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Pure Mathematics – Matrices and Determinants p.

Matrices and Determinants


Assignment
1. (a) Let R be the matrix representation the rotation in the Cartesian plane
anticlockwise about the origin by 60o.
(i) Write down R and R6.
⎛2 1 ⎞
(ii) Let A = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ . Verify that A-1RA is a matrix which all the elements
⎝0 3⎠
are integers.
(b) Using the results of (a), or otherwise, find a 2x2 matrix M, in which all the
⎛1 0⎞
elements are integers, such that M3 = 1 but M ≠ 1, where I = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ .
⎝0 1⎠

2. Let T1 be the transformation which transform a vector x to a vector y = Ax, where


⎛ 3 1⎞
⎜ − ⎟
A=⎜ 2 2⎟.
⎜ 1 3⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 2 ⎠
⎛0⎞
(a) (i) Find y when x = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ 2⎠
(ii) Describe the geometric meaning of the transformation T1.
(iii) Find A2005.
(b) For every integer n greater than 1, let Tn be the transformation which
transform a vector x to a vector y = Anx.
⎛0⎞
Is there a positive integer m such that the transformation Tn transform ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ 2⎠
⎛− 2 ⎞
to ⎜⎜ ⎟ ? Explain your answer.

⎝ 2 ⎠
Pure Mathematics – Matrices and Determinants p.2

3. Consider the system of linear equations in x, y and z.

⎧ x + ay + z = 4
(E ) : ⎪⎨ x + (2 − a ) y + (3b − 1)z = 3 , where a, b ∈ R.
⎪2 x + (a + 1) y + (b + 1)z = 7

(a) Prove that (E) has a unique solution if and only if a ≠ 1 and b ≠ 0. Solve (E)
in this case.
(b) (i) For a = 1, find the value(s) of b for which (E) is consistent, and solve
(E) for such value(s) of b.
(ii) Is there a real solution (x, y, z) of

⎧x + y + z = 4

⎨2 x + 2 y + z = 6
⎪4 x + 4 y + 3 z = 14

Satisfying x2 – 2y2 – z = 14? Explain your answer.


(c) Is (E) consistent for b = 0? Explain your answer.

⎛ m − m⎞
4. Let M = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ , where m > 0.
⎝m m ⎠
(a) Evaluate M2.
⎛a b ⎞
(b) Let X = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ be a non-zero real matrix such that MX = XM.
⎝c d ⎠
(i) Prove that c = -b and d = a.
(ii) Prove that X is a non-singular matrix.
⎛1 0⎞
(iii) Suppose that X − 6 X −1 = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ .
⎝0 1⎠
(1) Find X.
(2) If a > 0 and (M – kX)2 = –M2, express k in terms of m.
(c) Using the result of (b)(iii)(2), find two real matrices P and Q, other than M
and –M, such that P4 = Q4 = M4.