the Crusade had disgusted his compeers selfish and treacherous ambition. and. he not only tained with zeal and ability the arduous office sus- of defending the Latin state from the assaults of the Infidels. . from Jerusalem to Antioch. and proved him no unworthy successor of his brother. In these effi)rts he was much assisted by the re- mains of several armaments from Europe. Will. p.'-' The character of Baldwin rose with his elevation. Hugh of Vermandois. and. p. 300-308. still The spirit which had animated that enterprise undiminished intensity. but extended its limits and increased its security. of which he assumed the regency during the captivity of Boe- mond. the Counts of * Albert. on the throne of Jerusalem. But an accommodation was eflected by the good offices of the barons.

and the triple scourge of the sword. vol. Will. who found themselves compelled by the public contempt of a chivalrous age to return to Palestine. perished in the attempt to redeem the fame which they had vows. 781-787. of Nevers. daughter of the until Norman conqueror. Anna Comnena. 315-325. 290. lost by the former abandonment of their crusading The great Count of Vermandois died at Tarsus of wounds received in battle with the Turks of Cilicia. . He had been driven to engage in the supplementary Cru- sade by the high-spirited reproaches of his Countess Adela. i. 790-793. and the Count of Chartres only survived his second march into Palestine to be taken prisoner and murdered in the frontier warfare by the Egyptian Mus- sulmans. note. J Both the Counts of Vermandois and of Chartres. severally conducted into Asia whole armies of French. famine. 183 Burgundy. p. and more especially by * Mills. and Italian crusaders. Orderic Vital. and still fed the Christian cause in Palestine with a constant supply of veteran by their aid. and of other princes. German. Tyr. and encountered the same sufferings and disasters. Gascon. lib. of Crusades. Flemish. survived the : horrors of the passage through Asia Minor yet the remnant which entered Syria warriors. the incessant attacks of the Turks. and of Parma. Albert. Hist.* cessive hosts took the same route. He was father English usurper. who had sworn to allow him no peace to Stephen. and their pestilence. from the dubious faith of the Byzantine court. of Vendome.STATE OF THE LATIN KINGDOM. whose aggregate has been computed at the astonishing by a modern writer little number of These suc- less than half a million of men. p. f But a very small proportion of those who had reached the Bosphorus. ix. 331. p. which had swept off the myriads of precursors. the he should repair his dishonour.

. after humanely rcnderingher every attention. place was surrounded. had released her and her infant in safety. 0. and by the opportune arrival of filled an armament of seventy Genoese with crusaders. after the slaughter of his followers. two *In the preceding year. through a rash assault which he ventured upon the Egyptian invaders of Palestine with a vanguard of only a His followers were overwhelmed by superior few hundred horse. vol.184 that of shores. see Michaud. The story of Baldwin's escape presents one of the few gleams of generous senti- ment which fare. For the details of this romantic incident. own life. assault. and.'-' invasions were repelled. at the hazard of his safety from the castle. 279. if the grateful at midnight. and the capture of the inevitable. 787. in the following spring. the With fleets of Scandinavian King of Jerusalem had narrowly escaped captivity or death. and almost all cut to pieces . some maritime expeditions from the European many Mussuhnan I. Baldwin had captured a noble Saracen woman. form the siege of Acre. 788. when Baldwin. whither the victors immediately pursued him.1104. conveyed him which Baldwin had scarcely quitted when gai-rison was stormed. put to the sword. The King would have been his in it Emir had not secretly approached the walls announced his design of delivering the preserver of wife and child. and many reign. Tyr. i. and. and Sidon became the next object of an interval of four years. relieve the dark picture of a fanatical and savage war- Upon some former occasion. that after a protracted valuable conquest was completed resistance.. In the third year of his Baldwin after reducing Azotus. The husband was serving in the Mussulman ranks. with difficulty reached a castle.] Beritus and Sarepta were also reduced and converted into Christian lordships. [A. Will. to conquests achieved. whose flight was arrested by the pangs of childbirth. numbers. and the whole p. and it was on this occasion that the Count of Chartres was taken and murdered. was enabled galleys. THE SECOND CRUSADE.

Some years afterward. which. d. d. to subjugate Tortosa. on the coast of Syria.] co-operated with the Christian forces of Palestine in the siege of that city and although the first attempt was repulsed. 1115. p.] Thoulouse [a. but he died before he could accomplish the re- duction of the city of Tripoli. * Albert. STATE OF THE LATIN KINGDOM. the object of his ambition. Will. he had guided with the remains of their forces through Asia Minor. which Raymond employed his Provencal troops in extending . and a Pisan and Genoese its Tripoli. The veteran Count of Thoulouse prevailed upon some of the French princes whom. . the second proved successful/-' All these acquisitions were incorporated into the Idngdom of Jerusalem. the long voyage from the Baltic through the Straits of Gibralter to the Syrian shores. in the supplemental Crusade. for his benefit. surrounding district and dependencies. The nucleus of a new state was thus formed. East. and added to the number of tant principalities. by the King of with Jerusalem. 345-365. that conquest was ef- fected for his eldest son Bertrand. into a county for the house of . p. and the destined capital of his Oriental domi- nions. 1109 and this new state. seconded by all the Latin princes of the fleet. 791-805. was then erected by Baldwin .. Tyr. 185 who had performed [a. crusaders. But a more important extenhad meandis- sion of the Christian territories in Syria while been effected.

although feudally subject to the crown of Jerusalem. and the crusading forces route through the Byzantine territories to Palestine. after obtaining his release. Boemond by in a his refusal to acknowledge the feudal superiority of the Eastern Emperor Alexius. and. . the noble to rule the Syrian prin- minded Tancred continued cipality. until his chivalrous career was appropriately terminated by a mortal wound which he had received * Will. During his captivity in Armenia. p. involved himself which he was assisted by the Pisans. Boemond sailed to plot a diversion against the Grecian territories of his ancient enemy . he landed at Durazzo. but. having succeeded by his martial reputation in assembling a large army of crusaders in France and Italy. After his decease. contributed ries of much b}^ its position between the territo- Antioch and Palestine to secure and cement strength the communication and of the Christian power.'-' But the affairs of Antioch were perpetually ambition of its embroiled by the restless prince. the Prince of Antioch returned to Italy. the government of that state was ably administered by Tancred. in The Byzantine Europe to arms prevailing by land. partook in extent and dignity rather of the character of a sovereign principality than of a mere fief. Alexius was then glad to conclude an accommodation with pursuing the usual him. Tyr. where he died in the following year. new war. 701 -79G.186 THE SECOND CRUSADE.

with the Tiberiad . Anna Comnena. together with whom he was taken prisoner in a defeat which the crusaders sustained from the tivity. After five years' cap- the friends were released by the stratagem of some Armenian in partizans. 419. after some uninteresting revolutions government of Antiocli. was only preserved from destruction by the heroic valour of its count. put to the torture.-!* * Radulphus Cad. in battle in the . Fulcher. Courtenay withdrew to Jerusalem. surprised and slew the Turkish territo- Baldwin then bestowed a portion of the Edessine ries in sovereignty upon Courtenay. Albert. who bore name. the eldest son of Boehis mond. 327-330. entering the fortress in which they were confined. surrounded on all sides by Armenian and Turkish enemies. the disguise of garrison. and a succession of three emperors of Constantinople. which member of a noble French illustrious was rendered more by his exploits in the East than by the subsequent alliance of a collateral branch with the royal blood of France. a house. Will. as well as his chivalrous deeds. and successfully claimed the principality as his inheritance. 187 and. p. and his relative. finally arrived in Asia. and settled at Edessa with his relation Baldwin. Emir of Aleppo. might form the groundwork of a ginally accompanied the tale of romance. Jos- celyn de Courtenay. to the Latin throne p.'^' Meanwhile. xiv.STATE OF TUE LATIN" KINGDOM. Indignant at this treatment. Jos- celyn was treacherously lured to Edessa by his benefactor. Baldwin du Bourg. and compelled his domains. 329-419. monks and traders. He had ori- Count of Chartres from Europe in the sup- plementary Crusade. to resign But. p. upon some jealousy. f The adventure and vicissitudes of fortune which Joscelyn de Courtenay underwent in the East. p. Tyr. the isolated state of Edessa. 792-807. lib. 340-354. 420. p. who. against the infidels were rewarded by Baldwin where his services I.

Notwithstanding the wrongs by which his patron had cancelled former benefits. of his ancient prowess suflaced to scatter the Will. death of his kinsman. Joscelyn obtained his liberation fall among the consequences of the at of Tyre. 853. Baldwin I. after Baldwin a second time falling into the hands of the he had become king. and the claims of consanguinity. the junction of new bands of crusaders from Euto revenge the rope. on his return from an On his death-bed he reexpedition against the Soldan of Egypt. By the On the Count of Edessa was called to receive the crown of Jerusalem. unable to on horseback. Joscelyn generously promoted his elevation to the throne of Jerusalem. Baldwin I. * At El-Arish. he. and victory on this his career of expedition was cut short only by the hand of death. he was carried in a fled at the the field the Mussulmans very report of his presence and he died giving thanks to Heaven that the mere fame enemies of God."^ last Leaving no his issue. of the hero an advanced age was a worthy termination of sit his exploits. the Latin prelate and barons were induced. as well as by the advice of Joscelyn de Courtenay. to confirm his choice. by an invasion of that country. The death litter to .] and. supposed to be the ancient Rhinocorura. which was the immediate consequence of the dejection pro- duced by his death. p. infidels. a frontier town of Syria and Egypt. [A. with his breath. in the year 1118. recommended cousin Baldwin du Bourg for his successor. quested that his body might be deposited beside that of his brother Godfrey at Jerusalem. 1118. had been encouraged incessant attacks of the Fatimite khalifs of Egypt. Bald- for a fief. by respect for his memory. d. Being . Tyr.. after the retreat of the crusading host into Palestine. . and received the county of Edessa from his gratitude.188 THE SECOND CRUSADE.

' ' ' hlll'lll ' l' .

.

with their characteristic mercantile cupidity. was induced. street At Acre. 4-6. under the patriarchate of Jerusalem and by the capits ture of a city. Tyre was erected into an archbishopric . Venet. lib. received by and street at Jerusalem . by treaty with Tancred. del. after bargaining for the possession and sovereignty of one third of that undertaking . still the most opulent port on the Sylast strong-hold of the and had formed the Mussulmans in Palestine. jEvi. Com- mercio de' Veneziani.* to co-operate in the and by a siege of five months the difficult conquest [A. and enjoying the Hist. Aniiq. dec. Diss. the three republics contended. vi. . was the reduction of Tyre. 189 win du Bourg was therefore elected without opposition to fill the vacant throne. (Muratori. led the navy of his republic on a martial pilgrimage to the coast of Palestine. p. (Will. D. who had . him the pos- The principal event in the reign of Baldwin II. Storia lib.STATE OF THE KINGDOM. in adstipulation a church dition to their settlement at Tyre. the Grenoese obtained a and many privileges in return for the aid of their fleet in the siege. Ordelafo Falieri. which. Marini. Med. Sabellicus.) the Pisans. were state of rewarded in like manner for their services to the Antioch. extorted great commercial advantages as the price of their services to the crusaders. or exclusive privileges of trade. with the property of a street both in that capital and in Laodicea. Civ. 791. for the right of establishing places of exchange. the Latin power may be * All the maritime republics of Italy. city.] was achieved. though fallen from ancient grandeur. The Doge of Venice. iii. 1124. Ital. often with bloodshed. i. &c. e Polit. Tyr. was rian coast. and immediately recompensed the services of Courtenay by resigning to session of the county of Edessa. 30 .) the Venetians. cap. common i. and throughout the Christian possessions in Palestine and Syria generally. vol.

tiers between the sea-coast and the deserts of Arafron- from the city of Beritus on the north to the of Egypt on the south : forming a territory about sixty leagues in length and thirty in breadth. p. and exclusive of the county of Tripoli. Ruins of Tyre. 365-377. passim. embraced all the country of Pa- lestine bia.190 THE SECOND CRUSADE.* When its the kingdom of Jerusalem had thus acquired it utmost extent. p. which stretched * Albert. Will. 423-440. Fulcher. p. T>r. 805- 846. . said to have attained its greatest consolidation and security.

so- lemnly accepted in a general assembly of prelates and barons under the title and. by sixteen commissioners. to by Thaumassi^re. was occupied by the warriors of the cross. 191 northward from Beritus to the borders of the Antiochan principality. upon the strictest principles of a feudal settlement. for the use of the Latin kingdom in that island. D. 91-98 for a summary. and L'Esprit des Croisades. lost at the capture of is said to have been last Jerusalem by Saladin. Consult also iv. 1250. a body of similar laws for the new kingdom. with the advice of the patriarch and barons. agony of the expiring which had been preserved by traditionary and customary authority. A. "of feudal jurisprudence. Preface. The whole territory. were again collected in a written form. during the state. D. Gibbon. and its compilation was directed by Grodfrey de Bouillon himself. which was deposited in the Holy Sepulchre. of the Assises de Jerusalem. recognized code of the Latin The original instrument. Count of one of the four great barons of the kingdom and a second and final revision was prepared in Cyprus. by Jean d'Ibelin. was pub- lished at Paris. in the Vatican library. 1690. 484. see Assises de Jerusalem apud Thaumassiere. and revised and considerably enlarged by the legislation of succeeding reigns." as a great writer has justly termed it. 1369. but. A. . became thenceforth the state. .STATE OF THE LATIN KINGDOM. of this Cypriot version. both of the kingdom and county. A. xi. adoption was suggested* not more by every feeling and custom of the age which the conquerors had * The institution of the feudal code of Jerusalem dates from the first year of the Latin conquest. with all the subdivisions and conditions of Its tenure which belonged to that martial polity. the for edition of the which we are indebted our acquaintance with this " precious monument. who. Jaffa. appointed several commissioners among the crusaders most learned in the feudal statutes and customs of Europe to frame Their digest was . the provisions of the code. Assises de Jerusalem. From a MS. D." But for the history of the code.

for the greater part. could the Latin conquests have been preserved by the scanty array of Egyptian Mussulmans. Acre. than by the obvious necessity of such a state of perpetual preparation for the public defence against the incessant assaults of their infidel enemies repeat. as six hundred and and appears to have confounded the contingent of the four royal cities. constituted a militia. their resident defenders in so unremitting a warfare with the myriads of Turkish and At its highest computation. .) has fallen into an error in estimating the number of knights' fees in the whole kingdom of Jerusalem. the feudal force of the kingdom of Jerusalem to its protection.''* may be * Gibbon (ch. which composed the whole kingdom. could furnish the services of no more than two thou- sand five and their siastical with the contingent of the all eccle- and commercial communities. furnished that number. Pie cites Sanutus. exclusixty-six. with the total knightly array of the realm. Galilee. sive of Tripoli. Iviii. that. indeed. and Tripoli. 192 THE SECOND CRUSADE. pro- bably. indeed. Tyre. not exceeding twelve thousand in number. cities with the royal of Jerusalem. probably. Caesarea. and the other lordships in chief of inferior extent. (^Secreta FiJdium . and Naplousa. of archers on It foot. owed and hundred knights or mounted men-at-arms followers. and it is almost needless to under no other form of settlement. to render aid to the of which were bound king on lower feudal tenures than the knights' fees. brought with them from Europe. ac- cording to the Assises.. •which alone. would appear very inadequate four great fiefs The of Jaffa.

but the very superior authority of the Assises. and the policy or the domestic Avants of the conquerors encou- raged the settlement in Palestine of the native Christians of Syria and Armenia. iii. or PouJahhs. Galilee. 13 . for the public defence . and Cassarea. 324-331. v. who had so utterly degenerated fill from the valour of their European fathers. From the commingling of all blood between the crusaders and these people in the enfeebling climate of the East. lib. at one hundred only. scanty as it was.* Cmcis. as to the land without contributing to the strength of the state. * Vide Du Cange. Pullani. inferred that the 193 whole population of martial colonists from Europe could scarcely supply even this provision. was produced a spurious and effeminate race. contemptuously desig- nated by the writers of their age as Pidlani.) as stating the number of knights' fees in each of the great baronies of Jaffa. Assises rates them expressly at five hundred each. and even of Mussulman and the sup- tributaries for the cultivation of the soil ply of mechanical labour. Gloss.STATE OF THE LATIN KINGDOM. c.

though not unfrequently injured by the less worthy rivalry. and the reinforcement of new of crusaders from Europe. The origin of both these rerose to which by . formed not the only defences Palestine. sectio:n' n. ORIGIN OF THE ORDERS OF RELIGIOUS CHIVALRY. markable institutions. HE feudal army of the kingdom casual of Jerusalem. The union of fanatical and to martial ardour gave birth two famous orders of chivalry. John and of the celebrity Temple of Solomon. religious which were specially enrolled under the banners of the Cross. and the Christian cause in the East was long sustained by the emulous valour. of the Knights of the hospital of St.194 THE SECOND CRUSADE.

\i'^^i'Hlil.'' ^. JOHN . ST.|»^ INSTITUTION OF THE ORDER OF THE KNIGHTS OF OF JERUSALEM.il.M>llM^ l'''ffTTv.

.

the storms of Egyj^tian fell and into Turkish persecution. but certainly was suffered to outlive. Jerusalem. with a chapel. collected in Italy. foundations. tributions and by charitable con- which the merchants of Amalfi zealously and as religiously transmitted to . the house was joyfully opened for the reception and cure of the wounded warriors. and when Jerusalem the hands of the crusaders.p. martial J95 achievement. benevolence. the it John might escape. together St. .'-' were induced vows to a protracted residence in the Holy Perhaps through the habitual respect of the for charitable Mohammedan mind Hospital of St. who not only de- *Will. Italian some merchants purchased a license from the Mussulman rulers of Jerusalem to found in that city an hospital. which they dedicated to John the Eleemosynary for the relief —a canonized patriarch of Alexandria By the alms of the wealthier Chris- and wayfaring entertainment of sick and poor pilgrims. may be traced to purposes Long- simply of pious and practical before the era of the Crusades.935. The pious Godfrey and his companions were edified by the active and self-denying benevo- lence of the brethren of the hospital.934. lay with the aid of such as brethren to among the extend their European pilgrims penitential Land.Tyr.— ORDERS OF RELIGIOUS CHIVALRY. the establishment w\as supported duties were performed and its by a few Benedictine monks. tian visitants of the Sepulchre.

John the Almomantle with breast formed themselves into a distinct community. [A.196 THE SECOND CRUSADE. and poverty. from charitable service. t . of the Holy and invested with many valuable privi- leges. d. but the change may win be referred in general terms to the reign of BaldII. from the monks of the Chapel of ner. assumed a — a long black left a white cross of eight points on the —and placed their hospital under the higher patronage of St. that the lay-members. separating St. Jean de Jerusalem. embraced its and the society speedily acquired so much respect and importance. 1113. estate in Brabant. religious habit. and a bull of II. Ibid. John the Baptist. Pope Paschal the confirmed the institution. voted themselves to the care of the suffermg. but were contented with the coarsest fare. religious motives.* The next racter is transition of the Order to a military cha- less accurately recorded. the hospital was endowed with an . received the special protection it fraternity under See. vows of obedience.: since the services in arms of its brethren under that prince are acknowledged in a papal buU.] By the patriarch of Jerusalem. were accepted.f * See the Statutes of the Order iu Vertot. while their patients were supplied with bread of the purest flour. their triple monastic chastity. dcs Chevaliers de St. By first the grateful munificence of Godfrey himself. Appendix. its foreign possessions many of the crusaders. Eist.

ad- State was placed by the mitted.. birth . The former the soldiers of the Cross resumed their military. or serving brethren. union of chivalric and religious sentiment. In fact. The revenues of the Order. 197 the constant jeopardy in which the Latin assaults of the Infidels. all The government was vested in the grand-master and general council of the knights. as we have seen. would naturally suggest the honourable preference of a personal to a deputed service. John were seen and of the Order heard foremost and loudest in every encounter with the Paynim enemy. and the martial habits and feelings of the crusaders of knightly ranlc who had enrolled themselves in the fraternity of the Hospital. munity in the kingdom. without discarding their religious garb and profession . ORDERS OF RELIGIOUS CHIVALRY. of no exemption to any comecclesiastical. however discordant in modern ideas. were already ficient to supply the charitable uses of the Hospital to and it was magnanimously resolved to devote the surplus the defence of the state. and thenceforth the banner and the battle-cry of the knights of St. of whom were required to be of noble a distinct body of regular clergy was provided offices for the of rehgion . both swelled the martial array of the knightly fraternity. and a third and inferior class of sergeants. far by the increase more than suf- of its endowments. and proper to the great cause of the Crusades. and dis- . whether lay or from actively contributing to the public defence. was equally congenial to the spirit of the age.

arged the civil duties of the hospital. (Inind-Mtialrr (/ /V Knighift of Malta.. 198 THE SECOND CRUSADE. nobility from all parts of its Europe to its standard admiration of both pious and chivalric purposes multiplied.* The re- nown which tine the order acquired in the fields of Pales- soon attracted the . cli. . throughout the West. endowments of land and donations of money * Vertot iihi supra.

and its served to maintain regular military force. 544. and the rents of nineteen thousand farms. . p. 199 Grand. Hist. administered by jDreceptories or commanderies."^' * Matthew Paris. supplied a perpetual revenue to their hospital in Palestine. as the principal houses were termed.ORDERS OF RELIGIOUS CHIVALRY. Major.Marshal of the Knights of Malta. which the knights esta- bhshed in every Christian country.

Their to the on this island has retained present day. Even after the conquest of the roads to Holy Laud by the the ports crusaders. cared to acknowledge or strove to repay. The dangers which beset these poor votaries to the shrine of the Holy Sepulchre . [1310. When the knights of John settled on the island of Cyprus.200 THE SECOND CKUSADE. who indulged at once their thirst plunder and their hatred of the Christian name. They then went to the Island of Rhodes. which was given position to them by Charles V. whence they were soon driven by the Turks. The institution of the Order of the Temple of Solo- mon was character of later date than the adoption of a military by the friars of St. by the robbery and murder of the numerous defenceless pilgrims from Europe. u. the Christians were driven from Palestine. St. than their successors. by whom they were originally fed and clothed. in the days of their pride and power. John.] From thence they were driven to Malta.] and the Templars in their pristine state of humility and poverty owed more obligations to the Hospitallers. in having united from the outset the martial with a charitable profession. and they bear the name of Knights of Malta. been in 1530. the Jerusalem from of Palestine and northern by ol" frontiers continued to be infested bands of Turks. 1118 . The ori- ginal design of their association differed from that of the Hospital. [A.

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enter- the history of their rise differs Hospitallers. and other French knights Palestine. was suggested by the site con- tiguity of their quarters to the edifice. little from that the of the The constitution of two orders was similar. with the increase of their means and numbers they aspired more the to extend their humbler service of guarding the roads of Palestine to the glorious adventure of offensive Infidels. and power. in wealth. Infidels. the title which they adopted of the poor soldiery of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon. fraternity of the vows and garb. and when Baldwin his marked his ap- probation of their purpose by assigning them part of own palace for a residence at Jerusalem. from the cruelty of the roused the pious com. privileges. in Hugh de Payens. and the number of preceptories and estates possessed by the Templars in every king- . Aldemar. thenceforth. As their association partook of ligious character. who bound themselves mutually by oath and safe to devote their lives to the relief all conduct of a re- pilgrims. passion and chivalric indignation of Geoffroy de St. of that sacred at first received The maintenance which they from the charity of the Hospital of St. warfare against and. they followed the example of the Hospital by assuming the monastic I. John was soon respect more independently provided by the was won for which their order throughout Christendom through the grateful report of the pilgrims.202 THE SECOND CRUSADE. and in heroic prise.

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J * In England. Paris {IHst. see jKf. Brompton. although its intended by the pious humility of founders to combrotherhood.s. ing in common the enormous wealth of their orders. Origines Jurld. &c.204 THE SECOND CRUSADE. into Fleet Street. the knights of the Temple were distinguished from their rivals by their use of a long white cloak or mantle. rise of the Order of Templars. immense sources of influence dora of Europe/^ were and opulence.f in degree to those of the But in honourable estimation and martial renown. . second only elder fraternity . iv. no superiority could with justice be claimed by either order. by a convenient any private property interpretation. was only personal. both orders early acquired laru'C possessions.) p. In externals. and of the Templars in Ilolborn. and admission into tlio ranks of both was sought with equal avidity by the flower of the European chivalry. lib. memorate the original poverty of the was not long permitted it to survive the condition which had expressed. 410.si/». : The principal preceptory of each was established in London that of the Hospitallers at Clcrkenwell. the twelfth J For the Also Knyghton. presenting the singular emblem men on one horse. and did not extend to their enjoy. and Matt. Minor. p. it whence was removed c. 02. Dudgale. 2382. 57. book of 1008. f Both Hospitallers and Templars were prohibited from possessing but their vow of poverty. Stow. left with a straight red cross on the breast. William of Tyre. p. The its banner and seal of the order in the maturity of field splendour also bore a cross gules in a its argent : for earlier and well-known of two device.

.FALL OF EDESSA. URING win II. the and before decease of that mo- narch.— THE FREACHING OF THE SECOND CRUSADE. the reign of Baldthe safety and ex- tension of the Palestine were kingdom of largely in- debted to the prowess of the knights of the Hospital and Temple. the two orders had become the most powerful champions of the Latin . 205 SECTIOJ^ m. FALL OF EDESSA. .

and had valric favourable an opinion of his chithat. p. compelled them publicly to scourge his naked back before the altar of the Sepulchre. II. A. the king invited him from France to receive the hand of the princess. the husband of the Empress Matilda. D. As Baldwin had no sons. nine qualities on the mind of Baldwin years afterward. and father of Henry II. his nuptials with Avas Me- lisinda were solemnized. as his successor. he obtained the consent of his nobles and prelates to nominate. while in penitential cries he implored the pardon of Heaven for his sins. and one of them. gave The death undis- him the * That son was Geoffroy Plantagenet. whom he had married to his eldest daughter Melisinda. Holy Land. 1131. Foulques. and he immediately acknowledged as the heir to the throne. TlIK SECOND CRUSADE. [a. 1131. Malmsbury. for the learned Benedictine authors d' Anjou) of V Art de Dates (Article. Comtes prove that ho was born only A. d. at the head of one hundred knights and men-atleft so arms. Count of Anjou. of Baldw^in. who having bound hi. 807. 1092. age when he arrived in Palestine for the second time to celebrate nuptials with Melisinda. and his reign the in Palestine commenced His family had long been famous to for their passion of making pilgrimages travelled thither before the era of the Crusades. which shortly ensued. It is strange that William of Tyre. . when he had become a widower.] In his 3'outh.i servants by oath to do whatsoever he should ref|uire. Foulques had visited Palestine as a crusader. should represent him as sixty years of h'\e. Dazzled by the prospect of a royal crow^n. the fiefs alliance and a matrimonial Count abanson.206 power."'' doned his extensive French his arrival in the to his and on Holy Land. the eulogist of Foulques. verifier les D.

207 puted possession of the crown. and. laid siege to its and. 1144. formed the great advanced post of the Latin settlements in Syria. [A. Zenghi. and which. before the levies of the kingdom of . ger of a state who which.FALL OF EDESSA. and their III. who were crowned together. during a reign of thirteen years. therefore. whose martial activity and had already life rendered his power formidable during the of Joscelyn de Courtenay.. . Since the death of Joscelyn de Courtenay.] that first dis- the Christian power in the East received the astrous shock from the Mussulman arms. Profiting by the disunion of the Christians. Foulques. suddenly entered the State of Edessa with an overwhelming force capital. But its safety was more fatally selfish indifference or still more criminal treachery of coolly witnessed the danits the princes of Antioch. d. state in the His decease the hands of his widow Melisinda. had been feebly sustained by compromised by the who inherited neither his valour nor ability. the defence of the principality of Edessa his son. every motive of honour and policy should have impelled them to succour. by position beyond the Euphrates. the Turkish Emir skill of Mosul or Aleppo. sufficiently any bril- emulated the courage in and virtues of his predecessors the defence and left government of the kingdom. son Baldwin then only thirteen years it old. and volved upon a w^as soon after the martial sceptre of the house of Bouillon had thus de- woman and a minor. without performing liant achievement.

p. was naturally solicitations for succour lowed by earnest from Europe. The martial and religious feelings of Europe were provoked to indignation infidels. For the exploits of Zenghi. the appeal was received with a general enthusiasm little inferior to that which. xiii.208 TUE SECOND CRUSADE. Throughout every country of Western Christendom. 1145 . by the report of the triumph of the this universal spirit and was already pre- pared for a second mighty it efibrt of fanaticism. The report of the calamity which perils had and of the increasing which threat- ened. age. the Christian cause in Palestine... ii. affected his ardent temper with powerful emotions of religious zeal . and the Arabic writers therein abridged. c/es Huns. sec vol. Jerusalem could march storm/'' took the city by The intelligence of the fall of Edessa startled the Christian residents in Palestine from lethargic indifference to an alarming discovery of the renovation of the Turkish power on that frontier. as well as by the re- t Will. . and his resolution to preach a new Crusade was supported by the private friendship and the public wishes of Pope Eugenius 844-893. lib. half a century before. III. the first d. Tyr. when was roused into action by the master mind of the [114G. Guignes. had first stimulated the great design of the Crusade. Hist. to its relief.] and burst of shame and consternation excited among the guardians of the Ploly Land by the disfol- graceful loss and impending danger.] befallen. [a. also De G6ii.

spect and influence 209 which his virtues and talents had deservedly acquired throughout Europe. A. cujus et vos. the impassioned oratory of the pro- found theologian could not produce more astonishing results than the rude eloquence of the Solitary of . Bernard speaks contemptuaudistis. Opera Sancti Bernardi. (ni fallor. St. D. though he might slight the memory. But Bernard could only emulate the successful mission. in a foreign . Ep. in the relation of its effects. Not less than the distinguished part which he had already filled in ecclesiastical affairs. 1750. by name Peter. .) and first attributes to his misconduct the destruction of the people in the Crusade. 14 Ed. mentionem man.FALL OF EDESSA. of whom. by his firmness in repressing the rebellious feuds of his turbulent vassals. the uniform sanctity of his and the really great attainments of his genius and learning. Louis VII. the thirst of glorious adventure natural to a young and success- * In one of his extant epistles. the preach- ing of the second Crusade forms but a copy of that first. &c. se- and the tran- kingdom and sacred left him at liberty to enterprise. as vir quidam. dig- place him at an immeasurable height of personal nity above the obscure and ignorant fanatic first who had lighted St.'-' of the Hermit Peter.^ ssepe. Petrus nomine. Amiens of the and. ye have often heard men- made . of his birth. tion if I mistake not. do the nobility life. Mabillon. of France. up the flame which he now rekindled. 863. Venet. had curely established the royal authority quil condition of his gratify. (a certain ously of his predecessor the Hermit..

it therefore. the French king . the cross ! it is the will of God rent the air and interrupted the . and. was . Louis himself. in the great assembly of his nobles and people which he convoked spectacle same at was repeated. When. with the sacred emblem of their vows. which a false superstito deemed most acceptable Heaven. St. with his queen.210 ful THE SECOND CRUSADE. Bernard an- nounced his mission. however mis- taken . But even the strong desire of chival- monarch. and of less reasonable compunction for a long disregard of the papal anathemas. by embarking in the great warfare against the infidel assailants of the Holy Land. the and a host of the had been signed and knighthood of his realm. proceeded into his course Germany [March 31. From France. vehement appeal of the preacher too famous Eleanor of Aquitaine. powerfully impelled Louis to tion offer" that atonement. filled From the innumerable multitudes which the plain and covered the neighbouring heights of Vezelay to their summit. Bernard with indefatigable zeal . which had been witnessed the first the Council of Clermont before Crusade. before the assembly broke up. was eagerly promoted by the at Vezelay. cries of " !" The cross. and from the recesses of the Swiss mountains to the plains of Northern Italy. rous achievement was religious prince to secondary in the mind of this motives of piety. and feelings of deeply cherished remorse for his involuntary share in the horrible catastrophe at Vitry. 1146 . St. nobility and.] and from the Rhine to the Danube.

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2:-^^^'- ^ .

FALL OF EDESSA. first Ital..''' Odo de xii.} 91-93. after some struggle between the sense of and of pious * vol. the great feudatory princes of Bavaria. c. 37. I^rangois. a Frenchman. the with the Hist. completed the triumph of the orator. everywhere signalized by the same successful exertions of his fervid zeal and impetuous eloquence. Otto Frisingensis. Bohemia.. and Styria. (apud Muratori. Rer. political interest religious duty. (apud Bouquet. Diagolo. Script. 211 Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine.) vol. and the latter a German. with a crowd of inferior chieftains. assumed the cross and the conversion of the Emperor Conrad III. to who himself accompanied the emperor Conrad Palestine. Piedmont. At his soul-stirring exhortations. Carinthia. form —together anonymous author of the . vi. Recueil des These two writers.

and elevated and . vol. personal motives of St. who had endeavoured to provoke a general massacre of the Jews. worldly vanity its mistaken direction was the only error which he shared with the most virtuous and devout of through this his contemporaries. He sternly silenced. fatal delusion and in nothing is his superiority to the spirit of the age in which he lived more conspicuous. avert from the rid persecution Jews in France a repetition of the hor- which their fathers first had suffered from the fanaticism of the rality. pure. Bernard were disinte- The from rested. crusaders. in people. . The first of these was signally displayed in his refusal to ac- cept the command of the intended expedition to the Holy Land. or .212 THE SECOND CRUSADE. and his injunctions in circular Gesta Inidovici Regis YII. with earnest and consistent benevo- Germany and other countries. the preaching of a fanatical German monk. attest his libeto the protection of that and were extended unhappy lence. (in Duchesne. But the intrinsic greatness of his mind is not the less perceptible . selfish ambition. by the exertion of his delegated authority from the pope. his zeal was equally free all alloy of gross fanaticism. iv. than which tempered qualities in the wisdom and humanity his enthusiasm. his as a station fill which he felt and confessed own unfitness to from want of martial expeHis humane exertions to rience and bodily health.) —our chief con- temporary authorities for the transactions of their respective country- men in the second Crusade.

ous and truly pious of charity. were so new to his age. mercy and The doctrines thus inculcated. letters to the crusaders to abstain equally 211 from the people. tical application of this The pracbelief inhuman and impious to the plunder and slaughter of a rich. and even a positive duty. 309. to be wholly averted even by the eloquent and powerful denunciations of the preacher to whose voice had awakened all Europe St. . against the enemies of God. d' AUemagne. many espe- places robbed and cially murdered and in Germany they were saved from extermination only by the imperial protection. arms. Hist. that fully to appreciate the virtuefforts of St. Notwithstanding the anathemas of Bernard. the Jews were in . murder and spoliation of an unoffending breathe the genuine Christian precepts of justice. indeed.FALL OF EDESSA. offered too tempting a prey to the cupidity of the bigoted populace and the yet more malignant instigation of numerous debtors. they Bernard in his labour must be contrasted with the mon- strous opinion then prevalent society. that to among all orders of shed the blood and despoil the wealth of infidels was an allowable vengeance. and defenceless race. vol. usurious.* * Pfeffel. i.

with numej rous auxiliaries from England'"' and Italy * The recent cessation of the civil and. presence of Louis YII.sade. and of the Emj^eror Conrad —the the first great monarchs as- of West who had cross sumed the which a —seemed to invest the great enterprise in tliey had engaged with dignity superior even to that of the former Cru- .*<r'vv-v SECTION LOUIS VII. AND CONRAD IN PALESTINE. and among . **»v3. III. rv. HE III. if the wars of Stephen's reign in- duced many of the English nobility to assume the cross. The armies which the two sovereigns prepared to lead to tlie relief of Palestine comprised the na- tional chivalry of France and Germany.214 THE SECOND CRUSADE.

Byzantine grandson of Alexius. in the bread which his them Roger de Mowbray and William de Warenne. 29. The emperor and the king were each at the head of seventy thousand mailed cavalry.) . Ricardus Ha- 275.LOUIS VII. 276. gulst. in Cinnamus. their places of rendezvous. AND CONRAD III. was unchangeable and. Du Cange. and the clergy. and supplied with provisions upon equitable terms. (^ad Cmnamtim.) accompanied the French host: is and his account curiously confirmed by the Byzantine chronicler and the authorities cited Cinnamus. also says that multi de gente Anglorum. p. was throne court . Huntingdon. Tyr. 394. p. 31. he faithfully copied ancestor. their heavily armed infantry exceeded two hundred and fifty thousand. might swell the aggregate of the crusading multitudes to nearly a million of souls. yet. p. now on but the timid and treacherous policy of that . 902. and chil- dren. * Will. example of his He engaged by treaty that they should be received hospitably. cessors in which had been traversed by the first their prede- Crusade. other defenceless pilgrims. in the apparent friend- ship and secret hostility with which the Greek emperor alternately assisted and harassed the march of the the crusaders. number the prodigious holy war. both the German and French armies successively pursued the same route through Hungary and Bulgaria to Constantinople. ^' From Ratisbon and Mayence. women. 215 statements of contemporary writers these united forces equalled in hosts of the first may be credited. camp-followers. p. Manuel the Comnenus. (many Englishmen. p.

the most dangerous * Will. the Ger- man army thus harassed arrived before the walls of Constantinople. therefore. poisonous ingredients were fre- quently mingled . 901-903. subjects sold to them. though he abstained from hostile retaliation. But the French king. and. 30-32. p. p. When.'=' In the march through Asia Minor. Cinnamus. until by the blandishments of he was roused from inaction by the appalling intelligence of the destruction of the German army. on his arrival at the Byzantine capital. who had assembled immense hordes of Turcomans While purposely misled into to oppose his passage. pur- sued his march through Asia Minor.216 THE SECOND CRUSADE. their columns were galled with bush in every forest desultory though . Tyr. Conrad. accepted the apologies and entertainment of Manuel. their stragglers were cut the bridges on their route were broken down . base coin was issued expressly from to . the imperial mint defraud the strangers in the sick the interchange of trade whom the crusading hosts were obliged to leave behind on their march off. were often murdered. indignantly refused an interview with the Greek emperor. and suffered himself to be beguiled his perfidious host. the Emperor Conrad was betrayed by his Greek guides into the hands of the Sultan of Iconium. crossing the Bosphorus. . flights of all arrows from am- and the impediments of a unavowed warfare were cowardly opposed to their progress.

indeed. the Germans were suddenly attacked on all sides and the heavily armed . By a desperate effort Conrad suc- ceeded.LOUIS VII. mountain passes of Lycaonia. pilgrims to their fate and nine-tenths of the whole German host are computed to have been destroyed by the shafts and cimeters of the infidels. where the French king. after crossing the Bosphorus. AND CONRAD III. 217 Conrad III. with a portion of his horse. or to proof the defenceless crowd footmen from the Turkish arrows. in cutting a retreat through the Mussulman hordes : but he was compelled to abandon the infantry and unarmed . followers. cavalry were unable either to reach their more lightly equipped assailants tect on the heights. had esta- . with the remnant of his effected his retreat to Nice. or to have perished of hunger and thirst in this calamitous expedition. When had Conrad.

to which his Germans had been duced by their defeat. But the to lure confidence inspired by this victory served only ruin. but was also found to have maintained an intelligence with the Sultan of Iconium. p.218 blished his THE SECOND CRUSADE. not merely by the Latin writers. 33. As the Greek emperor is charged with this guilt. camp. Louis and his chivalry encountered and overthrew the Turkish hosts with so tremendous a slaughter. but there the destitution of equipments for a re- longer march.''' some praise is due to the magnanimous or prudent forbearance which induced the crusading monarchs to sacrifice every natural impulse of vengeance. . who had not only delayed the false reports of the success of his advance of Louis by German confederates. but on the contemporary testimony of one of his own subjects. but turning aside from the former route of the crusaders to the sea-coast of Lydia. the vanguard had already passed * Nicetas. no doubt was left of the foul treacliery of Manuel. that piles of Mussulman bones in the next age still whitened the scene of destruction. its and the French army alone resumed route by land. Conrad and Louis reached Ephesus with their forces. obliged Conrad to transjDort them by sea to Palestine. on the negligent crusaders to their Li their continued march. to the fulfilment of the sacred objects of their enterprise. Now advancing in concert through Asia Minor. On the banks of the Meander.

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French gens-d'armerie into the yawning The surprise was so complete and dreadful. was saved only. almost unattended. defending himself against (he Turks. and with difficulty escaped. under favour of the darkness. the hope of pene- . was suddenly assailed by innu- merable swarms of Turks. covering the surrounding precipices. AND CONRAD III. that the and destroyed before whole rearguard was routed order could be restored. and the king himself. who.LOUIS VII. After this disaster. from thence. crushed and hurled whole squadrons of the gulfs below. after performing prodigies of valour. while entangled in the defiles. with fragments of rock. by climbing a tree. the mountains between Pisidia and Phrjgia. 219 Louis VII. when the rereward commanded by Louis in person. to the camp of the vanguard.

the guard which he had tection. * Will.* When had the German emperor and the French king at last reached the shores of Palestine by sea. After his de- parture. to abandon the inferior crowd of infantry and pilgrims on the shore. p. after incurring horrors and losses port of Attalia in Pamphylia. 33-37.: 220 THE SECOND CRUSADE. the people of Attalia not only shut the gates of the city against them. but massacred the defenceless sick and wounded. and the whole wretched multitude swords of the infidels. . and the army reached the There. either by the the more unnatural cruelty of the perfidious Greeks. p. it was resolved to undertake dig- some enterprise worthy of the imperial and royal nity. or perished. whither the two monarchs repaired to meet the king of Jeru- salem and his barons. even the shattered remnants of their hosts supplied so considerable a reinforcement to the Christian power in Palestine. new from famine and disease. the king succeeded in procuring some Greek vessels to transport his bands of nobles and knights to Antioch but he was relunctantly compelled. by land was abandoned . 395400 Nicetas. left for their pro- proved insufficient to resist the incessant attacks of the Turks. Gcsta Ludovici. that in a general council at Acre. Tyr p. But though the recovery of the principality of Edessa had formed the original design of the Crusade. 903-006. trating into Syria coast the sea- was again sought. by the want of sufficient shipping.

and the three sovereigns of . AND CONRAD VII. danger The vicinity of Damascus rendered the continued possession of that important place by the infidels more perilous to the safety of the Latin kingdom than the loss of the remoter city of Edessa. 22] that object was now either abandoned from conviction of the difficulties attending so distant an expedition. or postponed to diate more pressing considerations of immeor local interest.LOUIS VII.

to the siege of that great stronghold of the Turkish for- power tified in Syria. in de- spair of the eflScacy of further exertions. [a. 1149. and the Christian cause was again deserted. Tyr. Otto Fris. John and the Temple. &c.] and the presence of the greatest monarchs of Christen- dom in Palestine had served only to expose the weaktri- ness of their vaunted power to the eyes of the umphant infidels.'^ Such was the abortive issue of the second Crusade. France. 40-47. p. and Jerusalem. or paralyzed by and. after the fruitless hopes of succour their approach. both returned to Europe with the broken array of the chivalry in Palestine . But Damascus was strongly and skilfully defended. the valour of the Chris- tians was misdirected by ignorance. p. The mightiest efforts of the congregated force of Eud. after a miserable failure. and. The sacrifice of the myriads of their followers had absolutely failed to achieve a sin- gle advantage for the cause in which two great armies had perished . save its by the scanty bands but enduring courage of habitual defenders. chivalry and the Knights of St. which had been excited by * Will. Thence. variously attributed to these causes. all discord and treason. Gesta Ludovici. c. disap410-409.222 THE SECOND CRUSADE. and retreated in to Jerusalem. 90G-914. Conrad and with an interval of a year between their several departures. army withdrew from the shame and dishonour Louis. the crusading walls. rope had been exhausted in Asia Minor. led their national Germany. . and.

his dominions into a considerable empire . was continually enlarged with portentous vigour. had already swelled and. the great Noureddin. the guardians of the Holy Sepulchre were abandoned to sustain the tempest of Mussulman warfare with diminished confidence and increasing danger. the Emir or Atabec of Aleppo. who added the sovereignty of Damascus to that of Aleppo. to and was destined eventually overwhelm the Latin kingdom of victorious Palestine. 223 pointed by their failure. from the distant banks of the Euphrates. by its still further extension under his son. . and consolidated the Mussulman ruler. the frontiers of power in Syria under a single the Latin states became completely enveloped by the conquests of this formidable enemy. the gathering power which had already swept away the Christian bulwark of Edessa. AND CONRAD III.LOUIS VII. Meanwhile. Before the death of Zenghi.

supported by the feudal array of his kingdom. SECTION I. CHAPTER m.6rus. S--^:-.. %\t ®I]ir& . continued throughout the remainder of his reign to uphold the Christian .— THE RISE OF SALADIN.-.224 TT1F TTirT?D rKT'^ADE. Baldwin III. OTWITHSTANDING the failure of the second Crusade.iiJt. and the knights of the military orders.^fr^' A?i Arab Encampmcnl. and the increasing power of the Turks.

