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PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL FRAMEWORK PLAN 2008-2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS A. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Historical Background 2. Plan Objectives and Context 2.1 Objectives of the PDPFP 2.2 Context of the PDPFP 3. Coverage of the Plan 3.1 Historical Coverage 3.2 Geographical Coverage 3.3 Sectoral Coverage 4. Outline of the Plan 4.1 Vision 4.2 Planning Environment 4.3 Development Issues/Problems, Goals, Objectives and Targets 4.4 Strategies, Plans, Programs and Activities VISION THE PLANNING ENVIRONMENT 1. Location, Land Area and Political Subdivisions 2. Population and Settlements 2.1 Population: Regional and National Context 2.2 Population Size, Density and Growth Rate 2.3 Existing Settlement Pattern 2.4 Summary 3. Physical Resources 3.1 General Land and Water Characteristics and Resources 3.2 Land Use Potentials and Constraints 4. Economy 4.1 Economic Structure 4.2 Potentials for Contributing to Local Economic Growth 4.3 Local Factors 4.4 Summary 5. Transportation, Access and Circulation 5.1 External Linkages 5.2 Internal Circulation 6. Income, Employment, Service Access and Poverty 6.1 Employment and Unemployment Rates and Trends 6.2 Family Income 6.3 Social Services 6.4 Utility/Infrastructure Services 6.5 Other Services and Facilities 6.6 Poverty 7. Land Use and Physical Framework 7.1 Existing Land Use, Trends 7.2 Physical framework 7.3 The Overall Physical Framework Plan, 2008-2013 1 6 6 6 8 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 11 14 18 18 20 27 33 35 35 44 55 55 64 74 76 77 77 82 85 85 86 88 106 118 120 124 124 127 133
DEVELOPMENT ISSUES, GOALS, OBJECTIVES/TARGETS 1. Development Issues and Problems 2. Development Goal and Objectives STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES 1. Strategies, Programs and Projects 2. Summary of Strategies and PPAs
153 160 163 163
LIST OF MAPS Map 1 Map 2 Map 3 Map 4a Map 5a Map 5b Map 6 Map 7 Map 8 Map 9 Map 10 Map 11 Map 12 Map 14 Map 15 Map 16 Map 17 Map 18 Map 19 Map 20 Map 22 Map 24 Map 25 Map 26 Map 27 Map 29 Map 28 Map 31 Region VI, Western Visayas Province Map Density Map, Guimaras, 1995,2000, 2007 Annual Population Growth Rate, 1995-2000, 20002007 Built-Up Areas Existing Hierarchy of Settlements Slope Map Bathymetric Map Geologic Map Climate Map Land Classification Map Land Suitability Map Tsunami Hazard Map Protection Areas Map Production Areas External Linkages and Internal Circulation Routes Health Facilities Location of Education Facilities Location of Housing Facilities Location of Security Facilities Location of Water and Sanitation Facilities Location of Power Facilities Location of Solid Waste Facilities Location of Indigenous People Existing Land Use Initial Settlement Growth Map Initial Settlement Growth and Protection Map Agri-Tourism Circuit Map Settlements Framework Production Framework Protection Framework Overall Physical Framework 16 17 23 26 29 32 36 38 40 43 45 47 53 54 63 81 95 103 104 105 108 111 112 123 126 131 132 141 150 147 151 152
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Table 3 Table 4 Land Area of Municipalities, Province of Guimaras 15 Region VI, Population, Annual Population Growth Rate 20 Density, Area, by Province, Philippines, 1995, 2000 & 2007 Population, Annual Population Growth Rate, Density, 21 Area, by Municipality, Province of Guimaras, 1995, 2000 & 2007 Population Shares, by Municipality, Province of 22 Guimaras, 1995, 2000 & 2007 Estimated Population and Density, By Municipality, 25 Province of Guimaras, 2013 Land Classification, by Hectare and Percentage Share 44 to Total Provincial Land Data Matrix: Total Family Income (Php) by Households 56 Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 Joint Probability: Shares of Total Family Income (%) 57 by Households Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 Concentration: Total Family Income (%) by Households Head, by 59 Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 Specialization: Total Family Income (%) by Household 59 Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 Joint Probability: Share of Family Income by Household 61 Head, by Kind of Business./Industry, 2000 Wholesale/Retail Trade: Share of Total Family Income 62 by HH Head Business Industry, Region VI, 2000 Specialization: Guimaras Shares of Total Family 62 Income by HH Head Business/Industry 2000 Local Quotients: Total Family Income (%) by 66 Household Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 Employment and Unemployment Rates, by Province, 86 Region VI, 2000 & 2003 Total Number of Families, Total and Average Family 87 Income By Province, Region VI and Philippines, 1997 and 2000 Local Service Standards 114 Existing Land Use Distribution 124 Land Use Data: 2004 and 2008 127 Summary Description & Comparison of Vision, Goal, Objective, Strategy, Programs and Projects Issues/Problems, Goals, and Objectives/Targets Strategies, Programs and Projects Derived from Income & Access to Services Strategies, Programs and Projects Derived from Land Use/Physical Resources Summary Matrix
Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 11 Table 12
Table 13 Table 14 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17
Table 18 Table Table Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24
A. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Historical Background
In 1521, after the defeat of Ferdinand Magellan, the Spanish survivors aboard three vessels went to Leyte to undergo some repairs. Later they abandoned one of the vessels named Concepcion in Bohol for being unseaworthy and sailed towards the nearby islands of Negros and Panay.
R. Morales, an author of the book “The Augustinians in Panay” published in 1987, believed that the Spaniards must have cruised close to the southern coasts of Negros and Panay. The utterly homesick Portuguese mariner could have given the name Guimaraez to that small island lying very near to Panay’s southeast shores, in order to immortalize in this part of the world the first capital of the country and the birthplace of Portuguese nationality: Guimaraez. Guimaras was cited in numerous documents and books on natives who are “masters in building all kinds of ships.” It was also mentioned in the “Relation by Loarca of the Philippine Islands” by Blair and Robertson that the island was rich in products such as wood, stone for construction, wax and honey. In the latter years, the natives harvested rice, corn, tobacco, and some coffee and cacao. It was also recognized as important in fishing and agricultural
industries in the book “The Philippine Islands Ecclesiastical Affairs, 16381640”.
The beauty of the island attracted attention. Gonzales:
As related by Sonza and
“The Spaniards headed by Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa who established the first Spanish settlement in Arevalo were struck by the beautiful sceneries in the island. They noticed that its verdant mountains abounded with forest timbers, limestone for building purposes, and excellent hunting and fishing grounds.
During the 19th century, two outstanding foreigners visiting Iloilo made favorable comments about Guimaras. One was Sir John Bowring, the British Governor of Hong Kong, scholar, and author of the famous book, “A Visit To The Philippines.” Bowring came in 1859 and noted that Guimaras was a blessing to the newly opened port of Iloilo by making it safe to navigation. The second foreign visitor was Dean C. Worcester who later became a member of the Philippine Commission during the American Regime. Worcester came in 1887, while a zoology professor at the University of Michigan, to collect specimens of Philippine fauna. He wrote, “Guimaras is extremely beautiful. During the month we remained in Salag Dako, we not only regained our health but also gathered much valuable materials.”
The Christianization of the people of Guimaras was started almost simultaneously with those of Iloilo. For this purpose, the Spaniards organized pueblocitos (villages) of Nayup, with San Pedro Apostol as patron saint; Nabilhan with San Juan Bautista as patron saint; and Igang whose patron saint was Santa Ana. For a long time these small villages formed a “visita” of Oton. Governor General Dasmariñas reported to the King of Spain on June 20, 1591 that Oton had two friars, one of whom was assigned to visit Guimaras from time to time. In the 18th century, it was annexed to the parish of Iloilo. During this period, the island was frequently raided by pirates and the growth of population was slow.
In 1742, the island fell under the jurisdiction of Dumangas up to 1751 when the Augustinian Order gave way to the Jesuits. In 1768, the Dominicans took over from the Jesuits the spiritual jurisdiction over Guimaras. Then in 1775, it was organized into the regular parish with Iloilo. Still later, the three villages mentioned earlier were formed into a single parish. Finally, when the population had increased considerably, the island was given its municipal status with seat of government in Tilad, now, Buenavista, and the old town site was in what is now called Old Poblacion.
When Guimaras became a municipality before the turn of the century, the first captain del pueblo was Eugenio Tarrazona. Those who succeeded him as chief executive of Buenavista, the mother town of the three municipalities in the Sub-province were Manuel Garganera, Pedro Zaldivar, Marcelino Gabiazon, Jacinto Gabinete, Mariano Martir and Sergio Consing.
The American Regime brought faster progress to the island. In 1908, the Guimarasnons were given the right to elect their municipal president and Manuel Garganera was the first elected president. One great American military genius, General Douglas MacArthur left an indelible mark in Guimaras. Fresh from West Point as a 2nd Lieutenant at the age of 23, he came to Iloilo as the head of the company of the Corps of Engineers. In Iloilo, he constructed roads and the wharf along Muelle Loney from Arroyo Street to the place of the Compania Maritima Building. He had his headquarters in Guimaras at Camp Jossman in Barrio Supang Buenavista. The monuments of his stay in the island are the Sto. Rosario wharf and the road from Sto. Rosario to Supang. In constructing these public works, MacArthur utilized the labor of native laborers in addition to that of army engineers. The wharf is still in use after more than seventy years. Last December 29, 1992, a resolution was passed by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan changing the name Sto. Rosario Wharf to Gen. MacArthur’s Wharf in memory of Gen. Douglas MacArthur. The development of Guimaras and the steady growth of its population necessitated the splitting of the island town into municipalities in 1918. Barrio Nagaba became the Municipality of Jordan with Valeriano Villanueva as the first Municipal Mayor and Licerio Segovia as Vice Mayor. The third municipality, Nueva Valencia, was created in 1941 with Florentino Gallopa as the first town executive.
These three municipalities remained integral parts of the province of Iloilo until the creation of Guimaras into a Sub-province on June 18, 1966 per Republic Act 4667, thereby giving the island more governmental autonomy, under the
initiative and leadership of Senator Rodolfo Ganzon and Congressman Fermin Caram, Jr.
Governor Antonio G. Ortiz was the first appointed and eventually elected governor of the Sub-province. His original designation was LieutenantGovernor but was later changed to Governor by virtue of Republic Act No. 5682 which was approved on June 21, 1969. On July 1, 1984, Governor Antonio G. Ortiz filed a leave of absence and designated Atty. Gualterio B. Gelvezon as Officer-in-Charge of Guimaras. The designation was officially concurred by Minister Jose A. Roño of the Ministry of Local Government. Unfortunately, Governor Ortiz succumbed to his lingering illness and died on July 17, 1984. Governor Conrado J. Norada, by virtue of Section 2140 of the Revised Administrative Code assumed the power and function as Governor of Guimaras, at the same time Governor of the Province of Iloilo. On October 1, 1984, Governor Leopoldo H. Locsin, by virtue of an appointment issued by President Marcos assumed the post as Governor of Guimaras until October 23, 1986 when Dr. Catalino G. Nava acting on the designation issued by Local Government Minister Aquilino Pimentel assumed the position of OIC Governor. On November 3, 1986, a new OIC Governor was designated in the person of Abelardo D. Javellana, the former Buenavista Mayor who served the people of Guimaras until February 1, 1988.
The second and eventually last elected Governor of the Sub-province was Dr. Catalino G. Nava. During his term, the Sub-province was converted into a full-fledged and regular province of Guimaras on May 22, 1992 . He served his fellow Guimarasnons until June 30, 1992. The euphoria that the Guimarasnons have felt on the conversion of the island into a Province following the overwhelming “YES” vote in the plebiscite conducted for the purpose simultaneous with the national election on May 11, 1992 has barely subsided when the new set of Provincial Officials appointed by the President to help steer the development of the place have bucked down to work on July 17, 1992. This new autonomous political status of the
island with the able leadership of its first appointed governor, Emily R. Lopez is believed to usher an era of better progress and prosperity to the place.
By virtue of Republic Act No. 7896 and 7897, which was approved by President Ramos on February 20, 1995, two (2) additional municipalities, Sibunag and San Lorenzo were created in the Province.
The Province of Guimaras is composed of five municipalities namely: Buenavista, Jordan, Nueva Valencia, San Lorenzo and Sibunag. It has a total population of 151,238 in 2007 census.
2.0. Plan Objectives and Context
2.1 Objectives of the PDPFP
The PDPFP is the blueprint which guides the development of the province. It aims to define the direction and priority thrust that the provincial government and its five component municipalities shall pursue to attain the vision. The plan’s specific objectives are to:
a. Formulate the overall vision of the province that reflects the aspirations of all sectors. b. Provide the analytical basis for understanding existing conditions and identifying key development issues, problems, opportunities, goals, objectives, and targets of the province. The analysis gives special emphasis on the unique and sensitive island-ecosystem of Guimaras. c. Translate the provincial vision into implementable strategies towards the attainment of goals, objectives and targets. d. Identify priority programs and projects and activities based on the strategies and which should serve as inputs to the PDIP.
2.2 Context of the PDPFP
The PDPFP is a key link in the network of plans covering the national, regional, provincial, and municipal levels. It serves as the intermediate link between the regional and municipal levels plans. Within this framework,
policies enunciated at the top levels of government are translated into a lower level provincial plan to be more responsive to unique and distinct local conditions.
Provincial level plans and investment programs are linked vertically to corresponding plans at the regional and municipal levels. In turn, regional plans and programs must relate to corresponding plans at the national level. The PDPFP therefore serves as the vertical link that translates regional and national priorities into provincial development objectives. As such, the 10
Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs) derived from the PDPFP are the bases for the multi-year development program (PDIP) and the annual investment program (AIP). allocations for PPAs. The AIP serves as the basis for budgetary
3.0 Coverage of the Plan
3.1. Historical Coverage
The PDPFP is a medium-term development plan guided by a long-term vision. Its planning analyses extend beyond the medium term to consider longer-term trends. This is particularly significant in the land use and physical framework components which require a longer planning horizon. The physical framework of the plan will extend beyond the medium term period. The PDPFP is
intended to coincide with two three-year political terms of the Governor and aligned with a full term of the national leadership. After the first three years, the plan is subject to a mid-term review, in part to establish targets for the second half of the coverage.
The proposed PPAs of the PDPFP are intended to form part of a six-year medium-term development plan with firmed up targets for the first three years to align with the priorities of elective officials. 3.2 Geographical Coverage
The political boundaries of the province define the primary level of geographical analysis. Other provinces in Region 6, the host region as well as the host region itself, and the country as a whole, are also included as benchmarks in some of the analyses as part of the comparative analytical methodology.
disaggregation but selected analysis on population deal with barangay level data. Geographically delineated areas such as watersheds, river basins,
coastal zones and municipal waters were also utilized.
3.3 Sectoral Coverage
The planning environment of the PDPFP includes all major sectors relevant to the development of the province. The actual coverage depends on the
stakeholder priorities and assessments which is a result of a multi-stakeholder approach. As much as possible, and in order to establish comparability and context, sectoral data should be consistent with regional/national and municipal data.
The traditional sectors that typically serve as templates for public sector planning analysis and implementation, the core elements correspond as shown in the following table:
Core element Population Economic Activity
Sector Population Agriculture, fishery, forestry Trade, industry, services Tourism Environment, natural resources Transport Health Education Housing Social Welfare Public Works Energy Security Other sectors(children,elderly,indigenous people,gender, etc) Physical Integration of all sectors
Physical Resources Income/Services
Outline of the Plan
The contents and structure of the PDPPF are as follows:
The Guimaras’ vision was formulated through a multi-
stakeholder, participatory process and reflects the aspirations of the province’s constituents. The vision elements were carefully crafted to build on the island’s inherent assets and how this will be utilized for the benefit of the Guimarasnons. 4.2 Planning Environment: A comprehensive description and analyses
of the social, economic, and physical environment of the province that provides the sound understanding of the development challenges, issues and concerns as well as opportunities and potentials. This serves as the basis for identifying subsequent courses of action to address the issues, concerns and development challenges while also utilizing potentials and opportunities for development. 4.3 Development Issues/Problems, Goals, Objectives and Targets.
Discussions of issues and concerns that need to be addressed and the corresponding goals, objectives and targets to address such negative conditions. 4.4 Strategies, Plans, Programs and Activities. In response to the
issues, concerns, opportunities and potentials discussed in the planning environment, responsive strategies are identified to accomplish objectives.
“Guimaras is the agri-tourism capital of the region with empowered, self-reliant and healthy families in a progressive economy anchored on the principles of sustainable development”
Role of the Province in the Region/Nation
Guimaras is the Agri-Tourism Capital in the Region and a major tourist destination in the country
Producer of high value agricultural crops particularly the world-famous “Guimaras Mango” and fishery products
A transshipment hub and seaport province that links Panay and Negros
A metro residential suburb providing low cost and high-end housing facilities
Vision Elements, Descriptors and Success Indicators
As agreed among the stakeholders, these are the descriptors of the development vision which is centered on the families and which spelled out the direction and role of Guimaras in the development of the region, as well as the principles which will guide the province in pursuing its vision.
Empowered and self-reliant families of Guimaras means they are responsible and participative in the development process all families have income above the poverty line majority of the family members possess life skills all working age family members employed all 16-60 years old family members completed at least secondary education
Healthy in all aspects (physical, mental, emotional, spiritual) families means 0 mortality caused by preventable diseases low morbidity rate decreased crude death rate 100% of families with standard dwelling units all families eat complete and balanced meals 0 malnutrition rate harmonious relationship in every family and among families in the community families safely live in crime-free and child-friendly communities
Progressive means the economy of the province is globally competitive where high quality agricultural and fishery products are produced tourist destinations offer unique experiences, and there is increased market share of Guimaras in the regional and national tourist arrivals. This also necessitates the provision of support infrastructures which are adequate meaning all households are sufficiently provided or have access to, efficient which implies convenience, faster and durable, and environmentally- compliant.
It is also envisioned that the progress of Guimaras is sustainable, as indicated by increased investments, and increased number of viable Small and Medium Enterprises (SME)
All of these are anchored on sustainable development which implies among others that the environment of Guimaras is
Wholesome and tourist-friendly, as indicated by pollution levels that are below or within tolerable level or limits; very minimal solid
waste; protected, conserved and rehabilitated coastal areas; and protected marine sanctuaries. Ecologically balanced wherein there is increased forest cover, reduced soil erosion, preserved or flourishing flora and fauna, and judicious utilization of land and mineral resources by everyone concerned.
It also stresses that the kind of development that will be pursued promotes economic development without jeopardizing the integrity of the Guimaras environment and use of resources is done with due considerations for the needs of future generations.
It has to be realized that all of these will be catalyzed by a capable, responsive, effective and efficient governance of development institutions.
C. THE PLANNING ENVIRONMENT
1. Location, Land Area and Political Subdivisions
The island province of Guimaras lies southeast of Panay Island and northwest of Negros Island. It lies between 10°25'00" and 10°46'09" north latitude, and 122°28'20.99" and 122°28'40.53" east longitude. The island is separated
from Panay by the 1.5 nautical mile long Iloilo Strait and acts as a natural breakwater for Iloilo. The six nautical mile Guimaras Strait likewise separates the province from Negros.
The lone district of Guimaras is composed of five municipalities namely: Buenavista, Jordan, Nueva Valencia, San Lorenzo and Sibunag. Jordan serves as the capital town.
The municipalities of San Lorenzo and Sibunag were created in 1995 by virtue of R.A. 7897 and R.A. 7896, respectively.
Guimaras has a total of 98 barangays, as approved by the NSCB Executive Board sometime in 2003 based on the July 19, 1999 decision of the Regional Trial Court, 6th Judicial Region, Branch 65, San Miguel, Jordan and the DILG Legal Service recommendation.
The Province’s total land area is 60,457 hectares (ha), almost 3 percent of the approximately 2,002,311 ha regional total, and the smallest of the 6 provinces in Region VI. Guimaras is just about one third of the size of Aklan, the second smallest province in the region. The biggest province is Negros Occidental which occupies 39 percent of the total regional land area.
Of the five municipalities, Nueva Valencia has the largest land area while San Lorenzo has the smallest land area.
Table 3: Land Area of Municipalities, Province of Guimaras Municipality Area (Ha) Percent Share of Land Area (%) Nueva Valencia 13,712 22.68 Buenavista 12,826 21.22 Jordan 12,611 20.86 Sibunag 12,004 19.85 San Lorenzo 9,304 15.39 TOTAL 60,457 100.00 Source: DENR Region VI.
