INDOOR CRANE & SLING SAFETY CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING

WELCOME

COURSE OBJECTIVES
 Provide an Introduction to Crane and Sling Safety.  Provide Training as Required by OSHA.  Establish Crane and Sling Safety in Today’s Industry.  Introduce Basic Safety Concepts and Techniques.  Provide Skills for Operators, Maintenance Workers and Supervisors etc.  Raise Safety to an Appropriate Level of Awareness.

COURSE ATTENDEES
           Crane Operators Signal Personnel Rigger Personnel Ground Personnel Safety Committees Affected Employees Corporate Managers Department Managers First Line Supervisors Maintenance Departments Accident Investigation Team Members

BASIS FOR THIS COURSE
     Proper Crane Operation Results in Accident Reduction Proper Crane Training Results in Accident Reduction Elimination of Workplace Injuries & Illnesses Where Possible Reduction of Workplace Injuries & Illnesses Where Possible OSHA Safety Standards Require:      Training Be Conducted Cranes Be Safely Operated A “Safety” Program Be Established Hazards and Precautions Be Explained Job Hazards Be Assessed and Controlled

Safety and Health Standards 1910 .APPLICABLE REGULATIONS 29CFR .Overhead and Gantry Cranes ACME CRANE JIB CRANE 2 TON .Industrial Safety 179 .

Slings VERTICAL CHOKER HITCH BASKET HITCH .Safety and Health Standards 1910 .APPLICABLE REGULATIONS 29CFR .Industrial Safety 184 .

Cranes and Derricks 20 TON CAPACITY GANTRY CRANE .APPLICABLE REGULATIONS 29CFR .Construction Safety 550 .Safety and Health Standards 1926 .

Hoists. Derricks. and Slings CMAA** .B-30 Series Safety Requirements for Cranes. Jacks. 70 and 74 .INDUSTRY CONSENSUS STANDARDS ANSI/ASME* .Crane Operator’s Manual * American National Standards Institute * American Society of Mechanical Engineers ** Crane Manufacturer’s Association of America .Specifications No.

16 B.30.21 Overhead and Gantry Cranes (top running hoist) Slings Hooks Monorail and Underhung Cranes Storage/Retrieval (S/R) Machines Overhead Hoists (underhung) Overhead and Gantry Cranes (underhung hoist) Stacker Cranes Manually Lever Operated Hoists .13 B.30.30.2 B.17 B.18 B.30.INDUSTRY CONSENSUS STANDARDS ANSI/ASME B.30.30.30.9 B.30.10 B.30.11 B.

 Control Workplace Hazards Using PPE As a Last Resort.  Provide Training to All Required Employees. .  Conduct Hazard Assessments.PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS ALL EMPLOYERS MUST:  Maintain Crane Safeguards.  Implement Corrective Actions.  Review Job Specific Hazards.  Conduct Accident Investigations.

 Operating Safety Rules.  Control of Hazardous Energy Sources.  Operator Prequalification.  Periodic Training. .PROGRAM ELEMENTS PROGRAM ELEMENTS INCLUDE:  Site Safety Rules.  Inspection Program.  Maintenance Program.

WITHOUT IT THE PROGRAM WILL FAIL! .PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION OF A CRANE SAFETY PROGRAM REQUIRES:  DEDICATION  PERSONAL INTEREST  MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT NOTE: UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORT FROM THE WORK FORCE IS ESSENTIAL.

Elevate SAFETY to a Higher Level of Awareness. Improve Absenteeism. Reduce Injury and Illness Rates. Reduce Workers’ Compensation Costs. Workers Feel Good About Their Work. . Acceptance of High-Turnover Jobs. Maintain a Healthier Work Force.PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION A GOOD PROGRAM WILL HELP:         Improve Quality.

Attend the Same Training As Your Workers. Ensure Your Support Is Visible. 4. 2.MANAGEMENT’S ROLE  Considerations: 1. 6. Insist on Periodic Follow-up & Program Review. Support the Crane Safety Program. 5. Get Involved. . Implement Ways to Measure Effectiveness. 3.

3. 6. Treat All “Near-Misses” As an Accident. Get Your Workers Involved. . Attend the Same Training As Your Workers.) To Affect Repairs or Improvements. Never Ridicule Any Injury or Near Miss. Be Professional .THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE  Considerations: 1. 7. 8. 4. Etc. Get Involved in Crane Safety. 5.You Could Save a Life Today. 2. Follow-up on the Actions You Took. Policy Changes. Complete the Paperwork (Work Orders.

