Fokker F28 Fellowship

For Microsoft Flight Simulator 2004

Project by Ton van de Laar

Copyright © PROJECT Fokker Jetline (PFJ) February 2007 http://fokker.avsim.net

EULA – End User License Agreement
The software, software modules and any other downloadable information (hereafter mentioned as SOFTWARE) are provided by PROJECT Fokker Jetline (hereafter mentioned as PFJ) as a service to the Flight Simulator community for entertainment purposes only. Single copies may be downloaded subject to the provisions below. By downloading any of the SOFTWARE provided by PFJ, you agree to these terms. If you do not agree to these terms, do not download any of the SOFTWARE provided by PFJ. SINGLE COPY LICENSE The SOFTWARE are made available as freeware but are copyrighted. Any unauthorized use of the SOFTWARE violates copyright, trademark and other laws. You may download one copy of the SOFTWARE on a single computer for your personal, non-commercial internal use only unless specifically licensed to do otherwise by PFJ in writing. This is a license, not a transfer of title, and is subject to the following restrictions: a) you may not modify the SOFTWARE or use them for any commercial purpose, or any public display, sale or rental; b) you may not de-compile, reverse engineer or disassemble any SOFTWARE; c) you may not remove any copyright or other proprietary notices from the SOFTWARE; d) you may not transfer the SOFTWARE to any other person or entity; e) you agree to prevent any unauthorized copying of the SOFTWARE; f) you may not bundle any part of, or the complete SOFTWARE for distribution together with any other product. OWNERSHIP OF SOFTWARE Although the SOFTWARE are freeware, they are copyrighted and are protected by worldwide copyright laws and treaty provisions. They may not be copied, reproduced, modified, published, uploaded, posted, transmitted, bundled, or distributed in any way, without PFJ prior written permission. Except as expressly provided herein, PFJ does not grant any express or implied right to you under any patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secret or any other intellectual property or proprietary right. REPAINTS Policy applies for repaints of the PFJ models. Read paragraph LIVERIES in chapter 3 for more information. TERMINATION OF THIS LICENSE PFJ may terminate this license at any time if you are in breach of the terms of this Agreement. Upon termination, you will immediately destroy the SOFTWARE, and certify to PFJ that you have done so. DISCLAIMER THE SOFTWARE ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF ANY KIND INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, TITLE, NO INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE SOFTWARE ARE NOT MEANT TO BE USED FOR REAL AVIATION PORPOSES. IN NO EVENT SHALL PFJ BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE, EVEN IF PFJ HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. PFJ HAS THE RIGHTS TO CHANGE WITHOUT PRENOTIFICATIONS ITS SOFTWARE PRODUCTS AND/OR RELATED DOCUMENTATION FOR IMPROVEMENTS. PFJ DOES NOT WARRANT THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION, TEXT, GRAPHICS, LINKS OR OTHER ITEMS CONTAINED WITHIN THESE SOFTWARE. PFJ MAY MAKE CHANGES TO THESE SOFTWARE, OR TO THE SOFTWARE DESCRIBED THEREIN, AT ANY TIME WITHOUT NOTICE, BUT MAKES NO COMMITMENT TO UPDATE THE SOFTWARE.

Content
PAGE

1 2

PROJECT FOKKER JETLINE - Introduction ................................................................................ 4 FOKKER F28 AIRCRAFT – Brief introduction ............................................................................. 5 2.1.1 F28 aircraft and mock-ups ................................................................................................. 5 2.1.2 F28 aircraft projects ........................................................................................................... 6 2.1.3 F28 aircraft house liveries – from the very early days at Fokker....................................... 7 2.1.4 F28 cockpit panels............................................................................................................. 8 2.1.5 F28 specification .............................................................................................................. 11

