NYINGMAPA: THE OLDEST TIBETAN BUDDHIST TRADITION

Milan Shakya Chakupat, Lalitpur

1. Historical Background: Although Buddhism was introduced in Tibet in the seventh century during the time of King Srongsten Gampo (617-650 CE), the teachings of the Buddha began to thrive in the land of snow only 100 years later owing to the great contribution of the three remarkable persons namely King Thrisong Detsen, the abbot Shantaraksita and above all Padmasambhava.1 At the invitation of the king Thrisong Detsen, Acarya Shanta Raksita, the abbot of Nalanda Monastery, came to Tibet from India. In Tibet, he laid the foundation to the Samye Monastery in the Yarlung Valley, the first ever Monastery in Tibet. But his mission was not successful because of the resistance from local deities. The monastery built in the day was Guru Padmasambhava destroyed by malevolent spirits at night. Thus the 2 project of building the monastery became abortive. The abbot then speculated that the problem would be solved only if the king would invite Guru Padmasambhava to Tibet. Guru Padmasambhava who was at that time staying at Kathmandu doing his practice of Vajrakila Sadhana.3 At the invitation of the king he came to Tibet, subduing along the way all the malevolent forces opposed to Buddhism. Padmasambhava purified the ground to lay the foundations for the temple at Samye and then assembled all the subjugated or subdued demons and spirits. He bound all evil spirits by oath and transformed them into forces compatible with the spread of Buddhism. Thus he completed the construction successfully with the help of both human and non-human beings.4 Then, Guru Padmasambhava inspired the translation of most of the Buddhist sutras and tantras, by outstanding pandits and Tibetan translators. He also taught the whole corpus of Buddhist teachings, especially those of the esoteric tradition of the Vajrayana and bestowed
1 2

Graham Coleman (ed.), A Handbook of Tibetan Culture, (Calcutta: Rupa & Co., 1993), p. 17 Min Bahadur Shakya, Boudhanath, (Kathmandu: Talisman Worldwide, 1997), p. 57 3 Ibid. 4 Crystal Mirror, Vol IV, (Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1975), pp. 28-29.

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9 The names of Padma Sambhava's Twenty Five Disciples are: 1. The Blue Annals. Palgyi Dorje. ancient one. 9 John Powers. (New York: Snow Lion Publications. 1976). 11. Rin-chen Chog. 21. or the New Schools because they are based on the Tibetan translations of the Indian Buddhist texts that were prepared under the system established during the period of the second dissemination of Buddhism into Tibet. Sambhogakaya and Nirmanakaya. Ye-shey Tso-gyal. Vairocana. 7 Shakya. 7. 6. 24. the Nying-ma tradition has maintained lineages of the Dharmakaya. Kon-chog Jung-nay and 25. Ye-shey Zhon-nu. and Abhidharma. suggest this is the oldest school. (Berkeley: Dharma Publishing. Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. 17. Padmasambhava. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Ka-wa Pal-tseg. Santaraksita in founding monastic tradition and the Guru Rinpoche's powerful esoteric teachings of the Buddha. Pal-gyi Ye-shey. p. Source: Crystal Mirror. The Latter three schools are collectively known as Sarma (gsar ma). 104. Ten-pa Nam-kha. Kagyu. 2. who propagated the Madhyamika and Yogacara teachings. 4. 10. Sog-po Ha-pal. 18. Sakya and Geluk. 8. During the time of Tri-song De-tsen. 58 8 Crystal Mirror. 19.. the Buddha's teachings have survived to the present day in its pristine and sublime form. p. 9. Nam-khay Nying-po. It was never stated that the new religious tradition was modeled on the Bonpo. 16. 5 2 . These first Tibetan adepts or Siddhas were renowned for their spiritual accomplishments which George Roerich in his Book ‘Blue Annal’ exemplifies in the following way. Vairotsana raksita and their hundreds of disciples who established and maintained the Vidyadhara lineages. The tradition they thus established is called Nyingma that is. Sang-gye Ye-shey. 319. 15. 1984). It is the same Vajrayana lineage that Pt.8 This tradition has the longest established history of transmissions of all of the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Tri song Detsen. Vimalamitra. 2. and propagated by Tibetan masters who were Nirmanakaya Bodhisattvas. Gyal-wa Chog-yang. penetrate mountains and rocks. p. Khye-hu Chung-lo-tsa. Pal-gyi Wang-chug. float on water. 12. Pal-gyi Seng-ge. and exhibit before multitudes their forms inside divine mandalas. 22. Shantaraksita and Kamalasila. Sutra. pp. op cit. 3. 23.7 Thus we can say the Nyingma school dates back to the masters like the king Khri-song lde btsan. Gyal-wa Chang-chub. Ye-shey Yang. Tse-mang. many followers of the Vajrayana who were able to move in the sky. Padmasambhava and Guru Hum-karavajra of Nepal taught and practiced in Nalanda and Vikramasila Monasteries of India. n. f. Pal-gyi Seng-ge. It is the oldest Buddhist Tradition in Tibet.empowerments and pith instructions on countless gifted people especially those renowned as his ‘twenty Five Disciples’5. and the Kashmiri and Indian Panditas who spread the Vinaya. 1995). Even the name 'Nyingma'. 13. Backed by the great Dharma kings. Vol VI. Dorje Dud-jom. Gyal-way Lodro. Yeshey-de. 5. Vol IV 6 George Reorich.6 Due to the collective efforts of the King. Vimalamitra. Tri-song De-tsen. Pal-gyi Wang-chug. Santaraksita. 152-153. 14. 20. The Four schools of Tibetan Buddhism are Nyingma.