2. Population and Settlements
2.1. Population: Regional and National Context
2.1.1. Guimaras’ Population Size, Annual Population Growth Rate and Density
The Province Guimaras has a total population of 151,238 based on the 2007 Census of Population. Its annual population growth rate from 2000-2007 is 0.93 and the population density is 250 persons per sq km.
As of December 2008, there are no available data yet from NSO on the 2007 population by sex and the number of households. But in 2000, 51.4 percent of the total 141,450 population, or 72,649 are male, and 48.6 percent or 68,801 are female. The total number of households in 2000 is 27,465 reflecting an average 5.2 persons per household size. Population Size Since 1995 up to 2007 census, Guimaras has the smallest population percentage share at an average of a little more than 2 percent In contrast, Negros Occidental has the biggest share. Guimaras with 151,238 people contributes only 2.21 percent to the 6,843,643 population of the Western Visayas Region. Negros Occidental is the most populous province with almost 35 percent share in total population . At the national level, Guimaras shares 0.17 percent to the total Philippine population of 88.6 million. Of the 81 provinces in the country, Guimaras ranks 74th from the most populated which is Cavite and 8th from the least populated Batanes. Population Growth Rate and Density Guimaras’ latest annual population growth rate based on the 2007 census is 0.93 percent. It is below the region’s 1.35 percent and much lower than the country’s 2.04 percent. In the region, Negros Occidental has the highest annual population growth rate of 1.44 percent. A significant decline from the
2.43 percent registered in the 2000 census. Possible reasons for the decline in Annual Population Growth Rate are: result of intensive advocacy on family planning and responsible parenthood, and many low income families would not risk having a bigger family especially with the rising cost of all commodities. Its population density of 250 persons per sq km is the second smallest in the region. Guimaras’ density is lower than both the regional and national densities which register at 338 and 295 persons per sq. km., respectively. Iloilo province has the highest density at 318 persons per sq km which is lower than the regional but higher than the national. Meanwhile, Antique has the lowest density at 204 persons per sq. km. Population Doubling Time With the current annual population growth rate of 0.93, the province is expected to double its population in 74 years or in 2081. While the region’s population of 6.8 million is expected to double in 51 years.or 2058. The country’s population of 88.6 million will double in almost 34 years or by 2041.
Table 4: Region VI, Population, Annual Population Growth Rate, Density, Area, by Province, Philippines, 1995, 2000 & 2007
Population Province 1995 2000 2007 Annual Population % Share to Population Regional Total Growth Rate (%) 1995 2000 2007 Density (persons/sq km)
1995- 20002000 2007 1995 2000 2007 2.05 1.97 1.00 2.10 1.08 2.43 1.56 1.29 1.19 0.97 1.13 1.44 0.93 1.35 2.04 226 248 187 248 293 270 234 307 255 272
Area % to Land Area Regional (sq km) Total
Aklan Antique Capiz Iloilo Negros Occidental Guimaras Region VI
410,539 431,713 624,469
451,314 472,822 654,156
495,122 515,265 701,664
7.11 7.47 10.81 24.49 35.17 2.19
7.27 7.61 10.53 25.10 34.40 2.28
7.23 7.53 10.25 24.72 34.63 2.21
8.98 12.46 13.01 26.31 39.17 2.99 100%
171 237 266 256 209 285 229
204 266 318 299 250
2,522.00 2,633.20 5,324.00 7,926.10 604.57
1,415,022 1,559,182 1,691,878 2,031,841 2,136,647 2,370,269 126,470 141,450 151,238
5,776,938 6,211,038 6,843,643 -
338 20,233.20 295 300,000
Philippines 68,616,536 76,498,735 88,574,614
Source: NSO, 2008. Note: Population Percent Share does not add up to 100 percent because the cities’ population shares are not reflected in the table.
2.2. Population Size, Density and Growth Rate 2.2.1. Size and Distribution Buenavista with population of 43,817, ranks 1st in terms of population size. This is consistent with the population size registered by the municipality in the last 2 censal years, 1995 & 2000. Buenavista comprised almost 29 percent of the total provincial population, followed by Nueva Valencia (35,026) and Jordan (32,524).
For the period 1995-2000, only the municipalities of Jordan, Nueva Valencia and Sibunag have positive percentage changes or increases in their
respective population percentage share. However, in 2000-2007, only Jordan (1.72 percent) has the highest positive change followed by San Lorenzo (1.41
percent). The Municipalities of Nueva Valencia, Buenavista and Sibunag have
with Nueva Valencia having greatest
percentage change from 0.28 to -1.07. Both Buenavista and Sibunag have the same percentage points decrease (-0.22) if you compare their two percentage changes. It is noticeable that the annual population growth rates from 2000-2007 of all municipalities declined. The highest decline is experienced by Nueva Valencia which has -2.36 percentage points. It can be noted that Nueva Valencia has the highest average of Contraceptive Prevalence Rate meaning family planning is very effective in this municipality. The least decline is of San Lorenzo with –0.41 percentage points; as can be noted it is second to Jordan in terms of population growth rate. Table 5: Population, Annual Population Growth Rate, Density, Area, by Municipality, Province of Guimaras, 1995, 2000 & 2007
Population Municipality 1995 2000 2007 1995 2000 2007 Population % Share to Provincial Total Annual Population Growth Rate (%) 19952000 2.2 2.67 2.75 1.82 2.67 2.43 20002007 0.68 0.31 1.72 1.41 0.80 0.93 Density Area % to (persons/sq km) Land Area Provincial (sq km) Total 1995 2000 2007 294 221 201 199 122 209 325 250 228 217 138 234 342 255 258 240 146 250 128.26 137.12 126.11 93.04 120.04 604.57 21.21 22.68 20.86 15.40 19.85 100.00
Buenavista Nueva Valencia Jordan San Lorenzo Sibunag Guimaras
37,681 30,275 25,321 18,537 14,656
41,717 34,255 28,745 20,168 16,565
43,817 35,026 32,524 22,319 17,552
29.79 23.94 20.02 14.66 11.59
29.49 24.22 20.32 14.26 11.71
28.97 23.16 21.51 14.76 11.61
126,470 141,450 151,238 100.00 100.00 100.00
Source: NSO, 2008.
Table 6: Population Shares, by Municipality, Province of Guimaras, 1995, 2000 & 2007
Municipality Population % Share to Provincial Total 1995 Buenavista Nueva Valencia Jordan San Lorenzo Sibunag Guimaras 29.79 23.94 20.02 14.66 11.59 100.00 2000 29.49 24.22 20.32 14.26 11.71 100.00 2007 28.97 23.15 21.51 14.76 11.61 100.00 Cumulative Population % Share 1995 29.79 53.73 73.75 88.41 100.00 2000 29.49 53.70 74.02 88.28 100.00 2007 28.97 52.13 73.64 88.40 100.00 % Change 2000-1995 2007-2000 -0.30 0.28 0.30 -0.40 0.12 -0.52 -1.07 1.19 0.50 -0.10
Source: NSO, 2008.
2.2.2. Density and Urbanization
In 2007, Buenavista has the highest density at 342 persons per sq km. Jordan with 258 is the next and then Nueva Valencia with 255. All these three municipalities have higher densities than the provincial density of 250 persons per sq km. Buenavista has a population density which is higher than the region (388 persons/sq. km.) and the national (295 persons/sq. km.) Sibunag has 146 and still the least dense municipality of Guimaras.
Generally in 2007, the municipal densities increased. In terms of density growth rate from 2000-2007, Jordan has the highest growth rate at 23.7 percentage points this is primarily because it is the fastest population growing municipality and the center of trade, commerce and government offices’ site in the province. San Lorenzo follows with 10.6 percentage points; this is
facilitated by being the second fastest population growing municipality and smallest in terms of land area. Sibunag ranks third with 5.8 percentage
points, Buenavista is fourth with 5.2 percentage points, and the last is Nueva Valencia with 2.0 percentage points. With an average provincial density
growth rate of 6.8 percentage points, only the municipalities of Jordan and San Lorenzo have higher than this provincial average.
2.2.3. Growth Rate
However, considering the 2007 annual population growth rate, the municipalities of Jordan followed by San Lorenzo have higher growth rates than that of the province as a whole (0.93 percent). The primary reason why Jordan has the highest growth rate is because it is the major administrative and economic center in the province and the main gateway of Guimaras. On the other hand, the contributory factor for San Lorenzo’s relatively higher growth rate is in-migration due to its proximity, accessibility and also being the main gateway to/from Negros.
Buenavista, Sibunag and Nueva Valencia (with the lowest) have lower annual population growth rates than the province’s.
High densities and fast-growing: Jordan and Buenavista Correlating the municipal population densities with the population growth rate, the municipalities of Jordan and Buenavista have high density (considering only the provincial density of 250 persons per sq km as the cut off) and fast population growth rate (higher than 0.93 percent). These 2 municipalities have urban barangays. They are also the major economic and administrative centers in the province as well as the main gateways of Guimaras from Iloilo. Low density and fast-growing: San Lorenzo San Lorenzo although one of the youngest municipality together with Sibunag, is the second fastest population growing municipality caused by in-migration due to its proximity and accessibility to Negros. Yet it is considered to have the second lowest density. However, its density growth rate from 2000-2007 is actually second fastest in the entire province and having the smallest land area, this scenario should be pro-actively prepared for.
High density and slow-growing: Nueva Valencia Nueva Valencia is the third most dense municipality, being the third oldest municipality. However, it has the slowest population growth rate.
Low density and slow-growing: Sibunag Sibunag has the least population density and is second slowest population growing municipality. It is also the youngest municipality and has yet retained its rural character.
With the current growth rate, the projected total population and overall density of Guimaras at the end of 2013, are 159,875 and 264 persons per sq km, respectively, and at the end of the vision period (2035) are 195,988 and 324 persons per sq km, respectively. This translates into an additional population of 8,637 by 2013 or an average increase of 1,440 persons every year. Buenavista will have the highest share, 29 percent of the total population in 2013. Followed by Nueva Valencia with 23 percent, Jordan, 21 percent, San Lorenzo 15 percent and Sibunag, the least with only 12 percent.
Table 7: Estimated Population and Density, By Municipality, Province of Guimaras, 2013
APGR Factor 20002007 PGR Factor 20072013 Estimated Population 2013
46,364 36,771 33,574 23,981 19,185
1995 Buenavista Nueva Valencia Jordan San Lorenzo Sibunag Guimaras 37,681 27,158 25,321 18,537 17,773
2000 41,717 34,255 28,745 20,168 16,565
2007 43,817 35,026 32,524 22,319 17,552
1995- 20002000 2007 2.2 2.67 2.75 1.82 2.67 0.68 0.31 1.72 1.41 0.8 0.93 128.26 137.12 126.11 93.04 120.04 604.57 342 255 258 239 146 250
Area (sq km)
Annual Population Growth Rate (APGR %)
1.0068 1.0415 1.0031 1.0187 1.0172 1.1077 1.0141 1.0876 1.008 1.0490
126,470 141,450 151,238 2.43
1.0093 1.0571 159,875
Estimated Density 2013 Additional Population 20072013
361 268 266 257 160 264 2,547 1,745 1,050 1,662 1,633 8,637
2.3. Existing Settlement Pattern
Based on the 2007 census, population density maps were generated at the barangay level. This revealed increased densities for growth centers in every municipality particularly Barangay San Miguel in Jordan. Similarly, town centers such as New Poblacion, Buenavista and Poblacion, Nueva Valencia registered increased population densities from 1995 to 2007.
The municipal CLUPs identified growth centers. Corresponding urban land use plans were prepared detailing built-up areas. The total built-up area
expansion for all growth centers was computed at 4,760 hectares. Jordan will have an expansion of 1,103.00 hectares concentrated mostly in San Miguel, Santa Teresa, Alaguisoc and Balcon Maravilla areas while Buenavista will have additional 1,158.66 hectares. The municipality of Sibunag although
being the lowest in terms of population anticipates that future urban expansion would require additional 1,030.63 hectares of built-up areas concentrated in the three barangays; Maabay, Dasal and Sabang. Nueva Valencia projects additional built-up areas of 860.72 hectares while San Lorenzo would need additional 979.49 hectares. Areas of concern were identified in San Lorenzo considering the trend in growth of population density and the lack of suitable expansion areas owing to the existence of irrigated ricelands in the town center. Existing communities are also within the coastal zone which posed additional constraints. In order to ease the pressure on the limited expansion area in the town center in Cabano, secondary growth centers in Sebario, Igcawayan, M.Chavez, Suclaran and San Enrique were identified to accommodate future demand for urban expansion. For San Miguel, Jordan, the constraint in urban expansion is due to the presence of areas identified as forest reserve at the eastern and western fringes of the existing built-up area. In order to avoid encroaching into these areas, the growth directions will be directed along the north-south axis wherein suitable areas are present
Presently, higher level urban amenities are found in Iloilo City and Bacolod. Residents from Buenavista, Jordan and Nueva Valencia consider Iloilo City as the provider of these amenities considering that it is only 15 minutes away by boat. For Sibunag and San Lorenzo, aside from Iloilo City, residents consider the City of Bacolod as another provider of urban amenities. For lower level amenities, residents of the five municipalities consider the San Miguel growth center as the provider of these services especially for household commodities during the market day every Sunday. Generally in 2007, the municipal densities increased. In terms of density growth rate from 2000- 2007, Jordan has the highest growth rate at 23.7 percentage points that is primarily because it is the fastest population growing municipality and the center of trade, commerce and government offices’ site in the province. San Lorenzo follows with 10.6 percentage points; this is
facilitated by being the second fastest population growing municipality and smallest in terms of land area. Sibunag ranks third with 5.8 percentage
points, Buenavista is fourth with 5.2 percentage points, and the last is Nueva Valencia with 2.0 percentage points. With an average provincial density
growth rate of 6.8 percentage points, only the municipalities of Jordan and San Lorenzo have higher than this provincial average.
For more detailed analysis, population density maps were generated at the barangay level. This revealed increased densities for growth centers in every municipality particularly Barangay San Miguel in Jordan with a 2007 population density of 803 compared to only 487 in 1995. Similarly, town centers such as New Poblacion, Buenavista and Poblacion, Nueva Valencia registered increased population densities from 1995 to 2007. These trends indicate that demand for housing and other amenities is expected to grow in the next ten years. Consequently, demand for expansion areas for settlement needs to be addressed. Particular attention should be given to the primary growth center in San Miguel, Jordan and the fast population growth in San Lorenzo.
Hierarchy of settlements
Settlements are areas where concentrations of population engage in economic, political, cultural, and other social services. They vary from small, agriculture-based villages to metropolitan urban centers that accommodate millions of people and serve as industrial, market, and administrative centers.
In the formulation of criteria for the hierarchy of settlements, four centers are classified: small city, large town, medium town and small towns. The medium town has a population size of 25,000 to 49,999 and these are Jordan and Buenavista. The last and lowest level of the hierarchy of centers is the small towns which serve as the rural service and food production zone and large percentage of these lands are devoted to agriculture. This has a population size of less than 25,000. Nueva Valencia, San Lorenzo and Sibunag are small towns.
MIGEDC The Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC) is a working alliance of the City of Iloilo, The Municipalities of Oton, San Miguel, Pavia, Leganes, Sta. Barbara and the Province of Guimaras. It was formally established by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo through Executive Order No. 559 signed in August 28, 2006 and was designed to help address the area’s emerging problems brought about by rapid urbanization and the spatial development challenges of tourism and economic development. The MIGEDC spatial development is based on assumed functional roles where: Guimaras Province assumes the role of agri-eco-tourism center being the tourist destination for Western Visayas. The municipality of Jordan serves as the provincial capital of Guimaras. Barangay San Miguel is the emerging commercial center and is rapidly urbanizing.
Under the RPFP, Jordan is identified as a major urban center in the region together with Roxas City, Kalibo and San Jose. As such, these centers will provide high level amenities, medium density residential neighborhood and high level of transit access.
The Province of Guimaras has a population of 151,238 in 2007 census. It is the least populated province in Region VI. With a population density of 250 persons per sq km, it is the second smallest (next to Antique) in terms of population density in the region. Guimaras also has the least annual
population growth rate at 0.93 percent, which is lower than the regional and national growth rates by 0.42 and 1.11 percentage points, respectively.
With the current growth rate,
the projected total population and overall
density of Guimaras at the end of 2013, are 159,875 and 264 persons per sq km, respectively, and at the end of the vision period (2035) are 195,988 and 324 persons per sq km, respectively. This translates into an additional
population of 8,637 by 2013 or an average increase of 1,440 persons every year. The population of Guimaras will likely double in size after 74 years or in 2081.
2.4.2. Population Distribution Trends
Jordan and Buenavista are the high density and fast-growing municipalities. They are the major economic and administrative centers in the province and also the main gateways of Guimaras from Iloilo.
Buenavista has the highest population share but the trend of its share is decreasing at an average of -0.41 percentage points.
San Lorenzo is low density and fast-growing since it is the second fastest population growing municipality. However, its density growth rate is actually second fastest in the entire province and having the smallest land area, this concern should be addressed effectively.
On settlements, considering the population and functions present in the municipality, Jordan and Buenavista are classified as Medium Town while Nueva Valencia, San Lorenzo and Sibunag are Small Town.
The proximity of Guimaras to the two highly urbanized areas of Iloilo and Bacolod has worked to the advantage of the province in the early stages of its existence considering that these centers provided the services that cannot be found in the island. Iloilo and Bacolod also provide the markets for
Guimaras products. However, the present scenario already manifests the disadvantages of this arrangement owing to the siphoning effect in the Guimaras economy. Guimaras residents spend their money in malls and
other commercial establishments in the city and maintain major bank accounts in Iloilo thereby bringing financial resources outside of Guimaras. The challenge therefore is to remedy this structural flaw and prevent the leakage of financial resources. 2.4.4. Future Population Distribution
At the end of the vision period, i.e., 2035, the population of Guimaras will reach 195,988. Buenavista will have the highest share while Sibunag will have the least share.
3. 0 Physical Resources
3.1. General Land and Water Characteristics and Resources 3.1.1. Topography and Slope The topography of Guimaras Island varies from level to steeply sloping, with land elevation ranging from 0 to nearly 300 meters above sea level. Mt. Dinulman, located in Millan, Sibunag, has the highest elevation of 267 meters above mean sea level.
A great part of the island’s land area is above 100 meters above mean sea level. By comparing the topographic features from the 1956 topographic
maps with the present situation, it could be concluded that the island’s topography has not been altered much by man-made activities.
The island’s topography shows quite steep slopes on the western side of island with plateaus and peaks above 200 m in the central portion. A large part or 37 percent of the total land area is within the 8-18 percent slope, only 4 percent comprises the 18-30 percent slope and 17 percent is within the above 30 percent slope. However, the largest part is still within the 0-8 percent slope range which covers 42 percent of the island land area.
3.1.2. Land and Water Resources The province of Guimaras is comprised of a mainland and clusters of small islands and islets. The mainland dominates in terms of land area which comprises of about 98 percent of the total provincial area. The largest among the islands is Inampulogan which is where the wildlife reserve area is located. Taklong Island, on the other hand, was declared as a national marine reserve through Presidential Proclamation No.525 of then President Corazon C. Aquino. The 42 islets comprising the Taklong islands are utilized for marine research activities.
Guimaras is an island province surrounded by body of water in which the largest is the Guimaras Strait on the western side of the island. It is the most important water body used for navigation. Large and small boats going in and out of the provinces of Iloilo and Guimaras pass Guimaras Strait which makes it an important economic driver that facilitates economic activities for both provinces.
Based on the previous geographical study conducted, the province has two major watershed areas, the western and the eastern watershed. Three major river systems are Mantangingi, Sibunag and Cabano. These are the major water outflows and contributors to the economic development of the island particularly the agriculture and tourism industry. Using the bathymetric map (water depth point data provided by NAMRIA and enhanced through GIS technology and translated into a raster data in the map) which provides a scenario of water landscape around the province, the coastal area stretching from the Municipality of Jordan to Buenavista could be an ideal location for transshipment facility that could accommodate vessels plying in and out of the island.
