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5-1 Introduction 5-2 Conservation of Mass 5-3 Mechanical Energy and Efficiency 5-4 Bernoulli Equation 5-5 General Energy Equation 5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows

Fluid Mechanics-- Chapter 5

1

5-1 Introduction

• Conservation laws for: mass, momentum, energy, etc. • Conservation laws were originally applied to a closed system or just a system. y j y • In fluid mechanics, the conservation laws were extended to regions in space call control volume. • Conservation of mass:

d msys dt =0= d mcv & & + mout − min dt

**• Conservation of momentum: (in Chapter 6) • Conservation of energy:
**

d Esys dt =0= d Ecv & & + Eout − Ein dt

Fluid Mechanics-- Chapter 5 2

1

5-2 Conservation of Mass

• Conservation of mass principle is one of the most fundamental principles in nature. • Mass, like energy, is a conserved property, and it cannot be created or destroyed d i a process. tb t d d t d during • For closed systems mass conservation is implicit since the mass of the system remains constant during a process. • For control volumes, mass can cross the boundaries which means that we must keep track of the amount of mass entering and leaving the control volume.

Fluid Mechanics-- Chapter 5

r r & m = ∫ ρV ⋅ d A = ∫ ρVn d A

Ac Ac

3

**Averaged Velocity & Volume Flow Rate
**

• Integral in m can be replaced with & average values of ρ and Vn

Vavg = 1 Ac

∫

Ac

Vn d A

**• For many flows variation of ρ is & very small: m = ρ V avg Ac • Volume flow rate is given by:
**

& V = Q = ∫ Vn d A = Vavg Ac

Ac

• Note: many textbooks use Q & instead of V for volume flow rate • Mass and volume flow rates are & & related by m = ρ V

Fluid Mechanics-- Chapter 5

& & V V = Vavg Ac

4

2

1-D flow in a conduit: ∑ ρ V ⋅ A = 0 = ρ 2V2 A2 − ρ1V1 A1 cs r r Fluid Mechanics-.Conservation of Mass Principle Δ mcv d mcv & & & & =0= + ∑ mout − ∑ min . constant velocity): ∑ ρV ⋅ A = − dt ∫ cs r r d cv ρ dV Steady.e. dt d t cv Fluid Mechanics-. or + ∑ mout − ∑ min = 0 Δt Δt dt ⎧ Net change in mass ⎫ ⎧Total mass entering ⎫ ⎧Total mass leaving⎫ ⎬ ⎬−⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎨ ⎩within the cv during Δt ⎭ ⎩ the cv during Δt ⎭ ⎩ the cv during Δt ⎭ Δ msys d Φ sys dt | = r r d ∫cv φ ρ d V + ∫cs φ ρ V ⋅ d A dt | | Φ=m ↓ dmsys φ =1 ↓ φ =1 ↓ r r d = ∫ ρ dV + ∫ ρV ⋅d A cs dt d t cv • For a control volume of arbitrary shape: d mcv d = ∫ ρ dV .Chapter 5 6 3 .Chapter 5 & ∑m out r r & − ∑ m in = ∫ ρ V ⋅ d A cs 5 Continuity Equation • General (integral) form of the continuity equation: d msys dt = r r d ∫cv ρ d V + ∫cs ρ V ⋅ d A dt • If the mass of a system is constant: ∫ cs ρV ⋅d A = − r r d ρ dV d t ∫cv For uniform flow (i.

Continuity Equation (Cont. Fluid Mechanics-. at what rate is water accumulating in (or evacuating from) the tank? Fluid Mechanics-.003 m3/s. and water leaves the tank through an orifice in the bottom at a rate of 0.Chapter 5 8 4 .Chapter 5 7 Continuity Equation (Cont. If the cross-sectional area of the jet is 0. and it reduces to 0. and b) the average velocity of water at the nozzle exit.8 cm at the nozzle exit. determine a) the volume and mass flow rates of water through the hose.) • Ex. 1: A jet of water discharges into an open tank. The inner diameter of the hose is 2 cm.0025 m2 where the velocity of water is 7 m/s. 5-1: A garden hose attached with a nozzle is used to fill a 10-gal bucket.) • Ex. If it takes 50 s to fill the bucket with water.