html. 11 The description of the Nine vehicles can be found on the World Wide Web: http://www. op cit.com/Buddhism/nyingma. 2. Upa Tantra or Carya Tantra focuses on developing both external and internal faculties with a view to gaining a deeper affinity with the istadevata and Yoga Tantra consists in developing the strength of inner psychophysical vitality (prana) as taught by Vajrasattva. 9. which emphasizes on the practice of proper external behaviors. The Anuyoga focuses on the Completion Stage (sampannakrama) practice in which the vajra body is used as a serviceable means to actualize primordial awareness (rigpa) and in Atiyoga all emphasis is directed towards full activation of the generation and completion stage practices. Hearer's Vehicle (Sravaka Yana) Solitary Realizer's Vehicle (Pratyaka Buddha's Vehicle) Bodhisattva Vehicle Kriya Tantra Carya Tantra Yoga Tantra Mahayoga Anuyoga Atiyoga (Dzogchen)10 The first three vehicles are known as three common Vehicles dealing with those categories of teachings included in the sutras taught by Buddha Sakyamuni. 4. 6. This is confirmed by John Powers in his footnote as well.2.11 The outer tantra lineages were originally disseminated to Tibet through disciples of Buddhaguhya. Anuyoga and Atiyoga. the three innermost Tantras include Mahayoga. whose own lineage descends from Indrabhuti and Lilavajra. 9.12 Finally. 5. p. 327 3 . 7. 3.. f. the entire Buddhist teachings are classified into Nine Yanas or vehicles to liberation which are as follows: 1.tibet. Nine Vehicles In Nyingmapa tradition. 8. physical and verbal conduct aimed at purification and simple visualization practice. activity and experience. Atiyoga and Dzogchen are synonymously used terms although the Tibetan equivalent for Atiyoga is not Dzogchen. n. enabling the yogi to transcend all ordinary time. Mahayoga primarily emphasizes on the Generation Stage Practice (utpatikrama) in which the ordinary level of perception and attachment are eliminated through sacred vision and divine pride. The three outer Tantras are Kriya Tantra. 10 The Sanskrit Equivalent for Dzogchen is Mahasandhi or Mahasampanna. 12 Powers.