3.1.3. Main Geological Features There are five main types of rock formation occurring in the island; a. Quarterly Alluvium, Holocene b. Buenavista Limestone, Pleistocene c. Jordan Formation, Miocene d. Guimaras Diorite, Eocene e. Mt. Pandan Volcanics, Mesosoic
3.1.4. Metallic and Non-metallic Mineral Resources Metallic mineral deposits of Guimaras include lump iron ore at an estimated 1,800 metric tons (MT), primary copper ore at 4,019 MT and copper ore whose quantity is still yet unsurveyed. The lump iron ore as well as prospects of gold can be found in the Municipality of Nueva Valencia.
Based on the 1988 data from DENR, Region VI, limestone ore is estimated at approximately 132 million MT, mainly in Buenavista and partly in Jordan. There are also clay prospects and reported occurrences of dolomite in Buenavista and Jordan as well as prospects of limestone and silica sand in Jordan and Nueva Valencia.
3.1.5. Climate Guimaras is classified as Corona’s Type 1 climate, characterized by two pronounced seasons: the dry season usually between the months of November and April, and the rainy or wet season, which occurs during the rest of the year.
Rainfall during the northeast monsoon would most probably be due to conventional thunderstorms, a result of intense heating causing rapid evaporation, or to a lesser extent, typhoons which can occur in the region during October-November. The probability of a typhoon hitting Guimaras is fortunately low. The island has a rare frequency passage of 0%-10% of the annual average of 19.8 typhoons.
The southwest monsoon (hanging habagat), which ushers in the wet season, starts in June and ends in September. It is characterized by moisture-laden maritime tropical (MT) winds prevailing from a southwesterly direction due to a high pressure system over the Australian Continent, from which diverging winds move towards a low pressure system over South and Southeast Asia including Mainland China.
Temperature data from the NMRDC over a 32 period (1975-2007), in next Figure, show a minimum mean temperature of 25.1 degrees Celsius occurring in December and a maximum mean temperature of 28.6 degrees Celsius occurring in April. The average temperature throughout the 32 years is 27 degrees Celsius and there is an increasing trend in the mean temperature levels, particularly notable in the 1990s.
In 2007, southerly wind was observed throughout the year. Average windspeed of 1.29 meter/second with a maximum of 3.64 meter/second was recorded. More cloud was observed on the rainy months of July to September. Average minimum and maximum temperatures were 24.94 and 30.98 degrees celsius, respectively. Dew point had an average of 26.07 degrees celsius. A higher relative humidity was observed at 8:00 AM than
2:00PM. Average relative humidity of 93.61 and 89.87 percent was recorded in the morning and afternoon. Average daily evaporation was 3.24 mm. Rainy months fall on May to October with a yearly average rainfall of 6.00 mm. Highest rainfall was recorded in August with 25.95 mm and the lowest was in April with 0.81 mm. Limitations of existing climate data Climate variations have been observed in Guimaras as manifested by conditions wherein it is raining in one area but just in another area it is dry. Micro-climatic conditions differ in areas of the island and require more detailed climatic measurements and advanced weather observation facilities. This is very significant considering that agriculture, fisheries and tourism are the primary drivers of the economy.
3.2. Land Use Potentials and Constraints 3.2.1. Land Classification About 95 percent of the total land area of the province is classified as alienable and disposable, which is more or less evenly distributed among the five municipalities. Nueva Valencia, having the largest land area has the biggest share at 23 percent and San Lorenzo, the lowest.
However, in terms of timberlands, Nueva Valencia has the smallest share at only 0.03 percent and Jordan has the biggest share at 1.61 percent.
Table 8: Land Classification, by Hectare and Percentage Share to Total Provincial Land Classification (Ha) Municipality Total Land Area (Ha) Alienable and Disposable 12,328.13 11,634.76 13,693.00 8,757.50 11,207.50 57,620.89 Percentage Share to Total Provincial Land 20.39 19.24 22.65 14.49 18.54 95.31 Percentage Share to Total Provincial Land 0.82 1.61 0.03 0.91 1.32 4.69
Timberland 497.87 976.24 19.00 546.50 796.50 2,836.11
Buenavista Jordan Nueva Valencia San Lorenzo Sibunag Total
12,826.00 12,611.00 13,712.00 9,304.00 12,004.00 60,457.00
Source: LEP-FMS, DENR 6, 2005
3.2.2. Land Suitability Most of the land resources of Guimaras are within the relatively developable range. About 42 percent is within the 0-8 percent slope range which is suitable for rice production, cultivated annual crops and fresh water fishponds. Also 42 percent of the total land area is below 18 percent slope which is suitable for mango growing and other orchards. Less than one percent with a slope range of above 50% is considered as protection forest.
Most of the areas suitable for agriculture and rice productions are located in the Municipalities of Sibunag and San Lorenzo, making them as the rice granary of the province. The Municipalities of Jordan and Nueva Valencia are the municipalities wherein 18 percent and above slope are dominantly located. Buenavista is the only municipality that has a slope of 50 percent or more.
3.2.3. Protections Areas a. National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS)
Guimaras has only one protected area under the NIPAS category, the Taklong Island National Marine Reserve (TINMR). Located in the
municipality of Nueva Valencia at the southern tip of the island, it covers 41 islets and the coastline barangays of Lapaz and San Roque. It has an aggregate area of approximately 1,143.45 hectares consisting of 183 hectares of terrestrial area and 960.45 hectares of brackish and marine water. It was placed under protected area status by virtue of Presidential Proclamation No. 525 signed by then president Corazon C. Aquino last February 8, 1990. Prior to its proclamation, the area was categorized as unclassified public forest. Currently, the Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) has proposed the Marine Reserve to be classified as “Taklong-Tandog Island Protected Landscape and Seascape” category.
The University of the Philippines in the Visayas has established a marine biological station in 1963 and currently serves as a laboratory for researches and studies. It was the UPV that initiated and spearheaded the proposal for the proclamation of the area as a national marine reserve.
The islets are covered with indigenous plant species such as Molave, Talisay, Pandan, Pitogo, Kamachile, Patino, Dangkalan and Duhat. Along the mangrove swamps are Bakawan trees, Bantigue, Pandan-dagat, Apiapi, Bungalon and Pagatpat. Wildlife species found in the area are; dogface bat, varanus lizard and bird species that include pied fantail, yellow vented bulbul, olive brown sun bird, pink-beaked green pigeon, pied thriller, white collared kingfisher, Philippine glossy startling, pigmy swiftlet, brown dove, slender-billed crow, pyal thrush, green-winged ground dove, plain-throated sunbird, white breasted wood swallow, Philippine coucal, night jar, black-naped tern and little pied flycatcher. Sightings of migratory Tabon birds that come to the area to lay eggs were also reported.
The islets are covered with secondary growth and indigenous plant species and some planted trees and agricultural crops by previous settlers. There are approximately 26 hectares of developed fishponds
along the coastline facing the marine reserve while the rest of the mainland is generally agricultural lands.
b. Non-NIPAS AREAS i. Slope above 50 percent The Municipalities of Jordan and Buenavista are the only two municipalities that have a slope range of 50 percent and above. It is located on the western portion of the island facing Iloilo City. It is calculated to be 0.31 percent of the total land area of the province with almost 50 percent are found in the Municipality of Jordan and the rest are in Buenavista. ii. Mangrove Forests A study by Edgardo Gomez in 1980 citing previously compiled data in 1976 which provided an estimate of mangrove cover in Iloilo Province, of which Guimaras used to be a sub-province revealed that mangrove cover was about 1,043.2 hectares. Basing on 1995 data however, the total
mangrove cover in the entire island now stands at about 395.6 hectares. Of this amount, mangroves still exist in 269.3 hectares (68.07 percent) in Sibunag and remain in 54.4 hectares (13.75 percent) in Nueva Valencia. Moreover, they also occur in 39.5 hectares (10 percent) in Buenavista, in 16.6 hectares (4.20 percent) in Jordan and in 15.8 hectares (4 percent) in San Lorenzo. It is worth noting that out of the 269.3 hectares of mangrove in Sibunag, 210 hectares is in Inampologan Island.
The analysis suggest that the resulting rate of exploitation or clearing is about 34.6 hectares per year and that the depletion rate of mangrove cover did not change for almost two decades.
c. Areas Prone to Natural Hazards i. Faults
Four out of five municipalities of the province have presence of faultlines namely; Jordan, Nueva Valencia, Sibunag and San Lorenzo.
Based on regional tectonic setting, Guimaras Island could experience earthquakes related to subduction along the Sulu Sea Trench and Antique Trough dipping east.
Earthquake generated by movements along fault lines and those related to volcanic activity can also affect the island. The 1990 earthquake with epicenter located in the junction of two faults in Panay Island was also felt in Guimaras. Based on the seismicity map from 1990-1992 furnished by PHILVOCS, there were only few earthquake epicenters identified within the island. These are of low magnitude earthquakes. ii. Areas with Severe Flooding The flood prone areas are located in some areas of the island, in Barangay Poblacion fronting Jordan Central School and Jordan Municipal Hall, Barangay Tastasan in the Municipality of Buenavista and in Sitio Tinuslukan, Barangay Dolores, Nueva Valencia. iii. Coastal Zones Guimaras is an island province consists of mainland, several islands and clusters of islets. The coastal perimeter of the mainland is measured to be 300.48 kilometers while that of the other islands and islets have a total length of 169.44 kilometers. Most of the islets are found in the Municipality of Nueva Valencia.
Tsunami Prone Areas
Map provided by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) 55
reveals a possible tsunami threat on the southern part of the island. This threat is due to the presence of Negros Trench on the southeastern portion of Guimaras Island. Possible areas affected are the coastal barangays of the three municipalities of Nueva Valencia, Sibunag and San Lorenzo. These areas are classified as environmentally critical zones. Along with these, several measures and awareness campaign were being conducted to warn people living in the coastal areas of possible danger just in case tsunami occurs. v. Fish and Marine Sanctuaries
Falling under the Protected Areas Under the NIPAs Law (RA 7586), is the Taklong Island National Marine Reserve or Taklong-Tandog Protected Seascape in Barangays La Paz and San Roque, Nueva Valencia. This area is considered as marine sanctuary and a marine research center. There are also locally declared marine sanctuaries like the: vi. Marine Turtle Sanctuary – Barangay Lawi, Jordan Toyo Reef Fish Sanctuary – Guiwanon, Nueva Valencia Tumalintinan Fish Sanctuary – Suclaran, San Lorenzo
Other ECAs Other parts of the protected areas are the 500m mountain buffers comprising the three tall mountains in central part of the island having a total area of 765.49 hectares, and the 20m river easements calculated at 761.70 hectares
d. Other Environmentally constrained areas i. Soil erosion
About 57 percent of the total area of Guimaras suffers from moderate soil while 8 percent is severely eroded. Only 16.90 percent of land area has no apparent erosion.
ii. Areas with Difficult Source of Ground Water This area is calculated to be 34,061 hectares or 56.32 percent of the total land area of the province. It covered most part of Sibunag and San Lorenzo and some 50 percent of Nueva Valencia and Western portion of Buenavista.
e. SAFDZ SAFDZ irrigated ricelands is 4,359.59 hectares which is located in five municipalities of Guimaras but, large areas are in the two Municipalities of San Lorenzo and Sibunag which are considered as the rice granaries of the island.
Navalas, Part of Bacjao and East Valencia, Buenavista Part of Alaguisoc, Poblacion, Buluangan and Sta. Teresa, Jordan Part of Lucmayan, Salvacion, Lanipe, Igang, Dolores, Napandong, Tando, San Roque and Cabalagnan, Nueva Valencia
Part of Cabano, M. Chavez, Suclaran, San Enrique, Gaban, Cabungahan, Aguilar, Constancia, San Lorenzo
Part of Millan, Tanglad, Ayangan, Dasal, Maabay, Alegria and Concordia Norte, Sibunag
The economy of Guimaras in 2000 was dominated by the Services Sector which included (from highest to lowest share) Other Services, Wholesale and Retail, Transportation, Storage and Communication Services. This happened as the tourism industry and tourism support services started to bloom. The visitors, commuters and population increased and subsequently the demand for goods and services also increased. Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry
Sector ranked second which was boosted by palay, mango, cashew, livestock and poultry, and fishery. The least contributor was the Industry Sector which was spurred by manufacturing, construction, mining and quarrying particularly of limestone which abounds in the island.
4.1. Economic Structure
4.1.1. External Context of the Local Economy
In 2000, Guimaras contributed P2,086.98 million to the P114,428.38 million total family income by household head for the whole Region VI. The highest contributor to the family income of household head in Guimaras was the Services Sector with P1,233.62 million (representing 59.11 percent of the Guimaras total) followed by Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector with P182.85 milion (representing 8.76 percent), and the last was the Industry Sector with P22.94 million (representing 1.1 percent).
In terms of the region’s total family income by household head in 2000, the Services Sector had the largest share, 51.64 percent, followed by Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector with 18.48 percent, and by the Industry Sector with 1.92 percent. At the national level, Services Sector also accounted for the highest share at 53 percent. Industry Sector followed with 30 percent and the last was Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector with 17 percent.
Of these regional total percentages, Guimaras shared 1.07 percent in the Services Sector and the lowest among the six provinces. It shared 0.16
percent in the Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry, still the lowest, and only .02 percent in the Industry Sector, also one of the lowest together with Antique.
Negros Occidental had the highest share, 38.11 percent of the total economy of the region. Iloilo followed with 35.48 percent. Negros Occidental was still the largest contributor to the Services Sector and the Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector, and Iloilo ranked next. But Iloilo was the largest contributor in the Industry Sector and Negros Occidental was only second.
Table 11: Data Matrix: Total Family Income (P) by Households Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000
Kind of Business/Industry Industry
Community, Recreational &
Transportation, Storage & Communication Services
Mining & Quarrying
Wholesale & Retail
Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental Region VI
1,336.50 1,959.12 2,491.26 182.85 4,894.56 10,284.99
155.11 26.95 99.14 14.25 759.43 622.2
0 0 0 0
22.88 0 0 8.69
697.15 614.04 574.94 231.06
251.87 57.66 279.43 0 852.17 1,239.92
181.1 94.32 468.2 51.83
3,271.08 2,432.98 4,856.99 950.73
2,350.21 3,196.19 2,719.22 647.57
8,265.90 8,381.26 11,489.18 2,086.98
26.73 309.85 3,563.46 10.53 148.23 2,811.34
1,276.66 15,375.35 13,542.68 40,600.89 822.81 18,135.43 9,528.72 43,604.17
21,149.28 1,677.08 37.26 489.65 8,491.99
2,681.05 2,894.92 45,022.56 31,984.59 114,428.30
Source: 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, NSO.
Table 12: Joint Probability: Shares of Total Family Income by Households Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 (in Percent)
Kind of Business/Industry
Community, Recreational & personal Services
Mining & Quarrying
Wholesale & Retail
Transportation, Storage & Communication Services
2.05 2.79 2.38 0.57 11.84 8.33
Agricult ure. Fishery & Forestr y
Aklan Antique Capiz
1.16 1.71 2.18 0.16 4.28 8.99
0.14 0.02 0.09 0.01 0.66 0.54
0 0 0 0 0.02 0.01
0.02 0 0 0.01 0.27 0.13
0.61 0.54 0.5 0.2 3.11 2.46
0.22 0.05 0.24 0 0.75 1.08
0.16 0.08 0.41 0.04 1.12 0.72
2.86 2.13 4.25 0.83 13.43 15.85
7.22 7.32 10.05 1.82 35.48 38.11
Negros Occident al
Source: 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, NSO. 4.1.2. Pattern of Industry Concentration and Specialization
The concentration of Guimaras’ economy is on Services Sector with 6.62 percent, topped by wholesale and retail 2.72 percent and followed by other services with 2.11 percent. The next concentration is on Industry Sector with 2.62 percent. The last is Agriculture with only 0.86 percent.
Similarly, the concentration of economy in Region VI is on the Services Sector. Unlike in Guimaras which has Industry Sector as the second concentration, at the regional level, Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector is second to Services.
On the Services Sector, Iloilo tops, with a very slight difference from Negros Occidental which tops the Primary or Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector.
Again Iloilo concentrates much ahead with other provinces on the Industry Sector.
Compared with other provinces, Guimaras still has the lowest concentration on the Services and Agriculture Sectors. But in the Industry Sector it ranks fifth or second from the lowest which is Antique. The biggest contributor is the Construction sub-sector primarily due to many government infrastructure projects and private buildings being put up. Manufacturing, including food processing and handicrafts also contributed much. Even if Guimaras is also known for its large volume of limestone production particularly from Buenavista, Mining and Quarrying reflect a zero share in Tables 13 and 14, it might be that the production in 2000 was not that significant. It can also be noted that limestone production as it involves quarrying and using voluminous of firewood has negative environmental implications.
All the provinces in the region specialize on Services Sector.
Guimaras’ specialization is also on Services Sector (59 percent) particularly on Other services which include Private and Government Services. However, it can be noted that among the six provinces, Guimaras has the highest specialization on Services Sector particularly on Other Services, and Wholesale and Retail. Guimaras has a total of 712 wholesale and retail
establishments which accounted for 88 percent of the total number of establishments in the province.
The second specialization of all provinces in the region is on the Agriculture or Primary Sector. This Sector also ranks second in Guimaras, with 8.76
percent, the lowest among the provinces.
The last specialization of the provinces is on the Industry Sector. Likewise in Guimaras with only 1.11 percent, but this time Guimaras ranks third to Aklan with Iloilo as number one.
Table 13: Concentration: Total Family Income by Households Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 (in Percent)
Kind of Business/Industry
Community, Recreational & personal Services
Mining & Quarrying
Wholesale & Retail
Transportation, Storage & Communication Services
Province Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental Region VI
6.32 9.26 11.78 0.86 23.15 48.63 100
9.25 1.61 5.91 0.85 45.28 37.1 100
0 0 0 0 71.74 28.26 100
4.67 0 0 1.77 63.28 30.28 100
8.21 7.23 6.77 2.72 41.96 33.11 100
9.39 2.16 10.42 0 31.78 46.25 100
6.26 3.26 16.17 1.79 44.1 28.42 100
7.27 5.4 10.79 2.11 34.15 40.28 100
7.35 9.99 8.5 2.03 42.34 29.79 100
Source: 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, NSO.
Table 14: Specialization: Total Family Income by Households Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 (in Percent)
Kind of Business/Industry
Community, Recreational & personal Services
Mining & Quarrying
Wholesale & Retail
Transportation, Storage & Communication Services
Agricul ture. Fishery & Forestr y
Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental
16.17 23.38 21.68 8.76 12.06 23.59
1.87 0.32 0.86 0.69 1.87 1.43
0 0 0 0 0.07 0.02
0.29 0 0 0.42 0.76 0.34
8.43 7.33 5 11.07 8.78 6.45
3.05 0.69 2.43 0 2.1 2.84
2.19 1.13 4.08 2.46 3.14 1.89
39.57 29.02 42.28 45.56 37.86 41.59
28.43 38.13 23.67 31.04 33.36 21.85
Source: 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, NSO.
100 100 100 100 100 100
Agric ulture , Fishe ry & Fore stry
4.1.3. Internal Context of the Local Economy The Services Sector dominated the economy of Guimaras in 2000 with 59.09 percent of the total family income, not counting the Not Defined figure which accounts for 31 percent. The primary facilitating factor for this was the
flourishing tourism industry in the island. Under the Services Sector, Other Services which got 45.56 percent share had the highest level of
specialization. The most possible services included in the Other Services are private services like the tourism related catering services and tour-guiding. It can be noted that Guimaras’ visitors arrival of 60,784 in 2000 increased by 152 percent from 24,115 in 1999.
These are the major tourism sites and events in the island which are mostly found in the municipalities of Nueva Valencia, Jordan, Sibunag. Buenavista and
Alobijod Cove, Raymen, Villa Igang, Rico, Guisi Clearwater, NVMPCI, and La Puerta al Paraizo Beach Resorts in Nueva Valencia
Tiniguiban Islet (Pulang Pasayan), Rumagangrang Beach and Guisi Heritage Cottage in Nueva Valencia
Taklong Island National Marine Reserve and SEAFDEC Marine SubStation in Nueva Valencia Karosahan Festival every 24th day of April in Nueva Valencia Isla Naburot, Baras and Cabaling Beach Resorts in Jordan Trappist Monastery in San Miguel Jordan Ang Pagtal-tal sa Balaan Bukid in Jordan Sana-aw Festival every last Friday of January in Jordan Manggahan sa Guimaras Festival every April or May Roca Encantada, Pagatpat Guest House, El Retiro, Kelapa Gading and Carmel by the Sea Beach Resorts in Buenavista Kinaradto Festival every 3rd Sunday of January in Buenavista Balsahan Festival every 28th day of February in Sibunag
Costa Aguada, Nagarao Island and Jesa Mar Island Resorts, Punta Punting Beach Resort and Valle Verde Mountain Resort in Sibunag
Other Services was followed by Wholesale and Retail with 11.07 percent, and then Transportation, Storage and Communication Services with 2.46 percent. The increasing population and economic activities especially tourism related events significantly contributed to the large percentages of these businesses.
Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector ranked second with 8.76 percent. The Industry Sector ranked third or last with 1.11 percent. Under this sector, Manufacturing got the highest share with 0.69 percent followed by Construction with 0.42 percent.
4.2. Potentials for Contributing to Local Economic Growth
It is notable that the concentration and specialization of Guimaras’ economy is on Services Sector specifically on Other Services which include private services like the tourism related catering services, tour-guiding and other personal tourism services, and then followed by Wholesale and Retail.
Furthermore, the resulting location quotients (LQ) shown in the following table reflect that the Wholesale and Retail and Other Services Industries have greater than 1 LQs meaning they have positive association which suggests that they are providing more than local requirements and could be an exportoriented or marketable to foreigners industry or be an economic base industries.
Thus, the identified potentials contributory to the local economic growth in Guimaras are: 1. Services Sector – Tourism 2. Agriculture and Fishery Sector – Mango, Cashew, Fishery 3. Industry – Food Processing
Services Sector - Tourism is identified as one of the strong
performers with high potentials for contributing to local economic growth in Guimaras.
Negros Occidental tops the share, with almost 36 percent, of the total visitors arrivals in Region 6 in 2007 (1,977,850) and this is primarily due to its MICE attractions – Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE). Aklan with its Boracay ranks 2nd with 31 percent. Iloilo which ranks 3rd with 21 percent, also has the MICE and heritage assets. Guimaras ranks 4th, getting 8 percent of the total visitors arrivals. However, Guimaras has an advantage and potential for growth due to its relatively varied tourism attractions and potentials like beaches/resorts/islets, festivals
mostly community-based, religious sites/activities, nature, historical and agri/farm sites.
Tourism is a growing industry in the island province of Guimaras. The visitors arrivals have increasing trend from 2000 until 2005 with average annual growth rate of 25 percent. However, with the Petron Oil Spill tragedy in
August 11, 2006 the visitors arrivals decreased in the succeeding two years by an average of 7.3 percent annually. For the over-all trend from 2000-2007, the average annual growth rate of visitors arrivals is 16 percent. On the average, domestic visitors account for 97.4 percent of the total tourists arrivals while only 2.6 percent is foreign visitors. For the same period, the percentage of foreign tourists out of the total visitors arrivals has also increased by an average of 1 percent annually.
The 2005-2007 visitors arrivals totaling to 511,323 contributed an annual average of 10 percent to the total regional visitors arrivals and 0.54 percent to the regional tourist receipts. Locally, the visitors arrivals contributed an
annual average of 170 million pesos tourist receipts to the Guimaras’ economy.
Tourism has generated various significant forward and backward economic activities and employment in the island. There are 35 resorts/hotels/pension inns, 34 tourism related producers, 774 land transport and 79 pumpboat operators, and 19 tour guides, tour attendants and tour assistants.
Although the exact contributions of tourism cannot be accounted for, the results of the 2000 Total Family Income by Household Head and by Kind of Industry as previously discussed have supported tourism’s great contribution to the local economy. In addition, the resulting location quotients (LQ) shown in the following table reflect that the Wholesale and Retail and Other Services both under the Services Industry, as well as the Construction Business have greater than 1 LQs, meaning they have positive association which suggests that they are providing more than local requirements and could be an exportoriented or marketable to foreigners kind of industry, or be an economic base 71
Provincial Product Account/Gross Domestic
Product (PPA/GDP) for 2002-2004 of Guimaras has somehow reflected this likelihood as can be seen in the growth rates in the construction, and services sector particularly in transport, communication and storage, trade, finance and private services.
Table 15: Location Quotients: Total Family Income by Households Head, by Kind of Business/Industry, 2000 (in Percent)
Kind of Business/Industry
Community, Recreational & personal Services
Mining & Quarrying
Wholesale & Retail
Transportation, Storage & Communication Services
Agric ulture , Fore stry and Fishe ry
0.87 1.26 1.17 0.48 0.65 1.28
Services Not Defined
1.02 1.36 0.85 1.12 1.19 0.78
Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occident al
1.33 0.19 0.61 0.38 1.27 0.97
0 0 0 0 1.89 0.88
0.65 0 0 1.28 1.77 0.79
1.14 1.99 0.72 1.48 1.18 0.87
1.3 0.29 1.02 0 0.9 1.21
0.88 0.43 1.61 0.87 1.25 0.75
0.01 0.74 1.07 1.16 0.96 1.06
7.2 6.26 7.05 6.77 11.06 8.59
Source: 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, NSO.
4.2.2. Agriculture and Fishery Sector focused on specific crops or products like mango, cashew, other fruits and nuts and fisheries including seaweeds, has economic potentials which will significantly contribute to the increase in the Industry Sector and ultimately in the best performing economic industry in the province which is the Services Sector specifically the Wholesale and Retail and Other Services.
Mango production is one of the province’s economic potentials. Mango is the province’s export winner commodity. Guimaras mangoes have been
accredited by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Animal 72
and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) and by Australian Quarantine Inspection Service (AQIS) as the only mangoes that can be exported to the mainland US and Australia. The Province has a total area of 5,202.8 ha planted to mango and a tree population 250,043 as of 2007 with 7,555 total growers. In terms of tree population per municipality Buenavista shared 50 percent and the lowest is San Lorenzo with 9.3 percent.
In terms of mango production, although the potential could reach up to 19,000 MT annually, however not all trees are ready for induction every year. Only roughly 60-70 percent of the total bearing may be induced for the year. Based on the latest 3-year data, the highest recorded production was in 2007 12,467 MT, next was 2006- 12,020 MT and 2005 - 10,902 MT. A remarkable decrease in production can be noted in 2006 due to continuous occurrence of rain during the production season. In terms of the province’s production performance compared with the neighboring provinces, Guimaras ranks 3rd with Iloilo as the lead producer with 27,109 MT, followed by Negros Occidental with 15,436 MT. However, Guimaras ranks first in terms of
production of export quality fruit. Negros Occidental is considered as one of Guimaras’ big local markets since about 20 percent of its production is being shipped there. Cashew production is another economic potential. Cashew, locally termed as “kasuy” is a new emerging commodity and has high potential for both local and export market. The demand for cashew in the export market is huge and promising especially for the unprocessed cashews. Many traders and exporters from Metro Manila demand for it. Back in 2005, the province’s local cashew producers had the chance to participate in an International Food Exhibition organized by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). The producers were met with inquiries from investors of Lebanon and Israel interested in placing orders at 2 - 5 tons per month. They found the requirements of the said investors easier to meet in comparison with the requirements of the investors from China requiring a 214-footer van per month of packed cashews which obviously the locals cannot meet for lack of
capacities to produce the volume. Current production is just dominantly backyard type with few farms on orchard type.
Although Guimaras produces good quality of cashew it does not have enough material resources for the province to get into the export market. The economic upshots of people’s past practices of cutting down cashew trees to have its woods largely used as firewood or charcoal has been realized by many. Thus, there is a provincial program called Kasuy for Life where locals are encouraged to have unproductive lands in their respective areas planted with cashew.
Cashew is considered as an alternative to mango considering that its production is compatible to environmental initiatives. It can be produced without usage of hazardous chemicals compared to mango. Guimaras ranks 4th of the top five (5) cashew growing provinces in the country. In Region 6, cashew production is dominated by Guimaras.
However, Palawan and Provinces in Luzon would be potential threats considering their large area for expansion and their more advanced nut processing technology Fishing industry is also a major contributor to the provincial economy and shows strong potential for growth. In terms of marine fisheries production, Guimaras ranks 6th among the provinces in the region, with Iloilo as the number 1. However, in terms of selfsufficiency of its people on fish supply, only Iloilo is self-sufficient. Negros Occidental has the greatest deficit while Guimaras has the least deficit.
Iloilo and Negros Occidental as they are the major fish producers, are also competing in the Iloilo and Guimaras Straits. As to inland fisheries production, Guimaras ranks 5th with Iloilo still as the top producer. 74
Guimaras Island has several fishing grounds rich in marine resources including the Guimaras Strait, Iloilo Strait, Panay Gulf and the Visayan Sea. Fishing activities are concentrated in waters surrounding the island, especially along 54 coastal barangays. Furthermore, there are also a number of
fishponds which can be improved, rehabilitated or expanded.
With the demand and the big potential of Guimaras for fish production, fisheries is one of the economic drivers which could greatly help boost the economy of the province.
Seaweed Farming. Recognizing the limited coastal resource base of the shoreline communities of Sibunag, San Lorenzo, Buenavista and Nueva Valencia, the concerned municipal governments have respectively found Alternative jurisdictions. means to augment incomes in their respective municipal
Seaweed capture has been identified as one alternative income generator for coastal communities. The Office of the Municipal Agriculture Services provides the technical backstopping and Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources provide the technology
support, propagation materials and seaweed cultivation skills training.
But even with the existing production support and guarantees for an Augmented the income base of local households has not been
enough as experienced by Sibunag. Foremost, there was the commonly experienced problem with traders screwing up the selling position of sea farmers; the former buying the seaweeds at a very low price and the latter naively giving in just so to earn an income for the moment. There was also the problem of capabilities of seaweed farmers.
In addressing the Seaweeds Industry Problem Chain, based on the experience of Sibunag, these were undertaken: Finding the Right
Market Connections; Training
Tapping Additional Financing for Consolidating Growing Volume of Seaweed Capture; Establishing a Buying Station for Seaweeds to facilitate the consolidation of seaweeds and cash flow for people; and Hastening Recovery from the Oil Spill Tragedy which happened in August 2006.
When Sibunag started with the seaweed industry, it had achieved a production and marketing capacity of 10 tons per 1.5 month cycle from 12 hectares. Prior to the oil spill tragedy, it reached 16-20 tons. Currently, it is working its way towards recovery. Thus far, its capacity is at 12 tons now and targeting to exceed 20 tons, above the peak of its past performance.
There is a lack of planting materials however to hasten economic recovery in Sibunag. The Philippine Business for Social Progress (PBSP) and Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) through its SelfEmployment Assistance – Kaunlaran (SEA-K) Program provided support for the seaweed rehabilitation efforts through its purchases of needed planting materials locally sourced, from the town of San Lorenzo.
The General Impact of the Seaweed Industry. The municipality of Sibunag is successful with its project developing quite fast as expected. In less than a year, it was able to sell in big volumes and break into the markets of Cebu with its dried seaweed. The industry has steadily improved and has sustained the income sources of seaweed growers which started with 18 registered members in 2004 to 218 in 2006. As it was not much affected by the oil tragedy compared to other coastal barangays such as in Nueva Valencia, the industry complemented with the resiliency of the townfolks is fast recovering and expected to exceed its past peak performance.
The municipality of Nueva Valencia has been likewise successful in seaweed farming. It pursued the standard marketing and pricing strategies as Sibunag did; in fact it embarked on the program prior to the time Sibunag did and initially generated substantial employment opportunities for shoreline
communities. Without intending, illegal fishing, that is, fishing using dynamite and cyanide, has now become a history in the municipality.
All households at the shorelines of the town were positioned to increasingly augment incomes from this livelihood opportunity. Progress was anticipated to be high, higher than in Sibunag but this was however interrupted by the solar oil spill tragedy in 2006 as this town was first and worst hit.
Nonetheless, as of 2008, the municipality is trying to move forward. Inspired by the resiliency of Sibunag, it is reviving the industry at the same time taking advantage of new opportunities presented to the town after the tragedy.
What makes the seaweed different from the past undertaking is that the farmers are now looking beyond being mere providers of materials to traders with the substantial income of seaweeds farming going to the latter while the seaweeds farmers themselves are not getting enough.
From a low seaweed unit selling price of P4.00, the farmers using the farmerentrepreneurship approach achieved getting an average seaweed selling price of P28.00. Farmers sell their dried seaweed to the association itself, their recognized group, the one that brings and sells the seaweed to Cebu wherein it is sold at P38.00, a mark up of P10.00. The income of course goes back to the association members which effectively increased the sub-sector’s income level. 4.2.3. Industry Sector – Food Processing is another economic potential which will significantly boost the province’s economy as it also contributes in increasing the Services Sector.
Among the industries in the Region 6, Food Processing accounts for a large share. Among the 6 provinces, Guimaras ranks 3rd (to Negros Occidental) with 13.28 percent share (equivalent to P 3.65 million) in the regional total, of the projected income of Department of Science and Technology (DOST) assisted entrepreneurs. 77
There are 14 food processors in Guimaras who have organized themselves into the Guimaras Producers and Processors Association (GPPA). They
produce fruit preserves which include dried fruits (mango, pineapple, papaya), jams, puree, concentrates and pickles; mainly produced in Jordan and Buenavista; processed nuts like roasted cashew nuts, salted cashew buts, bandi, cashew butter, in Jordan and Nueva Valencia; and delicacies like piaya, mango scotch, polvoron, barquillos, pinasugbo and banana chips.
There are also existing support from concerned various government agencies like Packaging and Label Design from DTI and DOST, Equipment for Processing from DOST, Barcoding from DTI, Technical Consultancy from DOST, and Seminars/trainings on capability buildings from DTI, TESDA, DOST and Local Government Units (LGUs).
There are also obstacles for services/production. On Tourism: there are still many undeveloped/underdeveloped attractions, while some of the existing ones need to increase or enhance their accommodation facilities; product packaging and promotion have to be improved; tourist facilities like waste disposal, washrooms, guest assistance/info areas, etc., also need to be improved; communication facilities and tourism Infrastructure support like ports, access roads, etc. have to be enhanced; more competent frontline service providers should also be in place; there is also a need to increase investments in tourism facilities and services; and the need to improve the investment climate (power rates, investment incentives etc.).
On Mango production: CARP program has negative effects on attainment of production targets since beneficiaries lack financial capability to invest in mango production; mango production is very vulnerable to weather abnormalities (La Niña, typhoon, etc); and the high cost of production inputs particularly chemicals.
Under Cashew: occurrence of prolonged rain during the flowering period can cause zero production; some farmers cut cashew trees for charcoal production; and crude method of nut processing/production. 78
In Fishery, most fisherfolks have non-motorized bancas and poor fishing gears.
Sources of Competition
Negros Occidental, Aklan and Iloilo are considered as the top competitors of Guimaras on tourism.
With Negros Occidental’s expanding mango industry, it is also an emerging competitor.
Negros Occidental and Iloilo are the closest competitors of Guimaras in food processing.
The impediments in Food Processing are: insufficient supply of raw materials to cater to large volume of orders; technologies on processing are not upgraded on recent developments; and no BFAD LTO which impedes the potential to expand market in malls and department stores.
The identified potential sectors also have potentials for local employment. On Tourism, numerous tourism related employment will be directly and indirectly generated like resort attendants/employees, tour-guides, transport service providers and others. On Mango, to produce a 12,467 MT CY 2007
production, the industry requires 125,000 man-days for one (1) production season or for the period of 4 months. On Cashew, more people will be involved in planting of cashew. On Fishery, more people will be encouraged to engage in fishing and seaweed farming, and this will eventually generate additional employment. On Food Processing, as more processors will be involved and more related facilities will be put-up, the more local employment will be generated.
There are available and trainable labor force of Guimaras who can supply the human resource needs of these industries.
4.3. Local Factors
These are the local factors that many enhance the competitiveness and efficiency of the potential industries. Physical Resources Guimaras has relatively varied tourism attractions and potentials like beaches, islets, nature such as falls and caves as well as religious, historical and agri/farm sites.
Soil and climatic conditions of Guimaras are very suited for mango. There are now 134,666 bearing mango trees. Being an island, it is easy to establish quarantine protocols where entrance of quarantined important pest and diseases could be prevented and controlled. The 57,800 cashew bearing trees are also adaptable in Guimaras’ soil and there are still large areas for expansion.
Guimaras island has several fishing grounds rich in marine resources including the Guimaras Strait, Iloilo Strait, Panay Gulf and the Visayan Sea.
There are available, skilled and trainable Guimarasnons for the specific human resources needs of the potential industries.
Backyard mango growers comprise 70 percent of the total growers (seeded/centennial trees). Meanwhile, orchard growers constitute 30 percent of growers who usually use grafted trees.
Many small farmers are growing cashew on backyard, usually planted as fenceline. There are also numerous traders buying cashew nuts from the province.
There are contract growers investing in the production of fresh mango under the production sharing agreement (30:70 and 25:75 for owner and contractor). In addition, there are fresh mango exporters (manila based companies) with US and Australian accreditation.
Credit windows from Government Financing Institutions (GFIs) and other lending institutions are likewise available. However, most often the interest rates are considerably high for a small producer but there are also some private investors willing to invest in lending.
The circumferential roads are mostly in good condition. However, there is a need to improve the roads leading to many tourism sites. The Roll-on Roll-off (RORO) Sea Transport System in Brgy. Hoskyn is capable of transporting passengers, vehicles and buses and it is presently plying the route between Iloilo and Guimaras having four (4) round trips per day except Thursday. Meanwhile, the newly established RORO Port in Sebaste, Sibunag will be complementing the RORO port in Hoskyn, Jordan and soon be in its operation. There are also available and sufficient pumpboats in the major port entry of Jordan and Buenavista.
The following infrastructure are also needed: post harvest facilities, processing and packaging facilities for the fruit commodities, Common Service Facility for micro processors and more irrigation or water facilities.
Guimaras is fortunate to host the National Mango Research and Development Center (NMRDC) in Jordan which takes charge of researches and other developments on mango.
There is a need for data banking on latest technologies, research and development and for promotions and transactions on food processing. Information campaign and LGU support on massive production of raw materials for processing are also needed to support the growth of the potential industries. 4.4. Summary
4.4.1. The concentration of industry in Region VI is on the Services Sector particularly on other services. Guimaras contributes largely to this sector
since its concentration is also on Services Sector particulary on wholesale and retail followed by other services.
Guimaras’ specialization is also on Services Sector (59 percent) particularly on Other services which are both highest among the provinces in the region. Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector ranks only second (8.76 percent). All of the provinces in the region also specialize on Services Sector followed by the Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector.
4.4.2. The industries that have the best potentials for contributing to Guimaras’ economic growth are tourism, mango and cashew production and food processing. Fishery including seaweeds farming is considered as
constrained performer which can best perform if supported.
4.4.3. Key infrastructure and other support facilities, capacity enhancement activities, more supportive policies and increased investments are the most important local factors which could accelerate the growth potentials of the identified industries.
5. Transportation, Access and Circulation 5.1. External Linkages 5.1.1. Description of external linkage of the province Guimaras can be reached by air and boat from Manila and other origin, via Iloilo City and Pulupandan, Negros Occidental. It can be reached by ferryboats, pumpboats and other sea-going vessels via Iloilo Strait which is about 2.5 km. in length and Guimaras Strait from Negros. The
origin/destination point in Iloilo City are located in Ortiz Street and Parola for pumpboats and Muelle Loney for ferryboats, both with regular trips. Travel time is about 15 to 20 minutes. There are regular trips from Guimaras via San Lorenzo, with five pumpboats to Negros Occidental and vice-versa via Pulupandan and Valladolid. Pumpboats, because of their size and speed, have the advantage over the ferry in terms of the number of trips made, at most six trips per day. They may also be hired for special trips.
The major wharves in the province are the following: Jordan Wharf, Rizal, Jordan MacArthur Wharf, Sto. Rosario, Buenavista Tacay Wharf, Tacay, Buenavista M. Chavez Wharf, M. Chavez, San Lorenzo Suclaran Wharf, San Lorenzo Tumanda-Cabano Wharf, Cabano, San Lorenzo Puyo Wharf, Poblacion, Nueva Valencia Cabalagnan Wharf, Cabalagnan, Nueva Valencia
The wharves are utilized for passenger transport and hauling of products for industrial and commercial purposes to and from Guimaras. The port in Brgy. Hoskyn, Jordan has been upgraded to accommodate the RORO (Roll-On-Roll-Off) Sea Transport System capable of transporting products, passengers, vehicles and buses. The system is presently plying the route between Iloilo and Guimaras having four round trips per day except 83
Thursday. Meanwhile, the newly established RORO Port in Sebaste, Sibunag will be complementing the RORO port in Hoskyn, Jordan and soon be operational. This can accommodate large vessels that will transport passengers and heavy cargoes to include vehicles and buses to ply the route from Guimaras to Negros and vice versa. The province has a Feeder Airport in Barangay Mclain, Buenavista with an 18 m. x 6 km. runway and four meters shoulders on both sides. There is also a private airstrip in Inampologan island, Sibunag primarily for tourism. Observable major concerns on sea/water transport include: unimproved
port/wharf facilities, inconvenient and limited space for docking areas.
