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SDH~Different Overview

SDH~Different Overview

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10/23/2015

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The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH

)
- II part by JM Caballero

© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

2Mbit/s C

SDH D

2Mbit/s

PBX A

PBX B

Section

Mapping of the 2 Mbit/s circuit
x64
2,5 Gbit/s

STM-16 x16

622 Mbit/s

STM-4 x4 AUG x1 AU-4 VC-4 x3 x3 TUG-3 x1 x1 C-4

155 Mbit/s

STM-1

x1

I) NS (A

TU-3

VC-3

51 Mbit/s

STM-0

AU-3

VC-3 x7 (AN SI) x7

(ANSI)

C-3

x1 TUG-2 x3 x4

TU-2

VC-2

C-2
ATM:2144kbit/s E1:2048kbit/s

TU-12

VC-12

C-12

Mapping for the insertion (transmission) of the 2 Mbit/s circuit. At the ind of the path, for extracting the circuit (reception) the process is the inverse.
© Trend Communications

(AN

SI)
TU-11 VC-11 C-11

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

3/

55

Asynchronous mapping into a C-12 container (i)
136 bytes
I
: Information bits of the 2 Mbit/s circuit

Public Network
(1)

I
: Bits with extra information : bytes with information bits and extra information

125 s

(32 x 8 bits) S R I (32 x 8 bits ) S R I (32 x 8 bits) S R

µ

(2)

2Mbit/s
50 0 µs

S

: stuffing bits

(1)

SSSSSSSS (3)

500

(2) C 1C 2OOOOSS
(3) C 1C 2O O O O S S (4) C 1C 2S S S S S J 1 (5) J 2 I I I I I I I S: Stuffing Ci: Justification criteria O: Overhead J1: Positive justification J2: Negative justification

µs

C-12

(4) (5)

VC-12

I (31 x 8 bits) S

The public network can be a RDSI circuit, Frame Relay, ATM, leased...
• • •

mapping of the 2 Mbit/s signal into the C2 container witch is synchronous with the network The mapping is performed in four blocks of the same multicontainer of 500 µs justification bits are added
Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit
4/

© Trend Communications

55

Synchronous mapping in a C-12 container (ii)

F ixed mode
34 b y t e s

client network
2Mbit/s

CAS
TS0 Channels 1 to 15
31 bytes

CCS
TS0 Channels 1 to 15 Channels 16 Channels 17 to 31

10RRRRRR

32 bytes

I (32 bytes ) R

1 2 5 ms

TS16 Channels 16 to 30

C-12

VC-12

This mapping maintains the byte synchronism of the 2 Mbit/s circuit and makes the connection of nx64k data/voice services easier because all 30 channels are directly located
• • •

the container is sinchronous with the 2 Mbit/s signal The signal is framed in a 125 µs frame There isn’t justification for adjusting clock drifts because is synchronous
Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit
5/ 55

© Trend Communications

Creation of the VC12 virtual container (iii)
VC-12
140 bytes
.

client network
2Mbit/s C-12
125 µs

v5

35 bytes

I 32 bytes R J2

35 bytes
500 µs 500 µs

I 32 bytes R N2 I 32 bytes R K4

50

0

µs

35 bytes

VC-12

125 µ s

35 bytes

I 31 bytes R

TU-12

POH (Path Overhead )

: V5 J2 N2 K4

The path overhead (POH) is added to the multiframe resulting the VC-12
© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

6/

55

Aligning and multiplexing (iv)

TU-12
1 1 4

v1

35 bytes
v2

H4 = XXXXXX00

VC-12
50 0 µs

PTR

125 µs
9

35 bytes

35 bytes
v3

H4 = XXXXXX01

TU-12

125 µs

PTR: V1, V2, V3 ó V4 V1: 1st pointer byte V2: 2nd pointer byte V3: 3rd pointer byte V4: reserved • • •

35 bytes
v4

H4 = XXXXXX10

x3
TUG-2

35 bytes

H4 = XXXXXX11

The TU have a pointer (V5) in a fixed location witch identifies the carried information (the VC12) The pointer points to the LO-POH overhead A VC12 is a 4 element multiframe and need four TU14 frames for being transported

© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

7/

55

Multiplexing and creation of TUG2 (v)

TU-12 #1
1 1 4 1

TU-12 #2
1 4 1

TU-12 #3
1 4

PTR A
35 bytes

PTR B
35 bytes

PTR C
35 bytes

TU-12

9

9

9

x3
12

1 1
PTR PTR PTR A B C

TUG-2
9 bytes of tu-12#1 9 bytes of tu-12#1 9 bytes of tu-12#1

125 µs

9 bytes of tu-12#1

9

TUG-2

TUG-3

• • •

Three TU-12 are multiplexed in a byte oriented way in a new structure The pointers are always in the firsts locations The result is a Group of TU-12 known as TUG-2

© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

8/

55

A new multiplexing forms a TUG3 (vi)
TUG-2 #1
1 1 12 1

TUG-2 #7
1 12

TUG-2
x7
86

9

9

1 1

2
#1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #1

N P

3

I

TUG-3
x3

125 µs

S

S

9

VC-4
T U G -3

• • •

Seven TUG-12 are multiplexed in a byte oriented way and they form a new structure named TUG-3 Size 7x12=84 columns, plus 2 stuffing columns gives 86 columns The pointers that identifies the information are always in fixed positions
Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit
9/

© Trend Communications

55

Creation of the VC-4 virtual container (vi)
TUG-3 #1
1 1 86 1 1

TUG-3 #2
86 1 1

TUG-3 #3
86

9

9

9

TUG-3
270

10

11

12

13

14

x3

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3
9

VC-4
S S

N1

AU-4

VC4-POH

• • •

A new multiplexing of three TUG-3 is executed to create a VC-4 Size 3x86=258 columns, plus 2 stuffing columns gives 260 columns Then the POH overhead and the stuffing S bytes are added and the VC-4 is completed
Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit
10 / 55

© Trend Communications

Creation of the STM-1 frame (vii)

1

9 10

STM-1
10 11

270

VC-4
270

RSOH

VC-4

J1 B3 C2 G1 MSOH F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

AU-4

POH

STM-1

• • •

A AU4 pointer that points to the first byte of the VC-4 is included The AU4 is in a fixed position of the frame. This fact allows its location This operation is known as alingment

© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

11 /

55

A VC12 multiframe request four STM-1 frames

500m s
1 2 5 ms
1

J1 B3 C 2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 R

S T M -1
R
9

S T M -1

S T M -1
9

S T M -1

V C -4

9

N1

V1

x3

TUG-3

TUG-3

TUG-3

H 4 = 00
12

VC-12
V2

x7
1 1 1 PTR

H 4 = 01

VC-12
5 0 0 ms
V3

H4= 10

TUG-2
9 9

TUG-2

TUG-2

VC-12
V4

H 4 = 11

VC-12

x3
A VC12 formed by four need a time interval of 500µs in order to put all four components into
© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

12 /

55

Overheads
* * * * * * *J 0 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 C1 B1 D1 E1 D2 AU Pointer B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 S1 D5 D8 D11 K2 D6 D9 D12 M1 E2 F1 D3 * *

Section

SDH Overheads
NNI NNI

Add Drop Multiplexer
C-11, C-12 Assembling of VC-11 , VC-12 Assembling of VC-3 , VC-4 C-3, C-4 MUX STM-N

Add Drop Multiplexer
Assembling of VC-11 , VC-12 Assembling of VC-3 , VC-4 MUX STM-N C-3, C-4 C-11, C-12

· · ·

RSOH

RSOH MSOH STM-N SOH VC-3, VC-4 POH VC-11, VC-12 POH

RSOH

Each overhead is intended to do specific task related with the transmission management at different layers: regeneration, multiplexing and path As the classical protocol tower an overhead is controlled just by one layer but is transparent for the rest of the SDH layers
© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

14 /

55

Path overheads
140 Mbit/s 140 Mbit/s

high order path
P O+ H C4

back up link
VC4

PLL

active link
POH

LTMUX
RSOH pointer Payload MSOH

STM-1 P O H

STM-1

LTMUX

C4

Each container (C-n) has associated an overhead, named Path Overhead (POH) with information enough to manage the transmission through the SDH network. The union of C-n and POH is renamed as Virtual Container (VC-n) and is the interchange unit between origin and destination multiplexers.
© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

15 /

55

Higher order path overhead (HO-POH)
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 G1:
Path trace, message of 16 or 64 bytes with CRC7 > alarm HP-TIM High Order Path Trace Identifier Mismatch BIP8 parity control > HO-EBER (Excessive Bit Error Rate) or SD (Signal Degraded) error Path label > HP_SLM (Signal Label Mismatch) error Path status (far signaling, alarm return or far error indication) Path channel (64 kbit/s for voice or data) TU12 multiframe indicator Path channel (64 kbit/s for voice or data) APS path protection > Mismatch K3 alarm Byte for tandem connection monitoring purposes

REI (FEBE)

FERF

RFI RDI

Unused

FEBE (Far End Block Errors) > HO-FEBE or HP-REI (Remote Error Indicator) error or LP-REI if it is a VC3 If 0<FEBE<9 shows the remote BIP-8 violation count as a binary number FERF (Far End Reveive Failure) > HO/HP FERF o HP-RDI (Remote Defect Indication) alarm shows a remote AIS alarm detected, or a LP-REI if it is a VC3 RFI/RDI (Remote Failure Indication) > RFI alarm indication

C2: 00 unequiped > HP/LP-UNEQ defect, unequiped
01 unspecified 02 TUG structure 03 blocked TU 04 34 or 45 Mbit/s © Trend Communications 12: 140 Mbit/s 13: ATM 14: DQDB 15: FDDI

H4: > TU-LOM alarm Loss of Multiframe
xxxxxx00 - pointer points V1 xxxxxx01 - pointer points V2 xxxxxx10 - pointer points V3 xxxxxx11 - pointer points V4

