Table of Contents
I. II. Introduction ---------------------------- i Achievements of the Philippine Presidents ------ii Emilio Aguinaldo ---------------------------- 1-2 Manuel L. Quezon ---------------------------- 2-3 Jose P. Laurel ---------------------------- 3-4 Sergio Osmenia ---------------------------- 5 Manuel Roxas ---------------------------- 6 Elpidio Quirino ---------------------------- 7 Ramon Magsaysay ---------------------------- 8 Carlos P. Garcia ---------------------------- 9 Diosdado Macapagal ---------------------------- 10 Ferdinand Marcos ---------------------------- 11 Corazon Aquino ---------------------------- 12-13 Fidel V. Ramos ---------------------------- 14 Joseph Estrada ---------------------------- 15-16 Gloria-Macapagal Arroyo -------------------- 17-18 Benigno Simeon Aquino III ------------------- 19
I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of my Professors and friends. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am highly indebted to Mrs. Trifina G. Luna for her guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project. I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this project. My thanks and appreciations also to my colleague and the people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.
the first President of the Philippine Commonwealth. who was considered to have been a puppet president of a puppet government of the Japanese occupation. the datu’s word was law. Nevertheless. A president must be able to protect his country from invasion. although he led a nation still under American sovereignty. Although he often had a council of elders as his advisers. survive and prosper. unless the president has Secured Mode on their country. the datu was leader. so he is not considered to be in the line of Constitutional succession and not counted in the order of terms. These barangays were independent of one another. Two Presidents were deposed by EDSA Revolutions. the archipelago was not a unified nation. lawmaker. it was splintered into different barangays headed by a datu. Rather. represented by his GovernorGeneral. Quezon. Laurel. but their successors are counted in the order of terms. whom most Filipinos consider the first Filipino president. After the Spanish conquest. After Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States of America for 20 million dollars. the King of Spain became the de jure head of state of the country. the head of state became the President of the United States. they are still recognized as Philippine Presidents. Neither is Jose P. Counting of the order of terms and constitutional succession to the presidency starts with Manuel L. which will give the capital to finance military ventures. Before Spaniards arrived in the Philippines. The most important job of a president is to build up the economy of his country. although some barangays united to form a confederation. When the Filipinos fought for and achieved their independence. they elected their own Presidents.INTRODUCTION
The role of a president of a Country in simcountry is quite simple. and judge.
. especially Aguinaldo. social programs. In the barangays. Emilio Aguinaldo was the first to assume the title of President. also represented by the American Governor-General. and financial growth in their country. but his Malolos Republic was not recognized by other nations at the time of its existence.
Mrs. Castilla. Trifina G. Sorsogon S. Luna
.Sorsogon State College Castilla Campus Mayon.Y.
even recklessly. George Dewey to return to the Philippines to assist the United States in the war against Spain. 1898. the Philippines. In December 1897 he signed an agreement called the Pact of Biac-na-Bató with the Spanish governor general. He agreed to leave the Philippines and to remain permanently in exile on condition of a substantial financial reward from Spain coupled with the promise of liberal reforms. Aguinaldo was taken into custody in 1945. to sign articles. with all its devastating features. who had fought bravely. Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States. and in September a revolutionary assembly met and ratified Filipino independence. was granted a pension from the U. and educated at the College of San Juan de Letran. he aided the American attack on the Philippine Islands. The Filipino government fled northward. On the night of February 4 the inevitable conflict between the Americans and Filipinos surrounding Manila was precipitated. He was nominated president of the new republic after the Filipino declaration of independence in 1898. 23. In 1935 when the commonwealth government of the Philippines was established in preparation for independence. 1898. when he was captured. government. Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines May 19. proclaimed a provisional republic. a revolutionary society that fought bitterly and successfully against the Spanish. He ran unsuccessfully for the presidency of the new interim Filipino commonwealth government in 1935. Luzon. 1899. born near
Cavite. and two years later. who had been president of the provisional government. They caused him to make speeches. In April 1901 he took an oath of allegiance to the United States and retired to private life. 1901. he continued to lead the struggle against the United States forces until March 1901. The Filipinos. Aguinaldo led a Filipino insurrection against Spanish rule in 1896. was elected president. Morning found the Filipinos. Frederick Funston. While in Hong Kong and Singapore he made arrangements with representatives of the American consulates and of Commo. the Malolos Constitution.General Emilio F. Dec. by invading American troops and held on suspicion of collaboration with the enemy during the Japanese occupation. In August 1896 he was mayor of Cavite Viejo and was the local leader of the Katipunan. and to address a radio appeal to Gen. While the fighting was in progress. and announced renewal of the struggle with Spain. and retired to private life. Aguinaldo. in a daring operation led by Gen. Philippine leader Emilio Aguinaldo led a rebellion against Spanish rule in 1896 and assisted the United States during the Spanish-American War in 1898. 10. he resisted American occupation. The Japanese used Aguinaldo as an anti-American tool. After three years of costly fighting the insurrection was finally brought to an end when. Filipino leader and independence fighter. during the Spanish-American War. As head of the Filipino provisional government in 1899. which immediately sent reinforcements to the Philippines.
. defeated at all points. He subsequently resisted American occupation of the newly independent republic. Aguinaldo issued a proclamation of war against the United States. He returned to private life until the Japanese invaded the Philippines in 1941. by virtue of which the Philippines was declared a republic and which had been approved by the assembly and by Aguinaldo. was proclaimed. Douglas MacArthur on Corregidor to surrender in order to spare the flower of Filipino youth. On Jan. He was subsequently exonerated and appointed to the Council of State in 1950. 1898. during World War II.S. were ceded by Spain to the United States by the Treaty of Paris. Aguinaldo (1869-1964). Relations between the Americans and the Filipinos were unfriendly and grew steadily worse. However. along with Puerto Rico and Guam. In November 1899 the Filipinos resorted to guerrilla warfare. Manila. General Aguinaldo was captured in his secret headquarters at Palanan in northern Luzon on March 23. who declared their independence of Spain on June 12. Aguinaldo ran for president but was decisively beaten. of which Aguinaldo was to become president.
