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LAPIDARY JOURNAL

FEBRUARY
MARCH 2007
2007

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JewelryArts &

LAPIDARY JOURNAL

Serving Each Other

O

kay, I admit it: “Pixel Perfect,” our cover story on digital images that
begins on page 24, is a tad self-serving. It isn’t just about helping us,
though. It’s really about helping you promote yourself.
Widely in use for several years, digital photography is now supplanting
film photography at every level. The advantages are impressive: you can see
the shot immediately and reshoot then and there, as often as you like, without wasting all that time and all those additional film and development
costs. Digital images don’t require much physical storage space, and their required electronic memory is both available and cheap. You can instantly
share images worldwide on the Web or in an e-mail.
Above all, digital images are part of the future, part of the electronic
medium that’s reshaping and will continue reshaping every industry, art,
pastime, and academic pursuit in ways we can’t even imagine. One thing
digital images are not, however, is part of the electronic world alone: they
now dominate the world of print almost as much as they naturally dominate
the Internet. And just as there are requirements for using digital images in
electronic media, there are also requirements for using digital images in print
— but the requirements differ, a point that seems to
be very difficult to get across.
I know. I’ve been one of the people who’s had
trouble getting it, and I deal with using digital images
in print every day. I’ve driven our graphic artists nuts
by sending them digital images to use in a layout and
then asking them why they’ve taken a scrumptious
picture and reduced it to the size of a postage stamp.
“The image is too small: that’s as big as we can run it.”
“But I looked at it on my computer: it was huge and
really sharp. What do you mean?”
Oddly enough, they’ve been right and I’ve been
wrong. Those images I looked at on my screen were huge and sharp and
more than big enough to view large and at high resolution — in an electronic
environment — but not, I’m afraid, when they’ve been condensed enough to
view them in high resolution in print. What’s true for a page in a magazine is
true for a business card, postcard, poster, or for that matter, a (nonelectronic) billboard.
The reverse is also true. If you want to send people a quick look at your
work, you don’t want to e-mail them a bunch of huge files that will take forever to open up and maybe crash their computers, because what’s big
enough for print isn’t just more than enough for cyberspace, it can be the
electronic equivalent of a fatal overdose.
Whether you take your own photographs, get a friend to do it, or hire a
pro, the more you understand about using digital images in different media,
the better your chances are of successfully putting those images to use. Of
course, if your better understanding of digital images just happens to mean
sending more suitable images my way for possible publication, you’ll be
making my life easier, too.

mwhite@interweave.com

EDITORIAL
Editor-in-Chief Merle White
Art Director Kevin Myers
Managing Editor Helen I. Driggs
Step by Step &
Special Projects Editor Denise Peck
Associate Editor Jane W. Dickerson
Assistant Editors Kristen L. Gibson
Sara E. Graham
Special Assistant Editor June Culp Zeitner
Contributing Editors Tom & Kay Benham
Calendar Editor Megan Zborowski
Foreign Correspondents Si & Ann Frazier
Associate Art Director Michelle Gerdes
Assistant Art Directors Patricia Butler
Karen Dougherty
BUSINESS
Publisher Joseph Breck
Business & Operations Manager Donna L. Kraidman
Marketing Director David Weiman
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(610) 232-5710
E-mail: merazo@interweave.com

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Publisher Linda Stark
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For questions regarding our book program,
call (970) 669-7672
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Manuscripts and photographs are invited. For writers’ guidelines, call (610) 232-5715 or
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Copyright © 2007 Interweave Press LLC, All rights reserved. Reproduction of this copyrighted material in any manner without the express written permission of Publisher is strictly forbidden. Lapidary Journal is not responsible for manuscripts, photographs or other material,
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photographs or other material submitted will be conclusively presumed to be for publication unless accompanied by a written explanation otherwise. Once accepted by Publisher, materials become the sole property of Lapidary Journal, who has the unconditional right to edit or change
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jewelry journal

Questions, Answers, & Tips
By Tom & Kay Benham, Contributing Editors

Etching Silver

Q::

I really enjoy your column of
questions and answers. I
have one. I bought some ferric nitrate
nonahydrate in order to etch silver. I
have used Etchant to etch copper and
brass but thought that the ferric nitrate, as I was told, would work on silver. It did not. Perhaps there is
someone out there who has had success with this and knows the proportions of powder to water in order to
make it work.
Edith Sommer, via e-mail
Palo Alto, CA

A::

We found complete directions
for etching silver with ferric
nitrate nonahydrate powder on the
Enamel Guild Web site: www.enamel
guild.org/PhotoEtch.htm. Be sure to
follow the safety warnings of adding
the acid into a large of amount of water
so the acid can disperse into the water
evenly and, most importantly, to prevent an explosion. The acid mixture
will only last two to three weeks and
must be stored in an airtight, lightproof
container. The directions indicate that
the ferric nitrate acid takes seven to 12
hours to work. So, if you didn’t allow
for this length of time that may have
been the problem. Good luck.
Source for Hand Faceters

Q::

Our lapidary group teaches
hand faceting. Our numbers
are increasing and we need a steady
supply of five to six hand faceters a
year. Unfortunately, we can’t find a
manufacturer any longer, and wonder
if you or your readers would know of a
source.
Peter Dawson, via e-mail
Victoria, BC

A::

When we read Peter’s question we immediately thought
about Jack Lahr’s Lap-Lap hand
faceting unit. Unfortunately our emails to him were returned as non-deliverable. We contacted several
sources in our attempt to track him
down and finally contacted the