5.1.2. Priority external linkages and facilities for improvement Seaports and wharves To fully maximize the province’s potentials for seaports, a major development is planned to establish a seaport facility with the potential to become a transshipment hub. The coastal stretch from Jordan wharf to Buenavista
wharf has an approximate length of 3.5 kilometers and possesses the necessary draft to accommodate large vessels. The seaport development will be effectively linked to the proposed District Agri-Industrial Area (DAIC) in Jordan and the ECOZONE in Buenavista. In pursuing this development, all possible implementation schemes will be explored such as partnership with the private sector and other entities.
The existing Jordan wharf, RORO port in Hoskyn, Jordan and the Buenavista wharf will also be upgraded to international standards to efficiently provide the required transport demands for both tourists and residents. The upgrading of these facilities is expected to pave the way for the eventual upgrading of both passenger and cargo vessels from the present outriggers to the more comfortable and efficient ferry boats, RORO vessels and fast crafts.
At the eastern side in San Lorenzo, a passenger wharf will be established to cater the needs of the existing passenger traffic from Panay and Negros. It is expected that once this facility is in place, substantial increase in passenger volume will be realized. This facility also has a potential to become a fast craft terminal on a long term basis.
To provide the RORO link at the eastern side, a seaport was established in barangay Sebaste, Sibunag. This facility is intended to serve as the cargo transit point to complement the port in Hoskyn, Jordan.
A fish landing facility has been started with an initial phase of construction in Lawi, Jordan. It involves the construction of a wharf that can accommodate fishing vessels bringing in their catch. The wharf also has the potential to serve as a mid-island port at the western side considering its relative proximity to San Miguel. Another fish landing facility is planned in Cabalagnan, Nueva Valencia to cater the needs of the fishing industry. This facility will include establishment of cold storage and other ancillary services.
The existing wharf in Puyo, Nueva Valencia will be enhanced to provide adequate support to the tourism industry. It can serve as an alternate port that can directly bring tourists to destinations in Nueva Valencia without passing through Jordan Port.
The Tacay wharf in Buenavista will also be upgraded to serve as an alternate wharf for cargoes. Considering its proximity to the municipality of Leganes, this wharf can be an alternative transit point to the new airport of international standards in Sta. Barbara. This option will enable access to the airport
without passing through Iloilo City.
Feeder Airport An airport development project has been initiated in Buenavista that resulted to the construction of an unpaved runway measuring 18 m. x 6 km. with four meter shoulders on both sides. However, further development of this facility was not pursued owing to the selection of Iloilo to as the site of an airport of 85
international standards for Western Visayas. Considering the investments made on this facility, there is a need to utilize the area by developing it into a feeder airport for possible use in transport of agricultural products and for tourism purposes in transporting tourists using light aircrafts.
5.2. Internal Circulation 5.2.1. Description of the internal circulation routes of the province All the five municipalities and most barangays within the province are accessible by land transport. However, three island barangays can only be reached by pumpboats. The various modes of transportation available within the province are jeepney, tricycle, vans and single motorcycles. Motorboats and sailboats are the means of transport to the island barangays.
There is a total of 128.96 kilometers national road in the island province, mostly paved with concrete and asphalt concrete at 72 percent of the entire length, as of 2008. A length of 110.65 kilometers is concentrated on the circumferential. Based on the 2008 report of Provincial Engineering Office and DPWH, Guimaras District, the total length of roads existing throughout the Province is 747.011 kilometers. A large percentage (79.48%) is yet unpaved. Overall, only about 21% of the entire road length is paved. It also shows that 72% of the national roads, 42 percent of the provincial roads and only 2 percent of municipal/barangay roads are paved.
Among the road sections Rizal-Jordan (Pob.), Jordan-Piña, Jordan-San Miguel, San Miguel-Constancia - Cabano, San Miguel - Sebaste, ConcordiaOracon - Botconaway and portion of circumferential road from Sto. Rosario to Suclaran, are considered of high importance for these serve as connections to major ports/wharves, the urban centers, as well as the tourism destination sites. For better accessibility and stronger linkage, portions of the circumferential road that are yet unpaved and the road sections connecting to ports and other tourism destination areas, are considered priority for improvement. The province’s road network is currently sufficient in terms of density. This is due to the fact that new road constructions are being undertaken every year to provide access to areas not previously covered. However, the challenge is
the proper maintenance of these road sections to make it passable yearround. Upgrading of existing gravel and earth road sections into concrete or asphalt pavements will be pursued.
5.2.2. Priority internal routes and linkages and proposed new routes & transport facilities
5.2.2.a. Priority internal routes and linkages that need improvement
Completion of the remaining unpaved portions of the circumferential road at the eastern side of the island will be pursued. In addition, priority cross-island links along the West-East corridor should be upgraded to all-weather roads to improve internal circulation and strengthen port connections. This includes the Rizal, Jordan-Pina-Suclaran Road Section, San Miguel-Sebaste Road Section, San Miguel-Constancia-Cabano Road Section and Concordia-San Antonio Road Section.
Arterial connections between growth centers in each municipality to the primary growth center in San Miguel, Jordan will be upgraded to provide the necessary support to the settlement plan that intends to develop the San Miguel area as a provider of high level services and amenities for the province. Currently, some road sections already function as arterial roads but were originally constructed as distributor roads. Existing road connections with shortest route distance from San Miguel will be upgraded. Priority provincial roads will be upgraded to improve access to potential and existing tourism sites. Among the road sections prioritized are San Miguel to Lawi and Magamay to Dolores. Upgrading of other roads will be pursued under this plan and eventually all existing road sections will be upgraded to all weather condition.
5.2.2.b. Proposed new routes and transport facilities
The national road connecting the Jordan Port in Rizal, Jordan to San Miguel growth center is the major thoroughfare that serves both arterial and local 89
functions and hence, will soon be under heavy traffic.
With the planned
growth in San Miguel and port development in Jordan, this road section is expected to be congested and pose will problems in the next 10 years. At present, a shallow corridor of development characterizes the trend along this route which further adds to the pressure on this arterial connection.
In order to relieve pressure in this major arterial, it is proposed that an alternate road will be constructed parallel to this road starting at barangay Hoskyn to San Miguel. Proper route planning should be undertaken considering that it would traverse sloping terrain and areas that are categorized as protection forests.
Connections for the two major ports in Jordan and Buenavista will be improved by constructing a new road. This will be done by conducting
surveys to determine the optimal route with minimal disturbance of the environment and thus avoid adverse environmental impacts.
6. Income, Employment, Service Access and Poverty
6.1. Employment and Unemployment Rates & Trends
The employment rate of Guimaras decreased by 1.5 percentage points from 92.30 percent in 2000 to 90.8 percent in 2003.
The provincial employment rate in 2000 was higher by 3.4 and 2.4 percentage points in the regional and national rates, respectively. Guimaras was the second highest province, next to Capiz, in terms of employment rate in 2000. In 2003, Guimaras’ employment rate decreased by 1.50 percentage points, and lower by 0.50 percentage point compared to the regional average. It ranked fourth to Capiz which had the highest employment rate in 2003.
Unemployment rate in Guimaras in 2003 was 9.2 percent, higher by 0.5 percentage point than the region’s 8.7 percent.
Visible underemployment (refers to working less than 40 hours during the reference week and employed persons wanted additional work hours) of Guimaras in 2000 is 24.70 percent (NSO), 2001 - 24.30 percent. 2002 - 24.15 percent, and 2003 - 21.90 percent. Most often Guimaras has the highest underemployment rate in the region.
Table 16. Employment and Unemployment Rates, by Province, Region VI, 2000 & 2003 Employment Province Rate 2000 Aklan Antique Capiz Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental Region VI Philippines 87.2 88.9 89.9 93.0 91.3 89.8 12.8 11.1 10.1 7.0 8.7 10.2 87.1 89.7 94.1 92.3 90 2003 93.6 82.3 94.5 90.8 88.9 Unemployment Rate 2000 12.9 10.3 5.9 7.7 10 2003 6.4 17.7 5.5 9.2 11.1
6.2. Family Income
The total family income in Guimaras in 1997 was P1.8 billion which increased to P2.6 billion in 2000, reflecting an annual growth rate of 15 percent. Among the 6 provinces in the region, Guimaras has the lowest total family income with only 1.7 percent of the regional total in 1997 and almost 2 percent in 2000. Guimaras’ total family income was only 0.10 percent and 0.12 percent of the total family income in the Philippines in 1997 and 2000, respectively.
The average family income of Guimaras in 1997 was P74,003, second lowest in the region next to Negros Occidental. This figure was lower by 14.7
percent from the regional average. However, this increased annually by 12.2 percent and reached P101,125 in 2000 and this time Guimaras became the second highest in the region next to Iloilo. Yet the 2000 figure was still below the regional average by 7.7 percent, though the gap has reduced by 7 percentage points.
Both the 1997 and 2000 average family income of Guimaras were all lower than the national average.
The real per capita income of Guimarasnon in 1997 was P14,440, it increased annually by an average of 3.8 percent and reached P16,702 in 2000 which is above the annual per capita poverty thresholed of P10,759.00 Guimaras was the second lowest from among the provinces in the region in 1997 and third highest in 2000. Guimaras’ real per capita incomes in 1997 and 2000 were lower than the national figures.
Per 2005 data of the National Statistical Coordination Board on the Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines, Guimaras ranked 44th with 0.4222 poverty incidence which made Guimaras a graduate from the Club 20, poorest provinces in the country.
Table 17. Total Number of Families, Total and Average Family Income By Province, Region VI and Philippines, 1997 and 2000
Province Total Number of Families 1997
Aklan Antique Capiz Iloilo Negros Occidental Guimaras Region VI 89,135 98,329 140,999 290,481 466,808 24,692
Real Per Income Total (In Php 1,000) Average/Family Capita Income 1997
7,779,360 8,161,827 12,394,520 24,317,689 31,586,381 1,827,289
86,466 92,247 131,121 291,472 422,175 26,091
8,609,285 8,755,803 13,022,037 32,095,069 31,208,300 2,638,452 132,805,985
87,276 83,005 87,905
99,568 94,917 99,313
16,806 13,134 16,718 16,304 15,206 13,706
83,715 110,114 15,678 17,609 67,665 73,923 12,320 11,723
74,003 101,125 14,440 16,072 86,770 109,600 nda nda
1,249,979 1,211,732 108,460,218
Philippines 14,192,462 15,269,655 1,748,060,769 2,199,431,875 123,168 144,039 21,877 21,104
Sources: NSCB, 2005 Regional Social and Economic Trends, Western Visayas. NSCB, The Countryside in Figures, Western Visayas, 2007.
6.3. Social Services
Guimaras has 3 government hospitals namely, Guimaras Provincial Hospital (GPH) in San Miguel, Jordan, Buenavista Extension Hospital (BEH) in Mclain, Buenavista, and Nueva Valencia District Hospital (NVDH) in Lanipe, Nueva Valencia. There are also 5 Rural Health Units (RHUs) which are all Sentrong Sigla Accredited, 80 Barangay Health Stations (BHS) and 58 Health & Nutrition Posts (HNP). As of 2007 there are 695 Barangay Health Workers servicing in the whole province.
Hospital bed– population ratio
The total actual bed capacity of the 3 hospitals in Guimaras for 2007 is 97 giving a hospital bed-population ratio of 1:1,559 which is lower than the national standard of 1:5,000, meaning it is satisfactory. The authorized bed capacities of GPH, BEH and NVDH are all within the standards which are 10 bed capacity for primary and 25 to 50 bed capacity for secondary.
The actual public doctor population ratio of Guimaras is 1:5,264 which is better than the standard of 1:20,000.
Doctor – population ratio
As to the doctor to population ratio, an average (2005-2007) of 1:43,000 is registered by Buenavista, the highest, 1: 33,000 in Jordan; 1:35,000 in Nueva Valencia; 1:23,000 in San Lorenzo and Sibunag. All of these are over than the standard of 1:20,000 which implies the need for more doctors, with the current situation, the doctors could be overburdened with more patients resulting to unsatisfactory feedbacks. Regionwide, only Negros Occidental is within the standard in 2007.
Health workers – population ratio
The province’s rural health midwife ratio of 1:2,520 is lower than the standard of 1:5,000 which means the province is better and has more than enough midwives. Dentist to population ratio and barangay nutrition scholar per barangay ratio are also within the standards. However, the actual public
health nurse ratio of Guimaras of 1:30,529 is higher than the standard of 1:20,000 which means the province needs more nurses. The ratios on rural sanitary inspector to population and barangay health workers to households are also higher or not within the standards. The province likewise needs more health educators since the actual ratio is not within the standard.
Medical transportation like ambulance and service vehicles (vans, multicabs) are also available in every local government units even at most barangays. Infant with low birth weight
The rates of infants with low birthweight have been erratic from 2005-2007. But it decreased tremendously from 8.8 in 2006 to 2.92 in 2007, however a much lower rate was registered in 2005 with 2.83. The reasons for the decrease in the infant with low birth weight maybe due to several public health programs being implemented in the province in response to the existing and emerging health problems of the people. These programs are available in the RHUs and BHS.
Morbidity and Mortality Rates In 2007 as compared with 2006, there is reduction or improvement in almost all health indices like the Crude Death Rate, Infant Mortality (lowest in the region in 2007 and 2nd lowest in 2006), Maternal Mortality and Child Mortality rates, Neonatal Death, Low Birth weight among newborn and Fertility Rate. There is only a very slight increase in the Crude Birth Rate.
Morbidity Rates by Leading Causes in 2006 and 2007 Causes 2006 Causes Number 1. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 2. Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection & Pneumonia 5,089 Rate 3,116.24 1.Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 1,046 640.51 2. Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection & Pneumonia 601 368.02 3. Injuries (all types) 4. Hypertension 5. Urinary Tract Infection 6. Skin Diseases 7. Influenza 637 802
2007 Number 4,180 Rate 2,498.94
3. Injuries (all type) 4. Hypertension 5. Urinary Tract Infection 6. Skin Diseases 7. Pulmonary Tuberculosis 8. Acute Watery Diarrhea 9. Influenza 10. Anemia
9. Anemia 10.Parasitism
Source: PHO, 2006 & 2007.
Mortality Rates by Leading Causes in 2006 and 2007 Causes 2006 Number Rate
Causes Nu mbe r
1. Cardiovascular Diseases 2. Pneumonia 3. Cancer (all forms) 4. Pulmonary Tuberculosis 5. Injuries (all types) 6. Cerebrovascular accident 7. Congestive Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 8. Diabetes mellitus 9. Renal Failure Status Asthmaticus
231 89 83 54 47 44
141.45 54.50 50.82 33.07 28.78 26.94
1. Cardiovascular 2. Pneumonia 3. Cancer (all types) 4. Injuries/wounds 5. PTB 6. Cardiovascular Accident 7. Diabetes Milletus
206 95 88 42 33 27
123.15 56.79 52.61 25.11 19.73 16.14
15 11 11
9.18 6.74 6.74
8. Sepsis 9. Bronchial Asthma
10. Peptic Disease
10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Source: PHO, 2006 & 2007.
The top 10 leading causes of mortality in Guimaras in 2006 are also the same, but with lower rates, with the regional causes (the only year when regional data is available for comparison)
Comparing the morbidity rates of 2006 and 2007, 6 of the leading causes have decreased: URTI, Acute LRTI and Pneumonia, UTI, Skin Diseases, PTB
and Anemia, the other 3 increased namely, Injuries, Hypertension and Influenza.
Most of the top leading causes of mortality and morbidity are noncommunicable diseases, preventable and related to lifestyles. Proportion of Children 0-5 years old who died
The proportion deaths among children aged 0 to below 5 years old has been decreasing from 15.33 in 2005 to 2.19 in 2007. This is a concrete result of the interventions made by all stakeholders to improve the situation of the children in Guimaras.
Proportion of children 0-5 years old who are moderately and severely underweight
In 2007, Buenavista has the highest percentage of children aged 0-71 months with Below Normal Low (BNL) and Below Normal Very Low (BNVL). The good performers in 2006 and 2007 is Lorenzo.
From 2005 to 2007 there has been a decreasing trend in the percentage shares of BNVL in the total combined rate from 3 percent to 1.32 percent and to 0.81 percent, respectively.
The nutritional status of children aged 0 to below 6 years old or 71 months has been improving with an average decrease of 3.94 percentage points per year. This good result can be attributed largely to the various
programs/projects/activities that have been implemented by LGUs and actively supported by the communities and encouraged them to improve their family health practices or lifestyle.
Fully Immunized Children
On FIC, Guimaras ranks number one (top 1) in 2005 as against the other provinces in the region, but declined to number 5 in 2006 primarily because of the change in the formula for computing the FIC which is from 3 percent at 85 percent coverage to 3 percent of the population and 100 percent coverage.
In 2005, Nueva Valencia has the highest percentage in terms of implementing child care with 86.2 percent fully immunized children (FIC). Behind is Sibunag with 66.4 percent FIC. In 2006, San Lorenzo has the highest percentage of
FIC while Sibunag has the lowest
Maternal Mortality Rate
The Province of Guimaras has a zero maternal mortality rate in 2005 and 2007, except in 2006 wherein 0.36 incidence, in Jordan and San Lorenzo, has been reported. Consequently, Guimaras ranks first in the region in 2005 and 2007 but only 2nd (from the lowest) in 2006.
The outputs of maternal care programs of pre-natal and tetanus toxoid (TT2 Plus) have been erratic yet from 2005 to 2007 but have increased in 2007 as compared with 2006. Compared with other provinces in the region, Guimaras ranks 3rd (from the top) in 2005 and 4th in 2006.
Nueva Valencia is leading in the implementation of maternal care program in 2005 with 71.2 percent pregnant mothers with 3 or more prenatal visits and 68.3 percent given TT2 plus. Meanwhile Sibunag has the lowest percentage in terms of maternal care implementation. For 2006, San Lorenzo and Jordan are leading while Buenavista has the lowest percentage in maternal care implementation. Based on the DOH-CHD 6 reports, Guimaras ranks 3rd (from the top) among the provinces in region VI on percentage of pregnant women given TT2 plus in 2005, but declined to 4th in 2006 in terms of TT2 plus. 99
Health Insurance Coverage
In 2005, aside from Philhealth insurance coverage of government workers and a number of other households, total of 10,461 households was covered by the local Guimaras Health Insurance Program (GHIP) with a 60:20:20 cost sharing scheme (Provincial : Municipal Government : Member), In 2006 it decreased to 8,211 and rose to 14,837 in 2007. The Philhealth indigency program covered a total of 20,220 households in 2006 and 35,057 households in 2007.
Key challenges constraints, priority concerns and areas relevant to the identification of health sector PPAs: Provide access to health facilities/services especially of the island and farflung barangays and sitios. Make affordability of health care services and medicines Increase coverage of priority health programs Improve health delivery & effectiveness Come up with regulations and rules to support various activities Advocate for healthy lifestyle to Guimarasons Provide adequate public health nurses, rural sanitary inspectors, barangay health workers and health educators
The simple literacy rate in Guimaras based on the 1990 Census of NSO was 94.97 percent. It also shows that there are more female literates than male. Guimaras’ simple literacy rate is higher than regional rate which were 87.7 percent in July 1989, 91.9 percent in November 1994 and 92.5 percent in 2003.
Using the Basic Education Information System (BEIS) which generates only division wide data, the participation rate of SY 2004-2005 is higher compared that of SY 2005-2006 and SY 2006-2007. Based on the school-going age population for 2006, the elementary age population (6-11 yrs. Old) is estimated to be 24,517. Of the number, only 18,004 are enrolled in Public Elementary Schools giving a participation rate of 73.43.
Net Enrollment Ratio
Guimaras’ elementary net enrollment ratio in SY 2004-2005 was lower than the regional rate of 76.93 percent but in the succeeding SY it became higher than the regional rate of 71.68 percent. But this net enrollment ratio still falls below the DepEd’s planning standard of 95.1 percent.