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

16 /

55

Lower order path overhead (HO-POH) C2, C12, C11
V5 J2 N2 K4
Path Overhead Low Order Path Trace Reserved for its use by the operator. It can be used for tandem connection monitoring Tandem connection monitoring (TCM) Trace protection bits 1-4 APS bits 5-7RDI

V5:

BIP-2

REI
(FEBE)

RFI

L1

L2

L3

RDI

BIP-2 bit 1: odd bit parity of de previous VC. bit 2: even bit parity REI (Receive Error Indication) > LP - REI error shows the detection of a far error RFI (Remote Failure Indication) > LP - RFI alarm, path protection indicator L1-L3 VC path label > P - SLM alarm Signal Label Mismatch 000 - Unequipped > LP-UNEQ alarm 001 - Unspecified status 010 - Asynchronous floating 011 - Synchronous floating bit oriented 100 - Synchronous floating byte oriented RDI (Remote Defect Indication) > LP - RDI defect

© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

17 /

55

Section overhead (SOH)
RSOH
* * * * * * *J 0 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 C 1 B1 D1 E1 D2 AU Pointer B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D5 D8 D11 K2 D6 D9 D12 M1 E2 F1 D3 * *

D1..D3: 192 kbit data communications channel D4..D12: 576 kbit/s data communications channel E1: 64 Kbit/s voice service channel between regenerators E2: 64 Kbit/s voice service channel between multiplexers F1: 64 Kbit/s voice or data service channel between regenerators K1, K2: APS protection channel > wrong K1, K2 alarm K1: Request of a channel bits 1-4 : kind of request (manual, signal failure(SF), degradation(SD)...) bits 5-8 : requested channel number K2: far answer bits 1-4: connected channel number (0=null channel) bit 5: architecture type (0 for 1+1, and1 for 1:n) bit 6-9: > MS AIS alarm if 1111, > error indication if 110 S1: clock source 10101010 - valid 01010101 - invalid 0000 - unknown 0010 - G.811 primary clock - G.812 transit clock bits 5-8 0100 - G.812 local clock 1000 1011 - G.813 synchronous equipment 1111 - non synchronized M1: re-sending of B2 errors, coded over 8 bits implies REI (FEBE)

MSOH

D7 D10 S1

* Non scrambled bytes X Bytes reserved for national use ^ Media dependent bytes.

A1= 11110110 A2= 00101000: frame alingment B1: Bit interleaved parity, regenerator section (BIP-8) B2: Bit interleaved parity, multiplexer section (BIP-24) J0/C1: STM-1 identifier in STM-n

Path overheads can detect transmission errors from the receiver side but it can’t identify where those errors rose. This is one of the missions of the section overhead: RSOH (Regenerator Section Overhead) and MSOH (Multiplexer Section Overhead)
© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

18 /

55

Overhead management (i)
LO-PTE
2M STM-1 STM-N STM-M STM-M STM-M STM-M STM-M STM-1 STM-N

HO-PTE

SDH MUX
M >N

REG

DXC

REG

ADM
M >N

REG

HO-PTE

LO-PTE
2M

HO-PTE

LO-PTE
34M

34M

140M

140M

STM-N PDH PDH

REGENERATOR SECTION

REGENERATOR SECTION

REGENERATOR SECTION

REGENERATOR SECTION

REGENERATOR SECTION

REGENERATOR SECTION

MULTIPLEXING SECTION

MULTIPLEXING SECTION

MULTIPLEXING SECTION

HIGH ORDER PATH

LOW ORDER PATH

LO-POH HO-POH RSOH/MSOH RSOH RSOH/MSOH RSOH RSOH/MSOH RSOH RSOH/MSOH

LO-POH HO-POH

© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

19 /

55

Overhead management (ii)
Lower order path Higher order path Multiplexer section Regenerator section Regenerator section LO POH VC11 VC12 HO POH VC3 VC4 MSOH RSOH RSOH RSOH MSOH HO POH VC3 VC4 LO POH VC11 VC12

B1 B2 B3 V5 V5 J2 K4 N2 B1 B3-G1 B2-M1 J0 J1 J0 C2-H4 K3 K1-K2 E1-F1 F2-F3 E2 D4-D12 D1-D3 N1 B1 J0 E1-F1 D1-D3 B1 J0 E1-F1 D1-D3 -

B1

B1 B2-M1 B3-G1 J0 J1 J0 C2-H4 K1-K2 K3 E1-F1 F2-F3 E2 D1-D3 D4-D12 N1

V5 J2 K4 N2

multiplexer

regenerator

multiplexer

Cada tara es gestionada exclusivamente por dos nivel correspondientes pareja contiguas de elementos de red contiguos. Ningún otro nivel pude manipularlos lícitamente.
© Trend Communications

Transportation of a 2 Mbit/s circuit

20 /

55

Pointers

Section

The pointer mechanism
10 11

VC-4

270

+

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

POH

H1 Y Y H2 1

1 H3 H3 H3

All the elements inside the SDH network must be synchronized with only one master clock but:
• • •

is very difficult avoid little deviations in clock signals networks of different operators and with different master clocks must be connected Long filter buffers bring delays to the received signal