6 LAPIDARY JOURNAL, March 2007

Columbus Rock & Mineral Society in
hopes that they could help us as Jack
lived in that vicinity. Don Walker,
Club President, was kind enough to
respond and told us that Jack Lahr had
died in February 2006. We were greatly saddened to learn of his death. Jack
was a valuable member of the lapidary
community and he will be missed. If
any of our readers have suggestions
for the Victoria Club please contact us.
Drilling Stone

Q::

I have several beautiful
amethyst and quartz slices
that have the rough crystal edges
around the outside edge. Rather than
wirewrap them, I would prefer to drill
a small hole (or holes) to utilize them
in jewelry. Can I drill safely? I have a
Dremel and diamond bits, including
hollow diamond bits. Can you recommend any reference material that provides information on what stones are
safe to drill without risking damage to
them?
Marilyn Valenti, via e-mail
West Haven, CT

A::

First of all, Marilyn, when
working with any stone
there is never a guarantee that the
stone will never crack or chip —
that’s just a fact all lapidaries must
deal with. Second, we would recommend that you not use your Dremel
tool for this operation as the motor
just runs too fast — generating too
much heat for this process. We’ve answered questions about drilling stone
in several of our columns, i.e. March
2004, February 2005, and as recently
as October 2005.
We recommend using a drill press
and diamond bits for better control.
We find we are able to drill dozens of
holes by following these suggestions
(from the October 2005 Jewelry
Journal):
(1) Use a good quality sintered diamond drill bit.
(2) Drill only hard rock or glass, no
metal.

(3) Drill at fairly slow RPMs.
(4) Use water as a coolant.
(5) Withdraw the diamond drill bit
from the hole often to allow the fresh
cooling water to flow in and flush out
the waste material.
(6) Use a small drill press. You’ll put
less stress on your diamond drill bits
and stone by using a drill press rather
than hand drilling using a flexible shaft
or electric drill.
Just work slowly and deliberately
and you shouldn’t have a problem.
Putting too much pressure on the
stone or rushing the process can cause
fractures.
Constantine Gems?

Q::

I have a box full of 15 various size and color gemstones that are faceted and they are
encased in a brown box with a protective cover over them. The box reads
“Constantine Gems” and was found in
a large lot of antique jewelry that belonged to a man that traveled all over
the world. He was also a very religious
man, and several solid gold pieces of
Judaica were also found in his collection. I have researched on the Internet;
however, it always turns up information on Constantine the Great. Can
you tell me anything about Constantine Gems or direct me to a back issue
in your magazine?
Davida Lawler, via e-mail
Licking, MO

A::

Maybe our readers will be
able to assist in your quest.
Anyone know about Constantine
Gems? Let us know.
Re: Pickling, November, 2006

T::

I read a recent answer to a
question about pickling that I
thought needed a bit of clarification.
In the answer, it was stated that it is
generally considered a good practice
to complete all soldering jobs prior to

n the jungles of backyard Salinas,
California, my sister and I prowled
the terrain, eagle-eyed, hunting for precious
stones locked away inside ordinary-looking rocks.
We spent hours digging and examining. The layers
of sedimentary stones fascinated me; each had a different color,
sometimes a different texture, always a different shape and slope
than the ones above or below it. I knew that whatever I did when
I grew up would be somehow tied to those stones.
For years, I hungrily absorbed everything I could about gemstones
and the metals shaped around them. I explored how jewelers through
the ages have put their pieces together and discovered the difference
between artistry and expedience. That discovery fuels my design.
I want my designs to be so completely individual that each one
projects its own message and purpose. I want it to draw gasps
and wide-eyed amazement. To invite thought and ignore any
boundary of what wearable art is and—always—to forge
new pathways
into the future.

Jeffrey Appling

phone 800.545.6566

www.riogrande.com

source code: ADLPJ

JEA Jewelry
Palm Springs, California
www.jeajewelry.com

jewelry journal

Questions, Answers, & Tips

we encourage you to do so. Besides
being a knowledgeable, talented, and
generous teacher, John is a delightful
individual!
In a nutshell, here are John’s reasons
why not to pickle until all soldering operations have been completed:

pickling. Now, I’ve been designing
and creating jewelry in gold, silver,
and platinum for over 30 years and I
have never heard of this. The pickling
process is a way to ensure the metal is
clean after it is soldered by removing
oxides from the surface. Anyone who
has worked in silver knows that the
surface will get discolored with oxides
after soldering and simply immersing
them in water will not be adequate to
ensure the solder flows on the next goaround. I pickle my pieces, both silver
and gold, after every solder job and I
have never had problems with
firescale or my solder not flowing
properly. Certainly, it is best to let
your pieces cool a bit before dropping
them in the pickle, but in my opinion,
pickling after every solder job is the
only way to go!
Gary Youngberg, Ames Silversmithing,
via e-mail
Ames, IA

A::

Gary, your e-mail gave us
cause to reflect. We’ve been
following this procedure for years because it works; however, we were unable to locate any reference to explain
or support this practice, so we contacted one of our instructors, John
Cogswell, for his assistance. John is a
studio goldsmith and educator currently teaching at SUNY New Paltz.
He previously taught at Parsons
School of Design, NYC, is a former
Director of the Jewelry and
Metalsmithing Department of the 92nd
Street Y, NYC, and a frequent instructor at the Florida Society of
Goldsmiths workshops. If any of our
readers ever have an opportunity to
participate in one of John’s workshops,
8 LAPIDARY JOURNAL, March 2007