The last three is unique exclusively to the Nyingma Tradition. (New Delhi: Padmakara Translation Group. Numerous tertons have already appeared ever since the time of Padmasambhava upto now. the first monastic center in Tibet. 320 15 Paltrul Rinpoche. 2. The title is an English translation of the famous Nyingma Ngon do text kunzang Lama'i shelung. It exists today in three printed and two manuscript editions but no one edition has a complete collection of texts may be because much has been lost. The miraculously direct lineage of Terma (gter ma) or Spiritual Treasures. ibid. f. xxxii. n. 14. Mahayoga and Atiyoga classifications of the Inner Tantras. 8.. 1994). Most of the Kahma texts have been preserved in the Nying-ma rgyud-'bum17.16 The three sections of the Kahma. n. The practitioners who discover them are called the Terma Revealer or Discoverers (Tertons)18. The Words of My Perfect Teacher. p. Rinchen Terdzod is a collection of these termas. op cit. texts. Padmasambhava concealed hundreds of scriptures. 14 13 4 . ritual objects and relics in secret places with specific instructions to be discovered in later ages at the appropriate time to protect Buddhism during the time of decline under King Langdarma. op cit. namely mdo. Lineages. 321 17 Nyima-ma rgyud-'rbum was compiled in the fifteen century by Ratna gling pa mostly from the texts housed in Zur-'ug-pa-lung Monastery. The foremost ibid. Kahma (bka' ma) or Oral lineage.13 The other three traditions have the first six of these nine vehicles...15 Kahma tradition begins with Samantabhadra and consists of doctrines. rgyu.14 The practitioners mostly are non-celibate tantric masters while a few are monks. These termas were later rediscovered and special terma lineages were established throughout Tibet. passed on from teacher to student over the centuries. n. 155 18 Rinpoche. Transmissions and Practices The translation lineage of the Nyingmapa began in the monastery of Samye. Still there are more terma to be revealed and many tertons prophesied have yet to appear. f. there are two crucially important transmissions given as follows: 1. f. sems corresponding to the Anuyoga. practices. Certain teachings would be especially effective at particular times in the future. Of them.. 16 Powers. and so they were hidden. 9. p. rituals and realizations that have been passed on from master to disciple in an unbroken chain. p. 3. op cit. According to traditional histories. Nyingma tradition contains a complex array of intersecting lineages. p. over one hundred scholars and translators were assembled there to translate the sutras and tantras.This is taught by Samantabhadra Buddha.

org/wiki/Nyingma Sogyal Rinpoche. The rediscovering of terma began with the first terton. p. According to lineage histories of dzogchen. not another elaborate system. It is generally held in this tradition that the philosophical basis of this teaching is Madhyamika exposition of Nagarjuna. not a seductive clutch of techniques. not another philosophy. Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820–1892) and Orgyen Chokyur Lingpa (1829–1870). dzogchen teachings first appeared in the world in the area of Dhanakosa Lake in Oddiyana. (London: Rider. Pema Lingpa (1450–1521).revealers of these termas were the five terton kings and the eight Lingpas. where it had been kept since the time of Buddha Shakyamuni.19 Dzogchen Practice Dzogchen is not simply a teaching. The Dzogchen teachings were first transmitted by Vajrasattva to Garab Dorje who in turn transmitted it on to Jampal Shenyen. who passed it on to Vajrasattva. the dzogchen originated with Samantabhadra. The terma tradition had antecedents in India. Jamgon Kongtrul and Chokgyur Lingpa. that state of total awakening that is the heart-essence of all the Buddhas and all spiritual paths. 154 5 . The realization of Dzogchen refers to enlightenment. the primordial state.20 It is a view of reality based on the profound understanding of the nature of mind. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying. According to Nyingma tradition. In the 19th century some of the most illustrious terma revealers were Jamyang Khyentse. Dzogchen is a state. Rigdzin Godem (1307–1408).wikipedia. The primary method of its transmission is through the direct oral teachings of a master to a disciple. Many tertons were incarnations of the 25 main disciples of Padmasambhava. Dzogchen first consists of the view. Guru Chowang (1212–1270). the ground basis in which we all have the nature. Then there is the action or meditation that one practices to become enlightened. He then 19 20 Source: http://en. Nyingma scriptures were updated when the time was appropriate. A vast system of transmission lineages developed in course of the time. Finally in Dzogchen there is the fruition. The Great Perfection (Dzogchen) is the result of Atiyoga. the fruit of one’s practice is enlightenment. Nagarjuna. but there are texts belonging to both Kahma and Terma traditions. rediscovered the last part of the "Prajnaparamita-Sutra in one hundred thousand verses" in the realm of Naga. essence and potential to become enlightened. 2002). Terma teachings directed many Buddhist practitioners to realization and enlightenment. It then entered the world of human beings and continues to this day in an unbroken chain of transmission. for example. Sangye Lama (1000–1080). Tertons of outstanding importance were Nyangral Nyima Oser (1124–1192).