D. born in Baler. and fought graft and corruption in the government. Douglas MacArthur as his special adviser).. He became a member of the first Philippine assembly in 1906. was built in a suburb of Manila. led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Quezon resigned as commissioner and returned to Manila to be elected to the newly formed Philippine Senate in 1916. In the later years of his life. which had previously been led by his rival Sergio Osmeña. he escaped to the United States. entitled to speak. As resident commissioner to the United States Congress (1909-1916). in the U. tackled the huge problem of landless peasants in the countryside who still worked as tenants on large estates. where he headed the Philippine government in exile until his death. After Japan invaded and occupied the Philippines in 1942. Quezon returned to the university.When the Americans returned. together with others accused of collaboration with the Japanese. but not vote. In 1922 he gained control of the Nacionalista Party. obtained his degree (1903). and educated at the University of
San Tomás. he ran for governor of Tayabas province in 1905. and the improvement of relations between the Philippines and the United States. Once elected. signed the declaration of the United Nations against the Fascist nations. promoted the settlement and development of the large southern island of Mindanao. later known as Quezon City. he fought vigorously for a speedy grant of independence by the United States. the promotion of nationalism and democracy in the Philippines. Quezon fought for passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934). Aguinaldo was arrested and. As president he reorganized the islands' military defense (aided by Gen. Quezon played a major role in obtaining Congress' passage in 1916 of the Jones Act. he was appointed by President Elpidio Quirino as a member of the Council of State in 1950. Convinced that the only way to independence was through cooperation with the United States. A new national capital. He cut short his law studies at the University of Santo Tomás in Manila in 1899 to participate in the struggle for independence against the United States. and wrote his autobiography. After Aguinaldo surrendered in 1901.S. Quezon (1878-1944). He was elected the first president of the newly formed transitional Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935 and re-elected in 1941.C. he subsequently served as its president until 1935.
. Quezon was reelected president in 1941. Philippine statesman.. he worked for Philippine independence. where he formed a government in exile. he went to the United States. The act gave the Philippines greater autonomy and provided for the creation of a bicameral national legislature modeled after the U. which pledged independence for the Philippines without giving a specific date when it would take effect. during his years in Washington. House of Representatives. he devoted his major attention to veterans' affairs. and practiced law for a few years. served as a member of the Pacific War Council. Congress. Quezon died of tuberculosis before full Philippine independence was established. He began to practise law in 1903 and was elected governor of his native province of Tayabas (now Quezon) two years later. however. The Good Fight (1946). he served for two years before being elected a representative in 1907 to the newly established Philippine Assembly. 1935.S. In 1909 Quezon was appointed resident commissioner for the Philippines. Quezon City and Quezon Province are named after him. was held for some months in Bilibid Prison until released by presidential amnesty. which provided for full independence for the Philippines 10 years after the creation of a constitution and the establishment of a Commonwealth government that would be the forerunner of an independent republic. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines during World War II.
Manuel L. As a token vindication of his honour. Quezon was elected president of the newly formulated Commonwealth on Sept. 17.
the Court. in 1923. this time as a delegate to the 1935 Constitutional Convention. His clashes with Wood solidified Laurel's nationalist credentials. is Laurel's most important contribution to jurisprudence and even the rule of law in the Philippines. Hailed as one of the "Seven Wise Men of the Convention". 1903 Bar Examinations
Jose P. Recto. Upon his return from Yale. Filipino nationalism began to surface at the end of the 19th century. A fully independent Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed in 1946. He was president of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. as a messenger in the Bureau of Forestry then as a clerk in the Code Committee tasked with the codification of Philippine laws. Jurisprudence of Justice Laurel Laurel's Supreme Court tenure may have been overshadowed by his presidency. firmly entrenched the power of Philippine courts to engage in judicial review of the acts of the other branches of government. yet he remains one of the most important Supreme Court justices in Philippine history. a future Supreme Court Justice who would be a mentor to the young Laurel. Angara v. and to interpret the Constitution. He retired to private practice. through Justice Laurel's opinion. In 1941 the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established. 63 Phil. Held the Court. but by 1934. Street. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803). he was again elected to public office. through Laurel:
. 5 U. He would serve for one term before losing his re-election bid in 1931 to Claro M.Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina was President of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. he was introduced to its head. In that post. which is considered as the Philippine equivalent of Marbury v. Laurel was appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on February 29. 1936. In affirming that the Court had jurisdiction to review the rulings of the Electoral Commission organized under the National Assembly.
Political career Laurel began his life in public service while a student. In 1925 he was elected to the Philippine Senate. For advocating Filipino-language amendments to the 1935 Constitution.
The first Filipino president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under American rule. Electoral Commission. Laurel (March 9. During his work for the Code Committee. but it was not until the 1920s and 1930s that American policy towards the independence of the islands changed. He authored several leading cases still analyzed to this day that defined the parameters of the branches of government as well as their powers. 139 (1936). Madison. with Quezon as its first president. resign from his position together with other Cabinet members in protest of Wood's administration. Laurel was appointed first as Undersecretary of the Interior Department.November 5. he is known as the "Father of the National Language. 1891 . Thomas A. Following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution and the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. he would sponsor the provisions on the Bill of Rights." Awards and achievements 4th Place. 1959).S. and eventually. he would frequently clash with the American Governor-General Leonard Wood. then promoted as Secretary of the Interior in 1922.
At the same time. as well as his demonstrated willingness to serve under the Japanese Military Administration. must be founded on the recognition of the necessity of interdependence among divers and diverse units of a society and of the protection that should be equally and evenly extended to all groups as a combined force in our social and economic life. Social justice means the promotion of the welfare of all the people. the Court still asserted that the right to due process of law must be observed. 726 (1940) was a seemingly innocuous case involving a challenge raised by a private citizen to a traffic regulation banning kalesas from Manila streets during certain afternoon hours. consistent with the fundamental and paramount objective of the state of promoting the health. it does not in reality nullify or invalidate an act of the legislature." Another highly influential decision penned by Laurel was Ang Tibay v. It was because of his being wellknown to the Japanese as a critic of US rule. through the exercise of powers underlying the existence of all governments on the time-honored principle of salus populi est suprema lex. Laurel was among the Commonwealth officials instructed by the Japanese Imperial Army to form a provisional government when they invaded and occupied the country. through the maintenance of a proper economic and social equilibrium in the interrelations of the members of the community. these "cardinal primary rights" have stood as the standard in testing due process claims in administrative cases. and of bringing about "the greatest good to the greatest number."The Constitution is a definition of the powers of government." but the humanization of laws and the equalization of social and economic forces by the State so that justice in its rational and objectively secular conception may at least be approximated. upheld the regulation as within the police power of the government. therefore.