Data gathered from the municipalities reveal that in SY 2007-2008, Buenavista tops (and above planning standard) with 101 percent and the least is San Lorenzo with 90.51 percent.
The net enrollment ratio (participation rate) in Guimaras decreased by 1.93 percentage points from SY 2005-2006 to 2006-2007, this is because a number of 12 year-old children are still in the elementary schools. The decreasing participation rate is likewise affected by the higher projected 102
population for ages 12-15, which is 16,044 per National Statistic Office (NSO) while the number of enrollees ages 12-15 is only 7,400 per 2006-2007 Basic Education BEIS. It should be noted also that the 2004-2005 participation rate is much lower.
Key school performance indicators in the elementary level mostly improved except participation rate which falls below the DepEd’s planning standard of 95.1 percent. The main reason for such can be attributed to the national projected school-age population (age 6-11) vis-à-vis actual public enrolment of this age group. The calculation of such indicator is based only on the public schools enrolment while private schools enrolment is included in the national projected school-age group. Moreover, many 6-year old children are still enrolled in preschool classes.
The Division of Guimaras ranked number 1 among the 17 Divisions in the whole Region VI in the 2007 National Achievement Test (NAT) for the elementary level with 74.87 percent. However, this is still below the nationally targeted 75 percent MPS.
Guimaras’ secondary net enrollment ratio in SY 2004-2005 was lower than the regional rate of 45.59 percent but in the succeeding SY it became higher than the regional rate of 45.21 percent.
The same performance trend can be seen in the secondary level. But all of the rates in high school are generally lower than that of the elementary and fall below the DepEd’s planning standards.
Cohort Survival Rate
The cohort survival rate (CSR) , for those who enrolled in grade 1 or first year and graduated in grade 6 or 4th year, for elementary increased by as much as 7.68 percentage points and 18.12 percentage points for secondary level from 103
SY 2005-2006 to SY 2006-2007. However, it can be noted that there are more high school students as against elementary pupils, who cannot really consistently pursue their high school and actually graduate.
Compared with the regional data, Guimaras’ elementary CSRs for SYs 20042005 and 2006-2007 are both higher.
The elementary cohort survival rates from SY 2005-2007 have been declining in the 3 municipalities, namely, Nueva Valencia, San Lorenzo and Sibunag. Buenavista has no available data. Jordan has increased its rate by 3.88 percentage points in SY 2007-2008 (it has no data in SY 2005-2006) and it has the highest CSR in SY 2007-2008 while Nueva Valencia has the lowest.
The National Achievement Test (NAT) of the elementary has been increasing from 53.39 percent in 2006 to 68.37 in 2007 to 74.87 percent 2008. The NAT of the secondary has also been increasing, but lower compared to the elementary, 47.93 percent in 2006, 49.93 percent in 2007 and 56.01 percent in 2008.
The secondary CSR in SY 2004-2005 is lower than the regional rate of 61.97 percent but it is higher than the region’s 60.61 percent in SY 2005-2006. (No available regional data for SY 2006-2007)
The secondary CSR, with the available data of the 4 municipalities except Sibunag for SY 2007-2008, it appears that San Lorenzo has the highest with 96.9 percent and the lowest is Buenavista with 71.05 percent.
Classroom-pupil ratio/Teacher librarian ratio
For the classroom-pupil ratio, an average of 1:28 elementary pupils and 1:35 secondary students have been registered for SY 2005 to 2007 which indicates a better school room situation of children in Guimaras compared with the standards of 1:40 and 1:40-45 in the elementary and secondary, respectively. Teacher-Librarian ratio in the elementary and secondary level is also within the standard but there are some schools with more population and others have no library.
On early childhood care and development, the Sub-Regional Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (SR-MICS) survey in 2007 conducted by NSO and funded by UNICEF, reveals that 41.9% of Guimaras’ children 3-5 years old attending Early Childhood Education. Although ranks second highest from among the 24 Sixth Country Programme for Children (CPC 6) focus provinces and cities, it is still considerably low. Key challenges, Priority concerns
1. Low net enrollment ratio (school participation rate) especially in the secondary level and in other school performance indicators in the secondary level
2. Low percentage of children 3-5 years old attending early childhood education
3. In the elementary, 8.6 percent or 76 of the total 883 classrooms need completion, 24 percent or 211 need minor repairs, and 37.4 percent or 330 need rehabilitation. There are some high schools with higher classroom-student ratio like 1:56 .
4. Of the total 277 HS classrooms, 3.2 percent or 9 is unfinished, 37.5 percent or 104 need minor repair, and 11.9 percent or 33 need rehabilitation.
5. No textbooks in MSEP and EPP, TLE, MAPEH and Values Education
6. Lack of workbooks and support instructional materials and insufficiency in other learning materials, facilities and equipment.
Based on the Living Standards Survey done in almost all households provincewide in 2005, on the average 88 percent or majority of the households in Guimaras own their houses, only 12 percent are caretakers and less than 1 percent rent.
In all 5 municipalities, there is very minimal number of households (1.0-1.9 percent) whose houses’ walls are made of salvaged or makeshift wall materials. Sibunag (37percent) has the highest number of households with house walls made of light materials while the least is Jordan with 16 percent.
Compared with the other 2 municipalities (2.1 percent and 2.9 percent), Buenavista (3.9 percent), San Lorenzo (3,8 percent) and Nueva Valencia (3.0 percent) have more households whose houses are seriously dilapidated. Jordan has the most number of households with houses made of sound structures (44 percent).
In all 5 municipalities, there is very minimal number (0.9 – 1.7 percent) of households with salvaged or makeshift roofing materials. Among the 5
municipalities, Sibunag has the highest percentage with light materials roofing followed by San Lorenzo and Nueva Valencia. The nearest comparison which can be made on this type of roofing is only against the 1980 and 1990 available Guimaras data which are 3.5 percent and 0.2 percent, respectively,
which means for 2005 it has again increased. This is due to the increased household population and the inability of the families to buy strong materials and the increasing cost of these materials. Compared with the regional and national data on the percentage of households with salvaged/makeshift roofing materials, the 1980 rate of Guimaras is higher, but in 1990, it became lower than their figures.
Presently, there is an existing housing site for the provincial and municipal employees located in San Miguel, Jordan. This was acquired through deed of donation sometime in 1989. Challenges: ● Observation: Growing informal settlers especially in coastal and urban areas ● More Socialized Housing Units/Relocation sites identified
Police ratio to population in Buenavista is one policeman to an average of 1,804 population from 2005-2007; 1: 1,348 for Jordan; 1:1,694 for Nueva Valencia; 1:1,225 for San Lorenzo and 1:867 for Sibunag. These ratios
except for San Lorenzo does not comply with the standard of 1:1,000 population for rural, which means our police force has to exert more efforts and strategies to maintain peace and order in the province by increasing number of police forces and police visibility.
The fire protection service of Guimaras does not comply with the fire protection standard of 1 per 2,000 population. All the 5 municipalities have fire truck but the number of firemen does not meet the standard of 14 per fire truck. All the 5 municipal LGUs have jails and functional pillars of justice system.
Crime Rate by Type Physical Year Murder Homicide Rape Injury 2005 43 13 9 18 2006 52 14 7 17 2007 34 7 6 4 2008 48 16 6 11 Source: Guimaras Provincial Police Office
Robbery 9 9 6 3
Theft 10 4 3 6
Total 102 103 60 90
Challenges: ● Additional fire truck for Buenavista, firemen and logistics for all municipalities ● More police forces, facilities and equipment
6.4. Utility/Infrastructure Services
6.4.1 Water and Sanitation
Water Supply The 2007 Provincial Health Office Report shows that among the 32,621 total number of households provincewide, 29,193 or equivalent to 89.49 percent have access to drinking water of which 18.30 percent were served by Level III system/facilities mostly in the urban areas, 4.67 percent by Level II and 66.52 percent by Level I or point sources. Nueva Valencia has the highest, 99.69 percent of households with access to drinking water but Sibunag has the lowest with 71 percent. This would mean that 3,428 households, or 10.51 percent still have no access to safe water and these are mostly located in remote rural areas.
The exploration and tapping of both ground and surface water sources for use in domestic and commercial/industrial purposes will be pursued under this plan. In line with this, all spring sources will be tapped to establish Level III water supply systems to serve growth centers. Potential ground water
sources will also be explored for possible utilization through applicable technologies that can effectively extract groundwater for distribution. The
present coverage of Level II systems will be expanded to cover unserved areas while Level I systems will be upgraded. Eventually, this plan aims to serve all growth centers and settlements with Level III systems.
Sanitation As of 2007, 86.41 percent of the total households have access to sanitary toilets. This is a little bit lower compared with the 2006 figure, where there is a decrease of 0.08 percentage points. This decline is caused by the decrease in the percentages of San Lorenzo and Nueva Valencia most probably due to the increase in number of new households and the destruction of old, dilapidated/unusable toilets in which the structures are usually made using light materials. Since 2005 until 2007, Buenavista has the highest households with access to sanitary toilets while San Lorenzo has the lowest . 112
Challenges: ● Low water supply per capita due to the growing population and emerging industries. ● Frequent outbreak of water borne/related diseases, e.g. diarrhea which is one of the leading causes of morbidity ● Low percentage of households with sanitary toilets.
Based on the Guimaras Electric Cooperative’s (GUIMELCO) report of power supply in the province, there are 97 percent of the 98 barangays are already energized and 18,664 out of 29,354 potential consumers or 64 percent are being served by electricity as of 2007. Buenavista has the highest number of households energized while Sibunag has the least.
The Guimaras Electric Cooperative (GUIMELCO) provides the electricity needs in the entire island. Power supply is transmitted through a 2.5 km submarine power cable from a substation in Ingore La Paz, Iloilo City. The substation’s power comes from the Palimpinon Geothermal Plant located in Negros Oriental which is operated by the National Power Corporation (NPC). With the Cooperative’s capacity via the NPC of 5.0 Mega Watts, the province’s power demand of 3.8 Mega Watts can be sufficiently provided. However, due to the disturbances from bad weather, boat anchorage and others, this submarine cable that transmits power from the substation in Iloilo is susceptible to damage or disconnection. Thus, GUIMELCO resorts to the Trans Asia’s Individual Power Plant with the capacity of only about 2.8 Mega Watts, which is below the province’s required electricity, resulting to a power rationing in the island.
There is a need to address the power supply sector by exploring possible options in providing a stable, adequate and inexpensive system in the province. The present submarine cable which is the main power line to the source in Iloilo has reached its full capacity and has deteriorated over the years. The significant increase in power demand for the last ten years and the expected demand to meet the planned development for the next ten years will necessitate the need to establish power generation facilities in the island or establish a new cable connection to Iloilo or Negros to tap on the geothermal plant. Priority should also be given in exploring renewable energy sources such as wind power. Power generation facilities will however need to satisfy environmental compliance and social acceptability aspects.
Challenge: ● Unreliable power supply especially at times of bad weather ● Inadequate power supply
6.4.3. Sewerage Facilities
As of to date, sewerage system is still lacking in the province. Flooding in Barangay Poblacion, fronting the Jordan Central School and Municipal Hall, of Jordan, Tastasan, Buenavista, and in Sitio Tinuslukan, Barangay Dolores of Nueva Valencia are remarkable comes the heavy rainfall due to non existence of sewerage facilities. 6.4.4. Solid Waste Management
The 4 municipalities, except San Lorenzo, have Solid Waste Management Plan. Solid waste collection is being undertaken in urban barangays or builtup areas of Jordan and Buenavista. The province has two Controlled Disposal Facilities, one in Barangay Bugnay in Jordan and the other in Barangay Pina, Buenavista, while the municipalities of Nueva Valencia, San Lorenzo and Sibunag have one open pit dumpsite each. Only the municipalities of Buenavista, Jordan and Nueva Valencia have functional Solid Waste Management Board. Telecommunication Facilities Of the five (5) municipalities in the Province of Guimaras, only two (2) have connections to landlines, namely: Buenavista and Jordan.
In 1998, there were 750 connections covering 5 barangays in the Municipality of Buenavista. and operated by the Globelines. Recently, this number of barangays covered is expanded to eleven (11).
In Jordan, the Telecommunication Commissions Office (TELOF), of the Commission on Information and Communication Technology has a telephone load/capacity of 1,944 and now operates in barangays San Miguel and Poblacion with more than 335 total telephone lines installed, for residential, business and public offices. There are also 16 cell sites of Globe, Smart and Sun Cellular in the municipalities. Guimaras also hosts the television transmitters of GMA 6, ABS-CBN 10, IBC 12 and PTV 2. 119
Based on the Living Standards Survey (LSS ) in 2005, on the average, 33 percent of the households in Guimaras have cellular phones with Buenavista and Jordan having the highest percentage while Sibunag and San Lorenzo have the lowest. Almost 2 percent of the households have telephones with Buenavista having the highest percentage while Sibunag has the lowest.
Almost 61 percent of the households have radio and 45 percent have television sets. Buenavista has the most number of households owning those appliances while Sibunag has the least.
Table 18. Local Service Standards SERVICES STANDARD Social Services - Health Medical and allied personnel 1 Government Physician per 20,000 population 1 Public Health Nurse per 20,000 population 1 Rural Health Midwife per 5,000 population 1 Government Dentist per 50,000 population 1 Rural Sanitary Inspector per 20,000 population 1 Barangay Health Worker per 20 households 1 Barangay Nutrition Scholar per Barangay 1 Health Educator per 50,000 population Primary Hospital 10 bed capacity
ACTUAL 1 Government Physician per 5,264 population 1 Public Health Nurse per 30,529 population 1 Rural Health Midwife per 2,520 population 1 Government Dentist per 25,440 population 1 Rural Sanitary Inspector per 25,440 population 1 Barangay Health Worker per 38 households 1 Barangay Nutrition Scholar per Barangay 1 Health Educator per 151,238 population 10 bed capacity - BEH 12 bed capacity - NVDH
25 to 50 bed capacity 75 bed capacity - GPH 1 per 5,000 population Hospital Bed Population Ratio 1:1,559 (3 Hospitals)
Medical Transport Ambulance 1 per LGU Service Vehicle 1 per LGU SOCIAL SERVICES – Education and Culture Elementary Classroom 1 per 40 pupils
1 per LGU 1 per LGU
1 per 27 students
1 per 40 pupils Separate building or room, well-lighted, ventilated, free from noise, accessible and centrally located 1 per 500 or less pupils 1 each per 501-1000 pupils 1 per 1,000-2,000 pupils 1 for every additional additional 1,000 pupils 1 per 40-45 pupils 1 per 40-45 pupils Separate building or room, well-lighted, ventilated, free from noise, accessible and centrally located 1 per enrollment of 500 or less students 501-1,000 students 1,000-2,000 students additional 1,000 students 1 park with a minimum of 5,000 sq meters in area per 1,000 population and maximum walking distance of 100-150 meters Public playfield/athletic field with minimum of 0.5 hectare per 1,000 inhabitants 1 sports facility per barangay
1 per 27 students Separate room, well lighted, ventilated, free from noise, accessible and centrally located 1 teacher librarian
Teacher-Librarian Full and part-time teacher-librarian Full-time librarian and part time teacher-librarian Full-time librarian Secondary Classroom Teacher Library
1 per 38 students 1 per 39 students Separate room, well lighted, ventilated, free from noise, accessible and centrally located 1 teacher librarian
Teacher-Librarian Full and part-time teacher-librarian Full-time librarian and part time teacher librarian Full-time librarian Sports and Recreation Municipality/City Park
5 municipal parks
Sports and athletics
Natural Environment Area
Public playfield 1 sports facility per barangay 1 sports complex 1 gym(Province) 4 gym (Buenavista,San Lorenzo, Nva. Valencia & Jordan)
Presence of natural, undisturbed and scenic areas suitable for recreation, scientific and ecological significance consisting of forest, water resources and other land forms Protective Services
Taklong Island Lombija Wildlife Park Islets, diving sites
Fire Protection Service
1 per 500 population (urban) 1 per 1,000 population (rural) 1 per 2,000 population 14 firemen per truck 1 fire truck per 28,000 population
1 per 845 population
1 per 3,800 population 9 firemen per truck – Jordan and Nueva Valencia 6 firemen per truck – Buenavista and San Lorenzo 6 firemen per truck – Sibunag 1 fire truck for Buenavista and San Lorenzo 1 fire truck for Jordan and Nueva Valencia 1 fire truck for Sibunag 1 per LGU
Welfare Services Women’s Desk Office of Senior Citizens Affair Day Care Center/Feeding Center Rehabilitation Center (for victims of drug abuse, vagrants, victims of disasters, calamities, child abuse, etc.) Adult Community Educational Program Environment Protection Solid Waste Management Pollution Control
1 per LGU
1 per LGU
100% collection and disposal Absence of air, water and industrial pollutants 100% free from toxic and hazardous substances
Public Buildings and Facilities Municipal/City Hall/Provincial Capitol Socio-Cultural Center Museum Barangay. Municipal City and Provincial Library or Reading Prov’l. Capitol & 5 Mun.Halls 1 Prov’l. Gym that serve as venue for cultural activities Province 1 per brgy./municipality
ECONOMIC SERVICES Infrastructure Services & Existing Road Network Provincial Roads Connecting all component municipalities/cities (except island City/Municipal Road municipal/city) Connecting major clusters of population to the city or Feeder Road (Barangay road, rural town proper road, or farm-to-market road Connecting all barangays to municipal, city or provincial road Level I Point source(such as rain collector, wells and springs) generally for rual areas where houses are scattered too thinly to justify a distribution system Communal faucet system generally for rural areas where houses are clustered densely enough to justify a piped distribution system to a number of households Piped system with individual connection in urban areas with avg output of 150 liters per person per day
Connecting all component municipalities Connecting major cluster of population to the town proper Connecting all barangays to municipal roads
96% of the Level I faciltites is privately owned. Most of these are covered/improved dug wells. 6 water service providers that covers rural barangays located in the municipality of Buenavsita, Jordan and Nueva Valencia 17 operating water utilities of which two are water districts, Jordan and Buenavista. Buenavista Water Districts covers 9 barangays, 3 of which are urban. Jordan Water District serves 3 barangays, 2 urban and 1 rural. none There are in some areas
Sewerage Services (province/municipality)
Existence of functional sewer system Absence of Stagnant water formation
Market and Slaughterhouse Accessible from all directions and through all modes of transportation Site located in urban area Standard section and facilities Wet section Accessible from all directions and though all modes of transportation Site located in urban area
Semi-wet section Dry goods section Storage facilities Eateries Parking space Running water Proper lighting Proper ventilation Drainage Treatment plant or settling pond
6.5. Other Services and Facilities
Welfare Services - Children and Women
The Province of Guimaras has been endeavoring to become a child-friendly province where children are put at the center of the development agenda of the LGUs and ensured that they enjoy all their children rights on survival, development, protection and participation . This effort especially started with the implementation of the child-friendly program since 1999.
The Women and Children Protection Desk in every municipality is functional which means within the standard of one per LGU. The Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) in 72 barangays are functional.
However, these are still the protection rights related constraints and emerging concerns: continued abuses, although decreasing in trend, on children and women increased number of children in conflict with law (CICL) from 10 in 2006 to 23 in 2007 circulation of pornographic materials, illegal drugs and substances, resulting to engagement in pre-marital sex, early pregnancies and dropouts among teenagers
presence of gangs/fraternities in schools and among the out-of-school youths
unsupportive family of victims and witnesses lack of center/halfway home for CICL lack of medico legal in the provincial hospital and untrained Municipal Health Officers in the 2 municipalities
In promoting meaningful children’s participation in local development, more children have participated in child-friendly activities of the community, schools and municipalities. But these are still the gaps: inadequate capabilities of the new sets of SK officials and other youth organizations particularly on leadership, career guidance, planning and budgeting need to strengthen the partnership of SK with adult organizations like government agencies especially barangay council, NGOs, faith-based organizations and other children/youth organizations limited children’s representation to the Local Councils for the Protection of Children
There are 128 IP households, with a total population of 633 staying in the four identified areas in the four municipalities (excluding San Lorenzo), namely: Kati-Kati in San Miguel, Jordan; Serum in San Nicolas, Buenavista; Ubog in Lanipe Nueva Valencia; and Sitio Lininguan in Maabay, Sibunag.
