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ANSYS Workbench 12
Theory – Applications – Case Studies
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Chapter 2 Sketching
A simulation project starts with the creation of a geometric model. To be pro0cient at simulations, an engineer has to be pro0cient at geometric modeling 0rst. In a simulation project, it is not uncommon to take the majority of humanhours to create a geometric model, that is particularly true in a 3D simulation. A complex 3D geometry can be viewed as a collection of simpler 3D solid bodies. Each solid body is often created by 0rst drawing a sketch on a plane, and then the sketch is used to generate the 3D solid body using tools such as extrude, revolve, sweep, etc. In turn, to be pro0cient at 3D bodies creation, an engineer has to be pro0cient at sketching 0rst.
Purpose of the Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to provide exercises for the students so that they can be pro0cient at sketching using DesignModeler. Five mechanical parts are sketched in this chapters. Although each sketch is used to generate a 3D models, the generation of 3D models is so trivial that we should be able to focus on the 2D sketches without being distracted. More exercises of sketching will be provided in later chapters.
About Each Section
Each sketch of a mechanical part will be completed in a section. Sketches in the 0rst two sections are guided in a step-by-step fashion. Section 1 sketches a cross section of W16x50; the cross section is then extruded to generate a solid model in 3D space. Section 2 sketches a triangular plate; the sketch is then extruded to generate a solid model in 3D space. Section 3 does not mean to provide a hands-on case. It overviews the sketching tools in a systematic way, attempting to complement what were missed in the 0rst two sections. Sections 4, 5, and 6 provide three cases for more exercises. Sketches in these sections are in a not-so-step-bystep fashion; we purposely leave some room for the students to 0gure out the details.
Section 2.1 Step-by-Step: W16x50 Beam Section
Step-by-Step: W16x50 Beam
2.1-1 About the W16x50 Beam
Consider a structural steel beam with a W16x50 cross-section [1-4] and a length of 10 ft. In this section, we will create a 3D solid body for the steel beam.
7.07 " .380 "
.628 "  Detail dimensions
2.1-2 Start Up <DesignModeler>
 After a while, the <Workbench GUI> shows up.
 Click the plus sign (+) to expand the <Component Systems>. Note that the plus sign become minus sign.
 Double-click <Geometry> to start up DesignModeler.
 Double-click <Geometry> to place a system in the <Project Schematic>.
 If anything goes wrong, click here to show message.
 From Start menu, click to launch the Workbench.
 Wide-;ange I-shape section.
 Nominal depth 16".
 Weight 50 lb/ft.
Chapter 2 Sketching
 After a while, the DesignModeler shows up.
 Select <Inch> as the length unit.
 Click <OK>. Note that, after clicking <OK>, the length unit connot be changed anymore.
Notes: In a step-by-step exercise, whenever a circle is used with a speech bubble, it is to indicate that mouse or keynoard ACTIONS must be taken in that step (e.g., [1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9]). The circle may be small or large, ;lled with white color or un;lled, depending on whichever gives more information. A speech bubble without a circle (e.g., [2, 7]) or with a rectangle (e.g., ) is used for commentary only, no mouse or keyboard actions are needed.
2.1-3 Draw a Rectangle on <XYPlane>
 <XYPlane> is already the current sketching plane.
 Click <Look At> to rotate the coordinate axes, so that you face the <XYPlane>.
 Click <Rectangle> tool.
 Draw a rectangle (using click-and-drag) roughly like this.
 Click <Sketching> to enter the sketching mode.
.Section 2.  In the <Details View>. move the mouse rightward.  Click <Symmetry> tool. ..07 (in) for H1 and 16.1 Step-by-Step: W16x50 Beam Section 49 Impose symmetry constraints.  Right-click anywhere on the graphic area to open the context menu.. and click again to create H1. and click again to create V2.  Click <Dimensions> toolbox.  Click the horizontal axis and then two horizontal lines on both sides to make them symmetric about the horizontal axis. Colors are used to indicate the constraint status. type 7. The blue color means that the geometric entities are well constrained. click here to scroll down to reveal the tool.  Click the vertical axis and then two vertical lines on both sides to make them symmetric about the vertical axis.  Click this line.  Leave <General> as the default tool.  Click <Zoom to Fit>.  The segments turn to blue color. Specify dimensions.  Click <Constraint> toolbox. and choose <Select new symmetry axis>.  If you don't see <Symmetry> tool. move the mouse upward..25 (in) for V2.  Click this line.
. .. It creates more space for the graphic area. let's turn it off.  If you don't see <Display> tool. For the rest of the book. we always turn off the ruler to make more space in the graphic area.  Click <Name> to turn it off.. For the rest of the book.  The ruler disappears. The <Value> automatically turns on..  Pull-down-select <View/Ruler> to turn the ruler off. Let's display dimension values (in stead of names) on the graphic area.  The dimension names are replaced by the values. we always display values instead of names.50 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. so that the sketching will be more ef8cient. click here to scroll all the way down to the bottom.1-4 Clean up the Graphic Area The ruler occupies space and is sometimes annoying.  Click <Display> tool.
.1-5 Draw a Polyline Draw a polyline.Section 2. .  Click roughly here to start the polyline..  Click the last point roughly here.  Click the third point roughly here.  Right-click anywhere on the graphic area to open the context menu.ip horizontally.  Select <Polyline> tool.. 12]) the three newly created segments one by one. 2. and select <End/Use Plane Origin as Handle>.  Select <Copy> tool. Make sure a <V> (vertical) appears before clicking.1 Step-by-Step: W16x50 Beam Section 51 2.  Click the second point roughly here. Make sure an <H> (horizontal) appears before clicking.  Right-click anywhere on the graphic area to open the context menu. the dimensions are not important for now. Make sure an <H> and a <C> appear before clicking. Make sure a <C> (coincident) appears before clicking. and select <Open End> to end the <Polyline> tool.  Select <Draw> toolbox.  Select <Modify> toolbox.  Controlclick (see [11..1-6 Copy the Polyline Copy the newly created polyline to the right side..