A solution is to use moving pointers. These buffers don’t avoid using input buffers but the their size is smaller an so the delay A pointer points to the POH control information of the VC traffic channel
© Trend Communications

Pointers

22 /

55

AU-4 and TU-3 pointers
10 11

VC-4

270
2 3

TU-3
H1 H2 H3
1

+

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

86

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3

+

H1
POH
N N N N 1 0 I D I D I

H2
D I D I D

H3

negative justification

positive justification
9

NDF
N I

pointer value (10 bits)

N1

VC-3
N D F enabled: N D F disabled :
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0

: new data flag (NDF) : increase bit : decrease bit

H1 Y

Y H2 1

1 H3 H3 H3

D

Y: 1011SS11 (unspecified SS bits)

1: 11111111

• • • • • • •

Bits 1 0 of the H1 byte shows that it is an AU-4 or TU-3 Range of AU-4: from 0 to 782 Range of TU-3: from 0 to754 H3 is formed by 3 bytes if it is an AU-4 or 1 byte if it is a TU-3 Invert five D bits for negative justification and five I bits for positive justification Concatenation indication (CI): H1=1001RR11, H2=11111111 Null pointer indication (NPI) (only TU-3): H1=1001RR11, H2=11100000
Pointers
23 /

© Trend Communications

55

TU-2 and TU-12 pointers
TU-12
1 1 4

v1

TU-2
H4 = X X X X X X00
1 12 1

v1

35 bytes
v2

107 bytes
v2

H4 = X X X X X X 00

PTR

PTR

1 2 5 ms
9

35 bytes

35 bytes
v3

H4 = X X X X X X01

1 2 5 ms

107 bytes

107 bytes
v3

H4 = X X X X X X 01

5 0 0 ms

9

5 0 0 ms

P T R : V1, V2, V3 ó V4

35 bytes
v4

H4 = X X X X X X 10

PTR: V1, V2, V3 ó V4

107 bytes
v4

H4 = X X X X X X 1 0

V1: V2: V3: V4:

1 st pointer byte 2 n d pointer byte 3 rd byte (action) reserved

V1
H4 = X X X X X X 1 1 N N N N S S I D I D I

V2
D I D I D

V3
negative justification positive justification

35 bytes

107 bytes

H4 = X X X X X X 1 1

NDF

pointer value (10 bits)

N

: New data flag (NDF)
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0

S S 0 0 1 0
I

size TU-2 TU-12

N D F enabled : N D F disabled :

: increase bit

D

: decrease bit

• • • •

Range of TU-2: from 0 to 427 Range of TU-12: form 0 to 139 For negative justification invert five D bits, for positive invert five I bits Concatenation indication (CI) V1 = 1001RR11, V2 = 11111111

© Trend Communications

Pointers

24 /

55

Pointer Regeneration

© Trend Communications

Pointers

25 /

55

Pointer reading

AU Pointer

0 0 0 1 1 1 J1

125µs

J1

Drop the VC-4

781781781782782782 AU Pointer 0 0 0 1 1 1 J1

125µs

781781781782782782

© Trend Communications

Pointers

26 /

55

Pointer adjustment

© Trend Communications

Pointers

27 /

55

Justification mechanism

© Trend Communications

Pointers

28 /

55

Case 1: clock transparency (i)
C
2

R2 D
3 1

R1

2Mbit/s

STM-1 B R3
4 5

STM-1 6

A

E

1 - B doesn’t see pointer movement because the 2 Mbit/s frame and the STM-1 are created in A with the same clock. B send the STM-1 with R2 and the pointer moves like a function f (R1 -R2) 2 - Nothing happens because C multiplexer uses the same clock like B 3 - The VC4 will be extracted like R1 altough the STM-1 has arrived with R2 frecuency. At B the STM is sent at R3 and the pointer moves like a function f (R1-R3)
© Trend Communications

Pointers

29 /

55

Case 1: clock transparency (ii)
C
2

clo

! c y!! ar en p r ans ck t

R2 D
3 1

R1

2Mbit/s

STM-1 B R3
5

STM-1

A
6

4

E

4 - E multiplexer doesn’t generate pointer movement because it uses the same clock like D 5 - At B the VC4 is extracted like R1 altough it has arrived in the STM-1 at a R3 frequency. At B the STM-1 is sent at R3 and the pointer moves like f(R1-R2). 6 - A multiplexer receive the STM-1 like R2 but the VC12 arrives at the first rate R1!!

© Trend Communications

Pointers

30 /

55

Case 2
C
2

R2 D
3 1

R1

2Mbit/s

STM-1 B R3
5

STM-1 6

A

4

E

If the R1 clock synchronizes R2 then the STM-1 frame won’t have pointer movements beacuse:

R1 = R2 then f(R1-R2) = f(0) = Cte.

In points 3 and 5 will be yet exist pointer movements. In order to finish with all movements R1 must be synchronized with R3 too.
© Trend Communications

Pointers

31 /

55

Pointer actions
1 VC-4 frame = 261 x9 x 8 bits = 18792 bits VC-4 transmission rate = 18792 bits 125 . = 150336000 bit/s

µ

s

∆f
f0

=

P actions s

.