Awards and achievements 2nd Place. were more flexible than those in judicial proceedings. His prewar. Quezon. nor atomism. close relationship with Japanese officials (a son had been sent to study at the Imperial Military Academy in Tokyo. Laurel was instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel L. nor anarchy." Presidency Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in World War II. or extra-constitutionally. through Laurel. such as labor relations courts. it does not assert any superiority over the other departments. Calalang v. through the adoption of measures legally justifiable. Laurel would respond with what would become his most famous aphorism. constitutionally. Since then. Who is to determine the nature. comfort. And when the judiciary mediates to allocate constitutional boundaries. 1915 Bar Examinations
. 70 Phil. The Court acknowledged in that case that the substantive and procedural requirements before proceedings in administrative agencies. The Court. who fled to Corregidor and then to the United States to establish a government-in-exile. placed him in a good position to interact with the Japanese occupation forces. and quiet of all persons. Williams. which is to this day widely quoted by judges and memorized by Filipino law students: "Social justice is neither communism. scope and extent of such powers? The Constitution itself has provided for the instrumentality of the judiciary as the rational way. Social justice. nor despotism. but only asserts the solemn and sacred obligation assigned to it by the Constitution to determine conflicting claims of authority under the Constitution and to establish for the parties in an actual controversy the rights which that instrument secures and guarantees to them. that he held a series of high posts in 1942-1943. 635 (1940). the adoption by the Government of measures calculated to insure economic stability of all the competent elements of society. CIR. 69 Phil. and enumerated the "cardinal primary rights" that must be respected in administrative proceedings. But in rejecting the claim that the regulation was violative of social justice. and Laurel had received an honorary doctorate from Tokyo University).
C. he was elected to the first Philippine assembly. August 1. in Cebu City. when the government was in exile in Washington. Manila. October 20. when he was succeeded by Manuel Quezon. The bill. became its speaker (1907-1916). colonial administration appointed him governor of the province of Cebu and fiscal (district attorney) for the provinces of Cebu and Negros Oriental. born on Cebu.. He remained vice president during the Japanese occupation. He was also editor of a Spanish newspaper. In 1907 he was elected delegate to the Philippine National Assembly and founded the Nationalist Party. Awards and achievements 2nd Place. D. In 1904 the U. who became the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. Made speaker of the House of Representatives in 1916. 1950) Chief Commander. military bases after independence. Osmeña remained leader of the Nationalists until 1921. 1903 Bar Examinations Medal of the Order of Civil Merit (Orden del Merito Civil.Sergio Osmeńa (September 9. to secure passage of the HareHawes-Cutting independence bill. Osmeña became president.S. when he was defeated by Manuel Roxas. 1935 Presidential Medal of Merit (July 3. in 1903. 1898 Grand Officer (Plaque). Order of the Republic (Spain).C. Philippine Legion of Honor (posthumous). February 23. making the Philippines a commonwealth with a large measure of independence. he became president of the government in exile when President Manuel Quezon died in 1944. 1961). which came to dominate Philippine political life. He was the founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and president of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. who had joined him in a coalition. Twice elected vice-president of the commonwealth (1935 and 1941). In 1933 he went to Washington. was superseded by the Tydings-McDuffie Act of March 1934. Trained as a lawyer.October 19. 1994
. He served as president until the elections of April 1946. Philippine independence leader and
statesman. He was. El Nuevo Día. 1878 . Osmeña received a law degree from the University of Santo Tomás. D. he served until his election to the Senate in 1923. with Quezon as president. The following year Osmeña became vice president. Osmeña headed several missions to the United States to argue for Philippine independence and was instrumental in gaining commonwealth status for the Philippines in 1935. defeated (1946) in the first elections of an independent Philippines. vetoed by the Philippine Assembly.S. but Quezon differed with Osmeña over the bill's provision to retain U. Two years later he was elected governor of Cebu. and later served as senator from Cebu. On the death of Quezon in August 1944. Spain). however.
the president of the Senate. governor-general (Leonard Wood) began vetoing bills passed by the Philippine legislature. During World War II Roxas served in the pro-Japanese government of José Laurel by acquiring supplies of rice for the Japanese army.S. 1948). In 1923 he and Manuel Quezon. His administration was marred by graft and corruption. and. and special privileges for U. subsequently serving as Speaker of the House and a member of the Council of State. moreover. the Nacionalista Party leader. Roxas was defended by his friend General Douglas MacArthur. In 1932 Roxas and Sergio Osmeña. Roxas was a member of the convention that drew up a constitution under the revised Philippine Independence and Commonwealth Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act). led the Philippine Independence Mission to Washington. the Nacionalista Party was split between them on this issue. near Manila. His heavy-handed attempts to crush the Huks led to widespread peasant disaffection. Roxas began his political career in 1917 as a member of the municipal council of Capiz (renamed Roxas in 1949). when independence was declared on July 4. who held that the act compromised future Philippine independence. Roxas was later opposed by Quezon. Elpidio Quirino. After studying law at the University of the Philippines.S. Roxas also served as secretary of finance in the Commonwealth government (1938-40). He was popularly known as the “First President of
the Third Republic. however. D. He was governor of the province of Capiz in 1919-21 and was then elected to the Philippine House of Representatives. Roxas was elected president of the Commonwealth in 1946 as the nominee of the liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party (which became the Liberal Party). Roxas (January 1. resigned in protest from the Council of State when the U.C.” He was born in Capiz. property owners and investors.Manuel A. (see also Index: Hukbalahap Rebellion)
.April 15. Although Roxas was successful in getting rehabilitation funds from the United States after independence. where they influenced the passage of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. he was forced to concede military bases (23 of which were leased for 99 years). trade restrictions for Philippine citizens. and educated at the University of Manila.. 1892 . Roxas died in office in 1948 and was succeeded by his vice president. he became the first president of the new republic. Although a court was established after the war to try collaborators. In 1934. the abuses of the provincial military police contributed to the rise of the left-wing Hukbalahap (Huk) movement in the countryside.
setting the date for Philippine independence as July 4. he was elected president for a four-year term on the Liberal Party ticket. After World War II. In 1934 he was a member of the Philippine independence mission to Washington. campaigning for clean elections and defeating Quirino as the Nacionalista candidate in the presidential election of 1953. which he had won. Quirino served as secretary of state and vice president under the first president of the independent Philippines. President Quirino's administration faced a serious threat in the form of the Communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement. when Quirino's negotiations with Huk commander Luis Taruc broke down in 1948.C. studied law. particularly in the rural areas. Quirino succeeded to the presidency. (see also Index: Hukbalahap Rebellion) Quirino's six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction. who had been largely successful in eliminating the threat of the Huk insurgents. and. The following year. were among the most dishonest in the country's history. Taruc openly declared himself a Communist and called for the overthrow of the government.After obtaining a law degree from the University of the Philippines. Quirino practiced law until he was elected a member of the Philippine House of Representatives in 1919-25 and a senator in 1925-31. 1948. He was also elected to the convention that drafted a constitution for the new Philippine Commonwealth. When Roxas died on April 15. and increased economic aid from the United States. He was born in Vignan on Luzon. however. the Communists steadily gained control over the leadership.