Security of land tenure is still a problem of the Aetas particularly in Kati-Kati, San Miguel, Jordan and in Maabay, Sibunag,. They still live in private lands, which they cannot call their own. There is no identified ancestral domain in the province. They still have to accomplish several documentary
requirements for the processing of land titles before they can a have a claim in it. Thus, most of them have not yet transferred to the settlement areas. There are also some non- Aetas who are tilling/planting crops in the proposed
settlement area. For those who have lived in the settlement/CARP areas, they find their backyard too limited for planting and animal raising.
The other challenges of IP’s include low level of family income, prevalence of out-of-school youth (23 percent of the total children), malnutrition, lack of farming equipment, inadequate water sealed toilets, potable water supply and personal hygiene. Discrimination and bullying at school is still experienced by IP children.
Interventions for persons with disability and senior citizen are also given priority in the province.
The poverty incidence of families in Guimaras based on NSCB reduced to 22.6 percent in 2000 from 29.6 percent in 1997, but it increased to 32.7percent in 2003 and to 35.2percent in 2006.
This means that in 2006 there are 49,790 families who are trying to make their ends meet. The province, however, placed 4th in the ranking in terms of improvement in the poverty incidence among families by region in 2003-2006 from being in the 6th place in 2000-2003 survey.
While Region VI’s poverty incidence has been reducing, in 2000 it is 36.6% while in 2003 it is 31.4 percent and in 2006 it is 31.1percent, Guimaras’ has been increasing and higher than the region for 2003 and 2006 by 1.3 and 4.1 percentage points, respectively .
Guimaras’ poverty incidence in 2006 is higher than both the regional (31.1percent) and national (26.9percent) rates and ranks Guimaras third from Antique which the highest rate of 43percent. The annual per capita poverty threshold in 2006 for western visayas is Php14,405 while Guimaras is Php14,811.
In terms of improvement in the poverty incidence among families, Guimaras ranked 45 in the whole country from 72 in the 2000-2003 survey.
Based on the NSCB Report on Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines in November 2005, Guimaras ranks 44 (from the poorest), second better province (next to Iloilo which ranks 48) in the region. Capiz is 23, Antique – 30, Aklan – 33 and Negros Occidental – 42.
From the same estimation, poverty incidence in the municipal level, San Lorenzo posted the highest poverty incidence at 53.45 percent, while Buenavista has the lowest with 36.86 percent.
There is another indicator which can reflect the socio-economic situation of the people and this is the Human Development Index (HDI) which measures achievements in basic dimensions of human development. HDI is the
average of life expectancy, weighted average of functional literacy and combined elementary and secondary net enrolment rate and real per capita income. The higher is the HDI level, the better is the LGU.
Guimaras HDI levels improved from 0.577 in 1994 to 0.622 in 2000. From being third from the highest among the 6 provinces in the region in 1994, Guimaras moved up to second (next to Iloilo) in 2000. Although still below the national average of 0.656 in the year 2000, Guimaras ranked 21 nationally, with Bulacan – 0.76 and Cavite – 0.73 on the top provincial list.
Another measure is the Quality of Life Index (QLI) which is the function of elementary cohort survival, under five nutrition and births attended by trained health personnel. The higher is the QLI or lower is the rank of the LGU the better. Among the 6 province in the region, Guimaras ranked second in 1994, 4th in 1997, and climbed up to 3rd in 1999.
In 2005, Guimaras conducted the Living Standards Survey (LSS) with technical and financial assistance from the Local Enhancement and Development (LEAD) for Health Project. It was a complete enumeration of 127
households in the province. Its primary objective is to determine the socioeconomic conditions in the barangay using a poverty instrument which ranks households from highest to lowest according to living standards index. The indicators used representing various dimensions of living standards include: food security and vulnerability ( number of meals served in the past two days, days luxury food served, days food was not enough in the past month, weeks of stock of staple food); housing conditions (ownership of house and lot; quality of roof, wall and floor materials, structural condition of house, electricity use, quality of cooking fuel); water and sanitation (source of drinking water, type of toilet used); and household assets (land, livestock, transport, appliances/electronics).
The results of the LSS reveal that the percentage distribution of households by LSI by quartile and per municipality as follows: Sibunag has the highest percentage, 33.3 percent, of households belonging to the lowest or first quartile, On the other hand, Buenavista has the least percentage with 18.7 percent. There is also similar information available per barangay in every municipality.
7. 0 Land Use and Physical Framework
7.1. Existing Land Use, Trends 7.1.1 Existing Land Use, 2008 . Existing Land Use Distribution, 2008 Land use Settlement Protection NIPAS Non-NIPAS Forest Reserve Mangroves Wildlife Reserve Areas Other Areas SAFDZ Irrigated Ricelands Production Rainfed Riceland and Other Annual Crops Mango Plantations Nuts and Fibers Aquaculture /Salt Production Lime Production Other Areas Naval Reserve Open Spaces, Pasture, Ravine, Shrubs TOTAL LAND AREA
Classification Built-up Areas Taklong Island National Marine Reserve
Area in Hectares 372.69 18,031.92 183.00
Percentage share 0.62 29.82 0.30
11,937.92 930.45 620.96
19.75 1.54 1.03
4,359.59 15,338.29 6,961.72 1,368.67 5,360.23 1,587.67 60.00 26,714.10 39.06 26,675.04 60,457.00
7.21 25.37 11.52 2.26 8.87 2.23 0.10 44.19 0.06 44.12 100.00
Under the current land use, Guimaras is the most sparsely populated province in the region with existing built-up areas accounting for 0.62 percent of the total provincial land area, while protection lands have the second biggest share at 29.82 percent followed by protection lands at 25.37 percent. Other
areas that include naval reserve, open spaces, areas for pastures, ravines and shrubs represent the biggest share at 44.19 percent. Guimaras has only one protected area under the NIPAS category, the Taklong Island National Marine Reserve (TINMR). Located in the municipality of Nueva Valencia at the southern tip of the island, it covers 41 islets and the coastline of barangays Lapaz and San Roque. It has an aggregate area of approximately 1,143.45 hectares consisting of 183 hectares of terrestrial area and 960.45 hectares of brackish and marine water. It was placed under
protected area status by virtue of Presidential Proclamation No. 525 signed by then president Corazon C. Aquino last February 8, 1990. The area falls under the unclassified public forest category prior to its proclamation as a national reserve. Currently, the Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) has
proposed the Marine Reserve to be classified as “Taklong-Tandog Island Protected Landscape and Seascape” category Other Areas Aside from the naval reserve located in Barangays Sawang and Zaldivar in the Municipality of Buenavista with an area of 39.06 hectares, other areas include areas classified as open spaces, pasture, shrubs and ravines with a total land area of 4,988.59 hectares.
Protected agricultural areas under SAFDZ are irrigated ricelands which are also included in the other areas category of protection land use and are classified under strict protection and “non-negotiable” for conversion. These represent a total of 4,359.59 hectares.
Existing Land Use Data: 2004 and 2008 Land use Built-up Areas Protection Areas Production Areas Other Areas Total Area
2004 (hectares) 372.69
2008 (hectares) 372.69
15,338.29 31,761.03 60,457.00
15,338.29 26,714.10 60,457.00
There are no notable changes observed in the land use distribution in the province from 2004 to 2008 except in the protection areas where there was an increase of area from 12,984.99 hectares in 2004 to 18, 031.92 hectares in 2008 or an equivalent increase of 38.87 percent. This is due to the provincial land use policy declaring areas with 18 percent slope and above as reserve forest. Considering the limited area of Guimaras, the size of production areas did not increase in the past four years. However, in order to maintain the level of rice sufficiency of at least 98 percent, agricultural productivity was enhanced with provision of improved irrigation and other agricultural facilities.
Settlement areas still remain at 372.69 hectares in 2008 with household expansion still concentrating within the existing built-up areas in the growth centers of the five municipalities, with Jordan and Buenavista as the main growth centers.
7.2 Physical Framework (2008-2013)
Based on the 2007 census, significant increases in population densities were observed with Buenavista registering the highest density at 342 persons per
sq km., Jordan followed with 282, Nueva Valencia with 255, San Lorenzo with 240 and Sibunag with 146. For more detailed analysis, population density maps were generated at the barangay level (see population density map). This revealed increased densities for growth centers in every municipality particularly Barangay San Miguel in Jordan where the provincial capitol and commercial establishment are located with a 2007 population density almost doubled at 803 persons per hectare compared to only 487 in 1995. Similarly, town centers such as New Poblacion, Buenavista and Poblacion, Nueva Valencia registered increased population densities from 1995 to 2007.
A comparison of population densities for the years 1995, 2000 and 2007 shows that Jordan has the highest growth rate at 23.7 percentage points. The Municipality of San Lorenzo follows with 10.6 percentage points which is facilitated by being the second fastest population growing municipality and the smallest in terms of land area. These trends indicate that demand for housing and other amenities is expected to grow in the next ten years. Consequently, demand for expansion areas for settlement needs to be addressed. Particular attention should be given to the primary growth center in Barangay San Miguel in Jordan and the fast population growth in San Lorenzo.
In 2005, a land use planning process was undertaken wherein the provincial physical framework plan was formulated simultaneous with the
revision/updating of Comprehensive Land Use Plans of the five municipalities. The process produced a GIS-based provincial physical framework plan integrating the municipal CLUPs for the period 2005-2035. The municipal CLUPs identified growth centers and corresponding urban land use plans were prepared detailing built-up areas.
7.2.2 Demand and Supply
In the planning process for the physical framework plan, sieve mapping analysis was undertaken to determine areas suitable for urban expansion. This involved overlaying several Map 25 (Initial Settlements Growth Map) and Map 11 (Protection Areas Map). The resulting map of Map 26 (Initial 134
Settlements Growth and Protection Map) is intended to identify potential urban expansion areas without encroaching into protected and
environmentally constrained areas to facilitate the identification of urban growth directions in each municipality. 7.2.3 Land Use Conflicts The land use analysis show that land use conflicts would likely occur in the Municipality of San Lorenzo considering the trend in growth of population density and the lack of suitable expansion areas due to the existence of irrigated ricelands in the town center. Existing communities are also within the coastal zone which posed additional constraints. In order to ease the pressure on the limited expansion area in the town center of San Lorenzo in Barangay Cabano, secondary growth centers in Barangays Sebario, Igcawayan, M.Chavez, Suclaran and San Enrique were identified to accommodate future demand for urban expansion.
For Barangay San Miguel, Jordan, where the provincial capitol is located, the constraint in urban expansion is due to the presence of areas identified as forest reserve at the eastern and western fringes of the existing built-up area. In order to avoid encroaching into these areas, development expansion will be directed along the north-south axis wherein suitable areas are present (see Initial Settlements and Protection Land Use map).
Other Possible Land Use Conflict Areas Built-up areas encroaching into forest protection areas Areas with 18 percent and above slope were delineated and were considered as forest reserve in order to be conserved and protected it from encroachment. These areas are located mostly along western part of the island stretching from the Municipalities of Buenavista, Jordan down to central part of Nueva Valencia. Built-up and other structural development inside these areas are being prohibited or regulated.
Production encroaching protection areas There are some production areas that are within the protected areas like areas where nuts and fibers grown. It is found all throughout the upland region of the island. These might be considered as production areas within the protected
areas. While cutting of trees are strictly prohibited in the protected areas, nuts and fibers grown in these region are fruit bearing trees that only yield fruits for consumptions. Lumber of these trees have no or little economic significance at all discouraging local folks from cutting it.
7.3. The Overall Physical Framework Plan, 2008-2013
The overall physical framework plan is a means of achieving provincial vision and goals by promoting economic development anchored on three major economic drivers; agriculture, fisheries and tourism. It is the result of integration of all land use components. The Framework Plan delineates areas of production and areas to be conserved or protected and designate areas where development takes place. The framework set to reconcile land use conflicts and provides comprehensive guide and environmental analysis for future development.
During the preparation of land use maps, sieve mapping analysis was used to detect and harmonize different land use conflicts and to determine hierarchy of land uses, i.e. which type of land use will be considered as priority given conflicts and potentials. In this approach, map overlaying was conducted especially the production and protection areas. But, there are cases that some of the areas in the production are still considered protection. One example is the SAFDZ irrigated ricelands, although it is in the protected areas under nonNIPAS category, but still it is also in the production areas. Both are considered in the Production and Protection Framework Plans.
Other sectoral plans included in the framework are the infrastructure and settlements wherein major infrastructures are located and settlement growth pattern are being described. Internal route circulation and external linkages illustrate access between growth areas to amenities and social services and portrays provincial role in the regional perspective being one of the region’s major tourist destinations.
San Miguel, Jordan will be developed as the primary growth center geared towards establishment of urban amenities that can adequately cater to the needs of both tourists and residents. New Poblacion, Buenavista together with Poblacion, Nueva Valencia will be secondary growth centers while the municipal centers of San Lorenzo and Sibunag will be developed to serve as satellite centers. pursued: • Rational distribution of population to avoid over congesting the San Miguel area will be done by establishment of secondary growth centers in Nueva Valencia and Buenavista. • Nueva Valencia growth center shall provide urban amenities and services at the Poblacion area with adequate focus on the needs of the tourism industry. • Buenavista growth center in New Poblacion shall focus on both commercial and institutional support facilities and services Specifically, the following development directions will be
especially for academic institutions. • Town centers of Sibunag and San Lorenzo will be developed into satellite service centers. Due to the minimal increase of population in recent years brought about by the successful population control program of the provincial government and the out-migration factor, projected built-up expansion was set to be 500 hectares in 2013 from 372.69 hectares in 2008, distributed among the five municipalities of Guimaras. Jordan will have a projected expansion area of 96 hectares concentrated mostly in San Miguel, Santa Teresa, Alaguisoc and Balcon Maravilla areas while Buenavista will have 119.70 hectares. The municipality of Sibunag
although being the least develop area would require 128.20 hectares concentrated in barangays; Maabay, Dasal and Sabang. Nueva Valencia
calculated built-up areas of 74.75 hectares while San Lorenzo would need 81.35 hectares.
Emerging roles of Settlements: MIGEDC: The Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC) is an inter-LGU alliance involving the City of Iloilo, the Municipalities of Oton, San Miguel, Pavia, Leganes, Sta. Barbara, and the Province of Guimaras. It was formally established by President Gloria MacapagalArroyo through Executive Order No. 559 signed on August 28, 2006 and was designed to help address the area’s emerging problems brought about by rapid urbanization and the spatial development challenges of tourism and economic development. The MIGEDC’s spatial development is based on assignment of functional roles where Guimaras Province assumes the role of agri-eco-tourism center. Municipalities in Iloilo Province will also have their assigned roles with Pavia as the agro-industrial center, Leganes as the center for light industries, San Miguel as the agricultural basket, Oton as the dormitory and Sta. Barbara as the international air travel gateway. MIGEDC formulates, implements, coordinates and monitors programs, projects and activities that support the Mega-Region Economic Development Strategic Framework of the National Government. In realizing the MIGEDC concept of development, Iloilo City and Guimaras Province forged a commitment to improve linkages between the two LGUs by providing better facilities that would further enhance linkage between Guimaras and Iloilo City. This project dubbed as “Guimaras-Iloilo Ferry Terminal System” or GIFTS is expected to upgrade existing facilities in transit points in the Municipalities of Jordan and Buenavista in Guimaras Province and Parola in Iloilo City and improve management capabilities of both LGUs.
Jordan Under the settlement plan, Jordan will be developed as the primary growth center geared towards establishment of urban amenities that can adequately cater to the needs of both tourists and residents. Rational distribution of population to avoid over congesting the San Miguel area will be done by establishment of secondary growth centers in Buenavista.
Buenavista Buenavista growth center in New Poblacion shall focus on both commercial and institutional support facilities and services especially for
Settlement Policies: Promote and strengthen industrial growth corridors and economic zone through provision of high-end infrastructure.
Provide settlement areas for indigenous people especially in the Municipalities of Buenavista, Jordan, Sibunag and Nueva Valencia.
Identify disaster prone and other environmentally critical areas
Adequate infrastructure support is a major component to improve internal circulation within the island, good connections between the main growth center and town centers and fast transport of agricultural/fishery products to the market or port areas. This will ensure that rural communities can have easy access to urban amenities at the main growth center. External
accessibility will be enhanced by improving port facilities both for tourismrelated commuters and residents.
The main transportation components include the improvement of road connections for the east-west corridors to link seaport facilities at the west (facing Panay) to the east (facing Negros). A major port development at the Jordan-Buenavista junction is planned to serve as a transshipment facility that can generate significant economic benefits on the long term. Irrigation
facilities were planned for existing rainfed areas with potential water sources to ensure the province’s self-sufficiency for rice. The plan designates the Sebaste wharf in the Municipality of Sibunag as the major port on the eastern side that will handle large cargo vessels. However, the Cabano wharf in the Municipality of San Lorenzo on the eastern side of the Island, which was once a major facility handling passengers and cargoes plying Guimaras and Negros islands, will also be improved to handle passengers and light cargo vessels. Based on the bathymetry map, the
Cabano wharf is found to be shallow and vulnerable to siltation.
Considering the fragile island ecosystem of Guimaras, a balance between economic development and environmental protection needs to be ensured. Based on spatial analysis undertaken with the province’s Geographic Information System (GIS), the forest cover in major watersheds should be maintained. To achieve this, the plan provides for the maintenance and
enhancement of forest cover and protected areas both at the upland and coastal/marine environments in order to maintain ecological balance and sustainable utilization of resources. Wildlife reserves areas were identified in the Municipality of Jordan and the island of Inampulogan as well as turtle and marine sanctuaries in the Municipalities of Sibunag and Nueva Valencia. The province maintains a 21-hectare provincial park in San Miguel, Jordan. The area features the Macopo falls, a natural hydrologic formation that has become a popular tourist attraction because of its attractiveness as picnic and bathing area. The provincial government through the Provincial Environment
and Natural Resources Office has undertaken extensive reforestation activities in the area which resulted to the enhancement of forest cover and the improvement of micro-climate. A tree nursery has been established in the area wherein fruit and forest trees seedlings are being propagated for reforestation purposes Forest Reserve Areas with 18 percent and above slope will be classified as forest reserve with the primary purpose of protecting these areas from deterioration. A total of 11,937.92 hectares will be placed under this category mostly at the western side of the island in the municipalities of Buenavista, Jordan and Nueva Valencia with lesser coverage in Sibunag and San Lorenzo. In order to
optimize its contribution in maintaining ecological balance, these areas will be enhanced by initiating environmental projects to restore natural vegetative cover in areas subjected to human activities and allow regeneration of distressed areas. Mangrove and Mangrove Reforestations Considering the ecological and economic significance of the mangrove ecosystem in a small island like Guimaras, it is essential that appropriate preservation and enhancement measures be initiated and sustained. Under this plan, a total area of 930.45 hectares of existing and proposed mangrove reforestation will be preserved and enhanced in the next thirty years. This target will attempt to restore approximately 90 percent of the mangrove cover 25 years ago.
Establishment of 500 meter- Mountain Buffer Zones A buffer zone with a 500-meter radius will be established starting at the foot of each hill. Considering that some areas under this category fall under the jurisdiction of Jordan and San Lorenzo,a co-management agreement between LGUs should be established. Approximate area for the buffer zone is 765.49 hectares. Activities within this zone will be regulated to avoid adverse effects to the watersheds.
Marine Sanctuary These areas have been identified as critical/sensitive areas for sustaining marine life. It comprises locally-declared protected areas basically intended to serve as core zones for marine habitats. Owing to the fact that
sustainability of the fisheries sector mainly depends in maintaining the health and vitality of marine ecosystems, these areas are put under protection and management which will be further enhanced by appropriate resource management measures. These areas cover approximately 6,198.78 hectares covering the Municipalities of Sibunag, San Lorenzo and Nueva Valencia. Major policy considerations in this framework are: • Conservation and enhancement of forest reserve particularly in major watershed areas. Along with this, areas within 18% and above slope were considered as forest reserve. • Preservation of SAFDZ irrigated ricelands located mostly in the Municipalities of Sibunag and San Lorenzo which are known to be the rice granary of the province. • Expansion of mangrove areas on the identified coastal areas of the island mostly on the coastal of Sibunag and Nueva Valencia particularly in the island of Inampulogan. • Protection of wildlife reserve areas for fish and marine sanctuaries. There are two known wildlife sanctuaries in Guimaras, the one in Barangays of Balcon Melliza and Hoskyn and in the island of Inampulogan.