3 FOKKER F28 – Flight Simulation Use ........................................................................................ 12 3.1 THREE MODELS ..................................................................................................................... 12 3.2 PANEL ...................................................................................................................................... 14 3.2.1 Overhead panel ............................................................................................................... 15 3.2.2 Engines start-up............................................................................................................... 15 Autopilot System ............................................................................................................................ 17 3.2.3 ILS – Instrument Landing System.................................................................................... 17 3.2.4 LND – Auto Land ............................................................................................................. 18 3.2.5 Test Flight – ILS and Auto Land ...................................................................................... 19 3.2.6 Comparator ...................................................................................................................... 20 3.2.7 Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) ................................................................... 21 3.2.8 Ground Handling Services............................................................................................... 22 3.2.9 Aircraft Weight vs Fuel & Payload ................................................................................. 24 3.2.10 Landing Speed................................................................................................................. 24 3.2.11 Radio/CD-player .............................................................................................................. 25 3.3 SOUNDS .................................................................................................................................. 26 3.3.1 ENGINES - sound............................................................................................................ 26 3.3.2 COCKPIT - sound............................................................................................................ 26 3.3.3 WIND - sound .................................................................................................................. 26 3.3.4 GEAR - sound.................................................................................................................. 26 3.4 LIVERIES ................................................................................................................................. 27 3.4.1 Repaints & Paint-kit ......................................................................................................... 29 3.4.2 Policy for Repaints........................................................................................................... 29 4 FLIGHT TUTORIAL ....................................................................................................................... 30 4.1 FLYING THE FLIGHT............................................................................................................... 30 4.2 VIDEOS .................................................................................................................................... 30 5 FOKKER HISTORY ....................................................................................................................... 31 5.1 SHORT VERSION.................................................................................................................... 31 5.2 LONG VERSION ...................................................................................................................... 32 5.3 MORE FOKKER INFORMATION............................................................................................. 35 6 APPENDIX ..................................................................................................................................... 36

Fokker F28’s

1

PROJECT FOKKER JETLINE - Introduction
PROJECT Fokker Jetline (aka PFJ or PF10070) develops software products as an add-on to the Microsoft Flight Simulator program based on the Fokker F100, F70 and F28 twin jetengine type aircraft for the purpose of flight simulation entertainment. Where previous software developed by PFJ has always been a welcome addition to the flightsim community, with this new software package one can truly say that flying these wonderful aircraft today has become even more a great pleasure. PFJ is a small team of very enthusiastic people each showing dedication to Fokker aircraft and thus striving to give you “the best for free”. The team members of the F28 project include: Ton van de Laar - Project Manager Leen Schouten - Assist Manager Erez Werber - Models Rob Barendregt - Gauges, panel & more Martin Purps - Flight Dynamics Nicolás Larenas - Panel initiator Leen de Jager - Liveries Christoffer Petersen - Engine Sounds PFJ respect the wish from other contributors not to be mentioned. PFJ also recognizes the effort of those who have made freeware gauges, liveries and other tools available which have greatly contributed to the development of this project. If you recognize gauges in our project for which no credits were given to, then please let us know. PFJ is AVSIM affiliated and is not a commercial entity. The software is provided as "freeware with limited use". This means that the software is protected by international law of copyrights. Read the EULA from our website, or the second page from this document to understand our End User License Agreement and Copyrights. We hope that you will enjoy flying these fine F28 aircraft as much as we enjoyed developing them for you. Keep the blue sky up! The PFJ team http://fokker.avsim.net

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2
2.1.1

FOKKER F28 AIRCRAFT – Brief introduction
F28 AIRCRAFT AND MOCK-UPS The Fokker F28 “Fellowship” is a short range jet airliner, designed and built by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer, Fokker. The Fokker F28 “Fellowship” was the first jet engine typed aircraft manufactured by Fokker. The first F28 prototype, registered PH-JHG, first flew on May 9, 1967, with certification was achieved on February 24, 1969. The first order came from German airline LTU, but the first revenue-earning flight was by Braathens on March 28, 1969 who operated five F28s. The aircraft layout, with T-tail and two Rolls-Royce Spey 550 engines mounted on the rear of the fuselage made it similar to its contemporaries, the BAC 1-11 and DC-9. The first production version of the F28 was the Mk1000 carrying 65 passengers. Later, other versions became available. For routes requiring more capacity, Fokker developed the stretched Mk2000 with 79 seats. Apart from its stretched fuselage, this aircraft was otherwise identical to the Mk 1000. The original prototype PH-JHG was converted to Mk2000 configuration and served as prototype for this version. It first flew as a Mk2000 on 28 April 1971. Later on PH-JHG again served as prototype, this time for the Mk6000 which had an increased span plus leading edge slats. It was equipped with the more powerful but less noisy Spey Mk 555-15 engines. The Mk5000 aircraft, which was never built, was to have had leading edge slats and the original unstretched fuselage. It was designed to carry a heavier payload than the Mk1000. Both the Mk5000 and the later Mk6000 of which two were sold, were intended for short runway operation. After flying for Fokker for some time and being leased to operators, the Mk6000s were eventually converted to Mk2000 and sold to Air Mauritania. In 1974 the Argentine government ordered five Mk1000s as freighters. Designated Mk1000C (C for cargo), these aircraft had a large 8 ft 2 in x 6 ft 2 in cargo door in the forward fuselage just aft of the passenger entrance door. A specially-reinforced floor replaced the standard floor, and a 'ball mat' was fitted near the cargo door to facilitate on-and-off loading. Most successful of the later F28 versions was the Mk4000 which made its first flight in October 1976. This was basically a Mk2000 embodying a number of improvements including seating capacity for 85 passengers. Powerplants were Spey Mk 555-15Hs equipped with noise suppressors. The increased-span wing was reinforced to allow a higher take-off weight and the cockpit and cabin interior were brought up to the latest standards. First customer was Linjeflyg. As its home base at Bromma was situated within a denselypopulated area, the airline was shopping for new aircraft with a low noise level. The F28 Mk4000 met these requirements and Linjeflyg ordered ten. The short fuselage version of the