Assume that the velocity in the jet is 2 g h m/s. where p is the pressure in the tank. How long will it take for the water surface into the tank to drop from h0 = 2 m to hf =0.) • Ex. 2: Water flows steadily into a tank through pipes 1 and 2 and discharges at a steady rate out of the tank through pipes 3 and 4. 4: Methane escape through a small (10-7 m2) hole in a 10-m3 tank. The mean velocity of inflow and outflow in pipes 1.5 m? • Ex.66 p A R T .) • Ex. Calculate the time required for the absolute pressure in the tank to decrease from 500 to 400 kPa. ft/s and the hypothetical outflow velocity in pipe 4 varies linearly from zero at wall to a maximum at the center of the pipe. What are the mass rate of flow discharge from pipe 4. The methane escapes so slowly that the temperature in the tank remains constant at 23oC. 3: A 10-cm jet of water issues from a 1-m diameter tank.Continuity Equation (Cont.Chapter 5 9 Continuity Equation (Cont. Fluid Mechanics-. 2. The mass flow rate of methane through & the hole is given by m = 0. and what is the maximum velocity in pipe 4? Fluid Mechanics-.Chapter 5 10 5 . and 3 is 50 ft/s.

Chapter 5 12 6 .in = 1− Emech. losses have occurred during conversion Fluid Mechanics-. mechanical efficiency of a device or process can be defined as η mech = Emech..out Emech.loss Emech.) • Transfer of emech is usually accomplished by a rotating shaft: shaft work • Pump.g. friction). propulsion: receives shaft work (e. Δemech represents the work supplied to the fluid (Δemech > 0) or extracted from the fluid (Δemech < 0).Chapter 5 11 5-3 Mechanical Energy & Efficiency (Cont. Fluid Mechanics-. fan. kinetic V 2/ 2.. from an electric motor) and t l ti t ) d transfers it to the fluid as f t th fl id mechanical energy • Turbine: converts emech of a fluid to shaft work • In the absence of irreversibilities (e.in • If ηmech < 100%. and potential gz energy are the forms of mechanical energy emech= P/ ρ + V 2/ 2 + gz • Mechanical energy change of a fluid during incompressible flow becomes Δemech = P2 − P 1 ρ + V22 − V12 + g ( z 2 − z1 ) 2 • In the absence of loses.5-3 Mechanical Energy and Efficiency • Mechanical energy can be defined as the form of energy that can be converted to mechanical work completely and directly by an ideal mechanical device such as an ideal turbine • Flow P/ρ.g.

5: (Cont.Chapter 5 13 5-3 Mechanical Energy & Efficiency • Ex.u = & & Wshaft.Chapter 5 14 7 .out Wshaft. and (c) the shaft power supplied by the turbine to the generator. determine (a) the overall efficiency of the turbine-generator. Fluid Mechanics-.e & W shaft.in ηgenerator = &elec. we are usually interested in increasing the pressure. If the electric power generated is measured to be 1862 kW and the generator efficiency is 95%.fluid Wturbine.) • In fluid systems. (b) the mechanical efficiency of the turbine. η turbine−gen = η turbineηgen Fluid Mechanics-. Water is to be supplied at a rate of 5000 kg/s.) The water in a large lake is to be used to generate electricity by the installation of a hydraulic turbine-generator at a location where the depth of the water is 50 m as shown in the p p picture below. and/or elevation of a fluid η pump = η turbine & & ΔEmech.fluid Wpump.in & W • Overall efficiency: η pump−motor = η pumpη motor . velocity.out W = = turbine & & ΔEmech.in Wpump & & Wshaft.5-3 Mechanical Energy & Efficiency (Cont. η motor = & out Welec.

as shown in the picture below. . 5-20: (Cont. The ball is initially held at the highest location at p g point A. Wind Wind 8 m/s turbine 50 m Fluid Mechanics-. and then it is released. 5-4: (Cont. determine the actual electric power generation assuming an overall efficiency of 30 percent.) At a certain location.25 kg/m3. is to be analyzed.Chapter 5 15 5-3 Mechanical Energy & Efficiency • HW. Take the air density to be 1.5-3 Mechanical Energy & Efficiency • Ex. Fluid Mechanics-. Also. wind is blowing steadily at 8 m/s. Obtain relations for the conservation of energy of the ball for the case of frictionless and actual motion. Determine the mechanical energy of air per unit mass and the power g generation p potential of a wind turbine with 50-m-diameter blades at that location.Chapter 5 16 8 .) The motion of a steel ball in a hemispherical bowl of radius h.