RISE OF SALADIN. Ijb. and. conduct which had clouded his youth without any high degree of ability. xiii. 915-954. d. 1153. . and inflicted defeat that the whole Turkish host was either slaugh- tered or drowned in the waters of the Jordan. Mdio had already been com- by the bravery of the military Oron them. added a new possession and bulwark to the king[a.* and he died respected * Will. On the southern frontiers of Palestine. p. after an obstinate siege. so total a ders . near Jericho. more and success- Egyptian Mussulmans his reduc- tion of the important city of Ascalon. 15 De Guignes. in which the troops of Noureddin from Dato the gates of Jerusalem. Being recalled from Antioch to repel a new invasion. Baldwin re- deemed the reproach of some irregularities of personal . the arms of the Christian prince were subsequently ful against the still . remnant of the Edessene he succeeded in rescuing the Christian garrisons and inhabitants under a safe escort from the impending horrors of Turkish slavery. cause in Palestine with courage and energy. though unable to save the territory. and last spirit with which he devoted his years to the active defence of his people. mascus had penetrated he came up with the pelled to retreat infidels. his character was graced by many noble and chivalric qualities. by the generous By these exploits. 225 In order to protect the northern frontiers of the Latin states from the designs of Noureddin. the king stationed himself at Antioch . Tyr.] dom of Jerusalem.

but Shawer. Dargham was slain in battle. To rid himself . into Egypt. The expedition was successful. and deeply lamented by no children. the most famous of reinstate his Turcoman generals. as fruitlessly exhausting the strength of the Christian kingdom. [a. found that he was only himself a slave to the lieutenant of Noureddin. which.] By these passions. As he left succeeded by his brother Almeric. whose equal mediocrity of talent was unrelieved by the same virtues. he was own subjects.226 even by his his THE TUIRD CRUSADE. infidel enemies. and that prince. the new king. was tempted to engage in repeated projects for the distant conquest of Egypt. openly protected the fugitive. the supreme authority in the seraglio of Cairo rivals. glad of any occasion extending his influence. Obeying the dynasties. Shawer to the court of for Noureddin. d. the usual vicissitudes of the Saracen Fatimite Khalifs of Egj-pt had for abject slavery to their many generations sunken into own vizirs and at the period . to him in the vizirship. fled The latter prevailing. may its be numbered among the accelerating causes of downfliU. and despatched a body of troops under Shiracouch. disregarding the pressure of nearer and more imminent danger from the power of Noureddin. and whose temper presented an unpleasing contrast of avarice and overweening ambition. before us. was disputed be- tween two powerful Shawer and Dargham. 11G2. in nominally recovering his power over the helpless Khalif of Egypt.

eagerly received his overtures. the Turkish general capitulate: was compelled but Noureddin meanwhile had made a formidable diversion by pouring his troops into the territory of Antioch. The power the of NouFrankisli reddin was far superior to that of monarch : but the proximity of Palestine to Egypt enabled the Christian forces to reach Cairo by a direct march from their own frontiers. while from Damascus the interposition of the Latin states would oblige the Turkish cavalry to make a long ing deserts of Arabia. of this 227 new yoke. was able to succour his lieutenant. on the invi- tation of Shawer. were routed near Artesia with immense loss. After a and to gallant defence. before Noureddin lono. his approach. to march an army into Egypt. and the Christians. 1163. before they could re- cover from their surprise. [A. who had ah-eady engaged in hostilities to exact a tribute from Egypt. the severest defeat in the open field which the since their Christian forces in Palestine had sustained .EISE OF SALADIN. d. thus prevented of his victory. At Noureddin made an artful demonstration of retiring : but his retreat was only the prelude to a sudden attack upon the exulting and negligent forces of Almeric .] After this ominous event. the Egyptian vizir had recourse to the king of Jerusalem . returned by from reaping the fruits rapid marches to the defence of the Latin state. circuit over the burn- This advantage of situation made it easy for the king of Jerusalem. and Ahneric. and to besiege Shiracouch in Pelusium. and Almeric.

.'I. .

and the veteran Shiracouch was ordered to lead a second and more numerous army into that country. triumphed over After a of Shiracouch. 1167. though feebly supported by their Egyptian the superior military skill allies. Manuel Comnenus. stimulated by ambition and avarice. through a family alliance which he had at this epoch concluded with the Greek emperor. had made such with a vigorous efforts to repair the disaster of Artesia. by which he engaged to evacuate Egypt. 955-974. D. how- ever. after so successful an expedition. Egypt. he was a second obliged to conclude a capitulation with Almeric and the Vizir Shawer. the promised aid of the Byzantine navy. that he again appeared on the Egyptian frontiers chosen body of the Christian chivalry. p. and their valour and energy. Noureddin was at leisure to resume his designs upon Egypt. more than ever attracted by the wealth and defenceless condition of and obtaining. Tyr. 229 conquest of Jerusalem. before Shira- couch had reached the banks of the Nile. But Almeric. [A.RISE OF SALADIN.] and both the Christian states. . a calamitous the the Christian knights were fresh and vigorous.* and Turkish armies returned to their own The cupidity of the king of Jerusalem was. lib. campaign in which the ability of the Turkish general time was" admirably displayed. he resolved to attempt the total su}> * Will. De Guignes. xiii. ish The Turkmarch across army was exhausted by desert.

sacked with horrible cruelty. and recommenced The Christian army was now unable to cope vvith the united forces . But the Egyptian vizir imme- . jugation of the country wliich he had protected from the Turks. attacked Pelusium. fidy But his per- and the ferocious conduct of his followers roused the unwarlike Egyptians to desperation. or framed A pretence for this aggression was found be- on the report of a secret negotiation . the Vizir Shawer baited the avarice of the king of Jerusalem by the gift of an hundred thousand pieces of gold. of the Egyptian and Syrian Moslems the Greek em- peror had failed in rendering the promised co-operation of his navy. and from thence advanced to the gates of Cairo. suddenly crossed the that Egyptian city frontiers.230 THE THIRD CRUSADE. until Shiracouch with a large appeared on the frontiers. and the promise of nine times that amount as the price of peace. joined the Turks with his hostilities. and the crafty vizir. throwing troops. and implored the distant aid of their ancient Turkish enemies for their deliverance. and the king of Jerusalem closed scheme of conquest by a disgraceful re- his iniquitous treat into Palestine. tween the Vizir Shawer and Noureddin appointed armies which had ever and Ahneric. The army then greedy Almeric suffered himself to be amused by these negotiations. drawing together one of the most numerous and best been assembled under the Christian banners in Palestine. off the mask. and while the people of Cairo prepared for a vigorous defence.

anticipating his treachery. For. 231 Shiracouch. . caused him to be seized and put to death. 974-980. now jealous influence which the victorious Turk had acquired over the he conspired against the feeble mind of the Khalif? life of so dangerous a rival. and himself to be invested with the dignity of vizir*. Tyr. and Shiracouch.RISE OF SALADIN. diately fell a victim to his of the own tortuous policy. * Will. p.

and his death prepared the of his nephew. taking pos- country. the aj)parent weakness of Saladin induced that sovereign to nominate disgust first him to the vacant dignity. in the pursuit of licentious pleasures . per- haps. his skilful use of the royal treasures soon pur- chased for him the return. 232 THE THIRD CRUSADE. from himself. the famous Sallah-u-deen or Saladin.. defence of Alexandria. was now complete the Turkish conquest of that of the followers of Saladin. became the master of the and the real lord of Egypt. substituted the name of the Khalif of Bagdad for that of the Egyptian sovereign in the public prayers. of Egypt survived his elevation only rise The new ruler two months . cal genius But the politi- and ambition of the young Curdish chief- tain had remained concealed from the world. as the true . and the new vizir. If the and disaffection of the disappointed emirs at rendered Saladin the powerless servant of the khalif. A single bold measure. on the death of Shiracouch. favoured by the mortal sufficient to illness of the Khalif Adhed. and. and Avon the affections of his former rivals ter. One session of the principal pulpit of Cairo. his expeditions into This scourge of the Christian fortunes in Palestine had attended his uncle in all Egypt and in the second of those campaigns had particularly distinguished himself by a skilful and resolute. though unsuccessful. easily . when the haughty pretensions of elder leaders to the vizirship alarmed the jealousy of the feeble Khalif of Egypt. and. from the miniskhalif.

and far-see- ing prince. w^liich the Fatimite dynasty of Egypt was extinguished. and. secundum gentls suse tra- (Nevertheless he was a just. the people. who by expired in ignorance of the event. princeps tamen Justus. after a schism of two centuries. A Mussulman fill writer declares that the catalogue of his virtues would a volume. and. and that country. crafty. the youthful conqueror was overawed by his power. was restored to the orthodox communion of Islamism. The Abassidan whose nominal Khalif of Bagdad. whose dignity as the spiritual chief of that faith was still revered. though not without some symptoms of impatience. after numbering him among the bitterest persecutors of the Christian et name and faith. But. his justice. and piety extorted a Christian foes. adds. silently acquiesced in the change and the green emblems of the sect of Ali were everywhere displaced by the black ensigns of the Abassidan tenets. and still among these. The natural death cal of Adhed. ditiones rcligiosus. as long as Noureddin lived. in a few days completed this great politi- and religious revolution. vafcr.) A . from indiffer. was made to sanctify the usurpation of Saladin. and religious according to the traditions of his race. affected a duteous submission to his of the sultan* released will. great qualities. when the death him from the necessity of fur- * The character of Noureddin is among the brightest in Mohammedan history for political ability and valour were the least of his . fear.RISE OF SALADIN. as the vizir of the Sultan of Damascus in Egypt . and functions of temporal sovereignty were dictated by his Turkish masters. 233 commander ence or of the fliithful . cle- mency. pjrovidns. and detest so powerful Thus William of Tyre. stronger testimony even from his who had sufficient reason to fear and deadly an enemy.

its Meanwhile. finally united the Mussulman states from the Nile to the Tigris [a.) . p. p. through intestine disorders. and am no more than ! the treasurer of his people. 201- 211. 980-995. Salaclin threw off the gra- dually extended his influence and dominion over Syria and parts of Arabia and Armenia . and those you m:iy Oricntalc." Bihliothbque Art. hut he was long obliged to suspend his ultimate designs against the Christians.] under his single empire. those alone can give. p.234 THE THIRD CRUSADE. Their wealth I cannot appropriate are yet . On the death of Almeric. Orient. De Guignes. 1-10.) p. Noureddin. To some expensive request from the best beloved of his wives. » Will. has often been repeated from the pages of D'Herbelot. the crown trait of the frugal and rigid integrity with which he abstained from applying the public treasures to his domestic uses. Tyr." By every motive of religion and policy. which shortly followed that of Noureddin.) cerpt Schultens. mask . was fast falling into it a state of weakness. by the sity of consolidating his more immediate neces- dominion over his Mussulman opponents. " Alas I fear God. xiii. 1-13. lib. Abulfcda. Salahrddin. Vita Sahidiniy (Schultens. ii. d. which promised to deliver to so vigorous an easy prey an assailant. but three shops in the city of take. the Latin kingdom. and deposing the young and helpless sons of Noureddin. Bih. for Hems I my own. Art. (in Ex(vol. Also Bohadin. the new to and puissant lord of Syria and Egypt was urged from the intervening territory of Palestine attempt the expulsion of the detested enemies of his faith . 1173. ther dissimulation. this absolute lord of the gorgeous East would only reply.

their dis- was fomented by the Tripoli. or at least a subject. . the royal leper To terminate their at length compelled to make win a new settlement of his realm. the usual resource of malefactors. and felt himself so unequal to the toils of government.* to whom she had lord. " Surely. struggle. 1173. since the barons of Palestine have made Mm a king.] a French knight. husband Guy de Lusignan. But Lusignan was . Baldv.. of England. he ironically exclaimed. he committed the person of his young successor to the * Lusignan was a native. D. Baldwin IV. a given her hand after the death of her first Count of Montferrat. . of the French do- mains of Henry II. 514. me a god if they had known me. the son of Sybilla by her first husband. a intrigues of Raymond by Count of man himself capable of every w^as distracted perfidy. and came to seek his fortune in Pales- So contemptible was the estimation in which he was held even by his own kindred. but this prince was afflicted with leprosy. on which he assumed the tine." Hoveden. murder of the Earl of Salisbury. abdi- cating the crown in favour of his infant nephew.. destitute both of talent and courage his despicable character in- and unmerited elevation provoked the scorn and sulted the pride of the barons of Palestine affection II..RISE OF SALADIN. they would have made p. who banished him for the treacherous cross. by which. to that when his brother heard of his subsequent elevation the throne of Jerusalem. 235 of Jerusalem devolved on his son. and the whole kingdom was the selfish conflict of factions. that he com- mitted the regency of the kingdom to his sister Sybilla and her second [A.

leaving no son. Joscelyn de Courtena}'. the royal favour had invested him with exten- sive fiefs in the kingdom of Palestine <T . obtained * This Joscelyn de Courtenay was the gramlson of the hero. and the general regency of the kingdom Tripoli. death. and the last of the three counts of Edessa. titu- Count of Edessa/-' the custody of the fortresses of Palestine to the two military orders. . who bore the same name. the male line of the Asiatic branch of the Courtenays became extinct on his Outremcr. After the loss of the Edessene territory. Saladin. this disposition only three years his own decease was quickly followed by the suspicious death of his nephew .236 THE TIIIUD CRUSADE. who hated Raymond of Tripoli. and Sybilla. survived . sup- ported by the patriarch and the grand-master of the Templars. and the marriage of his sister with Almeric. but. protection of lar liis relative. Lignagcs xvi. c. to the treacherous Count of Baldwin IV.

Alexandria.) p. . v. pest of when the fatal tem- Mussulman war burst upon the disunited and devoted state. Tyre. (apud Muratori Scrip. Rer. Ital. in which the Count of Tripoli. and these disorders were scarcely appeased by the address of Sybilla and the submission of most of the insurgent nobles.) 140-147. 583-590. (continuator of William of Coll. to a share in the succession. Tyr. 237 the joint coronation of her wortliless husband and herself as king and queen of Jerusalem. Martenne. Vet Scriptorum vol. Plagon. sister of Sybilla. 995. Bernardus Thesaurarius. vol. under pre- tence of supporting the rival claims of Isabella.* * Will. in p. refusal of The proud produced a and contemjDtuous many of the barons to acknowledge Lusignan civil for their sovereign war. allied himself with Saladin. c..RISE OF SALADIN. vii.. ad fin.

. indecisive hostilities had ^i^^^S been terminated by a truce. over Egypt and Syria. some '^^^s^^m^ii-. the peace of the Latin kingdom had not and been much disturbed by the incursions of the infidels . rY . BATTLE OF TIBERIAS AND FALL OF JERUSALEM. sectio:n" n.238 THE THIRD CRUSADE. ^ S long as Saladin was occupied in establishing his authority % .

403. to the discrimination of the lady. for these outrageous violations of but the government of Lusignan was less either too feeble or too corrupt to punish the law- marauder. and. But just at the crisis 239 when the Turkish conqueror was prepared to attempt the work of destruction which he had probably long meditated. did no credit stance. as his after conduct showed. might alone have deferred the hour of their ruin a just occasion of and war was afforded by the aggressions c. Lord of Ca- rac. and. 118G J who surprised a frontier intercepted castle belonging to the Mussulmans on the borders of the Arabian Egypt and Mecca. He was of obscure birth. and. as her husband. Prince of Antioch. This choice filled the Western barons with disgust. he was his widow. which . His fate told above. On the death of Con- he married the widow of Humphrey of Touron. following Louis the Young by was at- tached to the troop of Kaymond of Poictiers. See Michaud. and thus became Prince of Antioch. . he something i.* [a. selected On the death of Raymond. desert. Constance. and insolently of the sultan. justice. on a refusal of Palestine at the head foot.BATTLE OF TIBERIAS. and plundered their caravans between defied the vengeance Saladin demanded redress of the King of Jerusalem the existing peace . became is in that capacity like a licensed bandit. Reginald de Chatillon. and. and a native of Chatilinto Asia. the Christians themselves were the first to disturb the hollow pacification. possessing no quality of a knight but personal courage. lon-sur-Indre. and its would be considered incredible narrated by any modern writer of fiction. of a predatory baron. Saladin invaded of eighty thousand siege of the castle of Turcoman horse and The * The history of this details man constitutes in itself a if romance .

z. the destruction of the Christian army Mills ascribed to the treason of the Count of Tripoli.^'v. the enemy Mr. note L) considers the previous . dis- proportion of his numerical force was aggravated by his own incapacity and cowardice. host.*:t:. the King of Jerusalem could now and the as- semble under his standard no more than twelve hundred knights and twenty thousand foot . of the Crttsades. for the relief of so important a fort- the whole strength of the Christian states was hastily collected. both of Lusignan and of the Grand-Master of the Temple. By some is of the Latin writers.»w' Mecca. including the array of the military orders. Tiberias was the first signal operation of the Mussul- man ress. as well as by the discord and treason''' * which prevailed in his camp. (^Ilist. But. and.240 THE THIRD CRUSADE. i. vol.

and his party or personal hatred on that occasion. became is the captives of Saladin. D. too characteristic of The scene which ensued manners to be omitted in this favourable mention of the Count by William of Tyre. but all the principal leaders of the Christian host were : the victims or prizes of this fatal field the grand- master of the Hospitallers was mortally woiuided and died in his flight . 16 . as a satisfactory refutation of the charge. 1187. together with the Marquis of Montferrat. and on the following morning overwhelmed and massacred their exhausted and fainting host. Few intelligible particulars which followed skill are related of the sanguinary battle [a. and is contained in the fifth volume who was in Palestine at the time of the battle of Tiberias. BATTLE OF TIBERIAS. sacrifice of the Christian cause to is 140) is undisputed. Not only was the slaughter of the cavaliers and soldiery exterminating.. the worthless Lusignan himself. surely sufficient to war- rant the worst inference from his subsequent conduct. and the silence of Ralph Coggeshal. of which the event was to decide the fate of the Christian kingdom. alliance of the c. who. drove his set- opponents into a situation destitute of water. and many of his nobles and knights. and the chief of the rival order of the Temple. increased their intolerable sufferings from the drought and heat of a Syrian summer's night. whose chronicle of Martenne.] but those few attest the superior first of Saladin. in the day's encounter. by ting fire during the night to some neighbouring woods. But the earlier Count of Tripoli with Saladin (Bernardus Thesaur. 241 On the plain of Tiberias the hostile armies drew out for a conflict. Reginald of Chatillon.

Bohadin. in his natical hatred of the religious orders. oflered the same alternative of apostasy or death to the knights of St. John and of the Temple who had in fallen into his hands. the Eastern pledge of hospitality. 1118. Art. (t?i GestisDciper Hoveden. 590-600. was the immediate signal for his murder. two hundred and thirty number. iii. Salaheddm. 636-637. c. or die the death had merited.) (vol. Saladin generously reassured the craven king of his safety by the proffer of a cup of iced water. Will. D'llerbelot. must his law. &c. the guilty provoker of the war. p. these de- voted champions of the cross. dition of apostasy and a blow from the cimeter of the ferocious sultan himself. p. 177. * Bernardus Thesaur. With less excusable cruelty. With more virtue than his had promised. proved the sincerity of their faith . Saladin. . "When the trembling Lusignan. were conducted to the tent of the conqueror.) 40-68. 1117. while fii- he spared his other noble prisoners. but the sultan sternly declared that the impious marauder. Chatillon spurned the con. Jlist. 176. p. 147-151. and the victory of the Moslems was stained by the cold- blooded murder of the whole body. Jacobus a Vitriaco. Tyr. or his dread of their prowess. p. Lu- signan wished to pass the cup to Chatillon . p. THE THIRD CRUSADE. Ilierosol.'-' The disastrous effects felt of the battle of Tiberias were immediately throughout the Latin kingdom Contin. who had so often insulted now either acknowledge which his crimes life the prophet of Islam. To a man. Abulfeda. p. and Chatillon. Francos.: 242 place. 32.

upon the Christian Jerusalem and turning aside from the walls of Tyre. and of the garto the had advanced their works and engines foot of the rampart. for all 243 the principal fortresses had been drained of their garrisons to swell the ranks of the army. had sworn to execute a dreadful for the vengeance their upon the Christians Moslem blood which . Jaffa. he to the siege of the marched Holy City. and undermined the walls. but when feeble the or siege was formed. despite of the rison. the resistance was the ineffectual. The first summons of Saladin for its surrender was. but Saladin. Csesarea. Queen herself distracted solicitious with sorrow and apprehension. A desire to capitulate in his was then expressed . and sallies in fourteen efforts days. Turks. rejected. and Beritiis. Tiberias itself. cavalier. reigned within the place. was already crowded with fugitives from every quarter of Palestine. but the number of warriors within its gates was small. and their commander was Sybilla. indeed. Tyre to was alone preserved through the heroic which the citizens efforts were inspired by the firmness of a young ferrat. Acre.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. was more for her own safety and that of her captive consort and dismay and discord than for the public defence. and rapidly fell before the arms of the conqueror. a timid A\oman. son to the captive Marquis of Mont- But Saladin would not suffer any secondary object to arrest his great design capital . fury at the refusal to accept his proffered terms.

re- cently stained the victory of Tiberias and his con- duct at Jerusalem well merits the eulogy of an enemy. remaining soldiery. and the suppliant Chris- him to dictate the terms of surrender. but exceeded their fulfilment full by a measure of benevolence. He not only performed his promises with a religious fidelity. He then consented to spare the lives of the inhabitants. her nobles. He now. misery : he advanced to meet the mourners attempted to console the princess with the . therefore. received the pro. that he was in nothing but in name a barbarian. ancestors had shed at the capture of the city in the first Crusade. but declared that the population of Jerusalem should become slaves. and a single piece for every child. half that sum for each woman. his spirit melted even unto tears at the spectacle of their . unless they were ransomed at the rate of ten crowns of gold for each man. and promised a safe-conduct and for the queen. to Tyre. When the weeping female train of the queen issued from the gates of Jerusalem. As soon as these terms had been accepted by the submission of the vanquished. Saladin exhibited traits of a generous humanity which might have been anticipated from the cruelty with little which he had . courteous sympathy of a warrior of chivalry the husbands and children of all released her train without . posal of a capitulation with bitter contempt and he his only listened to the suggestions of mercy. burst of passion tians left when was spent.244 THE THIRD CRUSADE.

p. uli suprci. after pavement and walls had . on the site of Solomon's Temple. upon the he allowed several brethren of an order which he detested and found ever in arms against him. D'Herbelot. ransom. 151-167.* When the queen and her train had been safely dis- missed. The great Mosque of Omar. c. been washed with Damascene rose-water the golden * Bernadus. 601-613. p. 637-645. sents. These better feelings of his nature achieved a more difficult triumph over even the fanaticism which was : usually his master passion attentions for learning the humane which the knights of the Hospital bestowed sick. Hoveden. was immediately consecrated anew to the its worship of Islam. p. 245 preac- and even dismissed them laden with did his generosity end here : Nor for he cepted a price very for the much beneath the stipulated sum libe- freedom of the Christian poor . the magnanimous victor made his entry into Jerusalem in triumphant and splendid procession. Tyr. which had been converted into a Christian church.CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. that in the total number who remained have amounted to bondage did not much exceed is ten thousand. to remain in the city a sufficient time for the accomplishment of their pious and charitable offices. out of a population which said to one hundred thousand. 39-43. Cont.Will. Boliadin. p. Abulfeda. . 68-75. and even rated so many of his other captives gratuitously.

which surmounted the dome of the Church of the Sepulchre was taken down. they refused to admit further him within the allegiance to the laid walls. the principality of Antioch was only spared on the ignominious condition of tribute to the Sultan. and after a possession by the Christians of eighty-eight years. lease the ruin of the Christian re- Lusignan. and of all the possessions of the Christians in Palestine. indeed. that the conqueror of Jerusalem siege. Asca- lon. it army a second time appeared before the was again so bravely defended under the was compelled grateful to retire guidance of Conrad of Montferrat. having obtained his attempted to enter the place. from a fruitless The people resolved to bestow the . Sidon. or to acknowledge incapacity man on whose and cowardice they cause. and for two days dragged through the streets. Jerusalem was again defiled by the religion and empire of the votaries of Mohammed. quickly followed the fate of the capital. sovereignty of their city upon their brave leader and libe- when Guy ration. But to that city all the Christian garrisons to retire : which capitulated had been permitted the whole remaining strength of the Latin chivalry of Palestine was contained within its walls : and when the Turkish place. had only obtained his by a solemn renunciation of his crown to . of Lusignan. Bethlehem. Nazareth. the seaport of Tyre was almost the only place of im- portance which was saved from the wreck of their fortunes.246 cross THE TUIRD CRUSADE.

Palestine. 811. 1150-1169 ^_ [TTUJiiu^lw -J Ik. 167-177. {in Gestis Dei. 247 and the sultan. &c. ^i ' ^ lfejji^||lj-f . Hierosol. and the loss of the Sepulchre of Christ. satisfied with this vain contitle firmation to the of conquest. Saladin . had returned to enjoy his glory at Damascus. Hist. when he was roused from a brief season of repose by the alarming report that the nations of Europe.' CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM. l"^M. burning with ardour to avenge the shame of the Christian defeat.'^' * Bernardus. 812. c. were again about to precipitate themselves upon the shores of Coggeshal.) p. p.

. By the superstitious piety of the age. HE news of the filled fall of Jeru- salem had all Western Christendom with horror and grief. THE GERMANS UNDERTAKE THE CRUSADE. the apathetic indifference which had per- mitted the hallowed scenes of human redemption again to be profaned with the triumph of the enemies of God.248 THE THIRD CRUSADE. was deeply felt as an offence. which merited and would provoke the ^^-rathful judgments of Heaven. SECTION m.

* —except who found vowed sufficient exercise for their zeal against the Mussulman power Jerusalem in that peninsula —immediately to lead their national forces to the recovery of : but even their earnest preparations were too tardy for the popular impatience. their subjects. all their possessions. the gene- ral consternation and despair were at once succeeded to the by a burst of enthusiasm. cipal sovereigns of Europe. was imposed by general consent throughout one year. 1529. . of England and Philippe-Auguste of France met and received the Cross together near Gisors. The chief means of transport. laity of the realm for the service of the expe- means the king obtained seventy thousand pounds from his Christian subjects. by the cupidity of the Papal See. Hoveden. and hastened to the shores of Palestine. as usual. But after the first 240 shock of the intelligence. supplied by the maritime republics of but numerous bands of pilgrims. into a claim upon the tenth of all ecclesiastical benefices. under the name to last only for of the Saladin tithe. Europe. and the English king ap- pears to have been earnest in his intention of undertaking the Crusade. Gervase.GERMANS UNDERTAKE THE CRUSADE. of sixty thousand more from the Jews in his dominions. it was agreed that a tenth of and by this all rents and movables should be levied from the clergy and dition. until prevented by the second rebellion of his sons. equally congenial fanatical and martial state of society. This tax of one-tenth. in Northamptonshire. At a great council which he assembled at Gidington. embarking from the ports * Henry II. thronging and myriads of to the from every country ports of the Mediterranean. Italy. took shipping at their private charge. p. 644. were. All the printhose of Spain. and though originally proposed was perpetuated. for those days. while he extorted the enormous sum. at the rate of a fourth of p.

the numbers of the Christian host before the walls of that important city rapidly swelled to one hundred thousand men. to the necessity of standing on the defensive fortified. . d. and harassed them with perpetual though desultory tians. from thence accom^^lished the whole maritime coast. G36-640. led by many noblemen and prelates of distinction. Bcnedictus Abbas PetroberHist.. of the Baltic.'="* passage to the Asiatic By the arrival at Tyre. and the British Channel. 1170. enveloped their beleaguers. in their turn. ness of the works with which they surrounded that * Bcrnartlus Thesaur. 495. the imbecile king of Jerusalem soon found himself at the head of a numerous army. their camp was diligently and such was the strength and completeit. 49(3. roused Saladin from his inaction and while the strength of the fortifications and the all valour of a numerous Mussulman garrison. the Sultan himself. 1189. p. Illerosol p. 250 THE TIIIKD CRUSADE. arriving in the adjacent plain at the head of a mighty host.] The danger of a fortress which. [a. c. may be regarded as the maritime key of the whole country. 177. p. assaults. gcnsis. 178. Hoveden. in quick succession. and when he was encouraged or impelled by the renovated strength and ardent zeal of his followers to advance from Tyre and lay siege to Acre. defied the efforts of the crusaders. of all these crusaders. by its position between the sea and the great central valley of Palestine. The Chris- were reduced . the North Seas.

''*' indecisive conflict before the single city of Meanwhile. was the Emperor Frederic had no power either to Barl^arossa. 427. p. the naval forces of the combatants that. indeed. which had been * Bernardus Boliadin. suffered so dreadfully from famine. p. c. disease. (//i Thesaur. Vinesauf. But. p. 179. the Mussul- mans lines.GERMANS UNDERTAKE THE CRUSADE. on both sides. Hist. vita Saladvi). declared not even a bird could penetrate the By sea the contest for was maintained with equal by each successive wants of the obstinacy. . rein- were so nicely balanced. forcement. The latter. either party was enabled to relieve the garrison of Acre. in whom age quench the thirst of glory or to chill the fire of religious enthusiasm. 251 in the hyperbolical language of the East. and during nearly two years the strength of Christen- dom and Islam was concentrated and exhausted in an Acre. as in dignity among them. 180. this frightful consumption life of human was continually fed by new arrivals. that above three hundred thousand crusaders are computed to have perished before the walls and in the plain of Acre . or to refresh the besiegers. iihi ivfra. Tlierosol. and the incessant vicissitudes of combat. the great monarchs of the West were gathering their national powers for the third Crusade. Foremost in preparation. But the chival- rous devotion of Frederic was regulated by those prudential qualities of a great commander. 1170-1172. and the losses of the Mussulmans from the same causes were probably inferior only in degree.

252 THE THIRD CRUSADE. his provident and skilful arrangements showed tively he how atten- had studied the tremendous lessons of their . Frederic Barbarossa. which had been found so disastrous to former hosts of crusaders. and while he boldly resolved to take the same route through the East of Europe and Asia Minor. matured in forty years of warfare.

the Duke of Swabia. he peaceably transported his formidable host across the Hellespont. Frederic and discipline. by refusing to visit Constantinople as a guest. which the Byzantine court and people had pursued in the previous Crusades of his troops . the German host encountered a repetition of precisely the same course of treacherous hostility.. and the march from the confines of Germany to the shores of the Hellespont was conducted with the strictest regularity The numbers and composition of the host were worthy of the imperial name and power. the fiower of the Teutonic chivalry. GERxMANS UNDERTAKE THE CRUSADE. . Throughout their passage over the Greek dominions. 253 No individual was permitted to join in the sacred enterprise who was unable to furnish the means of his own support for a whole year . under the hollow semblance of amity. exclusive of unarmed pilgrims. but his genius surmounted every obstacle of climate and warfare. The sub- sequent passage through Asia Minor was a yet severer trial of Frederic's patience and ability . and by fifteen thousand knights. was attended by the dukes of Austria and Moravia. by above sixty other princes and great lords of the empire. failure. Isaac Angelus. Besides his own son. but the vengeance was generally restrained by the mag. nanimous or prudent forbearance of Frederic and though he resented the perfidy of the reigning Emperor of the East. Their mounted attendants swelled the total array of cavalry to sixty thousand and the infantry. numbered one hundred thousand men.

The recovering from the terror inspired by his actions. tlie and march of the imperial army was effected with far superior order. to tliat of any preceding host of crusaders. d. either by a fall from his horse. and nearly disorganized by famine. and the Thus. infidels. and Frederic not only defeated the Sultan of Iconium.254 THE TIIIKD CRUSADE. but stormed his capital and compelled him to sue for peace. of Swabia. But the firmness of the Teutonic array repulsed every attack. of The sufferings of a route through burning and waterless deserts admitted.] The consequences of this event proved how largely his followers had been indebted for their success to the greatness of his personal qualities. the Duke who succeeded to the command. and prevented any general disaster . success. so dreadlosses of the crusaders that before were the they . was neither ful deficient in courage nor ability. sickness. and the perpetual assaults of the Turcoman hordes. Having thus over- the aged hero pursued his way lost in unmolested and triumphant ardour. or by imprudently bathing in the icy waters of that mountain torrent. 1190. name and ties immediately renewed their his death . [a. the enemy. little mitigation . agonizing thirst. which hung upon their flanks and rear. hostili- on the report of and thenceforth the German army was efforts of incessantly harassed by attacks. borne all opposition. and reputation. until he his life in the little Cilician stream of the Calycadnus. and thousands of the Ger- mans sank under fatigue. although Frederic's son. indeed.

) Struve's edition of the Rerum Gcrynan . with unbroken led the remains of the German army . was fated to perform no inconsiderable part in the subsequent history of Northern Europe. loss Above half a century before the of Jerusalem. and from thence the gallant Duke spirit. Tageno. Godfridi Monachi Annales. their efforts had obtained p. Acre but it was only with some thousands of his devoted and way-worn followers. of Swabia. Their however. founded hospitals in that capital for poor pilgrims of both sexes of their nation . 407-416. to devote themselves to military as well as charitable services. under the walls of that city. when subsequent bre- endowments had enriched these houses. force. a German crusader and his lady had and. 348-356. p. (Both in the second volume of Scriptores of Freher.* The tial arrival of the German chivalry before Acre institution of a was followed by the memorable mar- order of religious kniglithood. which. to reinforce the crusaders before to perish himself of disease. on their arrival at Antioch. John and of the its crea- Temple. sufficiently formidable.GERMANS UNDERTAKE THE CRUSADE reached the Syrian confines. their numbers were 255 re- duced to one-tenth of their original array was still. * Hist. emulating the design of the fraternities of St. 1156-1163. the male thren were moved by the example But of the two great orders. to deliver that principality from the oppression of Saladin. whose troops retired at their approach . Hierosol. p. and surviving the original object of tion for the defence of Palestine.

the expulsion of the Christians from Jerusalem. Augustin government.256 THE THIRD CRUSADE. to Mary of Jerusalem.ple. and their fraternity was dissolved by Its little distinction. into a regular order of religious chivalry. . divided into three classes of noble cavaliers. in avowed imitation of those of the Hospital and Tem. i^urposes were now recalled to the national attention by the private charity of some individuals among the German army. A papal au- thority approved the design. the Duke porate them. who were race . for the national honour. under the title of the Teutonic Knights of St.* * Jacobus a Vit. priests and sergeants. ception of their sick and wounded countrymen and a number of knights joining their benevolent associaof Swabia seized the occasion to incor- tion. p. A white mantle with a black cross was appointed for the garb of the brotherhood. all exclusively of German and thenceforth. the order w^orthily aspired an equality in duties and honour with the two great martial fraternities of Palestine. privileges as its elder co-fraternifor its and ordained the rule of St. 1083. who pitals. invested the new order with the same ties. supplied the want of regular hos- by opening their tents before Acre for the re.

257 SECTIOI:T K RICHARD CCEUR DE LION IN PALESTINE HILE army still the German was threadits toil- ing some march through the deserts and of mountain passes Asia Minor. the reigns sove- of France and 17 .RICHARD CCEUR DE LION.

first which were moment of jealous excitement. drawn. after naming the port of Messina reunion for in Sicily as the place of : their combined armaments Philippe . which amounted to all one hundred thousand arms. the immersion of the offender thrice in the sea but if blood were tine. men of both nations. by the loss of his right hand: abusive language by a A .. as illus- marine jurisprudence adopted in that in our naval history. 258 THE THIRD CRUSADE. which. it age. themselves of the maritime states to escape the England had availed position and resources of their fatigues same dangers and Syrian shores. and of Conducting their march in concert as far as Lyons. they reviewed a gallant and well-equipped host. to combine their forces and on the plain of Vezelay in France. there to expect the arrival of his fleet''' from England. A simple blow was to be punished by . would be worthy of a place to A murderer was be tied to the corpse of his victim and cast with into the sea or if the crime were committed on shore. they had agreed for the sacred expedition . and actuated far more by the of the thirst of glory than by the religious spirit age. leading the French forces to embark at Genoa and Richard proceeding to Marseilles with his army. Interchanging vows of eternal as passionately broken in the friendship. * Before his departure from Normandy. by a naval passage full pride to the Both Philippe-Auguste and Richard of youthful am- Coeur de Lion were in the bition. to be buried in the same grave with the dead body. Ricliard promulgated a code of regulations for the government of his trative of the rude principles of fleet. the two monarchs separated at that city. impatient for chivalric distinction.

and in that p. Hoveden. after touching at Lisbon on way. and in the he struck one of them. * On one occasion. G66. p. Hoveden. and success- fully assisting in the defence of Santarem against a Mediterranean in Mussulman army. in Terrain. ii. sailed for the Italian coast. and here several circumstances arose hatred those feelings to foment into of ambitious rivalry which naturally sprang from their conflicting pride and pretensions. f Hoveden. Id'neranum Regis Anghrum Richardi. broil. tarred and feathered on shore at the first . vol. and he was compelled defend himself with stones until he effected his retreat to a neigh- bouring monastery. G64-673.''' crossed into Sicily. Against Tancred. reached the safety. he immediately hired a few vessels for the conveyance of his suite. he entered a cottage to seize a falcon which he heard was detained there: for it seems that no '^base churl" might without offence possess a bird trained for the exclusive sport of the chivalric order. &c. (apud Gale. the reigning king of thief was to have his head shaved. of his sword. and after rashly exposing himself to several dangerous adventures. Scrip- tures Hist.) p. Meanwhile the English its fleet.RICHARD C(EUR DE LION. the with the to weapon broke 672. who had drawn a dagger upon him. as The peasants presumed flat to resist his violence . . Anglican. But liis 259 impatience would brook no delay. received the land forces on board at Marseilles. when travelling in Southern Italy with a single attendant. 24:7-308. Hierosol. and entered the port of Messina some days before the arrival either of Philippe or Richard himself f In Sicily both monarchs wintered wdth their forces. state to be set opportunity. Galfridi a Vinesauf. and find- ing that his own navy had not reached that port. . p.

Richard to had recourse castle. To enforce redress for these injuries. While the French . Richard had several causes of resentment for the detention in prison of his sister Joan. took military possession of other posts. relict of "William II. the late sovereign of the island. or to pay legacies svhich her husband had bequeathed to the English crown. and a refusal either to restore her dower. Sicily. very violent proceedings for : seized a on his sister's release. Richard Occur de Lion.260 TUE THIRD CRUSADE.. and allowed his troops to commit many excesses. her residence.

daughter of Sancho. by such means. Richard allowed them its to sack the city. A new ground of quarrel between the two monarchs was soon created by the intelligence that Richard. and planted his banners on walls. disregarding his engagement to marry Alice or Adelia. of the English monarch restored the general and Richard generously sent Philippe twenty thousand ounces of gold. Philippe was justly offended at an outrage. which in effect. both English and French knights with presents and on Christmas day feasted the whole chivalry of the two nations. was about to espouse the Princess Berengaria. sister of Philippe. of the which had been wrung from his subjects before his departure on the Crusade. him by withdrawing to all The submission of Tancred the de- mands peace . pation. exalted his popularity in both armies far above that of his more provident or rival .RICHARD CCEUR DE LIOK. in which the latter pre- vailed. as the moiety of the sum which he compelled the satisfaction Sicilian prince to pay in of his claims. king of . and after a bloody engagement. He also loaded . less wealthy to and formed an additional source of jealousy Philippe. and Richard was his at last induced to appease troops. as he resided in Messina. and dismissed every individual with some His prodigal treasures dissi- largess apportioned to his rank. 261 king was interposing as a mediator. the citizens of Messina were provoked to attack the English. left him a prisoner in the hands of an ally who was also his vassal.

and arrived Avithout accident . and castles with the which had been assigned as her dower/-' re- Their feuds being thus terminated by a hollow conciliation. Philippe. persed by a storm and at Rhodes his fiery temper was roused by intelligence that two of his vessels. which had been wrecked on the shores of Cyprus. 308-31G. on the return of spring. dispute. in escorted effect. p. soon after arrived in Sicily. . G73-688. camp before Acre but Richard was prudent. : Ndvarre. who. Vinesauf. p. Eleanor of England. was the first to depart with his forces from the Sicilian at the Christian less fortunate or shores. were * Hovedcn. his fleet was dis.262 THE TIIIKD CRUSADE. by the queen-mother. Philippe at last After much consented to to release Richard from his contract upon his promise to restore Alice pay ten thousand marks. RHODES. Off the coast of Crete.

wdiich. and seized the government of the the English monarch disembarked his troops.. and the crews detained in captivity. by storm. armament may be estimated by the enumeration of which consisted of fifty galleys of war. The numbers . Richard finally sailed for Acre. sup- plied with stores of the The great bulk . grievously taxed the as their deliverer who had welcomed him title and asserted the their island. On the short voyage from Cyprus to the Syrian shore. tials of conquest to the lordship of After celebrating at Lymesol his nup- with Berengaria. Isaac. prince his victory for he threw the fallen usurper into chains. plundered. which had been deferred in Sicily on account of the season of Lent. according to the Latin chroniclers. the tyrant's capital. thir- teen large store-vessels. the English navy intercepted an enormous troop-ship of Saladin. EICIIARD CCEUR DE LIOX. of his land forces have not been recorded but the magnitude of the whole his fleet. being assisted by the defection of the islanders. for the reinforcement of the garrison of Acre. were forged of silver Cypriots. the in- credible number of fifteen hundred men. and well Greek fire. . and. having a prince of demanded reparation of race. Comnenian tine throne who had revolted against the Byzanisland. 26o To revenge this injury he sailed for Cyprus in vain . took Lymesol. The English . compelled him made an ungenerous use of to surrender at discretion. having on board. with a mockery of respect. and above one hundred other transports filled with horses and men. and.

Notwithstanding the previous junction of the King of France and his forces. animated the whole crusading host * Hovcden. he caused the attack to be pressed with the utmost vigour. the infidels. and of the light galleys of the Christians but she was at length carried by boarding tled. and his arrival was greeted in the Christian camp with enthusiastic rejoicings.e of Acre. but the English monarch had no sooner landed his battering engines than. except thirty-five. by the desperation of her and every soul of own leys. despite of an illness unSic<. or pierced by the beaks of the English gal- she sank with all her stores .264 THE THIRD CRUSADE. lofty sides of this vessel long defied the attacks . Vinesauf. der which he was labouring. Bohadin. . p. and as well by his personal example as by prodigal rewards. p. crew. But the 3Iussulman historian rates the troops on board this fifty. G88-692. still great store-ship at only six hundred and vessel a hulk very unusual for the times. p.* A fore few days afterward Rich- ard disembarked his army be- Acre . the operations of the long-protracted siege had continued to languish . her hull being either scut- during the conflict. 166. was either massacred or drowned. 31G-329. indicating in the .

after and an heroic resistence.RICHARD C(EUR DE LION. the payment of two hundred thousand . release fifteen captives. with a new spirit. the exhausted and despairing garrison obtained the reluctant permission of the sultan to capitulate. Every effort of Saladin to rout . 265 Movable Toiccrs used in Sieges. deliver hundred chosen Christian up Acre. finding their de- fences shattered on every side and their numbers daily diminished. and ransom the garrison by pieces of gold. the besiegers or reUeve the place was repulsed at length. store the Upon condition that Saladin should retrue cross which he wood of the had taken in Jerusalem.

were slaughtered in cold blood himself. The Mussulman hostages. The sultan was not slow to revenge this cruelty in the blood of . were permitted unmolested . boasted of the massa- an acceptable service to Heaven. being led out from the city to the French and English . the vicinity of the captured failure. in a letter cre as still and Richard extant. to the number of above five thousand. the monarcbs of France and En2. and the banner ruined walls.266 THE THIRD CRUSADE. with the exception of to depart some thousand hostages. Upon these terms the city of the cross was surrendered . was the signal for a tragedy horribly characteristic of the barbarous and fanatical spirit of crusading warfare. His subsequent from reluctance. and the sultan immediately broke up his camp and withdrew from fortress. or more probably from inability. was again planted on its The garrison and inhabitants. camps. to pay the ransom of the prisoners within the stipulated period.lancl ao-reed to spare the lives of all the JMussulmans in the place.

RICHARD COSUR DE LION.

267

liichard C'oeur de Lion at Acre.

his Christian captives;

and on both

sides

repeated

butcheries continued to darken the mutual hatred of

the combatants.'''
* Hoveden, p. G92-698.
Vinesauf, p. 329-346.

Bohadin,

p.

180-188.

Hoveden, indeed, declares that the massacre of the Chris-

tian captives

by Saladin preceded that of the Turkish hostages by
it

Richard; but Bohaden says otherwise; and

is

not probable that

the sultan would thus have provoked the destruction of his people,

whom he had
as given in

wished

to save.
(p.

The expressions
fecimus

in Richard's letter,

Hoveden,

698,) are (Thus, as in duty bound, we put
ejtj)iare ;

them

to death,) Sic ut drcuit,

and no writer in

that fanatical age seems to have imagined that even the cold-blooded

slaughter of infidels could be otherwise than meritorious and acceptable to Heaven.

