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Marcelo Hernandez Borba artist and designer Institute of Arts / UFRGS – Brazil email@example.com
For a long time, the art history conceived to the drawing a secondary role which with the intention of aiding in the process of artistic creation. The approaching of this article is the drawing and its process as its own artistic object endowed of great perceptive possibilities. This work intends to share the vision that the drawing is an expression way that is always susceptible to go on and it uses the experience of the digital drawing to go deeper, comparing it to the drawing done in traditional methods. The article emphasizes how the digital drawing subverts the chronological order of the traditional drawing, and thus to reach a new source of perceptions. This text also discusses how the drawing process can be showed and how it gives to the audience the opportunity to follow the same artist steps.
giving it a secondary function. which serves as a support to other kind of media. supports. Through the drawing. sculpture and architecture were born because there is a belief that the drawing is really capable for emerging creations. Besides social references he exhibits the production process by recording the action of drawing using basically charcoal and he changes it.INTRODUCTION The drawing in the context of the art history has been usually related as an expression way. but not merely as a descriptive sense. important masterpieces of painting. as a support and even as a mediator between the artist and art itself. They are the first impressions externalized by artists and they become the starting point to larger projects. The way for presenting these digital drawings configures animation movies and also will be discussed by the exposition of the production process as a language. the reflection occurs basically among the elements that compose this universe: tools. The interest core of the work is the drawing as a process that represents and develops perceptive actions. TIMELINE When the drawing becomes the artistic object. And was through the modern art’s questions that the drawing became itself an attractive aim of investigations and reevaluations in its production process under new parameters [ROSE. had a rupture at the beginning of the past century when Braque and Picasso introduced the collage. . 1976]. This way of thinking the drawing. This concern is found in William Kentridge’s works. This work intends to analyze through the drawing process as an exercise of perception that allows new possibilities. erasing and manipulating the elements drawn to show them as a motion picture. new points of view that provide the exchanges between consciousness and unconsciousness. which means the utilization of computer and some applications as a tool. The work wants to contribute to this discussion inserting the digital drawing. but as a chaining of parameters acting in a perceptive system. techniques.
However. Is about the process that is being written here again. are things from the drawing. and this pause. didn’t allows in fact. And these mechanisms and its functionalities are the most interesting part.With the intention of linking the thought that searches also to analyze the drawing under new approaches. and spotting it. The drawing works under the relations establish among themselves. through the reasoning and through the memory. helping with the self-knowledge mechanism as well as the impressions of each one ahead of the collective experiences. that its potentialities came to light and gave itself the protagonist role. metaphors or emotions. Exactly because if we affirm that the drawing never will be necessarily finished. for the interests that artists would awake centuries later. Richard Serra remarked in an interview: “There is no way to make a drawing. What always has been clear since then. there is only drawing”. The primordial function attributed to it in the studies that revealed the depth question perceived in the nature. is that the power of the drawing is on its own process. VANISHING POINT The drawing resists to the time as few ways of expression can resist. always as a good way to share the individual experiences. either treating at ideas field. that is not its end. for example. it is always important to point out how it is presented in our existence since the prehistoric registers. Changing the direction of a line. is . “drawing is a verb” [HOPTMAN. 2002]. we can say that it is always in progress. not in a historic age sense or about its social context. And if it does not has an ideal moment to be finished. It is the own act of the drawing that results in its expression. For Serra. Erasing is a part of the process. There is not a moment to finish a drawing. through the perception. trace or what the action can has conceived. indicates its tendency to the perceptive exercise. it means that it can be transformed infinitely. Despite the drawing does not have acquired an independent and autonomous status in the most time of art history. we can observe that his essence is into the most primary mental elaborations of the human being. A drawing can be enough since its first line. its linking with the intellect and other times with the spirituality.