 Right-click anywhere to open the context menu again and select <Flip Horizontal>.. Skill of these operations is one of the keys to be pro<cient at geometric modeling.  Click-sweep: continuous selection.  The horizontally =ipped polyline has been copied. let's look into some basic mouse operations [10-16]..  Click: single selection  Middle-click-drag: rotation.  The tool automatically changes from <Copy> to <Paste>. An alternative way (and better way) is to press ESC to end a tool.52 Chapter 2 Sketching Context menu is used heavily.  Right-click anywhere to open the context menu again and select <End> to end the <Copy> tool. Basic Mouse Operations At this point.  Control-click: add/remove selection  Right-click-drag: box zoom.  Right-click: open context menu. .  Right-click anywhere to open the context menu again and select <Paste at Plane Origin>.  Scroll-wheel: zoom in/out.
 Right-click anywhere to open the context menu and select <Select new symmetry axis>  Click this horizontal axis and then two horizontal segments on both sides as shown to make them symmetric about the horizontal axis.  And click this segment to trim it away.1-8 Impose Symmetry Constraints  Select <Constraints> toolbox.  Select <Trim> tool.1 Step-by-Step: W16x50 Beam Section 53 2. If you don't turn it on.Section 2. They seemed already symmetric before we impose this constraint.  Click this vertical axis and then two vertical segments on both sides as shown to make them symmetric about the vertical axis. 2.  Click this segment to trim it away.1-7 Trim Away Unwanted Segments  Turn on <Ignore Axis>. . but the symmetry is "weak" and may be overridden (destroyed) by other constraints.  Select <Symmetry>. the axes will be treated as trimming tools.
628 for V3.  Type 0.  Click this segment and move leftward to create a vertical dimension. Note that the entity is blue-colored.1-9 Specify Dimensions  Select <Dimensions> toolbox.  Leave <General> as default tool.  Select <Horizontal>.54 Chapter 2 Sketching 2.  Click these two segments sequentially and move upward to create a horizontal dimension. .38 for H4 and 0.
however.  The greenish-blue color of the :llets indicates that these :llets are underconstrained. it is a good practice to well-constrain all entities in a sketch. The radius speci:ed in  is a "weak" dimension (may be destroyed by other constraints).1-11 Move Dimensions  Select <Dimensions> toolbox. 2. In general.1 Step-by-Step: W16x50 Beam Section 55 2.  Click two adjacent segments sequentially to create a :llet. We. .1-10 Add Fillets  Select <Modify> toolbox.  Select <Move>. Repeat this step for other three corners.Section 2. decide to ignore the color.375 for the :llet radius.  Select <Fillet> tool.  Type 0.  Click a dimension value and move to a suitable position as you like. Repeat this step for other dimensions. You could impose a <Radius> (which is in <Dimension> toolbox) to turn the :llets to blue. We want to show that an underconstrained sketch can still be used. however.
 Click the little cyan sphere to rotate the model in isometric view for a better visual effect.  The active sketch (Sketch1) is automatically chosen as <Base Object> you can change to other sketch if needed.  Click <Zoom to Fit> whenever needed.  Click <Display Plane> to switch off the display of sketching plane.56 Chapter 2 Sketching 2.  Type 120 (in) for <Depth>  The model is now in isometric view.  Click all plus signs (+) to expand the model tree and examine the <Tree Outline>.  Click <Extrude>.  Note that the <Modeling> mode is automatically activated.1-12 Extrude to Generate 3D Solid  Click <Generate>  Active sketch is shown here. .
 Pull-down-select <File/Close DesignModeler> to close DesignModeler. . Type "W16x50" as project name.  Alternatively you can click <Save Project> in the <Workbench GUI>.1-13 Save the Project and Exit Workbench  Click <Save Project>.Section 2.  Pull-down-select <File/Exit> to exit Workbench.1 Step-by-Step: W16x50 Beam Section 57 2.
 Radii of the 7llets are 10 mm. 40 mm .2 to demonstrate a design optimization procedure.  From Start menu. and the 2D model is then used for a static structural simulation to assess the stress under the loads. Other dimensions are shown in the 7gure.  The plate has three planes of symmetry. 2] is made to withstand a tensile stress of 50 MPa on each side face . launch the <Workbench>  Double-click to create a <Geometry> system. 30 mm 300 mm 2. we want to sketch the plate on <XYPlane> and then extrude a thickness of 10 mm along Z-axis to generate a 3D solid body. In Section 3.58 Chapter 2 Sketching Section 2.2-1 About the Triangular Plate The triangular plate [1. In this section. we will use this sketch again to generate a 2D solid model.1. The 2D solid model will be used again in Section 8.2 Step-by-Step: Triangular Plate 2. The thickness of the plate is 10 mm.2-2 Start up <DesignModeler>  Double-click to start up <DesignModeler>.  Forces are applied on each side face.
Make sure a <V> (vertical) constraint appears before clicking. 2. <Auto Constraints> is an important feature of DesignModeler and will be discussed in Section 2.  Pull-down-select <View/Ruler> to turn the ruler off.  Click the third point roughly here. Make sure a <C> (coincident) constraint appears before clicking.2 Step-by-Step: Triangular Plate 59  Click <Look At> to look at <XYPlane>.  Select <Polyline> from <Draw> toolbox.  Select <Millimeter> as length unit.  Click the second point roughly here.  Select <Sketching> mode.2-3 Draw a Triangle on <XYPlane>  Right-click anywhere to open the context menu and select <Close End> to close the polyline and end the tool.3-5. we always turn off the ruler to make more space in the graphic area. .Section 2.  Click roughly here to start a polyline. For the rest of the book.