The

old
it

romance of Rldiard denr de Lion goes

yet a step further; for

exaggerates the glorious deed into the murder
;

of sixty thousand infidels

and the author, imagining that the sub-

268

THE THIRD CRUSADE.
capture of Acre was hailed
l^y

The

the Christians

as a glad

omen

of the recovery of the

Holy Sepulchre.

But these sanguine

anticipations were short!}' chilled

by the retirement
Crusade.

of the

King of France from the

The

causes of this secession, for which se-

vere illness afforded some plea, have been sought in
feelings of jealousy at the superior glory

won during
abilities

the siege of Acre by the liberality and prowess of his
royal associate.

The eminent

political

of
in

Philippe-Auguste, indeed, though they placed

him

sober estimation at an immeasurable distance above
his irrational

and

fiery rival,
;

were of

little

weight in

the fields of Palestine

the martial qualities by which

he was himself distinguished would sustain no comparison with the transcendent personal heroism of the

"Lion-hearted"

Plantagenet;

and he

who, in the

annals of Europe, figures as the ablest monarch and

most renowned conqueror of

his age, is discerned only

through the wild romance of the Crusades as the envious or recreant deserter from a holy war.

But the
by any
in-

withdrawal of Philippe was produced

less

ject deserved to be ^associated •with pleasurable emotions, thus pre-

faces the tale of the butchery with a poetical descant

on the charms

of the vernal season

:

" Merry

is,

in time of

May

When

fowlis sing in her lay

Flowcres on apple-trees and perry

Small fowles sing merry
Ladies strew her bowers

With

red roses and

lily flowers," &o.

Ellis, Sj^ecant'iis

of Metrical Romancea,

vol.

ii.

273.

RICHARD C(EUR DE LION.
consistency in his

269

own

character than by the intem-

perate conduct of Richard.

The

reckless spirit with
so

which the English king had already wasted
of the season for action in Sicily
intolerable arrogance of pretensions that

much

and Cyprus, and the

would brook

no control, alike foreboded any but a happy issue to
the confederacy of which he was so puissant a
ber; and, unless the

mem-

King

of France had been pre-

pared to submit unconditionally to his capricious and

haughty

dictation, their separation

might alone avert

an open rupture, and the total ruin of the Crusade.

The

real disgrace of Philip

was

his subsequent perfidy

in attacking the dominions of his absent rival, con-

trary to the solemn oath which Richard exacted from

him on

his departure

;

but the interests of the Cru-

sade itself ^vere promoted by his abandoning to his
rival the undivided possession of the

supreme com-

mand
cause,

;

and, as an evidence of his sincerity in the

he

left

with Richard ten thousand of his best

troops under the conduct of the

Duke

of Burgundy.""'*'

After the retirement of the French king, Richard

prepared to resume the design of the war/j- and

still

* Hoveden,

p.

G97.

Vinesauf, p. 344.

That Richard, however,
from the
in-

was greatly incensed
j"

at his rival's desertion, is evident
letter.

temperate expressions of his

He

had some

difficulty in

inducing his army to quit the licen-

tious pleasures of

Acre

:

a city so abounding, according to Vinesauf,
fairest

vino per Optimo

et

pudlis pulclicrrimis, (in choicest wines and

damsels,) that by deep potations the countenances of the gravest
warriors in the host had contracted a disgraceful rubicundity.

270

THE THIRD CRUSADE.
to

found himself able
English,

muster

nearl}' thirty

thousand

French, and

German

warriors

under the

standard of the cross.
this

He

conducted the advance of

combined force from Acre in a southerly direction
Jaffa, along the sea-shore
;

upon
his

and

in the order of
skill

march no inconsiderable share of military
discipline is observable.

and

Nearest to the coast,
fleet,

and
and
the

in

communication with the English

which

attended the expedition with supplies of provisions
stores,

were the camp-train and followers
covering these accessories,

;

while
in

army

itself,
:

moved

five divisions

the Templars in the van, the Hospi-

tallers closing

up the rear

;

and the archers and other
outward flank
to

lio-ht-armed foot on the left or

check

with their missiles the desultory but galling onsets of
the Turkish cavalry.

By

day, clouds of these horse-

men

hovered around the

front, flank,

and rear of the

Christians,
assaults
:

and harassed their march with incessant
night, Saladin

by

encamped

in their vicinity,

and broke the repose of the wearied soldiery with
frequent alarms.

But the firm

array, the

unshaken

valour, and the patient'-'
ans,

determination of the Europe-

exhausted
daily

all

the artifices of Asiatic warfare.
in

The

march was accomplished
is

compact array,
by the unsuspi-

* The heroic fortitude of the crusaders
cious evidence of an

attested

enemy and an

eye-witness.

Many

of them

who

liad received several

Turkish arrows at a time in their chain-

mail, the thick cloth lining of which alone protected

them from

wounds, marched on, while these shafts
a firm step and calm demeanour.

bristled on their backs, with
p.

Bohadin,

189.

RICHARD

CffiUR

DE LIOX.
;

271

and with a slow but resolute advance

at sunset the

army

regularly halted

;

and thrice during the night
si-

the loud voices of the heralds, breaking the deep
lence of the

camp with solemn

injunction to

rememsenti-

ber the

Holy Sepulchre, roused the slumbering
Saladin, reinforced
all

nels of the religious host to watchfulness

and prayer.

At length

by new swarms of the
and finding

Moslems from

parts of his empire,

every desultory attempt to arrest the progress of the
Christians unavailing, resolved upon one mighty effort
to accomplish their total destruction.

On

the morn-

ing of the sixteenth'^' day after the advance of the
crusaders from Acre,

when near

Azotus, the brazen
;

kettle-drum of the sultan sounded the attack

and

the whole infidel host was suddenly precipitated, in

one tremendous charge, upon the Christian array.

So

rapid and furious was the onset, so vastly superior

were the numbers of the

assailants,

and so over-

whelming the

force

and weight of the shock, that the

small squadrons of the crusaders, enclosed within their

own
all

infantry,
sides

were

for a

time crushed together from
Galled by the Turkish

by the

pressure.

arrows, the chivalry impatiently
to extricate themselves

demanded permission
fiery

by a charge; but the

Plantagenet,

now

alone calm, cool, and collected, and

* Not the eleventli, as the exact Gibbon
inaccuracy has stated
;

(c. lix.)

with unusual

for

Richard commenced his march from Acre
battle of

on the 22d of August, and the
7th of September.

Azotus was fought on the
in
locis.

Hoveden and Vinesauf,

272

TUE THIRD CRUSADE.
foreseeing

a decisive

victory,

restrained the impetuosity of
liis

knights, until he observed

that the quivers of the infidels

were emptied and their strengtli
exhausted.
infantry to

Then, causing the

open

out,

he led

and

let loose

the Christian chi-

valry in

all directions

upon the

wavering enemy.

The whole
resist

Turkish host, unable to

the vigour and strength of these
steel-clad squadrons, broke
Richard
I. at

and
So

Azotus.

fled to

the adjacent

hills.

successful

and sanguinary were the charge and pursuit,

that above twenty emirs and seven thousand of the
flower of the Turkish cavalry were slain on the field;

and the

result justified the boast of Richard, that, in

forty campaigns, the veteran sultan

had never

sus-

tained so severe a

defeat.'-'

After this signal victory, the crusaders, without
ther

furtri-

molestation by the infidels, pursued their
to Jafia
;

umphant march

and, Saladin having wisely

destroyed the works of fortresses which he was hopeless of preserving,

they took possession both of that
castles in

city

and Cassarea, with other dismantled
It is said

their vicinity.

that Richard desired at once

* Hovcden,

p.

G98.

Vincsauf,

p.

34G-360.

RICHARD C(EUR DE LION.
to

Zto

have followed up

liis

success

by advancing against

Jerusalem, but was prevented by the factious opposition of the

French barons, who, seconded by the wish
to repose
first

of the

army
and

from their

fatigues, insisted

upon

the necessity of
Jaffa
its

rebuilding the fortifications of

dependencies.*

However

this

might

have been, two months were consumed in restoring
these works, and in vain negotiations with Saladin,f
before the

crusaders again

moved forward toward
serious opposi-

Jerusalem.

They penetrated without
hostilities,

* During this cessation of active

Richard, while pur-

suing the sport of falconry with his usual imprudence, beyond the
precints of the Christian lines,

was attacked by a party of Saracens,

and only escaped captivity or death through the generous devotion
of a Provencal knight
the attention of the

named Guillaume de Pratelles, who drew off enemy by feigning to be the king, and as such
Richard proved not ungrateful; for his
to
last

surrendered himself.
care in Palestine

was

ransom his preserver.

Vinesauf, p. 372.

f In the course
interrupted

of these negotiations, which were

more than once
to

and resumed, Richard and Saladin seem

have

se-

riously entertained a singular project for an

accommodation of the

Christian and

Moslem

interests

by means of a marriage between
English king, who had ac-

Saphadin, or Malec-al-Adel, the brother of the Sultan, and the

widowed queen of
companied him

Sicily, sister of the

to Palestine.

With

his Christian bride, the Mussul-

man

prince was to receive from his brother the sovereignty of Jeru;

salem

but the whole design, according to Bohadin, though agreea-

ble to both Saladin

and Richard, was frustrated by the repugnance
to so unnatural

of both Asiatics
hadin, p. 209.

and Europeans

an

alliance.

Boin

During the negotiations, the two armies mingled
;

constant and amicable intercourse

and frequent kindnesses were

interchanged
Saladin sent

between their sovereigns.

When

Richard was

ill,

him the

choicest fruits,

and the yet greater refreshment

of snow during the burning heats of summer.
18

Hoveden,

p.

693.

274
tion to

TUE THIRD CRUSADE.
Ramula within
a short distance of the Holy
season,

City.

But here the inclemency of the

want

of provisions, and the consequent and alarming increase of sickness, arrested their

march

;

and Richard

himself admitted the present hopelessness of success.

The army,

therefore, fell

back to the coast

;

and the

winter was spent by the soldiery in repairing the walls
of several of the conquered fortresses,

and by their

leaders in treacherous intrigues or violent dissensions.

At

length, on the return of spring, Richard so for sucall
;

ceeded in restoring unanimity as to assemble

the

Christian forces in Palestine under his standard
at their

and

head again he advanced toward Jerusalem.

The

general enthusiasm of the

army was kindled by
;

the renovated hope of success

the chieftains

and

soldiery joined in a solemn oath that the}^

would not

quit Palestine until the Sepulchre of Christ should be

redeemed

;

and when the army reached the valley of

Hebron, and arrived even in sight of the Holy City,
the accomplishment of their

vows seemed

at hand.
;

The Moslems were

filled
;

with consternation

num-

bers fled from Jerusalem

and even Saladin despaired

of preserving his proudest conquest.*

But, at this critical juncture, the sultan
livered from his

was

de-

apprehensions by the unexpected
[a. d.

retreat of the crusading host.

1192.]

The

causes of this failure are variously ascribed by the
* Hovcden,

p.

698-714.

Vinesauf,

p.

360-409.

Bohadin,

p.

188-237.

Abulfeda, p. 50-52.

. Christian chronicles to the contemplated difficulties of a siege. p. to the envious or treasonable defection of the Duke of Burgundy and his French followers.RICHARD CCEUR DE LION. 409. But the best attested account is that which refers the abandonment of the enterprise to the act of the king. and to the indecision of Richard himself.* Whether he was swayed by his usual impulses of caprice. 237. 271 Hebron. urged * Vinesauf. Bohadin. p.

to decide upon if it were preferable to engage in the siege of the Holy City. he hid his he who was unable face in his shield. selected from among the barons of Palestine and the oath chiefs of the military orders. proposed the appointment of a council. 715. Europe by repeated intelli- to hasten his return to gence of the dangerous machinations of his faithless brother and rival. . he poignantly the mortification or felt shame of his failure . when one of his followers led him to a height from whence he might take his last view of Jerusalem. To the general surprise and disappoint- ment.276 THE THIRD CRUSADE. commenced a second and final retreat to the sea-coast. was unworthy to look upon the Sepulchre of Christ. exclaiming that to rescue. uhi supra. whatever were the motives of necessity or inconstancy which dictated this resolve. But he sud- denly paused in his operations and. or secretly conscious that the resources of the Crusade were unequal to the capture of Jerusalem. and Richard. the council decided upon the expediency of deferring the enterprise before them . . and. it is vain to inquire. Yet.* Saladin was not slow to reap his advantage on the retreat of the crusaders. when its walls were within his view. Vinesauf. amid the discontent of the whole army. he poured had continued his march from * Hoveden. and. finding that Richard Jaffa to Acre. or to make a diversion against Damascus or Cairo. p.

that and assaulted the place numbers of the Christian garrison and inhabitants were slain in the their lives streets. quickly followed. sailed for Jaffa. and.. to its deliverers. and the remainder only saved in by shutting themselves up some of the to sue for a They had already been reduced capitulation. their succour. recovering from their surprise. leaving after his army to retrace their his small march him along the coast. 277 the hills with his troops on the former so unexpectedly. finding that some of the garrison still held out. was still on the strand of Pagalley. the Turkish cavalry. he displayed his contempt . when Richard arrived off towers. had with him only of knights. so and the opposing Moslems on the beach were fled dismayed by the fury of the attack. and two thousand foot-soldiers. the port to He had prepared to embark for Eu- rope before he heard of their danger. RICHARD CCEUR DE down from city. followed he threw himself into a only by a few knights and archers in six other vessels. whom but ten were mounted. LION. and in this situa- on the morrow of his arrival. and abandoned Jaffa res- Though Richard. attacked him with . but fired with indignation that Saladin should have renewed the offensive while his foot lestine. and ascer- taining the scantiness of his force. When squadron had approached the shore. including the fifty-five cued garrison. for the infidels by encamping without the gates tion. he plunged into the sea his attendants inspired by his heroic example. that they before this handful of assailants.

ijfe^^^^"^ Richard Cceur dc Lion at the battle of Jaffa.''' * This in- Night put an end to the unequal concurrent testimony of Christian and Mohammedan writers compels history to ascribe to Richard feats of personal he- roism. of valour and personal strength whole squadrons of the quailing infidels fled before his single arm . and everywhere carried death and confusion into their ranks. and the Mussulman writers themselves are the most ad- miring witnesses and warmest eulogists of these credible exploits. He not only sustained their repeated charges. which might otherwise be dismissed as the dreams of romance. overwhelming numbers.278 THE THIRD CRUSADE. . but each time rushed into the thickest of their squadrons at the head of his ten knights. Never had even he performed such prodigies .

s to dismantle the fortifications of Ascalon.'-' This was the last and most brilliant achievement of the lion-hearted king on the shores of Palestine and with it ended the third Crusade. p. 52. Abulfeda. . sent him two Arabian horses. hands of the Chris- honour of knighthood his son. 412-421. above half a century after his '' fiery spirit had been quenched in the grave. that he raised the siege of Jaffa without any further attempt.^" 238-249. the solicited and obtained. Bohadin. from Joinville. p. Saladin himself was weary of fruitless guishing hostilities. the same Turkish prince had tian hero. was in the hands of the Christians an object of jealous dis- Sucli was the admiration which he extorted from his enemies. his rider was wont to exclaim. p. but so hopeless was Saladin of prevailing against the hero. on one of which he continued the conflict until nightfall. his tremendous . that Saphadiu. which to the grave. The exertions of Richard brought on a fever which increased his longing desire to return to Europe spired . .. and the awe in- by his prowess and victory facilitated his over- tures for a renewal of former negotiations. which. the en- during teiTor in which his very memory was held by the Moslems for. and lanin under a bodily decline. name was employed by Syrian mothers if to silence their infants and a horse suddenly started from his ' way. during his last action before Jaffa. a few months bowed him Richard consented a. RICHARD CCEUR DE LION. 279 combat. the key of Egypt from the Syrian frontiers. observing him dis- mounted. ch. * A^inesauf. is Dost thou think King Richard in the bush V Cuides tu que ce soit le Roi Richart . Some time at the for before. Gibbon. But the most is striking proof of the reality of his astonishing prowess. lix.

and Jaffa. Acre. between the also first and last of those cities to abstain from attacking the territories of the Prince all of Antioch and Count of Tripoli. 422. even greater advantages might have * Vinesauf. with of fortresses. which for eighty years deferred the final triumph of the chiefly attributable to the heroic achieve. . quietude to the Sultan agreed to leave them and the latter on his part in unmolested possession of all Tyre. last adieu to the scene of and commenced that homeward voyage. not been accomplished but the total ruin with which the affairs of the Latin kingdom were threatened by the fatal defeat at Tiberias had been averted. Bohadin. embarking at Acre. p.280 THE THIRD CRUSADE.* ''Such Its was the termination of the third Crusade". the tide of Mussulman conquest was arrested. and Richard. Upon these terms the two monarchs con- cluded a truce between the nations of their respective faiths for three years and three months . 260. of to relate the calami- which we are in another place tous issue. bade a his glory. p. . grand object in the recapture of Jerusalem had . with the maritime territory . The recovery Moslems. its and a chain great part of the sea-coast of Palestine. remained in the hands of the Christians. and to grant Christian pilgrims free access to the holy places of Jerusalem. but for his intemper- ance and caprice. was or preservation of this territory. ments of the English king and.

but this accommo- when Conrad was murchieftain. the dissensions of the Christians were more dangerous to the general cause than the arms of their infidel enemies. the gallant prince of Tyre. and even while the victories of Saladin threatened to involve all parties in a common ruin. and he found a formidable competitor in Conrad. their quarrels were embraced by the crusaders from Europe. it Richard. found recognise the royal title necessary to of Conrad. and consoled Lu. dered in the streets of Tyre by two of the Hassassins. by the errors of his own conduct. or Meli- cent. From their personal enmity. signan with the crown of Cyprus dation was scarcely concluded. been reaped from his splendid exploits. 281 Yet it may be doubted whether his want of complete success was not full as much produced by as the political vices of the Latin states. during the siege Of Acre. By the death of his consort Sybilla and her children. The conflict- ing pretensions of aspirants to the Latin throne of Palestine supplied a constant subject of disunion. the King of England supported the cause of Lusignan. trollable strength had grown and violence.RICHARD C(EUR DE LION. The factions nursed in Palestine during the feeble into uncon- reign of the leper Baldwin IV. who had espoused Isabella. or followers of a fjmatical Mohammedan . After the departure of Philippe. and the French monarch that of Conrad and his consort. the worthless Lusignan had lost his only title to a matrimonial crown. to suppress a civil war. sister of the late queen.

both by the public voice and the assent of Richard. confessed that they were employed by the (p. as King of Jerusalem . j" trial before the Imperial German Diet. if opposed to the of Conrad. 225. and this version of the tale has great internal probafact. King of England. political For these transactions during the third Crusade. in . 324.) asserts that the murderers. i. for was made the plea temper new dissen- sions but all evidence of the open and fearless impeis tuosity of Plantagenet's belief that. his murder was imputed and this charge . little had nothing to as. (p. By the partisans of Conrad.-f and his undisputed assumption of the visionary title at length removed one of the * Boliadin. No to conclusion. to the instigation of Richard. . vol. Count of Champagne. bility. who in right of this marriage was recognised. who were taken and put to the torture. Hichard. whose systematic employment of the dagger against their enemies introduced a new term into the lan- guages of Europe. gain by the crime and Conrad himself so suspected him on his death-bed. but both Vinesauf (p. that they had killed Conrad in revenge for an injury which he had offered to their chief. either of the innocence or guilt of Richard. see chiefly Yinesauf. to desire his widow to commit the fortress of Tyre to the keeping of the English prince. 71. 392. since his reconciliation.'-' The widow rad accepted the hand of Henry.ZbZ THE THIRD CRUSADE. an evident forgery subsequently produced at his Foedera. p. 377) and Hoveden 717) agree in reporting the declaration of the Hassassins. 377. indeed. he he had sought the life would not have stooped to so perfidious and dastardly a of Con- mode of gratifying his enmity. is fairly be drawn from the excul- patory letter from the chief of the Hassassins.

is. perhaps. lems by treachery and bloodshed Christians had been stained and his first successes against the by atrocious cruelty. He . at the expense of his nephews. was mild and equitable as a Mussulman. was eminently pious. ii. and Aleppo . in his latter years. after his power was secure.RICHARD CCEUR DE LION. exhibit the genuine lineaments of his clime and race. 1193. three of his numerous sons erected mascus. of Cnimdcii. only survived his treaty with Richard a few months and on his decease the great empire which he had consolidated was almost immediately dissolved. and at their head that prince carved out for himself. just. own people. far less to any union among themselves than to the death of their formidable enemy. [a.iies. Saladin''' . In its division. for. Da- but most of his veteran soldiery preferred to range themselves under the standard of his brother Saphadin . as Mr." He had established his throne over the Mos. d. he that. the brightest exemplar in history of virtues. . distinct thrones at Cairo. But the Christians in Palestine were indebted for their safety. after the third Crusade. a considerable sovereignty in Syria. means by which the factions of Palestine 283 had aggra- vated the disasters of the Christian cause. . Mills lias well observed. vol. But his govern- ment of his . like an Asiatic hero and his the dark traits which ob- scured them. 82. li. and charitable and we have seen even toward ene- he was sometimes capable of the most magnanimous and gene- rous conduct.] * The really great qualities of Saladin have sometimes been too absolutely lauded . (^Hisl.) his character was but a " compound of dig- nity and baseness.

.

THE FOURTH CRUSADE. 285 CHAPTER %\n |0ttrtl] IV. €xu$ix^t SECTION I.- tive considerable difficulty is felt by the historian in ar- ranging chronologically the series of events that I so rapidly crowd it upon him. and understood '^^ must be that . AND ITALIANS UNITE IN THE CRUSADE. T this stage of the narra. GERMANS.— THE FRENCH.

the appeal was heard . apwith indifference but in — — pears to have cherished of aggrandizing himself in the East. . the opening sentences of this chapter relate to inci- dents that preceded by years to call the what it is customary Fourth Crusade. some writers have dignified the abortive result with the title of the Fourth Crusade . more convenient division. great eflforts. or at most Eight. also the But the more usual. and. supported by his influence.286 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. succes- sively reached the port of Acre. which was directed against the Byzantine Empire. restricts the term of distinct Cru- sades to Seven. three great Thus composed. the dissensions of the infidels revived in the Christians the fond hope of reconquering Jerusalem . armaments. and raised the most * As the exhortation of the pope to the nations of Europe to en- gage in this design was general. and numbered which seems the subsequent expedition. At the expiration of the three years' truce which the English king had negotiated. from III. and by vast numbers of nobles and persons of inferior rank. such as the loss of rusalem. all from Germany. Germany the design was promoted by some momentary schemes of ambition which the emperor the execrable Henry VI. the preaching of the clergy in that country was so successful. as the Fifth of Nine. which were either Edessa or Je- produced by some signal occasion. that the Cross was enthusiastically taken by many princes and prelates of the empire. or else productive of some considerable event. a new Crusade* was proclaimed Throughout France and Eng- by Pope Celestin land. whatever causes. and at the instigation of the military orders.

the By the death German left princes and prelates were recalled through political interests to Europe. Emjieror of Germany. and though the combined Palestine gained Germany and field. GERMANS. The . But the Mussuhnans both of Egypt and Syria. forgetting their civil feuds in the ligion common danger of their re- and empire. AND ITALIANS. or counterbalanced spirit of by the elastic Turkish hostility. which started into new and vigorous action.FRENCH. their and at departure they the Latin possessions in Palestine only slightly enlarged by their aid. of the emperor. 287 Henry VI. some victories in the these successes were always either marred by their dissensions. confident anticipations among the Latins in the East of a decisive triumph over their infidel enemies. as often as misconduct or exhaustion relaxed the efforts of the Christians. rallied around the standard of chivalry of Saphadin.

To these considerable fragments of Palestine. Will. I . Chron. Almeric and Isabella assumed.) lib. v. ii. the Latin after added. and on the solemnization of this marriage at Acre. Tyr. the successor of Guy reignty of that island. iv. whose the real sovereignty extended over great part of the sea- coast of Syria. in 1197. Rerum lib. however. Sdavormn.. by the union of for the his queen. iv. security to German victories had given the throne of Henry of Champagne. see Bernardus Thesaur. had failed to reanimate the religious zeal of the chivalry of France but a fresh impulse was given to their fanaticism when Innocent III. three years afterward. The convenient precedent of the Saladin tithe might suggest to that celebrated Pontiff a tempting occasion for again taxing the clergy of Europe under the pretext of a new Crusade haps the single motive of filling . lib. Cont. Abulfeda. the joint title of King and Queen of Jeru- salem and Cyprus.* The exhortations of Pope Celestin III. 288 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. with in the sove- Almeric of Lusignan. vi. vol. general superiority. ii. (in Freter. which their arms had asserted over the Mussulman power was useful in sus- taining the dignity and safety of the Christian state and though the nominal capital of the kingdom was still unrecovered. thus third time. Script. monarchy of widowed Cyprus was soon on the death of Henry.: . ascended the papal throne. but per- the papal coffers by * For p. German. 813-818. all these transactions in Palestine. &c.

that the free of the princes and people exceeded the clergy. But whatever were his objects. life who its professed to atone for a of sin by dedicating . So productive were offerings total efforts. by the vehe- mence of his exhortations. and to obtain the pecuniary subscription and personal services of the laity by the promises of indulgences and pardon these for their sins. remains to the service of heaven and who. or the learning and dignified virtues of St. this 289 disgraceful expedient has been too confidently attributed to Innocent. or at least to contribute forces their his and treasures to the sacred enterprise. and legates were despatched throughout the kingdoms of bodies the West to levy on all ecclesiastical the fortieth part of their revenues. Bernard. he entered on the design of again arming Europe against the infidels with his character. GERMANS. yet with a success little inferior to that of either.FRENCH. 19 now kindled the fiame . of Neuilly. all the energy which distinguished He wrote himself to the sovereigns of Christendom. in whom the ambitious desire of extending the spiritual and temporal dominion of the Holy See was at least as strong as any mere cu- pidity of gold. exhorting them severally either to take the cross in person. near Paris. and by lations of his pretended reve- the divine will. without the rude originality of the Hermit Peter. amount imposed on the but the most powerful auxiliary of the papal design was a fanatical priest named Foulques. AND ITALIANS.

when intelligence of the inspiring design reached * Foulques did not live to contemplate the his preaching. and such as custom had made . full consequences of sailed He died before the crusading armament from Venice.] Their spirit was . enthusiasm throughout Flanders and France. familiar to the ears of that generation and his oratory is described by contemporaries Lion. His denun- were of the usual kind. Hisotriographer to Philippe- — Auguste. Earl of Blois. ." Rigord." replied Richard. ciations Du Cange on Villehardouin. and solemnly devoted themselves and their fortunes to the service of the cross. No. to the common monarchs of France and England. but impressive. 290 of religious THE FOURTH CRUSADE.* When tries for tical zeal the fame of his preaching and his miracles had already prepared the public mind of those counthe sacred enterprise. by a relationship. he said." " Well. and a numerous band of the noblest chevaliers of France and. Avarice. Lord of Mante. my avarice to the monks of Citeaux. [1200. to the late and the former brother King Henry of Jerusalem. the youthful count of that province. There Thibaut. the martial and fanaof the French nobility was roused into action offered to by the example which was tournament in them at a great Champagne. " I give my pride to the Templars. Addressing Coeur de You have three daughters to dispose of in marriage. Pride.. both of them nephews. xxxvii. resolved to exchange the martial sports for the sterner duties of chivalry. and his cousin Louis. " as plain. and Luxury. enthusiastically caught their by the assembled knighthood vows were embraced on the spot by Simon de Montfort. and my luxury to the bishops.

assumed the cross . . and in the latter. its To forward the enter- and arrange Blois. that prince. with their principal in deliberation at Soissons result of their councils met twice . Script.FRENCH. and Flanders. hastened to enrol himself in the holy cause. they determined * Vita Innocent. both seconded by great numbers of knightly and plebeian warriors. 291 the court of Baldwin. paragraph No. Count of Flanders. details. the In the papal exhortations and promises of spiritual rewards had not been without their desired effect. test. the three Counts of Champagne. de Villehardouin. Rer. and a at Compeigne and the was resolution to avoid the disasters which the fatal expe- rience of former Crusades had shown were the inevi- table attendants of a land expedition to Palestine. iii. Meanwhile. with his subjects. and the King of Hungary. brother of the murdered Conrad of Tyre. du Cange. former country. in Italy and in Germany. par Geoffrey i.''*' sealed the sincerity of their faith by the same The French prise nobles did not suffer the ardour of their followers to cool by inaction. associates. AND ITALIANS.) 506-526. of the inland province of Champagne could not comupon attempting to pur- mand the same means of naval transport as those sovereigns. Boniface. vol. with a great body of Flemish knights. Ital. as the barons guste and Richard Plantagenet. the Bishop of Halberstadt. brother-in- law of Thibaut. Histoire cle la Prise de Constantinople. (apud Muratori. p. Ed. III. GERMANS. and to imitate the maritime passage of Philippe-AuBut. Marquis of Montferrat.

Their tears'^' and eloquence pre- * These doughty champions of chivahy were. before a multitude of more than ten thousand haughty barons of France threw themtheir knees to implore the assistance of upon the commercial republicans in recovering the Sepulchre of Christ. the selves citizens in the Place of St. Mult plorant. with full powers to negotiate on theirbehalf. &c. Venice had already attained a preponderance . Among these states. who. the French barons despatched six chosen deputies. The ducal crown of Venice was at this time worn by Enrico Dandolo. had been wont to hire out their services both as the common carriers and allies of the Western pilgrims. . and in almost total blindness. which afterward became so conspicuous in the annals of the East. and the ambitious or patriotic spirit of his youth. throughout the Crusades. the active heroism. This name. at the extraordinary age of ninety-three years. Mark. and in the number Geoffroy de Villehardouin. still preserved the vigorous talents. after the purport of their embassy had been regularly sub- mitted to the councils of the state. He received the noble envoys with honour .292 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. invited them to meet the assembled persons. by habit great weepers.. as Gibbon has observed. marshal of Champagne. is the phrase of Yillehardouin on almost every occasion of excitement. and. to w^hose pen or dictation we are indebted for a simple and expressive narration of the whole Crusade. There. of the maritime republics of chase the aid of one Italy. who. of power and resources and to that city.

.

which acquired the in the family of Savoy. and the younger. and that wdiatever conquests might be made should be equally divided between the barons and the Venetian state. Villehardouin. and of fifty galleys and aid them with a fleet but only on condition that the money should be paid before embarkation. nine thousand esquires and men-at-arms. (in Script. xiii. to which the marMichaud.) 320-323. merged 46. in took its rise from a village. and therefore not an unreasonable demand —the republic engaged to transport four thousand five hundred knights. and for the less sum of eightj'-five thousand silver marks — than £200.* On the return of the envoys to France.. shal belonged. received a joyful approval from their associates several but untoward circumstances arose to obstruct the performance of the treaty. to any part of the coasts of the East which the service of God might require. p. the price of the desired aid by the envoys to the assessment of the doge and his immediate council . ii. to escort to provision them for nine months. The elder branch of the family. * Andreae Danduli. No. in which the original treaty is given. Ital. between Bar and Arcy. xiv. . Rer. The young Count of Champagne. these terms .000 of our modern English money. principality of Achaia. was already stretched on a deathcastle. the ardent promoter and destined chief of the enterprise. with their horses and equip- ments. vol. Venet. and twenty thousand foot-soldiers. sii. expired in 1400. or the diocese of Troye. 294 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. had been left vailed. Chron.

to subscribe the stipu- [1202. AND ITALIANS. . the enterprise must have been abandoned. wholly deserted their engage- ments. with true mer- cantile caution. bed . Italian. their numbers short of expectation. Many of the nobles and their followers had. which prevented their electing one of their own body to succeed him. not- withstanding the junction of some German crusaders. GERMANS. equivalent. in incon- stancy or impatience. and as the republic. upon condition of the crusaders assisting in the reduction of the strong city of Zara. 295 and on his decease some time was lost before the mutual jealousy of the French barons. on the Dalmatian coast. their payment of the remaining sum should be postponed until the conclusion of the Holy War. or found their own passage to Acre: so that after the tourna- when ment the at length. and they were utterly unable lated cost of the enterprise. thousand marks were yet wanting to complete the full payment. nearly in two years Flemish Champagne.] Though the above thirty Marquis and the Counts of Blois and Flanders made a generous sacrifice of all their valuables. refused to permit the sailing of the fleet until the whole amount of the deficiency should be lodged in her treasury. the Marquis Boniface mustered and fell French.FRENCH. confederates at Venice. was reconciled by the choice of a foreign leader in the person of the Marquis of Montferrat. if the Doge had not suggested an He proposed that. meanwhile. and despite of his years and infirmities. which had revolted from the republic.

totally blind for the statement of his much more pi-obable in itself. . succeeded in persuading their more scrupulous . when another obstacle was opposed to its adoption. and. entertained little But the reverence for the authority of the Holy See. which was com- manded by person. that the venerable Doge had lost his sight . as he had promised.296 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. on their assent. who had who himself taken the Cross. * Notwitlistanding the expression of Villeliardouin. positively forbade the crusaders to turn their arms against the subjects of a prince Venetians. it may be doubted whether descendant and chroni- he was cler. and though their lives were spared.'-' The confederate barons gladly acceded to this ex- pedient. although the Marquis of Montferrat. the venerable doge. was visu dcbilis.s legate. abstained from accompanying them. terprise : which had nearly frustrated the whole enthe peo^^le of Zara had placed themselves under the sovereignty of the King of Hungary. they sailed to Zara with their followers in the Venetian fleet. through hi. by a wound. and the pope. allies to disregard the prohi- bition of Innocent the desire of honourably discharg- ing their obligations prevailed with the French barons over their fear of the papal displeasure. were terrified or compelled into a surrender. in Zara was deemed in that age one of the : strongest cities in Europe but the inhabitants. their leader. is only that he p. 322. to take the Cross. Chron. himself and to lead the naval forces of his republic. Danduli. after a siege of only five days. he engaged.

uhi supra. the Marquis of Montferrat joined them and it was during this season of repose that an endestination tirely new was given to the combined armament. showed full obedience to the papal man- date by wholly abandoning his associates.* * Danduli. . and withdrawing from with the more stubborn republicans. Chron. AND ITALIANS. first In his burst of indignation at their disobedience. No. sins. whose subsequent share in the Crusade against the Albigenses has given a horrible celebrity to his name. after surrender. Villehardouin. III. xs. 529-531. GERMANS. he assured them of pardon for their condition of their only upon making restoration of their booty to all alliance still set the people of Zara. Vita Innocent. Inno- cent excommunicated both the crusaders and Venetians . and when the French barons sent a deputation of their number to Kome to express their penitence. liv.. and both houses and defences razed to the ground. FRENCH. who his The fanatic De Mont- alone. p. fort. 297 its the city was pillaged with great cruelty. where. spiritual censures at defiance. rest of the but the French nobles and their troops continued its to winter with the Venetians at Zara.

during the thirteenth cen- tury. his- tory. SECTION" m. which . have been purposely reserved for a brief and . it is now necessary to revert to the state of the Byzantine em- pire. the annals of which. AFFAIRS OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE. jO explain the occasion of a change of purpose in the crusaders. Street in Constantinople.298 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. produced one of the most singular and memorable enterprises in .

the his reign. Even in the interior of Asia Minor. had been compelled to remove the seat of his throne from thence to Iconium. 299 Our retrospect will ascend : to the reign of the first Alexius the crisis of whose in the fortunes was involved and has been described of transactions closely the earliest Crusade. after the loss of that capital. ix. career of Following the on the triumphant Latins through the Lesser Asia. to rock to its founda- had not only assumed an aspect of renovated strength. lib.* * Anna Comnena. Alexius richly gathered the fruits of victories. by policy and arms. the emperor restored to the Byzantine dominion the whole circuit of the sea-coast from Nice to Tarsus. rapid notice in this place. Alexiad. at the outset of all sides was straitened and shaken on and seemed by pressure. . so diligently improved his advantage. as the Turkish forces were successively withdrawn from the shores of the Propontis and ^gean sea to the defence of the interior. but its expanded with offensive force against former assailants.THE EASTERN EMPIRE. or from the Bos^Dhorus to the Syrian gates.-xiv. Greek Empire. which. haustion of the Turkish power in struggle with the crusading invaders. before his decease. hostile tions. that. the Sultan of Nice. Alexius. amid the exits dred miles from Constantinople. above three hunand. for the ulterior objects of their great enter- and. which they were impatient to abandon prise.

the Latin princes of Syria. preferred in the succession to an elder bro- who was ther both by parental and popular favour.] life and govern- During an active reign of thirty- seven years. two Sicilies. the From Greek emperor won equal respect by the powerful assistance which. but also with the ancient foes of his house. In the succeeding reign of his son John. inherited his father's martial spirit with his throne . natural enemies on the Asiatic and European fron- tiers. [1143.300 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. a prince more honourably distinguished both for his pacific virtues and warHke qualities. the ambition of Manuel.] internal concord and happiness were preserved administration asserted. by a mild and vigorous while the dignity of the empire was security increased. Manuel was not the aggressor. in- which kindled anew the quarrel of the first pre- ceding century. him for his pos- Manuel. termed in derision the handsome. he infidels. In the hostilities. [1118. the of the Normans deed. in the interval between the first and second Crusades. rather than the necessity of his position. the reigning Prince of Antioch. the second surviving son of John. but did not civil emulate the worth of his private ment. involved his empire in continual wars. to do homage to sessions. . Reviving the magnificent design of Robert Guiscard . rendered them in repelling the and by the vigour with which he obliged Raymond. not only with the its Turks and Hungarians. or Calo Johannes. and its by twenty-five years of victorious contest with the Turks.

* and the reunion on his brows of the imperial crowns of the With the plea of punishing the Norman invaders of his states. ii. upon pretext of some slight shown seas ships. was landed upon the shores of southern and favoured by the declining health and death of * Johannis Cinnami Historia.. iii. King to his of Sicily. return and revengeful activity soon terminated the triumph of the invaders. Nicetas Cliouiates. iii. lib. THE EASTERN EMPIRE. overpowered the garrisons which they sufficed to had left in Greece . disembarking from their reduced Corfu and other islands. It was de- then that the ambitious hopes of Manuel rose with his success. . and a single campaign clear the empire of its audacious assailants. despatched a great armament into the Ionian and ^gean and the Normans. ad. which embraced the sovereignty of East and West. swept the seas of their galleys his troops. and overran the continent of Greece. for the subjugation of the 301 Byzantine empire. of the Venetians. which he led in person. under the command Italy of Palisologus. Manuel was but his at the time absent from his capital . a leader of noble birth and approved valour. and . ambassadors at Constantinople. (Both in Scriptor Byzanti) . 6. lib. Roger. a Byzantine army. i. c. With his the powerful co-operation navy outnumbered that of the Normans. and the glorious issue of a just and fensive war suggested dreams of aggrandizement. in Manuel Comnen. Italy.

in which that prince acknowledged himself the vassal of the . and to promote his visionary scheme of wresting the sovereignty of the whole Peninsula from the German usurper of the Roman title.. on the one side. felt in the balance of Italian politics the and when the pope and their great Lombard republics had terminated struggle with Barbarossa. were unsparingly employed to extend his influence in Italy. From this epoch. the blandishments. the intrigues. To the the pope he threw out the lure of terminating the schism of the Latin and Greek churches. Frederic Barbarossa. and the gold of Manuel. and by the affection of the people for the ancient community of language and to faith which had bound them Byzantine the the Greek empire. the subsidies tiations of and the negoIn South- Manuel were alike disregarded. the successor of Roger on the Sicilian throne. cities he was prodigal both of money and but the intrinsic weakness of the Greek empire was unequal to the prosecution of his ambitious design . the whole of Apulia and Calabria was rapidly reannexed to the dominion. 302 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. and the papacy and Lombard republics on the other. the Sicilian king. to Lombard promises . in a truce concluded with William the Bad. ern Italy fortune was equally capricious to the Eastern empire . throughout subsequent contests between the Western emperor. the death of his brave lieutenant Paloeologus loss of his transient was followed by the conquests and. its weight was severely .

of the Comnenian was reign The leader or tool of the insurgents raised to the throne. the Bulgarians was *Cinnamus. II. . Avith the reproach of pretended friendship and treacherous hostility to the Latins in the Second Crusade. His infant son and successor. fell The in the popular insurrection in which he Isaac Angelus. Andronicus. To was as his own subjects. perfidious guardian was oppressed by a and daring usurper of his own blood. his private licentious. Manuel. iv. female line.. 303 Byzantine throne. A revolt of Nicetas.] In other quarters the warlike signalized reign of Manuel was the Hungarians and Turks. the dignity and pretensions of Manuel were only saved by Italian soil. his abandonment of the by victories both over [1156.* With Alexius the death of Manuel ended the greatness of the Comnenian race. and his political character was stained. even his more successful wars life were productive of heavy burdens.-vi. himself ter- minated a tyrannical and bloody reign of three years less than by an ignominious and cruel death. though in his last years its splendour was clouded by a severe defeat which he sustained from the infidels in the Pisidian mountains. lib. himself a grandson of the first Alexius.THE EASTERN EMPIRE. who. another was headed by member. after de- posing and murdering his imperial ward. by descent family. we have seen. and under his feeble of ten years. the empire crumbled into ruin. ad fin.

Isaac Angelus. provoked by his tyranny in seizing their flocks and herds to supply the wasteful pomp of his nujDtials and his tame acquiescence in their assertion of inde- pendence severed their country from the Byzantine crown. threatened was frequently. The inglorious and indolent reign of Isaac justly.: 304 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. and perhaps by abortive conspiracies. and established the second race kingdom of Bulgaria under a of their ancient princes. after a possession of nearly two centuries. but his worst and successful enemy was his own ungrateful .

when its the news of the assembly of a great crusading at Venice.. there were not wanting many motives both of passion and policy. in Adron.THE EASTERN EMPIRE. &c. object by adequate arms offers. to defer the ultimate season. who had married his sister : but it at Zara. inspired his youthful hopes that armament leaders might be induced. ad lib. 20^ .* To induce the Venetians to accept the overtures of the young Greek prince. that the friends of Alexius were permitted more successfully to negotiate a treaty with the Latin barons and Venetian republic. in Isaac Angel. brother Alexius. and seating himself on his The son of the deposed prince. in Alex. The entreaties of the young prince for their aid were supported at Venice by am- bassadors from his protector. was spared by the pity or contempt of and he had subsequently contrived to escape into Italy. which was eventually to deliver the imperial inheritance of his house into the detested hands of foreign and bar- barous spoilers. him to a dungeon. of their enterprise for a to the re- and to direct their powerful storation of his father. his uncle . con- signing throne. The * Nicetas. a named boy only twelve years of age. who was also Alexius. depriving him of his eyes. dur- ing the inaction of winter. the Duke was of Swabia. Comnen. iii. Angel. ish 305 whom he had redeemed from a Turksur- prison. and who repaid the obligation by prising his security.