“(1) Solder is an alloy of brass and
silver. The brass, in turn, is an alloy of
zinc and copper. When solder melts
and flows, the zinc converts from
solid to liquid, then to gas (because at
the solder melting temperature, the
zinc volatilizes). The zinc exits the
seam as microscopic bubbles. When
the flame is removed, the solder (all
metallic elements, including the residual zinc) resolidifies. Any gaseous
bubbles that made it all the way out
are not a problem. However, partial,
emergent bubbles at the surface are
spherical pits (we call it porosity)
which entrap pickle.
All solder seams have porosity! It’s
a by-product of the outgassing of the
volatilized zinc. That’s why we always fit our seams as carefully as possible, to limit visibility as well as the
number of little pickle traps. (Have
you ever seen green solder seams on
pieces created when humidity reactivates the entrapped pickle?) The pickle in these little reservoirs is virtually
impossible to rinse out or neutralize
(picture a basketball with one tiny
hole, filled to capacity with water.
Since this basketball is embedded in
solid metal, you can’t squeeze the
water out, nor introduce additional
liquid to rinse it out.) This entrapped
pickle can keep a seam from being reflowed.
(2) The non-ferrous metals with
which we usually construct our pieces
(silver, gold, etc.) are not generally
soluble, when clean, in our standard
pickle solutions, unless left submerged for excessive lengths of time.
However, once subjected to the heat
of soldering, the surface layers unite
with oxygen, creating metallic oxides
which are soluble. When these oxides
(copper oxide and zinc oxide in silver
and gold solders) are dissolved away,

cleaning the metal, they leave a layer
of pure metal (silver or gold) on the
surface. This allows us to raise the
fine silver or gold on a completed
piece, but when additional solderings
are required, this layer of pure metal
(which melts at a substantially higher
temperature than the solder) prevents
the solder from reflowing without superheating the piece.
(3) When zinc is pickled out of a
solder seam, the chemistry is changed
(i.e., the melting temperatures are
raised).
(4) Most people think it is necessary to pickle to remove the flux.
Tetra borate-based fluxes (borax,
boric acid, etc.) are hydroscopic (absorb moisture). As they do so, they
get sticky. However, they are easily
removed with plain old hot water. No
need to pickle. Simply using only the
outer tip of the flame (the reduction
zone) + fresh flux + no entrapped
pickle permits easy resoldering and
reflowing. The reducing atmosphere
and flux remove oxides. Multiple soldering operations are possible without intermittent pickling.”
Contributing Editors Tom & Kay Benham are
active lapidaries, goldsmiths, and members of
the Florida Society of Goldsmiths and the
Pinellas (FL) Geological Society. They teach
intarsia at the William
Tom and Kay Benham
Holland School of Lapidary Arts (GA) and
Wildacres Retreat (NC),
and metalsmithing in
the Orlando area. Their
projects appear regularly in Step by Step.

now

@

lapidaryjournal.com
Have questions or tips you’d like to submit to
Jewelry Journal? Please send them to Kristen
Gibson, Jewelry Journal, c/o Lapidary Journal,
300 Chesterfield Parkway, Suite 100, Malvern,
PA 19355, or to kgibson@interweave.com, subject line “Jewelry Journal.” If contacting us by e-mail,
please be sure to let us know your city
and state or country. We’d like to know
where our readers are!

Tenth
Masters
Symposium
Mark your calendar for a rare opportunity
to learn from master artisans in Plique-áJour Enameling, Filigree Wirework, Japanese Inlay, Textile Techniques in Metal,
Argentium®, and Dental Techniques during
the Revere Academy’s 2007 Masters Symposium held from April 7 through April 29.
Eight master craftspeople from around the
world will be teaching two and five-day
workshops in their specialized areas, with
classes offered for all levels. Instructors
include Japanese master metalsmith Naohiro Yamada, teaching traditional Japanese Inlay and Engraving techniques, Arline
Fisch, Cynthia Eid, and Harold O’Connor.
Each week, a Wednesday evening
slide/reception for the visiting masters
will be open to the public. For more information, contact the Revere Academy of
Jewelry Arts, 760 Market Street, Suite
900, San Francisco, Ca. 94102. Phone
(415) 391-4179, e-mail info@revereacademy.com, or visit www.revereacademy.com.

11

F A C E T S

Flawless
and
Innovative
The jewelry of Navajo jeweler Yazzie Johnson and
Santo Domingo/Laguna jeweler Gail Bird is featured in the exhibition Shared Images: The Jewelry of
Yazzie Johnson and Gail Bird, on view through July 9,
2007, at the Heard Museum in Phoenix, Arizona.
For more than 30 years, Johnson and Bird have collaborated to created elegant earrings, bracelets,
rings and necklaces and their best-known work,
thematic belts. Shared Images takes a chronological
look at their work and process, including a firsttime collection of 43 belts — some designed and debuted specifically for the annual Santa Fe Indian
Market each year since 1979. A catalogue covering
the exhibition will be available at the Heard Museum Shops. The Heard Museum is located at 2301 N
Central Ave., Phoenix, Az. 85004.