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Mk4000 was the Mk3000, the first of which was sold to the Ghana government in VIP configuration. 2.1.2 F28 AIRCRAFT PROJECTS Several projected versions of the F28 never progressed beyond the drawing board. One of them was the Mk6600 which was intended for the Japanese domestic network as a replacement for the NAMC YS-11 turboprop. Seating capacity was 100 and take-off weight was similar to that of the Mk6000. Another interesting project was the F28 COD (carrier on-board delivery) as a successor to the U.S. Navy's Grumman C-2A Greyhound for airborne supply missions to aircraft carriers. Basically the F28 COD was a Mk5000 with slatted wings. Carrier operation of course required a much stronger undercarriage, and fuselage reinforcements and different engines were needed. The same F28 COD was also offered as an aerial tanker. In this venture Fokker cooperated with Lockheed Aircraft Services when making its proposal to the U.S. Navy, but in the end an improved version of the Greyhound was selected. With eventually 241 F28’s sold, F28 sales were rather dwarfed by those of the F27. This was largely due to competition from Boeing and Douglas with the 737 and DC-9. These aircraft were somewhat larger than the F28 and therefore better met the growth expectations of airlines. Later on, the British Aerospace 146 proved a stiff competitor, being specially designed for short-field operation. Production of the F28 was terminated in 1984 to enable the assembly line to be converted for the Fokker 100 and later the Fokker 70 aircraft. Following is a summary of the various F28 mock-ups manufactured by Fokker: • • • • • • • F28 Mk1000 F28 Mk1000C F28 Mk2000 F28 Mk3000 F28 Mk3000C F28 Mk4000 F28 Mk6000 97 aircraft were build 4 aircraft were build 9 aircraft were build 17 aircraft were build 2 aircraft were build 112 aircraft were build 2 aircraft were build

Not completed projects: • • •

The Fokker F28 aircraft was also taken into service by the Dutch Government and used as the “Regeringsfellowship” for the Royal Kingdom of The Netherlands.

F28 Mk5000 (short version with wing slats) F28 Mk6600 (for the Japanese market) F28 COD (Carrier On-board Delivery for the US Navy)

Fokker F28 COD Aerial Tanker for US Navy (not completed project)

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2.1.3

F28 AIRCRAFT HOUSE LIVERIES – from the very early days at Fokker

Mk1000 PH-JHG – First Prototype (with large pitots)

Mk1000 PH-WEV – Second Prototype (with large pitots)

Mk1000 PH-MOL – Third prototype

Mk6000 PH-JHG – Fokker New colors

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2.1.4

F28 COCKPIT PANELS

OVERHEAD-Panel

MAIN-panel

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PEDESTAL-panel

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Full panel view

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2.1.5

F28 SPECIFICATION

Fokker F28 Length: Height: Wingspan: Wing area Engine type: Engine power: Wing fuel tank cap. Center fual tank cap. Max. take-off weight: Max. landing weight: Max. zero fuel weight: Cruise speed: Max. range: Service ceiling Empty weight: Passengers:

Mk1000 27,40 m (89 ft 11 in) 8,47 m 23,58 m (77 ft 4 in) 76.40 m² (822.4 ft²) Rolls Royce RB183 Spey Mk555-15 4,468 kg 9,640 liters 3,300 liters 29,490 kg (65,000 lbs) 26,770 kg (59,000 lbs) 24,720 kg (54,500 lbs) 849 km/hr (528 mph) 2,743 km (1,704 mi) 10,700 m (35,000 ft) 15,650 kg 65