Note that more useful mouse short-cuts for <Pan>. Click to turn on/off this mode. feel free to use these tools whenever needed.  <Previous View>. Click this tool to go to the previous view. and <Box Zoom> are available.2-5 2D Graphics Controls Before we proceed.  <Pan>. please see Section 2.60 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. This tool is available only in the <Sketching> mode. let's spend a few minutes looking into some useful tools for 2D graphics controls [1-10].  <Next View>.  Click these two segments one after the other to make their lengths equal. Multiple undo is possible. You can click-and-drag a box on the graphic area to enlarge that portion of graphics. Click to turn on/off this mode.  Select <Equal Length> from <Constraints> toolbox.  <Look At>. You can click-and-drag upward or downward on the graphic area to zoom in or out.  <Zoom to Fit>.  <Box Zoom>. Click this tool to Bt the entire sketch in the graphic area. 2.  These tools work in both <Sketching> or <Modeling> mode. <Zoom>. Click to turn on/off this mode.3-4. The tools are numbered according to roughly their frequency of use. .  <Redo>. Click this tool to go to the next view.  <Undo>. Click this tool to make current sketching plane rotate toward you.2-4 Make the Triangle Regular  Click these two segments one after the other to make their lengths equal. This tool is available only in the <Sketching> mode. Click this tool to redo what you've just undone.  <Zoom>. You can click-anddrag on the graphic area to move the sketch. Click this tool to undo what you've just done.
and then move the mouse downward to create this dimension.2-6 Specify Dimensions  In the <Details View>. Make sure a <P> (point) constraint appears before clicking. Note that the triangle turns to blue. .  Click the vertex on the left and the vertical axis. Click <Zoom to Fit> (2.Section 2. Click <Name> to switch it off and turn <Value> on.  Select <Arc by Center> from <Draw> toolbox. and then move the mouse downward to create this dimension. Before clicking. type 300 and 200 for the dimensions just created.  Select <Move> and then move the dimensions as you like (Section 2.2-5). we always display values instead of names.  Select <Horizontal>."  Click <Display> in the <Dimension> toolbox.  Click the vertex on the left and the vertical line on the right sequentially.1-11). indicating they are well de=ned now. Make sure a <C> (coincident) constraint appears before clicking. For the rest of the book.  Click this vertex as the arc center. 2. make sure the cursor changes to indicate that the point or edge has been "snapped.  Click the third point here. Make sure a <C> (coincident) constraint appears before clicking.2 Step-by-Step: Triangular Plate 61 2.2-7 Draw an Arc  Click the second point roughly here.
see . <Replicate> is equivalent to <Copy>+<Paste>.  Right-click-select <Rotate by r Degrees> from the context menu.  The <Selection Filter> also can be set from the context menu.2-8 Replicate the Arc  Select this vertex as paste handle. .62 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. click <Selection Filter: Points> in the toolbar. Type 120 (degrees) for <r>.  Click this vertex to paste the arc.  Click the arc.  Right-click anywhere and select <End/Set Paste Handle> in the context menu. If you have dif<culty making <P> appear. Make sure a <P> appears before clicking.  Select <Replicate> from <Modify> toolbox. Make sure a <P> appears before clicking. The <Selection Filter> also can be set from the context menu. see [7.  Whenever you have dif<culty making <P> appear. 8].
 Select <Trim> from <Modify> toolbox. you may press ESC to end a tool. We could have used plane origin as handle.2-9 Trim Away Unwanted Segments  Turn on <Ignore Axis>. totally 6 segments are trimmed away. we chose to manually set the paste handle  on the vertex .  Click to trim unwanted segments as shown.culty to "snap" a particular point. For instructional purpose. Whenever you have dif.Section 2. you should take advantage of <Selection Filter> [7. 8].  Click this vertex to paste the arc.  Right-click-select <End> in the context menu to end <Replicate> tool. 2. In fact.2 Step-by-Step: Triangular Plate 63  Right-click-select <Rotate by r Degrees> in the context menu. . that would have been easier since we wouldn't have to struggle to make sure whether a <P> appears or not. 8]). Alternatively. Make sure a <P> appears before clicking (see [7.
ned entities (i.e.2-11 Specify Dimension of Side Faces  Select <Dimension> toolbox and leave <General> as default.2-10 Impose Constraints  Click this segment and the vertical segment sequentially to make their lengths equal.  Click the vertical segment and move the mouse rightward to create this dimension. the radii of the arcs can be calculated from other dimensions.  Select <Equal Length> from <Constraints> toolbox  Click this segment and the vertical segment sequentially to make their lengths equal. Note that we didn't specify the radii of the arcs. indicating they are well de. After impose dimension in . gray to indicate an inconsistency. the arcs turns to blue.. indicating they are not well de.  Click the horizontal axis as the line of symmetry.ned..  Select <Symmetry>.  Type 40 for the dimension just created.64 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. after well de.e.ned yet (i.xed in the space). . Constraint Status Note the arcs have a greenishblue color.ned now.  Click the lower and upper arcs sequentially to make them symmetric. underconstrained). . Other color codes are: blue and black colors for well de. red color for over-constrained entities. 2.
Section 2. and then draw a box to select all entities inside the box. the segments turn to yellow.  Click roughly here to place the offset. . see 2.2-12 Create Offset  Select <Offset> from <Modify> toolbox.  Right-click-select <End selection/Place Offset> in the context menu.  Another way to select multiple entities is to switch the <Select Mode> to <Box Select>.  Sweep-select all the segments (sweep each segment while holding your left mouse button down.  Right-click-select <End> in the context menu. Sweep-select is also called paint-select.2 Step-by-Step: Triangular Plate 65 2. or press ESC. After selected.1-6). to close <Offset> tool.