) • Integrating Newton’s second law for particle motion along a pathline provides a relationship between the change in kinetic energy and the work done on the particle. as = dt ∂ s ∂t Fluid Mechanics-. •I t Integrating E l ’ equation along a pathline i a steady ti Euler’s ti l thli in t d flow of an incompressible fluid yields an equivalent relationship called the Bernoulli equation.5-4 Bernoulli Equation • Acceleration of a fluid element: ∑F or s = mas P Δ A − ( P + Δ P ) Δ A − ΔW sin θ = ρ Δ s Δ A as Q ΔW = ρ g Δ s Δ A ΔP ⇒ + ρ g sin θ = − ρ as Δs Hence.Chapter 5 18 9 . Along a pathline: ∂ ( P + ρ g z ) = − ρ as ∂s For a steady flow: d dV ∂ Q =0 ⇒ ( P + ρ g z ) = − ρV ds ds ∂t d 1 2 (P + ρ g z + 12 ρV 2 ) = 0 or. ∂P ∂z +ρg = − ρ as (Euler’s equation) ∂s ∂s Q V = V ( s. { + { + { = constant P/ ρ gz 2V ds Flow potential kinetic energy energy energy Fluid Mechanics-.Chapter 5 17 5-4 Bernoulli Equation (Cont. t ) ⇒ d V = ∂V ∂V ds + dt ∂t ∂s dV ∂V ∂V =V + Thus.

irrotational flow of an incompressible. inviscid fluid: P + ρ g z + 1 ρV 2 = constant 2 where V i th speed of th fl id and not a velocity component h is the d f the fluid d t l it t • Limitations on the use of the Bernoullil equation: Steady.5-4 Bernoulli Equation (Cont.Chapter 5 20 10 .) Along the direction normal to the streamline: V2 ∂ ( P + ρ g z ) = − ρ an and an = − r ∂r For an irrotational flow: dV V d (P + ρ g z + 12 ρV 2 ) = 0 =− ⇒ dr r dr • Bernoulli equation for the steady.Chapter 5 19 HGL & EGL • Along a streamline: P V2 + + { = { = constant z H 2g ρg total { { elevation head head velocity head pressure head • Hydraulic grade line (HGL): P ρ g + z • Energy grade line (EGL): P ρ g + V 2 2 g + z Fluid Mechanics-. incompressible. frictionless flow along a streamline No shaft work No heat transfer Fluid Mechanics-.

EGL remains constant • At the pipe exit.. the EGL and HGL coinside with the free surface of the liquid.Chapter 5 22 11 .HGL & EGL • For stationary bodies. and can be represented by the elevation head of the free surface (z) • THE EGL is always a distance V 2/2 above the HGL /2g • For an idealized flow. the HGL coinsides with the pipe outlet (Pgage = 0) • The mechanical energy loss causes gy the EGL and HGL to slope downward in the direction of flow • The gage pressure of a fluid is zero at locations where the HGL intersects the fluid Fluid Mechanics-.Chapter 5 21 Application of Bernoulli Equation • Stagnation tube: p1 + 1 ρV12 = p2 + 1 ρV22 2 2 V1 = 2 g l where z1 = z 2 p2: stagnation pressure • Pitot tube: p1 + 1 ρV12 + γ z1 = p2 + 1 ρV22 + γ z2 2 2 V = V2 = 2 g (h1 − h2 ) where h = p + z γ Fluid Mechanics-.