NEW FROM BRAIN PRESS

Annual Smithsonian
Craft Show

“Bench Tricks for

The 25th Annual Smithsonian Craft Show will be held from April

Goldsmithing” is

19-22, 2007. Master artists and emerging will sell and exhibit works

a new CDRom

in 12 categories: basketry, ceramics, decorative fiber, furniture,

publication from

glass, jewelry, leather, metal, mixed media, paper, wearable art and

Charles Lewton-

wood. Each of the 120 individual artists or partnerships were select-

Brain

distilled

ed by jury from more than 1,100 applicants. One of the nation’s

from lectures in

most prestigious juried exhibition and sales, the show is produced

New York and

by the Smithsonian Women’s Committee to benefit educational,

Tucson for MJSA and AGTA during 2006. The

outreach, and research projects within the Smithsonian Institution.

powerpoint slideshow has over 200 photos of

The anniversary celebration and preview will be Wednesday, April

tips, bench tricks, inexpensive or uncommon tool

18, from 6:30-9:30p.m., and the show will run Thursday, Friday,

sources and surprising ways to use them. The

and Saturday from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. and Sunday 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. at

CD includes a 90 page PDF file of Lewton-Brain’s

the National Building Mu-

well-known book Cheap Thrills in the Tool Shop,

seum, 401 F Street NW,

published in 1994.

Washington, D.C. 20001.

The package is available from Brain Press in

For more information,

Calgary, Alberta, Canada. For more information,

phone (888) 832-9554,

phone Brain Press at (403) 263-3955, e-mail

e-mail craftshow@si.edu,

brainnet@telus.net, or visit http://brainpress.

or visit www.smithsonian

com.

craftshow.org.

Facets is compiled and written by Helen I. Driggs, Managing Editor. Submissions may be directed to her, c/o
Lapidary Journal, 300 Chesterfield Parkway, Suite 100, Malvern, PA 19355, or by e-mail: hdriggs@interweave.com.

12 LAPIDARY JOURNAL, March 2007

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cool tools
By Helen I. Driggs, Managing Editor

Stake a Claim
P

icture this: morning sun streaming into the studio across the
bench and dancing across a rack, heavily laden with mirrorpolished stakes — lined up like chessmen awaiting their turn to
come into play. For most of us, the only time we see this picture
is when we first begin to study the art of metalsmithing — in a well-equipped or well-financed
university shop, in a master’s studio, or only
after a lifetime of careful acquisition — a
stake or two a year, saved hard for, carefully chosen and lovingly maintained. Face it:
quality tool steel is expensive, and stakes and
anvils are the cream of the crop. You can
replicate some kinds of stakes with ingenuity
or you can adapt your existing setup if inherited or second-hand tools come your way.
Here’s what two of our experts had to say.

Jack Berry
Delrin™ is a hard plastic that can easily be
made into a very effective anticlastic stake.
Starting with a Delrin™ rod of a suitable
diameter you can remove sections using a
spinning rasp bit in a drill press.

This shows how a “stop” fashioned
from a carpenter’s square and C-clamps
can be used to stabilize the Delrin™ rod
on the drill press table. The rod is held
against the “stop” on the left side to
avoid moving the rod sideways while it is
pushed into the spinning rasp bit. The rod
is then rotated forward while the bit
removes the plastic. This action cuts an anticlastic surface into the rod. One anticlastic
axis is determined by the diameter of the rasp
which can be varied and the other axis is
14 LAPIDARY JOURNAL, March 2007

determined by the rod rotation which you control and can vary.
Here are five different sections with varying axes. The
white dot at the left end was
used to judge the rotation
process while removing the
plastic. This rod is 1 1⁄8" in
diameter. Larger diameter
rods can be used to make larger stakes. If cuts of a larger
diameter than the rasp are
desired you can move the
stop and make another cut
overlapping the first cut giving a wider anticlastic surface.
This is a close view of
another smaller rod of 3⁄4"
diameter. This was cut with a
1
⁄2" diameter rasp and was cut
deeply enough so the remaining central area of the 3⁄4" rod
is only 0.35" in diameter. This
anticlastic surface was used to create the “saddle form” from a
0.8" diameter circle of 26 gauge sterling silver seen below.

Precision
Micro
Welding

The Laser
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Jack Berry is the author of Repetitive Micro-Fold Forms
Using an Industrial Tube Wringer: Small Scale
Applications for Jewelry and Sculpture and has demonstrated and taught micro-fold forming around the
country. He is also Professor Emeritus at California
State University in Long Beach.

Marne Ryan
Marne uses a rubber doorstop as a wedge when the stake plate
and tang don’t quite fit. I thought this was brilliant, but then
she gave me four even better tips worth their weight in gold:
•Cut some neoprene (from an old wetsuit or mousepad)
into a donut shape with the inner hole the diameter of a ball
dap. Stack several for greater thickness. When inserted into
the vise, the lower surface of the dap will then be protected
from marring by the vise jaws.
•Use rubber wall corners from the home store to make
custom vise guards. Their 90-degree angle and self-stick tape
make the corners easy to fit on any vise.
•Plastic or wooden wedges from the hardware store make
it easy to fit a square stake tang into a round plate hole (or
vise versa). They also prevent wobbling during hammering.
•Rubber self-stick tape from the sporting goods store (for
golf clubs or tennis racquets) will cushion the grip on hammer handles.
Marne Ryan began her career as a repair jeweler. She has developed a
distinctive style using fused and textured metals, the rolling mill, hammers, and a wide array of stakes and anvils. She lives in Anaheim,
Calif., and her work can be seen at www.marneryan.com.