. Quirino's administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption. Quirino retired to private life. By 1950 the Huks had gained control over a considerable portion of Luzon. D. in 1915. near Manila.February 28. broke with Quirino on the issue of corruption. Basic social problems. Manuel Roxas. 1946.Elpidio Quirino (November 16. Subsequently. defeating the Nacionalista candidate. Subsequently he served as secretary of finance and secretary of the interior in the Commonwealth government. and Quirino appointed the able Ramon Magsaysay as secretary of national defense to suppress the insurrection. general economic gains. remained unsolved. Magsaysay. 1956).. 1890 . Though the Huks originally had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Luzon.
President of the Philippines (1948-1953). which secured the passage in Congress of the Tydings-McDuffie Act. headed by Manuel Quezon. The 1949 elections.
He was killed in a plane crash in 1957. He reorganized and strengthened the army and the constabulary and intensified the campaign to crush Huk resistance. Garcia was sworn in as President.
Philippine statesman. The statute provided a maximum sentence of death for active party membership but allowed surrender without penalty within 30 days after promulgation. during World War II. In the mid-1950s the United States and the Philippines jointly acknowledged Philippine ownership of US military bases in the islands. and he reorganized and strengthened the armed forces in a campaign to crush them. In June a statute outlawing the Communist Party was promulgated. held on November 10. Some 1. was elected Vice-President. former Defence Minister Ramón Magsaysay won a decisive victory over the incumbent Quirino. and the next day Vice-President Carlos P.400 holdouts of the Huk movement surrendered.
. 1955. He was elected president of the Philippines in November 1953. the back of the rebellion was broken. waging one of the most successful antiguerrilla campaigns in modern history by winning over the peasantry and preserving tight military discipline.March 17. but in the elections of 1965 he lost to the Nationalist candidate. he was appointed secretary of national defence in 1950. Magsaysay was a strong opponent of the Communist-led Huk guerrillas. although it was not entirely suppressed. an opposition Liberal Party candidate. he organized and led the guerrilla force that fought the Japanese. born in Iba. In 1953 Magsaysay resigned his post as defence secretary and became the presidential candidate of the Nationalist party after criticizing the Liberal government. He died in a plane crash. In 1953 the government attempted unsuccessfully to end the Huk rebellion by a peace parley with the rebel leaders. on August 11. In the presidential elections.Ramon Magsaysay (August 31. He was elected (1946) and re-elected (1949) on the Liberal party ticket to the Philippine House of Representatives. and because of his vigorous conduct of the campaign against the Huks. Garcia was subsequently elected president. and Diosdado Macapagal. Macapagal was elected President in 1961. 1957). Ferdinand Marcos. Magsaysay died on March 17. An advocate of stronger government action against the Communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) guerrillas. Magsaysay was elected president of the Philippines in 1953 and served four years in office. legislation empowering President Magsaysay to break up large landed estates and distribute the land to tenant farmers. and educated at the University of the Philippines and José Rizal College. in an air crash. From 1942 to 1945. 1957. Congress approved. 1907 . but his efforts to reform the country were frustrated by wealthy landowner interests in the national congress. The Philippine Senate also ratified the peace treaty with Japan and a Philippine-Japanese agreement providing for US$800 million in Japanese reparations. On September 6 the Philippines and the United States concluded a trade agreement on private US investment in Philippine enterprises.
1971). Garcia took over the presidency when Magsaysay died in an airplane accident in March. Pres.June 1. During the period of his presidency. He began his studies at the Siliman University in Dumaguete and later transfered to the Philippine Law School where he finished his law degree in 1923. Bohol on November 4. austerity "as a policy means temperate spending." Garcia was defeated by Vice Pres. After the war. Garcia (November 4. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II. Garcia presided over the remaining eight months of Magsaysay's term and went on to win the 1957 presidential election.
. He served as congressman. then and as senator. Once he said. He started his entry into politics and public service when he was elected as Bohol's representative to the National Assembly. Garcia was active in the resistance movement. It signifies more work. 1896 to Policracio Garcia and Ambrosia Polistico. It means less imports and extravagant consumption. he was instrumental in pursuing and implementing the "Filipino First" policy which was conceived to initiate economic independence and also bring back the pride of Filipinos in their country. 1971 while serving as president of the Constitutional Convention. Diosdado Macapagal in the election of November 1961. more productive investment and more efficiency.
. Garcia was the seventh president of
the Philippines. He was re-elected as Philippine senator in 1945 at subsequently elected as vice president during the Magsaysay administration in 1953. 1957. He appealed for cooperation towards this effort. It was at the Bohol Provincial School where he initially started teaching. 1896 . He died after a heart attack in Quezon City on June 14. Garcia's administration campaigned and adhered to a program of austerity. Carlos P. more thrift. He was born in Talibon. he participated in the formulation and drafting of the governing laws and policies of the United Nations. As president. He took the bar examination and was among the top ten who passed it.Carlos P. governor of the province of Bohol for three terms. Magsaysay appointed him as Secretary of Foreign Affairs in concurrent capacity as his vice president.