Note that the 7llets are in greenish-blue color.  Click These two segments sequentially to create a 7llet. Type 10 (mm) for the <Radius>.  If necessary.  Type 30 for the dimension just created. If so. Repeat this step to create the other two 7llets. see .  It is possible that these two point become separate now. Note the offset turns to blue.66 Chapter 2 Sketching  Select <Horizontal> from <Dimension> toolbox. impose a <Coincident> constraint on them. indicating they are not well de7ned yet.2-13 Create Fillets  Select <Fillet> in <Modify> toolbox.  Click the two left arcs and move downward to create this dimension. 2. impose a <Coincident> on the separate points. .
2. . This action turns a "weak" dimension to a "strong" one.2 Step-by-Step: Triangular Plate 67  Click one of the 6llets and move upward to create this dimension.  Click <Generate>.2-14 Extrude to Create 3D Solid  Click <Extrude>. meaning they may be changed by imposing other constraints or dimensions.  Type 10 (mm) for <Depth>. The 6llets turn blue now.Section 2. to have a better view.  Click all plus signs (+) to expand and examine the <Tree Outline>.  Click the little cyan sphere to rotate the model in isometric view.  Select <Radius> from <Dimension> toolbox.  Click <Display Plane> to turn off the display of sketching plane.  Dimensions speci6ed in a toolbox are usually regarded as "weak" dimensions.
 Alternatively you can click <Save Project> in the <Workbench GUI>.2-15 Save the Project and Exit Workbench  Click <Save Project>.  Pull-down-select <File/Close DesignModeler> to close DesignModeler. .68 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. Type "Triplate" as project name.  Pull-down-select <File/Exit> to exit Workbench.
Whenever you mess up the workspace. and a part branch.  <Tree Outline>.  <Details View>. The <Tree Outline>  shares the same area with the <Sketching Toolboxes> . the tree representation of the geometric model. you can operate on the object. In-between are several "window panes".  Graphics area. You even can move or dock a pane by dragging its title bar. in <Modeling> mode.3 More Details 69 Section 2. you can click a tab to switch to <Print Preview>. Each leaf and branch of the tree is called an object. The graphics area  displays the model when in <Model View> mode.3-1 DesignModeler GUI The DesignModeler GUI is composed of several areas [1-7]. rename.  Mode tabs.3 More Details 2. duplicate. A model tree consists of planes. A separator  between two window panes can be dragged to resize the window panes.  A separator allow you to resize the window panes. Right-clicking an object and select a tool from the context menu.  Status bar Model Tree The <Tree Outline> contains an outline of the model tree. The <Details View>  shows the detail information of the geometry you currently work with. on the bottom is a status bar .  Pull-down menus and toolbars. A branch is an object containing one or more objects under itself. The parts are the only objects that are exported to <Mechanical>.Section 2. etc. features.  <Sketching Toolboxes> in <Sketching> mode. On the top are pull-down menus and toolbars . simply pull-down-select <View/Windows/Reset Layout> to reset the default layout. you switch between these two "modes" by clicking the "mode tab" . We will cover more details of DesignModeler GUI in Chapter 4. such as delete. .
Currently active plane is shown on the toolbar . if you want to add a new sketch on that plane. each plane may have multiple sketches on it.  Currently active sketching plane. we will not discuss how to create sketching planes further.  You can click <New Sketch> to create a sketch on the active sketching plane. If you want to insert a new object BEFORE an existing object. More on creating sketches will be discussed in Chapter 4.3-8 demonstrates another usage of planes. In the beginning of a DesignModeler session. There are many ways of creating a new plane . we only work with a single sketch which is on the <XYPlane>. 2. since we assume sketches are created on the <XYPlane>. In this chapter. In this chapter.3-2).  Active sketching plane can be changed using the pull-down list.> from the context menu. <YZPlane>. When a new sketch is created. or by selection from the <Tree Outline>.3-2 Sketching Planes Sketches are created on sketching planes. DesignModeler will re-render the geometry again.  Active sketch can be changed using the pulldown list. DesignModeler renders the geometry according to the order. there are dimensions and constraints imposed on these entities. Later. To create a new sketch on a plane on which there is yet no sketches.3-3 Sketches A sketch consists of points and edges. and newly created geometric entities are added to the active sketch. or by selection from the <Tree Outline>. . it becomes the active sketch.  Currently active plane is <XYPlane>  You can click <New Plane> to create a new plane. Along with these geometric entities. As mentioned (Section 2. New objects are normally added one-by-one before the parts branch. Section 4. you simply switch to <Sketching> mode and draw any geometric entities on it.. 2]: newly created sketches are added to the active plane.  You can choose many ways of creating a new plane.70 Chapter 2 Sketching The order of the objects is often relevant. Only one plane and one sketch is active at a time [1. edges may be straight lines or curves.  Currently active sketch. You can create new planes as needed . three planes are created automatically: <XYPlane>. After insertion. you need to click <New Sketch> . or simply planes. Usage of planes is not limited for storing sketches. and <ZXPlane>. 2. Each sketch must be associated with a plane. multiple sketches may be created on a plane.. right-click the existing object and select <Insert/. which will be discussed in Chapter 4.