Always Provide Complete and Accurate Information. Report All Accidents and Near-Misses Immediately. Contribute to Make Corrective Actions. 4. Report All Crane Safety Problems or Deficiencies. 5. 3.THE EMPLOYEE’S ROLE  Considerations: 1. Follow-up With Any Additional Information. . 2.

Suggestions.  Follow-up Is Critical.SAFETY COMMITTEE  Safety Committees Should: Hold Regular Accident Review Meetings. Document Meetings.  Provide Feedback Without Fear of Reprisal. Encourage Employee Involvement. and Make Recommendations for Corrective Action. Bring Employee Complaints.  Analyze Statistical Data Concerning Accidents.     . or Concerns to the Attention of Management.

TYPES OF CRANES AND HOISTS ACME CRANE 2 TON INDOOR BRIDGE CRANE .

TYPES OF CRANES AND HOISTS 20 TON CAPACITY GANTRY CRANE .

TYPES OF CRANES AND HOISTS ACME CRANE 2 TON JIB CRANE .

TYPES OF CRANES AND HOISTS ACME CRANE 2 TON MONORAIL CRANE .

Show the date. File it and maintain it! INSPECTION CHECKLIST FOR CRANES REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . 2. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Documentation: 1. Identify items that were inspected. Show the status of the inspected items. 4. 3.INSPECTION. Provide the signature of the inspector. 5.

4. controls & movement. Check for twisted. Operate hoist and trolley brakes. Check for air or hydraulic fluid leakage. ensure no excessive coasting. Inspect for serviceable safety latches. or stretched hooks. 3. Visually Inspect all units for integrity. cracked. broken or kinked cables or chains. 2. 7. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Start of Each Shift: 1. 9. Check the operation of the crane. Observe correct drum spooling as the hook is raised. Inspect for deformed. Check for load capacity stenciling on both sides of unit.INSPECTION. leaks etc. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . 8. Operate empty hook till it actuates the upper limit switch. 6. 5. 10.

TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Monthly Inspections: 1. Inspect for twisted. missing or broken parts. 4. 5. 3. Measure lifting chains for excessive stretch. 2. Measure hooks for deformation or stretching. Follow any additional recommendations of the manufacturer. twisting etc. Inspect hooks for cracks. broken or kinked cables or chains. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . Visually Inspect all critical items. 6.INSPECTION.

TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Periodic Inspections (1 to 12 Month Intervals): 1. As a minimum the inspection should cover: Reeving Hoist Drives Limit Switches Balance End Stops Hook Condition Travel Drives Couplings Controls Signage Chain or cable Electrification Brakes Rails Warning Devices REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! .INSPECTION. Interval dependant on the severity of service. Interval dependant on the environmental conditions. 3. Interval dependant on the type of activity performed. 2. 4.

5-10 lifts hr. 20+ lifts hr.Near capacity.Near capacity and continuous service throughout day DIFFERENT CONDITIONS MAY SUGGEST DIFFERENT INTERVALS. Moderate service .INSPECTION.50% capacity.2-5 lifts hr. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . Severe service . Continuous severe service . TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Periodic CMAA Inspection Recommendations: Class A B C D E F Description Typical Schedule Annually Annually Annually Semiannually Quarterly Bi-monthly Standby or infrequent service Light service .50% capacity. 10-20 lifts hr. Heavy service .

cranes must be tested and inspected completely using the criteria applicable to periodic inspections. A report should be kept on file for future reference.INSPECTION. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . TESTING & MAINTENANCE  New Cranes: Prior to initial use.

Special attention should be given to the hook. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Idle Cranes: Cranes that have been idle for a period that exceeds six months must be inspected and tested before being placed back in service using the criteria that applies to periodic inspection. lifting chain and wire rope.INSPECTION. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! .

A report should be issued by a qualified person and kept on file for future reference. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Altered Cranes: All cranes that have been extensively altered or repaired must be completely inspected and tested.INSPECTION. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . If load sustaining parts have been altered or repaired. then a load test should be conducted to verify the rated load capacity of the crane.

Most manufacturers will furnish load test certificates for a nominal charge. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Load Testing a New Crane: New and rebuilt hoist are load tested by the manufacturer at the factory. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! .INSPECTION.

INSPECTION. the test load cannot exceed 125 percent of the rated load unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. The test load should be transported by the trolley and bridge over the full length of the crane. A report should be issued by the testing organization giving the conditions under which the system was load tested. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Load Testing a Used Crane: When load testing a used crane. trolley and crane should be operated a number of times at various positions. The hoist. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! .