81 and 13.) • Ex. When this Pitot tube is used in a wind tunnel test. 8: A large tank open to the atmosphere is filled with water to a height of 5 m from the outlet tap. and water flows out from the smooth and rounded outlet. 7: A differential pressure gage is connected across the taps of a Pitot tube. Determine the water velocity at the outlet.. Fluid Mechanics-. Fluid Mechanics-.Application of Bernoulli Equation (Cont. What is the air velocity in the tunnel? The pressure and temperature in the tunnel are 98 kPa absolute and 20oC.55) • Ex. what is the kerosene velocity in the pipe? (The specific gravity of the kerosene and mercury are 0.) • Ex. the gage indicates a Δp of 730 Pa. 6: A mercury-kerosene manometer is connected to the Pitot tube as shown.Chapter 5 24 12 .Chapter 5 23 Application of Bernoulli Equation (Cont. A tap near the bottom of the tank is now opened. If the deflection on the manometer is 7 in.

a car runs out of gasoline.) • Ex. and then place the other end in a gas can below the level of the gas tank. and frictional losses in the siphon are to be disregarded. Fluid Mechanics-. For the indicated water column heights.Chapter 5 25 Application of Bernoulli Equation (Cont. to measure static and stagnation (static + dynamic) pressures. and point 3 is located 2 m above point 1 case 1. Determine (a) the minimum time to withdraw 4 L of gasoline from the tank to the can.Chapter 5 26 13 . 5-8: A piezometer and a Pitot tube are tapped into a horizontal water pipe. To start the siphon it is necessary to insert one siphon end in the full gas tank.75 m below point 1 in this case. The difference in pressure between point 1 and point 2 causes the liquid to flow from the higher to the lower elevation. as shown in the picture. fill the hose with gasoline via suction. The siphon diameter is 4 mm.) • Ex.3 kPa). and it becomes necessary to siphon gas out of another car as shown in the picture. 5-7: During a trip to the beach (Patm = 101. and (b) the pressure at point 3.Application of Bernoulli Equation (Cont. determine the velocity at the center of the pipe f Fluid Mechanics-. The density of gasoline is 750 kg/m3. Point 2 is located 0.

z3 = z = C At point 2: V2 = Vmax = r2ω . determine the speed of the aircraft Fluid Mechanics-. If the differential pressure reading is 3 kPa.Chapter 5 27 Application of Bernoulli Equation (Cont. determine the maximum velocity to which water can be accelerated by the nozzle before striking the turbine blades g • HW.) • Tornado: Can be modeled as a forced vortex at the center surrounded by a free vortex At point 3: p V3 ≈ 0 .Application of Bernoulli Equation (Cont.) • Ex. 5-41: A pitot-static probe is used to measure the speed of an aircraft flying at 3000 m. p3 ≈ p0 . If the nozzle outlets are exposed to atmospheric pressure of 100 kPa. water enters the turbine nozzles at 800 kPa absolute with a low velocity. 5-10: Derive the Bernoulli equation when the compressibility effects are not negligible for an ideal gas undergoing (a) an isothermal process and (b) an isentropic process • HW.Chapter 5 28 14 . 5-40: In a hydroelectric power plant. z = z2 = C In region 2→3: p + 1 ρV 2 + γ z = p3 + 1 ρV32 + γ z3 2 2 ⇒ p = p0 − 1 ρV 2 2 In region 1→2: p + ρ g z − 1 ρ r 2ω 2 = p2 + ρ g z 2 − 1 ρ r22ω 2 2 2 ⇒ 2 p = p0 − ρVmax + 1 ρV 2 2 Fluid Mechanics-.

irrotational.Application of Bernoulli Equation (Cont.) • Irrotational flow past a circular cylinder • Pressure distribution of an irrotational flow on a cylinder Fluid Mechanics-.Chapter 5 29 Application of Bernoulli Equation (Cont. lowviscosity flow near curved boundaries: p + 1 ρV 2 + γ z = p0 + 1 ρV02 + γ z0 2 2 ⇒ Cp = Cp = ⎛V ⎞ h − h0 ⎛A ⎞ = 1− ⎜ ⎟ = 1− ⎜ 0 ⎟ 2 ⎜V ⎟ V0 2 g ⎝ A⎠ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎛V ⎞ p − p0 ⎛A ⎞ = 1− ⎜ ⎟ = 1− ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎜V ⎟ 1 ρV 2 ⎝ A⎠ ⎝ 0⎠ 0 2 2 2 2 2 or Fluid Mechanics-.) • Pressure variation for an incompressible.Chapter 5 30 15 .