306 alliance THE FOURTH CRUSADE. Filio. ii. into deadly enmity . in Isaac. in revenge for a general confiscation of the property of the Venetians in his ports. in Man. had peatedly exposed the Venetian merchants in capital to spoliation re- that of the and massacre. had appeased the haughty republic. to which Manuel was provoked by their inso- lence. 11 . had been converted. indeed. lib. between their state and the Emperor Manuel his Comnenus in the last age. 10. by a final sub- mission to their demands. Alex. vi."^ The arms republic. c. By assisting young Alexius. lib. 5. c. in Mamcel. Nicetas. and though the emperor. the hatred of the people of Constantinople. The the politic Dandolo was slow to anticipate to benefits which would accrue alliance. advantages not their republic would therefore both revenge her wrongs and regain her in commercial the East. or the dread of her vengeance. c. by protection of Ancona. their fleets had ravaged the Byzantine islands and coasts. but repeated broils cherished mutual national pathy. c. generally. and anti- when the Pisans availed themselves of the temper of the Greeks to supplant the Venetians in their commercial relations with the empire. the commercial rival of the republic. lib. 10. ii. obtained indemnification for these outrages. his country from all his such an and he eagerly employed influence * Cinnamus. the exits asperation of the latter people had reached height. . during the license of subsequent revolutions.

for he engaged not only pay two hundred thousand as marks among the crusaders soon as his parent should be re-established on the throne. in the subsequent expedition against . head of the Byzantine forces. and to * Nicetas. imperial exile. in Alex. by the advantages likely to arise from the command of the Byzantine resources. 307 with the confederate barons to engage them in the design * For its adoption even as a means of advancing the ultimate object of the Crusade. As the possession of Egypt was supposed crusaders to form the principal support of the Turkish arms in Palestine. to send ten thousand men at his charge for one year. expressly accuses the Doge and Venetians as the instigators of the French crusaders. but also to put an end to the schism of the Greek and Latin churches by submitting his empire to the spiritual dominion of the Roman See. or in default of his own presence. lib. that any loss of time in deferring the projected invasion of Egypt would be richly repaid to the profit of the Crusade. offered as which young Alexius father's the price of his of the restoration. Egypt. some plausible argu- ments might be adduced. . were of the most tempting nature. But it was now contended by the Venetians.THE EASTERN EMPIRE. the original design of the had been to attack the infidels at that source of their power. indeed. The to proposals. 9. iii. and either to combine at the personally with the crusaders. c.

by a solemn embassy to Rome. Danduli. hoping thus the of keeping the reigning tyrant throne. hundred knights during his life for the to defence of Palestine/'' These promised benefits the cause of the church and the Crusade might at first have a powerful influence in winning assent even among the more devout leaders of the war. and requested the presence of a legate from Rome. and since the diversion of their arms against Zara had familiarized the minds of the crusading host it to the postponement of their vows. offered to place the religious affairs of his empire under the government of the Latin papacy. III. The influence of such feelings is detected in their second and more deliberate contempt of the prohibition. 3. therefore. lib. which Innocent design. to secure submission of the Greek Church.308 maintain five THE FOURTH CRUSADE. x. No. as the price on the Byzantine his promised him protection against ene- mies. Chron. . xlvi. c. proceeded positively to * Villehardouin. may be suspected that the successful siege and sack of that city had but awakened their appetite for a more splendid achieve- ment and a richer booty. and the ambitious Innocent. but it must be doubted whether the motives of their subsequent conduct were equally pure and disinterested. now fulminated against their The Byzantine usurper. anticipating the proposal of young Alexius. The pontiff". had.

interdict 309 cause the crusaders exile. while not a few disguised. of the Venetian Doge. which it was the province of the Holy See alone to provide. and sailed direct for and their example other was followed by a number including of barons and many most renowned for their crusaders. by the Venetians. indeed. submission to the papal authority was identified with every pious sentiment of the not to conclude that. their secret dread to engage in an enterprise so proportioned to the federates. despite of the impending thunders of the Vatican. who conscientiously devout and warlike dreaded to incur their the papal censures. and chiefly through the personal persuasions. it is impossible minds of the remaining leaders and soldiery. for the redress of wrongs of among for or the suppression schism. that the cardinal legates. were . to whom he had despatched Zara to enforce them. the commands of the pope were immediately treated with such open disregard. the proposals of young Alexius. by turning arms against the Eastern Empire. hopelessly quitted the place Palestine. in the the age. spirit. But. from espousing the of the imperial or arrogating to themselves any authority Christians. as it is said. j)erilous and the dis- assembled force of con- Since. temptations of glorious or gainful adventure had triumphed over religious considerations.THE EASTERN EMPIRE. under the same pretext.

the Counts of Flanders.* * Yilleliardouin.. Ixvii &c. Ejusdem Epistolse. p. lii. xlv. and the majority of their followers. No. and St. with eight other great French barons. 533. Paul. xlvii.io THE FOURTH CRUSADE. No. finally accepted by the marquis of Montferrat. Blois. . Vita Innocent III.

called flat-bottomed . Doge of Venice.EXPEDITION AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. 311 Dandolo. kind the most comjDlete and formidable which the world had yet witnessed. HOWEVER £ apparently inadequate for / the conquest of an ancient empire. the armament wherewith Venice the Doge of was of and the confederate barons now its sailed for Constantinople. EXPEDITION AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. SECTIOiT in. one hundred and twenty horse-transports. fifty The fleet was composed of palanders or great galleys of war.

of which the numbers might be loosely estimated at twenty thousand more. clii.f Although the Byzantine of the destination and usurper was early apprized force of this hostile effort armament. and ten thousand foot : besides the Venetian sea and land forces. or door in the side of the vessel.^ THE FOURTH CRUSADE. he made not a single to oppose its course. and they finally approached the port of Constanti- * The origin of the former term transport has been lost . Ital. which was let down horses. Rer. and seventy store-ships laden with provisions. Vite de Duclii de Venezia. six thousand cavalry. and to replenish their provisions on the coasts and islands of Greece.) estimates the total combined army of French and Venetians at only twenty thousand men. the latter is for such a description of naval derived from the huis. 528. xiv.) p. under the con- so magnificent an idea of the wealth great republic —there were federate barons of the Crusade. two hundred and forty vessels filled with troops and warlike engines. five On board this navy of nearly hundred sail —of which the enumeration conveys and power of the embarked. during a tardy navigation. xxii. as a drawbridge for the purpose of shipping hardouin. or mounted attendants. . But after the first siege of Constantinople.312 huissiers. the crusaders w^ere perre- mitted successively. on Ville- f According tion to Sanuto. No. the land forces of the republic in the expedififty were four hundred and cavalry and eight thousand foot. (in Script. to fresh themselves and their horses. composed of two thousand knights with their esquires and sergeants. and landing the Du Cange. vol. Villehardouin (No.

33. De Bello Constanti- p. might have its and even on passage. rigging. Ivi. the masts. beheld in cowering apathy the approach of a detested the younger Alexius. for his private profit. whom the charge of the imperial forests was in- trusted for the purpose of the chase. lib. or his adherents. c. No. nopoliiano. to destroy. it is said. and without favouring the cause of indifferent to the danger shame.EXPEDITION AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. . had been * Villehardouin. 9. Nicetas. the whole nation in- deed was alike insensible : for the unwarlike and dethe despotism of generate Greeks. &c. To this and every other object of patriotism. iii. i. numbered sixteen hundred sufficed to harass.* If that usurper himself. 313 nople itself without having encountered an enemy. that he might sell. stores: an armament. the people both of the capital and provinces were equally of the tyrant who filled their throne. broken up the hulls of the shipping. and iron work . brother-in- law of the usurper. lib. (in Alexio). which. had. so encumbered with horses and but the Greek admiral. The Byzantine navy. The shores of the Propontis for the con- might have furnished abundant timber struction of a to new navy : but the eunuchs of the palace. as a race in centuries whom had extinguished every spark of generous enemy. Michael Struphnos. had but lately vessels of war. Ivii. would not suffer a tree to be felled for the public defence. Rliamnusius. and the port of Constantinople now contained only twenty galleys. in the baseness of his avarice.

burst in all her magnitude and splendour gaze.) douin. capable of exerting even the passive courage of a defence. and each warrior. was not the less mingled a magnanimous spirit which rose with the danger. and the gorgeous city. for never was so great an enterprise undertaken. is the simple and emphatic confession of the noble companion and chronicler of the adventure. whom the able-bodied inhabitants outnumbered at the lowest estimate as ten to one. When the Venetian navy arrived before the walls of Constantinople. there upon their astonished was no heart so stout. which the admiration of the crusaders deemed well worthy of being the mistress and queen of the world. the fleet was there brought to ^ Et sachiez que ilne merveil. that no one was so bold that his heart did not tremble and no wonder. I past the walls of the majestic capital toward the opposite shore.* But with the awe which the bravest might not feel ashamed to confess. Ixvi. ramparts and gigantic towers for never surely had so great an enterprise been essayed. and would suffice to insure the event.314 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. No. but recoiled with dread at the spectacle of her massive . of glorious achievement. the natural strength and resources of the capital might have defied the efforts of assailants. affaire ne et ce grande fat enterpris — mefut (and know . As a strong wind swept the armament anchor. reflected with unshaken resolution that the hour was at hand in which these must serve the need. Villehar- . car oneques si ot si hardicuite cceur ne fremist. looking upon his arms.

the Venetian galleys took them in tow. the modern Scutari. 315 and the chivalry disembarking. that they had entered the empire boldly admonished in the cause of Heaven to avenge the wrongs which he had committed. and the Lord of Montmorency. three of French crusaders led respectively by the Counts of Blois and St. in which the Byzantine usurper offered to expedite their march through Asia Minor menaced them with de- against the infidels. Paul. two composed of Flemish knights with their attendant archers under Count Baldwin and his brother.-lxxxi. but struction if their purpose was hostile to his state. they prepared to cross the Bosphorus to the European shore. Iviii. and the sixth or reserve of Italians and Germans under the marquis of Montferrat. in this order. This interval of inaction was marked by some negotiations. . —the whole body of the chivalry being divided into six corps or battles. while the Doge and barons sternly replied. No. took possession of the Asiatic suburb of Chrysopolis.EXPEDITION AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. and him that if he hoped for mercy he must descend from the throne which he had unjustly seized. The knights and ser- geants embarked in the palanders. across and. in an imperial palace and during nine days reposed and gardens. with their horses ready saddled and caparisoned.* After this declaration. they stood the strait toward the European suburb of * Villehardouin.

lance in hand. of the port. (in Alexio. and the horses being brought on shore. and the whole Venetian fleet entering the port of Constantinople in triumph. the chain which from thence secured the mouth of the harbour was broken . after a faint sally On the following morning. and captured the imperial camp without striking a blow. the remains of the imperial navy either fell into their hands. 10. The perils and * Villehardouin. which the beach in : far superior force to oppose their landing but when the knights. they determined to com- mence a regular siege. No. the enemy immediately flying fled . the tered the town of Galata with the fugitives. assailants en- by the Greeks. the gigantic city itself works. the cavaliers mounted. c. commands the entrance The Greek cavalry were drawn out on Galata.') lib. pursued the squadrons.316 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. Nicetas. leaped from the vessels. Ixxxii. their Though more than numbers were insufficient to observe a single front of the walls. as soon as the water reached only to their girdle. iii. might of the crusaders: bid defiance to the efforts but their courage and confidence were unbounded. or were driven on shore and burned. and this magnanimous reso- lution presents the singular and amazing example of the investment of the largest and strongest capital in the world by a few thousand men. . by which the was completely still en- and separated from the suburbs.* Though the closed port was thus captured.

and meat was obtained by the slaughter Delay was therefore far of their own horses. clouds of Greek cavalry confined their few foragers to the camp. the French and Venetians assault : agreed to a simultaneous the former from their approaches against the land faces. and bridges let by drawfrom the down upon their battlements masts of the loftier vessels. and by incredible labour the ditch had been attempt some impression made upon the defences. the confederates had a supply but their only fresh for three weeks left. the latter from their galleys upon the fronts which overlooked the port. Standing upon the raised deck of his vessel. and his example. and line of galleys such was the ardour excited by his presence. and the preparatory operations of the siege were urged with superhuman exertions. or great banner of St. it was prose- Of flour and salt provisions. that the was boldly rowed to the beach under the walls. by ladders from the foot of the ramparts. filled When up. and the banner of the republic was planted . bour determined the point of attack and against the walls on that side two hundred and fifty great projectile and battering engines were planted. the venerable Doge himself led the naval attack. his voice. with the gonfalon. the defences were sur- mounted . 317 the hardihood of this extraordinary enterprise were enhanced by the privations under which cuted. floating over his head.EXPEDITION AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. The possession of the har. Mark. more to be dreaded than the resistance of the enemy .

pouring from the gates. indeed. disgracefully retired within the shelter of The confederates passed the succeeding : night in eager rather than anxious suspense * but such filled is On the subject of the Anglo-Saxon emigrations which the ranks of the Varangian guards of the Byzantine throne. on one of the twenty-five towers which were carried by the been assailants. closer or prolonged encounter. that impatience of the Norman tyranny more honourable had. drew off his triumphant forces to the succour of his fainting allies. ever since the epoch of the Conquest. ever the firmest support of the Byzantine throne. prove that these Varangians came from : No. (Notes on Villehardouin. and is in agreement with the fact. threatened to surround and overwhelm the scanty array of the exhausted crusaders. some Du to Cange. every gallant effort of French chivalry fect breaches to scale the walls through the imper- had been repulsed by the assistance of and the valour of the Varangian.318 THE FOURTH CRUSADE.* and the numerous cavalry of the Greeks. there difference of opinion. Ixxxix.. . Anglois et Danois. and which was thus reduced to ashes. ing their danger. &c. driven multitudes of the bolder spirits among the oppressed English to seek a existence in foreign countries. without daring a their walls. and the pusillani- mous Greeks. after setting fire The Doge learn- to the quarter of the city which he had entered. not probable that a his statement French knight could have confounded their race . But meanwhile the attack on the land less side had the successful.) labours the northern continent of Europe only but the words of VilleharIt is douin are explicit. some Pisan colonists or Anglo-Saxon and Danish guards.

the trembling nobles of the palace drew his blind and captive brother Isaac from the dungeon to the throne. 534. 91. when morning dawned. Isaac heard with consterna- tion the extent of the conditions which he was re- quired to ratify: the payment of two hundred thou- sand marks of forces in silver. services While he admitted that to were entitled the highest recompense which was his to bestow. to wait upon the emperor with their less and with a welcome demand which his son for the fulfilment of the engagements had contheir tracted in his name. But the immediate subscription of the Danduli. and the sub- the service mission of the Greek Church to the spiritual authority of the pope.EXPEDITION AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. 322 c. (in Alexio).'" The first proceeding of the confederates. lib. the employment of the imperial of the Crusade. p. under cover of the darkness. 533. he basely fled capital with a part of the imperial treasures. announcing the revolution. On the discovery of his absence. 321. Nicetas. the leaders of the crusaders were astonished by an embassy from the restored emperor. desiring the presence of his son. Vitas Innocent. No. . that. Chron. Ixxxii. was to depute two barons and / two Venetians felicitations. was the terror with 319 which the usurper Alexius was from his seized at the balanced success of the conflict. p. iii. * Villehardouin.-xcix. and inviting them also to receive his grateful acknow- ledgments. and. III. on the re- ( ceipt of this message. ad Jin.

the veneration of the Greeks for the peculiar forms and doctrines of their faith —the only symptoms of virtuous feeling it is which. above all. On the return of the envoys to the camp. To satisfy the rapacious demands of their deliverers. the emperors. Sophia. were compelled to make grievous exactions from their subjects : many the warlike Franks cared not to conceal their insolent disdain for : a pusillanimous people and. in the low state of the Byzantine treasury. seemed lacious promise of concord between announce a This fal- peaceful conclusion to the recent struggle. respect throughout the long annals share of our may command some —was outraged by the undisguised design of subjugating their church to the papal yoke. young Alexius Avas permitted to into the city. attended make his triumphant entry chiefs. discernible as of their degradation. and. two nations so mutually obnoxious as the Latins and Greeks. the Patriarch of Constantinople was compelled. by the Latin and the his son. at the dictation of the crusaders. From the very altar of the Cathedral of St. was of short duration. to proclaim the spiritual supremacy of the Koman Pontiff. obtained. to these onerous terms was peremptorily upon. however reluctantly. joint coronation of the aged emperor and to which was joyfully celebrated.320 emperor insisted THE FOURTH CRUSADE. were required trines and the people to subject their consciences to the doc- and discipline of a church which they had ever been taught to regard with horror as schismatic and .

or to subjects. xcix. in the eyes of insolent barbarians. to * Nicetas. EXPEDITION" AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. he diadem to be snatched in sportive or con- temptuous familiarity from his head. 21 c. the young emperor. and he endeavoured. 1-3. command the respect. shocked the superior refine- ment or ceremonial pride of the Greeks. and of his own dignity. and exchanged for the coarse woollen cap of some low reveller. by the promise of further rewards. their political and re- ligious antipathy was extended to the young emperor. was not unjustly provoked against the unfeeling thoughtless boy. continued to visit the quarters. which marked the social intercourse of the "Western Nations.* Through all these causes. sully the lustre and dishonour the majesty of his imperial crown. as well as the aversion of his subjects. Villeliardouin. as the ally and creature of the detested foreigners to and the conduct of Alexius himself did not tend win the offended favour. regardless alike of the difference in national manners. Alexius soon found that he had become so odious to his countrymen as to render the continued presence of his Latin dispensable to the allies in- security of his throne. 321 By these measures.-ci. et Alexin Angelas. in Isaaciim No. and the contempt. or who could thus basely. and to share in the debaucheries and gaming of the Franks.. suffered the In one of these carousals. . of his orgies While the boisterous and rude freedoms. heretical.

that he extended absolution to them. and so rejoiced to recognise the slightest symptoms of penitence their in those stubborn republicans.-ciii. and had deprecated the anger of the pope at their repeated disobedience by entreaties for pardon. induce them to postpone their departure. . p. Doge and his noble allies But. He found them little loth to accede to On the first restoration of Isaac. until the following spring. to solicit a reconciliation the Holy See and Innocent was so well the prospect of bringing the Greek Church under his dominion. as well as to more submissive baronial confederates. The Venetians with with satisfied also had condescended . in this dis- truth. and Alexius seems to have experienced little difficulty in purchasing their continued services until the spring. No. III. ci. indeed. 534:. and by assurances that thenceforth their arms should be devoted exclusively to the sacred service of Palestine.* VUa Innocc7it. as soon as he had quieted their con- sciences by repeating the condition. and the prosecution of their crusading vows.322 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. the Latin barons had given some signs of pursuing the original purpose of their confederacy. had sent a defiance to the Sultan of Egypt. his terms. both the were by time almost equally ready to disregard the papal pleasure and the objects of the Crusade for their personal profit. Villehardouin. that he would then accompany them to Egypt with the recruited forces of his empire.

during the conflict. during a attacked a commercial colony of Mussulmans.EXPEDITION AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. The infidels. defended themselves bravely: the Greek inhabitants assisted them. OZO To occupy the interval. for the pre- vention of feuds. guished. Flemings and Venetians. During eight days. a third part of the magnificent city was re- duced to ashes. the Marquis of Montferrat. it should rather have been their care to pre- vent. a separate quarter had been assigned to the strangers in the suburb of Galata or Pera. from whence the flames spread with such before they could be extin- frightful rapidity. that. The Latin chiefs expressed their vain sorrow for a calamity which. the conflagration raged over above a league in extent from the port to the Propontis: immense quantities of merchandise destroyed. though surprised. as produced by the unbridled license of their followers. but the suflering and exasperated Greeks were . Though. and other valuable property were and thousands of families were reduced to beggary. the latter set fire to a building. during this absence. the hatred of the people of the capital was fatally aggravated by the misconduct of the Latins. some visit to the city. which had long enjoyed the protection of the Byzantine emperors. while some Latin residents aided the aggressors . and enforce the recognition of his disputed authority over the imperial territories. and. with a hody of the confederate chivalry. but. successfully conducted the young prince in an expedition through the Thracian pro- vinces.

when the young emperor returned to his he found the rupture incurable. by the Latin which without consideration for the difficulties oppressed his government. capital. as some of the was Italian settlers in the capital had insti- gated or shared the outrage. as any excuse for delay in the collection and payment of their promised reward. abhorred as the tool of their oppressors chiefs. and. and to the number of fifteen thousand persons. position that he was scarcely permitted to choose between the party of his subjects and that of his allies. cvii. Villeliardouin.324 little THE FOURTH CRUSADE.''' From this epoch.-cvii. in the name of * Nicetas in Isaac. the whole body were compelled to abandon their dwellings. he was more than ever . the confederate leaders suddenly adopted the most violent counsels . Not deigning to admit the public distresses which the late conflagration had grievously aggravated. . the national animosity of the Greeks and Latins mutually increased to a deadly height. By the Greeks. et Alex. the vengeance of the ferers suf- specially directed against the ingratitude of these foreigners who had long been naturalized among them . and his own such. disposed to credit their sincerity. No. p 272-274. his hesitation in fulfilling the pecuniary conditions of the alliance was resented with suspicion and menaces. and an embassy was sent. and to consult their safety by flight to the suburban quarters of the crusaders. Moreover.

Alexius Angelus Ducas. to defy the two emperors in their fearlessly delivering their own palace. surnamed Mourzoufle. whom they matized as the secret friends of the invaders.-cxii. a prince allied by blood to the imperial house.EXPEDITION AGAINST CONSTANTINOPLE. the weakness or reluctance of his seditious personal valour and energy were invidiously contrasted with sovereign. a bus. the ento voys mounted their horses. to which the two emperors were the only reluctant parties. and returned the quarters of the confederates. 325 the Doge of Venice. cix. and of the barons of the army. and in the his war of skirmishes which now ensued. from his shaggy eyebrows. After haughty message. uhi svprd. that the only man among the Greeks who had courage and his country. had been the chief in- strument in urging the vacillating young emperor to resist the haughty demands of the Latins. ability to undertake the defence of was placed in the odious light of a traitor and an usurper. had induced them the purple. as they were also the first victims. after the and prudence of several members of the nobility to decline the proffered dignity of patrician. The stig- populace of Constantinople demanded the deposition of Isaac and his son. Nicetas. .* Such was the unhappy condition of the nation and the times. No. and hostilities. young named Nicholas CanaByzan- was tempted by his vanity to accept the * Yilleliardouin. immediately com- menced on both sides.

4. Nicetas.] From the hour in which Ducas assumed empire. and his son were persuaded to seek and were betrayed into a dungeon. THE FOURTH CRUSADE. [a. its ruin might yet have been averted by the spirit of their leader. two attempts. by the murder of his remaining prisoner Alexius. a new impulse was given to counsels : the insignia of the Byzantine the walls of the capital were guarded with active discipline. since Isaac was already dead.* * Villehardouin. and the more deserving patriot or successful conspirator was unanimously called to the throne. if it had been possible to nerve the hearts of the Greeks in the national cause. But the valour of Ducas had meanwhile the gained the suffrages of the Varangian guards. Ducas was deserted by it the cowardice of his new subjects.-cxis. d. No. c. ct Vita Innocent. cxiii. he attempted to remove that obstacle to an accommodation. III.326 tine crown. 1. were made to burn the Latin fleet. Alex. grief in which the former soon expired with and terror. in Isaac. imperial pu^Dpet of the hour was displaced without resistance. and insisted when they on the restoration of the deposed emperor. . 535 c. p. 1204. many sallies were at least boldly intre- directed. Isaac safety in flight. frustrated only by the and pidity and skill of the Venetian sailors. But in every encounter before the walls and in the adjacent country. he found neces- sary to negotiate with the invaders. in Mourzujlum. 5. 534.

SECTION IV. sHEN the intelligence of this event reached the camp of the crusaders. 327 Theodore Lascaris. SECOND SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. were forgotten . the causes of resentment which had separated them from the young ally in and com- companion of their voyage.SECOND SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

the Doge and confedeby rate barons proceeded to sign a treaty of partition which. were fifty willing to have granted peace to the usurper for but mutual distrust broke off thousand pounds of gold the neffotiation.: 328 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. Conceiving themselves tions of forbearance now released from all obliga- toward a race so inhuman and treacherous as the Greeks. the crusading still by the advice of the Doge of Venice. and one of the confederate barons raised but with only a fourth of support of his title . . its present territories for the and that. that the existence of the empire should be preserved. the pecuniary claims of Venice for the expenses of the armament. and un- daunted by the disparity of their force to the perilous magnitude of the enterprise. of the remaining three- * Yet if Nicetas (p. after liquidating. in the hardy confidence of valour. miseration and horror at his untimely and cruel They passionately swore to revenge his death upon a perfidious usurper and nation . to its throne. while inflamed the ambition of these formidable assailants. out of the booty to be captured. who do not notice such a transaction.''' and the crime of it Ducas served only to exasperate the enmity. they anticipated the sult of their astonishing achievements. and easily adopting the convenient doctrine that it was a religious duty to punish their murder of a prince by the conquest and dismemberment of his empire. the remainder should be equally shared between the troops of the crusaders and the republic. fate. 280) may be credited. in preference to the Latin authorities barons. re- It was agreed that.

turn of spring. proceeded to put it To prevent a repetition of the failure in the last attack upon the walls from the separation of their forces. against which the Venetians had before successfully exerted their efforts. project. 326. and assaulted the same line of defences. the confederates having completed the arrangement of their daring into execution. Danduli. . 526. III. p. though the depth of water permitted the vessels to approach near enough to the walls for the combatants on the ramparts and on the drawbridges and ropeladders. in Vita Innocent. the insecure frail footing of the assailants on these and floating machines. with the re- The winter had been consumed flicts or in necessary preparation. In this order the whole armament crossed the harbour. which were let down from hand to the upper works of the galleys. to correspond with the former arrangement of the chivalry into as many battles. Chronicon. one body of knights embarked in the palanders of each squadron with their horses and followers. to fight hand. one 329 full moiety should be surrendered in sovereignty to Venice.) p. and the imperial fiefs other divided into among the nobles of the Crusade. fourths. SECOND SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. it was determined that the being distributed assault of the capital should be attempted from the port alone and the Venetian fleet into six divisions. and the firm vantage-ground and superior * Epistola Balduini.'-' in desultory conbut. But.. (/« notis.

four towers. the panic-stricken shouts as an fled from their posts. with a long line of rampart. In the .. the knights led their horses on shore from the palanders. all at once drove the double galleys with propitious violence against the walls. suddenly springing up from the north. this failure. besieged. the assault was again given with resistless From line sunrise to noon. and three days having been spent vigour and happier fortune. were escaladed and carried . mounted. 330 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. the slow advance of the heavy of vessels was retarded by volleys of missiles which were showered from the walls. and the issue of still the conflict hung in dangerous suspense : when a strong breeze. were rendered the combat so unequal. were repeated with loud of divine aid. and swept through the streets of Constantinople in battle array.] the recent success of the Greeks had animated their spirit into a courageous resistance. which Greeks first touched the walls. after astonishing feats of finally repulsed at every point. and three gates being burst open. numbers of the valour. In- structed but not intimidated by the Venetians now undertook to supply their allies with the means of approaching the walls in steadier array the large vessels were strongly lashed together in pairs. The names of the two linked vessels —the omen Pilgrim and Paradise —having on board the martial Bishops of Soissons and Troyes. that the former. [April 12. to increase their stability and impulsive force. in preparation and refreshment.

indeed. nor the violence with which the licentious passions of a ferocious soldiery menaced their own lives to and the honour of their effort. mazes of a vast capital. But these precautions were needless against an enemy whom neither patriotism nor despair. and setting fire to the produced a new conflagration. from the brave with his family. in the people. women. could rouse one generous or manly it The Emperor Ducas. of After his the efforts two other illustrious Greeks. their feeble numbers might have hands of a brave and overpowered. a suppliant train bearing crosses and images sought the quarters. his craven subjects finding impossible to animate spirit. every house might have been defended. neither the ruin of their country and fortunes.SECOND SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. passed the night under arms streets in their front. Theodore Ducas and Theodore Lascaris —the latter of whom was destined subsequently the fortunes of his to re-establish and sustain the time country —proved for equally ineffectual. . to any three towns in France. which in a few hours consumed another portion of the city equal in extent. to implore the mercy . that they immediately to fortify the first began quarters which they had seized. So conscious were the victors of their danger. their cavalry 331 might have been been lost useless. according to the confession of their chronicler. and retired flight. with any portion of his own abandoned them city to their fate. every church and palace and massive building converted into an impregnable fortress.

-cxxx.m 2. Epistola BaMuini c. 536. . nocent. they were deaf to the abject prayers of the Greeks. the Latin chiefs. in Murzuflv. found them- selves masters of the Eastern empire. of the crusaders for the fallen capital. brutal Yet even the surpassed in and licentious soldiery v/ere * Villeharclouin. and when anticistill morning dawned. Xo. Desecration of the Churches. dur- ing which the miserable inhabitants witnessed and endured every extremity of horror. III.332 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. stantinople Con- was abandoned to a general pillage. cxx. who had pated that the reduction of the whole city would cost them at least the labour of a month. in Vita In- Nicetas. 535. p.* But while they gladly accepted the submission.

"-' modern a painted strumpet in a Christian The worst vices were freely perpetrated by the rabble of the camp and Latin suburbs. SECOND SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. and many more the most successfully secreted their spoils.. the value of the share which fell to the French crusaders five is esti- mated. all individuals were commanded to bring their . and by the followers of a cru- sading army was w^as strangely enacted at Constantinople the same capital impious scene. and chiefly by whose revengeful malice two thousand of the unresisting Insult Greeks were wantonly murdered in cold blood. cruelty 333 re- by the Latin residents who had been cently expelled from the city. while drunken revellers in ribaldrous songs and dances mocked the chants and ceremonies of the Greek worship. booty to appointed stations for a public division and though some incurred the penalty of disobedience. After satisfying the claims of the Venetians. by their chronicler.ce and person of the patriarch. but attempts were made of the victors. on pain of excommunication and to control the privilege of rapine for the general benefit death. p. the quantities of treasure which were sanguine collected exceeded greedy or expectation. which to exhibit to another European times. at four or hundred thousand marks. 303. besides ten thousand horses. and * This " Goddess of Keason" of on the throne to represent the tlie thirteenth century was seated oflB. Nicetas. and sacrilege were added to rapine and debauchery the churches and national worship of the Greeks were defiled and profaned. . of enthroning cathedral.

But every scholar and loss of lover of the arts must deplore the irreparable the those relics of the literature and sculpture of classical antiquity. Nicetas. which have not been preserved abandoned to the flames to our times. however enormous. another eye-witness declares that. nople. still in fall of Constanti- Her containing many precious remains of the best ages of Greece and Rome. of empire to enrich his new In the furious violence of conquest. the poorest of the host were rendered wealthy . with marble were mutilated or thrown down from their pedestals: insensible and sordid avarice. to afford a base coin for the payment of the This barbarous abuse * Villehardouin.'"^ But the gain of the adventurers. . p. III. soldiery. 536-538. by the division of the booty. Vita Innocent. It would be vain to estimate the wealth of ages which had been consumed in three conflagrations. were now indifference by the ignorant of the barbarian conquerors . or in mere wanton love of destruction. No.334 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. which perished libraries.-cxxxv. but their malevolence or cupidity was more actively exercised in the destruction of those beauteous tino monuments seiit of which Constan- had robbed the ancient capital. or spoiled in the wantonness of a sack. in Murzujlum. ad Jin. cxxx. bore a small proportion to the destruction and waste of property by which their victory was attended. the statues of but those of bronze were melted.

Tower of St. Mark still glow his steeds of brass. . con- verted a portion of their spoil into a national trophy and removed to St. Mark's Place in their capital those four celebrated horses* of bronze which. Their gilded collars glittering in the sun But is not Doria's menace come Are they not bridled ? to pass ? .. Venice. SECOND SIEGE OF CON ST ANTIXOTLE. more refined Vene- with better taste. if not with less injustice. of the right of conquest was probably the work of the for the rude barons of France: tians. at the distance * Before St. Mark's.

336 THE FOURTH CRUSADE. French and Venetian. invested with the purple. by his brother barons to the and knights. and the as this anticipated repugnance of the French barons to obey an Italian sovereign. perhaps. still of six centuries. and this council now balanced the claims of the Marquis of Montferrat. rial present the most striking memo- of the glory and ruin of the once mighty re- public. determined. by his descent from Charlemagne. of For the of their preliminary business nominating one number to fill the spoliated throne of the Csesars. The final choice of the council fell upon the Count of Flanders. His rival. and of the Count of Flanders: for though the superior merits of the Doge to either were generously suggested by the French electors. borne on their shoulders of St. and . and exhibited Greeks as their new emperor. hitherto the chosen leader of the Crusade. were appointed under one of the provisions of the existing treaty . six persons of each nation. After the division of their booty. wdth the patriotic jealousy of republican freedom. Baldwin was raised upon a buckler. to the church Sophia. accordto the Byzantine custom. his own countrymen. his alliance by blood to the King of France. declared the imperial dignity incompatible with the office of the first magistrate of their com- monwealth. As soon i))g decision of the electors was an- nounced. the leaders of the confederate host assembled to consummate the more imj)ortant work of partitioning an empire.

SECOND SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. Besides that proj^ortion of the capi- Venice thus obtained the sovereignty of Crete. by lot or precedence of rank. of most of the islands in the Ionian and ^Egean . now soled his vassal. proper Greece. with the regal and the remain- ing barons shared. the Marquis of Montferrat. 537 Ceremony of raking aii elected King on a BucJcler. the various provinces of the empire in Europe and Asia. after the stipulated appropriation of three-eighths of the whole to the Ve- netian republic. which remained at their choice. was con- by the possession of Macedonia and great part of title. tal itself.

No. wanted courage or concert to By degrees. while the all impolitic contempt by which the Greeks of ranks found themselves ex- cluded from employments and honours in the Latin court. each attended by no more than a few score of lances. 3. tition. to the new tine sovereign of Constantinople had been reserved in immediate sovereignty only one-fourth of the Byzandominions. which they break. x. over the vast provinces of the empire. and of a long chain of maritime ports on the continent from the capes of the Adriatic to the Bosphorus. c. dis- covered the total insufficiency of their divided strength to secure the work of conquest. and by enemies who wholly denied the legality of his reign. therefore. increased their still impatience to escape from a yoke. While the republic. THE FOURTH CRUSADE. les lib. which they had so daringly achieved. . Hist. de Constantinople sous Empereurs Frangais. and on all sides the narrow and inadequate limits of his throne were surrounded by who only nominally acknowledged. in virtue of this par- arrogated to her venerable Doge and his suc- cessors the proud and accurate title of lords of one- fourth and one-eighth of the empire of Romania.66b seas. Danduli Chron. lib. betrayed to the subjugated nation the weakness of their conquerors.* The eagerness of the Latin adventurers to occupy vassals. The dispersion of the French barons. cxxxvi. Du Cange.-cxi. from the capital and * Villehardouin. 1. their several allotments of the territorial spoil.

less and horrid condition. Ducas effected. as he In this sightto was endeavouring escape across the Hellespont into Asia. and between them an apparent reconciliation was short reign. 393. caused him to be deprived of his eyes and thrust from the camp. than that tyrant. During his had endeavoured imperial of Alexius to strengthen his pretensions to the dignity by seizing the . hand of a daughter and being now driven out of Adrianople on the advance of the Latins. for a moment was after the still of Constantinople. the imperial title arro- gated by the two fugitive usurpers. own lofty worst crime. No.SECOND SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. the noblest born and the bravest of the Greeks with- drew into less accessible quarters of the dismembered empire to range themselves under the standards of native leaders. even more perfidious than impotent. the murder of young Alexius and con- demned summit and headlong. But he had no sooner placed himself in the power of Alexius. he obtained. its 339 neighbouring provinces on the European shores. fall In Europe. clxi. in Balduin. Mourzoufie was arrested by the Latins.-clxv. brought to be cast. alive to trial for his . the elder Alexius Angelus and Ducas Mourzoufie. * Villebardouin.* of this dreadful sentence on The execution him was soon followed by Nicetas. p. from the of the Theodosian pillar at Constantinople upon the marble pavement beneath. through the tender of allegiance to his father-in-law. a promise of such protection as his camp could afford. .

340

THE FOURTH CRUSADE.

the captivity of his betrayer Alexius,
prised

who was

sur-

by Boniface of Montferrat, and transported

to

an Italian dungeon.
ers,

By

the fate of these two usurp-

the principal support of the national cause of the

Greeks devolved upon a young hero,

who might mainand in

tain, in right of his wife, the hereditary claims, while

he spurned the base qualities of the Angeli

;

whom

the valour of Ducas was unsullied by the guilt

of treason and murder.

This was Theodore Lascaris,
daughter of Alexius Angelus;
to his country

who had

also married a

and whose gallant devotion

had already

been signalized in the two sieges of Constantinople.
Retiring, after the fall of the capital, across the Bos-

phorus into the recesses of Bithynia, and being joined

by the most generous and congenial

spirits of his

nation, he there organized a resistance against the

Latin adventurers, which not only prevented them

from ever

gaining a secure

establishment in the

Asiatic provinces of the empire, but prepared their

expulsion from their European conquests.
fate both of the Latin

But th6
for

and Greek dynasties, which

sixty years were to dispute the sceptre of the Eastern

empire, will reclaim our attention hereafter; and the

connection of the History of the Crusades with the
revolutions
before us.

of Constantinople closes

at

the period

In the division and enjoyment of a conquered
empire, the confederate barons
service of the Cross,

who had embraced

the

now seemed

as completely to have

SECOND SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

341

forgotten the original object of their expedition, as if
it

had never been undertaken
;

for the deliverance of
vic-

the Holy Sepulchre

and the vain trophies of a

tory, not over Paynim but Christian enemies

—the

gates and chain of the harbour of Constantinople
sent

by the new emperor of the East
fruits

to Palestine/^'

were the only

of the Fourth Crusade which

ever reached the Syrian shores.

* Nicetas, in Balduin, p. 383.

Gethsemane.

342

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.

Baldwin

I.,

Emjyeror of the East.

CHAPTER
%\t fast
|flur

V,

CrMsabts.

SECTION I.— HISTORY OF THE LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST.

ROM
*«5;^

the

first

hour of

its establish-

me.u^, the Latin Empire of the
^ife

jiSi

/

East was foredoomed
decay.

to a hope-

'^^*''"Jees.

condition of weakness and

L^F^^M

The

appropriation

of

tfiree-eighths

of the

conquered

m

(PMW

provinces to the Venetian republic;

the

division

of

an

equal

LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST.
portion

343

among

feudal

chieftains,

who acknowledged

only a nominal supremacy in the imperial possessor
of the remaining fourth ; the escape of the bravest of

the Greeks into Epirus and Asia, and the

common

and deep detestation with which the whole race of
their

subjugated countrymen

regarded the govern-

ment

of the Western barbarians and the supremacy
all

of a heretical church,

conspired to promote the

rapid dissolution of that splendid but unreal fabric of
conquest, which

a few thousand

adventurers

had

suddenly founded amid the ruins of the Byzantine
throne.

The mutual

jealousies

and dissensions of the con-

querors would alone have been fatal to the stability of
their dominion;

and the contempt in which they held

the pusillanimous character of the Greeks, blinded

them
ings

to the

imprudence of outraging the national

feel-

of

an acute and subtle people, who eagerly
dis-

watched every symptom of their weakness and

union, and silently awaited the season of reaction and

revenge.

So insensible were the Latins to the insecurity

and

danger

of

their

position,

that,

only

a

few

months

after the conquest of Constantinople, as if

no

better occupation could be found against the

common

enem}^, their two principal potentates, the emperor

Baldwin and Boniface of Montferrat, the new king of
Macedonia, engaged in an open
civil

war, which was

terminated with difficulty by the intervention of the

344

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.
dis-

Doge of Venice, and of the sovereign peers of the

membered empire.*
This
quarrel

was

scarcely

composed when

the

titular reign of

Baldwin was suddenly disturbed by a
[a. d.

more formidable opponent,
tility

1204,] whose hospride,

was provoked by the Latin
disaffection.

and

assisted

by Greek

This was Calo Johannes, or

Joannice, king of Bulgaria, the ancient

enemy

of the

Greek empire, who, on
the Latins as natural
ship

its

subversion,

had welcomed
friend-

allies,

and invited their

by

a congratulatory embassy.

But Baldwin,
all

who

pretended to have succeeded to

the rights of

the deposed dynasty, repulsed the Bulgarian envoys

with disdain

;

treated their master as a revolted rebel

against the Byzantine throne; and instead of accept-

ing his alliance, demanded his allegiance.

Joannice

smothered

this insult

only until his emissaries had

prepared the Greek provincials of Thrace to become
the ready instruments of his vengeance.
sive conspiracy

An

exten-

was quickly and
for its

secretly organized;

and the signal

explosion was the departure

from Constantinople of Henry, the brother of Baldwin,
with the flower of the Latin chivalry, to attempt the
reduction

of

the

Asiatic

provinces.

Throughout

Thrace, the Greek population rose simultaneously and

* Geoffroy de Villehardouin, Histoire dc la Prise dc Constantinople, Ed.

Du

Cange,

fol.

Paris, 1657.

Paragraphs No. cxl.-clx.
les

Du
(_in

Cange, Histoire de Constant inoi)lc sous

Empercurs Frangois,

codem

loco,} lib.

i.

LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST.

345

suddenlj' against their oppressors; the Latins in the open

country,

unarmed and
;

surprised,
[A. d.

were everywhere mer;]

cilessly slaughtered

1205

the feeble garrisons

of the towns, for the most part, were either overpow-

ered by the

first

shock of the revolt and massacred, or

escaped in dismay by a gathering retreat upon the
capital;

and the

loss of

Adrianople, the second city

of the empire, where the Venetians had established
their chief post,
in disorder

and whence their

forces

were driven

by the insurgent populace, completed the

sum
more

of disaster.

To

aggravate

its effects,

Joannice

himself, at the
fierce

head of his Bulgarians, and of a yet
poured into Thrace, and discovered
p.

and savage horde of Comans,* or Turco-

man

auxiliaries,

* In the Memoirs of Joinville (Johnes's Translation,

204)

is

a

curious passage illustrative of a custom of this wild horde of the

Comans.
the

Louis IX. of France was joined in Palestine by " a most

noble knight" of Constantinople,

who informed the king that, when Comans had once concluded an alliance with the Latins, their

chief had insisted on the contracting parties "being blooded, and

drinking alternately of each other's blood in sign of brotherhood."
Joinville adds that,

when

this

Byzantine knight and his companions

took service with the French, they required the like pledge of himself

and

his

countrymen

;

" and our blood being mixed with wine,
all

was drunk by each party as constituting us
blood."

brothers of the

same

The mention of
the

this barbarous rite, thus

borrowed by the

Latins from

pagan Comans, furnishes the indefatigable
to discuss the

Du

Cange with an occasion
adoption in arms.

whole subject of brotherly

Diss. xsi. The Comans were a Tartar, or Turcoman horde, who encamped in the 12th and 13th centuries on the verge of Moldavia. They were mostly pagans, but some were Mohammedans, and the whole tribe was converted to Christianity in 1370

by Louis, King of Hungary.

346

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.

to the Latins the extent of the combination against

them.

At

this perilous juncture,

Baldwin and

his gallant

compeers,

who had
spirit,

rallied the

broken remains of their

chivalry round the capital, evinced the same high and
dauntless
all

and the same untempered disdain of
considerations,

prudential

which

had

already

achieved and endangered the possession of an empire.
Instead of awaiting the arrival of

Henry

of Flanders
recalled

and

his

more numerous bands, who had been
first

from the Asiatic war on the

alarm, the emperor

resolved to take the field at the head of his scanty
array,

and

to

advance

for the

immediate recovery of

Adrianople from the insurgents.
accomplished, and that city had
vested,

The march was
already

been

in-

when

the Latin chivalry was enveloped in a
horse,

plain

by a cloud of Bulgarian and Turcoman
to their usual
;

who, according

mode

of combat, fled

before every charge
cipitate

lured their enemies into a pre;

and disorderly pursuit
cavaliers

and when the heavily

armed French

had

utterly exhausted their

own

strength and that of their steeds, turned sud-

denly upon them, surrounded, and cut them to pieces.

The Count
tion,

of Blois, whose rash contempt of a salutary

caution had involved the Latin

army

in their destruc-

paid the penalty of his presumption, and was

slain

on the spot; the emperor Baldwin, whose im-

petuosity had been carried
alive into the

away by the example,
;

fell

hands of a cruel enemy

and the rem-

LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST.
iiant of the Latin

347

host was saved from destruction
skill,

only by the presence of mind, the
patient courage of the aged

and the

Doge of Venice and of the
war/-'

Marshal Villehardouin, the historian of the

While the venerable Dandolo assumed the general
direction of a retreat, his noble

compeer

rallied a rear-

guard, and at

its

head firmly sustained the furious

assaults of the pursuers ;

and

in such order

was

safely

accomplished an arduous march of three days, from
the walls of Adrianople to the shores of the Hellespont.

There, the exhausted forces of the Latins were

met by the troops under Henry of Flanders, who had
landed from the Asiatic coast; whose junction
stored the balance of strength;
it

re-

and whose

arrival, if

had been awaited before the

late expedition,

might
igno-

have averted

its disastrous issue.

Li the

first

rance of the Latins of the fate of their captive emperor, the regency of his dominions his brother

was intrusted

to

Henry

;

but, after the lapse of a year, the

king of Bulgaria,

who had

formerly obtained the

papal friendship and patronage by professing his conversion to the Latin church, replied to the solicitations of Innocent IH. for the release of Baldwin, that
his imperial

prisoner

had expired

in his dungeon.
;

The manner

of his death

was never ascertained
it

but

the fact (although twenty years later
* Villehardouin, No. clxv.-cxciii.
Historia,
stant, lib.
(^in
i.

was strongly

Nicetas Aeominati Choniata?,

Script. Bi/zant.^, p. 383-416.

Du

Cange, Hist. Con-

ad Jineni.

;

348

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.

brought into doubt) was firmly believed by bis Eastern subjects;
all

and

after

an affectionate delay, until
lost, his
title/''

hope of his existence had been
to

brother

Henry consented

assume the imperial

In the brief and calamitous annals of the Latin

Empire of the East, the reign of the virtuous and prudent Henry presents the sole interval of comparative
prosperity.

By

the death of his original compeers in

the Fourth Crusade, he was gradually left to sustain

with his single energy the arduous duties of defending
the Latin States against the hostility, both of the Bulgarians in Europe, and of the Greek refugees of Asia.

The King

of Macedonia, after a zealous and gallant

co-operation against the

common enemy, which was

cemented by a family alliance with the emperor, was
slain in

an unfortunate skirmish by the Bulgarian
the valiant marshal and faithful historian,

troops;

Geoffroy of Villehardouin did not long survive

him

and the decease of both had been preceded by that of

* Villehardouin, Nicetas,

Du

Cange, ubi supra

ad

fin.

Gesta

Innocentii III. (in Muratori, Script. Her. Ital. vol.

iii.) c.

109.