).23 The key practice of Dzogchen is referred to as kadag trekcho. 1. p. 28 25 For details about the three schools see Herbert Guenther(trans. Kindly Bent to Ease us. which is attributed to Guru Rinpoche’s Nying thig (Heart Drop) lineage of Vimalamitra who was a great Indian master. it is cognizant and 3. 1.22 It is about recognizing ‘rigpa’. and lhundrub togal. three sub-schools have developed. 24 ibid.divided the box consisting of 6400000 verses of the quintessence of dzogchen into the three categories of mind class. 20 23 The English term for ‘rigpa’ is Self-existing Awareness. Vol 1. 3.. the mind-essence or the nature of mind. it is empty. p. 1976).24 Due to the slightly different approaches of various lineages in presenting Dzogchen. op cit. 1998). Kindly Bent to Ease us. 336 Tsoknyi Rinpoche. Dzog-chen Nying-thig 2. The Quintessential Instruction School or Upadesavarga (Man-ngag-sde) : Manngag-de consists of the guidance instructions on the essential point.. 1975). 25 The Nying thig Lineages The Nying-thig. (California: Dharma Publishing. spatial class and secret instruction class. Tsoknyi Rinpoche says that rigpa has three qualities. Long-chen Nying-thig Powers. the cutting through of primordial purity. The Centredness School or Abhyantaravarga (kLong-sde) : kLong-sde consists of the instructions on the great expanse or unending experience. The Mind School or Cittavarga (Sems-de) : This features instructions on mind. teachings precisely explain the various methods for directly actualizing the innermost teachings of the Dzog-pa Chen-po or simply Dzog chen which is the Atiyoga direct method for realizing the nature of mind and attaining Buddhahood. (California: Dharma Publishing. Vol 3. (New Delhi: Rupa & Co. or the Essence of the Heart. (California: Dharma Publishing. 1. it has unlimited capacity. The Mind School is attributed to Sri Simha and Vairotsana's lineage. the direct crossing of spontaneous presence. 2. n. Ven. There are two lineages of transmission of Nying-thing teachings. 1976).21 The term 'Dzogchen' means that all conditioned phenomena without any exception whatsoever. This School is attributed to Longde Dorje Sempa. 2. Kindly Bent to Ease us.. are perfect and complete. Vol 2. Sri Simha and Vairotsana's lineage. p. f. 9. Carefree Dignity. 22 21 6 .

f. Mandala offering. the other from Guru Rinpoche.. 30 The great Nyingmapa Master Kyantse Lama on the injunction of his Guru. 254 29 Paltrul. The famous book describing Ngondo practices is Kunzang Lama'i Shelung (Eng: Words of My Perfect Teacher) by the Nyingma master Paltrul Rinpoche. The outer section deals with the elements fundamental for a proper understanding of Buddhism in general and four mind training practices like the preciousness of a human body. and they have arisen through the three systems of spiritual transmission26. 27 Ibid. Audial transmission in Tibet initially spread through two lineages in the beginning and the early part of the ninth century. fundamentally deals with the expression of the doctrine of the Three Kayas or the Three Perfect Bodies of a Fully Awakened Being. generation of Bodhicitta and its practice. Tulku Thondup (trans. Ven. From Nyag this unbroken lineage of audial transmission came down to Longchen Rabjam. law of cause and effect. came to understand the essence of Buddhism by listening to his teachings. impermanence. 1982). Many Nepalese people.30 Three Systems are Mind Transmission of the Buddhas.. xi-xii 28 Crystal Mirror. ix-x. Vajrasattva recitation. the Knowledge Holders or Vidyadharas' Indication System and Audial Transmission of the Yogis. and the sufferings of Samsara. xxxv-xxxvi. (Berkeley: Dharma Publishing. The third system.The Dzogchen Nying-thig as a teaching. The Innermost Essence teachings through the first lineage are known as the Vimala Nying-thig. The six inner preliminary practices. King Tri-song De-tsen and other disciples. p. pp. Guru Yoga. mostly Newar Buddhists. Vol V. The Preliminary practices have outer and inner sections. Long-chen Rab-jam-pa expounded these teachings together with extraordinary commentaries. (Dharamshala: Library of Tibetan Works & Archives. One originates from Vimalamitra. The Dzogchen Innermost Essence Preliminary Practice. Phowa (transference of consciousness) etc29. This was a momentous event in the history of Nepalese Buddhism. op cit.28 There are the preliminary practices called sngon 'dro (pronounced ngondro) for Long-chen Nying-thig Dzogchen. start with taking refuge through prostrations. and the second are known as the Kha-dro Nying thing.n. came all the way prostrating from Kham in Tibet to pay homage to Svayambhu Caitya in Kathmandu where he delivered discourses on Kun zang lama'i Shelung for the first time to Nepalese people of the Kathmandu Valley. Vimalamitra transmitted the teachings in Tibet to Nyag Ting-dzin Zangpo. p. 26 7 .27 The Long-chen Nying-thing: Kun-mkhyen Klong-chen-rab-'byams-pa (pronounced Kunkhyen Long Chen Rabjam pa) is one of the most important figures in the entire Dzog-chen lineage for he put orderly the philosophical truths and psychological applications of the Dzog-chen into a cohesive system which is known as Long-chen Nying-thig. 1977).). 15. pp.