24 bits 1 action

1 s 150336000 bits

=

P x 1.6E-7: clock adjustement got with P pointer movements

∆f
f0

P = P x 1.6E-7
2000 200 20

P MAX : maximum pointer activity only one pointer movement is possible in four frames

Forbidden PMAX = 1 acción . 4 tramas 1 trama 125 = 2000 acciones/s
2 0.2 0.02

µs

∆f m a x = 2 0 0 0 x 1 , 6 E - 7 = 3 , 2 x 1 0 E - 4
f0 that is the maximum frequency correction

f

f0

P shows how many pointer movements are made in one second while the horizontal axis shows de frequency correction met
© Trend Communications

Pointers

32 /

55

STM-N frame creation
270
1 261 1

270
261 1

270
261

1

9

1

9

1

9

#1 Carga útil

de

9

#2 Carga útil

de

9

#N Carga útil de

9

TUG

TUG

TUG

1

123...N123...N RSOH

3 4 5

123...N123...N 9

MSOH
9

N x 9

N x 261

STM-N

Multiplexing process in STM-N, N=4,16, 64 STM-1 at 155Mbit/s, STM-4 at 622Mbit/s, STM-16 at 2,5Mbit/s, STM-64 at 10Gbit/s

© Trend Communications

Pointers

33 /

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Concatenation and multiplexing

(SONET STS-1)

STM-0

H1

H2
3 bytes

H3
x 3 frames

pointer increments in a byte oriented way

STM-1
(SONET STS-3c)

H1

Y
3 bytes

Y

H2

1
3 bytes

1

H3

H3
3 bytes

H3

1 increment = 3 bytes

x 4 frames

STM-4
(SONET OC-12)

H1

Y

.......

Y

H2

1

.......

1

H3

H3 ....... H3
12 bytes

1 increment = 12 bytes

12 bytes

12 bytes

In a STM-N frame that is the result of STM-1 frame multiplexion there are 4 pointers of lower order STM-M (N=4M) and the useful load is divided for each component. One concatenated STM-N groups all the useful load for only one client. For example, an ATM network, that is, there are only one pointer for the load.

© Trend Communications

Pointers

34 /

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Maintenance

Section

Anomalies, Defects, Errors, Alarms and Failures

Anomaly: Is the least disagreement that can be observed between the measured and the expected characteristics of a network element without service interruption (for example a parity error) Defect: A defect level is reached when de anomaly density is high enough to interrupt a requested function (for example a loss of signal). Damage: A damage is is produced when a function can’t finish a requested action. This situation doesn’t comprise incapacities caused by preventive maintenance. Fault: The cause of a damage without interruption for a time long enough that makes possible to consider that a network element can’t achieve a recuested function Alarm: An obserbable indication that points to a fault (revealed damage) that usually shows an indication of the damage depth, for example a LED or a siren

• • • •

Errors reflect anomalies and alarms show defects and ofen those words are used to speak about the formers. All are grouped under the common term of events.

© Trend Communications

Maintenance

36 /

55

Causes for the disfunctions
Nowadays, high capacity transmission systems are robust but they are yet vulnerable to some effects like:

Termal noise, always present in regeneration systems. It is produced by electron activity due to temperature. This noise is matematically well modelled and it follows a gaussian distribution Degraded lasers, often lasers lose capabilities due to the use and their power decreases. In this situation de signal/noise ratio may be poor Rayleigh scattering, in radio systems Rain and humidity atenuations Electrostatic discharges, lightnings and human discharges when equipment is touched without preventions Satellites and radiotransmitters are often affected by sun radiations Degradation of electric connections, most of the systems are optoelectric and metalic parts are exposed to oxidation and erosion processes Bad synchronization of network elements is one of the most important error causes. Jitter and wander effects are intications of potential problems Design errors in equipment or infrastuctures

• • • • • • • •

© Trend Communications

Maintenance

37 /

55

SDH events associated with sections
Level Event LOS LOF OOF LSS EFAS Error B1 MS-AIS MS-RDI Error B2 MS-REI Type
Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Error Alarm Indication Error Indication A1-A2 B1 K2=xxxxx111 K2=xxxxx110 B2 M1=nnnnnnnn A1-A2

How
Total signal absence Loss of frame Out of frame

Cause

RSOH

Loss of signal synchronization Frame alignment sequence error Verification of BIP-8 parity error Alarm indication signal, multiplexer section Remote defect indication, multiplexer section Verification of BIP-24 parity error Remote error indication, multiplexer section

MSOH

* * * * * * *J 0 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 C1

*

*

RSOH

B1 D1

E1 D2 Puntero AU

F1 D3

B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D5 D8 D11

K2 D6 D9 D12 M1 E 2

Are events associated with the SOH overheads and the network elements that manage them. That is, they are the Regeneration and Multiplexing Sections