<Dimensions>. The <Sketching Toolboxes> consists of .  <Modify> toolbox.2-5) the graphics can be zoomed in/out by simply rolling forward/backward your mouse wheel.3-4 Sketching Toolboxes When you switch to <Sketching> mode by clicking the mode tab (2.  <Settings> toolbox.ve toolboxes: <Draw>. . Look at the instruction whenever you wonder about what actions to do next.2-5) can be done by right-clicking and then dragging a rectangle in the graphics area. Pan. Before we jump to discuss each of the toolboxes. The <Box Zoom> (2. When you get use to these basic mouse actions. Zoom. Status Bar The status bar (2. <Modify>. and <Box Zoom> tools in the toolbar any more. many operations either require or are more ef.2-5). or select all entities and then delete them. pull-down-select <File/Start Over>. Most of the tools in the toolboxes are self-explained.3 More Details 71 2. The most ef.3-1).cient way to learn the tools is to try them out. <Constraints>. Besides the <Zoom> tool (2.3-1) contains instructions on completing each operations. Try to explore whatever available in the context menu. Context Menu While most of operations can be done by issuing commands using pull-down menus or toolbars.Section 2.cient using the context menu.rst.  <Constraints> toolbox. you probably don't need <Pan>. During the tryout.  <Dimensions> toolbox. they are sometimes useful. The context menu can be popped-up by right-clicking the graphics area or objects in the model tree.3-1).  <Draw> toolbox. whenever you want to clean up the graphics area. the graphics can be panned by dragging your mouse while holding down both control key and the middle mouse button. <Zoom>. some tips relevant to sketching are worth emphasizing . and <Settings> [1-5]. you will see a <Sketching Toolboxes> (2. as described in the rest of this section. and Box Zoom Besides the <Pan> tool (2. The coordinates of your mouse pointer are also shown in the status bar. Some tools need further explanation.
Note that while <Auto Constraints> can be useful. . you must right-click to open the context menu. arc. . both globally and locally. . either with >t points or without >t points. 2. The following cursor symbols indicate the kind of constraints that will be applied: C P H V // T R .The point is a perpendicular foot. .3-6 <Draw> Tools3 Line by 2 Tangents Select two curves.The circle's radius is equal to another circle's. While drawing. or spline. The difference is that a ?exible spline can be edited or changed by imposing constraints. . Remember that an edge can be a line or a curve. DesignModeler is in <Auto Constraints> mode. and the third click de>nes the radius.The point is coincident with a line. not just the active sketch. Circle by 3 Tangents Select three edges. DesignModeler is in <Auto Constraints> mode. a line tangent to these two curves will be created.  <Draw> toolbox. an arc starting from that point and tangent to that edge will be created. . they sometimes can lead to problems and add noticeable time on complicated sketches. both globally and locally. ellipse. The curves can be circle. . and select an option : either open end or closed end.The line is vertical. Oval The >rst two clicks de>ne the two centers. DesignModeler attempts to detect the user's intentions and try to automatically impose constraints on the points or edges.The line is parallel to another line.  By default. while <Global> mode examines all the entities in the active plane. After de>ning the last point.3-5 Auto Constraints1. while a rigid spline cannot.72 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. Spline A spline is either rigid or ?exible.The point is coincident with another point. You can turn them off whenever cause troubles. then a circle tangent to these three edges will be created.The line is horizontal. The difference is that <Cursor> mode only examines the entities nearby the cursor. Arc by Tangent Click a point on an edge. .The point is a tangent point. Both <Global> and <Cursor> modes are based on all entities of the active plane. Turn off them if desired . 2 By default. click a second point to de>ne the other end point of the arc.
<Split Edge at Selection>: you click an edge. Duplicate It is equivalent to <Replicate>. The clicking points decide which sides to be trimmed. <Split Edge into n Equal Segments>:You specify the value n. select them and right-click-select <Delete>. Replicate It is equivalent to a <Copy> followed a <Paste>. Drag Drag a point or an edge to a new position. You can insert.1-6 and 2.3-7 Corner <Modify> Tools4  <Modify> toolbox. etc. see the reference4. control-selection and sweep-selection. 2.  Context menu for <Spline Edit>. drag the 6t points. the edge will be split at the clicking point. Spline Edit It is used to modify 7exible splines. It is often used to duplicate plane boundaries. and select an edge.g. Move It is equivalent to a <Cut> followed by a <Paste>. can be used to select entities. the entities will be trimmed or extended up to the intersection point and form a sharp corner. To delete entities.. see Section 2. All the constraints and dimensions are preserved. Cut It is the same as <Copy>.3 More Details 73 Construction Point at Intersection Select two edges.  Context menu for <Split> tool. which can be lines or curves. Abort a Tool To cancel a tool in any of toolbox. the edge will be split equally into n segments.Section 2.2-12). <Split Edges at Point>: you click a point. except the originals are deleted. the edge will be split at all points on the edge. Split This tool split an edge into several segments depending on the options . a construction point will be created at the intersection. Multiple selection methods (e. except the entities are pasted on the same place as the originals and become part of the current sketch. all the edges passing through that point will be split at that point. . Click two entities. simply press <ESC>. Delete Entities There are no tools in the <Sketching Toolboxes> to delete entities.  Right-click and select one of the options to complete the <Spline> tool. <Split Edge at All Points>: you select an edge. delete. For details.