Lubricating the bearings. 5. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Preventive Maintenance Should Cover: 1. pinions. 6. 8.INSPECTION. Replacing any contaminated oils. 9. 2. etc. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . Checking and filling the gear cases to the proper levels. Cleaning or replacing the air and fluid filters. Cleaning and lubricating the wire rope (cable) and load chain. Inspecting the operation of all controls and warning systems. linkages. Adjusting the brakes. Cleaning or replacing pitted or burned electrical contacts. 7. gears. shafts. 4. Adjusting the operation of limit switches. 3.

Check for obstructions in the travel path of the crane. 6. If you have a checklist .General: 1. Ensure all emergency disconnects are known before any test.follow it! 5. 4. 3. Inspect all electrical controls for proper operation. 8. Check upper and lower limit switches. Test all controls to determine proper operation. Never unwind the spool completely! 10. 7. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . Ensure that the manufacturers recommendations are followed. Observe for smooth operation of the components.INSPECTION. 9. 2. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Preoperational Tests . If you’re not familiar with the cranes’ operation get help.

4. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Preoperational Tests .Hooks: 1. After any hook repairs. 6. 2. Check for proper swivel. Check for proper function of the safety latch. 3. 5. Hook repair is generally not recommended. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . Emergency hook repair must be performed only under competent supervision.INSPECTION. the hook must be load tested before being returned to normal service. Inspect for twists from the plane of the unbent hook. Replace if deformation or cracks are found. 7.

cutting or unstranding.INSPECTION. Reduction in rope diameter (replace if found). bent. REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . crushing. 5. Corroded or broken wires at end of connections.Rope: 1. worn. 3. 4. 2. Corroded. or improperly applied end connections. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Preoperational Tests . Severe kinking. cracked. Broken or worn outside wires.

DON’T OPERATE This Lock/Tag may only be removed by NAME: __________ DEPT : __________ COMPLETION DATE: ___________ TIME: ____________ REVIEW THE MANUFACTURERS SPECIFIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS! . DANGER LOCKED OUT Review requirements for the individual crane. Carefully select lockout devices. Integrate lock out and maintenance requirements. 6. Do not necessarily assume devices are interchangeable between different types of cranes. ask the manufacturer for recommendations.INSPECTION. Ensure written programs are established and reviewed. 4. TESTING & MAINTENANCE  Lock-Out Tag-Out Considerations: 1. Ensure training in adequate for level of maintenance. 2. 3. 5.

BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY KNOW THE RATED LOAD OF THE CRANE ACME CRANE 10 TON CAPACITY 2 TON TON CAP. 10 TON 10 ALWAYS CHECK LOAD RATING .

BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY KNOW THE RATED LOAD OF THE CRANE 5 TON 2 TON 10 TON LOAD ALWAYS ENSURE THE LIFTING DEVICE AND ALL SUPPORTING COMPONENTS ARE RATED FOR THE LOAD TO BE LIFTED! .

BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY ACME CRANE NEVER ALLOW A COWORKER BETWEEN A FIXED OBJECT AND A LOAD! 2 TON DANGER WORKING CRANES .

BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY THINK BEFORE YOU LIFT ACME CRANE ALWAYS POSITION LIFTING DEVICE DIRECTLY OVER LOAD BEFORE LIFTING! 2 TON .

BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY KNOW YOUR SAFE WORKING RADIUS Always Ensure That You Know the Safe Travel Radius of the Crane. . Contact With Electrical Sources or Other Hazards Can Result in Catastrophic Consequences.

DANGER 2 TON HIGH VOLTAGE .BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY DISSIPATE ALL HAZARDOUS ENERGY ACME CRANE Always Ensure Energy Sources Are Dissipated Before Initiating Any Maintenance Activity.

The reason is that crane operations are primarily dependant on mechanical devices.BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY Lifting operations are inherently dangerous. Employees conduct themselves in a safe manner. Equipment is properly maintained. and other facets of the safety program are conscientiously attended to. Your life literally is in your own hands! . These devices can and do fail. When this happens during a lifting event the results can be catastrophic. accidents can still occur. Even when proper training is conducted. You are the only controlling influence that can minimize the hazard.

BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY Physical and Mental Requirements of Operators:          No history of unsafe acts in the workplace. Be thoroughly trained in all facets of the required lift. Drug and alcohol free during any lifting event. Taking no medication that will interfere with the operation. Understand the requirements for all phases of the lift. The ability to react quickly in an emergency. . Have a mature and safe attitude at all times. Good hearing and vision (corrected or uncorrected). Good depth perception (essential for load spotting).

qualified signaler.  Move loads only after being signaled by the designated.BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY Safe Practices for Operators:  Test all hoist controls and brakes at the beginning of each shift.  Never attempt to operate a crane or hoist that is suspected to be unsafe. .  Always test brakes by a short lift to ensure control.