which is also known as the conservation of energy principle • It states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed during a process.in = Win − Wout Fluid Mechanics-.5-5 General Energy Equation • One of the most fundamental laws in nature is the 1st law of thermodynamics. picks up speed as PE is converted to KE • If air resistance is neglected.Chapter 5 32 16 . it can only change forms • Falling rock.in + Wnet. PE + KE = constant Fluid Mechanics-. d k f • Conservation of energy for a closed system can be expressed in rate form as d Esys & & Qnet.in = Qin − Qout • Net power input to the system: & & & Wnet.in = dt • Net rate of heat transfer to the system: & & & Qnet.) • The energy content of a closed system can be changed by two mechanisms: heat transfer Q and work transfer W.Chapter 5 31 5-5 General Energy Equation (Cont.

Ek: kinetic energy.Chapter 5 34 17 . etc.Derivation of the Energy Equation • The 1st law of thermodynamics: Δ Esys = Qin + Win & & = Qin + Win dt Esys: energy of a system.in − W f − Wviscous + Wother.in dt ⎞ r r ⎛V 2 ⎞ d ⎛V 2 & & ⇒ Qin + Wnet.) applied to the flow system. Wout: work done by the system on its surrounding Eu: internal energy. Qiin: heat transfer to the system.in : shaft work (turbine. Ep: potential energy Esys . pump.in & Ws.in = Ws. r r r r & W f : flow work done by the pressure = ∫ PV d A = ∑ PV ⋅ A.in = ∫ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 + g z + eu ⎟ ρ d V + ∫cs ⎜ 2 + g z + eu ⎟ ρV ⋅ d A d t cv ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Fluid Mechanics-.Chapter 5 33 Derivation of the Energy Equation • Control-volume of energy conservation: dΦ sys r r d ∫cv φ ρ d V + ∫cs φ ρ V ⋅ d A dt dt | | | Φ=E φ =e φ =e ↓ ↓ ↓ r r d Esys d = ∫ e ρ d V + ∫ e ρV ⋅ d A cs dt d t cv = • Control-volume approach to the 1st law of y thermodynamics: d Esys dt = r r d & & ∫cv e ρ d V + ∫cs e ρV ⋅ d A = Qin + Wnet. Esys = Eu + Ek + E p A A d Esys & Wviscous : work done by the viscous forces Fluid Mechanics-. esys = eu + ek + e p esys = m V2 ek = ep = g z eu : specific internal energy 2 & & & & & Wnet.

Chapter 5 35 5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows • For steady flow: ⎛P V2 ⎞ r r ⎛V 2 ⎞ r r & & Qin + Ws.2 • Energy Equation: ⎛P V2 ⎞ r r ⎞ d ⎛V 2 & & Qin + Ws .e.Derivation of the Energy Equation & • Flow Work (W f ): The work done by pressure forces as the system moves through space r r r r & W f = ∑ PV ⋅ A = ∫ PV ⋅ d A cs cs i. incompressible flow through a pipe: ⎛ V2 P⎞ & & & Qin + Ws.in = ∑ ⎜ + ⎜ ρ 2 + g z + eu ⎟ ρV ⋅ A = ∑ ⎜ 2 + g z + h ⎟ ρV ⋅ A ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ cs ⎝ cs ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎛P V2 ⎞ r r ⎛V 2 ⎞ r r =∫ ⎜ + + g z + eu ⎟ ρV ⋅ d A = ∫ ⎜ + g z + h ⎟ ρV ⋅ d A ⎟ ⎟ cs ⎜ ρ cs ⎜ 2 2 ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ h: specific enthalpy of the fluid = eu+P/ρ • Steady.in + ⎜ α1 1 + g z1 + eu .1 = P V1 ⋅ A1 = −V1 P A1 1 1 f .Chapter 5 36 18 . & W r r = P2V2 ⋅ A2 = V2 P2 A2 r r & W f . 2 + 2 ⎟ m ⎜ 2 ρ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ r r & where m = ∫ ρV ⋅ d A = ρVavg A = ρV A ∫ ρV 2 r r V2 V2 & V ⋅d A =α ρV A = α m 2 2 2 Fluid Mechanics-.in = ∫ ⎜ + g z + eu ⎟ ρ d V + ∑ ⎜ + ⎜ ρ 2 + g z + eu ⎟ ρV ⋅ A ⎟ ⎟ cv ⎜ 2 dt ⎝ cs ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ = ⎞ ⎛P V2 ⎞ r r d ⎛V 2 ∫cv ⎜ 2 + g z + eu ⎟ ρ d V + ∫cs ⎜ ρ + 2 + g z + eu ⎟ ρV ⋅ d A ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ dt ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Fluid Mechanics-.1 + 1 ⎟ m ⎜ ρ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ V2 P ⎞ & = ⎜ α 2 2 + g z 2 + eu .

