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All molecules may be characterised and catergorised by their symmetry. An object is symmetrical if some movement or operation leaves the object in a position indistinguishable from its original position. Symmetry operation: Operations that leave objects looking the same. Symmetry element: Corresponding elements – are the points, lines, and planes with respect to which symmetry operation is performed. There are only 5 unique symmetry elements. Symmetry of a molecule defined by all the symmetry elements inherent within the molecule. All molecules characterised by 32 different combinations of symmetry elements: point groups. There are two naming systems commonly used when describing symmetry elements 1. The Schoenflies notation used extensively by spectroscopists 2. The Hermann-Mauguin or international notation preferred by crystallographers

Sphere has infinite number of possible rotation angles and axes. Schoenflies: C is the symbol given to a rotational axis 1 indicates rotation by 360° Hermann-Mauguin: 1 for 1-fold rotation Operation: act of rotating molecule through 360° Element: axis of symmetry (i. Any direction in any object is a C1 axis.The Symmetry Elements Identity (C1 ≡ E or 1) Rotation by 360° around any randomly chosen axes through the molecule returns it to original position. rotation by 360° restores original orientation. all other objects/molecules have reduced rotational symmetry. . An object may possess several rotation axes and in such a case the one (or more) with the greatest value of n is called the principal axes of rotation. Operation: act of rotation Element: rotation axis Symbol for a symmetry element for which the operation is a rotation of 360°/n Schoenflies: Cn Hermann–Mauguin: n. The molecule has an n-fold axis of symmetry. the rotation axis).e. Rotation axes (Cn or n) Rotations through angles other than 360°.

i or 1) Operation: inversion through this point Element: point Straight line drawn through centre of inversion from any point of the molecule will meet an equivalent point at an equal distance beyond the centre. Schoenflies: σh. Schoenflies: i Hermann–Mauguin: 1 Molecules possessing a centre of inversion are centrosymmetric .Mirror planes (σ or m) Mirror reflection through a plane. σv. σd Hermann–Mauguin: m Centres of inversion (centre of symmetry. Operation: act of reflection Element: mirror plane Schoenflies notation: Horizontal mirror plane (σh): plane perpendicular to the principal rotation axis Vertical mirror plane (σv): plane includes principal rotation axis Diagonal mirror plane (σd): plane includes principal rotation axis and bisects the angle between a pair of 2-fold rotation axes that are normal (perpendicular) to principal rotation axis.

Molecule does not need to have either a Cn or a σh symmetry element .Axes of rotary inversion (improper rotation Sn or n ) Involves a combination or elements and operations Schoenflies: Sn Element: axis of rotatory reflection The operation is a combination of rotation by 360°/n (Cn) followed by reflection in a plane normal (σh) to the Sn axis.

still above the plane . rotate by 120° and then reflect in the horizontal mirror plane. 3-fold rotation.S3 Start with point above the plane of the paper (+). Successive applications (S3 applied to each newly generated point) give a total of 6 points. Step 2: horizontal mirror plane reflection Step 1: rotation by 120°. One application of S3 generates a point rotated 120° and below the plane of the paper (–).

S4 Start with a point above the plane of the paper (+) One application of S4 generates a point rotated 90° and below the plane of the paper (–). Successive applications of S4 give a total of 4 points. .

Hermann-Mauguin: n Element: axis of rotatory inversion. Molecule does not need to have either a n or a 1 symmetry element . The operation is a combination of rotation by 360°/n (n) followed by inversion through a point (1).

3-fold rotation Step 2: inversion . a S3 operation. One application of 3 generates a point rotated –60° and below the plane of the paper (–). Successive applications (S3 applied to each newly generated point) give a total of 6 points. rotate by 120° and then invert through centre of symmetry.3 Start with point above the plane of the paper (+). Note that the sequence of events and final pattern is very different for a 3 vs. Step 1: rotation by 120°.