Next Time: Snips and Handcutters
Cool Tools is a regular feature of Lapidary Journal. If you have a tool
you would like featured, a useful tool modification, or interesting
bench trick to suggest, or, if you’d like to join our studio of experts,
contact Helen Driggs, Managing Editor, Lapidary Journal, 300
Chesterfield Parkway, Suite 100, Malvern, PA 19355, or
hdriggs@interweave.com, subject line “Cool Tools.” Please include
your complete contact information with all submissions.

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15

ROCKCORNER

Malachite
Stalinist fantasy & Venus passing
By Claus Hedegaard

M

alachite is an amazing mineral! It is
colorful, abundant, a good ore,
makes superb cutting rough and it is
cheap, too! During the past 15 to 20
years we have been spoiled by an
abundance of excellent malachite
specimens and a reasonable supply of cutting rough, but that is a
fairly recent feature. Let us rewind.
As always, we reach back to
Pliny for references to minerals in antiquity. He describes the green stone molochitis,
named for the herb mallow (used as a cough suppressant and expectorant) which has a saturated, green
color. The name molochitis transformed to malachites and
wound up as the modern mineral name malachite through
the work of the famous mineralogist Werner. However, the
names are not congruent: particularly dense, green malachite
was often called emerald in antiquity — as were many other
green stones — and particularly crusty and bubbly malachite
was sometimes called chrysocolla. Solinus, who probably
lived around the third century, says in his Collectanea rerum
memorabilium (Collection of strange things) that the Arabs
valued malachite for its ability to ward off evil spirits. Today,
views of that nature would be regarded as absurd.
The first gem and craft malachite was produced at a couple
of mines at Nizhni Tagil in Ural (Russia). Originally, malachite
was quarried as copper ore, but the French astronomer
Chappe d’Auteroche described and illustrated the beauty of
malachite in the description of his travels through Ural in

1761. The French Académie Royale des Sciences appointed Chappe d’Auteroche to
accept an invitation from the Russian Imperial Academy of Science to observe a
transit of Venus on June 6, 1761, from
Tobolsk, in the Ural Mountains.
Chappe d’Auteroche had to travel
many months to reach his destination — the short stretch from Paris
to Strassbourg took eight days, and all
his instruments were ruined upon arrival!
His party had to cross the Ural Mountains during winter and that is when he came to Nizhni Tagil.
He was a dedicated, almost manic worker — nowadays
he would have been diagnosed and given treatment! Describing an unusual ornamental stone in Russia was part of a day’s
work for Chappe d’Auteroche, and publishing a travel account was the way to do things in the mid 18th century.
Malachite gained immediate popularity as an ornamental
stone with the nobility. By far the best known use of Russian
malachite is for the malachite room in the Hermitage (a.k.a.
the Winter Palace) in St. Petersburg. It was designed and constructed by Alexander Briullov (1830-1840) as an official reception room for Czarina Alexandra Fyodorovna, wife of Czar
Nicholas I. The room is decorated with eight columns and
eight pilasters of malachite, plus candelabra, a large bowl, and
vases, all made from malachite. More than two tons of malachite were used to decorate the room.
European royalty and several churches also acquired important malachite objects during the18th and 19th centuries. I

Top: Globular malachite from Nizhni Tagil (Ural, Russia). Above left: Altar, decorated with malachite and lapis
Lazuli, gilt angels, etc., in Basilica San Paolo fuori la Mura in Roma (Lazio, Italy). Above right: A druse of blocky
malachite crystals in a piece of massive cuprite from Tsumeb Mine (Tsumeb, Tsumeb District (Oshikoto Region), Namibia). Ex. collection Claus Hedegaard.
16 LAPIDARY JOURNAL, March 2007

An approximately 6 cm box, carved by
Nicolai Medvedev from charoite with
inlaid malachite and auriferous
quartz. Displayed at the Star
Pass mineral show in Tucson,
2003.

have often admired the
malachite altars (yes,
plural!) in the Basilica San
Paolo (Roma, Italy), which
combine malachite, lapis,
and gold into opulent demonstrations of wealth in
the adoration of God. Alas, today it is over. The Nizhni Tagil
deposits are depleted and I have hardly ever seen an unpolished, Russian specimen.
As producer of cutting rough, the Nizhni Tagil mines
were important, producing up to 80 tons of material at their
peak, including the world’s largest piece, weighing 46 tons!
However, good material was depleted before 1900, leaving
pieces just two to three centimeters thick. Lower grade malachite was — and is — used for green pigment in paint. Most
of the cut and cuttable malachite we see today comes from
the Southern Congo province Shaba. Small volumes of superb rough have been
found in Arizona — inName: Malachite from
cluding what must be the
Greek malake for the herb
most beautiful stalactite
mallow — hollyhock, (Malva
slabs.
silvestris) in reference to the
green color.
Collectible malachite
Formula: Cu2[(OH)2ICO3]
tends to be sparse. It ocColor: Saturated green; even
curs in practically every
very thin needles are
copper mine or prospect
green, crystals blackish
in the world — most of
green
the green crud on, at, or
Luster: Silky to dull
near copper mines is
Streak color: Green
malachite, but evidently,
Mohs’ hardness: 4
hardly any of it is worth
Specific gravity: 4.0
having except as ore. Fine,
Crystal system: Monoclinic
acicular needles and tufts
Cleavage: (001) Good
of needles are abundant in
some mines, but choice
malachite crystals are not. “Real” malachite crystals — simple, monoclinic, blocky crystals — larger than two to three
millimeters are quite unusual. Several mines in Shaba have
produced choice specimens during the past 15-20 years. I
have a soft spot for the clusters of dark green, lustrous crystals on pale blue chrysocolla from Mashamba West myself,
though the malachite stalactites, overgrown by dark, blocky
crystals from Kolwezi, are more showy. Most large malachite ‘crystals’ are pseudomorphs after azurite, and superb
specimens are known from Tsumeb (Tsumeb District, Oshikoto Region, Namibia), Kerrouchen (near Rabat, Morocco), and particularly the Touissit-Bou Beker area in Northern Morocco. I believe you could form an interesting and
highly worthwhile collection of malachite with a bit of diligence, even on modest means. ◆
Claus Hedegaard has a Ph.D. in biology and spends
most of his time traveling the world to buy and sell
minerals. He has a comprehensive collection of worldwide minerals but believes information is as much
part of collecting as are specimens.