Nyingma Monasteries IN TIBET Samye Monastery was the first monastery in Tibet which was built and consecrated by Padmasambhava.33 Bardo is a Tibetan word that implies a transition or a gap or intermediate state between death and rebirth. 2.Teachings about the Liberation from the Intermediate State (Bardo Teachings) The Book of Bardo thos grol chen mo or simply Bardo thos grol (pronounced. at the moment of death and. Until Chinese takeover. which is meant to be read by a master or spiritual friend to a person as he or she dies or after death. This is a wrong translation. on hearing certain profound teachings. on wearing specially blessed drawings of mandalas with sacred mantras. 20. So most writers generally use "Tibetan Book of the Dead" for Bardo thos grol (pronounced Bardo Thodol). op cit. p. 4. the phowa. 5. ix 34 Sogyal. These teachings have a lineage stretching back beyond human masters to Samanta Bhadra or Kuntu Sangpo (Adi Buddha). 31 8 . he concealed it for a later time. n.. The Tibetan Book of the Dead. the painful bardo of dying. consecrated by the masters through special intensive practice. 3. on remembering the transference of consciousness. On seeing a great master or sacred object.xix 33 Francesca Fremantle & Chogyam Trungpa. 2. The lineage of Dudul Dorje and Lonsal Nyingpo is followed The correct English translation for this title is The Great Book of Natural Liberation through Understanding in the Intermediate State. on tasting sacred nectars. such as the Bardo Thodol. The natural bardo of this life. The Terma text Bardo Thodol was subsequently discovered and revealed by the famous terton Karma Lingpa around the fourteenth century. naked and sky-like primordial purity of the mind. As the time was not ripe for it to be revealed. 1994). In 1656 the restoration and expansion of the monastery took place. Bardo Thodol is a unique guide book or a travelogue of the after-death states. 32 Robert A. There are four kinds of Bardos. Kathog was established in the 12th century in central Tibet by Dampa Desheg. Centuries later that other great monasteries were also built. 5. the karmic bardo of becoming. 1. Bardo teachings are very ancient and found in the Dzogchen Tantras. The Tibetan Book of the Dead. 106 35 Or Five Methods for Attaining Enlightenment without Meditation: 1. thodol)31 was composed by Guru Rinpoche or Padmasambhava in the eighth century for the sake of Indian and Tibetan Buddhists. 3. Thurman. (New Delhi: HarperCollins Publishers.32 Karma Lingpa is an incarnation of one of the twenty five disciples of Padmasambhava. F. f. the luminous bardo of dharmata and 4. p. (Boston: Shambhala South Asia Edition. 1975).34 There are five kinds of liberation after death35 . it accommodated over eight hundred monks. standing for the absolute. p.

There is a cave at Pharping which is a center for Chokling Tersar. He is the supreme holiness of the Nyingma lineage. preserves the teachings of Ratna Lingpa. Tarthang Monastery was a satellite monastery of Palyul. Its temple and grounds housed Padmasambhava statue about 3 story high and stupa for Terdak Lingpa.simhas. In Tibet. Kanying Shedrupling Monastery was built in about 1975 CE and is KagyupaNyingmapa monastery commonly called white monastery which was established by Late 36 Source: http://www. art and sacred dance. Palyul monastery founded in eastern Tibet in 1665 by Rigdzin Kunzang Sherab.36 IN NEPAL Most of the Nyingma institutions which were described above have been re-established in India and Nepal. In Nepal there are the seats of late Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche. chanting. Dzogchen monastery founded in eastern Tibet in 1685 by Pema Rigdzin. Dzogchen Rinpoche and Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche are its main Lamas. The present head of the lineage is Taklung Tsetrul Rinpoche. in 1659. Dorje Drag monastery was constructed in central Tibet. The Nyingthig Atiyoga teachings are a special practice of Kathog. It is reputed for intense study and practice. Shechen Monastery was built in Eastern Tibet in 1735 by Gyurmey Kunzang Namgyal. the Kathmandu valley has become the home of all the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Among them the Nyingma monasteries predominate significantly. Pema Norbu is the present abbot of Palyul. It safeguarded the northern termas. Kathog Rinpoche is the present head of the monastery. is considered the most esteemed position within the Nyingma school. Dudjom Rinpoche and Kela Chokling. Mindroling was the most prestigious Nyingma institution and its abbot was highly venerated.html 9 . Its holder. It housed well over 800 monks. The Mindroling monastery was founded in also Central Tibet by Terdag Lingpa and his brother Lochen Dharmasri. the brother of the 2nd Shechen Rabjam. The Chini Lama Lhakang is the 19th century Nyingmapa monastery. there are a lot of Nyingma monasteries some of which are enumerated here. there is a monastery of Trulshik Rinpoche called Thubten Choling. In the Kathmandu valley alone.here. The Nagi Gompa is perched on the hills of Shivapuri. Nyima Ragpa’s termas were preserved as well as kama (oral) teachings. These teachings were discovered in the 14th century and later brought to Dorje Drag. It is considered the earliest known monastery around the Stupa.org/nyingma. In Solukhumbu. by Rigzin Ngagi Wangpo. There a great number of monks study. Nepal where the late Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche had established a retreat center. After Chinese takeover of Tibet. the Mindroling Trichen.