The contemplation appeal appears in the very instant of the drawing’s pause. but it is not of that based form.part of its process. but the consciousness that he is not necessarily finished and that the possibilities to modify it completely are opened permanently. that he is the perceiving subject and that perception as he lives it belies everything that he says of perception in general. seen from inside. In the movie projection. it is necessary to notice the possible way of the collage. but as a re-creation or re-constitution of the world at every moment [MERLEAU-PONTY. Aside multiple approaches are placed new relations that vanish from the established way at each moment. this contemplation is incessantly interrupted by the transformation of images” [COUCHOT. The drawing is in that based form. for example. 1994]. generating an animation movie. the graphite is more susceptible to the deletion than watercolor. The perceiving subject is the place where these things occur. It does not presents in first place as an event in the world to which the category of causality. would become the work of art endowed with another complexity imposed by an external circumstance and this would move it away from the point of view of this article that threats the drawing as something more instinctive. However. for example. it is about what Merleau Ponty remarks when he refers to the objective thought that ignores the perception. As Couchot: “The contemplation demands the stop of the look at least when it is accustomed to the determined relation with the image. In part. how the change of the perceptive approach is capable to reconfigure the drawing going beyond of its own representation? The redrawing can means a way to escape from the tyranny of the objective thought that at every instant tries to treat the perception like something concrete. The conditions for the continuous transformation of the drawing are submitted. to the medium. ephemeral. becoming it . leaving it free of the form. This condition will become still stronger for the public. imposed by the perspective to the central projection. For. can be applied. 2003]. about stimuli as physics describes them and about the sense organs as described by biology. Therefore. Continuously it is possible to keep its character of to be expose to a new conception. obviously. perception owes nothing to what we know in other ways about the world. where it is being produced. as that one that is given to us. becomes the adopted form in that instant. and the philosopher describes sensations and their substractum as one might describe the fauna of a distant land – without being aware that he himself perceives. because in the work presented the drawings are shown sequentially. The paper possesses one definitive resistance.
the drawing is a medium that resists well to the time. transmitted. CONTOUR The artistic production accomplished in the experience provided by the computer can reach a new range of sensations and approaches that allows perceptive exercises different than those offered by the traditional methods. The drawing act possesses a very close relation to the perceptive mechanism and in this field. Such techniques interest the artists who look new inquiries in the field of the perception [COUCHOT. exactly the consciousness of ourselves” [MERLEAU-PONTY. because as Couchot. when this arrangement goes to the thinking domain: “The certainty of the idea does not base the certainty of the perception.perhaps inappropriate for the approach proposed here. by varying only its resistance and. This experience changes the art. the time is counted from the moment when. So. 1990]. for example. a new approaching can perfectly be launched. but it lies in it while is the experience of the perception that teaches us the passage of a moment to another one and searches the unit of the time. treated. exploring this probable capability the drawing has to change itself perpetually? It is when we ask about this point in the process that we start to understand better the possibilities that are supported by the digital drawing. In this direction. It is necessary to discuss more about it. In the drawing process. . everything is possible. As what was said previously. the time is not capable to finish the process. the interest that prevails at this moment in this work is the drawing as a process capable to be part of a system that interacts to the perception. trying to reach different perceptions than the traditional process drawing. However. conserved and manipulated. the graphite touches the paper. This is the scope of this work that treats the question of the time in the drawing process. The changes are attributes detected by the perception and it is what give us the dimension of the time that passes. allowing them to be registered. how it is possible to advance in this perceptive activity. All material things can be transformed. There is a more intriguing question still in this approach. into the contemporary art notion where everything is allowed. It does not submit itself to the time and thus arriving to the end. they are applied in the control of images. all the consciousness is perceptive.