Mk4000 / Mk6000 29,61 m (97 ft 2 in) 8,47 m 25,07 m (82 ft 3 in) 78.97 m² (850.0 ft²) Rolls Royce RB183 Spey Mk555-15P 4,491 kg 9,640 liters 3,300 liters 33,112 kg (73,000 lbs) 29,484 kg (65,000 lbs) 26,082 kg (57,500 lbs) 849 km/hr (455 kts) 1,900 km (1,180 mi) 10,700 m (35,000 ft) 17,359 kg 85

Rolls Royce Spey Mk555-15 Jet engine

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3
3.1

FOKKER F28 – Flight Simulation Use
THREE MODELS
Three F28 models are included in the base software package, representing the Mk1000, Mk4000 and Mk6000 type aircraft. The Mk1000-Experimental models are prototype aircraft from Fokker used before final production had started. These models are unique to Flight Simulation. Two of the prototype models have flown with a large pitot below the nose and large pitots at both wing-tips. One other Mk1000 prototype model does not have the mentioned pitots. The Mk4000 is a stretched version of the Mk1000 and seats more passengers, with two emergency exit windows on each side of the fuselage. One other model is the Mk6000 which is derived from the Mk4000 and painted in Fokker blue House colors, with only one emergency exit window on each side of the fuselage. In summary, the F28 software base package includes four different mock-up models: 1. 2. 3. 4. F28 Mk1000 Fokker prototypes with large pitots F28 Mk1000 F28 Mk4000 F28 Mk6000

All models feature high resolution texture maps with alpha based reflections and light maps based night textures. Animated aircraft parts include: • Flight controls: rudder, elevator, ailerons, trim, speed break flaps at tail cone, liftdumpers and two parts flap system on main wings • Rotating jet engine fan blades – spool, whine and combust • Retractable landing gear with rotating wheels, gear-bay doors • Nose-wheel steering • Gear suspension movements during brakes, touch down or roll on rough terrain • Horizontal stabilizer for trimming • Complete set of functional lights for Navigation, Beacon, Strobe and Wing inspection • Retractable landing and taxi lights (coupled by one switch) • Passenger’s door (stairway) • Service door • Engines puff smoke at engine start • Engines heat exhausts • Night mappings (flight deck, galley, vertical stabilizer, illumination on stair-steps of downward opening door, engines and tail)

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Exceptions: • The real Mk6000 has wing slats, where the FS model doesn’t have in this package. • Most real F28 aircraft have rolled-out the Fokker assembling plant with two fuel tanks. There were some delivered with 3 fuel thanks. All F28 models in the base package have 3 fuel tanks; Left, Center and Right. FS9 screenshots of the various animated parts

Pax door with stairway

Service Door

Lift-dumpers deployed on both wings

Speedbrake flaps deployed at tail cone

Various F28 prototype models as in ‘real’

The PH-WEV with large pitots

The PH-MOL with rubber de-icing boots on wings and V-stabilizer

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3.2

PANEL
Over the years and following owner’s requests, Fokker built various cockpit panel layouts for the F28 aircraft. PFJ have chosen the panel instrument layout similar to the photo’s in paragraph 2.1.4. The base software package includes functional 2D panels in 3D perspective; MAIN, OVERHEAD and PEDESTAL. The panels include all authenticate analogue gauges for the most common functionalities during normal use and even beyond: • • • • • All common instruments APU Autopilot & Auto Land systems Radio’s for Nav’s and Comm’s GPWS • • • • • Ground Handling Services Radio/CD-player Simulated Weather Radar TCAS Radar ….much more

The APPENDIX in this document gives a table which shows all gauges by number for each panel. With this table you can then easily locate the gauges and click spots.

Fokker F28 panel screenshots taken from FS2004

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3.2.1

OVERHEAD PANEL The working of each function in the OVERHEAD-panel is dependent of the subsequent ON/OFF state from a previous function. As such: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. APU MAIN requires BATTERY ON APU AIR requires APU MAIN ON Engine STARTER requires APU AIR ON and SAFE ON AVIONICS requires BATTERY ON ALTENATORS require BATTERY ON AIRCO requires APU AIR ON, or engines running and BATTERY ON VENTILATION require APU AIR ON, or engines running and BATTERY ON AIRFOIL ANTI-ICE require APU AIR ON, or engines running and BATTERY ON Engine ANTI-ICE require APU AIR ON, or engines running and BATTERY ON

3.2.2

ENGINES START-UP Starting-up the engines requires a sequence procedure from the OVERHEAD-panel. The APU and ENGINES panel segments, as well as three gauges are important.