pp. n. 2. Chokyi Nyima Rinpoche. The abbot of this monastery is Ven. op cit. No matter whatever they may appear outwardly. Nyingmapa is the most ancient Tibetan Buddhist Tradition38 and one shouldn't form a mistaken notion that it is adulterated with Bonpo tradition. Finally I'd like to suggest my fellow readers to consult with authentic Buddhist masters of Nyingma tradition and receive from them teachings and method of practice for the study of this profound tradition of Buddhism. Similarly around Boudha Stupa. 10 . It is purely a Buddhist origin. f. Penor Rinpoche. they always have inner meanings in conformity with the Buddhist Doctrine. Conclusion I have discussed only the outlines of profound facets of Nyingma tradition established by the great Masters such as Padmashambhava and Vimalamitra. At present Rabjam Rinpoche is the abbot of the monastery. At that time it was but natural because Buddhism fits in with any place and any culture.Urgyen Tulku Rinpoche. The profound doctrine of Dzogchen had been transmitted by Indian Buddhist Masters like Vimalamitra and Padmasambhava. 37 38 Shakya. Shechen Tennyi Dhargyeling was established by Late Dilgo Khyense Rinpoche. I must confess that this short article does not cover all the essential features of Nyingmapa tradition. The doctrine of Nyingmapa tradition is very vast and my study is like just a drop of water from the vast ocean.. 48-50 The present head of Nyingmapa tradition is Ven. It is true that some of the cultural elements of Bonpo tradition have slipped into the Tibetan Buddhist tradition of all sects not only in Nyingma tradition.37 6. The examples could be found not only in Tibet but in other countries as well. not by the Bonpo masters.

Herbert (trans. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing. Chogyam .) . Berkeley: Dharma Publishing.) . 1975 Crystal Mirror.tibet.com/Buddhism/nyingma. Paltrul . Vol V.A Handbook of Tibetan Culture.Kindly Bent to Ease us. 1993 Fremantle. Kathmandu: Talisman Worldwide.html 11 . 2002 Rinpoche. Graham (ed. Francesca & Trungpa. New Delhi: HarperCollins Publishers. California: Dharma Publishing. California: Dharma Publishing.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyingma. New Delhi: Padmakara Translation Group. John .org/nyingma. California: Dharma Publishing. Dharamshala: Library of Tibetan Works & Archives. New Delhi: Rupa & Co. 1976 Powers.Kindly Bent to Ease us.Carefree Dignity. New York: Snow Lion Publications. 1975 Guenther.. Vol 3. 1995 Reorich. Vol 2.The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying. 1976 Rinpoche.The Tibetan Book of the Dead. 1982 Thurman. Calcutta: Rupa & Co. Vol 1.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Coleman. 1998 Shakya. 1997 Thondup. Vol VI.Kindly Bent to Ease us. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing.The Words of My Perfect Teacher. 1977 Crystal Mirror. 1994 PERIODICALS Crystal Mirror.html. Min Bahadur . Vol IV.simhas. 1975 --. Tsoknyi .The Blue Annals. George .htm http://www.Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. http://en. Tulku (trans. 1976 --. Sogyal . Boston: Shambhala South Asia Edition. London: Rider..The Dzogchen Innermost Essence Preliminary Practice.) . F (trans.) . 1984 INTERNET SOURCES http://www.The Tibetan Book of the Dead. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1994 Rinpoche. Robert A.Boudhanath.

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