the passing of time. They are aspects that may be considered in the analysis of such processes as intrinsic to the method. If the watercolor will be continued later. the continuity of a watercolor kept some months ago. the genesis of the drawing could to generate a new set of possibilities. increases the senses. where established arrangements created by the human condition. Taken to the conditions that the digital environment offers. the work can begin from a sheet of white paper or to interfere on a photography from a newspaper page or also. he will be approving and incorporating them to his work. sometimes short and quick traces. a structure that mounts itself from consciousness and unconsciousness sensations and. Therefore. for example. These are arrangements that express a perceptive set. The nature of the drawing in the traditional way implies to be submitted to these parameters that are linked to the temporal aspect. In the traditional drawing process. the drawing can find a renewed fertility. since de action of a clothing-moth or a deformation of the support. A work takes a certain time. we can imagine if this configuration had another nature. depending on the conditions of the place where it has been kept. The results of the process will be different considering the simple fact to have passed a greater or lesser time until the moment that the artist decides to stop. the elements overlap each other. gives opportunities for simultaneous actions and challenges our reasoning. it will have some transformations that will be able to occur. while this formation emerges. During the drawing action we add lines. And the subversion of these factors can be a way that allows new perspectives in the drawing process. changing this arrangement.1993]. This occurs in a chronological sequence determined by the decisions of the artist in each moment: are drawn long lines. can be manipulated as. traces and blotches. because if the artist restarts it and accepts these transformations. creating the sensation of an environment that seems to belong to another reality. These are known and interesting aspects of the traditional way. What we verify in these examples is that the time intervenes in the transformations and possibilities of the drawing. its configuration exerts more and more influence to the following steps. that is to say. . Just the consciousness that the digital experience extends our possibilities. besides of rubbing out and eventual blots. if the chronology of this structure had considered a different ordering of several elements of the composition. covering larger areas with light and dark blotches. It is as if the drawing had maintained its production process.
in this case. 2001]. it is. The involvement referred here is felt due the circumstances that the existence of an interface causes when it mediates the relation between the artist and the machine. This interaction is a semantic relation based in meaning and expression and not by physical force [JOHNSON. for example. due to the proposition of the interfaces. but different in aspects such as the visualization of the action. that is to say. traditionally fitted by the nature and the access to them is mediated by the software interfaces. The universe of possibilities allowed by the technology changes our perception. but the perceptive part and the feeling caused by the involvement of the drawing is from another order. All results are seen in the screen. because is necessary to move only the hand. The feeling perceived in the drawing that uses digital technology exists due to this particular medium. origin and ending are distorted or even do not exist. even to make a long line.GRA_BIT TIP The digital drawing experience using a graphic tablet is an action compared to the traditional method. Other aspect to take into account is the small gestures. if the visualization devices will be different. but its integrity and its essence will be the same. because if it will be distributed by a network and open up in another computer. with differences. when the drawing gesture is done on the pad. and the computer. is an environment where references as concrete space. temporality. but cloned. but it does not mean be impossible to do drawings of big dimensions. When the pen is doing the movement. consummation. . eventually. any mark is done on it. What is perceived therefore. The physical act itself is almost the same compared with the traditional act of the drawing. When a drawing is created and digitally stored in the computer’s hard disk. An interface is defined as an application that gives form to the interaction between a user. by the dialogue with the tools supplied by the software. It will be able to appear. And such tools only can be really understood by the artist. replicated. an artist. because the software represents the dimension in the scale that was set it up. characterized for example. it will be exactly the same. not copied.
which is possible to separate whole drawing in several parts in a way that is preserved a line. there are many programs with the layers tool. With respect to perception. and it meets new possibilities in the layers resource. The drawing is the process. arranging or discarding anything is wanted. Currently. The description of part of these techniques in the artistic field and its relations to the propositions of this work shows all complexity that the drawing acquired with the technology. always from its last condition. aside to the maintenance of the traditional techniques. that is to say. for example. an action that was done previously is attached by the subsequent actions and its result is closed. is verified that is impossible to decompose it. becoming it a simple disposition of parts or sensations. just transformed. Because of that. is possible to use each moment of drawing process separately. The appearing of digital medium changes the drawing way radically. are occupying the same layer. rich in perceptive possibilities. And this has influence in the way as the work is perceived. In this vision. in its integrity. That condition always was part of the drawing. combining. In this way. the composition acquired cannot be altered in its course. referred in the beginning. the elements that were added and even rubbed from the composition. It is a tool.THE POINT The drawing is an ancient way of expression and its technique is basically the same since the first impressions done by the man. but is through the digital process that this becomes transparent. even if another one was drawn over it. revealing a new range of techniques proposed by the softwares. The big difference of the digital drawing are all its possibilities that come along mainly by the application functionalities that become it more rich in its construction. Like the Kentridge’s case. everything that was modified is lost and gives place to a new conception. the drawing subverts the chronology of the process. submitted by the functions that are attributed it. In the traditional drawing. What happens is a relation between the parts and the whole. When he erases and changes as part of his process. In the art’s context is important the register of this changing in the drawing. once the whole is previous to the parts and the whole . The supports and materials have been changed.