Select a point and an edge. Edit Click a dimension name or value. to make them tangent to each other. 2.3-8 <Dimensions> Tools5 Semi-Automatic This tool will display a series of dimensions automatically to help you fully dimension the sketch. Midpoint Select a line and then a point.  <Dimension> toolbox. Parallel It applies on two lines to make them parallel to each other.74 Chapter 2 Sketching 2.  <Constraints> toolbox. one of which must be a curve.3-9 <Constraints> Tools6 Fixed It applies on any entity to make it fully constrained. Vertical It applies on a line to make it vertical. Tangent It applies on two edges. Horizontal It applies on a line to make it horizontal. If select 2 lines. the lines will form the same angle with the line of symmetry. it allows you to change its name or value. . There are other possibilities. the midpoint of the line will coincide with the point. Symmetry Select a line or an axis. Perpendicular It applies on two edges to make them perpendicular to each other. and either select 2 points or 2 lines. depending on how you select the entities. Coincident Select two points to make them coincident. If select 2 points. the points will be symmetric about the line of symmetry. the edge or its extension will pass through the point. as the line of symmetry.
which may be circle or arc. arc.  If you turn on the snap capability. 4. 5. which may be circle. you can specify the snap spacing. ANSYS Help System>DesignModeler>2D Sketching>Auto Constraints ANSYS Help System>DesignModeler>2D Sketching>Constraints Toolbox>Auto Constraints ANSYS Help System>DesignModeler>2D Sketching>Draw Toolbox ANSYS Help System>DesignModeler>2D Sketching>Modify Toolbox ANSYS Help System>DesignModeler>2D Sketching>Dimensions Toolbox ANSYS Help System>DesignModeler>2D Sketching>Constraints Toolbox ANSYS Help System>DesignModeler>2D Sketching>Settings Toolbox . 2. 7.  If you turn on the grid display. you can specify the grid spacing.3-10 <Settings> Tools7  <Settings> toolbox. Equal Radius It applies on two curves.  You can turn on the snap capability. to make their centers coincident. or one point and one line.Section 2. two parallel lines. Equal Length It applies on two lines to make their lengths equal. 6. References 1. Equal Distance It applies on two distances to make them equal.3 More Details 75 Concentric It applies on two curves. or ellipse.  You can turn on the grid display. to make their radii equal. 3. 2. A distance can be de6ned by selecting two points.
M20x2.5 H 8 p 32 External threads (bolt) 60o Internal threads (nut)  The threaded bolt created in this exercise. The 2D model is then used for a static structural simulation. In Section 3.  Nominal diameter d = 20 mm.2.294 mm  Calculation of detail sizes. H 4 p 11 p = 27.5 mm.165 mm d1 = d (5 8)H 2 =17. we will use this sketch again to generate a 2D solid model.5 Threaded Bolt Consider a pair of threaded bolt and nut.76 Chapter 2 Sketching Section 2.  Metric system.  Pitch p = 2. This exercise is to created a sketch and revolve the sketch 360 to generate a solid body for a portion of the bolt  threaded with M20x2. The bolt has external threads while the nut has internal threads.4-1 About the M20x2.4 Exercise: M20x2. Minor diameter of internal thread d1 Nominal diameter d .5 Threaded Bolt 2.5 H d d1  Thread standards.5 [2-6]. H = ( 3 2)p = 2.
Save the project as "Threads. and 2. Note that.  You may impose a <Parallel> constraint on this line instead of specifying the angle. 60o. For example.4-2 Draw a Horizontal Line Launch <Workbench>. Draw a horizontal line on the <XYPlane>. 2.5 Threads 77 2.  Draw a horizontal line with dimensions as shown." Start up <DesignModeler>.Section 2.4-3 Draw a Polyline Draw a polyline (totally 3 segments) and specify dimensions (30o.4 Exercise: M20x2. Specify the dimensions as shown . 0. 60o. Select <Millimeter> as length unit. we explicitly specify all the dimensions. using <Parallel> constraint in stead of specifying an angle dimension . You may apply constraints instead. . to avoid confusion. Create a <Geometry> System.165) as shown below.541.
4-4 Draw Fillets Draw two vertical lines and specify their positions (0. 2.  Tangent point. impose a <Tangent> constraint on the arc and one of its tangent line .271 and 0.541).4-6 Replicate 10 Times Select all segments except the horizontal one (totally 4 segments).  Set Paste Handle at this point.4-5 Trim Unwanted Segments  The sketch after trimming.  <Selection Filter: Points>. . Draw an arc using <Arc by 3 Points>. and replicate 10 times.78 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. 2. If the arc is not in blue color. You may need to manually set the paste handle . You may also need to use the tool <Selection Filter: Points> .
We will resume this project again in Section 3. 2. Michels.. Macmillan Publishing Co. You can trim it after next step. and Wilson. A. Inc. 1992. Prentice-Hall. References 1.  Specify this dimension.4-7 Complete the Sketch Follow the steps [1-5] to complete the sketch.5 Threads 79 2. Section 16-6.  Draw this vertical segment.. C. After step . D.4 Exercise: M20x2. Note that.  Draw this horizontal segment.4-8 Revolve to Create 3D Solid Revolve the sketch to generate a solid of revolution. Deutschman. 1975. which passes through the origin. Threaded Fasteners.  Draw this segment..Section 2. you don't need to worry about the length.2. E.. E. The Finite Element Method in Machine Design. Zahavi. Chapter 7. Standard Screw Threads.  Create this segment by using <Replicate>.. in step . you can trim the vertical segment created in step . Save the project and exit from the Workbench.. J. Select the Y-axis as the axis of revolution. 2. W. . Machine Design:Theory and Practice.
 Common tangent of the pitch circles.  Contact point (pitch point).  The shaft has a radius of 1.  The driving gear rotates clockwise. The 8llet has a radius of 0.  Pitch circle rp = 2. you may skip the 8rst two subsections and jump directly to Subsection 2.  Pitch circle of the driving gear.  Dedendum rd = 2. Spur gears have their teeth cut parallel to the axis of the shaft on which the gears are mounted.  The driven gear rotates counterclockwise.5-3. In order that two meshing gears maintain a constant angular velocity ratio. In addition.  The 8llet has a radius of 0.  Addendum ra = 2. The parameters de8ning a spur gear are its pitch radius (rp = 2. The thickness of the gear is 1.5 Exercise: Spur Gears Geometric details of spur gears are important for a mechanical engineer. . This 8xed point is called the pitch point .5 in.2 in . However. pressure angle ( = 20o) . The angle between the line of action and the common tangent  is known as the pressure angle . Spur gears are used to transmit power between parallel shafts.0 in.  Line of action (common normal of contacting gears). and number of teeth (N = 20).75 in  and a radius of dedendum rd = 2. they must satisfy the fundamental law of gearing: the shape of the teeth must be such that the common normal at the point of contact between two teeth must always pass through a 8xed point on the line of centers1 . The pressure angle is 20o.1 in .1 in. 2.75 in.5 in) .25 in .  Line of centers. the teeth are cut with a radius of addendum ra = 2.80 Chapter 2 Sketching Section 2.5-1 About the Spur Gears The 8gure below shows a pair of identical spur gears in mesh [1-12]. if you are not concerned about these geometric details for now.25 in. The shaft has a radius of 1.2 in.