Sn implies the presence of both Cn and σh. S5 = 10 … • 1 = S2 = i. 3 = S6. S1 = 2 S2 = 1 S3 = 6 S4 = 4 S5 = 10 S6 = 3 S10 = .• Sn and n are different unless n is a multiple of 4. S3 = 6 . • When n is odd Sn = ( 2n ) and n = S2n • S1 = 2 = σ (= m). and n implies the presence of both n and 1. 5 = S10 … • The symbol σ (or m) is always used in place of S1 (or 2 ) • i is always used in place of S2 • When n is odd.

C3 … Mirror plane Centre of inversion (centre of symmetry) Improper rotation axis (rotatory reflection axis) Improper rotation axis (rotatory inversion axis) σ (σh. .ELEMENTS OF POINT SYMMETRY Type of element Identity Description of operation Rotation of 360° about any axis. S2. S3. All objects and geometric figures posses this element Counterclockwise rotation of 360°/n about axis Reflection through a plane All points inverted through a centre of symmetry Rotation of 360°/n followed by reflection in a plane perpendicular to the axis Rotation of 360°/n followed by inversion through a point on the axis Schoenflies E=C Rotation axis C1. C2. σv i S1.

Molecule is optically active. General condition for optical activity: molecules contain no alternating axis of symmetry of any order (i. cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Dissymmetry: Molecules posses one additional symmetry operation. Dissymmetrical molecules can still exhibit optical activity. 2+ Ru . a proper axis of rotation (Cn or n). no Sn axis). Asymmetry: Molecule possesses no symmetry operations except the identity. To describe the symmetry of a molecule must identify each element and their orientation.e. Each molecule is completely described by a minimum number of symmetry operations.Combinations of symmetry elements Most molecules will possess more than one symmetry element.

.The symmetry classification of molecules • List symmetry elements • Collect together molecules with the same list of elements Group: any set or collection of elements which together with some well defined combining operation obey a certain set of rules Rules which elements of a group must obey: • Combination of any two elements of the group must produce an element which is also a member of the group. • Group must contain the identity element.

The 32 crystallographic point group 1 Ci Cs m C 1 1 C2 2h 2 C3 3 C4 4h 4 C6 6h 6 C2v 2mm 2/m C D2 222 C3v 3m C3h 6 D3 32 C4v 4mm 4/m C D4 422 C6v 6mm 6/m C D6 622 T 23 D2h mmm D3h 6 2m D4h 4/mmm D6h 6/mmm D6d 3 D2d 4 2m D3d 3 m D4d 4 /m m3 4 3m T T d h O 432 O h m3m .

are there nC2 ⊥ to Cn? Cn? N Dnh Y σh? N Y ‡ N Y Dnd Y nσd N Dn Cnh Y σh? N Cs Y σ? N Cnv Y nσv N Ci Y i? N C1 S2n Y S2n? N Cn . n > 2? i? N Td Ih Y N O h C5? N ‡ Select Cn with highest n.Molecule Y Linear? Y N Two or D∞h Y i? N C ∞v Y more Cn. then.

the operations C2 and σh jointly imply the presence of a centre of inversion.The groups C1. Dnh and Dnd Dn: n-fold principal axis and n two-fold axes perpendicular to Cn Dnh: molecule also possesses a horizontal mirror plane Dnd: in addition to the elements of Dn possesses n dihedral mirror planes σd The groups Sn Sn: Molecules not already classified possessing one Sn axis Molecules belonging to Sn with n > 4 are rare S2 ≡ Ci . thus in C2h. The groups Dn. Ci and Cs C1: no element other than the identity Ci: identity and inversion alone Cs:identity and a mirror plane alone The groups Cn. Cnv and Cnh Cn: n-fold rotation axis Cnv: identity. Cn axis plus n vertical mirror planes σv Cnh: identity and an n-fold rotation principal axis plus a horizontal mirror plane σh Presence of certain symmetry elements may be implied by the presence of others.

SF6).g. but none of their planes of reflection Th: based on T but also contains a centre of inversion The full rotation group R3: consists of an infinite number of rotation axes with all possible values of n. but no molecule does. A sphere and an atom belong to R3. respectively.The cubic groups Td and Oh: groups of the regular tetrahedron (e. .g. CH4) and regular octahedron (e. T or O: object possesses the rotational symmetry of the tetrahedron or the octahedron.

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