Chapter 5 37 5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont.in = W p − Wt & Wt : work done on turbine by the fluid & W p : work done on the fluid by pump ⇒ α1 & & & Q ⎞ V2 P W ⎛1 V1 2 P Wp + z1 + 1 + = α 2 2 + z2 + 2 + t + ⎜ (eu .1 ) − in ⎟ ⎜g & & & ⎠ mg ⎟ 2g 2g γ mg γ mg ⎝ • Mechanical energy can be converted to thermal energy through viscous friction between fluid particles (this process is irreversible) • Head loss (hL) is defines as: α1 hL = & Q 1 (eu . Discuss if it is possible for the fluid temperature to decrease during such flow.) • Ex.) • Steady. 5-11: Show that during steady and incompressible flow of a fluid in an adiabatic flow section (a) the temperature remains constant and there is no head loss when friction is ignored and (b) the temperature increases and some head loss occurs when frictional effects are considered.1 ) − in & g mg h p : pump head V1 2 P V2 P + z1 + 1 + h p = α 2 2 + z 2 + 2 + ht + hL 2g 2g γ γ 14 244 4 3 144 44 2 3 total head total head hL = 0 for inviscid flow ht : turbine head Fluid Mechanics-. incompressible flow through a pump/turbine system: & & & Ws.5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont. Fluid Mechanics-. 2 − eu . 2 − eu .Chapter 5 38 19 .

5-12: The pump of a water distribution system is powered by a 15-kW electric motor whose efficiency is 90 percent. 100 m3/s of water flows from an elevation of 120 m to a turbine. where electric power is generated as shown in the picture. The total irreversible head loss in the piping system from point 1 to point 2 (excluding the turbine unit) is determined to be 35 m. Fluid Mechanics-.Chapter 5 40 20 . respectively. picture The water flow rate through the pump is 50 L/s. The diameters of the inlet and outlet pipes are the same. estimate the electric power output. If the pressures at the inlet and outlet of the pump are measured to be 100 kPa and 300 kPa (absolute). determine (a) the mechanical efficiency of ( ) y the pump and (b) the temperature rise of water as it flows through the pump due to the mechanical inefficiency. as shown in the picture. If the overall efficiency of the turbine– generator is 80 percent. 5-13: In a hydroelectric power plant. and the elevation difference across the pump is negligible.5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont.) • Ex. Fluid Mechanics-.) • Ex.Chapter 5 39 5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont.

Take the air density to be 1. A 5 cm diameter hole is available at space 5-cm the back of the case for the installation of the fan that is to replace the air in the void spaces of the case once every second. Half of the volume in the case is expected to be filled with components and the other half to be air space.Chapter 5 41 5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont. g Fluid Mechanics-. 5-14: A fan is to be selected to cool a computer case whose dimensions are 12-cm×40-cm×40-cm. th irreversible head loss in the piping system is 4 m.) • Ex. 5-15: A submersible pump with a shaft power of 5 kW and an efficiency of 72 percent is used to pump water from a lake to a pool through a constant diameter pipe as shown in the picture. determine the discharge rate of water and the pressure difference across the pump. as shown in the picture.Chapter 5 42 21 .20 kg/m3.5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont. Fluid Mechanics-.) • Ex. The free surface of the pool i 25 m above th f f th l is b the free surface of th l k If the f f the lake. Small low-power fan–motor combined units are available in the market and their efficiency is estimated to be 30 percent. Determine (a) the wattage of the fan–motor unit to be purchased and (b) the pressure difference across the fan.