Other Environmentally Constrained Areas This category will include coastal zone, rivers and fault lines. For purposes of establishing the necessary buffers for these areas, a 20-meter easement for all coastlines will involve an approximate area of 665.95 hectares for the mainland and 355.81 hectares for the islets. A 20-meter river easement for all major rivers will involve 602.01 hectares. To effectively mitigate the possible
impacts of fault lines, a 50-meter fault line buffer will be established in identified faultline areas which will involve 1,315.68 hectares.
Buffers and easement zones were identified to protect and conserve environmentally critical areas from encroachment and inform people of the threats and dangers near the area. Once buffers and easements delineated, markers will be put along these zones to discourage encroachment and regulate development within the area.
Environmental policies should be enforced through strict implementation of environmental and zoning ordinances.
Promotion of potential tourism destination areas The agri-tourism image also calls for the integration of both rural and urban lifestyle by developing a central growth center with urban amenities while at the same time maintaining the rural character of agri-tourism areas. Rural or barangay tourism features rustic agricultural communities and fishing villages that offer city dwellers a respite from busy metropolitan lifestyles in a relaxing environment.
In order to maximize the tourism potentials of visual corridors of the province, viewing decks and rest areas will be established in strategic locations. Visual corridors are located in the elevated areas of the Municipality of San Lorenzo overlooking Negros Island and in Barangay Alaguisoc in Municipality of Jordan facing Iloilo City and in Barangay Ravina overlooking the scenic view of Lawi Bay.
Areas with scenic views at the western and eastern sides of the island were identified as potential high-end residential areas. These areas can be developed into low density residential suburbs that can attract high income groups to settle in the province. The concept of residential resort wherein housing units are established within eco-tourism sites can also be applied in these corridors. Preservation of SAFDZ irrigated ricelands Irrigated and irrigable areas identified in the strategic agricultural and fishery development zone (SAFDZ) shall be put under protection and will be non-negotiable for land use conversion pursuant to existing laws. These areas are located largely in the Municipalities of Sibunag and San Lorenzo. Preservation and enhancement of aquaculture and salt production areas, mango plantations and other agricultural areas
Regulation of Large scale Mining Activities
The province is rich in mineral and non-mineral resources. Lime production is a major source of income in some areas in the province. Lime is a major raw material for basing and resurfacing in road construction and rehabilitation. Owing to its adverse impacts to the environment, large scale mining activities will be strictly regulated especially in Barangay Mabini in the Municipality of Buenavista which was identified as potential area for mining exploration and extraction. The
provincial government has passed a resolution opposing large scale mining activity pursuant to its development thrusts of agri-tourism development. Enhancement of Aquaculture/Salt Production Areas Existing salt production areas are concentrated at the eastern shores in San Lorenzo and Sibunag. A total area of 869.01 hectares was computed using existing land use maps generated from orthophoto data. Considering its socio-cultural value however, preservation of these areas and possible enhancement and upgrading of products should be promoted. In line with this, the adoption of applicable technologies in aquaculture for increased production will be pursued. Development of Agro-forestry Recognizing the impracticality of putting such a large area under strict protection, agro-forestry was designated as a means of regulating land uses in order to avoid environmental degradation arising from inappropriate farming methods such as clean culture method. The upper catchment area of the watershed covers a total of 21,319.79 hectares and straddles the five municipalities. Considering the need to effectively protect these areas from adverse effects of resource exploitation, land use will be limited to agro-forestry that may include orchard development involving fruit trees and other high value crops. This will ensure adequate vegetative cover in these critical areas to prevent soil
erosion. Development on this area can include mango-based farms that integrate agro-forestry modes anchored on mango production. The area devoted to agro-forestry already reached a total of 14,050.74 hectares.
Coconut has the second largest area next to rice. Production level in 2004 totaled to 21,378 metric tons with average nut production of 31.53 per tree per year. Existing laws pertaining to its protection should be strictly
enforced to prevent depletion. Considering that coconut is interspersed with other fruit trees, it will be promoted for expansion to provide additional vegetation in the watershed upper catchment areas. Other crops that
could be used for intercropping are sweet pepper, beans, banana and coffee.
The area of mango plantations only includes orchard-type plantations. Backyard-type plantations exist province-wide with some landowners having as few as 2-3 trees in their lots. Based on 2002 data of the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), there are 139,600 fruit-bearing trees belonging to the Carabao variety planted to a total area of 2,190 hectares.
Globally acclaimed as the sweetest mango in the world, Guimaras mango will be promoted as the provincial banner product and production will be continuously enhanced to strengthen its position in the world market. Mango production will be promoted in agro-forestry areas to increase level of production and at the same time provide vegetative cover in watershed areas.
The National Mango Research and Development Center (NMRDC) will provide the technical and research support to the mango industry. The
necessary support infrastructures like road and water supply will be provided in mango production areas. Nuts and Fibers
Areas within the upper catchment of watersheds were also identified for production of nuts and fibers. Cashew production should be significantly enhanced by establishing farms based on this crop. Presently, cashew is not cultivated but grows naturally in most areas in the province. Its
economic value is very significant and requires very minimal agricultural inputs for production. In addition, production of other nuts such as Pili should also be explored as well as fiber plants with industry linkage. This may include abaca, bariw and other palms that are used as raw materials for handicrafts, weaving and other products. This land use category
promotes the sustainable supply of raw materials while at the same time maintain forest/vegetative cover in these areas. Other alternative crops under this category include coffee, banana and beans.
Lime Production Areas
Existing areas subjected to limestone quarrying reached 60 hectares of which 92 percent is found in the Municipality of Buenavista, particularly in Barangays Mabini, Taminla, San Fernando, Dagsaan and Tacay. The remaining areas are in Nueva Valencia and Jordan.
Under this plan, limestone quarrying will be regulated and will be limited to the possible minimum level because of the perceived adverse environmental impact of this industry on a long term basis. However, considering the potentials of this industry in the production of high value products like phosphates (which has linkages with feed milling industry), initiatives will be undertaken to upgrade production methods to improve efficiency and ensure use of environmentally-compliant processes. The province will also promote a shift from the current production of industrial
lime to higher value products such as phosphates to minimize resource extraction and to substantially increase profits. Tourism Areas Agri-tourism Circuits
Agricultural and fishery areas will be developed to become tourist destinations. In working towards an agri-tourism image, product
development is geared towards creating leisure venues out of agricultural areas, without disrupting or replacing the regular farming activities. Promotions are geared towards attracting general travel markets to a new type of leisure product, releasing the province from the confines of agricultural study groups and niche rest and relaxation markets.
The agri-tourism circuit will be developed and will serve as the primary route for agri-fishery tour packages. In line with this, farms within the circuit will be developed to become world-class destinations featuring an image of “fun and enjoyment for all markets amidst an abundant agricultural scenario”. Initially, several destinations were identified as part of the circuit but these will be expanded to include other areas that will be developed later. In order to create variety of destinations in the circuit, development of several models will be promoted such as mango-based farm, cashewbased farm, inland fisheries, bee and butterfly farms and ornamental plants farm. Areas identified for agri-forestry development in the
Production Plan of the PDPFP will be primarily targeted for these destinations. Similarly, aquaculture activities in coastal areas will also be included in the circuit. The plan encourages the development of
community-based tourism destinations anchored on agriculture, fisheries and cultural empowerment. heritage that promote community development and
Eco-tourism Sites In support of the agri-tourism image, eco-tourism sites will also be supported to become world-class destinations. Adventure activities such as rappelling, trekking, kayaking, caving and mountain trail riding will likewise be developed. Consequently, bike routes and hiking/trekking
routes will be mapped out for use of tourists.
Tourism service facilities will be established in main gateways at Jordan and Buenavista Ports and later on at San Lorenzo and Sibunag Ports. These facilities will feature guest assistance services, restrooms and internet-based information system. High-End Tourism Attractions Development of potential areas for high-end attractions that are compatible with the Agri-tourism strategy will also be supported as long as these are environmentally-compliant and socially acceptable. These may include marine parks, mountain resorts, retirement villages, zoological parks and sanctuaries, botanical parks and Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) parks.
District Agri-Industrial Center (DAIC) The DAIC area will be established in Balcon Maravilla, Jordan and will constitute the prime agri-processing facility in the province. This facility will accommodate local agricultural products for processing. Its proximity to the San Miguel growth center and accessibility from Jordan Port makes the area highly suitable for this purpose. The site development plan of this area will be incorporated in the planned San Miguel Central Business District.
Republic Act 7916 otherwise known as the Economic Zone Act of 1995 has identified a portion of Buenavista, Guimaras for ecozone development. Considering its significance in promoting economic development, the establishment and operationalization of this area will be pursued under this plan. Considering the need to avoid adverse environmental impacts,
industries in the ECOZONE will only be limited to those that are non-polluting and non-hazardous.
D. DEVELOPMENT ISSUES, GOALS, OBJECTIVES/TARGETS
1. Development Issues and Problems POPULATION
Presence of high densities and fast-growing municipalities: Jordan and Buenavista Correlating the municipal population densities with the population growth rate, the municipalities of Jordan and Buenavista have high density (considering only the provincial density of 250 persons per sq km as the cut off) and fast population growth rate (higher than 0.93 percent). These 2 municipalities have urban
barangays. They are also the major economic and administrative centers in the province as well as the main gateways of Guimaras from Iloilo. ECONOMY
Insufficient supply of raw materials for processing Technologies on processing are not upgraded on recent developments No BFAD LTO which impedes the potential to expand market on malls and department stores
Undeveloped/underdeveloped tourism attractions and accommodation facilities.
Product packaging and promotion needs improvement
Inadequate environmental and other tourism support facilities such as waste disposal, washrooms, guest assistance/info areas. Incompetence of frontline service providers
Low investments in tourism facilities and services Poor infrastructure facilities
Declining fish catch due to over-fishing aggravated by the oil spill.
Mango CARP program has negative effects on attainment of production targets since beneficiaries lack financial capability to invest in mango production. Mango production is very vulnerable to weather abnormalities (La Niña, typhoon,etc) High cost of production inputs particularly chemicals
Cashew Occurrence of prolonged rain during the flowering period causing zero production Some farmers cut cashew trees for charcoal production Unimproved method of nut processing/production
Rice High Cost of farm inputs Weather abnormalities particularly occurrence of El Niño Outbreak of pest and diseases Lack of post harvest facilities particularly mechanical dryers
Key Support Infrastructure
For the three (3) major crops, inadequate infrastructure support: farm to market roads, post harvest facilities (mechanical dryers and grain centers), processing and packaging facilities for the fruit commodities, and more irrigation facilities.
Mangroves Increasing pressure on the three coastal marine ecosystems (mangrove, seagrass beds and coral reefs) due to increasingly dense population, sedimentation, fishing impact especially of illegal methods, pollution, mangrove conversion to fishponds, wave impact, boat anchor, small boat navigation, gleaning and some tourism activities. Unsustainable production practices and abuse of nature by some people. Forestland High demand for fuelwood for lime industry. The total area classified as timberland is very limited. Only 4.70 percent of the total land area are classified as timberland Faster rate of cutting trees as fuel wood than planting/growing of trees. Insufficiency of funds and technical capacity to procure and undertake comprehensive (all aspects) environmental quality monitoring.
Geo-Hazards Presence of faultlines in four municipalities namely; Municipalities of Jordan, San Lorenzo, Sibunag and Nueva Valencia Presence of naturally occurring harmful algal blooms (HABs) in coastal areas
Climate Limitations of existing climate data
Climate variations have been observed in Guimaras as manifested by conditions wherein it is raining in one area but just in another area it is dry. Micro-climatic conditions differ in areas of the island and require more detailed climatic measurements and advanced weather
This is very significant considering that
agriculture, fisheries and tourism are the primary drivers of the economy.
Soil Erosions About 57 percent of the total area of Guimaras suffers from moderate soil erosion while 8.00 percent is severely eroded. Only 16.90 percent of land area has no apparent erosion.
Flooding Presence of flood prone areas are located in Barangay Poblacion, fronting the Jordan Central School and Municipal Hall, of Jordan, Tastasan, Buenavista, and in Sitio Tinuslukan, Barangay Dolores of Nueva Valencia.
Solar 1 Oil Spill Tragedy Long term adverse effects of the oil spill to human health and coastal and marine habitats
Taklong Island Marine Reserve At least eight individuals are claiming ownership of several islets within the reserve on the basis of their previous settlement in the area. There is one household residing within the reserve that acts as a caretaker of the UPV Marine Biological Station.
The proclamation of the area as a marine reserve has been questioned by barangay residents of Lapaz and San Roque owing to apparent lack of adequate public consultation prior to its endorsement to the national level. Officials of affected barangays claim that there was no proper information and awareness campaign to fully educate affected stakeholders concerning the consequences of the proclamation.
TRANSPORTATION, ACCESS AND CIRCULATION
Sea/Water Transport The existing main gateways to the province; Jordan and Buenavista Ports needs upgrading Jump off points to offshore tourism destinations should likewise be upgraded.
Roads Access to agri-fishery production areas and tourism destinations is inadequate.
INCOME, EMPLOYMENT, SERVICE ACCESS AND POVERTY
Income Both the 1997 and 2000 average family income of Guimaras were all lower than the national average.
Health Inaccessibility to health facilities/services especially of the island and far-flung barangays and sitios Most of the top leading causes of mortality and morbidity are noncommunicable diseases, preventable and related to lifestyles
Inadequate public health nurses, rural sanitary inspectors, barangay health workers and health educators.
Sports and Recreation Absence of Municipal Park with a minimum of 5,000 sq meters per 1,000 population and maximum walking distance of 100-150 meters
Protective Services Fire protection service per 2,000 population ratio is below standard at 1:3,800 Only 9 firemen per truck – Jordan and Nueva Valencia 6 firemen per truck – Buenavista and San Lorenzo 6 firemen per truck – Sibunag Only 1 fire truck per municipality
Water and Sanitation ● Limited access to Level III water supply system Low water supply per capita due to the growing population and emerging industries. ● Frequent outbreak of water borne/water related diseases, e.g. diarrhea which is one of the leading causes of morbidity ● Low percentage of households with sanitary toilets
Power Unreliable power supply especially at times of bad weather Inadequate power supply
Sewerage Absence of sewerage system in the province
Solid Waste Management Only 2 municipalities have approved sanitary landfill sites (Sitio Tanod, Bugnay in Jordan and Sitio Kalalan, Pina, Buenavista) 164
Collection and disposal of solid waste is not 100 percent and only done in built up areas
Only the municipalities of Buenavista and Jordan have a functional Solid Waste Management Boards
Education Low net enrollment ratio (school participation rate) especially in the secondary level and in other school secondary level In the elementary, 8.6 percent or 76 of the total 883 classrooms need completion, 24 percent or 211 need minor repairs, and 37.4 percent or 330 need rehabilitation. Of the total 277 HS classrooms, 3.2 percent or 9 is unfinished, 37.5 percent or 104 need minor repair, and 11.9 percent or 33 need rehabilitation. No textbooks in MSEP and EPP, TLE, MAPEH and Values Education Lack of workbooks and support instructional materials and insufficiency in other learning materials, facilities and equipment. performance indicators in the
Housing More Socialized Housing Units/Relocation sites identified Growing informal settlers in coastal and urban areas
2. Development goals and objectives
2.1. Development Goals Improve competitiveness and sustainability of the Guimaras economy Ensure wholesome environment and judicious use of resources for Guimarasnons and tourists and improve transport and communication infrastructure Healthy and empowered Guimarasnons families Ensure optimal utilization of land
2.2. Objectives Economic
Increase agri-fishery productivity and profitability Increase tourist receipts Increase investments Ensure markets for Guimaras products Promote entrepreneurship Reduce cost of doing business
Improve sea and land transport system ( Iloilo-GuimarasNegros) Provide adequate infrastructure support for agriculture, tourism, social and environmental development Improve the capacity of the provincial government in terms of infrastructure management and development Maintain air quality within the island Maintain water quality and ensure its availability
Ensure judicious utilization of land and mineral resources Increase forest cover Protect, conserve and rehabilitate coastal areas
Income/Access to Services
Improve access to basic services Improve livelihood and entrepreneurial capacities Enhance community participation in development Maintain peace and order situation Instill positive values and attitudes Promote healthy lifestyle
Promote integrated land use planning at the provincial and municipal levels Ensure environmental sustainability in the designation of land uses Promote integration of both rural and urban lifestyle to support the agri-tourism strategy Ensure protection of communities against natural hazards
E. STRATEGIES, PROGRAMS, PROJECTS, AND ACTIVITIES
1. Strategies, Programs and Projects 1.1. Strategies The major strategies in implementing the plan are the following:
Promotion of Community-based Rural Tourism (CBRT) as the approach in operationalizing the Agri-Fishery-Tourism Development thrust
Increasing investments in IEC and advocacy on the areas of health and nutrition, local economic development, infrastructure, tourism and the drive against large scale mining
Enhance community participation in development initiatives
Adoption of an integrated approach in agri-fishery-tourism development
Harmonization of land uses for the provincial and municipal land use plans and adoption of specific roles for each municipality
Establish partnership with the academe, research institutions, national government agencies and civil society organizations to improve delivery of services
Stimulate investments in agriculture, fisheries and tourism
Diversification of livelihood and income to reduce dependence on coastal-based livelihood
Promote establishment of renewable energy
Facilitate private sector participation in the upgrading of port facilities and services
Establish capacity development framework for agricultural productivity
Diversify fisheries production by promoting freshwater aquaculture
Promote integrated coastal management
The major programs are the following:
Agri-fishery and Tourism Development Program Agro-forestry development program Weather and Climate Monitoring Program Flood control program Integrated Coastal Management Program Health Monitoring Program Healthy Lifestyle Program Guimaras-wide water supply development program Renewable Energy Development Program Sewerage Development Program Solid Waste Management Program Socialized Housing Program Roads and Ports Development Program Capacity Development Program Provincial Agri-Infrastructure Program Employment Generation Program
1.3. Projects Population Management Program Responsible Parenting Movement/Urban planning project for growth centers Agro-Forestry Development Program Orchards Development Project Provincial Nursery project for fruit trees and nuts Establishment of rain gauges in every municipality Establishment of provincial weather monitoring facility “Spare Guimaras” project Tree planting project using indigenous tree species Hydro-geologic studies Construction of storm drainage infrastructure Health indicators monitoring project Environmental Studies Project Oil Spill Monitoring & Assessment Mangrove Rehabilitation Project Seagrass Rehabilitation Project Establishment of Artificial Reef Technical Education and Skills Development Project Investment Promotion Project Entrepreneurship development project Skills development project for gifts, toys and housewares (GTH) Community Outreach Project Healthy Lifestyle and Management of Health Risks Construction of public parks with sports and leisure facilities Training and equipment upgrading project Acquisition of additional fire trucks Water supply Capability building project for water districts Nursery and tree planting project Construction of wind farms Construction of solar and wind powered street lighting system Sewerage Planning Project
Construction of Sewerage Systems Establishment of Sewage Treatment Plants Establishment of shared sanitary landfill facilities (SLF clustering) Establishment of Materials Recovery Facility (MRF)/municipality Upgrading project for waste collection vehicles (with segregator) Capability building and trainings of municipal solid waste management boards re: roles &functions Acquisition of sites for socialized housing Construction of socialized housing units, facilities/amenities Guimaras-Iloilo Ferry Terminals System (GIFTS) Project Improvement of municipal wharves Farm to market roads upgrading project Provincial Road Management Facility (PRMF) Conduct appropriate related trainings Project Demonstrations Lobby w/ Policy makers on Policy Support Production of Promotional Collaterals Attendance to Promotional Activity Joint Venture Projects (MOA/MOU) Conduct Training to enhance tourism frontliners Investment Fora Preparation of Investment Fortfolio/ Packages of Investment Fresh water aquaculture Coastal Zoning Establishment of Fish Pens and Fish Cages Techno Demo Farms Agri-fishery Dev’t. Projects GMA HVCC Project Linkage to exporters and contract sprayers Kasuy for Life Agri-fishery Dev’t. Project GMA HVCC 172
Establishment of Village Level Processing Centers Pilot Packaging Center Certified Seeds Subsidy Farm Input Support Hybrid Rice Commercialization Palayamanan Model Establishment of mechanical dyers and grain centers Rehab. of Irrigation Facilities Rehab. of Farm to Market Roads Conduct Campaign for Enrollment Secondary Schools to Conduct Open House No Collection and No Uniform Policy Program Alternative Learning System Program Supplementary Feeding Sakay Eskwela Program Schools/Classrooms Improvement Acquisition of Instructional Learning Materials
2. Summary of Strategies and PPAs 2.1. Summary Matrix
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