The

balance of evidence

is

certainly on the whole against the identity

with the captive emperor, of the claimant who appeared in Flanders about twenty years afterward, but his story was not improbable, and
scarcely justifies the confidence with which

Gibbon

(ch. Ixi. notes 29,

30) has pronounced
Alban's."
Lisle,
lost

it

an imposture, chiefly, perhaps, for the purpose

of ridiculing the " fables which were believed by the

monks

of St.

lie was hanged as an impostor in the great square of

by order of Jane, Countess of Flanders, the daughter of the

Baldwin.

LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST.
the brave old Doge *
pillars of the

349

But, though deprived of these

Latin glory and fortune, Henry, by his

courage and wisdom, nobly upheld and repaired the
shattered edifice of dominion.
politic exclusion of his

By

rescinding the im-

Greek subjects from the public
affections
;

service,

he conciliated their

and

his judi-

cious

measures were

assisted

by the treacherous

cruelty and tyranny with which the Bulgarian king

repaid the Byzantine provincials for their seasonable
revolt

and

alliance.

That barbarian had already
inhabitants

commenced a
and
for

project for the depopulation of Thrace,

the forcible withdrawal of the

beyond the Danube, when his measures were arrested

by the approach of Henry; who, moved by the entreaties of the Greeks,

hastened to the deliverance of

the repentant rebels at the head of only a few hun-

dred knights and their attendants.

The

inhabitants,
;

on his approach, welcomed him with open arms
garian hosts of

Bul-

immense numerical

superiority were

repeatedly defeated by the skill of

Henry and the
;

well-directed valour of the Latin chivalry

and Joan-

nice

was ignominiously expelled from the Thracian

* Dandolo was buried in the Cturcli of St. Sophia at Constantinople, and his

mausoleum existed

till

the destruction of the Greek

empire; but

it

was demolished when that church was converted into

a Turkish mosque. years at the court of
his return to his

A

Venetian painter, who worked for several
II.,

Mohammed

obtained from the Sultan, on

own

country, the cuirass, the helmet, the spurs, and

the cloak of the Doge, which he presented to the family of that illustrious

man.

Michaud,

ii.

172.

to sustain the cause of personal and national freedom in the fastnesses of Bithynia. The murder subjects of the Bulgarian tyrant by own shortly afterward relieved the Latin empire from his hostility. and enabled him to close in tranquil glory a reign of ten years. 1204. to the Asiatic shores [a. No. 107. Hist. cxcii. D. Du Cange. but soon embraced by the capital. Constant. d. from his con- The moderation the first of Henry induced him to seize opportunity of concluding with the Greek sovereigns of Nice and Epirus similar pacifications. ad fin. all his service was his fugitive countrymen from who shared his disdain of a foreign yoke and ties his martial efforts were favoured by the calami- of the Bulgarian war. . [a. which compelled the Latins their forces to withdraw from the prosecution of their the twofold claim of his Asiatic conquests. 1-22. c. and his successor gladly accepted an honourable peace queror.] which defined the limits of their respect- ive states. ii. 106. On own * Villehardouin. 350 provinces.''' The mention of the of the Greek emj^ire of Nice may momentarily divert our attention Bosphorus. 1216 . which was too short for the happiness of his subjects. Gesta Innocent.] When Theodore Lascaris withdrew from servitude at the capture of Constantinople. his authority was acknowledged by only three cities and two thousand armed followers. III.. his THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. lib. c.

to all the disorders of a feeble government. the last of the two Flemish princes By the decease of who had worn the line of their crown of Constantinople. 351 and of his union with the daughter of Alexius Angelus. nated by death in the meridian of his age place but his virtue.LATIN EMPIKE OF THE EAST. Nice. Ixii. d. . .] a French baron who had married his sister.. the right of Lascaris to the imperial dignity was universally acknowledged by establishing the seat of his his adherents . the Latin empire had become a prey. which he quickly extended by his arms from the Hellespont to the Meander. ch. after the death of Henry.* "While the native dominion of the Greeks was re- viving under these two heroes. and government at Nice. for the Annals of the Greek Empire of we shall be contented to abridge. was filled by a noble Greek of congenial 1222 John Ducas Vataces. than by the virtues of his domestic administration. and whose regal pedigree has been illustrated by a * Gibbon. he made that city the capital of a state. merit. Henry had issue. [a. His reign of eighteen years was termi. [a. his daughter. who had married and succeeded to his throne. and the feudatories of the Byzantine state offered his throne to Peter de Courtenay.] and wdiose dis- glorious career of thirty-three years was not more tinguished by his success in arms. the male house was extinct no : the daughter of Baldwin had succeeded to the possession of his left European state . whom. d. 1217.

in which he ended his life. xi.] and his arrival at Constantinople was followed his coronation. and. 1219. 1221. indolent. incautiously traversed the dangerous passes of Greece with a train of French knights. being entrapped into a perfidious truce with the despot of Epirus. [a. were ill sustained by Robert. Robert. The chivalrous qualities of the signalized in House of Courtenay. Earls of Devon. c. Ilist.] Meanwhile the wife of Courtenay. Peter accepted tlie great historian. his next brother. 287. He and proved himself at once pusillanimous. and during the short residue of her life.352 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. [A. The English branch of Constant. the second of a race of Coranenian princes who had established an obscure independence on the ruins of the Greek empire. So corrupt was the of the * Gibbon. the Latin empire. licentious . . ad fin. was thrown into a dungeon.f On her death. was summoned by to ascend the Eastern throne. d. the new Latin Empress of the East. during his reign of seven years. 22. d. and the refusal of her eldest son to his abandon French fief. had reached Constanti- nople by sea. the government was administered in her name as regent for her captive or deceased lord. rocked spirit to foundations. this ancient family is represented bj the Courtenays. and. lib.* fatal tempting but honour. ii. lolanta. which had been Europe and in Palestine. shaken on either side by the rude assaults of the Greeks of Nice its and Epirus. I Du Cange.

were numbered with the A disgraceful feud in the Byzantine palace finally drove Robert from a throne which he wanted courage to defend against either foreign or domestic enemies. cast the mother. several of the islands on the coast of Asia and. barbarously mutilated the beauty of his fair mistress. To revenge his seduction of the affianced bride of a Burgundian gentleman.LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST. the infuriated lover burst with a band of his friends into the imperial retreat. who had pandered to her falsehood. most of the hardy veterans of the Fourth Crusurvived the storms of the Bulgarian slain. When ance of his barons to punish this unpardonable outrage upon the laws of humanity and the majesty of the purple. that the Greek OOO in the diffi- Emperor Vataces found no countrymen. D. into the Hellespont. and openly braved the power of Robert demanded the assist- her paramour. in a disastrous attempt to check his victorious career. and the craven prince. fleets arras were everywhere successful seas. French adventurers who sought employment East. sade. 1228. they justified the act. aid. abandoned his throne. and made common cause with the criminal.] But the pope was unwilling 23 . the which he equipped commanded the and reduced Minor. culty service his in enlisting whole bodies of them into his against their With such . and appealed to the judgment of the Papal to Court. who had and Grecian wars. too impotent to enforce retribution for the cruel offence and affront which he had provoked. [A.

lib. . Baldicin IT. iii. commit his authority to the hazard of so profitless a quarrel. But. the succession to his his crown devolved upon younger brother. c. who was born arrival of the at Constantinople shortly after the Empress lolanta and the capture of her husband. 1-12.t54 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. as the * Du Cange. and who was still a minor. and the imperial exile or pride to a premature grave/^ was hurried by grief As Robert died without issue. Hist. Constant.. Baldwin II.

and the last exploit of the repulse of their combined John de Brienne was army and navy of one ''^ hundred thousand men and three hundred galleys from the walls of Constantinople. d. John de Brienne. necessities of the state 355 demanded a defender of ma- turer years. and had resigned that diadem. the barons of the empire offered a share of the imperial dignity to a valiant nobleman of Chamshall pagne. Baldwin II. been raised titular by merit to the crown of Jerusalem. ad fin. 13. and had recovered the greater portion of the ancient possessions of his nation in Thrace. Al- though this regal adventurer was already far ad- vanced in life. the Latin territories were gradually circumscribed within the environs of the capital..LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST. to Frederic EmjDcror of the West.] * Du Cange. c. but Vataces had re-established the now permanently Greek standard in Europe. he accepted the proj)Osal of the Byzan- tine barons that he should ascend the imperial throne of marrying his of Constantinople. the aged hero nobly sustained the arduous duties of his station against the increasing resources and energies of the empire of Nice. During nine years. 1237. lib. as his we hereafter observe. iii. . Hist. the alliance of the Greek emperor with the total ruin to the falling King of Bulgaria threatened state . upon condition second daughter to his young colleague and destined successor. [A. the hand of his eldest daughter. Constant. visionar}' with II. who had already.

his son and successor. Theodore Lascaris II. 356 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. and from the Danube to the Mediterranean. of the im- stable of the mand. 1259.] ris. conqueror. to which his pretensions were founded not only on his personal merit. of the capital and the prowess of John The strength de Brienne had deferred for twenty-four years the total extinction of the Latin empire . d. During his active and glorious Vataces had compelled the Comnenian sovereign of Epirus to resign the imperial title. of noble Greek family. On the death of the second Theodore Lascaof the guardianship the infant emperor was wrested by a conspiracy from the hands of an unpopular favourite of the last reign. Michael Palaeologus. The infancy John made way for the rise of another hero [a. d. [a.. 1255. but the sceptre of all its territories was already held by the Greek career. and.. and obtained by Palceologus. The new regent soon aspired to a higher dignity. from the Euxine to the Adriatic. carried his victorious arms into the re- cesses of Bulgaria.] and reduced that wild its kingdom within his son its natural limits. whose martial reputation and post of conFrench mercenaries gave him the comaffections. and into ancient of submission to the Eastern Empire. and had secured him the perial troops. but on the superior right of hereditary descent over the reigning dynasty . he had consolidated his dominion over the whole expanse of country. In a brief reign of only four years. reuniting Western Greece to the Eastern Provinces.

of his young sovereign.LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST. ch. the Since the death of John de Brienne. he was crowned as sole emperor. and had spent a lesser portion of his nominal reign of twenty-five years in the Eastern capital. than in traversing Western Europe with vain supplications for pecuniary and military aid. next the colleague. . and an elder Lascaris whom Theodore of had espoused. The personal claims and the public services of Palseologus might extenuate his conduct in thus seizing the sceptre. Palasologus was first declared the guardian. that the success of a desultory and almost an accidental enterprise terminated the feeble existence of the Latin Empire of the East. Ixii. and John title Lascaris was condemned to an empty of honour and a harmless obscurity. and. but the guilt of his usurpation was subsequently deepened by an might be act of unpardonable cruelty toward his unfortunate pupil. . his son-in-law and colleague Baldwin 11. ubi su^rd.* It was in the second year of the reign of the vigorous usurper. and in order that Lascaris for ever incapaci- tated from reigning. since his 357 mother was a daughter of the sister of the princess last Alexius. and in * Gibbon. had proved himself utterly incapable of de- fending his throne. In the usual progress such usurpation as the Eastern Empire had often witnessed. finally. upon whom sole sovereignty de- volved. he was deprived of his eyesight by command of his jealous oppressor.

he temptuously numbered by our uncourtly inglorious. for foreigner^ to prey upon his liberality. 396. nor prepared one generous effort of despair. in the preceding year. . The repulse of an attack by Palaeologus in person upon the suburbs of Constantinople.) among the herd of princely beggars who were attracted partiality of England.358 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. and afterward. &c. neither conscious of the for imminence of his danger.* As the catastrophe of his inglorious fortunes approached. of Cajsar. that the squadron of galleys which the Venetians maintained in their Byzantine colony was suffered to carry away the flower of the French chivalry on a rash maritime expedition into the Euxine. p. at the very juncture when a body of the Greek troops was hovering about the gates of the capital. with a charitable is some seven hundred marks. insult for In the he was first repelled with presuming to land without permission. might indeed have awakened him to the designs of that active and ambitious enemy. profugus. by the weak Henry III. and a craven. But such was the blind security of his government. exposing to public scorn his necessities and his weakness. he slumbered in his palace. and the favourite lieutenant of the Emperor Michael. upon whom that prince had bestowed the title who now amply reign. 637. By his knowledge justified the confidence of his sove- of the weakness of the Latin garrison. are noticed by the Monk of St. and of the disposition of the inhabi- * His two mendicant visits to England first. on con- explanation. The com- mander of this hostile force was Alexius Strategopulus. a vagabond. monk to as pauper. In the second. Alban's. received and dismissed by collection of Henry III. (a beggar.

to dread life and that craven prince closed his worthless in an indigent exile. escaping from his palace. ad c. iv.] The Emperor Michael make his triumphant entry Paloeologiis hastened to into the ancient and re- covered seat of the empire of his nation. by the hatred which the Genoese settlers bore to their Venetian rivals.. by the cowardice of Baldwin. tants. to bestow a daughter upon his son Philip as the heir to the titular diadem of the East. But his empty offers had meanwhile seduced the cupidity of Charles of Anjou. lib. before presence was discovered. Hist Constant. 359 he was encouraged to attempt the surprise of Constantinople. and by the general their terror of the Latins. . king of the Sicilies. He was assisted by the concert or the favour of the native Greek popuhation.''' [a. he had. v. 33. at the first alarm Baldwin. From his fugitive rival little Baldwin. d. in person. and to un- dertake the reconquest and partition of the Greek *Du Cange. and the Greeks of Constantinople joyfully hailed the deliverance of their capital from a subjection of fift}'- seven years to the Latin yoke. 1261. indeed. His troops were secretly admitted into the heart of the city. sought safety on board the returning squadron from the Euxine. LATIN EMPIRE OF THE EAST. and the remainder of his reign was laboriously occupied in securing his dominion against the vengeance or ambition of the Latin Powers. which arrived only in time to protect his flight to Italy .

belong to ecclesiastical history. vi. to enforce their submission to the pa|)al authority . through the subsidies with which he supported the revolt of Sicily against that prince. fortune of Palaeologus His measures to its conciliate the papac}^ spiritual by an acknowledgment of supremacy. and a union of the Greek and Latin churches. . which. 34 . [a. the dissolution of the hollow union of the two churches was indignantly demanded by the unanimous voice of the Greek clergy and people. Of that prince. as does also his success in averting a formidable invasion of his dominions by the French chivalry under Charles of Anjou. as his own insincerity in that cause w^as notorious. Const. THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. may be said to open a new fall period of de- cline in the Byzantine annals. after a memorable reign of twenty-three years.] On his death. v. ch. ad c. Hist. rendered his hypocritical policy the more atrocious. succeeding to a period of comparative vigour. 13. lib.'-' of the Greek * Du Cange. of which the last nine had been shared by his son Andronicus. Isii. c. which will hereafter lead us to survey the last agony and Empire. Gibbon. the long and inglorious reign. The mingled prudence and good defeated this design. d. and proclaimed by the willing or constrained assent of the surviving emperor.360 Empire. The domestic reign of Palosologus was disturbed by a cruel persecution of his reluctant subjects. 1282.

MEANWHILE. 561 SECTION n. THE FIFTH CRUSADE. which had been interrupted by the . we re- may here with propriety sume our general narrative of the progress of those Christian efforts for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre. having pursued to its catastrophe that great and singuLir episode in the history of the Crusades which was produced by the diver- sion of the Latin arms to the siege of Constantinople.THE FIFTH CRUSADE.

By continued dissensions among the princes of the house of Saladin and the emirs who struggled for independence. and a truce for six years with Saphadin was the only advantage derived by the Latins on the infi- Syrian coast from the distresses and alarm of the dels. [A.362 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. upon Mary. 1204. her daughter by a Conrad of Tyre. d. son of the Count de Brienne. and the clergy to Philippe-Auguste prior marriage with and barons of Palestine delegating of France the choice of a husband for the young heiress. as an accomplished and distinguished knight . that their dis- obedience had ruined the fairest occasion of re-establishing the Christian fortunes in that country. had designed for the relief of Palestine. the Mussulman power in Syria was reduced to its lowest ebb . the state of the Moham- medan Empire justified his reproach. and a dreadful famine and consequent pestilence in Egypt would effectually have paralyzed all opposition from that dangerous quarter to the success of the crusading arras.] While the cupidity and ambition of the leaders of the Fourth Crusade seduced them to employ in that enterprise the forces which Pope Innocent III. During this interval of repose. cited for The hopes division ex- the Christian cause its by the and weakness of enemies. by the death of Almeric and his queen Isabella. were completely lost in the diversion of the Fourth Crusade against the Eastern Empire. that monarch named John. the conquest of Byzantine Empire. the titular crown of Jerusalem devolved.

] Havmg accepted the proffered honour. and capable of defendmg. Although Innocent and deeper had already engaged interest to the papal in an object of nearer the alleged —the extirpation of heresy of the Albigenses — he was not unsupremacy of the Christian cause in Pales- moved by the danger tine. and he immediately and earnestly answered the appeal of John de Brienne by proclaiming throughout * Abulfeda. than by a rash refusal to renew the treaty with him. Scrip. Vet. vol. v. Confut. a pressing solicitation for succour. 1210. 646-668. the peace of Palestine was broken. his most strenuous efforts to withstand the progress of the infidels were inefiectual. But the new King of Jerusalem brought with him from Europe only a slender train of three hundred knights of Palestine though his personal prowess in the fields sustained his previous reputation. (in Martenne.. p. on the expiration of the truce less with Saphadin. THE FIFTH CRUSADE. . Will Tyr. lib. and he was reduced to address to Pope Innocent III. of sharing. as the re- only means of saving from destruction the poor mains of the Latin kingdom. [a. iv.) p.* Soon after this event. tine. d. 182-194. Coll. John de Brienne arrived in Pales- and received the hand of Mary with the royal title. 363 who was worthy her throne. by the ambition of the Mussulman prince. v/liich had apparently been dictated in the Christian councils by the anticipation of powerful aid from France.

Matthew ii. a general council of the —the fourth of Lateran —was at the same convened. in which * Contm. all He not only de- spatched a circular letter to the princes of Chris- tendom. . in which they were urged. Concilia. Will. G68-680. but he instructed his legates and the clergy in every country of the "West to add their spiritual exhortations to the laity in the same cause. p. (Ed. 229. Tyr. To give the greater unity and solemnity church time to the design. by the usual arguments. William Longcspee. p.) p.slurij. 1684. to embark in the sacred enterprise. Paris. 119-233.364 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. Earl ''•f Sali. vol. Watts. Labbe. Europe a new Crusade to the East. 228.* and by that assembly.

and. for the defence of Palestine. and of Jerusalem. Though the King Hungary was attended by the which. was zealously The Fifth Crusade. and the third led by the Emperor Frederic enterprises. performed nothing worthy of notice: and the after a single campaign in Palestine. even aided by the junction of nume- rous German crusaders under the Dukes of Austria and Bavaria. II. his the knights of the three religious orders. from remaining. in the sequel into three maritime expe- [a. and returned MussulmaA territories the fickle Andrew with his forces to Europe. Of each of these none of which were attended with many of novel or interesting features. and English composed of Germans. the design of infidels arming Europe anew against the Eastern adopted. the arms of that monarch. His defection did not prevent the Duke of Austria. in person. before its flower of a nation conversion to Christianity. the constancy of these . the events distinguished may be briefly and dismissed. in which were ineflectually ravaged. had been the scourge and terror of Western Europe. the second French.THE FIFTH CRUSADE. 1216 . in concert with the King barons.] the first consisting principally of Hungarians under their king. d. Andrew. nobles and their followers. with the German crusaders. in the following year. deserted the cause. all 365 re- the principal monarclis of Christendom were presented by their envoys. Italians. was divided ditions : the result of this resolution.

Matthew Paris ascribes the design of carrying the war into Egypt to the advice of Pope Innocent III. 245.* This accession of strength gave a new energy and direction to the Christian councils. a Vitriaco. in a military is of martial science will confirm sense. Egypt. 1718. Godefridus Monachus. which tempted their greediness of spoil. Rer. Bernardus Thesaur. (apud Muratoria. the dispiriting im- pression of repeated failures in direct assaults upon the Mussulman power from the Christian garrisons of Palestine . Tyr. was believed that the true seat of the Mussulman powerj* at the must be overthrown.^ p. ii) p. vol. Jacobus Gextis Dei per Francos. by its position and resources. 260-263. Annahs {apud Freher Marguard. 681. p. Scriptorcs. 1129-1131. vol. Rer. 680. 820- Matthew Paris. therefore. and it was re- solved to change the scene of warfare from the narrow limits of the Syrian shore to the coast of Egypt. had forced upon so rude an age of war- but which a juster appreciation of the principles that.i Abulfeda. Ilierosol. •f" Ed. 384-387.3G6 faithful THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. By the conquest of Egypt. mouth * Cont. Tertia. (/. Scrip. Will. IHst. champions of the Cross was rewarded by of numerous the arrival reinforcements from Ger- many. Several motives impelled the crusaders to this resolution. and the situation of Damietta. . i. the wealth of the latter country. Ital. 244. 822. and a conviction —which — calamitous expe- rience alone fare. p. and the recovery of Jerusalem effected . p.) p. the key it of Syria. German.

.

.

but the walls of a tower were so shattered by the engines of the besiegers. et tendentes versus Syriam. as it were. Graeciam et situ Cyprum et ab hoc trancivitas quasi Rex Babylonia3 maximos recepit reditus. pass out by this way. The hopes with which this first success inspired the Christians were shortly increased to the highest degree. Armenia. of the Nile. Tanaim Godefridus (?) et cunctas civitates ^gypti. preecellit Htec caput et clavis est totius ^gypti. (Ships laden spices India. Alexandriam. * The Monk of Cologne describes in a remarkable passage the : commercial wealth and importance of Damietta naves — " Hac . d. p. (from Monachus. 1218. Greece. imme[a.. venientes ab India.] safely landed diately formed the siege of the place. and England. that the garrison of the castle were terrified into a surrender. via exeunt cum speciebus oneratas. France.) . In a furious assault from the galleys of the crusaders upon a the castle in the river which defended the port. and Cyprus. Armeniam. This city is. the Sultan Saphadin and by the opportune and successive arrival of new bands of crusaders from Italy. and every other city of Egypt. for it far surpasses in strength Babylon. 388. Antioch. and the king of Babylon receives great returns by this route. Duke of Austria and the flower of the Christian knighthood were completely repulsed. pointed out that city as the attack. enim with in munitione Babyloniam. being under the walls of Damietta. TUE FIFTH CRUSADE. by intelligence of the death of their most formidable enemy.) and proceeding toward Syria. and the crusading army. both the head and the key of all Egypt. Alexandria. Antiocham.* first 367 object of The was short passage from Acre to the Egyptian coast effected by sea.

instead of healing. d. This last writer gives a and particular account of the siege of Damietta. out of a population of near fourscore thou- sand souls. filled only with the dead and the AVill. Matt. the usual horrors of famine and pestilence com- pleted their distress. Jac. Bernardus. headed respectively by the papal by the Counts of Nevers and La Marche. &c. p. through the jealous and conflicting pretensions of so many chieftains of various nations. 264-271. and while the unexpected desperation with which the defence of the city was protracted. dying. [a. and of the operations before the place. He draws a harrowing picture of the effects of the pestilence in Damietta. p. nine-tenths had perished of disease and hunger. The intrigues of the papal legates to of the arrogate to themselves the general direction host. p. Arundel. converted the pre- sumption of the crusaders into anxiety and despondence. fomented. Godefridus. and Chester. long 822-838. Tyr.] and after a siege of seventeen months. Paris. 682-G88. 1219.368 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. and by the Earls of Salisbury. and to introduce dis- union and discord into their camp. 1131-1134. 387-391. p. Abulfeda. these dissensions. p. and exhibits a power of description which will bear no unfavourable comparison with more celebrated historical passages on the same horrid theme. p.'-' which was * Cont. a Vitriaco. the assailants forced their way into a city. At length the still heavier of de- pressure of similar calamities within the walls its Damietta utterly exhausted the strength of fenders. legates. 253-259. But these nume- rous accessions of force served only to augment the blind confidence of the besiegers. .

siege 369 the capture of and after Damietta. overruled every wise and temperate argument in the Christian rejection of all councils. and the brothers agreed repeatedly offering the cession of the holy city and of all Palestine to the Christians. the former. might now have been gloriously obtained by the acceptance of these terms. who were now uneasily seated on the thrones of Damascus and Cairo. and the King of Jerusalem. Coradinus and Camel. Of the two sons of Saphadin.THE FIFTH CRUSADE. had assailed the Mussulman power in its most vital and vulnerable point. all eagerly But the obstinate ambition and cupidity of the surviving papal legate. rich prospect of the conc[. in choosing that country for the theatre of operations. had already dein molished its fortifications. Cardinal Pelagius. the French and English leaders. the legate led the crusading host from Damietta toward Cairo 24 .uest and plunder of Egypt. compromise with the After a winter of luxurious inaction.] . upon the simple con- dition of their evacuating Egypt. 1 220 . Both during the with consternation. and produced a infidels. [a. Every object which had been ineffectually proposed in repeated Crusades. and the Teutonic knights. since the fatal battle of Tiberias. d. and of the knights of the other two by holding out the religious orders. the invasion of Egypt had filled the infidels be- and the alarm which was trayed in their counsels proved that the crusaders. in despair of preserving Jerusalem. desired to embrace the offer of the sultans. of the Italian chieftains.

the whole collected Mussulman Nile force of Egypt and Syria was under Camel to oppose the Christian advance up the f' and the cardinal legate showed himself as in- capable of conducting the war as he had been clamor- ous for its prosecution. five thousand other cavalry.) rates the force of the Christian army which advanced up the Nile at a thousand knights. magnam miseriam et dolorem. The * legate. and forty thousand foot. or the disgraceful alternative of purchasing a peace. by the surrender of Damietta. sent a suppliant embassy to the A curious letter in Matthew Paris from an English crusading knight." (up to causing great discomfort and pain.* and the crusaders found themselves suddenly enclosed on all sides by the waters and the enemy. the elements.370 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. the Egyptians. p." (like as a fish enclosed in a net. f The letter last quoted states that the water reached " usque ad braccarios et cinctoria. Philip d' Aubeney. 264. ad their hips and waists. While he hesitated to attack the sultan's army which obstructed the road to Cairo. the Nile rose. ''sicut piscis reti includitur.) And another letter from the Grand-Master of the Templars. by opening the sluices in the canal of Ashmoum. to the Earl of Chester. (who had returned home after the capture of Damietta. which equally precluded their further advance or their retreat to Damietta.) . inundated the Christian camp. which immediately follows. In this calamitous situation. but the infidels had employed the interval in vigorous preparation for a renewal of hostilities. there remained only the choice of extermination by hunger. which they had lately refused to sell. quaintly describes the army as enclosed by the waters. therefore. and suffered the infidels to straiten his quarters. and the sword.

Godefridus.. 689-694. 298-308. Will. But the new pope. p. upon the Emperor Frederic by charging which to that monarch's continued evasion of repeated vows to join the Crusade. saders. p. laboured to trans- public reproach from his servant II. not without justice. however. on their embarkation. rest of the crufor a assuming the failure of the Egyptian war sufficient discharge from their voavs. then sailed to Acre. gladly separated from their eastern brethren. a free retreat to Damietta was allowed to the humbled and perishing remnant of the crusad. Honorius fer the III.THE FIFTH CRUSADE. was deaf to the papal censures. .. that city was delivered up to the infidels. Bernar- Matt. and retraced their home- ward vo3^age to the shores of Europe. presumption and incapacity of the legate Pelagius. The King and the of Jerusalem. '=' Amid the sorrow and indignation excited throughout Europe by the abortive and disgraceful result of so hopeful an enterprise. Frederic. p. with his barons and the knights of the three religious orders. p. TjT. 839-844. and the Sultan of Jeru- The King for the salem himself became a hostage performance of the treaty. until an occasion was afforded * Cont. ing host and. Abulfeda. all the disasters his presence in the East might have prevented. dus. Paris. mission to evacuate Egypt in safety of Cairo acceded to the prayer. attributed its calamitous issue was loudly to the by the crusaders. Mussulman camp with an 371 offer of this price for per. 392. uhi suj)rd.

daughter and : heiress of John de Brienne who. with a proposal for the marriage of the emperor with lolanta. grand-master of the Teutonic knights. wearied of the inef- fectual struggle against the infidels. was willing to . to Honorius of stimulating his zeal by the arrival from Palestine of Herman de Saltza. Einrieror Fnrli rir 11.372 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.

amid every obstacle which the pope with unrelenting enmity con- tinued shamelessly to oppose to his enterprise. all be- long to the history of Italy. to achieve reconquest of his new kingdom. The slender force with which Frederic embarked for Palestine. 1225. seemed so inadequate to the maintenance of his dignity. in defiance of the hostility of the pontiff. though to his other dignities more than nominal and the young princess being brought to Italy by her father. and with transfer from it. for her dower. abdicate in her favour his titular 373 crown of Jerusalem. a solemn John of his rights to the sovereignty of the Holy Land. The real or pretended impediments which for five years delayed his fulfilment of this jDledge. the successor of Honorius . and his final departure for the Holy Land. to excite the wonder of his own age of his at the attempt and the causes rapid success.] that he would within two years lead a powerful the army to Palestine. as . his quarrel with the papacy and excommunication by Gregory IX.THE FIFTH CRUSADE. in a squadron of only twenty galleys. and the object of subsequent and his voyage. to the As a condition of this renuncia- tion. of adding this new. and must be sought in the annals of that country.. The ambition honour of Frederic was dazzled by the prospect little . the emperor received her hand. must . while and still labouring under that sentence. honour tary orders. Frederic on his part had previously engaged his pope and the grand-master of the milid. [A.

374 still THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. from the outset of his expedition. d. or a generous sense of shame. weakened by the of Cairo and Damascus [a. exposes the unprincipled policy of the Papal See. more than any event of the times.] and it has been conjectured that Frederic. and his weakness was betrayed to the infidels. and Frederic tend with the undivided hostility of the Mussulman Empire. Meanwhile. trusted to the effects of secret negotiations with the former of those potentates. 1228 . was now fraternal dissensions of the Sultans . to Monk of St. Alban's can account for tlie astonishing success of Frederic only by the direct interposition of Heaven in exciting races. indeed. until their natural thirst for enterprise. field against The Knights Templars and Hospitallers obeyed the prohibition of the pope." (among the Saracenic .) dissensions " in gentibus Saracenis. Frederic boldly took the the infidels. which perhaps. Undismayed by this quitous persecution. The pope not only prohibited the knights of the religious orders from serving under the banners of an excommunicated prince. be numbered history. but actually despatched envoys to the sultan to dissuade him from negotiating with a leader whom ini- the Christians disowned. and finally.''' among the unsolved problems of The Mussulman power. induced them * The first to follow his march. of his brother soon relieved But the death Camel from the jealousy had thenceforth to con- or dread with which the ambition of Coradinus had inspired him. he was deserted by the flower of the Christian chivalry in Palestine.

300-304. occupied and refortified Jaffa. the ceremony. which free access to the Holy City. or any explicable motive on the part of the sultan for concessions so important. together with the possession of Bethlehem. 336-363. and at their head. But the national the Teutonic knights had more effectually and unscrupulously prevailed over their dread of papal censures. and the Templars and Hospitallers but. is But the most interesting account of Frederic's pro- ceedings given in a letter from liimself to Henry III. and altar.] Immediately after this act. 301. own salem. and other places. and a peace for ten years was concluded between them and the Moslems.* [a. the emperor entered the officers Holy on City. Nazareth. of England in Matt. To signalize the acquisition of these honourable terms. d. the patriarch refused to perform. placed it 1229. co-operate indirectly with the force 375 which acknowaffections of ledged his command. p. p. Paris. Avas restored to the Christians. Matt. Under a plea that he still remained excom- municate. are surprised we by by the authentic record of a treaty. accompanied by the Teutonic knights and the of his train. p. proceeded to the Church of the Sepulchre. 300. Godefridus. himself taking the crown from the his head. * Abulfeda. . and approached Jeru- At this juncture.THE FIFTH CRUSADE. and without any signal defeat of the infidels. to attend. p. with the scanty force of his soldiery. the emperor advanced from Acre. Paris. Frederic resolved to celebrate his coronation at Jerusalem. 396-397.

but his intentions were evidently frustrated by the necessity turn to Europe to . other papal adherents in Palestine.) He farther states. reasdificare secundum pactum" — (we are allowed by treaty to rebuild the city of Jerusalem. The return * It is difficult to determine what were the real conditions on for the Christians to Jerusalem. he returned to Acre. by the mere wanton insolence or veno- mous hostility of faction.) among other charges. and a letter from the Patriarch Paris. that the Mussulman version of the treaty in Abulfeda supra) contains a stipulation that the fortifications of Jerusalem should not be rebuilt. . made renew them by the resident Christians It is observa- ble. . (also in jNIatt. and adding. the Templars and Hospitallers. so that it it shall be better than ever was. " civitatem Hierusalem. sicut meliiis unquam nobis liceat fuit. and sufficient to deprive their statements of all credit. the state of Italy warning him of the neces- sity of his presence in that country. bore to Frederic. But the invete- rate hostility which the Patriarch. which Frederic obtained access The papal party laboured to deny that he had redeemed the Holy Sepul- chre from the hands of the infidels of Jerusalem.376 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. and obtained for the Christian cause in Palestine than the arras of any other prince had been able to achieve since the conquest of Jerusalem by Saladin/-' These valuable ability fruits of the emperor's daring and were. accuses him of having left the sacred places in their possession. and it does not appear that any attempt was in Palestine. immediately neglected. his" is and own public letter declares expressly that the Saracens were only to have the liberty of visiting the Temple of Solomon as pilgrims and unarmed. as well as in Europe. and there embarked for Europe. alFairs in. (?t6t however. that he had given orders accordingly for his hasty re- for the rebuilding of the towers and walls of the Holy City . —having more brought the Fifth Crusade to a successful conclusion. and of Frederic to Europe ultimatel}^ lost.

and the imperial authority restored. The revolt of Palestine was at length composed. during the hollow recon- ciliation between that pontiff and Frederic. to assert her throne of Palestine. the enemies of Frederic insisted that her rights to the sovereignty of Jerusalem had devolved. king of Cyprus. a furious civil the war commenced [a. notwithstanding the existence of her child and the matrimonial husband. title secured by treaty to her Alice.] If the former were more numerous. widow of Hugh de Lusignan. the Henry of Champagne.. 32* But the . in The Empress lolanta having died in giv- ing birth to a son. having arrived on the title to Syrian shore from that island. through awe excited by title his and resistance to the imperial was now made the convenient pretext for the revival of the same spirit of internal discord and intrigue which had ever been the bane of the Christian fortunes Palestine. upon her half-sister daughter of by the third marriage of that queen with Alice. which had followed the arrival of the latter in Europe. their fidelity advantage was counterbalanced by the and courage with which the knights of the Teutonic order defended the cause of their national monarch until he was able to despatch reinforcements to his officers. Isabella. 1230. chiefly by the good offices of Pope Gregory IX. between her partisans and those of Frederic. was the signal for the 6i( dis- open outbreaking of that affection to his person and authority which had only the been repressed presence. d.THE FIFTH CRUSADE.

and to command the preparation of another general armament against the Eastern infidels. forces for their no use common security against had been made of the season of by Frederic's treaty. Paris. . they surprised and slaughtered a body of several thousand pilgrims of the Cross on the road between Acre and Jerusalem Templars. p. iii.378 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. with the heaviest loss which their order had suffered since the fatal field of Tiberias.* Every to vessel from the shores of Syria intelligence of now brought and Europe the some fresh disaster. xi. 13. At the Council of Spoleto. and began hostilities renew from every quarter. quickened the public conviction of Christendom that a new Crusade was indispensable for the succour of the Holy Land. lib. and upon another occasion the who arrogated to themselves the right of their making war and peace on own account. in intestine the independent emirs of Syria were encouraged to disclaim any share in the peace to which the Sultan their predatory had concluded. c. 374. pars. Matt . Sccrcta Fidelium Crucis. the authority of the Church was again exerted to promulgate the necessity. In one of these incur- sions. &c. and finding strength of the Latin kingdom consumed strife. had meanwhile prevented dissensions of the Christians any union of the infidels . and the Dominican and Franciscan friars were charged by * Sanutus. were de- feated in a campaign against the emir of Aleppo. to pacification obtained improve the the defences of the Holy Land.

THE FIFTH CRUSADE.

o/9

the pope with the duty of preaching the sacred war,

and of
the

collecting contributions for its support.

But

proceedings

of

these

missionaries

neither reto the

sponded to the impatience of the people, nor
urgency of the danger.

Instead of promoting the

equipment of the thousands of warriors who assumed
the Cross at their exhortations, the immense sums

which

they obtained for the

service

were either

absorbed into the

papal treasury,* or diverted, in

shameless disregard of their

own vows

of poverty, into

the coffers of their orders; and nearly seven years

were suffered

to elapse without

any earnest attempt
for the relief of

on the part of the pope or his agents
Palestine.

The

expectations of aid which were held

out to the Christians in the East, during this interval,
served only to hasten the ruin of their affairs
;

for the

Sultan of Egypt, in rage or alarm at the thick-coming

rumours of invasion from Europe, resolved
pate
its object,

to antici-

and marching an army into Palestine,

he once more expelled the Christians from Jerusalem.f
* " Nee
poterat," says "

sciri

Matthew

Paris,

" in quam abyssum

tanta pecunia, qujs per Papales procurationes colligebatiu", est de-

mersa," (nor could

it

be ascertained into wbat abyss so great a

sum

of money, collected by the papal government, was plunged,) p. 339.

t Labbe, Concilia,
365.

vol. xi. p.

481.

Matt. Paris,

p.

337-340, 364,

Sanutus, uhi supra.

380

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.

CHAPTER m.
THE SIXTH CRUSADE.

HE

news of
the

this

event

com-

pleted

indignation

which

the dihitory and sordid evasions
of the pope and
his ministers in

had
[A. D,

long

excited
;]

Europe,

1238

and the martial
enthusiasm of the
ar-

and

religious

Western chivalry was too
dently roused

by the

danger
in

of the Christian cause
East,
to

the

be

longer
its

restrained
object

and deluded from

by

the selfish and avaricious policy

THE SIXTH CRUSADE,
of the papal court.
for

381

Despite, therefore, of the facilities

commuting

their

vows

for gold, the dissuasions,

and even the
of France
Cross,

direct prohibitions

which were opposed

by the papal authority
were resolved

to their enterprise, the nobles

and England, who had now taken the
at once to proceed to the
latter

Holy

Land;

and in the

kingdom the crusading
they

barons, meeting at

Northampton, solemnly bound
altar, that, lest

themselves to each other at the

should be prevented from their design by any pretext
of the

Roman

See, or cajoled to divert their

arms

to

the effusion of Christian blood against the pope's ene-

mies in Europe, they would within the year lead their
forces

direct

to

Palestine/''

The French Crusaders
the

were

the

earliest

to

reach

Syrian

shores.

Thibaud, Count of ChamjDagne

—a

celebrated Trou-

badour, and by marriage king of Navarre

—the Duke
offen-

of Burgund}^, the Counts of Bretagne, Montfort, and

Bar, and

many

barons of distinction, safely landed

with numerous bands of followers at Acre; and
sive warfare
infidels,

was immediately commenced against the
to Ascalon.

by an advance
French were

In this expe-

dition the

at first successful;

and the

Count of Bretagne with

his followers bursting

away

from his confederates into the Mussulman
* Matt. Paris, p. 461-4G3.
Ecclesiase

territory,

''

Et ne per

cavillationes

Romana3
ful-

honestum votum eorum impediretiir
all

....

juraverunt

omnes (and they
filling their

swore that they would not be hindered from

honourable vow by the cavils of the

Roman

Church.)

382

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.

EicharJ, Earl of Cornwall.

and ravaging
joined the
little

it

to tlie gates of

Damascus, safely

re-

army with immense

spoil.

But there was

concert in the operations of the crusaders; and

the

example of the Breton chivalry soon entailed
their

upon

French compeers a disastrous defeat near and Amoury de

Gaza, in which, during a similar incursion, the Count

de Bar and other lords were
Montfort, with
tive.

slain,

many

nobles and knights,

made
Acre

cap-

This reverse so dispirited the king of Navarre,

that he retreated with the whole

army

to

;

and

thence the French leaders, accusing the Templars and
Hospitallers of having deserted

them

in their need, for

the most part returned to Europe.'''

* Sanatus,
Abulfeda,

lib.

iii.

pars

xi.

c.

15.

Matt.

Paris, p.

474-488.

lib. iv. p.

488, 489.

THE SIXTH CEUSADE.
Such had been the abortive
Crusade,
result of the

383

French

when

Richard, Earl of Cornwall, brother of

Henrj

III.,

landed at Acre, accompanied

by the
of this

flower of the English chivalry.

The renown

prince for personal

prowess, the lineage of a Plan-

tagenet, even the very

name

of Richard, which he

bore in
all

common with

his uncle of the

Lion

Heart,'-'

seemed

at his approach to inspire confidence into

the Christians, and to strike the infidels with terror.

On

his arrival in

Palestine, he seems to

have been

placed at the head of the Latin councils and forces

almost by acclamation; and the weight of his presence

was immediately
sulmans.

felt in

the intimidation of the Mus-

He

found that the Templars on the one

hand, and on the other the Hospitallers and French
Crusaders, had concluded discordant treaties with the

Emir

of Karac, a vassal of the Court of Damascus, and
;

with the Sultan of Cairo

and his

first

act

was

to de-

* So great was the awe inspired by the achievements of Coeur de

Lion in the East,

that, at the distance of half a century, his

dreaded

name was
children.

still

used by Mussulman

women

to

hush

their refractory

you."

"Be quiet, be quiet, here is King Richard coming to fetch And if a horse started at a bush or a shadow, the infidel rider would chide his steed with the exclamation, "What! dost think King
Richard
is

thei'e

?"

Joinville (Johne's Translation,)

p.

109.

So

also says jMatthew of

Westminster of the respect obtained among the

Moslems
which he ipsum

for

bore.

Richard of Cornwall by the very memory of the name " Casperunt nimis prudentiam et potentiam Comitis

formidare, turn quia hoc

nomen Richardus adhuc
(They began

Saracenis inimicum

intitulavit," &c., p. 304.

to fear greatly the pru-

dence and power of the count, also because the very name Richard
still

signified an

enemy

to the Saracens.)

384

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.
the former chieftain the fulfihnent of a

mand from

promise to release the Christian captives

who had

been taken at the battle

of-

Gaza.

On

the hesitation

or inability of the emir to restore these prisoners, the
earl

advanced with the Christian host to Jaffa; and

this single

movement

sufficed to obtain all the objects

of the war.

Both the Sultans of Damascus and of
to negotiate

Egypt hastened

with him; and so ably

did he avail himself of the dissensions between these
princes,

and their common awe of

his

name and

repu-

tation, that

he extorted from one or both a solemn and

absolute cession of Jerusalem, and the greatest part of
tlie territory

of which the Latin kingdom, in

its

best

days, had ever consisted.

He had

at the

same time

the satisfaction of receiving from the hands of the infidels
all

their Christian captives,

among whom were
Hospitallers,

thirty-three nobles,

many Templars and

and

five

hundred knights and other crusaders of
Finally, having remained in Palestine

inferior rank.

until the banner of the Cross

was once more planted

on the ruined walls of Jerusalem, the Earl of Cornwall then, and not before the execution of the treaty,
quitted the shores of Palestine, and in his

homeward
Holy

progress through the State of Europe, was everywhere
Vv'elcomed with

honour

as the deliverer of the

Sepulchre.*

* Sanutus, uhi supra

et

c.

16.
p.

Matt. West,

p.

302-304.
last

Matt.

Paris, p. 479, 48G, 511, also

503-505.

The pages

quoted

contain the public despatch of the Earl of Cornwall himself, giving a

THE SIXTH CRUSADE.

385

Frederic IT.

The

services

which the Earl of Cornwall thus ren-

dered to the Christian cause in Palestine did not, perhaps, excel in degree, and closely resembled in their

form, those which the

Emperor Frederic
fortunate

II.

had

ac-

complished twelve years before.
the

[A. d. 1240.]

But

English prince

was more

than the

German monarch

in not having provoked the oppo-

sition of the papal see, or the disaffection of the

Latin

chieftains of Palestine

;

and while Frederic had been

shunned and deserted in the East by the sworn
champions of the Cross, and was basely defrauded of
the

well-earned

fame of unassisted success by the

malice of his enemies in Europe, Richard had been
very clear and interesting account of his conduct, and of the treaty

which he had extorted from the

infidels

25

386
aided

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.
by the zealous co-operation of the crusading
and was rewarded with the undivided
ap-,

chivalry,

plause and gratitude of Christendom.
indeed,

The Templars,
departure

both

before

and

after

his

from

Palestine, displayed that proud

and

factious spirit of
if

contention which forms the greatest,
just reproach
order. to

not the only

upon the memory of

their illustrious

To show

their independence, they

had refused

become parties

to the late treaty with the Sultan

of Egypt, and continued their hostilities against his
subjects; but with this exception, unanimity for once

prevailed in the Christian councils.