Fluid Mechanics-. The steam enters the turbine at 15 m/s and exits at 60 m/s.) • Example: The velocity distribution for laminar flow in a pipe is given by the ⎡ ⎛ r ⎞2 ⎤ equation V = Vmax ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ ro ⎟ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ where ro is the radius of the pipe and r is the radial distance from the center.5 kg/s. The steam leaves the turbine at 101 kPa absolute and 100oC (h = 2676 kJ/kg).Chapter 5 43 5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont. Calculate the power output if the mass flow through the turbine is 0. Determine the average velocity Vave in terms of Vmax and evaluate the kinetic-energy correction factor α Fluid Mechanics-.Chapter 5 44 22 .5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont. The elevation difference m/s between and exit ports is negligible.) • Example: A steam turbine receives superheated steam at 1. The heat lost through the turbine wall is 7600 kJ/h.4 MPa absolute and 400oC (h = 3121 kJ/kg).

what is the pressure in the pipe at L = 2000m? Fluid Mechanics-. V is the mean velocity in the pipe.02( L D)V 2 2g Where L is the length of the pipe from the reservoir to the point in question. What power in Kilowatts and in horsepower must be supplied to the flow by the pump if the gage pressure at section 2 is to be 350 kPa? (Assume hL = 3m of water and α1 = α2 = 1) Fluid Mechanics-. If the pipe diameter is 20 cm and the rate of flow is 0. z1 = 30 m.5 m3/s. The head loss in the pipe is given as 0.Chapter 5 45 5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont. Also.) • Example: A horizontal pipe carries cooling water for a thermal power plant from a reservoir as shown.) • Example: The pipe in the figure is 50 cm in diameter and carries water at a rate of 0.5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont.Chapter 5 46 23 . and D is the diameter of the pipe. z2 = 40 m. and p1 = 70 kPa gage.06 m3/s.

and outlet works is 1. penstock.) • Example: At the maximum rate of power generation this hydroelectric power plant takes a discharge of 141 m3/s.) • HW. Determine th i D t i the irreversible h d l ibl head loss of the valve.Chapter 5 47 5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont. what is the rate of power generation? (A ti ? (Assume α1 = α2 = 1) Fluid Mechanics-. The pressure drop across a valve in the pipe is measured to be 2 kPa. If the head loss through the intakes.Chapter 5 48 24 . Fluid Mechanics-.52 m. as shown in the picture below.5-6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows (Cont. and th useful f th l d the f l pumping power needed to overcome the resulting pressure drop. 5-86: Water flows at a rate of 20 L/s through a horizontal pipe whose diameter is constant at 3 cm.

5-23. 23 m).1%). 5-47. 5-9.Homework 5-7. 5-48.4 3 3 5-45: (a) (b) 5-47: (a) tf = tf = D02 ⎛ 2 H H⎞ ⎜ ⎟ − D2 ⎜ g g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ D02 D2 2H g 2 hmax = & 1 ⎛ 4min ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 g ⎜ ρ π D02 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) ( 1 4 2 2 −1 ⎛1 & m − 1 ρ π Do 2 g z ⎞ 2 ρ π DT ⎜ 4 ρ π Do2 2 g z + min l in 4 ⎟=t & ln 2 ⎟ & min ρ π Do2 2 g ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ) Fluid Mechanics-. 5-107. 5-54 (6.76 kW. 5-24.48 ft /s). 5-95 (0. 5-55 (4. 5-57. 5-61 (33. 5-85 (47. 5-41 (292 km/h).33 m/s). 5-104. 5-91 (6.24 cm).0133 m /s. 5-104 5-107 5-113 (97 4 kPa) 97. 278 kPa).8 m/s). 5-44 (1. 5-76. 5-89 (55 kW). 5-14. 5-45. 5-90.Chapter 5 50 25 .Chapter 5 49 Chapter 6: Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems Fluid Mechanics-.

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