. Never allow unauthorized persons to operate cranes. Never carry loads past workers (they must yield right of way). Signalers must keep line-of-sight with the operator. Always lockout before maintenance or repairing cranes. Frequently inspect cranes exposed to adverse conditions. Never allow riders on loads or hooks.BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY Safe Practices for Operators (continued)        Never carry loads over workers.

 Check warning devices and signals before use.  Document and maintain inspection records.  Signalers must watch the load.  Know your travel path in advance of the lift!  Know where you’re going to set the load down!  Will the new location support the weight? .BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY Safe Practices for Operators (continued)  Always position the hook directly over the load before lifting the load off of the floor.  Operators must watch the signalers.

 Stop the operation if comprehension is lost.  Plan in advance where the load is going!  Know the new location will support the weight.  Maintain line-of-sight with the operator. .BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY Safe Practices for Signalers  Only one person is the designated signaler.  Ensure the operator acknowledges every signal.  Operators must watch the signalers.

Make a visual check for any dangerous condition. Report all cranes that are not in operation immediately. Tag out defective equipment immediately. Place all controls in the “off” position.but not through .limit switches. . Report any defects immediately. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations. Place main power switch in the “off” position.BASICS OF CRANE SAFETY Leaving or Parking Hoists or Cranes         Raise all hooks to .

The Angle the Sling Makes With the Horizontal Line. Weight. . The Number of Sling Legs.HANDLING THE LOAD Lifting Factors      Size. The History of the Care and Usage of the Sling. The Rated Capacity of the Sling. and Center of Gravity of the Load.

To make a level lift. If the crane hook is too far to one side of the center of gravity. dangerous tilting and unequal stress to the sling leg will result. Weight.HANDLING THE LOAD Lifting Factors  Size. . and Center of Gravity of the Load. the crane hook must be directly above the center of gravity point.

HANDLING THE LOAD
Lifting Factors
 Number of Legs and Angle with the Horizontal. As the angle formed by the sling leg and the horizontal line decreases, the rated capacity of the sling also decreases.

1000lb

1000lb

1000lb

HANDLING THE LOAD
Lifting Factors
 Rated Capacity of the Sling. The rated capacity varies depending upon the type of the sling, the size of the sling, and type of hitch. Consult with the manufacturer. Also, older slings must be used with additional caution. Sling charts are generally based on new sling usage.

HANDLING THE LOAD
Lifting Factors
 History of Care and Usage. Mishandling and misuse of sling are the leading cause of sling-related accidents. Proper care is essential for maximum service and safety. Always protect slings with cover saddles, burlap padding or wood blocking to prevent sharp bends and cutting edges.

HANDLING THE LOAD
Estimating Weight of Load
        Use a Dynamometer. Check shipping papers. Check nomenclature plates. Use industry standard tables or charts. Consult with the equipment manufacturer. Estimate weight using weights of similar loads. Never attempt a load lift based solely on a guess! Stay within 50% of the cranes rated capacity when estimating loads (or manufacturer recommendation).

EACH TYPE HAS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES! . Synthetic Web. Fiber Rope. Wire Rope.HANDLING THE LOAD Types of Rigging and Slings      Chains. Cargo Nets.

HANDLING THE LOAD Types of Rigging and Slings Consult with the sling manufacturer concerning load capacities. usage methods. restrictions and other pertinent data for specific types of slings. .

Always keep hands and fingers clear of untensioned loads. Always keep suspended loads clear of employees. Always think before you affect a load.HANDLING THE LOAD Working Rules for Slings          Never load in excess of the rated capacity. Never use a sling that is damaged in any way. bolts or other makeshift devices. . Never shorten with knots. Always pad or protect slings from sharp edges of the load. Always keep suspended loads clear of all obstructions. Never pull a sling from a suspended load under tension.

3. 4. Five broken wires in one strand in one lay. Kinking. 6. Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one lay. . 2. Any end attachments cracked. bird caging or any other damage.HANDLING THE LOAD Inspection Procedures for Wire Rope Slings  Remove from service if you find: 1. Hooks that have been opened more than 15% of the normal throat opening or twisted more than 10% from the plane of the unbent hook. deformed or worn. crushing. 5. Evidence of heat damage.

Cracked or deformed master and coupling links. . 6. 3.HANDLING THE LOAD Inspection Procedures for Alloy Steel Chain Slings  Remove from service if you find: 1. Defective or questionable welds. deformed or worn. 4. Bending or elongation of chain links. Any end attachments cracked. Any other reason to suspect an unsafe condition. Missing or removed identification tags. 2. 5.