maintaining it open and alive. momentarily. The line demarcates the interior and the exterior. This aspect of the process generates a brutal influence in the possibilities provoked by the perceptions. leaves it emptiness. after that. is possible to affirm that the digital drawing never finds its definitive moment. The drawing emerges.is not an ideal whole [MERLEAU-PONTY. the artist is challenged to check the dimension of the perception ahead him. for example. but does not anchors. The drawing is a piece of work from the consciousness that feeds the unconsciousness. The drawing is redrawn. As was just mentioned previously. Even if nothing more will be added. Its vibration denotes the unquiet nature of the drawing as a medium that constructs without it has a foundation properly. because everything can be rearranged. floats. which does not allows to accept it or to reject it. There is less concern in the action done than what it can cause in the process. isolating each moment in transparent layers. Therefore. There is not necessity to preserve a drawing area for a subsequent intervention. can be hidden by the traces that were latterly done. or whatever. the first traces that were executed and that. traces. In this way. it does not matter the sequence which each one of the insertions was done. . occupies the space and soon. 1990]. What is presented in a specific drawing done with pencil and paper is the accumulation of lines. in order to form a structure. The digital drawing allows to be executed. destabilizing the form. At every moment. the drawing produced by traditional ways is submitted to the time. that were being put one over the other. there will still be the concrete possibility to reconfigure and to know what more he keeps besides that momentary form which he appears. again. The arrangement that follows a chronological ordering is impossible to recover each moment represented by the choices or impulses. the influence that a specific instant of the process will cause in the subsequent instants changes or almost not exists. without being inside or out. bringing to the top. In this way.
that of the cameraman consists of multiple fragments. Thus. but as a way to demonstrate the perceptive exercise. suggesting another point of view. everything that seems hermetic. Is interesting that it can be understood that what there was before was the drawings and while they was. can be open to other visions. In the sequential way. is bounded by a drawing. The drawing lends its accomplishment so that its process then can be shared and . The painter maintains in his work a natural distance from reality. is the certainty of the drawing and its insubordinate essence that guarantees the possibility of other conceptions. means give an opportunity. The drawing process rescued by the movie is an invitation to the perspective change.FLIPFLIP-BOOK These digital drawings hold in each one. which are assembled under a new law. The real intention with these videos is to show the drawing process. The movie subversion indicates other directions. And even this surface. an aspect of reality that is free of all equipment. Any surface has a potential drawing in stand by. since it offers. It is always going on. not as a document. many dynamics propositions. but the drawing is subversive by nature. That of the painter is a total one. its nature was another totally different comparing to its representation as a movie. Everything can be added to it and anything in it can be removed. it is submitted to the time. There is a tremendous difference between the pictures they obtain. It is by the digital reproducibility that the process recovers itself and still in that conception. through the perception. that in the beginning. For that reason. 1985]. for contemporary man the representation of reality by the film is incomparably more significant than that of the painter. The drawing does not keep accommodated. becoming the drawing process the movie’s object. And to exhibit them. the cameraman penetrates deeply into its web. The movie ties the drawings. This is what the drawing takes to the sequential treatment. some video footages are produced. Other movies are possible. And that is what one is entitled to ask from a work of art [BENJAMIN. the drawing acquires the motion. precisely because of the thoroughgoing permeation of reality with mechanical equipment.