While the

patri-

arch resumed the ecclesiastical charge of Jerusalem,
the Hospitallers undertook, at their
build the
fortifications

own

cost, to re-

of the
as the

Holy City; and the
feudal sovereign of

government of Frederic,
Palestine,

was established
leisure

in tlie capital of the king

dom.*

But no

was

afforded

for

the com-

pletion of these salutary measures of organization and

defence; and the recovery of Jerusalem had scarcely

been achieved, before the feeble Latin kingdom was
once more and suddenly overwhelmed by the violence
of one of those tremendous tempests of barbarian war,

which have,

in various ages, overcast

and desolated
of the storm,
in

the face of Asia.

The remote gathering
plains

which now broke upon Palestine, must be observed
the
far

distant

of Tartary;

and before we

* Matt. Paris,

p.

534-543.

THE SIXTH CRUSADE.
hasten to the term of the present chapter,
led,

387

we

shall be

by no unnatural connection with

its

principal

subject, to take a brief survey of the

revolutions of

Asia during that epoch in the history of the world,

which

is

defined by the

commencement and
which

close of

the Crusades.

Every
had

vicissitude of conquest

afflicted

the

vast continent of Asia throughout the middle ages,
its

origin

among

those restless and wandering
its

tribes

which overspread

central extent from the

frozen deserts of Siberia to the banks of the Indus,

and from the shores of the Caspian
China.

to the frontiers of

Under various
is

appellations, of

which that of

Tartars
pastoral

the most recent and familiar, these same
at several periods, to impel

and predatory nations have

as often as

some master-spirit has arisen

and

guide their migrations, burst the bounds of their wild
native regions, and inundated the more civilized seats
of

mankind with a

terrific deluge.

From

this source

had successively swept toward the West, the
tions of the
pire; of the

irrup-

Huns

at the downfall of the

Roman Emand of

Hungarians

five centuries later;

the Seljukian Turcomans in the following age.

The

establishment of a great empire, embracing Persia,
Syria,

and Asia Minor, by these Seljukian Tartars,

and the terror which their successes excited in the Greek Emperors, have already been related among the
proximate causes of the Crusades
;

and in the Otto-

man

descendants of the same race, after the apparent

388

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.
its

extinction of
rity in the

power and a long interval of obscu-

mountains of the Lesser Asia, we are hereof Constantinople.*

after to discover the conquerors

In the course of the period marked by the Crusades,
all

the original dynasties of the Seljukians were overutterly obliterated

whelmed and

by domestic revoaspect of Syria,
features
;

lution or foreign violence.

On

the

indeed, this change impressed no

new

for in

that country the
recruited

Turcoman cavalry was continually
pristine seats of

by fresh swarms from the
;

the nation

and

it

was

at the

head of these kindred

hordes that Saladin founded his empire on the com-

mon

subversion of the Atabec sovereignty of Damaskhalifate

cus and the Fatimite
Persia

of Egypt.

But

in

and in

Asia

Minor, or

Roum, the
the
in

catas-

trophe was

more

violent;

and

ruin of

the
those

monarchies,
countries,

founded

by the

Seljukians

was among the desolating

effects of a

new

*

in fact of the

The Kharizmians, from whom the Ottomans are descended, were same race as the Seljukian Turcomans, but issued two
After their expulsion from
the Moguls, a body of these

centuries later from their native plains.

Persia by

Kharizmian Turcomans
or Iconium.

under Soliman Schah sought refuge in Asia Minor, and entered into
the service of the Seljukian Sultans of
ruin of that dynasty

Roum

On

the

by

their old

Mogul enemies,

the Kharizmians

under Othman, the grandson of their original leader Soliman, preserved an independent existence in the mountains of Bithynia; the

remains of the Seljukians were gathered to the same standard; and
these

Turcoman nations became blended

into one people, and

known

in history

prince.

by the name of Ottomans from that of their Kharizmian De Guignes, Hist. Gcnerale des Huns, &c., vol. v. p. 328-337.

THE SIXTH CRUSADE.
and mighty irruption from the
Tartary,*

389

farthest recesses of

About the
formidable

first

years of the thirteenth century, the
victorious progress of a
first

name and

new

con-

queror and nation of Tartarian race
the astonished world.

broke upon

From

the wide upland plains
to the

beyond the great eastern desert which extend

Chinese wall, issued a race described as countless in

number, and as more horridly inhuman in aspect and
spirit,

and more utterly devoid of

all civilization,

than
let

any of the destroyers of mankind who had been
loose

from the Tartarian regions
earliest

to desolate the earth.

Their

appearance

in

authentic

history

is

under the general term of Moguls; and under the
guidance of a leader, whose proper designation of

Temudgin has almost
title,

been

lost

in

the

national

which was arrogated

for his grandeur, of Zingis

Khan,
a
is

or the Mightiest of Lords.

He was

the son of

khan who had reigned over

thirteen hordes;

and

it

probable that the immense masses of the same

generic features,

who were drawn

to his standard

by

the results of conquest or the thirst of rapine, derived
their

common term of Moguls from the original distinction of his own tribe. The early fortunes of a barbarian conqueror, the founder of his own greatness,
* In Persia the original dynasty of the Seljukians had already

been supplanted by that of the Sultans of Korasm; but the conquerors, as above observed, were of kindred

Turcoman

stock.

De

Guignes,

vol.

ii.

lib. xiv.

390

THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.

I

Zinr/is

Khan.

are

always

obscure;

the

unlettered"-^

traditions

of

nomadic savages must be equally destitute of authenticity

and interest;

[A. d.

1206;] and

we may

at once

dismiss the tale of vicissitudes, whether fabulous or
real,
first

which are ascribed

to the

youth of Zingis.

He
;

burst the limits of his native Tartar reign, to pre-

cipitate his

myriads upon the plains of China

the

great

wall proved but a feeble
cavalry;

barrier against his

innumerable
fare

and

after

a

desolating

war-

he tore

five great provinces of the

north from

* Zingis himself could neither read nor write, and

it

was not until

the lapse of near a century, that the traditions of his life were collected

by order

of a Persian khan, his great-grandson.
(Paris, 1716,) p.

Do

la Croix,

Histoire

du Grand Genghizcan,

536-539.

THE SIXTH CRUSADE.
the

391
the

huge

buf

ill-cemented

fabric

of

Chinese

dominion.

The complete conquest
to the

of that empire seems only to

have been suspended by a diversion which was given

Mogul arms.
afforded

by command of
Persia,

The murder of his ambassadors Mohammed, the Kharizim Sultan of
Zingis

a just cause of war;

and,

traversing the wide expanse of Tartary, he descended
into

Western Asia

at the

head of an incredible

force

of seven hundred thousand Moguls and Tartars.

On

the great plains which are intersected by the Sihon or
Jaxartes, and the Oxus, he

was encountered by the
hun-

Turcoman Sultan with an
dred thousand

inferior host of four

men

;

and in the stupendous

conflict,

the victorious Moguls slaughtered nearly the half of
their enemies.

This success laid
;

all

Persia open to
to

the destroyers

and, stimulated

by vengeance

even

more than

their ordinary inhumanity, they spread a

frightful devastation,

from the

eilects of

which those

re-

gions have perhaps never recovered, from the shores of

the Caspian to the banks of the Indus,

[a. d.

1224.]

The Sultan Mohammed,
he

flying from the storm

which

had

provoked, found an inglorious safety and

obscure

death in one of the desert islands of the

Caspian; but his valiant son Gelaleddin, whose exploits

became the darling theme of Persian song,

still

opposed, with the remnant of the

Turcoman

bands, a

heroic though fruitless resistance to the progress of

the victors.

In

many

a well-sustained combat, his

unable to command the further progress of his satiated hordes. and. laden with the spoils of Persia. f. des |" Huns. as his last command. dearest qualifications of Octal. Burta Koutchin. whom and motion and rapine the life. Art. DelaCroix. passim. 1. The four sons of Zingis and Zagatai —were the inheritors alike of his wild genius and expansive dominion . Zingis slowly led back his myriads. to complete the conquest of the Chinese empire. vol. Tooti."' This injunction was imposed upon a race to repose was intolerable. but these wei'e the only princes ployed in great stations. Hist. chief of the tribe of Konharat. 260. iv. enjoining his children. In these regions he shortly closed his destructive career by a natural death. p. five principal wives of Chenghiz. whom he easily subjugated. by the admiration which his prowess extorted from Zingis rosity in the recorded —the only trait of gene- actions of the barbarian — to escape unmolested. long retreat to the banks of the Indus was tracked by the blood of his pursuers. and rapid current of that he was suffered. Bihliotheque Orienfale.) . s all of whom were Malcolm Persia. lib. " He had many other sons. Gen. and boldly plunging with his steed into the broad river. the first in rank among the of high birth. du Grand Genghizcan.f * D'Herbelot. or recalled to Tartary by a revolt of some chieftains. The Indus was for a season the term of Mogul devastation.— — — 392 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. the daughter of Zei Nevian. Genghizcan. em- Hist. De Guignes. and destined by their father for monarchy probably on account of their high descent by their mother. Gelalcddin. Touslii. to their native plains. (Note. xv.

under the title of Great Khan. another of his grand- was intrusted by the Great Khan Octal . into which it but of the two empires had been divided. over the Mogul and Tartar nations. Western Tartary. more remarkable than their native ability. the northern. and Persia. Persia. and when Kublai had achieved its its fall and extinction. Other enterprises suspended the the southern dynasty of the Chinese for about forty years. their descendants Russia. at the and no inconsiderable part of Europe. and. By these sons of Zingis and their immediate succes- sors. Tartary. Only eight years sons. over China. the latter three were satisfied to enjoy dependent sovereignties under their brother Octai. was completely fate of swallowed up in the Mogul dominion five years after his death. in little more than half a all century had conquered or overrun nearly Asia. the unity of the Mogul power was already vast branches. and with a spirit of fraternal or 393 prudential concord. The total subjugation of the of these countries was reserved for Kublai. one of the grandsons of Zingis. who was elevated by their consent to a general supremacy. the Danube. and the Vistula. and first reigned Siberia. after his death. already life dismembered during the of Zingis. close of the period embraced in this chapter.THE SIXTH CRUSADE. broken by the separation of Mean- while. the Mogul arms were carried from the shores of the Pacific Ocean to the banks of the Euphrates. Baton. the race of Zingis were seated on independent thrones in Russia.

] Moguls. command of a host of five hundred thousand [A. d. was so the King of Hungary. conflict. Hun- gary. 1242. for the invasion of Russia. its the country to capitals of Moscow and Kio burned ashes . was only princes and chi- saved by the firmness and energy with which the Emperor Frederic * II.. lence the Tartar invasion With continued vio- swept over Poland. and the circumjacent regions. from the shores of the Baltic'^'" to those of the Euxine and Adriatic. exhorted its Mogul conquests has been Matthew Paris. as there was no exportation." as the historian observes. and of so active a cial commer- intercourse between England and the North. The destruction caused by the approach of the Moguls to the Baltic prevented the inhabitants of that coast from sending their vessels to Engexample of tlie effect of the A singular noticed by Gibbon. p. d. utterly defeated. as illustrating the existence of a regular herring fishery. "It whimsical enough. should Khan. the Teutonic Order. so that.] in a single Bela IV.. 394 with the THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. In the battle of Legnitz. Gerall many. "that the arms of a in China. . and the Polish Palatines were routed with tremendous slaughter. to take in cargoes of herrings as usual . In the resistless progress of such swarms. in that early age. from a passage in land. forty or is fifty of those fish sold for a shilling. that he abandoned his realm to its ruin. Amid the consternation of Christendom. 1235. devastated. the Duke of Siberia. [A. who reigned have affected the price of is fish in the English market :" but the passage also curious. the princes of that devoted land were overwhelmed. 398. the rude national independence destroyed and the Mogul yoke permanently fastened on the people for two hundred years. in 1238. and perhaps Western Europe.

and entered Europe with them as interpreter accurately presents the — genuine lineaments of the Mongolian race. Alban's. by their art the Austrian city of own distrustful ignorance of the of sieges. scapulas rigidas et erectas. p. (p. curious. long teeth and few of them. and Additamenta." thin and pale faces.f letter in * See the version of his circular Matthew religion Paris. that fifteen in covered twenty days' description journey in length.* The progress of the Moguls was arrested soldiers by the gallant defence of a in few knights and Neustadt. and probably by respect for the exskill perienced prowess and superior chivalry of the West. 1128-1131. menta proeminentia et acuta. valry to 395 com- arm for the general defence against a mon and merciless first enemy. 49Gto 498. A frightful breadth ! estimate of the numbers it of a Tartar host is given in the assertion. dentos longos et raros. and exhorting him as well as other princes.nd strong bodies. the huge inundation of Tartar warfare last began slowly to recede. who had wandered eastward from Palestine. as it were. palpebras a crinibus usque ad nasum protensas. 539. " Habent autem pectora dura et robusta. . &c. nasos distortos et breves. of the gathering obstruction at From its first Neustadt. oculos inconstantes et nigros. addressed to the King of England. by the arguments of a common and danger unite in despatching succours for the defence of the frontiers of Ger- many f the — '' velut Christianorum januam" —the gate. facies macras et pallidas. short and misshapen noses. 487. p.THE SIXTH CRUSADE. retiring and deep upper jaws. projecting and sharp chins. 496-498. fallen among those barbarians. A lively picture of the terror of is Christendom at the progress of the Tartars afforded by many passages and letters in the History of Monk of St. aspectus obliquos et torvos. superiorem mandibulam humilem et profundam. (They have large .) was obtained from an outlawed Englishman. especially in p. eyelids extending from the hair to the nosC. high and stiff shoulders. of the Christians.. and at rolled back its waves to the deserts of Asia. and it is One — which. 538-540.

) . nor condition." (when vanis quished they ask no quarter. the emphatic evideiro of a war of extermination and their very women. he closed a career. and a doubtful and fierce look. Avere wooed for their powers of destruction. more important and durable. and easily credited throughout Europe. she who fights best. et vincentes may be doubted. a third mighty victor Zingis. d. . who. upon the aspect of the The per- manent subjugation of Persia was the gou. civilized world. for assuredly they spared neither age. 1258. yet their cannibalism.] but the second invasion and conquest of the southern regions of Asia had some effects. on the first withdrawal of the Moguls to their native plains.) Their ferocity could hardly be exaggerated. though asserted by eye- witnesses.396 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. sex. work of Hola- among the grandsons of That kingdom was again bravely defended by the hero Gelaleddin. warlike and ferocious as themselves. and when victors they give none. is 1131. of the Mogul power in the central expanse of that quarter of the globe —which in the triple partition of the dynasty of Zingis formed the Empire of Western Tartary —may be overlooked in its uninteresting obscurity. concupiscibilior habetur" (and thought most worthy of marriage.) p. But his efforts were again fruitless against . the innumerable Tartarian swarms and after sus- taining a contest of eleven years and the vicissitudes of fourteen great battles. The meanwhile. which was old worthy of a better termination. [a. state. " Victi quoquenon supplicant. had returned from India. non parcunt. " Et quae melius pugnat. and resumed the possession of his ruined throne. by a sluggish age and an inglorious death in the fastnesses of Tur- black and unsteady eyes.

which the re- Moslem world had constantly the family of their and the ambition of usurpers had as per- petually violated. and who had reigned in Asia for was hunted from of Holagou .* * The foregoing narrative of the conquests of the Moguls under . real. 397 After the subjection of Persia.THE SIXTH CRUSADE. his throne. and mur- dered by command and with him expired the union of spiritual and temporal supremacy. kestan. the representative of the long line of Khalifs. and the death of the last sovereign pontiff of a religion which the idolatrous conquerors^ were period to at a subsequent feeble embrace and extend. that delayed their appearance on the shores of the Bos- phorus and the Mediterranean. more nominal than reverence of the cognised. the ravages of the same tempest spread over Asia Minor and Armenia. long become. it was only some unexplained change of course in the barbarian movements. in prophet. The Mostasem. the Seljukian dynasty of Syria. and approached the confines of In the former country. five centuries. the crowning triumph of Holagou was the capture of Bagdad. While the Turcoman dynasty of Persia and the Abassidan Khalifate were thus finally swept away. Roum was overwhelmed same and in the deluge of Mogul invasion. the extinction of the once splendid Khalifate of the Abassides. the Christian principalities of Armenia shared the fate . indeed. rather than any foreign resistance opposed to their progress. man of who boasted their descent from the kinsMohammed.

flying before the Moguls. tlie But even tories secondary consequences of their vic- were fatal to the Christian power in Syria . and we are recalled to the History of the Crusades by the fall effects of their conquest of Persia. &c. approached the frontiers of Palestine with the purpose of demanding a settlement in Egypt. both Christian and Moslem sanc- the successors of Zingis has been abridged chiefly from vol. 1242 . with references to the more modern text of Gibbon. in the second year after the recovery of Jerusalem by the Earl of Cornwall. and irritated against hostilities of the the Christians by some unprovoked to Templars. advised Palestine. establish themselves in and. De Guignes. these all made a the remain- By the rapacious or wanton fury of barbarians. Ixiv..-six. bursting into the place. Alarmed at their appearance. [A.. the city was abandoned by the knights of the military orders on the approach of the invaders.] and the savage Kharizmians. d. en- tered the cavalry. . Barbacan. Holy Land at the head of twenty thousand The ruined defences of Jerusalem had not yet been sufficiently restored to sustain a siege. one of these tribes. ch.398 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. xvi. the sultan. guided by an Egyptian emir with a body of his master's troops. horrid and indiscriminate massacre of ing inhabitants. to divert such unwelcome guests from his own them states. the When or the of Gelaleddin dispersed Turcoman Kharizmian hordes which he had gathered to his standard for the defence of his realm. iv. lib. the Kharizmian chief.

235. f Matt. Johne's Translation. 1244 .-|fortresses Tiberias. to the victors left . and three Teutonic knights. successively either carried [A. vol. Ascalon. p. only twenty-six thirty-three Templars.) p. fell on the field. Aleppo. (in Joinville. both of the Hospital and Temple. escaped from the general slaughter. . tuaries d99 alac- were profaned and pillaged with equal rity. the Christian chivalry made common cause with the Moslems of Damascus. and these territories sent suc- cours to the knights of the military orders. by storm or abandoned the whole country was . Paris.THE SIXTH CRUSADE. Their Syrian allies were routed and dispersed. 546-549. But the inferior to united force of these confederates was still that of the Egyptians and Kharizmians. the very sepulchres were violated. they suffered a terrible defeat. D. and of the whole Christian Hospitallers. ii. p. 556-558. and the sultans of all Ems. Paris. and when the rash exhortations of the patriarch of Jerusalem induced the knights to hazard a battle. the remains rifled. chivalry.* To arrest the progress of invaders more fierce and inhuman than any by whom Syria had previously been desolated. of the dead disinterred and and the most sacred and valuable relics of Jerusalem involved in a general destruction. 557.] a prey to chi- their ravages and the remains of the Christian valry and inhabitants shut themselves up in their last * Matt. Makrisi. of the Latin kingdom. the grand-masters. and other fell.

this expulsion of the Khariz- mians produced no Palestine. and Makrisi. the Mos- lems of Syria and Egypt felt the necessity of reunit. once more fenders were suggested to the martial and religious feelings of Europe the necessity of a new Crusade. Joinville. t Damascus. 209-211.* et * Matt. relief to the Christian cause in still The Holy Sepulchre remained in the the Latin hands of the Syrian or Egyptian infidels.400 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. 236-238. (ibid. . Paris. ing to crush intruders so destructive after capturing the barbarians. By subsequent dissensions be- tween the Egyptians and Kharizmians. and their whole horde was slaughtered or dispersed.. and the extremity to which reduced.) p. p. strougliold of Acre. kingdom had again well nigh dwindled fortress of into the single its de- Acre. or driven back upon the Eastern deserts. were utterly defeated in a general engagement by the Sultan of Egypt. Palestine was delivered from the presence of the latter. their leader Barbacan was But slain. ubi supra 599-639.

at which was convoked for this Lyon among other purposes. by Pope Lmocent IV.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE..] and temporal wars suspended throughout Christroubled state of for four years tendom. HE design of this sacred enter- prise was ratified. it was resolved that a Crusade should be preached. THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. 26 The . in a general assembly of the Latin Church. 401 View on the Nile. and at a council. as usual. d. all [A. SECTION IV. 1245.

Italy. the Emperor Frederic and the papacy. Paris.. Champagne. Germany and and the renewed quarrel between II. both by the notes and dissertations of Du Cange.. the prosecution of the Holy War was abandoned to the chivalry of France and Eng- land. Louis. (the former crusading com- panion of the Earl of Cornwall. however. chiefly through the example of Louis IX. whose memoirs have been enriched. and the events of the Seventh Crusade are confined to the expedition of St. f Our sufficient guide. vowed to serve under his standard. The Norwegian monarch having been diverted from his enterprise by some unexplained causes. for the events of the Seventh Crusade.) with the Bishop of Salisbury. Walter de Lacy. that the flame of enthusiasm was most ardently and effectually rekindled.f * Matt. w^hose character was almost equally revered by both nations . and by extracts from The text of such Arabian MSS. 402 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. the Earl of Leicester. will be that good knight John. grand-seneschal of St. seem to have prevented the missionaries of the Holy from meeting with War much success in those countries but the effects of their preaching extended to remoter regions. assumed the It Cross. how- . Matthew Paris. and Haco. and many other English nobles and knights. King of Norway. will also. the contemporary national historian. p.* was in France and England. Lord de Joinville. the faithful companion of and actor in the scenes which he describes. Louis and his insular auxilaries. and on the intelligence of whose pur- pose William Longsword. 643. as illustrate the subject before us.

the with which he the virtues and cherishes the memory of the excellent prince whom he followed. Louis was joined by a long array of the baronage of France. In Cyprus. ever. and. 403 Blanche of Castile. Louis IX. supply some notices of the share of the English crusaders in the expedition.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. During his his absence on the Crusade. But the perfect good faith which breathes through the affection narrative of the Marshal of describes Champagne. the celebrated Blanche of Castile. . and the unaffected simplicity with which spirit. with their knights and men-at-arms. not to claim our respect. and too pious. altogether give a charm and value to his lively relation. left kingdom under the administration of his mother. too he confesses every emotion of a truly brave for conceal- ment of which and fill its fears. with all his superstition. is scarcely to be found in any other authority of the times. the general rendezvous of the expedition. the realities of chivalric adventure with more delightful and moviniz: interest than all the creations of romance.

. we have elsewhere quoted. " They with a loud voice sang the beautiful hymn of Vent Orcator from the beginning to the end. 118. Ilaco. I was obliged to pass near dared never turn gret. so that our sails. [A. tn I Urban. ." &c. (Johnes's Translation. the mariners set their sails in the filled name of God. my eyes that way fail for fear of feeling too great re- and lest my courage should on leaving and my fair castle of Joinville." His all descriptions always bring the scene before our eyes.) naloe reflection immediately afterward. heart.] Eight months were consumed prudence. which I loved my two in my fine children. a breeze of wind lose sight of land. St. and soon made us p. on the prudence of carrying a good conscience to sea. D. * Nothing can be more toucliing than Joinville's expressions of his feelings on quitting his native land and kindred on so distant and *' perilous an enterprise. But as I was journeying from Bliecourt to the Castle of Joinville . and while they were singing. we saw His only sea and sky. among War/-= others. Instantly after. King of Norway. by the noble historian of the Holy 1248.104 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. it with little necessity or should seem. 119.

i'f'^^'~ ' I'll fli|!!.' iiiifffsif".f!f pf f:!™|l5'ii!l'iif ill'ii'f :!'!] .

five thirty thousand foot.* But a violent tempest. as the principal seat of the Moslem power. including Extracts appended to Joinville. and by a strange blindness or fa- the very errors which had entailed destruction thirty years before upon a Christian army on the from the same shores. and a force of infantry which has been variously estimated at from fifty to above one hunblowing dred thousand. that. selected for the theatre of operations. is aggeration of Moslem vanity. and one hundred and nine thousand knights. Louis afterward declared * If an Arabian historian to one of the officers of tbe Egyptian Sultan that he had landed with thousand horse. See Arahic this is doubtless an ex(^ihkl. at seventy servants. and contained full two thousand eight hundred knights. shore. when the French king made the port of Damietta. 2G2. and a passage in Makrisi.406 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. its before the congregated host finally proceeded to destmed scene of action. p. so dispersed this immense armada knights. with their horses and an attendant cavalry of six or seven thousand men-at-arms. was again prise of the tality. . were now faithfully copied or repeated.. workmen and But p.) which estimates the whole force thousand men. the capture of Damietta for the first enter- war. In imitation of the plan of the Fifth Crusade. from the Egyptian coast. Egypt. sailed The armament with which Louis shores of Cyprus covered the sea with eighteen hun- dred vessels. great and small. he had not with him above seven hundred The numerous so forces of the sultan lined the and awed and astounded the French by may be credited. 254. probably much nearer the truth.

much more than the numbers of the resolved on an immediate attack. and him- in complete armour. that the councillors of Louis vised his him to defer his landing until the junction of absent knights." Joinville says he insti- uated by the P. and the oriflamme borne before him. was among the foremost who reached the shore. contrary great obloquy by appropriating the whole of (0 '-the it good and ancient customs" observed in the Holy Land. self.] fire Before the infidels however. . To which seems was strangely at variance with the usual conduct of so scrupulous an observer of justice as the "good saint. that they not only fled from the strand. in a siege of the former Crusade. his lance on his wrist. 407 and the clang of their trumpets ad- and kettle-drums. leaping into the waves breast high. with much valua- * la consequence of this destruction of merchandise. the booty captured. with his shield pendent from his neck. The Mussulmans were so panic-stricken at the boldness of the Christian debarkation. they set in many places to the trading quarter of Damietta. among the crusaders. 1249. not exceeding six thousand livres in value and Louis incurred to himself. by all spoil which one-third of thirds were shared went to the king. it had been furnished with a numerous fortified gar- and was more strongly it than when. ill advice of a prelate. had sustained eighteen months. small.* which. but the gallant monarch. though rison. fled. although Damietta had long been the emporium of Egypt. and the assent of his council. d. was . who dreaded a continued exposure of his armament to the perils of the sea infidels. 12G. but abandoned the city of Damietta. their imposing array. and the remaining twothis act.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. [A.

was utterly consumed. . and others. had succeeded in reaching the banks of the His Nile some time before first the Christian descent. though afflicted with a mortal disease. 116-128. p. soon discovered that it was no more than a transient panic which had delivered Damietta into their hands selves . astonished at their sion of the deserted city. the master of the Templars. own and impatiently awaited the arrival of the remainder of their scattered armament/'' The crusaders. brother of the great Saladin. however. as- as he was. was to punish of their officers with . See also several Matthew Paris from the Count 1090-1094. and the success. letters in p. 238-242. Addita- menta. act. Makrisi. ill his next. took posses- French. and they themits were shortly besieged within of the sultan. all sume the personal command of Egypt. had been recalled from his career of conquest in Syria to the defence of his kingdom . announcing the capture of Damietta. and who. The gather- ing numbers of the infidels already began to straiten * Joinville. filled walls by the at army this The throne of Eg^'pt was epoch by Nedjmeddin. courage prince of and ability.408 ble THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. on intelligence of the meditated invasion of the French. d'Artois. which he the levies of in- summoned to his standard. merchandise. and vest on all sides the Christian position. who. the death which their cowardice deserved to hasten. p. to the scene of danger. on learning the flight of the garrison of fifty Damietta. grandson of a Sa- phadin.

) The good king even told own pavilion were several Ed. who sent five hundred horse to guide the Chris- .J The * After describing the debaucheries of the nobility. Car ilfaihit que ses roy en donnait conet officicrs. that at a stone's throw round his brothels. when their anxiety was relieved by the junction of those parts of their expedition which had been dispersed on the voyage from Cyprus. together with a body of English nobles and knights. (The commonalty likewise gave themselves np to de- bauchery. and driven into Acre. for it women and girls. is 128-132. 664. que tcnoient. under William Longsword.* into licentious excesses and which their victorious leader to repress.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. Louis 409 and his followers in Damietta. (was obliged to wink) d tout plain de le gens Car ainsi que pris et hon roy me dist. 32. however. and quent ruin of their enterprise. me. interrupted only by skirmishes with the host fell infidels. J There an inexplicable tale in eToinville of the treacherous con- duct of the sultan. and violated both in consequence. Notwithstanding the arrival of these reinforcements. t Joinville. and the crusading disorders. Dont de (jie advint grant mal. p. Joinville adds. Great were the e\ih became necessary for the king to wink at the greatest liberties of his ofl&cers and men. Matthew Paris. p. Et le commun ce peuple se print a forcer ct violer le femmes et Jilles. il trouve j'usques dung gect de pierre ses gcnf: d Ventour de son paveillon plusieurs hordeaux. Paris. p. much time was lost in mischievous inaction at Damietta. wanted either power or energy their pious historian does not and to which hesitate to ascribe the wrath of God and the subseadvance to Cairo.f At Nile length it was resolved to the Christian army began to ascend the branch of the from Damietta towards that capital. 1668.

as the French were unsuccessful in their efforts.ils over the Latins in martial science is very evident. of the appalling effects of which the brave knight gives a woful description. who were P. the infidels destroyed with the Greek fire. was invented or discovered by Callinicus of Heliopolis in Syria. last enabled to pass the canal only by the treason of a Beexistence of a ford through the cur- who betrayed to them the But it may be observed as a curious fact. under cover of their chas-chatails. as fast as they were built. as Mansoura but with the capture of that town commenced the disasters of the Crusade. or wooden towers. and were immediately cut to pieces by that fiery chivalry. throughout the operations of this disastrous campaign. It seems inconceivable that the " good king" should have been gulled so by clumsy a stratagem. Of the comefiects of position of the celebrated Greek fire.* near that place. 132. sacrificed to in- fidels some suspicion of the impetuous Templars. was far as though slowly accomplished. it . and may rather be suspected that the were deserters. the superiority of the Orient. * "VYe omit a long account in Joinville of some unavailing efforts of the French. The whole passage (p. in the year 6G8. nothing whatever is known with certainty. who. These machines. the Count d'Artois. to throw a causeway over the canal of Ashmoum. river. and thus led his enemies into a snare ! The French were enjoined not to injure any of these Mussulmans.410 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. At the head of the flower of the French and English chivalry. sud- denly turned upon the Templars in the van. 134-138) forms a valuable is illus- tration of middle-age warfare. of the Moslems. to the marvellous which the mediaeval historians and annalists bear such ample and r^uch It frequent testimony. and were at douin. and having communicated the secret of its preparation to the Greeks. effect Ashmoum canal. rent. that. however. attacked them by surprise. one of the brothers of Louis. who was probably a master-builder or architect . being detached to the passage of the tian army. but unimportant to our present all narrative. march along the bank of the the resistance notwithstanding successfully .

with- out deigning to listen to the experienced counsel of William Longsword. 411 rashly pursued the flying infidels into the town. it for four centuries. em- ployed the Greek with destructive force against the army of King Louis. with the knights of both orders. gunpowder. and when the fury of their charge had thrown the w^hole body into confusion. Asphalt. . they burst into the town of Man- soura . vied with the French in the blind precipitation of their valour. by water. to await the support of the main body of the army. and totally was preserved by them other. though to employment would seem to have been confined wholly after the discovery of Eastern in Europe and Asia IMinor. oil. . but the fourteenth century. expressly mentions the pitch obtained from ever- was projected in various forms. who.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. vinegar. fire we see above. and petroleum. and from various kinds of instruments. led the national chivalry of France into headlong destruction. the masters of Temple and Hospital. are all supposed to have been used in it is or mineral its composition. The conduct of the French prince was marked by the same vaunting temerity which. or mineral bitumen. we hear no more of its use as an implement of destruction. by some means or as was procured by the Moslems. Longsword and the his English brethren. though green in what proportions It impossible now to ascertain and Anna Comncna firs. Stung by his insolent reproaches. but extinguishIt and other liquids. and the grand-master of the Templars. they were enveloped in the place by the rallying infidels. when. in so many previous and subsequent combats of the Middle Ages. was imdoubtedly the most formidable material of war known its to the Middle Ages. and was inextinguishable able by sand. sulphur.

critical position new the confidence Nedjmeddin himself was now expired dead. having lately under incurable malady against which his spirit had bravely striven * Joinville. rectly noticed the share of the English in the crusade . that Louis assigned a certain post to "the Duke of Bur139) is gundy and the nobles beyond foreign auxiliaries seas. whatever cause. the victims of his presumption. has passed in silence over the by which that prince brought such ruin on tale of the fatal rashness the crusading cause. we believe.. and the master of slain the Templars. passage in which he deigns to record the presence or services of these among his countrymen. and the fate remnant of the band were rescued from the same only by the advance of the main army under the king himself. on the contrary. his allies. the master of the Hos- pitallers fell alive into the enemy's hands. from respect probably memory of the Count d'Artois. . p. without advantage to the Christians. Makrisi. the good seneschal has never once. For the relation in the test of the part taken by the in- English crusaders in the calamitous action of Mansoura. 672-680. Paris. who. were spot. Alban's. 412 routed." (p. to inspire into the infidel host. and a host of other gallant knights. 685. Joinville. THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. Matt.''' This equivocal victory was. It is more remarkable that. or grievously on the wounded . succeeded in compelling the Moslems to retire. after performing prodigies of personal valour. and a single the only observation. and their only served. p. The Count d'Artois himself — the all author of the calamity —William Longsword. however. 132-148. p. 245-248. and has omitted the name of Longsword among from di- the victims of his presumption. we are debted to the to the monk of St.

or like cofier. — Joinville. it a gluttonous fish. those in the affected by it had another sore complaint mouth from eating such fish. THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. and launched below the Christian camp the communication of the French army with Damietta was thus cut ojflf. that rotted the gums. the whole army was affected by a shocking disorder.. his Ashmoum and the river. made we eat frightful ravages in the You must know which is that no fish the whole Lent. and through precisely the same im- prudence. the government was administered by the sul- tana.* soon Louis situa- famine and a pestilence." &c. but eel bodies. and probably on the very ground on which the host of the Fifth Crusade had been enclosed be- tween the canal of and tion. general of the Mamelukes. Touran-Shah. in the Moslem camp tions . Very few escaped death that were thus attacked. in the "The disorder I spoke of. in the sequel. Avho himself. In this diet. the consequences of un- wholesome * " pouts. p. flesh which dried up the on our legs to the bone. seized the sceptre which he wielding. that the barbers were forced to cut away very large pieces of . 159. and our skins bean old boot that has long came tanned lain as black as the ground. and from the bad air of scarcely ever rains a drop. very soon increased so much army. was worthy of sultan. and feeds on dead the country. and the courage of the troops sustained. and the funcskilfully of a commander-in-chief were per- formed. where From this cause. army were now intercepted. On the arrival of the new the Egyptian galleys on the Nile were drawn overland from above. 413 but his death was carefully concealed until the arrival of his son and successor. behind a In addition to this miserable disorder. by Bibars. and caused a most stinking breath. in the name of her deceased lord.

and who heard them. 162.— . brothers. in- shared his fate fidels to but no mercy was shown by the the soldiery and others of inferior condition all and of the Christians of fiital ranks there fell on this occasion. Counts of Anjou and of Poitiers. . though sinking under the same rest of the as the army.] His surviving and Alfonso. to enable their patients to cries eat. a further advance was impossible and after a period of calamitous inaction. Charles [a. d. no other resource remained for the en- feebled and wretched army of the crusaders than to attempt a retreat to Damietta. It was pitiful to hear the and groans of those on whom this operation was per1 forming . the Mussulmans broke abandoned sick . But this movement the was the signal of universal disorder into the and rout. 1250. who endeavoured to escape down the river the troops who marched by land were overwhelmed by the innumerable cavalry of the sultan . and Louis himself illness who. in a state of helj^less haustion from disease and wounds." p. first slaughter of the onset. together with all his nobility and knight- hood. into the hands of the victorious infidels. all and discharged and valiant the duties of a devoted commander ex- soldier — fell. . 414 Christian THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. had remained with the rear-guard. who escaped the . broken only by the assaults of the infidels and some vain over- tures of peace. camp . camp and murdered their galleys cut off all the fugitives . either slain in the field or massacred in flesh from the gums. they seemed like to the cannot express the great concern cries of all felt women in labour.

under in achieving his Bibars. purchased at an early age. p. with pi-ecision uncommon by the same Arabic historian. Paris. 149-170. had been mainly instrumental so familiar to triumph over the Christian invaders. .* The situation of even the captive king his nobles was for some time extremely critical. but appears that not one of the crusaders. in this retreat Makrisi. p. which almost immediately followed the tan. 248-251. The numbers which perished it is. 68G.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. 254. by slaves. and cruelty .sand it —doubthave less an exaggeration. at 415 the lowest computation. is as usual. 685. Matt. favouritism. silent on this point. and of the Christian captives in Egypt. had been organized by the late Sultan Nedjmeddin. escaped. as they continued ever after recruited. to been only twelve thousand one hundred men. by a domestic revolution in Egypt. p. The new it is sul- Touran Shah. afterward released. except the garrison of Damietta. difficult to estimate. but only certain that his impolitic conduct alienated the afiection of the formidable bands whose services. is accused by the Oriental writers of debauchery. These troops. Their ranks had been to be originally filled. principally of the hardy Turcoman stock. and their ultimate safety was placed in imminent hazard. and edu- cated in the camp . and ten women. Moslem victory. one hundred thou. whose renown is European ears under the designation of Mamelukes. cold blood. upward of and thirty thousand men. and capture Joinville of the crusading host. and had proved themselves the firmest support of his throne. but their fidelity to the house of * Joinville. p. the numbers are declared. Makrisi says.

156. the Mamelukes held independent posseshalf. commencing with the great Saladin. under sultans who sprang from and a their own ranks. with Du Gauge's note. the King of France had at first been treated with generosity.416 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. St. Mak- 244. and it has been reserved for our age to witness the final extinction of their bands. sion of those countries for nearly a century until their nominal subjection to the Turkish power. which."' By Touran Shah. their founder expired with his death. had reigned in Egypt and Syria for eighty years. ended the With Touran Shah Curdish dynasty. and they now revolted and murdered his son. . see Joinville. risi. &e. p. for p. Louis in ccqjtivili/. and a negotiation * For the origin of tte Mamelukes.

I could not remember one of p. constable of Cyprus." to grant me. and pay a sum of to four gold. and the completion of the treaty was resumed. however. 176. Da- French garrison in king and his nobles. sequent confusion. been agreed that he should yield up Damietta as the price of his own liberty. but that I was about fell my death . equal in French the de- money hundred thousand livres. " With regard to myself. said. humane or avaricious suggestions finally prevailed in their councils. and I gave him such absolution as God . It had. knelt beside me. in consequence I on my knees at the feet ' of one of them. for liverance of his army. me the power of bestowing but of all the things he had said to me. exchange for the persons of the the Templars were reluctantly compelled to make a loan from the treasurers in their galleys to complete * Joinville himself. and making the sign of the cross. 27 . I imagined that his last hour was come.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. DO longer thought of any sin or to receive evil I had done. his followers was speedily conspirit of Louis. cluded but not until some menaces of torture had been ineffectually tried upon the brave to obtain the surrender of the Christian fortresses in the Holy Land. escaped death'^' In the sub- Louis and his nobles narrowly from the fanaticism of some of the but more Moslem chieftains. to and confessed himself was pleased them.' Sir Guy d'Ebelin. mietta was surrendered by its Finally. his 417 ransom and that of . when a party of Saracens with drawn swords and menacing aspects entered the galley in which he was confined. Thus died Agnes. when I rose up. St. when the murder of the sultan suspended the fulfilment of the treaty.

Paris. (Ptolemais. p. and to employ whatever sures and forces he could still supply or raise in the * Joinville. p. that the disasters and sufferings which they had already undergone were a crusading vows . quod nunquam in dulcem Franciam sic confusus remearet. and the recovery of his fame. But the and religious less and scruples of their king were easily His devotional feelings. 690. first the required discharge of the instahnent of the pecuniary ransom . jurans in cordis amaritudine maxima. p.) and. and Louis. . f " Rex autem apud Achon tristis remansit et inglorious. 251-255. Paris. aban- doning all idea of further service in the sacred cause. that thus dishonoured he would never return Matt. his sensitive conviction of the disgrace with which defeat and captivity had sullied his arms. 686-689. swearing in very bitterness of heart. him to continue his in the hope of achieving some happier enterprise for the redemption of the Sepulchre. suf- ficient acquittance of their and. Matt." (But the king. after some hesitation in his councils. the greater number of the sur- viving nobles. sad and to fair France. gladly availed themselves of the plea. chivalrous satisfied. remained at Acre.) inglorious. bade adieu to the shores of Egypt. p. Makrisi. to announced a settled purpose trea- remain in Palestine.418 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.''' On their liberation. they sailed direct for France. fore proceeded Holy there- He to Acre. 170-184. with the sad remnant of the proud host which had debarked at Damietta. with their followers.-]* equally impelled efforts.

Louis entering Ptolemais.St. 419 .

levies. never amounted to above four thousand men. indeed. ." Joinville.si'??.* During four years he persevered in this design. and in making great additions to the strength of Acre. and his presence and exertions not only deserved and obtained the gratitude of the Christian chivalry and people of Palestine. and Louis pecuniary engagement. but I would to fly into which were that he should promise never would keep a passion for any thing I should say to him. p. and Sidon. however. " that I was not come other terms : him to make such a bargain . p. to "I replied. yet still reluctant to return ingloriously to his native realm. but contributed to suspend for forty years the fall of the last bulwarks of the Latin kingdom on the Syrian shores. who had remained with him was the who had originally maintained his * Among the nobles faithful Seneschal of Champagne. f pas. 205. As the whole force which he succeeded in assembling under his standard. proposed a new offer his first term of hired service expired. When. 184-224. Joinville.. he was prevented from pursuing any offensive operations against the infidels. which was often the case. the circumstances which favoured his and protected the weakness of the Christians.f Among labours. Caesarea. was now compelled to become the stipendiary soldier of the king. unable. train of knights at his own expense." says Joinville. the Christian garrisons.420 defence of THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. during this long period. but his trea- sures were lavishly expended in refortifying Jaffa. to with his exhausted resources and scanty perform any signal action. and I engaged that I my temper whenever he refused what I should ask. but having lost every thing in Egypt. The good saint laughingly assented to these quaint and cheap conditions.

and their reunited were immediately turned against the Chris- The ravage of the Latin territory by a combined army of various Moslems. and a remission of the moiety. at Louis the vanity of his fondest aspisuccess. last revealed to rations. and the struggle of their leaders for the possession of the Egyptian throne. But these sanguine expectations were blighted by the conclusion of peace between the Egyptian and Syrian forces tians. had encouraged the revolt of Damascus under a sultan. and their advance to the gates of Acre. lie received a promise even of the cession of Jeru- salem itself. the relative of the murdered Khalif of Cairo. to obtain from the Mameluke rulers of Egypt the release of all the sur- viving Christian captives whom he had left in that country. a furious civil war between the Moslems of Egypt and Syria in- terrupted their assaults upon the Christians. 421 may be numbered tlic dissensions of then^ enemies. their Louis profited by mutual fears and jealousies. indeed. of the stipulated ransom for his army.THE SEVEiXTII CUUSADE. again excited the hopes of Europe for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre and the re-establishment of the Latin kingdom. and the intelligence of the Moslem dis- sensions and of his successful negotiation. and both parties sought either to gain the alliance or to avert the hostility of the French king. The usurpation of the Mamelukes. which was still unpaid. retired without attempting the . under the Sultan of Damascus. infidels. and the utter hopelessness of ultimate The infidels.

altered wishes and so necessary to the welfare of his king- Embarking at Acre. that he had in vain sacrificed his chivalry and people to defeat and destruction . and that. but in shame and sorrow that he abandoned the cause still dearest to his pious feelings. he had .] It was. quickened his increasing desire to escape from a scene of continued disappoint- ment and ment of mortification. Louis accepted their advice. his brave marked by more than one [a. they gratefully counselled him to think rather of ensuring his safe passage to Europe than of continuing among them. so congenial to his and adopted a measure dom. he reached France after a perilous voyage.422 capture THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. which even the conscious- ness of his own virtuous intentions could not assuage. by which his kingdom was left without a regent. and justified the announce- his purpose to return to France. The news of his mother's death. d. of the strong Christian fortresses. and. and by their retreat Louis remained at liberty to withdraw without dishonour from the suspended contest. The clergy per- and barons themselves of the Latin kingdom. in exchange for the best blood and treasures of his kingdom. however. trial of and generous nature. could not be attended with any advantage ing ceived and acknowledged that his prolonged residence . and he closed the Seventh Crusade with the melancholy reflection and self-reproach. 1254. offer- him their humble thanks and praise for the great good and honour which he had conferred on Palestine.

the two orders drew out their forces in * Joinville. Among the most turbulent and State. and employed in their rivalry arms which they had sworn to use only in the [a. 737. and the Pisans extended their pernicious political spirit rivalry from Europe to the Syrian shore. To decide their quarrel.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. . 766. 720. at least put some check upon the eruption of those Christians themselves. p. irreconcilable communities of the Latin were the colonies of the three maritime Italian republics. Louis. 423 been able to accomplish nothing either worthy of his name. or suitable of Christendom. local Li their insolent disdain of control by the government of the feudal of commercial and kingdom. Paris. bitter feuds among the had ever been the bane of their and which broke out anew immediately after the departure of their royal leader. and the military all orders. Matt. the religious chivalry of the forgot their Hospital and Temple vows in the indulgence of their fierce mutual the hatred. d. the Venetians. openly fought with each other in every seaport of Palestine for the possession of exclusive privileges and quarters. which cause. the Genoese. 1259. 698.] com- mon service of the Cross. and even violated the sanctity of Christian "With more flagrant dereliction of duty churches by impious and bloody struggles for their occupation.* to the general honour and service The had residence of St. tihi supra. however. in Palestine.

which threatened to bury them.* After a revolutionary period of disorder and bloodshed. his ability in the defence of Egypt against * Matthew Paris. and of inflicting . Bibars. Louis. and awoke them to the duty or necesexhausted forces against the sity of uniting their general enemy.424 the field THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. with the whole Christian State. and so sanguinary all and merciless was the encounter. styled also Al Bonducdari or Bondocdar. the prowess or numbers of the Hospitallers prevailed. for a general and formal engagement. to and the purpose with which the Templars the Holy Land. that of the militia of the Temple then serving of the in the Holy Land.) ." (for the purpose of taking a horrible revenge Dn the Hospitallers. when their deadly feud was suddenly smothered under the overwhelming violence of a new tempest of Mussulman invasion. who describes in strong terms the events of the unnatural warfare between these devoted champions of the Cross. escaped the car- From every commandery its Temple in to Europe the most strenuous exertions were made despatch effective members to Palestine. " propter ultionem horribilem in Europe hastened Hospi- hostiliter in talarios retribuendam. a signal vengeance upon the Hospitallers of a and nothing short war of extirmination was meditated between the two orders. 846. p. both for the purpose of replenishing the vacant posts of their slaughtered brotherhood. under a common ruin. the same Mameluke chieftain who had distinguished St. scarcely one knight nage.