He placed the peso on the free currency-exchange market. Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. and sought to curb income tax evasion. namely: the promotion of the stability of the Philippine currency. He was elected by a wide margin. and the launching of his version of agrarian reform. His reforms. Macapagal was admitted to the bar in 1936. He was the topnotcher of the Bar examinations in 1935. forging a coalition of the Liberal and Progressive parties and making a crusade against corruption a principal element of his platform. After receiving his law degree. and he was defeated in the 1965 elections by Ferdinand Marcos. particularly by the wealthiest families. During World War II he practiced law in Manila and aided the anti-Japanese resistance. He defeated Garcia in the presidential elections of
November 14. From 1957 to 1961 Macapagal was a member of the Liberal Party and vice president under Nacionalista president Carlos Garcia. 1910). which cost the treasury millions of pesos yearly. Mapacagal – who styled himself as the “poor boy” from Lubao (Pampanga) – completed pre-law and Associate in Arts at UP. however. The following year he was elected to a seat in the Philippine House of Representatives. serving until 1956. turned over the reins of government in 1946 to the more correct date of June 12 when Aguinaldo declared independence in 1898. were crippled by a House of Representatives and Senate dominated by the Nacionalistas. however. In 1949. In the 1961 elections. teaching law at the side. D. This single act overshadowed the other distinguishing features of his administration. In 1958.S. Macapagal’s administration (1961 .C. efforts to combat misdeeds in government. he was elected as the congressman of the first district of Pampanga and reelected in 1953. 1961. Filipino reformist president of the Republic of the Philippines from 1961 to 1965. While president. he was elected as Vice President of the Philippines. Awards and achievements Congressional Press Club’ one of the Ten Outstanding Congressmen
. During this time he was Philippine representative to the United Nations General Assembly three times. In 1979 he organized the National Union for Liberation as an opposition party to the Marcos regime.1965) is best remembered for resetting the date of the celebration of Philippine Independence Day – from July 4 when the U. the initiation of a socioeconomic program aimed at the betterment of the poor. he was appointed Chief of the Legal Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and was eventually sent to the Philippine Embassy in Washington as Second Secretary. He then entered into a private law practice. he ran against Garcia. encouraged exports. In 1972 he chaired the convention that drafted the 1973 constitution only to question in 1981 the validity of its ratification.Diosdado Macapagal (September 28. however. After the war he worked in a law firm and in 1948 served as second secretary to the Philippine Embassy in Washington. In 1946. he was a law graduate of the University of Santo Tomas.
his greatest achievement was in the fields of infrastructure development and international diplomacy. while incarcerated. Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was born September 11. while Mariano and Pio were found guilty only of contempt of court. Ferdinand and Lizardo receiving the death penalty for premeditated murder. Late January 1939 they were denied bail. and in the fall of 1939 they were convicted.. He benefited from a large personality cult in the Philippines during his regime.September 28. and other countries. was President of the Philippines
from 1965 to 1986. 1989). swimming and wrestling. where he also participated in boxing. a guerrilla force in northern Luzon. the family name was originally Taguktok.Ferdinand E. despotism. Jr. He claimed that during World War II he had been the leader of Ang Maharlika. According to two witnesses. 1917. which on October 22. and their Ilokano roots have some Japanese and Chinese ancestry. with Ferdinand Marcos eventually doing the killing. Marcos (September 11. Nalundasan had been shot and killed in his house in Batac. In 1983. Awards and achievements Placed First in the Bar Examinations of 1939 Gold Cross Distinguished Service Cross. Marcos reportedly studied for and passed the bar examination with one of the highest scores in history. However. the day after Nalundasan for the second time defeated Mariano Marcos for the National Assembly seat for Ilocos Norte. 1940. Ilocos Norte outside Laoag City to parents Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin. his government was implicated in the assassination of his primary political opponent. College of Law and was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu international honor society. In 1939. As Philippine president and strongman. Ferdinand was a champion debater at the University of the Philippines. nepotism. On September 20. in Sarrat. while also writing an 800-page defense. overturned the lower court’s decision and acquitted them of all charges but contempt. He was a lawyer. It was later alleged that he and his wife Imelda Marcos had moved billions of dollars of embezzled public funds to the United States. Ferdinand Marcos graduated cum laude with a law degree from the U. Mariano Marcos. as well as into fictitious corporations during his 20 years in power. political repression. He was Senate President in 1963. a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart
. the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan. Switzerland. and his brother-in-law Ferdinand were prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. The implication caused a chain of events. 1917 . member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949-1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (1959-1965). his son Julius. According to the Marcos family’s oral history. The Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines. and human rights violations. 1935. his brother Pio. his administration was marred by massive authoritarian corruption. In December 1938. Benigno Aquino. including a tainted presidential election that served as the catalyst for the People Power Revolution in February 1986 that led to his removal from power and eventual exile in Hawaii.P. He was named after Ferdinand VII of Spain and baptized into the Philippine Independent Church. While in detention.
After she became president.M. She declined to run for a second term in 1992. was the daughter of a wealthy landed
family and was educated in Manila and at Roman Catholic convent schools in the United States. 1995 Path to Peace Award 11. continued to threaten her government. 1987 Prize For Freedom Award from Liberal International 8. a continuing Communist insurgency. In 1991 damage from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in central Luzon led the United States to abandon nearby Clark Air Base. She moved with her husband to the United States following his release from prison in 1980. US Air Force jets assisted Philippine government forces in suppressing a coup attempt in December 1989. After his assassination at Manila Airport in 1983. the Philippine senate then refused to renew the lease on the lone remaining US base. She had been married to Benigno Aquino. and demonstrations on her behalf. coupled with popular discontent at the slow pace of economic reform. 1986 United Nations Silver Medal 4. 1994 One of 100 Women Who Shaped World History (by G. San Francisco. Cory Aquino Awards and Achievements 1. Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos called presidential elections for February 1986. An army revolt under Fidel Ramos and others. instead. CA) 10. She graduated from Mount St Vincent College in New York and studied law at Far Eastern University in Manila. born Corazon Cojuanco. was inaugurated on February 25. In 1996 she campaigned to prevent President Ramos from changing the constitution to permit a second presidential term. 1998 Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding 13. which the United States closed in November 1992. 1993 Special Peace Award from the Aurora Aragon Quezon Peace Awards Foundation and Concerned Women of the Philippines 9. 1986 Nobel Peace Prize nominee 6. in the so-called EDSA Revolution. and held legislative elections in 1987.Corazon C. 1986 Eleanor Roosevelt Human Rights Award 3. Marcos. 1986 Canadian International Prize for Freedom 5. Fidel Valdez Ramos. Aquino declined to run in the May 1992 presidential election. She implemented a new constitution ratified by a landslide popular vote. and severe economic problems plagued her presidency. but opposition within the military. Aquino Corazon (Cory). The opposition won one-third of the seats in 1984.. Although she won a vote of confidence in legislative elections that May.S. Corazon went to the Philippines for her husband’s funeral and stayed to work in the legislative election campaign. 1996 J. declaring himself victor in the February 7 election. Rolka. yielding the presidency to her favoured candidate Ramos. Marcos. and she became the opposition candidate for president. 1998 Pearl S. Aquino became President and won the enactment of a new constitution in February 1987. Jr. Corazon Aquino became the first woman president of the Philippines in 1986 when she defeated Ferdinand E. Department of State 12. In 1995 she ran a “Never Again” campaign during national elections to prevent the election of Marcos’s son. who was assassinated in 1983. Marcos accepted asylum in the United States. led to Aquino’s inauguration on the same day. she abolished the National Assembly and replaced the constitution with a new one that was adopted by popular vote in 1987. her former Defence Secretary. military unrest. 1986 International Democracy Award from the International Association of Political Consultants 7. Buck Award
. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding from the U. Subic Bay Naval Station. She married Benigno Simeon Aquino (Ninoy) in 1954. Bluewood Books. while Aquino formed a provisional government. she endorsed the eventual winner. 1986 Time Magazine Woman of the Year 2. and the former army colonel and coup plotter Gregorio Honasan.