MSOH

D7 D10 S1

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SDH events associaded with paths
HP-RDI HP-TIM HP-UNEQ HP-PLM HP-REI HP-B3 LP-RDI LP-TIM LP-UNEQ LP-PLM LP-RFI LP-REI LP-B3 BIP-2
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

HO Path

LO Path

Indication Alarm Indication Error Indication Error Indication Alarm Indication Alarm Indication Indication Error Error HO-POH

G1=xxxx1xxx J1 C2=00000000 C2 G1=nnnnxxxx B3 V5=xxxxxxx1 J2 V5=xxxx000x V5=xxxxnnnx V5=xxx1xxxx V5=xx1xxxxx B3 V5=nnxxxxxx
V5 J2 N2 K4

Remote defect indication, higher order path Trace identifier mismatch, higher order path Unequiped higher order path Payload mismatch, higher order path Remote error indication, higher order path B3 parity error, higher order path Remote defect indication, lower order path Trace identifier mismatch, lower order path Unequiped lower order path Payload mismatch, lower order path Remote failure indication, lower order path Remote error indication, lower order path B3 parity error, lower order path BIP-2 Parity error

HO-POH

They are events identified by the pair of multiplexers defining a path. There are two kinds of paths, higher order paths (HOP) lower order paths (LOP) there are two different groups of events.

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SDH events associated with pointers
AU-AIS AU-LOP AU-PJE AU Incr AU Decr AU NDF AU Inv TU-LOM TU-AIS TU-LOP TU-PJE TU Incr TU Decr TU NDF
H2
0 I D I D D I D D I D I D

AU ptr

TU ptr

Alarm Alarm Pointer Pointer Pointer Pointer Pointer Alarm Alarm Alarm Pointer Pointer Pointer Pointer
H3

all “1s” H1-H2 H1-H2 H1-H2 H1-H2 H1-H2 H1-H2 H4 “all 1s” V1-V2 V1-V2 V1-V2 V1-V2 V1-V2

Alarm indication signal, administrative unit Loss of pointer, administrative unit AU pointer justification event AU pointer increased AU pointer decreased New data flag in AU pointer AU pointer inversion Loss of multiframe of tributary unit Alarm indication signal, tributary unit Loss of TU pointer TU pointer justification event TU pointer increased TU pointer decreased New data flag in TU pointer
V3
I D I D

H1
N N N N 1

V1
N N N N S S I D I D I

V2
D

NDF
N I D

negative justification pointer value (10 bits)

positive justification

negative j u s t i f i c a t i o n

positive justification

NDF

pointer value (10 bits)

: new data flag (NDF) : increase bit : decrease bit

NDF enabled: NDF disabled :

1

0 0

0 1

1 1 0

N

: New data flag (NDF)
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0

S S 0 0 1 0
I

size TU-2 TU-12

N D F enabled: N D F disabled :

: increase bit

D

: decrease bit

Y: 1011SS11 (unspecified SS bits)

1: 11111111

AU ptr

TU ptr

They are events identified with pointers. The AU pointer in STM-1 basic frame an the TU pointer in low rate tributaries transported

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Summary of SDH events
Level LOS
LOF OOF LSS EFAS Error B1 MS-AIS MS-RDI Error B2 MS-REI HP-RDI HP-TIM HP-UNEQ HP-PLM HP-REI HP-B3 LP-RDI LP-TIM LP-UNEQ LP-PLM LP-RFI LP-REI LP-B3 BIP-2 AU-AIS AU-LOP AU-PJE AU Incr AU Decr AU NDF AU Inv TU-LOM TU-AIS TU-LOP TU-PJE TU Incr TU Decr TU NDF TU Inv

ID

Type Alarm
Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Error Alarm Indication Error Indication Indication Alarma Indication Error Indication Error Indication Alarma Indication Alarma Indication Indication Error Error Alarm Alarm Pointer Pointer Pointer Pointer Pointer Alarm Alarm Alarm Pointer Pointer Pointer Pointer Pointer A1-A2

How Loss of Signal

Meaning
Loss Of Frame Out Of Frame Loss of Sequence Synchronization Error in Frame Alignment Signal Error B1 Multiplexion Section - Alarm Indication Signal Multiplexion Section - Remote Defect Indication Error B2 Multiplexion Section - Remote Error Indication Higher order Path - Remote Defect Indication Higher order Path - Trace Identifier Mismatch Higher order Path - Unequipped Higher order Path - Payload Label Mismatch Higher order Path - Remote Error Indication Higher order Path - B3 error Lower order Path - Remote Defect Indication Lower order Path - Trace Identifier Mismatch Lower order Path - Unequipped Lower order Path - Payload Label Mismatch Lower order Path - Remote Failure Indication Lower order Path - Remote Error Indication Lower order Path - B3 error Bit Interleave Parity - 2 Administrative Unit - Alarm Indication Signal Adminastrative Unit - Loss Of Pointer Administrative Unit - Pointer Justification Events Administrative Unit pointer - Increment Administrative Unit pointer - Decrement Administrative Unit pointer - New Data Flag Administrative Unit pointer - Inversion Tributary Unit - Loss Of Multiframe Tributary Unit - Alarm Indication Signal Tributary Unit - Loss Of Pointer Tributary Unit - Pointer Justification Events Tributary Unit pointer- Increment Tributary Unit pointer - Decrement Tributary Unit pointer - New Data Flag Tributary Unit pointer - Inversion