In the all open field. the last of ninety who had defended Azotus. 12G6.1263.] common cause. No sooner had he consoli- dated his authority in Egypt. fatal to the which proved nearly power in remains of the Chris- Palestine.] and unanimously sealed the sin- . resistance to their ravages hopeless but the few and a gallant and scanty garrisons of the Latins made desperate defence. d. reduced the Mussulman states in that country into subjection.] and had now commenced an tian enterprising reign of seventeen years. [a.THE SEVENTH CRUSAdE. and martyrdom to apostacy. d. on another. 1265. Hospitallers Upon one occasion. and poured the united forces of the infidels into the Christian territories. who had been reduced to extremity. by that singular fierce ad- mixture of religious constancy with every and unholy passion which distinguished their times and their associations. d. now vied with each other only in the gene- rous devotion of their lives to the in the inflexible preference of [a. [a. and. died in the breach. the numbers of the invaders rendered . was raised 425 by the suffrages of his fellow-soldiers to the throne of that kingdom. the prior of the Templars with his companions. the same men who had so lately stained their swords with the blood of their Christian brethren. the military orders gave many a noble example of heroism . were offered the alternative of a cruel death or instant conversion to Islamism. than he carried his arms into Syria. and surrendered Saphoury on a capitulation which Bibars treacherously violated.

But all cerity of their faith with their blood. is to slain.426 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. above one slavery. from the Christians. et tam quam mulieribus interemptis. Armenia. imam viris de famosioribus orbis civitatibus abstulit Christianis. its depopulation be understood .* Acre was preserved from the same fate only through the succour of the King destruction of the Egyptian of Cyprus. Babylonias vastata. and the capture of Antioch. took Antioch. and the extinction of its Latin principality.) iotal It may. * "Eo anno/' says Kislianger. and the navy by the elements. but Csesarea. and both the men and women being p. he reduced it to a solitude." (In that year the Sultan of Babylonia. completed the triumph of Bondocdar. be doubted whether literally. one of the most famous cities on the globe. few years. which throughout the hitherto tudes of the Crusades had preserved an obscure and uninteresting existence.] [a. having laid waste Armenia. was attended by the massacre of ten or even forty thousand Christians. in solitudinem ipsam reduxit. 857. or awaken castles the timely sympathy and succour of Europe. Antiocham. Jaffa. which was basely surren- without resistance. the heroic efforts of the two orders to failed to arrest the progress of the infidels. and the once proud capisoli- Syria was abandoned to desolation and tude. and many mari- time fortresses successively fell before the Mameluke vicissi- arms. Laodicea. tal of hundred thousand more were sold into 1268. The dered fall of Antioch. d. the continuator of the Clironide of ''Soldanus St. however. Allan's. not only the inland In the course of a of the two orders.

ad part xiv. Gen. xii. lib.THE SEVENTH CRUSADE. iii. . lib.. and tian at this juncture 427 last the fall of that Chrisfor bulwark on the Syrian coast was suspended effort of the twenty years by an expiring spirit. c. &e. 6. des Huns. pars. De Guignes. c. 3.j>assim. Crucis. Mist. Fidel. Secret.. xxi.* crusading * Sanutus.

. SECTION V.428 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. roused the Papal selfish Court from a long and apathy to East. "^'HE appalling intelligence of the dreadful catastrophe which had extinguished the Christian State of Antioch. of France had already contemplated a re- newal of his pious services on the imaginary cause of Heaven. THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. was now quickened by the approbation of Clement IV. the affairs of the zeal and the unabated with which Louis IX.

doubtless. where he anchored. when it was determined by a king of which majority. Three years were consumed with few in preparations for this final effort to recover Palestine. . the desire to visit Tunis. King of Naples and Sicily. 1270. he resolved again to devote his tal energies men- and his material resources to the organi- zation of a new Crusade. The piety of Louis it 429 in was sincere and ardent. he set sail his fleet from the port of Aigues-Mortes. and on the 4th of July. The circumstances which led to this extraordinary resolution are but imperfectly known. to attempt the reduction of Tunis. as to the interested representations of his brother. have taken a more it rational direction. which neither his past experience nor his sufferings. THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. and in a days reached the roadstead of Cagliari in Sardinia. and another age would. and after thirteen years spent at home in the wise and temperate exercise of his regal functions. whose subjects were molested by the but however this piratical practices of the Moors may be. great as the latter had been. could eradicate. and in obedience to the king's secret wishes. and called a council of war of barons and counts to deliberate on the course it his was most proper to pursue . though they may probably be as safely referred to the intensely devotional temperament of the monarch.. but in the thirteenth century was the mere embodiment of a passion livery of the for the de- Holy Sepulchre. Charles of Anjou. the country and his people Louis hoped to convert to Christianity.

to reclaim its inhabitants had taken so deep a hold on the mind of Louis. the want of water. men. howtroops. for did not oppose its debarkation. if. caused a pestilence to break out in the crusading camp. and the Saracenic whose special benefit this detour had been made. The Moors prince. but in vain. but they harassed the Christian army by desultory attacks on outposts and stragglers. that he was heard to say. p. and the necessity of feeding on salted provisions under an African sky. and by intercept- ing their supplies . in a few short weeks. . iii. aided by the heat of the climate. before he left France. to drive ever. at the head of a hundred thousand him into the sea. sacrifice. that he would willingly spend the rest of his of the sun. the Moors had no wish to measure swords with the Christian chivalry. 35. on the of the ancient Carthage. treated the Frankish monarch as an enemy. and these distractions. away from the light by such a he could accomplish this cherished object. and threatened. took place between the hostile beside that Louis avoided one as incompatible with the spiritual design of his mission. which. and the good but mistaken king landed his army on the Tunisian and encamped it territory site on the 24th of July.'^* Many of his wisest advisers tried to turn him from this fatal determination.430 and THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. but on the approach of the fleet fled in dismay. life in a dungeon. nearly decimated * Micliaud. No encounter. for.

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.

The stench emitted corrupted the air. 1270. At length the king himself of the age did of fate its the rude medical art best for him. The ditches of the camp were filled with carcasses thrown in by the heap. Gaultier. on the afternoon of the 25th of August. The Count de Vendome. In the defence of a land and a cause which. Night and day the Frankish fugi- soldiers tive.' and prodigally wasted the blood of the chivalry of Christendom. during two centuries. the last successful exploits of heroism . de Bressac. and disease did their surely. who to had been born at Damietta during the captivity of his father. and despair and misery overwhelmed the unhappy crusaders. but the enemy was to and when sought was nowhere his be found. THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. and the highest condition. died. fell ill. the king's son.. too Fatigue. work but it The dead were so numerous that was found impossible to bury them. fell many others of before the fatal epidemic and when the Duke de Nevers. Meanwhile death sped way through the ranks. —Let us now return to the progress of the Eighth and last Crusade. the Lords de Montmorency. and he wept bitterly. but in vain —the hand was on Louis of France — and he expired tran- quilly in his camp. de Pienne. the 431 hapless army. the Count de la Marche. had continually exercised the valour. on the shores of the ancient Numidia. the hero and the monarch yielded the man and the father. de Nemours. were under arms. famine.

accompanied by by his consort Eleanor. Ediicnd I I ) Liifflimd were reserved for an English prince. and attended kinsman Edmund Crouchback. the descendant of those ilhistrious houses of genet. But their valiant and . which followed that event. Earl of Lancaster. Edward. and a gallant but slender train of knights and soldiers. the his faith- future ful monarch of England. which did not exceed one thou- sand men.432 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. had joined the French army in Africa before the death of Louis IX. force might have absolved the small English prosecution of their vows. four other earls. Normandy and Prince Planta- whose prowess had so often been signalized on the same ensanguined field. . and the abandonment of from the the Crusade by their allies. four barons.

241. Acre. p. he Palestine.) J Both Rishanger and Matthew of Westminster (ubi supra) de clare that. his spirit was he emulated by every English heart and after refreshSicily. (Ed.) p. with Fowin. Matt.) intrabo Tholomaidam. THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. D. iii. vol.. 1601.* . Matt. p. J The broken remains of the Latin chivalry of Palestine eagerly gathered around the standard of Plantagenet and though the * "Juravit solito total force which the Christian State Juramento per sanguinem Domini. Chronica de 3IatIros. Quamvis omnes commilitiones et patriotae mei me deserant. ego tamen. A. Contin. that another hero of the lion-hearted race approached to uphold the banner of the Cross. Fowino custode palufridi mei. (Both in Gale. inquiens. (apud Gale p." (He swore by his usual oatb. Francofurti. (sic enim vocabatur curator equi sui.") p. 859. 859.. Chronicon Thomse Wikes. 94. the keeper of my p. Paris. who imme- had carried his ravages to the gates of Acre. et Fell. The Sultan Bondocdar. f Rishanger. 400. diately retired in discouragement at the report. 28 . re-' kindled the hopes of the desponding Latins and the still memory of the prowess of Coeur de Lion had retained sufficient influence in the East to appal the spirit of the Moslems at the intelligence. Tolamais. attended only would still proceed to by his groom . yet will enter — "Although all my fellow-soldiers and I. Kishanger. Acre was to have been surrendered to the sultan within four days. vol ii. that though every other follower should desert him. Westminster. palfrey. the blood of the Lord. 433 magnanimous leader swore. Chronica Walteri Hemingford. but for the opportune arrival of Edward. saying: compatriots desert me.-j- ing their strength during the winter in sailed in the spring with his gallant band to in that port once The long arrival of Edward more .) 858. 590..

which the Moguls were supposed to have extirpated. . Edward "invenit Sarraccnos et usores eorunl cum parvulis suis in lecto: quos omnes. 242. " ut hostes Christians fidei occidlt in ore gladii. His first exploit. 821. his achievements justified the general expectation both of his enterprising courage and of his military skill. Tartar! detestabiles Assassinos detestabiliores. or one of the few survivors of that fanatical sect of the mountain chief. destruxerunt. 1257. and the hero himself was already stretched on a sick couch. Paris. could muster.^ * In liis first surprise of the infidels.* earlier But the reduction of Nazareth closed . f The destruction of the Syrian assassins by the Tartars is noticed by Matt. &c. when he nar- rowly escaped death from the poisoned dagger of an assassin. p. Whether the villian was the mere hired emissary of a Mussulman emir." coolly con- tinues the chronicler of Melrose.) P.) ''Circulo ejusdem anni. this Edward from boldly mar- scanty infidels. the surprise and defeat of a large body of the Mussulman forces in the field.— 434 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES.. was suc- ceeded by the assault of Nazareth ful slaughter and in the dread- which preceded and followed the capture champions of his of that city. brief career of victory his English followers fell rapid victims to the Syrian climate. army for offensive hostilities against the Advancing Acre. (^ad an. he equally emulated the chivalric valour and the fanatical cruelty of the the Cross." . did not exceed shalled seven thousand men." ones in bed — — (he found of the Saracens with their wives and as enemies of the Christian faith. little all whom. including his English followers. he slew with the point of the sword.

a kindred and more numerous sect. extirpated by the Mamelukes about . but he easily obtained a private audience of mission . ii. is made to prove that Paris was in error that was only the assassins of Persia. 1280. while the prince was reading his cre- dentials. which the Tartars destroyed . is uncertain. and that those of Syria. vigorously with the assassin. and aimed a blow at his intended victim.issinale Edward. by M. he drew a hidden poniard. .THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. from the surprise. Edward under pretence of a confidential and. read before the French Academy of Inand of which a translation is printed in Johnes's Joinville. scriptions. that Edward received several wounds before he recovered strus^ciinof floor. 287-328.sn.) an attempt it p. he felled him to the his and instantly despatched him with own (In the course of this year the detestable Tartars destroyed the more detestable assassins. (vol. according to Abulfeda. Falconet. were A. The attack was so unex- pected.) In the first part of a tedious Dissertation on the Assassins. D. 435 Attempt to a. when.

p. the wasting of disease among his followers the total inade. may be seen in Rymer. 401. As the weapon had been poisoned. which ascribes the recovery of Edward affectionate devotion of his consort Eleanor in sucking the venom from his wounds. or nearly so. Heming- 590-592. notices the presence of Eleanor. 591. Not one of these of a who were contemporary.) p. f The letter from Henry son's return. with the event.436 dagger. whose account is very circum- and has principally been followed in the text. the failure of other Christian princes to despatch their promised succours to his aid. pressing his to withdraw her from the scene. West. not less by the experience of troubles his prowess than by some new which had broken out 859. knew any thing of that beautiful fiction. ad Jin. which were extorted from the Sultan of Egypt. P. 241. stantial. 8G0. de Mailros. in the Mussulman * Rishanger. p. but a leech in his service undertook to cut away the infected flesh from his wounds.) p. Hemingford. p. intelligence illness from England of his for his return father's rj" dangerous and anxiety all conspired in inducing Edward to listen to overtures for peace. THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. Wikes. . successful. (which suddenly breaks assassinate ford. off in its tale of the attempt to Edward.. Matt. 96-98. by royal command.* and the operation was After his effects own restoration to health. the midst of Cliron. 487. i. the creation to the much later age. vol. writers. quacy of his remaining force to any further enterprise and of importance. p. 1816. (Ed. the demand of the leech that she should be removed from the chamber of her lord before the operation was per- formed for his cure. and the gentle violence which was necessary III. the life of the prince was for some time in imminent danger.

given by one pontiff. produced the conclusion of a truce between the infidels and the Christians in Palestine for ten years. and sailed. Edward bade adieu to the Syrian shores. p. 437 and of The mutual necessities of the sultan the English prince. therefore. of a deep sincerity in the cause. Notwithstanding his labours. Pope Gregory X. who had been a sorrowing witness the helpless conearnest endeavour. . But the solitary example. the precarious existence of the Latin State. p. which had alone arrested prolonged. made an immediately after his arrival in Europe. p. and while the remaining Christian possessions on the coast of Palestine were left in the peace which he had won. Wikes.] After the departure of the English prince. some last abortive efforts were used to interest Europe re- in their preservation.] and siding in Palestine when he was to surprised with the news of his elevation to the dition of the Latin State. 99. Hemiogford. 402. seconded by the authority of a general council of the church * Matt.THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. and after a residence of four- teen months in the Holy Land. and the accomplish- ment of a seasonable the progress of the treaty. West.* 1272. for Mameluke arms and another brief period. who was 1274. d. with his few surviving followers. to arouse the sovereigns and nations of Christendom to the preparation of a new Crusade. tiara. d.. for his [A. [a. only served to prove the utter extinction of the crusading spirit. 592. native land. States.

the partisans of Charles of Anjou. daughter of Queen Isabella. and the splendid dream of dismembering the his grasp to the ideal Greek Empire. as lineally descended from Alice. But the prior title of the house of Cyprus was more generally recognisod in . and of a bar- gain with Mary of Antioch. Meanwhile. who desired to perpetuate and who. the baseless throne of Jerusalem had found a claimant in Cyprus. who. not con- tented with the iniquitous acquisition of his Italian realms. were permitted. he could only obtain hollow promises of devotion to the service of the Cross from those princes his favour. he had eagerly purchased. Hugh de Lusignan. the Christians in Palestine. in fact. after his death. during eight years. that wholesale speculator in diadems. although she was descended only from a younger sister of Alice. extended of Palestine. unmolested a peaceful filled re- spite of their fate and that interval was only by the struggle of royal pretensions in the expiring Latin kingdom.438 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. to enjoy . King of who. was. whose rights. Frederic Since the death of the Emperor IL. after failure of issue by the marriage of Frederic His claims were opposed by and lolanta de Brienne. however. crown He rested his claim title to all upon the double pretensions of a papal the forfeited dignities of the imperial house of Hohenstauffen. King of the Sicilies. by the good faith or distraction of the Mus- sulman councils. evaded the fulfil- ment of their reluctant vows. at which he assembled Lyon. the next heir.

but these had expired with his posterity. vol. vol. has fallen into some inaccuracy. and * Mr. Palestine. p. powerless sovereign. eldest a better title. hostilities with over- whelming force yearly repeated his ravages of the . 439 cele- the coronation of . following Giannone. revenged the infraction of the existing ten years' truce by a renewal of . d. indeed. than they had to the throne Two Sicilies. on the faith of treaties. to the Christian coast. THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. p.) "the House of Anjou had no juster claim to the throne of Jerusalem. of course. in short. 371. It upon the phantom king and selves. Hugh had been brated at Tyre and the last idle pageant of regal state in Palestine signan. tearing the city last surviving great fief of its and county of Tripoli the Latin —the kingdom — from dilapidated crown. the house of Anjou could only rest their pretensions on the lapsed rights of Frederic II. the reigning sultan of Egypt and Syria. while the royal line of Cyprus. dicits tated the terms of peace to [a. in was twice provoked by the aggressions of the Latins them- plundering the peaceable Moslem traders.''' was exhibited by the race of Lu- At length the final storm of Mussulman war broke his subjects. Melesinda. (^Crusades. Christian territory and at length. 269. descended from Alice. 1289. in stating (^Middle Ages. sister of her naother. who resorted. of the Mills.] The example of this punishment.. 8vo. ed. as observed by Mr. ii. and. Until that race should be extinct.) Mary of Antiocli to have been the legitimate heiress of Jerusalem in 1272. first marts on the Syrian obtain redress for the After a vain attempt to of these violations of inter- national law. Hallam. had. Keladun. i. on no very important matter." .

] which. two years later. the no less than seventeen . and helpless than its condition. Its defences were strong.440 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. was provoked. were insufficient to prevent a repetition. on the part of the lawless inhabitants of Acre. to utter and enforce a tremendous vow of extermination against the perfidious Franks. the Mameluke prince entered Palestine. all equally disclaim- ing obedience to a general government. can scarcely be imagined. the three military orders. the despoiled great feudatories of his realm. in which the papal king of Jerusalem. and encamped under That for a city. 1291. and enjoying impunity for every crime under the nominal jurisdic- tion of independent tribunals. Of these there were legate. the colonies of the maritime Italian republics. Within its walls were crowded a promiscuous multi- tude. capital of the Latin had been century the the kingdom. swept the weaker Christian garrisons before him. but any state of society more vicious. At the head of an immense army of two hundred thousand men. the towers of Acre. and the representatives of the princes of the West. by a Kliatil. and the Sultan ladun. [A. was now become last refuge of the Christian population of Palestine. disorderly. d. the authority of a feeble government. of similar outrages upon the property and persons of the Mussulman merchants. since the fall of Jerusalem. the son of Ke- new denial of justice. all arrogated sovereign rights. of every European nation. its inhabitants numerous. of- and all abused them by the venal protection of .

the Moslems encoun- tered a resistance worthy of its ancient renown and its triple fra- of the extremity of the cause for which ternity had sworn to die. pars. Ital. 144. the titular crown of Jerusalem. But the whole force of the Mameluke empire. At this awful crisis.THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. the recreant Lusignan. All the her walls was wretched inhabitants who could find such opportunites of escape. which set sail for Europe . the beseigers incessantly plied a long train of balistic and battering engines of huge dimensions and prodigious power against the defences of the its city. that. 441 When. had been destruction. of which the fatal importance the original relations of the siege by is expressed in of ^' its title the Cursed Tower. the vast circuit inadequately manned. lib. xiii. xiii. Gio- vanni Villani. therefore. amid common danger. 20."^' From that gallant chivalry. Sanutus. fenders. and the last defence of Acre was abandoned to about twelve thou- sand men...) lib. the devoted city was in- vested by the infidels. and of an immense population. {in Script. c. who wore lib. thronged on board the numerous vessels in the harbour. with her councils were without concert.. various parts of double wall were beaten fall down or undermined. military for the most part the soldiery of the three orders. vii. vol. Rcr. During thirty-three days." opened a yawning breach into the heart of the place. c. the we need not wonder that.. . and at length the of a principal work. collected for their in its yet youthful vigour. xxi. * De Gruignes. iii.

442 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. whom he had deserted to and who continued guard its But. he seized a few vessels in the port. which was denied not less by the fury of the elements than by the want of ficient shipping. in the night from his post. in the fatal Even hour in which Acre fell. who had wildly sought a means of escape. and Acre was irretrievably Bursting through the city. forced a passage over their bodies . their post was . and sailed away with his followers to Cyprus. and as often were the slain replaced by fresh bands of the Moslems.. and proved himself destitute of the only qualities lustre which might have conferred Secretly withdrawing upon his ideal dignity. the he- . with the following dawn. attacked by the infidels in immense force several times were the assailants repulsed with dreadful carnage. At length. the sands and the waves were dyed with the survived the first . basely abandoned his duty. ruins. the savage victors pursued to the strand the unarmed and fleeing population. German lifeless cavaliers had fallen in overpowering numbers. Even his cowardly flight could not shake the con- stancy of the Teutonic knights in the Cursed Tower. blood of the fugitives all who hor- rid massacre were doomed to a hopeless slaverj^ and the last catastrophe of the Crusades cost to sixty life or liberty thousand Christians. the relentless cruelty of their pursuers. after most of the in the breach. suf- By . the infidels. a torrent of assailants pouring into the place swept its few surviving defenders before them lost.

fall way to the coast. they impatiently renewed the contest slain and most of their number were on the spot. all but seven of their order. without a struggle. roes of the Hospital 443 dis- and Temple preserved and spirit. overpowered by numbers. Theirs was the last effort for the defence of Palestine the Christian population of the few maritime towns which had yet been retained fled to Cyprus. for three and efiected Meanwhile. THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. re- heroism had been conspicuous throughout the was killed by a poisoned arrow . sage with their swords through the fled into the interior country. the knights of St. to the Moslem .. skill Pierre de Beaujeu. they were assailed by the lawhosts . this gallant remnant fought an embarkation. had been their left on the field. John devoted city. carried havoc into the heart of the in- fidel leaguer. and even there resumed the war. whose military and personal siege. or sub- mitted their necks. and efiected their escape by sea to Cyprus. Their valiant grand-master. the Mussulman . When the Red Cross-Knights less insults of issued from their fortress on the faith of this assurance. until they were ultimately driven again to the coast. played their unconquerable Led sallied by their from the grand-master. The few who escaped forced a pasMameluke lines. with a few followers. but the obstinate sistance of his brethren obtained from the sultan the promise of a free and honourable retreat. days after the of the city. and when. the Templars continued to defend their monastic fortress within its Avails.

and. and to chastise the insolence of the enemies of God. after a yoke. even the of a remote dependency of the Latin kingdom of Holy Jerusalem had awakened the most intense anxiety and alarm in Europe pulchre . iii. until the fatal issue of the Fifth Crusade. 21-23. the spirit itself which prompted every preceding enterprise for the same object had not already expired. At every cry for succour from the Christians in Palestine. the capture of fill Jerusalem by Saladin had sufficed to all Europe with grief and horror. bloody contest of two hundred years. De Guignes and G. the possession of the Holy Land was finally abandoned to the enemies of the Cross. and had impressed the three greatest monarchs of the aore with the conviction that it the demands of religion and honour rendered equally dis- imperative upon them personally to revenge the grace of Christendom. for the safety of the Se- and the catastrophe of Edessa had attracted the sovereigns and national chivalry of France and Germany to the plains of Asia. pars. uhi supra. . lib. of the noblest meanest blood of Europe. Villani. A century earlier. myriads of warlike as well the and fanatical volunteers. fall At a still later epoch. c. loss of that last possession of But the mere hopes and the Latins on the Syrian shore would not have put a term to the efforts of Christendom for the recovery of if the Holy Sepulchre.444 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. xii.* The fall of Acre closes the annals of the Crusades. had eagerly responded to * Sanutus.

and the flame of chivalry —which we have elsewhere characterized. image almost their only pastime. vol. . or of the thirst of glory in the chivalry of Europe.* Nor was it that Europe had become less it martial or restless in the fourteenth than in the twelfth century. ii. had been Warfare still constituted the only serious occupation of her princes and nobles — its its pursuit the only path of honourable distinction. no exhorta- which succeeding pontiffs strenuously repeated for fifty years. not produced by any abatement of the love of arms. ch. vii. then. The cessation of the Crusades was assuredly. the call . but may be found — Mr. after a great writer. tions sordid policy of the papal see. But the union with these martial fanatical qualities of that enthusiasm which inspired the Christian * An enumeration in of these abortive eiforts of the popes to rekindle the enthusiasm of Europe would be superfluous in this place. after the fall of Acre. Mill's History of the Crusades. a work to which we take this last occasion of expressing our great obligations. than by any lack of sincerity or change of purpose in Yet. 445 and their devotion chilled to the cause was much its more frequently and diverted from support by the tortuous and themselves. could rouse the princes and people of the West to any earnest design for the revival of the Crusades.THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. as at once a cause and conse- quence of the Crusades in the age —never burned so brightly as which immediately succeeded the extinction of those enterprises.

it would be the ruin of my people. indeed.* * " accompany him in his second ex- —when the religious obligation of wresting of Navarre pressed The King of France and the King me strongly to put on the Cross. and. to this Croisade had been guilty of a great crime. In the thirteenth century. clearly. and the abandonment of Palestine to the un- disturbed possession of the traced to Moslems is clearly to be in the the gradual but total exhaustion European mind of the same superstitious phrensy which. the officers of the sea. p.446 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. and faithful chronicler of his deeds. warriors of the eleventh century. and that I saw total were I to undertake another Croisade. clearly to discern the decline of the crusading spirit in the evidence both of historical and poetical and when the pious follower of St. refused to pedition. inat length stead of being a subject of surprise that expired. on the service of King of France had so grievously oppressed ray people that they were in a state of poverty. its final far more astonishing than decay it . is The long duration of this wild passion. it may rather provoke our wonder that so strange an enthusiasm should so tenaciously have sur- vived all experience of disappointment and calamity. that those who i. (Johnes's . insomuch that we should have great difficulty to recover ourselves. but I replied.) vol. had advised him 241. and had sinned deadly. I have heard many say since. pervading every rank of society. had wrought such stupendous efforts for the possession of the Holy Land." Joinville. and undertake a pilgrimage with them. Louis. however before the fall of Acre —a full generation —we begin literature . that when I was before beyond Grod. had been slowly dissolved . Edition.

lated in the kindred (vol. in which a crusader and non-crusader are made it is to discuss the duty of assuming the Cross. as well as the whole tenor of his conduct respecting the affairs of his Eastern kingdom. Among them. 447 the sepulchre of Christ from the hands of the infidels became the subject of bold and jocular denial popular poem/' in a —we may feel assured that the noble and the minstrel already spoke the altered sentiments of their times. ii. curious specimen by Rutuboeuf. 163. ii. it may be doubted whether any mighty armament could ever again have been directed to the same scene. p. had not produced his two calamitous expeditions.THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. The in causes to which this extinction of fanatical zeal Europe may be referred are obvious.. a French rhymer of the age of Louis. to offer a better exposure of the practical evils which the Crusades had inflicted upon their votaries. (vol. 227. under pre- text of rebuking the levity of the non-crusader. and have often been exposed. in- termediate enterprise of the Emperor Frederic his tardy if not reluctant voyage to the Holy Land.) trans- work of Way.) is preserved a very St. racter if the personal chaSt. . Louis. and influential example of rather than the spontaneous ardour of his nobles. sly minstrel intended to ridicule the expiring folly of his times nor would it be easy. a growing conviction of the hopelessness of success. After the signal and tremendous failure of the Fifth Crusade in Egypt. in more serious terms. than is presented in this lively satire. Throughout this dialogue. evident that the . was evidently induced * In the Fahliaux of Le Grand d'Aussy. assuredly. In the II. the most immediate was. p.

awakened Christendom from natical madness. last which protracted its the struggle seventy years of duration. Richard of Cornwall. see. which had thronged around the consecrated first five banners of their precursors in the Crusades the defence of Palestine itself was abandoned almost entirely to the military orders . But. Accordingly. the service of the Cross became . and the revolutions and consequent weak- ness of the Mohammedan through the States. were unsustained examples heroism. long dream of was the conduct of the papal Urban II.. w^hich served only to prove that their spirit was no longer supported by the popular enthusiasm and hopes of None of those leaders were followed by the immense and various array of the Western their age. beyond all question. political much more by and the than religious considerations efforts of our two English princes. . the primary cause which and fa- both defeated the object of its the Crusades. and perhaps it was only the institution of those martial and religious fraternities. Sincere as Pope and some of his successors undoubtedly were in the promotion of these undertakings. of individual if inspired by a more generous motive of glory or devotion. 448 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. the temptation of diverting the general enits thusiasm to the profit of poral own spiritual and tem- power soon became too strong to be resisted by the selfish ambition and cupidity of the court of Rome. nations. and his nephew Edward.

in the of England. f The promise of warriors spiritual indulgences and pardons is expressly mentioned by Villehardouin as among the primary motives of the who engaged que li in the Fourth Crusade. &c. were openly and shamelessly easy enlargement of the Moreover. p. 463. in other words? every political opponent of the reigning pontifil Innocent III. pardons ere si gran. was the first of the popes to who applied the religious object enthusiasm of Europe this double of taxation and persecution. Et mult $en croisi- erent. . which he directed against the earliest diversion The Crusade Albigenses. was the object. or pardons for sin. the frequent pretence for pecuniary exactions to the papal coffers 449 fill f next. to reach all the temporal enemies of the church. finally. 461. Par. quired to be stretched but a point further. nor can it be doubted that the same conduct was pursued in other parts of Europe. 1. porcr. or. the same spiritual indulgences. (And many took the Cross because that the pardons were so great. sacred duty and merit of combating the infidel foes of God was first extended to the extirpation of heresy among Christians by the sword and this doctrine re. all of the martial fanaticism of the its Middle Ages from original and the in- dulgences which he lavished upon who assumed case * Sufficient examples of this fact.f sold. crusaders were allowed and for even encouraged to commute their vows money to and. 339. THE EIGHTH CRUSADE. by an' the crusading principle. have already heen cited in the present chapter from Matthew Paris. which had been the great inducement all persons of ranks to engage in the earlier Crusades..) 29 . No.

of In- nocent in converting the Saladine which had been first levied by general and voluntary consent more legitimate in purpose. every * This celebrity. During a period their war in which they pursued evidently the opinion of a writer of great research and it though he shrinks from stating les broadly : Peut-on en conet clure que Croisades soient la cause de la guerre des Hussites de la Reformation de Luther ? (May we not then conclude that the Crusades were the cause of the war of the Hussites. 176. which were made the pretext of plundering their revenues. and of the Reformation of Luther ?) Heeren. . 1808. The conduct tithe.450 THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. was. that atrocious warfare. into a compulsory tax upon the clergy. is III. the example which he thus had very important results under his successors. Paris. p. its But though.''' can scarcely be necessary. throughout Europe. spirit as we formerly observed. not only in disgusting the ecclesiastical orders with the prosecution of holy wars. indeed. Essai sur Vlnfiuence des Croi- sades. that loftiness of pontiff which characterized that celebrated his may or redeem memory from any suspicion of mean set sordid motives. in this j)lace. were the Cross in tensive than more exfor the de- any which had been promised liverance of the Holy Sepulchre. to remind the reader of the more flagrant abuses of the cru- sading principle which w^ere so frequently committed by the successors of Innocent of forty years. but also in encouraging that spirit of resistance to the papal exactions which may It be numbered among the remote causes of the Reformation.

451 unrelenting hostility against the imperial house of HohenstaufFen. title was audaciously invested with the and its of a Crusade. even prevented large bodies of cru- saders from proceeding to the Holy Land. crusading principle by its prostitution to pur- poses too grossly temporal long to blindest superstition. in order to and disappointed the of embezzle the immense sums which were collected for the ostensible service of the Cross. One of crown these pontiffs. with the promise of equal indulgences. delude even the ex- Nor were the shameless age. to enlarge would be a waste of words injury sustained upon the in serious by the Christian cause abuses. or to Palestine through these ridicule describe the and scandal which were thrown upon the itself. by inviting them. in the same impeded the zeal religious enteriDrises. frequently pedients less palpable by which the papal court and its agents. during the contest befor the tween Charles of Anjou and Manfred of the Sicilies.. to ex- change the perilous fulfilment of their vows in the East. from the Frederic II. for the lighter service of attacking his political enemy It in Italy. society. Of the extent of these frauds we have country cited abundant evidence. supporters were rewarded with the same privi- leges as the Christian warriors in Palestine. Clement IV. until first excommunication of the fall of his grandson Conradin. even from the monastic annalists of our j own and their effects could not fail to extinguish .THE EIGHTH CRUSADE.

in the last year of the thirteenth century. . At least. but it seems been rather a consequence of the impossibility of visiting Je- rusalem.452 in THE LAST FOUR CRUSADES. which had previously attracted the stream of devotion. must be regarded only as a profitable expedient consequent upon the loss of the holy places in the East. better qualified artifices of to expose and resent the dishonest the papal policy. to receive a general pardon for their sins. and and intelligence. disgust the last fitful gleams of the crusading exactions fell fanaticism.* * The popular shrines of belief. has sometimes been numbered among to have the causes of the decline of the crusading spirit . the institution of the sacred festival of the jubilee by which Pope Boniface VIII. by their were more interested. than on those riches ecclesiastical and noble orders who. -which held that pilgrimages less to various Europe were scarcely efl&cacious than the more arduous journey to the Holy Land. drew an immense concourse of pilgrims to Rome. since such fruitless less severely on the jDOor and ignorant commonalty.

in their estimate of operations. consequences of these memorable political. expeditions aspect upon the moral. . HE causes which produced and ex- tinguished the Crusades are so evident. as to have led most inquirers to a com- mon the conclusion on their nature and but.CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. 453 CHAPTER VI. OTons^unuts at i\it €xu^)in. and religious of society. scarcely two historians of eminence are agreed.

sec. dr. yet more tinguished.! by a fourth they are numbered. History of Charles I Mosbeim. 1. and aggravated the prevailing superstitions. c. indeed. Essai sur V Influence des Croisades. Sucb seems also to be the opinion of Mr. sec. Cent. and all social in these wild expeditions the earliest gleams of light. ch. 139-176. c. of the Crusades. Decline and Fall. 1. f Gibbon. 8. xi. II V. though the first writer to whom we have here alluded thought he could discern and ignorance. with some hesitation. are to believe one celebrated writer. History. p. in his View of the Progress of Society during the Middle Ages. altbougb it is to be gathered less from expressed reasoning than from the absence of much reference to the ^ effects of the Crusades. . the principle and effects of the Crusades were analogous in their baneful tendency. II Again.f prises upon knowledge and civili- According to a third reasoner.. were the sources of unmingled good . Heeren.454 If CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. among of the beneficial causes of the great reformation religion. the ablest historian of the Crusades in our own times has denied almost all perdisci- manence to their effects. vol. which tended to dispel barbarism w^as led to discover in them the dawn of im- provement in Europe. Introduction. Mills..* are to adopt the if we dis- judgment of another. Ixi. 8. Eccles. and equally injurious in their influence zation. History p. those enter- enormously augmented the papal power. Hallam . &c. while a ple of the blind school of fatalism has seen in the con- * Robertson. i."[[ And lastly. the most we sanguinary and destructive wars which fanaticism ever produced. ii.

sion. like every other. when we re- member quisition. . and lastly upon social morals and civilization in general.f The value of these various and conflicting opinions distinct. xxiv. that the it is impossible to deny the conclueffects immediate of that fanatical it is s|)irit were extremely superficial j^ernicious. upon international power. I. when we consider that the Crusades were the sources of a vast increase of power and wealth. upon commerce and learning. quoted in j" Miller. Philosophy of Modern History.* the eloquent champion of a far religious philospirit sophy of history has. in the Romish Church. and consequently of luxury and corruption. flict 455 of Europe and Asia only some fortuitous advan- tages. with a happier of reverential inquiry. iii. lect. vol. And probably the view of these temporary evils which has * Heider. convulsion of the political and moral world.CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. Outlines of a PMlowpliy of the History of Man. that the detestable establishment of the In- and the scandalous trafiic of indulgences for sin at least originated in the perversion of the crusad- ing enthusiasm. necessarily a brief examination of the forms in which the Crusades were likely to act upon the condition of Europe: in their influ- ence upon religion. With respect to religion. been contented to trace the beneficial designs of Omnipotence through the mingled evil and good of this. upon internal government. may perhaps best be ascertained by a though. within our narrow limits.

must have correction. in fact. against the Seljukian Turks. have overlooked the salutary reaction which they necessitated. once enter- tained. indeed. We have seen. have not distinguished between the proximate and ultimate consequences of those enterprises. the very engendered by the Crusades.456 misled CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. inquirers. as they un- doubtedly did. Middle Ages. The the opinion. in affecting is the distribution of international power. seems universally exploded. that those expeditions were instrumental in arresting the progress of MMiammedan it arms. essentially hastened the season of their The consequences of the Crusades. a question which admits of less doubt. many writers who. preceded the First Cru- sade . and it is true that Alexius Comnenus profited * Hallam. that applications to the from the Greek Empire for succour pope and the western potentates. in nurturing and maturing the intolerable growth of ecclesiastical abuses. II. . except the maritime Italian republics. in passing an unqualified judgment on the mischievous results of the Crusades. the corruptions of the Church of Kome evils produced the reformation of religion. nor can be proved that they ultimately produced the least change in the external disposition of any of the European states. in natural and well-founded disgust at the cruelty and impurity with which they Such stained the holiness of Christianity. For if.

vol.* first that whatever obligations might be due to the crusaders from the Eastern Empire. the Selju- kian power had already obeyed the usual fate of Asiatic dynasties. the fourth in number was turned Certain it to the subjugation of Constantinople is. in internal decay and partition. were cancelled by their descendants one hundred years afterwards. were in no degree connected with. and the silent revival and growth of the new Turkish power in the mountains of Asia Minor. the contest of the saders with the Sultans of cru- Damascus and Cairo for the possession of the Syrian shore. ii. . which finally overthrew the Greek Empire and planted the banner of the Crescent on the towers of Constantinople. Li Western Europe * Hallaiu. But. Middle Ayes. and could not be retarded by. when of those expeditions itself. allies scarcely less The temporary advantages which the Greek Emperor extracted from the victorious passage of Godfrey of Bouillon and his compeers were never re- newed. and the real peril of Constantinople from the Turks in that age was already past. 457 by the successes of the Latins. p. before the crusaders traversed that region. to recover a considerable part of Asia Minor from the infidels.CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. that the Byzantine Empire never recovered from the shock and dismemberment which attended the Latin conquest. when her emperor was danger- oppressed by the arrival of ous. and we may agree with a judicious historian. 182.

Among the benefits. such results can scarcely. upon any sound principle of reasoning. are the firmer establish- ment of regal authority. The era of the Crusades was as- suredly one of active and rapid improvement in social order and civilization. nor the boundaries and relative strength of nations. in these respects. has been proved. the depression of the feudal aristocracy. The influence of that contest on the internal government and constitution of the feudal kingdoms of Europe is a distinct and more difficult problem. which had been attributed to the Crusades. the gradual deliverance of the rural popu- lation from predial servitude. but. and we have only to compare their extent at the close of the 11th and of the loth centuries. so far as opposite changes are discernible in the feudal kingdoms at the close of the Crusades. and the growth of mu- nicipal freedom. the Crusades left absolutely no consequences in the political connection of the Latin kingdoms. and the completion of the tocratic first and municipal privileges of Germany. the foundation of constitutional freedom upon the ruins of royal aris- V tyranny in England. the same period witnessed the triumph of the crown over feudalism in France. in the influences of those enter- Now. to assure ourselves that neither the fate of a single dynasty. it In the all of these countries. had at all been affected by the vicissitudes of the fanatical contest in „ which they had shared. that of . CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. III.458 itself. be referred to a single and common cause prises.

Hisiorij of the Crusades. I. was injurious. were as totally unconnected with the result of the Crusades. the county of Bourges. Essai sur V Influence des Croisades. cited. the great and arriere fiefs. but the cumstances which favoured the struggle of that body against his successors sillanimity of John. the Crusades had any ^ effect upon the regal authority. not one lapsed by the extinction of a feudal house in those wars. on the contrary. feeble —the mingled tyranny and putotal incapacity of his and the son —were altogether foreign to the it is present subject of inquiry. The sale of the royal domains by Richard to defray the cost of his expedition to Palestine. in the same ages. In a word. reader. 459 the annexation of which to the crown consoHdated the royal power during the Crusades. appears clearly to have been acquired by purchase from a chieftain who had taken if it the Cross. indeed. yo\. that the fall of the house of Ilohen- and the consequent extinction of the imperial authority.* In England. how is a belief in the general depression of the feudal aristocracy. ii.CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. In Germany. Mills. p. 181-185 . by the dimunition of into its revenues. and the authorities there . cir- dependence upon the aristocracy. 351-354 . and only one. needless to re- mind the stauffen. to throw the crown. to be reconciled with their triumph. through their share in those costly and distant enterprises. over the royal and imperial power in England and in Germany ? * Heeren. pp. tended.

in traced in this can be the same period. and. in adopting this fanciful theory. desperation. at the close of the 13th century. whose estates . should have overlooked. should number them "among dalism the causes which undermined the Gothic edifice" of Feu- and assert that the poverty of the barons. tyranny remained unbroken population was still for. while denying in general all beneficial consequences to the Crusades. however. and the relaxation of predial servitude ages. . and is secured the farm of the peasant."^' There is. the frightful insurrections of the populace in France and England reveal the con- tinuance of that wretched state of servitude which goaded their order to fore. extorted from them " those charters of freedom which unlocked the no fetters of the slave.460 CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. must be referred altogether to later There is. in in bondage the following age. and contending that they checked rather than forwarded the maturity of Europe. It is less singular that the great historian. that the condition of the serfs of the feudal system was improved by the any contemporary respect. difficult Equally would it be to show any percept- ible amelioration in the condition of the peasantry of Europe through the influence of the Crusades. there- neither a shadow of evidence. scarcely though accidental changes." Of such manumission there no evidence whatevc r. or at least omitted. though * It is singular that Gibbon. nor even a proba- bility. more reason to conclude. all consideration of the real and positive benefits which accrued to commerce from the Crusades. were dissipated in these expeditions. events of the Crusades. to warrant the hypothesis. the chains of feudal . the mass of the rural to the soil.

that natural to attribute it is some share in the successful struggle of their inhabitants against aristocratic oppression to the frequent absence of the most active and enterprising of their feudal seigneurs and neighbours in the holy wars . 407. during his disastrous contest with the papacy . the chartered rights of cities flowed exclusively from the crown rela- under circumstances which bear no imaginable tion to crusading incidents.CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. in reward emperor. Sur VlnjlxLenee des Croisades. throughout the continent north of the Alps.. p. the 11th century. there ap- pears so remarkable an advance in the liberties and consequent jorosperity of numerous towns. 248. p. as there had been vol. for the liberties of the inland cities of Northern Italy arose before the prises. there were almost as many princes in the north of Italy. Middle Ages. . f Heeren. 461 rather from general deductions than special proofs.f and in our own country. with the authorities there quoted. commencement before their of those enter- and were also lost conclusion. i. Germany espe- during the 12th and loth centuries.* in Germany. free cities in the preceding age. and still more to the com- * " At the latter end of the 13th century. 247. obtained important privileges for their fidelity to that from Henry IV. Not that even this assertion is to be received without great qualifica- tion. and in cially. in many towns on the Rhine had already. But." Hallam. that the growth of municipal independence least favoured was at by the Crusades.

and of the Hanse Towns an of the North. and. therefore. until the dis- . drew and poured into Europe the rich products of the East. It is not. we may safely dissent from the conclusions of those historians who have seen no beneficial results in the Crusades. mercial impulse which was excited by those enterprises. though not little previously altogether unattempted. it will be in remarking the obvious effect of the Latin expeditions to the East.462 CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. The rapid extension of the trade of the maritime is Italian republics clearly referable to their share in the Crusades. to those which formed the only entrepots mer- chandise of the Italian republics. IV. its benefits even to the shores of the Mediterranean. free cities of Germany. too strong assertion. by any means confined were to Nor were Italy. than any other circumstances. If on any point. communication. they spread by inland among the ports. or for. and pilgrims but in the warlike for naval co-operation which won them numerous Thence they lucrative establishments in the Levant. warriors not only in the mere transport of for hire. in enlarging the commerce of Europe. and accumulated a commerce which. indeed. had acquired activity until the commencement of the Crusades. through the English and Flemish for the Straits of Gibraltar. that the Crusades were more instru- mental in the dissemination of commerce throughout Europe.

CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. whose exertions. of the Greeks. covery of the 463 New World. Latins was still But the spirit of the ignorant collision intellect too barbarous to profit by a with the more cultivated. and so far were the literary treasures of Constantinople from awakening the curiosity of her French captors. is still extant in the loth century. in the next century after the Crusades. even. Greek the result would more than have com- pensated for the political injuries which the crusaders inflicted upon the worthless and tottering edifice of Byzantine power. If^ in- those enterprises had enriched the Western stores of the ancient World with the precious literature. and the accomplishment of a maritime passage to India.* Nor. losses in Heeren. But no kindred injQuence of the Crusades can be traced in the diffusion of lettered knowledge. deed. Nor * See the authenticated catalogue of these tl4. though perverted. the mutual hatred and contempt of the two races disdained all communion . V. 413. that the destruction of many of the Greek classics. . was any knowledge of the language of Greece imported into the West by the crusaders. were aided by circumstances upon left which those wars could have no control. and the true restorers of Greek learning in the Latin world were Petrarca and Boccaccio. notoriously ascribable to the three calamitous conflagrations which attended the Latin conquest of the Eastern capital. pp.

and Toledo. however. the subjects even of Trouveur and Troubadour contem- porary song do not the adventures much abound with references to of Paynim war. . had exercised any decided expect to find traces we might in the native and romantic poetry of the West. \ Idem. except in two. Some oriental colour- ing was. Crusades. the Crusades do not form the subject of the romances * Mills. if the Crusades influence on letters. transfused through the strains of the numerous minstrels Palestine. be more correctly ascribed to the occupation of Palestine by the Franks. for can any part of the illumination which Europe and was indebted in the Middle Ages to the letters science of the Arabians. from the general and connecting link of chivalry. that. vol. 360-364. vol.* its Lastly. ii. p. the rays of light diffused from that source had long previously peneItaly . and Cassino were flourishing schools for the transmuted philosophy and learning of the Mohammedans. of chivalry. but it is who followed their lords to a singular fact. vol. p.f It has pp. and Dunlop. Apart. of to the which the darling theme was most congenial chivalric spirit of such enterprises. History of Fiction. 367. Salerno.464 CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. no doubt. which relate the deeds of Godfrey of Bouillon and Richard Coeur de Lion. intellectual For the splendour of the eastern khalifate was extinct before the First Crusade. trated into the West through Spain and many Latin translations of the Arabic writers had been prepared in those countries. ii. 140. ii.

—the commingling. admit the decorations of fiction. than the contem- porary national annalists of the same ages. than the other political events of the times. be doubted by any inquirer whose judgment has not been misled to the maintenance of some preconceived and favourite Dunlop. and too to much matters of real life. that those expeditions were. new blending of so many in masses of a men cause of various climes and manners it common time. too recent. notwithstanding the natural interest In and richness of their materials. for the first of the great family of nations of foreign and distant —and the general habit travel —must altogether have many given a mighty impulse to society. they are scarcely more numerous. v/e think. as were.* but neither do they appear to have engrossed more attention.CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. 30 iibi siqmi. and the spirit-stirring character of their details. and though there is no lack of chroniclers of the Holy Wars. or of higher VI. That the merit. the Crusades did not elicit striking any improvement. nor to have particularly quick- ened that fervour of historical composition which usually is awakened by great events. in which the previous stagnation of intercourse had thickly shrouded the countries of the West —can hardly. as subjects of authentic narrative. this respect. and tends by its excitement to stimulate the intellect of an age. perhaps. and dispelled clouds of ignorance. 465 been acutely remarked. .

* to by the stimulus which they gave the commercial and general communion of centuries. from very nature. vol. peculiar to the times. in dawn of a progressive renovation. 372. t Hallam. enlisted As the dissolute. were not the principal causes of this nascent improve- ment during the 12th and 13th which may what other attributes. CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. in his view of society.* if some benefits were thus necessarily communicated to Europe. its which. and that the absurd and cruel principles of superstition and fanaticism which they fostered were equally detrimental to religion. as well as the pious. p. what were they? spirit. it has been triumphantly asked. admits of none. as those enterprises with all their attendant circumstances? It has been said pernicious to that the Crusades were altogether morality. has even marked the close of that century which is identical with the commencement of the Crusades. Yet no man has denied the striking and steady progress of civilization after the 11th century. nations. But. and our historian of the Middle Ages. be believed to have exercised so strong and universal an influence. iii. under the banner of the * Berington. from the If the Crusades. Specific proof may. can be pointed out. in this be vainly demanded of a general consequence.466 theory. Literari/ History of the Middle Ages. as the point which separates the extreme darkness of barbarism Europe. 269. . Middle Ages. But here again is room for a caution against the confounding of proxi- mate and ultimate consequences.

they became very salutary to mankind. however incongruous tended. . principles The justice of the upon which those enterprises were either subsequently perverted. of courtesy to the one sex and de- respectful tenderness to the other.. spirit of religious persecution. Cross. in nor were there. to humanize not only warfare ordinary relations of civilized tutions of chivalry were life . itself. But in their fruits when time bitter had purified the soil in which the wild and stock of superstition was planted. ever any human themselves more thoroughly misguided and iniquitous than those holy wars. The stern encouraged by an exis terminating warfare against infidels. more than any other combination of senti- ment. and survive to dignify and adorn the intercourse of polished society. but the myriads. perhaps. at least relieved their native lands of the burden and curse of their presence. but the and. has a martial spirit. as the insti- matured and perpetuated by honour and the Crusades. who perished amid their excesses in the East. which have scended upon the modern gentleman. of personal fidelity to obligations. The union of a religious with in its origin. CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. the laws of is originally undertaken or utterly indefensible upon all God and man contests. the habits of the worst portions of society 467 were not likely to be improved by the license of crusading camps. tion of all the we owe moral to those enterprises the cultivaqualities. the darkest feel- feature in the operation of the Crusades upon the ings and happiness of their times.

upon the state of religion. they were an obvious. upon the tribution of national power in the European system. of the influence and consequences of the Crusades. first perdis- nicious.iob Ill CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES. they must have given a strong and general impulse to the progress of civilization . then. and. that. that. that. we may venture to affirm. they are no otherwise discernible than in favouring the growth of municipal freedom. but ultimately beneficial that. . but in that of learning absolutely null. immaterial. finally. that. in the diffusion of commerce. or nearly. altogether. at least by the promotion of chivalric sentiment. though indirect rating the social morals and distant means of amelioand manners of Europe. they were at . they were most important and valuable. they were. conclusion. that upon the internal government and constitution of the feudal kingdoms. in the commingling of nations.

At the latter council the pope obtained from the ambassadors present a commission for Peter Gautier to proceed forthwith in the The ensuing spring (1096) was appointed for prosecution of his chivalric design. under Gondeuschal. is led by Walter. Massacre of Jews at Mayence and Spires. of zealously engaging in this holy war. and in the fanatical cruelties of Seljukian Turks. leading an immense concourse of the lowest orders. a project ho had formed for expelling the infidels from Palestine. accordingly lie rccuuinicnded to all Christian princes. Third division. The Crusaders overthrown in Hun[" . Peter (the Hermit) laid before Pope Urban II. of 200. advance into Hungary. the Pennyless. and afterward at that of Clermont. the pope was induced to espouse the projected enterprise. The Bulgarians At cut them off by thousands. Nissa they are routed with their camp is great slaughter despoiled and their baggage plundered. The remnant arrive at Constantinople in great distress they pass into Asia Minor. through : — 1096 They are nearly all cut oflf by the Turks in the plain of Nice . being backecl by the complaints of the Greek emperor. Abortive Expeditions. The second division. first at the Council of Placentia. that any proposal was made for attempting the expulsion of the infidels from the Holy Land.000." the months had expired since the 469 . only 3000 escape. Flanders. and other places in Germany. So dreadful the carnage that the the Danube was course of choked with the bodies.000. an officer of Amiens. ports of returned pilgrims respecting the insulting and savage cruelty of the latter. issues from the western frontiers of France. the institution of chivalry. the departure of the first army. TJie Crusades 1096 Peter the Hermit. of 15. composed of one huge mass of the vile refuse of France. and its waters dyed with the blood of " Before twelve slain. and the influence of fanatical enthusiasm. In Bulgaria they are all destroyed. the duty . of 20. excited general indignation but it was not till the return of Peter Gautier. and England. But the proximate causes are seen in the persecuting frenzy of Hakcm. except Walter and a few who escape to Constantinople. the Rhenish Provinces.— CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. the union of martial and superstitious feelings.000 under Peter the Hermit. TnE predisposing causes of those famous enterprises are generally attributed to the impulsive influence of religion upon the barbaric mind. as well as the destruction of the Church of the Resurrection by the former. from Germany. They destroy Malleville (Zemlin) and slaughter its inhabitants. a German monk.000. . Fourth division. They are guided by two " divinely inspired" animals a goat and a Hungary. Alexis. The rabble multitude is divided The first division. &c. gary. Their atrocious wickedness in Hungary ends in their ruthless massacre at Belgrade. King of Hungary Carloman. which. marches against them. the Pennyless. Fall of Walter. of 40. and the urgent appeals of Peter. The rethe third Fatimite khalif. who had renounced his profession in order to undertake a pilgrimage. — goose.

it falls into the hands of the Greeks by stratagem. Battle between Tancred and Baldwin." spirit . — Alexius craftily gains the ascendency over the mind of the aged. brothers of the French and English Kings. and Flanders. The fourth division next approaches its leader. and a kinsman also named Baldwin . though stern. Order of Departure. Battle of Dorylasum in July. . Boemond at first refuses to do homage to Alexius. With maturer preparation. and Hugh is made prisoner at Durazzo. Baldwin separates from the main body and proceeds eastward. Robert of Flanders. Raymond. and before a single advantage had been gained over the infidels. hence an Accommodation between the wily Alexis and the crusading princes . Godfrey of Bouillon. the former delivers his son as hostage. Prince of Tarento. the genuine spirit of religious and martial enthusiasm was more slowly and powerfully evolved. a contest splendid and interesting specProctacle opens to our view. Raymond. The third division. ter. The fourth under the Count of Thoulouse.000 foot. estimated including numbers 100.000 of its people.000 mailed cavalry. Siege of Nice. the victoriously overrunning . the mailed and organized chivalry of Europe was arraying itself for the mighty and a far different. Stephen of Chartres. own — whom he menaces. composed of Southern Italians 10. under the Counts of Vermandois and Chartres. of crusading was roused action by the Council of Clermont. women. Emperor z:^--- Boemond and Tancred. sternly refuses homage to Alexius rates. Their passage from Italy is opposed by the Emperor Alexius. . Normandy. Godfrey receives assistance from Carloman of Hungary and the Emperor Alexius he peaceably arrives with his army on the fer: plains of Thrace. the fanatical enthusiasm of Europe had already cost the lives. Messages from Boemond and the Count of Thoulouse. Approach of the third division to the Byzantine capital. and with steadier resolve. 700. was eagerly embraced by the most distinguished feudal princes of the second order. 1096 Thrace ravaged by the Crusaders. and his cousin Tancred.000 horse. and Raymond of Thoulouse the first temporal prince who assumed Boemond. ultimate victory of the Crusaders. Triumphant entry of the crusading hosts into Syria.] THE FIRST CRUSADE. Evacuation of Asia Minor by the Sultan of Roum. in retaliation for the opposition offered by the Alexius. Eustace and Baldwin. and a — prodigious consisted of the nobility of the number of priests. under Hugh of Vermandois. June 20 . 1096 Though not undertaken by any of the crowned heads of Europe. of 250. The second division. and children at about — Rhenish provinces and the North of Germany. Hugh of Vermandois mediates. The first division. viz.000. than the half-armed and irregular rabble. and — 20. embraced the chivalry of tile Central and Northern France. requesting Godfrey to defer negotiations till they should arrive. under Godfrey. But while the first disasters of the Crusade were sweeping this mass of corruption from the surface of society. under Godfrey : vassals and native confedecomprehended under the general appellation of Provencals. Muster of the several divisions in the plain of Asia Minor . Godfrey submits . Count of Vermaudois. with his two brothers.— — 470 into CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. 1097 Godfrey at open war with Alexius: seizure of the bridge of Blachernaj attack upon Constantinople. at the lowest computation. son of the crown Robert Guiscard. Hugh. includes his division. and Robert of Normandy. the British Isles. the latter swears fealty. but afterward submits.

AVhen the Crusaders entered Jerusalem. He modestly declines the title of king. See 1118. and an equal number of unarmed camp followers. Extirpation of the Mussulman in- and every country was with a numerous order of minor counts. ." 1098 The Latin j^rindpaUty of Edcssa founded by Baldwin. 471 1097 The Crusaders lay siege to Antioch. accepting only that of " Defender of the Tomb of Christ. by a few merchants of Memphis. its first king is Godfrey of Bouillon. numbers tamia. and sook the true all who for- p)ality of Antioch . Jerusalem taken by the Crusaders. and themselves each the chieftain of a train of knightThe least of ly dependants. hence the term knights hospitallers the members of which are also known as the Knights of Rhodes. in the triumphant recovery of the Holy Sepulchre. June. the mariners are brought to the camp to construct three movable towers. Sufferings thirst. which sweep off 100. Great battle of Antioch the Turks routed with terrible slaughter. Alexius abandons their relief. [Thus the great design of the first Crusade had been accomplished. elected by the army. which bristled with fortresses afforded as many titles of no- — of the besieged from bility. among the crusading in Third famine and pestilence Antioch. Thus ruler. frightful massacre of the Mussulmans and Jews. now numbering only 1500 cavalry and 20. the law of conquest supplies to Jerusalem a new and Christian population. whole country as far as the Euphrates. Ac. Cru- was the chivalric institution the ofl'spring of feudalism m. cannibalism.000 persons cannibalism again re- — sorted to. The despairing Crusaders are called into action by superstition and the imposture of a priest. filled Arrival of Genoese galleys in Jaffa. and obedidience. To the usual vows of chastity. An hospital for the Second famine attended by . John of Jertisalem the origin of which was an hospice founded in Jerusalem.] citadel. many of the chevaliers — determined on joining the order Godfrey granted a donation. was added a vow to be always ready to fight against Mohammedans. Boemond its religion. to . Flourishing period of chivalry. the Siege of Antioch renewed Turks defeated. by military service. these last. proceeded from Antioch to Jaffa by sea. Foundation of the Latin princi. CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES.000 infantry. 1099 Foundation of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem . poverty.— — . the lowest tenant. for the accommodation of pilgrims from — Europe. horrible distress. and vavas- the vassals of the greater sors feudatories. July 15. Foundation of the Knights of St. Count of Chartres. the Viscount of Melun. which example was followed by other princes. [On the continent. The Sultan of Persia unites the in- Turks against the Christian vaders. Jerusalem invested by the saders. Baldwin in Mesopo- cowardice of the &c. habitants. which were not accounted noble beyond the third degree of subHence the land infeiTdation. sick was afterward added. and Peter the Hermit. in 1048. except in the case of imperial feuds.ade subservient to the interests of the church. Duke of Normandy. twenty-eight emirs lead a force of from 3000 to 4000 cavalry to relieve the garrison in the Citadel of Antioch. Blockade of the Crusaders in the city. . who was bound or entitled to serve his lord as a horse- — man or chevalier from whence . Disunion princes. and vice of every kind. barons. was fully included in the pretensions and privileges of nobility. Famine and pestilence in the Chrisdesertion of great tian camp . 1099 The Crusaders. through the city surtreachery of Phirouz prised and captured the Turkish garrison escape within the .

The original obligations of this institution included loyalty and honour. the brother of Godfrey. effects the conquest of Tripoli. 1118 Expedition against Egj'pt conducted by Baldwin. The princes depart for Europe. the younger son of Zenghi. of the success of the church. is wounded Rash vanguard upon the Egyptian invaders Chartres taken and murdered. assault by a Baldwin II. which results in the Conquest of Acre by Baldwin I. it is not easy to determine. are derived the original distinction. the privileges of which order. in infusing some religious principle into the martial spirit of Chivahy. llOS Bertrand. .] 1112 Critical position of the State of Edessa. Bald- man. the principality of Edessa. Hence Knights Templars : institution of the order of the Temple of Solo emir. except Tancred.] 1099 Approach of a great swelled by Turks Battle of Ascalon victorious they . the siege of Acre formed. harass and often defeat the Crusaders. courtesy and benevolence. the second proved successful. elected king of Jerusalem he resigns to Baldwin du Bourg. second of the Attabek princes. and Iconium. Fatimite army. [With an interval of four years. before the Crusades. in a battle 1102 Vermandois with the Mussulmans of Cilicia. 1117 Birth of Noureddin. who remains with Godfrey. generosity to enemies. in the siege of Sidon. (Prince of Edessa) King of Jerusalem. Death of Godfrey. who had performed the long voyage from the Baltic. John confirmed by Papal Bull. Although the first attempt was repulsed. and Persia. D. Egypt. Joscelyn de Courtenay. the Crusaders acquire much booty. patriarch of Jerusalem. 1101 First Crusade by land. Heroic exploits of its prince. and respectful tenderness to wo- become common Tortosa taken by Raymond. to the Syrian shores. Hence " County of Tripoli. through the Straits of Gibraltar. 1106 The Count of Tholouse is joined by several French princes. 1104 Arrival of 70 Genoese ships with Crusaders. Arrival of largo numbers of pilgrims and Crusaders from Europe. aged 40. The Suljuk Turks Supplementary Crusade under Counts Vermandois aad Chartres. The order of Knights Hospitallers of the order of St. and Saracens. 1109 Tripoli and its vicinity erected into a county. however. formed an impassible line between it and the commonalty. win du Bourg. by an Arminian chieftain. but in the eleventh century. who had arrived in the Supplemental Crusade.472 CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. prince of Edessa." 1111 The Crusaders take Berytus. Sidon captured by the Crusaders. according to feudal customs. A. Baldwin rescued from death by a grateful . son of Raymond. (1101. it had to invoke the aid of religion in the inauguration of the knight. prince of An1100 1113 The order of Knights Hospitallers of St. Death of Baldwin I. mon. for the house of Thoulouse. (in March) on his march toward Egypt. There is abundant proof. Capture of Eoemond. dies at Tarsus. aided by Mohammedans of Arabia. and the very name of Chivalry was a member of the — 1103 Azotus reduced by Baldwin . two fleets of Scandinavian cruisers. John (called also Knights of Malta) becomes a military order. protection to the feeble and the oppressed. Damascus.) same aristocracy as the duke or count. or days preceding the Baldwin : of Aleppo. five tioch. tirst anniversary of his reign. The exact epoch at which Chivalry acquired a religious character. surrounded by Armenians and Turks. by Baldwin. and his relative. In the age of Charlemagne. I. his cousin. the form of knightly investiture was certainly unattended by any vows or ecclesiastical ceremonies . Daimbort. . co-operated with the Christian forces of Palestine.

] Decline of the power of the Crusaders. by the peculiar object of their institution. the crusaders in their march breadth and exclusive of the county of Tripoli. Pisa. [The military orders were. in favour of his son-in-law. [All the maritime republics of Italy. the Greek emperor. Melesinda. and Styria. completed the triumijh of the pious orator.) in conjunction with his mother. and camp followers. 1147 The Second Crusade. Zenghi. to the frontiers of Egypt. Almost total destruction of the imperial army in the passes of Lyc. and by Louis VII. Carinthia. on the north. and the conversion of the emperor Conrad III. pilgrims. Bernard preaches a Second Cru- 1124 Tyre reduced by Baldwin II. Foulques (of Anjou) King of Jerusalem. on arriving at Constantinople. Augustin . the third of the dynasty of the Attabeks of Syria.. Piedmont. Bernard. St.000 were trained infantry. the three republics of Genoa.. and in 1118 added the military qualification. Indignation excited in Europe by the event. led by the Emperor Conrad III. by the treacherous emperor. modified. [Soon after the martial sceptre of the house of Bouillon had de- Louis arrives at Constantinople after the departure of Conrad. takes it by storm. who sade. women.] 1145 Fall of Edessa. with the consent of his nobles and prelates. [The number of the Crusaders has been estimated as approaching near to a million . and enjoying the common or exclusive privileges of trade. aided obtains the sovereignty of one-third of the city.] Treacherous policy of Comnenus. and 250. and 30 in by the Doge of Venice.] 1120 Zenghi. King of Jerusalem. Baldwin retires to a convent. And throughout the Christian possessions in Palestine and Syria generally. 1146. from the sea-coast to the deserts of Arabia. [The object of the institution of this order was to act in a military capacity to protect pilgrims. subjected to the rule of St. Noureddin. lie maintains war against the Crusaders. extorted great commercial advantages. through Bulgaria.] Archbishopric of Tyre established. The most ancient of these was the order of the Knights Hospitallers of St. Extension of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. with their characteristic mercantile cupidity. which stretched northward from Beritus to the borders of the Antiochian princi. See T099. 1144 Baldwin III. (1145..". King of France. Conrad. volved upon a woman and a minor. of course. and A^enico contended. and is into delay his march. . governor of Mosul. he harasse. the great feudatory princes of Bavaria. John of Jerusalem. as the price of their services to the Crusaders. after some struggle between the sense of political interest and religious duty. and from the city of Beritus. forming a territory about 60 leagues in length.. of which 70. his son. Bohemia. the rest were clergy. duced . for the right of establishing places of exchange. [At the soul-stirring exhortations of St. often with bloodshed. in some degree. (13 years old.. ho accepts the apologies.) 4:7. which is promoted by Louis of France. with a crowd of inferior chieftains. the Christian power in the East began to decline. indignantly refuses to have an interview with Comnenus. assumed the cross .CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. pality. the Turkish emir of Aleppo. becomes King of Aleppo and Damascus.000 were mailed cavalry. in the first instance. on the south.aonia by the Sultan of Iconium. 1146 Zenghi murdered by his own troops at the siege of Jabbar . established in the first instance (1048) for the reception and care of pilgrims visiting the holy city. Louis encamps at Nice here he is joined by Conrad and the remnant of the imperial army. This order became monastic in 1092. 1131 Abdication of Baldwin.

Raymond. in barks furnished by Sicily. or the unnatural cruelty of the Greeks. (an Baldwin. 1186 Guy de Lusignan. the Turks capitulate and engage to evacuate Egypt. CHRONOLOGY .000. Raymond is killed. 1149 Great victory of Saladin over the Christians at Antioch . and her husband. . his brother Almen'c. Sybilla. King of Jerusalem. Return of Louis he lands at St. 1183 Abdication of Baldwin IV. with about . he was succeeded by his brother Almoric. 1171 Saladin deposes the sons of Noureddin. and a band of infantry and camp followers. either by the cimetars of the Turks. or Saladin the scourge of the Christian fortunes in Palestine. [Louis left Metz in 1147. near Artesia.] gers. Pelusium taken. 1151 Increasing danger of the Latin kingdom of Palestine from the arms of Noureddin. Regency of the king's sister. Almeric over Shira- Pelusium besieged and taken. — same 1102 Almeric neglects immediate dan- .— 474 A. 1167 Second signal defeat of Shiracouch on the Egyptian frontiers.. : [Though Baldwin was destitute of any high degree of ability. D. Death of Noureddin.000 knights. Disaffection of the barons of Palestine. 11G3 Surprise and sanguinary defeat of Almeric.his character was graced by many noble and chivalric qualities. on the banlis of the projects his energies in the conquest of Meander. regent of the kingdom. Joseelyn do Courtenay made prisoner. returned a fugitive. Lusignan. Baldwin IV. but enduring courage of its habitual defenders. 1153 Ascalon falls by the chivalry of 1176 Siege of Alexandria. whose equal mediocrity of . 1162 Death of Baldwin III. Victory of couch. Guy de . ]147 The united forces come to Ephesus here they separate the Germans proceed by sea to Palestine the French by land. resolve on re- ducing Damascus. As he left no children. 1169 Failure of the project of Almeric. narrow escape of the king.] owing to the faithlessness of the Greek Emperor and the craft of the vizier Shaweer. and unites under his sway all the Mussulman states from the Kile to the Tigris. 1177 Defeat of Saladin before Jerusalem. (a leper) King of Jerusalem. Gilles on the Rhone. Death of the ex-king. Raymond of Tripoli with Saladin allies himself against Lusignan.] 1150 Return of Conrad with the miseralie ble remnant of his armj\ [Thus ended abortively the second Crusade. and wastes for Sanguinarj' defeat of the Turks by Louis. and cruelly sacked by Almeric. Unsuccessful siege of Damascus. Victory of Baldwin III. and France. Suspicious death of Baldwin V. by Noureddin. Germany. save by the scanty bands. The infantry and pilgrims left behind perish. his nephew infant) under the protection of Joseelyn de Courtenay. . 1187 Saladin demands redress for an Baldwin V. amounting to about 200. over the Turks at Jericho. succeeds as King of Jerusalem. the Attabek of Aleppo. Retreat upon the port of Attalia. Retreat of Almeric into Palestine. Rise of Sallah-u-deen. mounted and armed. Dissensions and weakness of the Latin kingdom of Palestine. talent was unrelieved by the virtues. Louis transports his nobles and knights by sea to Palestine. OF THE CRUSADES. The sovereigns of Jerusalem. 1168 Project of Almeric for the permanent subjugation of Egypt. Subjugation of Aleppo by Saladin.300 followers. 1148 Surprise and defeat of Louis in the mountains between Pisidia and Phrygia. leaving the Christian cause in Palestine again deserted. He advances before the wall of Cairo. 1173 Death of Almeric his son Baldwin IV. in October. at the head of 70. Civil war.

000 Crusaders. Tyre besieged. . Jerusalem was again defiled by the religion and empire of the votaries of Mohammed. by the Christians. of both sexes. Frederic (Barbarossa) defeats the Sultan of Iconium."] Myriads arrive in Palestine from the ports of Italy. Fearful destruction of life in the army of the German Crusaders. 1189 Siege of Acre commenced. [The news of the fall of Jerusalem. a German crusader and his lady A Europe for fitting out armaments for Palestine. THE THIRD CRUSADE — by Sea. the North Sea. Its purposes were now recalled to the national attention by the private some individuals charity of among the German army.."] 1189 Departure of King Richard from upon Saladin invades Palestine with an army of 80. the male brethren devoted themselves to military. Dec. Institution of Teutonic Order of knights. October 2. assemble (amounting their forces to 100. at their own expense. army sails from Mar- inhumanly orders. Violent proceedings of King Richard toward Tancred. Death of Frederic drowned while attempting to swim across the — river Calycadnus in Cilicia. and when subsequent endowments had enriched these houses. to as well as charitable efforts . Jaffa. the Baltic. of their nation. Saladin takes Jerusalem.. holds out against Saladin.000 men) on the plain of Vezelay. where- indecisive conflict before the single city of Acre. 475 outrage perpetrated by Reginald de Chatillon. Nolo to 1099.] Fall of Csesarea. the expulsion of the Christians from Jerusalem. and 230 of the Knights of St. Ascalon. Acre. June 10. 1190 Richard L of England. led by many noblemen and prelates under Lusignan appear before the city. 1188 Popular expeditions preceding founded hospitals in Jerusalem for poor pilgrims.000 horse and foot.] " Saladine" tithe is exacted in Dissensions between Louis and Richard. [Thus after a possession. the Duke of Suabia seized the occasion to incorporate them into a regular order of religious chivalry. England. but even their earnest preparations were too tardy for popular impatience. 100. England. Richard's seilles. 11. and PhilipAuguste of France. except those of Spain. in Sicily. Nazareth. filled all Western Christendom with horror and grief. who opened their tents for the reception of their sick and wounded number of countrymen. See 1086. Battle of Tiberias sanguinary deGuy de feat of the Crusaders Lusignan made prisoner. &c.] Fall of Bethlehem. and Sidon. refuses justice. lead their national forces to the recovery of Jerusalem . Saladin abandons the siege and marches against Jerusalem. July 1. and the Mediterranean. murdered by his [The Christians were betrayed by the Count of Tripoli. Arrival of Philip of France before A Acre from Sicily. Chadecapitated by Saladiu tillon himself. defended by Conrad of Montferrat. ["AH the principal sovereigns of Europe. The Duke of Suabia takes the command. &c. .CHRONOLOGY Lusignan OF THE CRUSADES. [About GO years before this time. knights having joined this benevolent association. Louis departs from Genoa for SicUy. John taken prisoners and . services. of 88 years. Tyre. [" On both sides the frightful consumption of human life was fed vowed But their little obtained their fraternity had and was dissolved by distinction and during by new arrivals nearly two years the strength of Christendom and Islam was concentrated and exhausted in an . Antioch taken by the imperial army. who sues for peace. and Beritus.

Union of the Mussulman powers of Egypt and Syria against the Crusaders. leaving 10. nominal king of Jerusalem. Count of Champagne. 1195 Crusade of German chivalry j three great armaments under the guidance of nobles and prelates suesessively arrive at Acre. Many French . (iallant exploits of Richard at Askelon.000 Turks and Saracens (including 7000 cavalry) killed. Cossarea. and is recognised King of Jerusalem and Cyprus. Richard's storm. [He is perhaps. (called by some battle of Ashdod or Azotus. Antioch. Acre capitulates. Battle of Askelon. and other places. and France. End of the third Crusade. ?192 Death of Saladin. by Marriage of Henry. kindled the flame of religious enthusiasm throughout Flanders 1200 September 7.] for three years between Saladin and Richard. followed by the retaliating slaughter of the captive Christians by Saladin. 1198 Folques of Neuilly atones for a life of sin by preaching a new Crusade. The kingdom of Cyprus found. <fcc.] Division of Saladin's empire. hence Heart/. Count of Champagne. Acre. King of Je- rusalem. (1191.500 hands. Bernard. till the ransom money of 200.) A fourth Crusade promoted by Innocent III. [The conquest was dearly acquired by the loss of 100. Jaffa. Arrival of the English before Acre. the chief promoter is Thibaud. nevertheless. he. having on board his queen. his brother. Prince of Tyro. March 4. sister. Open rupture between Richard emplar in history of an Asiatic hero and his virtues. . King Richard departs from Acre at the head of the combined 1190 Indecisive results of this campaign. Damascus. Departure of Richard's fleet. and leaves it about the middle of the same month. of fleet Cyprus by King 1192 Truce by a dispersed 1191 A Mussulman troop-ship. the coast. army. Conrad. 10. fall into the hands of the Crusaders. terror of the infidels. take the Cross.000 Christians. manned by 1.5. followed three sons erect distinct thrones at Cairo."] barons. and the daughter of the captive king of Cyprus. Jaffa. King Richard insults Leopold of Austria before Acre. and the former engages not to molest Tyre. King of Jerusalem.000 of his troops under the Duke of Bur- Saphadin reigns in S3Tia. July 12. The Crusaders winter on The Austrians desert the Crusade also the Duke of Burgundy and . and Tripoli. 30. Philip of France retires from the crusade. Jerusalem still in the hands of the infidels.000 pieces of gold should be paid. of Champagne. 20 emirs and 40.000 strong. [" Without the rude originality of Peter the Hermit. and to grant free access to all Christians visiting Jerusalem. the latter dismantles Ascalon. or the learning of St.) defeat of Saladin. and Aleppo. 1197 Death of Henry. 1192 Arrival of the Christian host in the valley of Ilebron .000 hostages left by Saladin. with Conrad's widow. 1194 A new Crusade preached in Ger- many. and Philip. Ascalon. Conquest Richard. &c. the brightest ex- Cold-blooded massacre of the Mussulman hostages. while his gundy. Richard lands at Corfu in November. exhibit the genuine lineaments of his clime and race. the French.. 9. like the dark traits which obscured them. destroyed by June Richard. Unexpected retreat of the Crusaders from before Jerusalem.47G CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. Richard sails from Acre. Almeric of Lusignam marries the widow of Henry. The barons of France implore. Jaffa seized by Saladin. Assassination of Conrad . October.

second conflagration. the deficiency of 30. [In the division and enjoyment of a conquered empire. The Turks expel the Saracens from Jerusalem. and spoils. the first Latin Emperor of the East.000 marks pay for transhipment. he is Capture of Mourzoufle. which his uncle had usurped. Emperor of the East to Palestine. CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. by the death of Thibaud 2d. . destination of the arto the successful negotiations of the friends of j'oung Alexius with the Latin barons. destruction of the remains of ancient &c. Flight of Alexius Isaac restored. Baldwin. ItaEnglish. to replace his father on the throne of the East. TITR FOURTH CRUSADE. thrown from the summit of the 1217 First expedition.. Christian cause lost in the diversion of the fourth Crusade against the Eastern Empire. 1218 Return of Andrew of Hungary. Theodosian pillar. Young Alexius induces the Crusaders to defer their expedition till the next year. public distribution of the letters art. by dis. of Flanders. 1203 The Crusaders sail for Constantinople.pplies for a prolongation of the truce. cited for But the hopes exthe in a feud. the Mussulman of sensions princes. which leads to the Crusaders and hostilities the Greeks at war. . who are in great straits. and the ravages of a dreadful famine. &c.] 1204 Truce with Saphidin for six years. 3d. the Hungarian Crusaders under their King Andrew. .000 silver marks. The Eastern kingdom divided between the Latin barons and the Venetians. Saphidin a. 1215 The 4:th Lateran council zealously adopt THE FIFTH CRUSADE — by Sea. the Latin domination. and consequent pestilence in Egypt. 1213 Appeal of John De Brienne to the pope for succour against the infidels. they defy the two emperors.s's pecuniary agreement. zoufle Death of Isaac in prison. saders. of the leaders of the fourth Crusade occasioned the loss of the fairest opportunity of re-establishing the Christian The disfortunes in Palestine. French. 1211 The Mussulman arms are successful against the Latins. 1201 The Crusade delayed— 1st. King of Jerusalem. which ever reached the Syrian shores. would have effectually sition paralyzed all oppofrom that dangerous quar- ter to the success of the crusad- ing arms. fort. owing ["The cupidity Negotiations with Alexius siege. A Capture of Constantinople. Pillage. April 12. not over Paynim. The Crusaders demand the fulfilment of Alexiu. new were the only fruits of the fourth Crusade. Treaty of partition by the Cru. the maritime aid of Venice. Theodore Lascaris devotes himself 1217 Abortive campaign of King Andrew. by to sensions among the leaders . under lians. tihe confederated barons seemed lo have forgotten the original object of their expedition . . their knees. and tlie vain trophies of a viotorj-. 1201: End of the Fourth Crusade. mament. 1210 John de Urienne. the two emperors deposed by MourAlexius is murdered. Third part of Constantinople burned . 1200 The Venetians agree to convey the for armaments to Palestine 477 from upon to the rescue of his country 85. 4204 Revolution in Constantinople . Numerous accessions from Ger- many. under the Marquis of Montscrrat Zara captured denunciations of the pope. Second siege of Constantinople. but Christian enemies the gates and chain of the harbour of Consent by the new stantinople — — 1202 Departure of the Crusaders. 1214 The pope decrees another Crusade. Second expedition Germans. Disunion between the Latins and Greeks. return of De Mount. which the Latins were completely Open refuse.. Duke of Austria.

1230 Sanguinary defeat of the Knights Templars. Earl of Cornwall. return Cornwall. His arrival strikes the Mussulmans with terror. Negotiations with the Sultan Coradinus peace concluded for ten years free access to Jerusalem granted to the Christians. Minor drive several these tribes tribes into Syria for settlements. lolanta. (20. Return of Richard. within two years. The ravages of the Moguls in Asia End between the partisans of Frederic. on condition that the Crusaders evacuate Egypt. Restoration of 600 Christian prisoners. 1229 Frederic crowns himself in Jerusalem . 1240 Jerusalem restored to the Christians. to the ric. with possession of Bethlehem. and Camel.— 478 A. her dower consisting of the transfer of the sovereign rights of her father to Frederic. and those of Alice. Retreat of the King of Navarre upon Acre. struggle for the crown . Richard demands the restoration of the prisoners taken at the battle of Gaza. The Sultans of Egypt and Damas- cus hasten to negotiate for peace. 1232 Another Crusade projected by the Council of Sjioletto the Dominicans and Franciscans are authorized to preach it. daughter and heiress of John de Brienne. to Acre. 1230 Civil war. Burgundy. 1221 Disgraceful return of the Crusaders from Egypt The Sixth Crusade 1238 I. of 1224 Embassy of Herman de Saltza. Duke &a. The nobles of France and England : 1218 The Crusaders invade Egypt. One of The Kharizmian horde. Siege and capture of Damietta. 1220 Disastrous condition of the Crusaders near Cairo. and End of the Fifth Crusade. the patriarch having refused to perform the ceremony. Coradinus. CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. Expedition of Richard. Nazareth. &e. Grand-Master of the Teutonic knights. widow of Hugh de Lusignan. He marches upon Jaffa. Return of Frederic to Germany. and inspires the Christians with confidence. by the Emir of Aleppo. 1235 Armenia seized by the Mogols. and finally lost to the Christians. offer the cession of Jerusalem. being guided by an Egyptian emir. 1241 The fortifications of Jerusalem rebuilt by the Knights Templars. 1242 Jerusalem captured by Barbacan. &c. and many nobles and knights taken captive. leaders. ac- companied by the flower of the English chivalry. by the pope and his agents. but from the iniquitous persecution of the pope. Count de Bar slain. Renewal of hostilities between the Emirs of Syria and the Latins. 1125 Marriage of the Emperor Frederic and lolanta. II. The French home. Peace purchased by the surrender of Damietta to the Sultan of Cairo. — two expeditions. Several thousand pilgrims slaughtered. arising Difficulties Defeat of the Crusaders at Gaza. Count of offering Emperor Fredehim the hand of Champagne. Expedition of the French Crus. This most acceptable offer rejected. Appropriation of the moneys collected for the Crusade. Armory de Montfort.) under Barbacan. the legate sues for peace. King of Jeru- salem. enter Palestine.aders under Thibaud. . 1219 Two of the sons of Saphidin. Earl of who lands at Acre.000 cavalry. 1237 Martial and religious enthusiasm excited throughout Europe. take the Cross. of the Sixth Crusade. . for its reconquest. Reconciliation effected by the mediation of Pope Gregory IX. through the cupidity of the papal legate. 1228 Frederic (emperor) arrives in Palestine with a reinforcement in 28 galleys. D. Frederic promises to lead an army into Palestine. Death of the Empress lolanta in giving birth to a son. 1236 The Christians expelled from Jerusalem by the Sultan of Egypt. of Frederic.

and murders all his prisoners. several 1257 Sanguinary battles between the Templars and Knights Hospitallers complete and merciless de.000 (?) Christians. 1267 Loss of Cajsarea. 1255 Commercial and political rivalry of the Venetian States the cause End usade embraced in England and France. Fall of Tiberias. 1266 Surrender of Saphoury . WiUiam host of Long. Disunion of troubles in Palestine. Sidon. 12(53 of Damascus and Bon- Mameluke docdar. The king proceeds to Acre but most of his nobles return home. between the orders.sword. A. 1260 Approach of the Mamelukes oc. The Knights Templars unite with the Moslems of Damascus. cupation Aleppo. onlj' 700 knights. The SEVENTn Crusade. D. Bondocdar (or Bibars) treacherously violates his treaty.] 1253 Dissensions among the Moslem emirs of Syria and Egypt. but soon retire. Ascalon. Panic of the Mussulmans.000 are sold as slaves. Surrender of Turks.000 Christians. Casarea. struction of the former. under Desperate and unequal battles be- tween the now united orders and the Mamelukes*^ 1265 Loss of Azotus. 479 Louis in 1242 Imliscriminate massacre of the inhabitants pillage of the city general ruin. in Damietta to the exchange for . CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. they Damietta the evacuate to French. [In imitation of the plan of the fifth Crusade. [During four years. .000 men. make the port. and capture of Louis . a Death of Nedjmeddin. Palestine overrun by the Khariz- refortifying mians. rive. 1250 Revolution danger. himself. in Egj'pt. Ems. hence the hopes of the Christians re- 1243 Terrible defeat of the Christian chivalry and their Moslem allies. is alone in the hands of the Christians. 1249 Rashness of the Count d'Artois at Mansora .] A storm disperses the fleet. and 50. Louis defeats the Moslems at Mansora. infidels. struction of at least 30. <fec.. 1244 The Christian chivalry confined Acre. Sultan of Egypt. the treasures which Louis was enabled to raise were lavislily expended in Jaffa. famine and make frightful ravages Antioch abandoned to desolation among them. Latins put to the sword. A. under the king. and Jaffa. 1245 The new Crusade was resolved upon at the Council of Lyons temporal wars to be suspended for four years. 100. with a body of English nobles under William Longsword. here they spend 8 months. 1247 Cyprus the rendezvous of the French Crusaders . 1250 Total rout of the Crusaders at Mandesora. against the Egyptians and Kharizmians. 1254 Renewal of hostilities. Egypt. massacre of 40. invasions. March of the French toward Cairo. and Acre. the Moslem hordes approach Acre. Preparations of the Templars in Europe for inflictiiig a desperate vengeance upon tlie Hospitallers. as the principal seat of the Moslem power. 1269 Another Crusade is proposed and eagerly adopted in Europe. and Acre ruin. was again selected for the theatre of operations. and knights slain. 1268 Fall of Antioch before Bibars of Egypt. . D. Crusaders in distress pestilence . the king and nobles. 1248 Louis sails for Egypt with 1800 vessels. Arrival of those dispersed by the storm. Iloly Sepulchre in the hands of . Aleppo. April 5. Laodicea. of the Seventh Crusade. The news the of the death of the queen -mother of Franco hastens Departure of Louis for Eui'ope. to Disunion between the Kharismians and Egyptians the former expelled from Palestine.

Narrow escape from assassination Edward kills the assassin. . so that they might not afford protection the Christians. 12S0 Invasion of Palestine by the Englishmen. endeavours to re- from the French before Tunis. Sultan Khatil demands reparation denied. mands.. Mame- Edward May.) [None of the writers contemporary with this event knew any thing the of that beautiful fiction creation of a much later age which ascribes the recovery of Edward to the aifectionate devotion of his consort. roughly dissolved. 1270 Undertaken by Louis IX. Eleanor. marches against the infidels.000 men against Acre. who renew their ravages The report of his Bondocdar with tires every year. (a . Prince Edward of England sepa- 1274 Pope Gregory X. leads an army of 200. 1276 The Latins twice plunder the peaceable Moslem traders satisfaction for which Keladun. in the chiBut the union valry of Europe. accepted by Edward.) verted to Africa. and dreadful slaughter of the Moslems. the last Christian pos- 1290 Further ' session in Palestine. by the Mamelukes. Fall of Acre. Edward's army fall victims to disease. End of the Eighth Crusade."] THE END. with these martial qualities of fanatical enthusiasm which that inspired the Christian warriors of the eleventh century. Edward is himself taken ill. D. A. Sultan of Egypt. in sucking the venom from his — outrages on Mussulman merchants by the inhabitants of Acre. arrives in Palestine arrival strikes terror he re: lukes. 1272 Edward and his wife Eleanor return home.] Truce for ten years offered by the Sultan of Egypt. with only 9000 men. The cessation of the Crusades was not produced by any abatement of the love of arms. or of the thirst of glory. but di(See France. from before Acre. i Mussulman. and almost tho- wounds. had been slowly. 1271 From Sicily he departs for Palestine at the head of about 1000 rates vive the crusading spirit in Europe. 1289 Dismemberment of the county of Tripoli from the Latin kingdom. Edward. End [• of the War of the Crusades. vainly de. and routs them with slaughter. 1391 Khatil. Thb Eighth and Last Crusade. having vowed to extermi<i nate the faithless Franks. any longer to the city.— : 480 CHRONOLOGY OF THE CRUSADES. Tyre and Sidon destroyed by the Turks. capture of Assault on Nazareth . and proceeds to Sicily.

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Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide Treatment Date: 2002 ^^^ _ PreservationTechnologies A WORLD LEADER IN PAPER PRESERVATION 111 Thomson Park Drive Cranberry Township.Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. PA 1 6056 .

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