= cos 1 b (1) (2)  An arbitrary point on the involute curve. this length is the pitch radius rp. consider an arbitrary point A  on the involute curve. r r (5) O  Line of centers. called the base circle . CP CDEF = . or tan rb rb 1 = + 1 . rp rb rb cos  Base circle. y = r cos (8) . To calculate . Given the gear's pitch radius rp and pressure angle . we want to calculate its polar coordinates (r. then the above equation can be written as = (tan ) The last term 1 BCD EF BCD rb EF rb 1 (6) is the angle EOF .  Line of action. The polar coordinates can be easily transformed to rectangular coordinates. ) . Since APF is an involute curve and BCDEF is the base circle. using O as origin and OP as y-axis. r= Or equivalently. we can calculated the coordinates of each point on the involute curve. The involute curve may be constructed by wrapping a string around a cylinder.5-2 About Involute Curves To satisfy the fundamental law of gearing.5 Exercise: Spur Gears 81 2. we notice that DE = BCDEF Dividing the equation with rb and using Eq. by the de8nition of involute curve.  Involute curve. and F is a foot of perpendicular. (3-7) are all we need to calculate polar coordinates (r. A  Contact point (pitch point). and then tracing the path of a point on the string. (1). P (3) D C r (4) B rb rb E F 1  Common tangent of pitch circles. DE BA = rb rb If radian is used. ) . which can be calculated by dividing Eq. as shown in the 8gure. most of gear pro8les are cut to an involute curve . or (7) = (tan ) Eqs. BA = BC + CP = BCDEF CP = CDEF From OCP .Section 2. For example. (2) with rb . x = r sin . Note that BA and CP are tangent lines of the base circle. rb = rp cos From OBA .
01971 0. Notice that. (2) and (7).000000 0. Create a <Geometry> system. (6) and (7). degrees -0. Note that the dimension values display three digits after decimal point." Start up <DesignModeler>.00000 0. Impose a <Coincident> constraint on the Y-axis for the point which has a Y-coordinate of 2. however. we translated the unit to degrees.690287 x -0. from Eqs. keeping <Flexible> option on. in using Eqs.867481 27. Save the project as "Gear.321258 Eq. (5).01490438 The calculated coordinates are listed in the table below. but that would be not so easy.06878 0. in the table below.5cos 20o = 2. .387049 0.750000 Eq.349232 in = tan 20o 1 20o 180o = 0. Select <Inch> as length unit. and close the spline with <Open End>.82 Chapter 2 Sketching Numerical Calculations In our case. degrees 0.349232 2.64892 2. radian is used as the unit of angles. 2.44937 2.5-3 Draw an Involute Curve Launch <Workbench>.442933 1.500.487291 2. Draw six <Construction Points> and specify dimensions as shown (the vertical dimensions are measured down to the X-axis).500000 2.03501 -0.853958 -0.549616 2.444249 20.649808 2.  Y-axis.12908 y 2. r in.449424 2. rb = 2.000000 22. and pressure angle = 20o . Connect these six points using <Spline> tool.000000 16.54954 2. (4).34897 2. Start to draw sketch on the XYPlane. the pitch radius rp = 2. but we actually typed with @ve digits (refer to the above table).01655 0. Note that you could draw <Spline> directly without creating <Construction Points> @rst.5 in.555054 31.50000 2.74697 2.
5-5 Complete the Pro4le Draw a line starting from the lowest construction point.Section 2. Draw a 4llet  of radius 0.25 in) and the dedendum circle (2.5-4 Draw Circles Draw three circles [1-3].  Let addendum circle "snap" to the outermost construction point. Let the addendum circle "snap" to the outermost construction point . 2. and make it perpendicular to the dedendum circle [1-2].  This segment is a straight line and perpendicular to the dedendum circle.1 in to complete the pro4le of a tooth.  Dedendum circle. Specify radii for the circle of shaft (1. when drawing the line.2 in).5 Exercise: Spur Gears 83 2.  Dedendum circle.  This 4llet has a radius of 0. avoid a <V> auto-constraint. Note that.1 in.  The circle of shaft. .
type 18 (degrees) for <r>. Select the pro:le (totally 3 segments).  <Save Project> . each spans by 18 degrees. End the <Replicate> tool. As the geometric entities is getting more and complicated. type 9 (degrees) for <r>. depending on your hardware con:guration. Select both left and right pro:les (totally 6 segments).5-6 Replicate the Pro:le Activate <Replicate> tool. <Use Plane Origin as Handle>.  Replicated pro:le. <Rotate by r degrees>. Note that the gear has 20 teeth. Repeat the last two steps (rotating and pasting) until :ll-in a full circle (totally 20 teeth). and <Paste at Plane Origin>. <Use Plane Origin as Handle>.84 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. the computer's processing time may be getting slower. <Flip Horizontal>. Save your project once a while by clicking the <Save Project> tool in the toolbar. and <Paste at Plane Origin>. The angle between the pitch points on the left and the right pro:les is 9 degrees. <Rotate by r degrees>. 2.5-7 Replicate Pro:les 19 Times Activate <Replicate> tool again.