Laurel . honoris causa. David. Laurel . PA • Fordham University in New York • Waseda University in Tokyo 2. Doctor of Humane Letters. 2005 One of the World's Elite Women Who Make a Difference by the International Women's Forum Hall of Fame 18. 1992).14. . from: • Ateneo de Manila University • College of Mount Saint Vincent in New York • Xavier University . from: • Boston University in Boston • Eastern University in St. from: • Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (University of the City of Manila). 2000 • Seattle University. Doctor of International Relations. Doctor of Humanities. 2008 One of A Different View's 15 Champions of World Democracy 20.Vice President was Salvador H. Doctor of Public Administration. Marcos .Preceded by Ferdinand E. from: • San Beda College in Manila. 1999 One of Time Magazine's 20 Most Influential Asians of the 20th Century 15.Prime Minister was Salvador H. 1995 5. 2005 David Rockefeller Bridging Leadership Awards 17. Doctor of Laws. honoris causa. honoris causa.Ateneo de Cagayan (Cagayan de Oro City.
. honoris causa. June 1994 FACTS: 1. Philippines) 4. 1986 to June 30. United Nations Development Fund for Women Noel Award for Political Leadership
Honorary doctorates 1. 2006 One of Time Magazine's 65 Asian Heroes 19. 2001 World Citizenship Award 16. Women's International Center International Leadership Living Legacy Award 22. Nonviolent Peace Prize 23. from: • University of the Philippines • University of Santo Tomas in Manila 3. Ramos 2.Succeeded by Fidel V. honoris causa. Martin Luther King Jr. Asia and Philippines first female president. EWC Asia Pacific Community Building Award 21. Corazon Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines (February 25. 2002 • Stonehill College in Massachusetts • University of Oregon.
Fidel Valdez (1928. Congressional opposition to suspected moves by Ramos to amend the constitution. He and Juan Ponce Enrile led the resistance to Marcos centred on two military camps. 1928). demonstrated against all efforts to change the constitution to allow Ramos a second term. Ramos was also identified as one of the “Rolex Twelve”.Fidel V. allowing him to stand for a second term in 1998. led to the ousting in October 1996 of the Senate president Neptali Gonzales. Joseph Estrada. he saw active service in the Korean War and was Chief of Staff (1966-1968) to the Philippine Civil Action Group in Vietnam. He increased his popularity during these years by helping to defeat a series of coup attempts against Aquino. In March 1997 the Philippines Supreme Court rejected a campaign by Ramos supporters to allow a second presidential term. In October he took personal charge of the government’s campaign against organized crime. Fidel “Eddie” Ramos was the son of a diplomat and legislator who served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. He was rewarded with promotion to Chief of Staff and then. In December. After winning a government scholarship to the United States Military Academy at West Point and studying engineering at the University of Illinois. However.
. Aquino nominated Ramos as her choice for President in the 1992 elections. and one of the leaders of the 1986 EDSA revolution in the Philippines that drove President Ferdinand Marcos from power. and formed a National Unification Commission in August 1992 to oversee this. ending the long-term insurgency there. the presidential elections in May 1998 were won by Ramos’s former vice-president. ending a long-standing uprising there. In September the government concluded a landmark agreement with the Muslim secessionist Moro National Liberation Front in Mindanao.). Ramos also sought to end insurgencies by Communist and Muslim rebels. by this time. Filipino soldier and politician. he tackled economic problems through policies of fiscal transparency and deregulation. Endorsed by the outgoing president Corazon Aquino. Legislative elections held in June 1995 that were presented by Ramos as a referendum on his administration led to overwhelming victory for his supporters. with the post of Defence Minister in Aquino’s government. Ramos. but he was still able to put through an important economic liberalization package in March 1996. His service to the state continued through the Marcos years.
President from 1992 to 1998. His immediate priorities were to deal with the energy crisis and the economy. His government successfully enacted economic liberalization measures. his policies had reformed the Philippine economy and lifted its growth rate closer to that of other Pacific Rim “tiger economies”. The withdrawal of the Lakas ng Edsa party from the ruling coalition weakened Ramos’s support. he switched sides in the struggle for power in February 1986. in January 1988. during which he headed the Philippine Constabulary (now the Philippine National Police) and served as Vice-Chief of Staff of the armed forces for five years. the group of close associates of the president. Ramos duly endorsed his chosen presidential candidate. former defence minister Fidel Ramos narrowly won the 1992 presidential elections in the Philippines. In the same month he gave permission for the return of Ferdinand Marcos’s remains to the Philippines. invigorating the Philippines’ economy. Ramos ((March 18. attended by Cardinal Jaime Sin and Corazon Aquino among others. He also negotiated a peace treaty with the Muslim rebel group in Mindanao. aligning himself with Corazon Aquino and the “People Power” movement against Marcos. a firm Ramos supporter. Ramos won a narrow victory to become the 12th president of the Philippine Republic. confirming its decision in June. However. In September 1997 a mass rally in Manila. as well as less popular methods such as extending value added tax.