RSOH

MSOH

HP

LP

AU

TU

A1-A2 B1 K2=xxxxx111 K2=xxxxx110 B2 M1=nnnnnnnn G1=xxxx1xxx J1 C2=00000000 C2 G1=nnnnxxxx B3 V5=xxxxxxx1 J2 V5=xxxx000x V5=xxxxnnnx V5=xxx1xxxx V5=xx1xxxxx B3 V5=nnxxxxxx todo “1s” H1-H2 H1-H2 H1-H2 H1-H2 H1-H2 H1-H2 H4 “todo 1s” V1-V2 V1-V2 V1-V2 V1-V2 V1-V2 V1-V2

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Alarms
They happen at different levels:
• •

in the section level: regeneration y multiplexion, in higher order path and lower order path

An alarm signal (AIS) is activated under standarized criteria and is sent forward to notify the event to the next network element. As an answer to a received AIS a remote defect indication is sent backwards An RDI is indicated in a specific byte while an AIS is a secuence of “1” in the space deticated to the load because de affected element can’t access to the information. Una AIS es una secuancia de bytes todos a “1” en el espacio dedicado a carga puesto que el elemento afectado por la alarma no puede acceder a la información. Mientras que el RDI se indica en un byte específica. A failure sent in a transmission way doesn’t depends on the failure in the other transmission way

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ITU alarm detection criteria
Alarm
OOF LOF LOP MS-RDI MS-AIS AU-AIS TU-AIS LSS LOS Detection: before 625µs Realignment: before 250µs Detection: from 0 to3 ms in OOF Realignment: from 0 to 3 ms without OOF Detection: from 8 to 10 invalid ptrs. or from 8 to10 consecutive NDF (New Data Flag) Realignment: 3 consecutive valid pointers Detection: 3 consecutive frames with K2=xxxxx110 Realignment: 3 consecutive frames with K2<>xxxxx110 Detection: 3 consecutive frames with K2=xxxxx111 Realignment: 3 consecutive frames with K2<>xxxxx111 Detection: 3 consecutive pointers with all bits to 1 (H1-H2 o bien V1-V2) Realignment: 3 consecutive valid pointers or 1 NDF (New Data Flag) Loss of Sequence Synchronization: if BER > 2x10-1 in 1s. Desirable detection: between 10 and 50µs Obligatory detección: before 50µs

Criteria

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OAM: detected events at the end of a LOP
LOW ORDER PATH HIGH ORDER PATH MULTIPLEXER SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION

2M
STM-1

STM-N

2M
STM-1 HO-PTE LO-PTE

34M 140M

34M 140M

LO-PTE

HO-PTE

MUX

REG

MUX

HO-PTE

LO-PTE
PDH AIS
(All 1s)

AU-LOP AU-AIS
(All 1s)

LO-RDI
(V5=xxxxxxx1)

BIP-2 (V5) with errors

LO-REI
(V5=nº of detected errors) V 5 = x x nx x x x x ; E r r o r s = 0 . . 2

• •

Any loss of pointer (AU-LOP) or an alarm (AU-AIS) generate: a PDH-AIS forwards and a HO-RDI backwards Any parity error in the tributary (V2 bip2) generate a LO-REI backwards

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OAM: detected events at the end of a HOP
LOW ORDER PATH HIGH ORDER PATH MULTIPLEXER SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION

2M
STM-1

STM-N

2M
STM-1 HO-PTE LO-PTE

34M 140M

34M 140M

LO-PTE

HO-PTE

MUX

REG

MUX

HO-PTE
AU-LOP AU-AIS
(All 1s)

LO-PTE
TU-AIS
(All 1s)

PDH AIS
(All 1s)

HO-RDI
(G1=xxxx1xxx)

LO-RDI
(V5=xxxxxxx1)

B3 with errors

HO-REI
(G1=nº of detected errors) G 1 = n n n nxxxx; Errors=0..8

AIS: Alarm Indication Signal HO-REI: High Order Remote Error Indication
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OAM: detected events at the end of a MS
LOW ORDER PATH HIGH ORDER PATH MULTIPLEXER SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION

2M
STM-1

STM-N

2M
STM-1 HO-PTE LO-PTE

34M 140M

34M 140M

LO-PTE

HO-PTE

MUX

REG

MUX

HO-PTE

LO-PTE

L O S L O F MS-RDI
(K2=xxxxx110)

AU-AIS
(All 1s)

TU-AIS
(All 1s)

PDH AIS
(All 1s)

HO-RDI
(G1=xxxx1xxx)

LO-RDI
(V5=xxxxxxx1)

B2 with errors

MS-REI
(M1=nº of detected errors) M1=nnnnnnnn; Errors=0..24

MS-RDI: Multiplexer Section Remote Defect Indication

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OAM: Detected events at the end of a RS
LOW ORDER PATH HIGH ORDER PATH MULTIPLEXER SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION REGENERATOR SECTION