E. . Save the project and exit from <Workbench>. References 1.0 inch to create a 3D solid as shown. Spur Gears.Section 2.4. W. The Finite Element Method in Machine Design.. Deutschman. 2. Chapter 9. C.. Zahavi. Chapter 10. D.5-9 Extrude to Create 3D Solid Extrude the sketch 1.. E. Michels. Machine Design:Theory and Practice.5-8 Trim Away Unwanted Segments Trim away unwanted portion on the addendum circle and the dedendum circle.5 Exercise: Spur Gears 85 2... Prentice-Hall. 2. A. J. Spur Gears. 1975. 1992. and Wilson. We will resume this project again in Section 3. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc..
87 47 176 280 400 144  Glass bead.6 Exercise: Microgripper 2..86 Chapter 2 Sketching Section 2. we will create a solid model for the microgripper. 480 .6-1 About the Microgripper Many manipulators are designed as mechanisms. etc. The microgripper discussed here [1-2] is a structure rather than a mechanism.3 to assess the gripping forces on the glass bead under the actuation of SMA actuator.  Actuation direction. see Section 1. and the temperature is in turn controlled by electric current. In this section. sliding joints. they consist of bodies connected by joints. In the lab.1-1). The device is actuated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator . 212  Gripping direction. rather than the joints. The model will be used for simulation in Section 13. of which the motion is caused by temperature change. and the motions are mostly governed by the laws of rigid body kinematics. that is. 92 D30 Unit: m Thickness: 300 m R45 R25 20 77 140 32  SMA actuator. the microgripper is tested by gripping a glass bead of a diameter of 30 micrometer . the mobility are provided by the 4exibility of the materials. such as revolute joints. The microgripper is made of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane.
 Extrude both sides symmetrically. Now we have half of the gripper . Select <Micrometer> as length unit.  Before trimming. Trim away unwanted segments as shown below . Create a <Geometry> system. Save the project as "Microgripper.  After trimming.Section 2. Note that two of the three circles have equal radii. Start to draw sketch on the XYPlane. Extrude the sketch 150 microns both sides of the plane symmetrically (total depth is 300 microns) . . Note that we drew half of the model. Draw the sketch as shown on the right side .6-2 Create Half of the Model Launch <Workbench>.6 Exercise: Microgripper 87 2.  Half of the gripper." Start up <DesignModeler>. due to the symmetry.
3. save the project and exit <Workbench>.  Select the <YZPlane> in the model tree and click <Apply>.  If <Apply/Cancel> doesn't appear.  Pull-downselect <Create/Body Operation>.6-3 Create the Bead Create a new sketch on XYPlane and draw a semicircle as shown [1-4]. We will resume this project in Section 13. 2. Revolve the sketch 360 degrees to create the glass bead. Wrap Up  Remember to specify the dimension. Close <DesignModeler>. Rename two bodies .  The semicircle can be created by creating a full circle and then trim it using the axis.  Click <Generate>.  Select the solid body and click <Apply>. clicking the yellow area will make it appear.  Right-click to rename two bodies. see next step.  Remember to close the sketch by draw the vertical line.6-2 Mirror Copy the Solid Body  The default type is <Mirror> (mirror copy).  Remember to impose a <Tangent> constraint here. .88 Chapter 2 Sketching 2. Note that the two bodies are treated as two parts. If <Apply> doesn't appear.
features. Sketching Plane The plane on which a sketch is created.7 Problems 2. arc. an edges may be a (straight) line or a curve. . Each sketch must be associated with a plane. in which their order is important. not just active sketch. Dimensions and constraints may be imposed on these entities. Model Tree A model tree is the structured representation of a geometry and displayed on the <Tree Outline> in DesignModeler. Object A leaf or branch of a model tree is called an object. A model tree consists of planes. Usage of planes is not limited for storing sketches. by default. and a part branch.7 Problems 89 Section 2.7-1 Key Concepts Sketching Mode An environment under DesignModeler. Edge In <Sketching Mode>. Branch A branch is an object of a model tree and consists one or more objects under itself. con8gured for creating 3D or 2D bodies. or spline. Auto Constraints While drawing in <Sketching Mode>. DesignModeler attempts to detect the user's intentions and try to automatically impose constraints on points or edges. con8gured for drawing sketches on planes. Modeling Mode An environment under DesignModeler. Sketch A sketch consists of points and edges. ellipse. The contents of the menu depend on what you click. Context Menu The menu that pops up when you right-click your mouse. <Auto Constraints> can be switched on/off in the <Constraints> toolbox. The parts are the only objects exported to <Mechanical>. A curve may be a circle. each plane may have multiple sketches on it. Detection is performed over entities on the active plane.Section 2.
Constraint Status In <Sketching> mode.e. blue and black for well constrained (i.7-2 Workbench Exercises Create the Triangular Plate with Your Own Way After so many exercises. there are two selection 5lters which corresponding to points and edges respectively.2) on your own. Paste Handle A reference point used in a copy/paste operation. red for over-constrained. entities are color coded to indicate their constrain status: greenish-blue for under-constrained. gray for inconsistent. In <Sketching> Mode. Can you 5gure out a more ef5cient way? . 5xed in the space). When a selection 5lter is turned on/off. face and body selection 5lters are available in <Modeling Mode>..90 Chapter 2 Sketching Selection Filter A selection 5lter 5lters one type of geometric entities. the corresponding type of entities become selectable/unselectable. 2. The point is de5ned during copying and will be aligned at a speci5ed location when pasting. you should be able to 5gure out an alternative way of creating the geometric model for the triangular plate (Section 2. Along with these two 5lters.
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