). Acid or caustic burns. Snags. 2. Melting or charring of the sling surface. Age deterioration (drying out cracking etc. 5. tears or cuts causing exposure of colored thread. Missing or removed identification tags. Any other reason to suspect an unsafe condition. . 3.HANDLING THE LOAD Inspection Procedures for Synthetic Web Slings  Remove from service if you find: 1. 6. 4.

Follow proper disposal or replacement procedures. Don’t wait to report damaged or defective slings. Check for damage. Leave in proper condition for the next lift. Follow proper storage rules. .HANDLING THE LOAD After the Lift is Completed:       Clean the sling.

e. In a controlled area. . Hung from hooks to prevent tangling and easy access.i. Off of the floor or ground to prevent corrosion.HANDLING THE LOAD Storage Rules for Slings Store Slings:       In a dry environment out of direct sunlight. don’t mix steel chain slings with synthetics. By type . Away from electrical sources.

HANDLING THE LOAD Sling Angles: Consult with the sling manufacturer concerning how sling angles affect load capacities for different types of slings. 1000lb 1000lb 1000lb .

The greater the sling angle the greater the stress. 1000lb 1000lb 1000lb . Multiple sling usage drastically affects load capacity.HANDLING THE LOAD Sling Angles:      The angle the sling is hung affects the sling load capacity. The type of sling used is a factor. Consult with the sling manufacturer for proper usage.

HANDLING THE LOAD Sling Angle With Vertical 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 80 Stresses Per Sling Leg Per 1000 lbs Total Load 500 502 508 518 532 552 577 610 653 707 778 872 1000 2880 577lbs 577lbs 30 1000lb 30 Angle .

HANDLING THE LOAD Sling Angles: 707lbs 707lbs 1000lbs 1000lbs 1000lb 45 Angle 1000lb 60 Angle .

EACH SUPPORTING THE SAME AMOUNT OF WEIGHT AND HAVING THE SAME SUPPORT ANGLE RESULTS IN EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE LOAD WEIGHT. 500lbs 1000lb 0 Angle .HANDLING THE LOAD Sling Angles: 500lbs THE USE OF TWO SLINGS.

Measure the distance along one sling for the same number of units as the capacity of the sling in tons (Distance A). 2. . 3. To determine the capacity of each sling in a bridle hitch: 1. Measure the vertical distance from the point located in (1) to the load in tons. The number of units in this vertical distance (B) is the working load for the sling. (Distance B). the carrying capacity decreases as the spread between the slings increases.HANDLING THE LOAD Sling Angles: A B If slings are used as twin slings.

5 Tons Note: The individual sling capacity must be more than half of the total load weight! Consult with the manufacturer for specific types of rigging arrangements .HANDLING THE LOAD Sling Angles: A B A = 2 ft.5 ft. Working Capacity of Each Sling = 1. (or any unit) (2 Ton Sling Capacity) B = 1.

1000lb 1000lb 1000lb . Consult with the sling manufacturer for proper usage. The type of sling used is a factor. Multiple sling usage drastically affects load capacity. The greater the sling angle the greater the stress.HANDLING THE LOAD Sling Angles:      The angle the sling is hung affects the sling load capacity.

HANDLING THE LOAD Protecting Slings: Protect Slings Against Sharp Edges Protect Slings Against Sharp Edges .

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS Hoist Load:  Forearm Vertical  Forefinger Pointing Up  Move Hand in Small Horizontal Circular Motion .

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS Lower Load:  Arm Downward  Forefinger Pointing Down  Move Hand in Small Horizontal Circular Motion .

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS Bridge Travel:  Arm Extended Forward  Hand Open and Slightly Raised  Make Pushing Motion in the Direction of Travel .

Jerking. Hitch-Hiking Motion in Direction of Travel .STANDARD HAND SIGNALS Trolley Travel:  Rapid.

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS Stop:  Arm Extended  Palm Down  Move Arm Sideways. Rapidly Back and Forth .

STANDARD HAND SIGNALS Emergency Stop:  Both Arms Extended  Palms Down  Move Both Arms Sideways Rapidly Back and Forth .

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT  Protective Clothing and Equipment Considerations:  Appropriate for the particular hazard(s)  Maintained in good condition  Properly stored when not in use  Kept clean. and sanitary . fully functional.

TIPS FOR USING CONTRACTORS  Remember. You Control Your Facility or Area!  Review Their Procedures With Them Before Starting the Job!  Determine Their Safety Performance Record!  Determine Who Is in Charge of Their People!  Determine How They Will Affect Your Employees! .

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