In 2000 he formed the Information Technology and Electronic Commerce Council (ITECC) by the virtue of Executive Order No. which institutionalizes the processes of the Social Reform Agenda (SRA) in order to sustain its gains. 264 with the objective to lead the Philippines’s ICT industry by providing . President Estrada signed into law and implemented Republic Act no. he issued Executive Order(EO) 151. The economy recovered by 3. a new agency in government called the National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC). Joseph Estrada became its first chairman. then as Vice President of the Philippines under the administration of President Fidel Ramos. 1998. He leveraged his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics. Estrada gained popularity as a film actor.000 households with housing units. and controlled the hiking prices of transportation fair. His programs as president was under the name “Angat-Pinoy 2004″.6% in 1998 from a 5. the poorest
district of Manila. as Senator for one term. The president also proposed improvements to the curricula to meet both global standards and local needs.2% in 1997. Early into his presidency President Estrada removed all sovereign guarantees which would require the sovereign Filipino people to assume the financial losses of private companies doing business with the government. 1998 in the historical town of Malolos in Bulacan province in paying tribute to the cradle of the First Philippine Republic. The law also mandates the NAPC to enhance the programs. food and medicine. he was found guilty of plunder and sentenced to reclusion perpetua. President Estrada created the Presidential Anti-Organized Crime Task Force (PAOCTF) with the objective of minimizing. playing the lead role in over 100 films in an acting career spanning 33 years. but dropped out from studies altogether two years later.4% in 1999 and 4% in 2000. also known as Farmer’s Trust Fund. The DAR forged into joint ventures with private investors into agrarian sector to make FBs competitive. allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate. In 2000 he declared an “all-out-war” against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured it’s headquarters and other camps. 8749. With the help of this task force. On the day he took office. In 2007. car theft and kidnapping in Metro Manila. which allows the voluntary consolidation of small farm operation into medium and large scale integrated enterprise that can access long-term capital. the Philippine National Police for the first time in history achieved a record-high trust rating of +53 percent. was born on April 19. but was expelled in his sophomore year of high school for unruly behavior. thereby slowing the economic growth to -0. serving as mayor of San Juan for seventeen years. That afternoon the new president delivered his inaugural address at the Quirino Grandstand in Luneta. and in 2001 Estrada was ousted from power after the trial was aborted. and was sworn into the presidency on June 30. if not totally eradicating. 1937 in Tondo. He went to Mapúa Institute of Technology to continue schooling with an engineering course. allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate. However. He belonged to an upper middle class family. construction and improvement of roads and bridges. President Estrada also created the Presidential Commission for Mass Housing (PCMH) and with the help of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC) provided 190. Also on September the same year. which “The State shall promote and protect the global environment to attain sustainable development while recognizing the primary responsibility of local government units to deal with environmental problems”. President Estrada launched the Magkabalikat Para sa Kaunlarang Agraryo or MAGKASAKA. approaches and strategies to strengthen the partnership between government and the basic sectors. Estrada was elected President in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers. popularly known as Erap. and was the eighth of ten children of Emilio Ejercito. a clearly defined direction through strong and capable leadership
. In 1999. and in 2001 Estrada was ousted from power after the trial was aborted. He assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis and with agricultural problems due to poor weather conditions. Panfilo Lacson was its first head. and his wife Maria Marcelo. and construction of classrooms. a government engineer. He finished his primary studies at the Ateneo de Manila University. However. better known as Clean Air Act. but was later granted a pardon by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. In terms of peace and order.Joseph Marcelo Ejercito. Estrada was inaugurated on June 30.
The Philippines continued to be at the forefront of the regional and multilateral arena.P.Metro East Region Leadership Award Kabataan ng Masang Pilipino KAMPIL.Youth Sector. Singapore. and engaged in cooperative activities in the areas of security.R. Inc. It successfully hosted the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting in July 1998 and undertook confidence-building measures with China over South China Sea issue through a meeting in March 1999. Chairman
.A. focusing on national security. National Chairman National Youth Commission NYC. economic diplomacy.Top Ten Newsmakers of the Year 1998 . and South Korea. Malaysia. Japan. defense.. combating transnational crimes. and the protection of OFWs and Filipinos abroad. and image-building. assistance to nationals.Hosting National President.The Outstanding Young Men TOYM Awardee for Government Service 1998 .Presidential Award for Leadership Excellence Outstanding NEW 1995 .Graduated from the 10th Junior Chamber International JCI Academy in Japan 1996 . On 1999 a Visiting Forces Agreement with the United States. Thailand. Honorary Chairman/Adviser Mamamayan Ayaw sa Droga MAD. 53rd Junior Chamber International JCI World Congress 1998 .Exemplary Leadership Award by the Metro Area Jaycees 1996 .Metro East Region Distinguished Service Award 1995 . Chairman Puwersa ng Masa San Juan Chapter. Hong Kong.Metro Area Jaycee Leadership Excellence Award 1995 . National Founder Junior Chamber of the Philippines Foundation.Most Outstanding National President for Asia and the Pacific of the JCI 1997 . culture. economy. National Chairman Estudyanteng Responsable para sa Aktibong Pamamahala/Batang E.The Estrada administration upheld the foreign policy thrusts of the Ramos administration. President Estrada strengthened bilateral ties with neighboring countries with visits to Vietnam. Achievements Awards And Recognition
2007 -. The country also sent a delegation of 108 observers to the Indonesian parliamentary elections. which was ratified in the Senate. National Chairman Partido ng Masang Pilipino PMP . President Ang Bayang Makulay Foundation.