so that. The exhibition of the artistic process. nothing was denied to. Actually. everything is allowed to. while a generation that was born inside of this era of fast technological progress. The drawing is an opportunity to have no certainty of anything and no doubting if something is possible. the drawings are representations of its process. The drawing process reveals with the experience digital. These definitions are thoughts that appear when its process is analyzed. CONCLUSION CONCLUSION There is not complexity or simplicity in the drawing. the drawing was discovered as a replete way of ramifications and it has paid attention to many artists whom search through it. has also created new languages endowed of hybridization. protected of the action of the time in the digital way. supplying to the public new parameters for the reflection. inserted in our moment. Was given to the contemporary art. The challenge has been to take advantage of this freedom. They equip the artist for searching new formulations.discussed. because in this new medium. searches in the history. a richness of new propositions and investigations to the contemporary art scenario. that new directions could be found. When something is drawn. be possible to offer a way of reflection. But despite in the movies. is created a bridge that opens a flow that comes from unknown places and surprises when it is discovered. In fact. stay open and free. which subjects are in suspension and that await definitions. the task of taking sequence to the all of the modern doubts. The art that uses the digital ways is not more important than one that uses traditional attributes. they properly. a change in the point of view until then applied. they became slaves of the time. Thanks to this search. the techniques and the environments of new sensorial experiences are still trying to consolidate in some concepts. New techniques that has been developed and that has allowed new experimentations initially to the motion pictures and to the photography and currently arrived to all media. the result is no more a drawing and starts to represent the drawings. So. embed the work roots in the object and .
1976. REFERENCES BENJAMIN. COUCHOT. 1985. Editora 34. p. O Primado da Percepção e suas Conseqüências Filosóficas. 1994. 1ª ed. 1ª ed. 914. Porto Alegre. Papyrus Editora. A Tecnologia na Arte: da Fotografia à Realidade Virtual. Drawing Now. The Museum of Modern Art.). MAURICE. p. . EDMOND. A Obra de arte na era de sua reprodutibilidade técnica. LAURA. The Museum of Modern Art. IMAGEM MÁQUINA: A ERA DAS TECNOLOGIAS DO VIRTUAL. Drawing Now: Eight Propositions. exercises a protagonist role in the discussion regarding the contemporary art alike the public. ARTE E POLÍTICA. BERNICE. São Paulo. São Paulo. Martins Fontes Editora. MAURICE. In: OBRAS ESCOLHIDAS – MAGIA E TÉCNICA. ANDRÉ (Org. The artistic production that keeps open to the fruition. Cultura da Interface. 1990. STEVE. when tracking some of the ways tracked by the artist has the possibility to insert in this perceptive context and to contribute indeed in the existence of the work. HOPTMAN. EDMOND.gives to it. 165-196. New York. São Paulo. 83-110. 67-81. MERLEAU-PONTY. Editora Brasiliense. MERLEAU-PONTY. Rio de Janeiro. p. Editora da UFRGS. Jorge Zahar Editor. New York. 2002. São Paulo. 1ª ed. 2003. ROSE. 2001. Fenomenologia da Percepção. Da representação à simulação. a larger resistance to the pressures that permeate the system. In: PARENTE. p. p. 37-47. 11-12. Campinas. 1993. p-15-35. COUCHOT. JOHNSON. p. WALTER. 1ª ed.
APPENDIX Drawings .
Borba – 2006 digital drawing – 600px X 800px .H.Still from “Janelas” – by M.
Still from “Café” – by M.H. Borba – 2006 digital drawing – 600px X 800px .
untitled – by M.H. Borba – 2006 digital drawing – 600px X 800px .
Borba – 2006 digital drawing – 1024px X 1280px .H.“Marta 00135” – by M.
H.untitled – by M. Borba – 2007 digital drawing – 3248px X 4134px .
“humani” – by M.H. Borba – 2007 digital drawing – 2362px X 4134px .
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