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CLOSEOUT

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fine blue, round, 1.5 mm 10 pcs for $3.00, 2.5 mm $2.00 each
pink and blue, round 2 mm $2.50, 2.5 mm $3.00 each
fine med color, 3 mm , rounds $0.60, princess & trillion cut $0.70 each
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fine quality, rounds, 3 mm $0.35, 4 mm $0.65, 5 mm $ $0.90 each
fine rounds, 3 mm $0.60, 4 mm $0.75, 5 mm $1.10 each
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round brilliant cut, fine quality, round 2.5 mm $.60, 3 mm $.90 each
fine pink rounds brilliant cut, 3 mm $.90, trillion & princess cut $1.00 each
Mandarin fine quality orange, round, 2 mm $3.00, 2.5 mm $4.50 each
fine quality, rounds, pink shiller, 3 mm $0.75, 4 mm $1.00 each
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18 LAPIDARY JOURNAL, March 2007

INDEX TO VOLUME 60
The following section contains two different indexes to Volume 60.
One index is organized by author, and lists article title, page number,
month, and year under each author’s name. The subject index contains
the same information but is arranged by article category.
Author Index
Barber, Jeff
Talisman Bead, 70, 10-06
Beauford, Robert
Chain Reaction, 36, 6-06
Benham, Tom and Kay
You Mean We Can Only Pick 10?, 42, 7-06
Blair, Thomas
Drilling Pearls, 43, 10-06
Bleess, James L.
Grape Jelly Crystals, 58, 5-06
Blythe-Hart, Helen
Set It and Forget It, 28, 2-06
Silver and Gold Platform Ring, 36, 2-06
Burger, Falk
Sunshine Underground, 28, 4-06
Buying Gem Rough, 36, 3-07
Dodson, Martina
Glowing Heart Pendant, 42, 2-06
Dosch, Wolfe
Fairy Tale Linked Bracelet, 46, 12-06
Driggs, Helen I.
Mad About Mesh, 18, 2-06
The Pin Is In, 26, 9-06
Bring on the Beads, 47, 10-06
Hammered Silver Beads, 83, 10-06
Treasure from the Sierra Madre, 29, 11-06
Pixel Perfect, 24, 3-07
Durstling, Hans
Mystery of the Small-Town Ruby, 33, 11-06
Fago, Celie
Hinged Metal Clay Box Pendant Part I, 74,
5-06
Hinged Metal Clay Box Pendant Part II, 46,
6-06
Hinged Metal Clay Box Pendant Part III, 61,
7-06
Hinged Metal Clay Box Pendant Part IV, 45,
8-06
Fretz, William
Hollow Form Bezel Ring, 57, 7-06
Gage, Holly
Beauty and the Beastly Smell, 65, 5-06
Geltman, Elizabeth Glass
Paper Dolls Cuff Bracelet, 78, 5-06
Gollberg, Joanne
Wrap Around, 35, 4-06
Graci, Nina
Ordered Elegance, 14, 6-06
Letting in the Light, 26, 8-06
Practicing Perfection, 30, 9-06
Haag, Terri
Kings of (non) Bling, 42, 5-06
Rocket Science at the Jeweler’s Bench, 24, 6-06
Fool for Cool Tools, 22, 7-06
Hawes, Ernie
Star of the Southwest, 52, 2-06
Hedegaard, Claus
Mother of All Pearls, 36, 10-06
Hildebrand, Arlene
Wearing It My Way, 81, 5-06
Jacobson, Hadar
Textured Woven Earrings, 40, 6-06
Teach Your Old Tools New Tricks, 37, 7-06
Metal Mechanical Parts, 52, 7-06
Paper, Rock, and Thread, 76, 10-06
Domino Earrings, 36, 1-07