and the margin between was the largest margin achieved for any position in Philippine electoral history . Had more than twice the votes of the nearest rival.Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born 1947) assumed presidency of the Philippines in 2001.an unparalleled 16 million. Liberalizing banking in the Philippines • RA 7651. Macapagal-Arroyo's father. and Macapagal-Arroyo told reporters she looked forward to sleeping in her old bedroom. Magna Carta for the Urban Poor • Philippine Graphic Weekly Magazine • Philippine Reporter Magazine • Public Eye Magazine • Emil Jurado. Another record that was set is the margin of votes between the first and second placer. the presidential residence. Constituting the Legislative-Executive Development Council • RA 1490. • Filed over 400 Senate Bills and Resolutions • Authored or co-authored 55 bills signed into law of socio-economic legislation.2 million. Revitalizing and strengthening the Bureau of Customs • RA 7916. 1 in a public opinion survey of performance and awareness among incumbent Senators • Cited by Asia Week as one of Asia's most powerful women • Selected Woman of the Year by the Catholic Education Association of the Philippines FOR A BETTER BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT • RA 7844.laws that have brought our country to the status of Asia's next tiger. Her move into Malacanang Palace. and Macapagal-Arroyo's administration has faced its own charges of impropriety. served as president of the Philippines in the 1960s. Joseph Estrada. The island nation is plagued by economic depression. after a
corruption scandal forced her predecessor. from the post. The Export Development Act • RA 7718. Investment Houses Act (Passed on third reading) • RA 7661. Creating the Zamboanga Special Economic Zone • SBN 345. The Amended Build-Operate-Transfer Law • RA 7843. Development of Micro and Cottage Industries
. These laws constituted the core of the economic program of President Fidel Ramos -. which is approximately 3.7 million votes. the most number of votes for Vice-President in history. NAMED OUTSTANDING SENATOR BY: • Trade Union Congress of the Philippines • SBN 336. served as a homecoming.over seven million votes. • Ranked No. The Macapagal-Arroyo presidency has not been without its share of problems.
Won with 12. Manila Standard Columnist OUTSTANDING LEGISLATOR • Garnered the biggest number of votes in Philippine history (1995 elections) -. Diosdado Macapagal. Promoting the Development of Interisland Shipping • SBN 358. Strengthening the Anti-Dumping Provisions • RA 8179. the government has been involved in battles with militant rebels. Extending the Life of the Asset Privatization Trust • RA 7903. This record still stands in the senate. Further liberalizing Foreign Investments • RA 7721. Creating the Philippine Economic Zone Authority • RA 7640.
FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT • RA 7882. Pinatubo Eruption • RA 7906. Pinatubo Assistance. Excluding the Official Development Assistance (ODA) from Foreign Debt Limit in order to facilitate the absorption and optimize the utilization of ODA resources • RA 7820. Magna Carta for the Urban Poor FOR AGRICULTURE & THE ENVIRONMENT • RA 7900. Instituting a new system of mineral resources exploration. Promoting the production. Amending the Charter of the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation in order to make more stable and beneficial to farmers and the national economy • RA 7942. Instituting a Public School Teachers Scholarship Program • SBN 1728. "Dighay Bayan" TV program catering to farmers • Pres. utilization and conservation • Co-host. Creating the Department of Energy
. Increasing penalties for wife-beating • SBN 362. Creating the Mt. Providing assistance to women engaging in micro and cottage business enterprises • Women's desk to provide assistance to battered wives and other victims of domestic violence • RA 7877. Establishing Computer Literacy Program in all public schools at the secondary level • SBN 1175. processing. marketing and distribution of high-value crops • RA 8175. Mandatory employment of women • Establishment of the Movement Against Sexual Abuse (MASA) FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • OCW desk to provide assistance to OCWs and their families • RA 7833. Creating the Partido Development Administration in Bicol region • SBN 1176. development. education or training environment and for other purposes • SBN 356. Institutionalizing a National Strategy for Poverty Alleviation • SBN 336. Amending the Sugar Restitution Law • RA 7638. Macapagal Awards for best rice farm cooperative • SBN 1282. Declaring sexual harassment unlawful in the employment. Appropriating 10 Billion Pesos for the victims of Mt. Food Security Buffer Stock Bill • SBN 2046. Allocating a Portion of the Incremental Revenue Collected for the Emergency Employment Program • RA 7637. Ancestral Domain Bill • SBN 1044. Excluding the 13th Month Pay and Other Benefits from the Computation of Taxable Income • RA 7654. Regulation of the Organization and Operations of Thrift Banks • RA 8182. Resettlement and Development Commission • RA 7657.
his mother became president after the historic "People Power Revolution". Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Steadfast decision over Spratly disputes. Simeon. In 1983. 1960. there were calls for him to run for President of the Philippines. and former President Corazon C.In 1998 Aquino ran for Congressman and served as representative of the 2nd District of Tarlac until 2007. as his middle initial. In 1986. Aquino worked in private corporations until 1993. This means additional stipend to buy their fuel for a certain period as oil prices increases or drops suddenly.for public utility vehicle drivers through ATM cards with amount of P1. He is the first elected president who does not have a wife and children. 4 PS . He was able to start the following: 1. To convince him. after his father was assassinated at Manila International Airport. On May 10. He also established the "Truth Commission" to investigate graft and corruption. he passed laws enhancing the effectiveness of public offices and improving the rights of workers and consumers. Gloria Arroyo. Aquino won the Presidential elections. Aquino. Laurel. after his return to the Philippines. Additional budget for the Education sector as new curriculum started. In May 2007. was permitted to seek treatment in the United States. He is the first president to make Bahay Pangarap his official residence. He took his oath of office on June 30. following Corazon Aquino and Fidel V. Aquino finished his elementary. He is one of the younger elected presidents after Emilio Aguinaldo (29 years old when elected). Aquino and his family returned to the Philippines in 1983. As Congressman. 2.Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino III was born on February 8. Parent-beneficiaries are given P500 pesos plus three children -recipients of P300 pesos each for education stipends. Aquino worked for the Central Azucarera de Tarlac.Pantawid-Pangkabuhayan sa Pamilyang Pilipino being given by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to less fortunate households. From 1993 to 1998. Pantawid Pampasada . 4. he inherited huge anomalies from the past administration of former president-now congresswoman. Aquino is the third president to use his second given name. his family left the Philippines to live in the United State of America. Ramos. 2010. Although.Some of the laws that he immediately signed were the banning of the use of siren or "wangwang" in the streets for no serious reason. His parents were
former Senator Benigno Aquino Jr.
. and abuses of the government of Pres. as Manuel L. because his father. He is the third president who only holds office but does not reside in Malacañang Palace. 500 to support them for their daily 'pasada'. a million signatures were gathered by Edgardo Roces. After college. 3. 2010. K12 is patterned from the US Educational System that has its middle school (additional 2 years) for the students to graduate. Ramon Magsaysay (46 years old when elected) and Ferdinand Marcos (48 years old when elected). who was then detained for charges of rebellion by the government of President Ferdinand Marcos. high school and college education at the Ateneo de Manila where he obtained a bachelor's degree in Economics in 1981. he didn't lose hope to uplift the present situation of ordinary Filipinos. Noynoy was elected Senator. and the voiding of "midnight appointments" in government positions. When his mother died in 2009. Quezon and Jose P.