2M
STM-1

STM-N

2M
STM-1 HO-PTE LO-PTE

34M 140M

34M 140M

LO-PTE

HO-PTE

MUX

REG

MUX

HO-PTE

LO-PTE

LOS LOF

MS-AIS
(A1, A2 OK; the rest all 1s)

AU-AIS
(All 1s)

TU-AIS
(All 1s)

PDH AIS
(All 1s)

MS-RDI
(K2=xxxxx110)

HO-RDI
(G1=xxxx1xxx)

LO-RDI
(V5=xxxxxxx1)

B1 with errors

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Anomaly and defect management
phys. regen. section section SPI LOS LOF Error B1 regenerated signal “1” “1” MS-AIS Error MS-Exc. (B2) Error MS-BIP (B2) MS-RDI MS-RDI AU-AIS “1” HPC unused output/ HP-UNEQ “1” RST multiplexer section (Note 1) MST MSA HPOM Higher order path HUG HPC HPT HPA LPOM Lower order path LUG LPC LPT LPA

Detection Generation Detection/Generation AU-AIS “1” AIS Insertion

AU-LOP “1” HO path signal HOVC with POH y and unspecified useful load HO unequipped signal HP-UNEQ HP-TIM HP-SLM Error HP-BIP (B3) HP-REI HP-RDI HP-RDI HP-REI

“1”

TU-AIS

TU-AIS HP-LOM/TU-LOP

“1” “1” HPC unused output/ LP-UNEQ

LP-UNEQ LP-TIM LP-SLM Error LP-BIP (B3) LP-REI LP-RDI LP-RDI LP-REI “1”

AIS: Alarm indication signal RDI: Remote defect indication REI: Remote error indication HPA: Higher order path adaptation HPC: Higher order path connection HPOM: Higher order path monitor HPT: Higher order path termination HUG: Higher order unequipped generator LPA: Lower order path adaptation LPC: Lower order path connection LPOM: Lower order path monitor LPT: Lower order path termination LUG: Lower order unequipped generator LOF: Loss of frame LOM: Loss of multiframe LOP: Loss of pointer LOS: Loss of signal MSA: Multiplexer section adaptation MST: Multiplexer section termination RST: Regeneration section termination SPI: SDH physichal interface SLM: Signal label mismatch TIM: Trace identifier mismatch UNEQ: Unequipped signal

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AIS formats

RSOH PTR

RSOH PTR

RSOH PTR

:X =1

K2 MSOH MSOH MSOH

MS-AIS

AU-AIS

TU-AIS

PDH-AIS

• • • •

MS-AIS: All bits excepting the ones of the RSOH are put to the binary value ‘1’. AU-AIS: All bits of the adminsitrative unit are put to ‘1’ but the RSOH and MSOH maintains their codification. TU-AIS: All bits in the tributary unid are put to ‘1’ but the unaffected tributaries and the RSOH and MSOH maintains their codification. PDH-AIS: All the bits in the tributary are ‘1’.

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Some conclusions

Section

SDH means infrastructures standardization

GSM

Frame Relay

SDH node SDH ATM

STM-N

SDH node UMTS

A SDH network can offer transport services to final users or it can be used as a transport infrastructure by a GSM, ISDN, ATM, Frame Relay, UMTS..., network.

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Simple and reliable
Simple
• • • • • •

Direct tributaries add&drop avoiding the typical PDH mux/demux The tributaries are synchronized to the network Byte oriented justification; stuffing bits are not necessary Tributaries can be drop&insert to the signal dynamically without disturbing the signal. The High efficiency level reached is a consequence of management facilities It is cheaper to provide new service

Reliable
• • • •

SDH is byte oriented allowing the integration of telecommunications with computers Automatic reconfiguration is possible to prevent faults Multiplexers provide a high reliability equivalent similar in backbones and in regional areas Hierarchical management of alarms and maintenance functions by the network elements.

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New services

Host IWU Frame Relay

Services
Telephony UMTS Frame Relay GSM

ATM access

Infrastructures
SDH ATM Superserver

SDH link

• • • • •

As a consequence of higher capacity and quality Transport for high definition audio and video High speed data for Internet or other networks Fast bandwidth management to answer requirements Integration under the same arquitecture circuit and packet networks.

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Cost effective

Interconnected rings

SDH access point ot point SDH ring 2,5 Gb/s 622 Mb/s

PDH access 45 Mb/s

SDH network

• • • • • •

Universal standard: multivendor Maintains the compatibility with legacy PDH networks Reduces the number of network elements to provide advanced services With just a few network elements is possible to configure a network Simplifies the management because of centralized configurations Fast traffic routing in case of fault
Maintenance
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Telecom basis in the next 10 years?

“SDH will be the dominant technology in the next 10 years” as Pioneers Optical Edge Networks Boston (MA) June 2000 said
• •

IP, MPLS, DWDM, will be attention focus of investements of 2,5 billion $ Investements in SONET/SDH tecnology will be about 6 billion $

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