Jarvis, Mary
Carmen Miranda Bead, 51, 9-06
Jerman-Melka, Julie
Pebble Earrings, 46, 11-06
Klein, Glenn
Playing the Angles, 32, 2-06
Knight, Inara
Shard and Simple, 42, 11-06
Kolodny, Boris
Practical Gem Photography, 22, 4-06
Lyon, Linda
Oceanic Organic Lampwork Beads, 80, 10-06
Martin, Terry Lee
Catch a Falling Star, 48, 3-07
McMahon, Janice
Magnetic Attraction, 89, 5-06
Moran, Sarah
Velvety Sparkly, 73, 10-06
O’Daugherty, Stone
Corundum in Silver, 41, 1-07
Osburn, Annie
The Long and Short of It, 24, 2-06
Carved Creations, 14, 4-06
The Sum of Its Parts, 38, 9-06
Magic & Ancient Metals, 20, 12-06
Pascal, John
Sliding Pinwheel, 52, 1-07
Patania, Sam
Press Formed Brooch, 40, 3-07
Rappa, Gail
River Stone Pin with Floating Key, 38, 4-06
Rediske, Arthur C.
Ring Within a Ring Earrings, 54, 12-06
Riger, Stephanie
Hammered Earrings, 44, 3-07
Saari, Cynthia
Getting the Skinny, 40, 8-06
Schneider, Edith
Big Lentil, 32, 4-06
Scott, Larry
You Don’t Think This Is Art, Do You?, 52, 5-06
Shimazu, Donna E.
Powder Separation Moldmaking, Part I, 48,
1-07
Powder Separation Moldmaking, Part II, 48,
2-06
Thiel, Leslie
Curved Beads, 58, 12-06
Thompson, Sharon Elaine
Fortunate Fiascos, 34, 5-06
Beguiled by Their Beauty, 29, 7-06
What’s A Cushion Cut, Really?, 22, 8-06
Coming Clean, 36, 11-06
Crafts at a Crossroads, 30, 12-06
Better Together, 37, 12-06
When You Want White Metal, 29, 3-07
Turet, Douglas M.
The Princess Leila Cut, 43, 4-06
The Emerald Cushion, 85, 5-06
Zip 2B Square, 43, 6-06
Stan’s Sparkler, 67, 7-06
The Turbo-Prep Twelve, 43, 8-06
The Tri-Factor Eight, 54, 9-06
Joy & Celebration, 88, 10-06
The Bender Brilliant, 58, 11-06
The Zircillion 7, 61, 12-06
Wade, Suzanne
Catching the Female Eye, 46, 5-06

Lost in (Cyber) Space?, 18, 6-06
The Craft at What Cost?, 30, 8-06
Keeping in the Black with Gold, 18, 1-07
Walsen, Priscilla
Quilt Blocks in Stone, 50, 11-06
White, Merle
Rocks 24/7, 26, 12-06
Whittington, Jean
Spinning Rings, 46, 9-06
Woods, Kate
What’s Next for Benitoite, 30, 1-07
Zborower, Joyce
Sterling Forged Necklace, 36, 8-06
Zirinsky, Mark
You Don’t Have to Buy Them, You Know, 41,
12-06

Subject Index
Artist Profile
Carved Creations, 14, 4-06
Magic & Ancient Metals, 20, 12-06
Ordered Elegance, 14, 6-06
Practicing Perfection, 30, 9-06
Sum of Its Parts, The, 38, 9-06
Awards/Competitions
2006 Bead Arts Awards, 52, 10-06
2006 Jewelry Arts Awards, 34, 9-06
2007 Gemmys Awards, 24, 1-07
Bead Pictorial
Bring on the Beads, 47, 10-06
Business
Beguiled by Their Beauty, 29, 7-06
Keeping in the Black with Gold, 18, 1-07
Lost in (Cyber) Space?, 18, 6-06
Craft
Fortunate Fiascos, 34, 5-06
Mad About Mesh, 18, 2-06
Design
Kings of (non) Bling, 42, 5-06
Long and Short of It, The, 24, 2-06
Expedition
Grape Jelly Crystals, 58, 5-06
Faceting
Playing the Angles, 32, 2-06
From the Field
Treasure from the Sierra Madre, 29, 11-06
Gems/Minerals
What’s Next for Benitoite?, 30, 1-07
Issues and Answers
Craft at What Cost, The?, 30, 8-06
Crafts at a Crossroads, 30, 12-06
You Don’t Think This Is Art, Do You?, 52, 5-06
Marketing
Catching the Female Eye, 46, 5-06
Materials
Mother of All Pearls, 36, 10-06
When You Want White Metal, 29, 3-07
Metalsmithing
Set It and Forget It, 28, 2-06
Minerals
Sunshine Underground, 28, 4-06
Photography
Practical Gem Photography, 22, 4-06
Pictorial
Masters of Metal & Stone, 24, 11-06

Continued on page 20
19

MEDIA

Continued from page 19

REVIEWS

The Smale Collection; Beauty
in Natural Crystals, by Steve
Smale and Jeff Scovil, Lithographie,
LLC, 2006. Hardcover, 11.8" x 11.8".
204 pages, $50.00. ISBN 0-9715371-8-6.
Reviewed by Mick Cooper.
This is a rare
book: it’s big,
beautiful, well
designed, printed in full color
throughout to a
high standard,
with sewn signatures and a hard cover and it’s only
$50! If you’re interested in fine minerals,
you need read no further — just go out
and buy it.
Steve Smale is well known in the rarefied world of high mathematics; a man
who has garnered plaudits and professorships throughout the world for his
work. Since 1969 he and his wife Clara
have also been collectors of fine minerals,
devoting much energy into amassing one
of the finest private collections of minerals in the world today. Their collection
contains some 2,000 pieces, of which
some 100 are presented here in fine fullpage photographs taken by Steve Smale
himself and by Jeff Scovil, arguably the
finest exponent of mineral specimen photography in the world today. Jeff’s love of
the color and architecture of crystals is as
well demonstrated here as is the Smales’
connoisseurship, and it’s good to see his
contribution given proper credit.
This is not a scientist’s mineralogy.
There is little account of the actual occurrence beyond a few references for further
reading, no formulae, no crystallography.
What we have instead is akin more to a
catalogue of works of the sculptor’s art,
restricted to the history of the specimen’s
acquisition and subsequent movement
from collection to collection, along with a
list of publications in which it has featured. This is vital information to those,
like me, interested in the history of collecting and convinced of the great care that
should be taken to record the life of great
— and not so great — specimens.
Nor are the Smales scientific collectors; their criteria for collecting are simple, as Steve Smale writes in his short in20 LAPIDARY JOURNAL, March 2007

troduction: “beauty . . . is the fundamental quality of a great mineral specimen.”
He goes on to give a few details of what
is important in a fine piece and to stress
the concept of “economy” which, he explains, “demands that every part of a
specimen plays a part in its presentation.” To this end some specimens have
apparently been expertly trimmed to
Steve Smale’s own design, moving them
yet closer to the world of sculpture.
I have to express one or two disappointments. For example, I would’ve
liked to have been told a bit more about
the status of a specimen compared to its
peers. I find Smale’s argument for ignoring species names or eschewing specimen
descriptions unconvincing; and one or
two pieces are let down by the photographs — for example, the incredible
Sweet Home mine rhodochrosite which
looks very dull here, yet in real life must
be astonishing. But these are small complaints. On most of the occasions that I
take this book from the shelf — or lift it
from the coffee table if I ever get one — it
will be to remind me of a specimen’s appearance or to enjoy a good image one
more time. For me then, this is a fine
book, and a worthy addition to the library of anyone interested in fine minerals and fine specimen photography. I will
close with a quote from leading British
mineral dealer John Mawe (1766-1829),
who wrote in 1816: “Can any mind be so
vacant or insensible, as not to notice the
correct forms which minerals present?
They are the geometry of nature clothed
in mathematical exactitude.” I am sure
Steve Smale would agree.
Mick Cooper

Mick Cooper has been Registrar of Nottingham City Museums and Galleries for the last
14 years, where he is able to exercise his multiple interests in
science, history, and art.

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For previously published Media Reviews,
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www.lapidaryjournal.com/books/.
Lapidary Journal welcomes books, videos, CDs,
and other media products for review. Send review copies to: Lapidary Journal Media Reviews, 300 Chesterfield Parkway, Suite 100,
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Show Preview
Rocks 24/7, 26, 12-06
Step by Step Projects
Bender Brilliant, The, 58, 11-06
Big Lentil, 32, 4-06
Carmen Miranda Bead, 51, 9-06
Catch a Falling Star, 48, 3-07
Chain Reaction, 36, 6-06
Corundum in Silver, 41, 1-07
Curved Beads, 58, 12-06
Domino Earrings, 36, 1-07
Emerald Cushion, The, 85, 5-06
Fairy Tale Linked Bracelet, 46, 12-06
Getting the Skinny, 40, 8-06
Glowing Heart Pendant, 42, 2-06
Hammered Earrings, 44, 3-07
Hammered Silver Beads, 83, 10-06
Hinged Metal Clay Box Pendant Part I, 74, 506
Hinged Metal Clay Box Pendant Part II, 46, 606
Hinged Metal Clay Box Pendant Part III, 61,
7-06
Hinged Metal Clay Box Pendant Part IV, 45,
8-06
Hollow Form Bezel Ring, 57, 7-06
Joy & Celebration, 88, 10-06
Magnetic Attraction, 89, 5-06
Metal Mechanical Parts, 52, 7-06
Paper Dolls Cuff Bracelet, 78, 5-06
Paper, Rock, and Thread, 76, 10-06
Pebble Earrings, 46, 11-06
Powder Separation Moldmaking, Part I, 48, 107
Powder Separation Moldmaking, Part II, 48,
2-06
Press Formed Brooch, 40, 3-07
Princess Leila Cut, The 43, 4-06
Quilt Blocks in Stone, 50, 11-06
Ring Within a Ring Earrings, 54, 12-06
River Stone Pin with Floating Key, 38, 4-06
Shard and Simple, 42, 11-06
Silver and Gold Platform Ring, 36, 2-06
Sliding Pinwheel, 52, 1-07
Spinning Rings, 46, 9-06
Stan’s Sparkler, 67, 7-06
Star of the Southwest, 52, 2-06
Sterling Forged Necklace, 36, 8-06
Talisman Bead, 70, 10-06
Textured Woven Earrings, 40, 6-06
Tri-Factor Eight, The, 54, 9-06
Turbo-Prep Twelve, The, 43, 8-06
Velvety Sparkly, 73, 10-06
Wearing It My Way, 81, 5-06
Wrap Around, 35, 4-06
Zip 2B Square, 43, 6-06
Zircillion 7, The, 61, 12-06
Technique
Letting in the Light, 26, 8-06
Trendspotting
The Pin Is In, 26, 9-06
Workshop
Beauty and the Beastly Smell, 65, 5-06
Better Together, 37, 12-06
Buying Gem Rough, 36, 3-07
Coming Clean, 36, 11-06
Drilling Pearls, 43, 10-06
Fool for Cool Tools, 22, 7-06
Mystery of the Small-Town Ruby, 33, 11-06
Pixel Perfect, 24, 3-07
Rocket Science at the Jeweler’s Bench, 24, 6-06
Teach Your Old Tools New Tricks, 37, 7-06
What’s A Cushion Cut, Really?, 22, 8-06
You Don’t Have to Buy Them, You Know, 41,
12-06
You Mean We Can Only Pick 10?, 42, 7-06
Also available online are indexes 47-59, beginning in April 1993. Visit www.lapidary
journal.com/archive/toc_home.com.

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