Procedure for engines start-up using the OVERHEAD-panel: 1. Toggle BATTERY switch to ON. 2. Toggle APU MAIN switch to ON. - The % RPM gauge needle should stop at marker 100 approx.(green area). - The AC LOAD gauge needle should stop at marker 1.00 approx. 3. Toggle APU AIR switch to ON. - The AIR PSI gauge needle should stop at the 55 marker approx. 4. Toggle engine SAFE switch to ON. 5. Toggle engine FUEL switch #1 to ON. 6. Toggle & Hold the engine STARTER switch to the left (engine # 1). - Release the switch when the VALVE light goes OFF. 7. Toggle engine FUEL switch #2 to ON. 8. Toggle & Hold the engine STARTER switch to the right (engine # 2). - Release the switch when the VALVE light goes OFF. 9. Toggle engine SAFE switch to OFF (STARTER switch is now secured).

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AUTOPILOT SYSTEM The autopilot system is controlled by 8 pushbuttons on the AFCAS (Automatic Flight Control and Augmentation System) in the glare shield. A green light indicates that the button is pressed an the subsequent function is activated.

AP engaged, HDG, ALT, IAS and ILS are activated

Button Function AP HDG Master

Use for

LND VOR V/S ALT IAS ILS

- Engage/disengage the autopilot system. - When AP is disengaged, will illuminate AP OUT. Heading Hold - Maintains the current HEADING (not selected). - Also sets the "selected heading" (yellow marker in the HSI [M18]) to the current heading. Auto Land - Performs a fully auto land procedure. VOR Hold - Intercepts and maintain the selected COURSE To/From the tuned VOR set in NAV1. Vertical Speed Hold - Maintains the current vertical speed (ascent or descent). Altitude Hold - Maintains the current flying altitude. Indicated Air Speed Hold - Maintains the current airspeed. Instrument Landing System - Intercepts and holds the Localizer and GlideSlope. Hold - Requires ILS frequency set in NAV1.

3.2.3

ILS – INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM The ILS Hold green light has 4 ways to indicate the ILS status. You can read the status in the tooltip when you place your mouse over the ILS pushbutton. Each status has its own message in the tooltip. So, if the ILS status changes, the tooltip changes as well. The ILS Hold green light indicators are: 1. OFF - ILS Hold is not active. 2. Slow flash - ILS Hold is “armed”, but the Localizer and GlideSlope signals are not (1 second interval) detected yet. 3. ON (steady) - Localizer and GlideSlope signals are detected. When flying a proper heading, ILS Hold will now intercept and follow the Localizer after which the ILS Hold will then intercept and follow the GlideSlope. 4. Rapid flash - ILS is in error. In such an event, move your mouse over the ILS Hold (½ second interval) push button and read the error message in the tooltip (tooltips should be enabled in FS2004 settings). ILS error messages are: (Above GlideSlope before Localizer interception) (Lost GlideSlope signal) (Lost Localizer signal) When ILS Hold is pressed to ON, it will activate current HDG and ALT if not already ON. IMPORTANT - You should press the ILS button to ON when flying within 20 Nm approx. from the airport. - You should fly into the GlideSlope (not above) after the Localizer has been intercepted. - When the ILS green light flashes, read what is written in the tooltip. Try to understand the tooltip message and take necessary actions.

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3.2.4

LND – AUTO LAND The Auto Land feature is fictive to the F28 aircraft, but comes in handy for those who are not keen in flying ILS approaches. The Auto Land performs a fully automated approach/landing on airports that have an ILS (with Localizer and GlideSlope). Once the Auto Land is activated, hands-off the panel, sit back and relax and let the autopilot do it all for you! Special features include: • • • • • Checks / works around the limitations of the standard FS9 ApproachHold. Operates the speedbrake if the aircraft approaches too fast. It allows for landings even with maximum crosswind of 20 kts; i.e. operates the rudder during flare. Checks landing parameters at GlideSlope interception (max. LandingWeight and max. winds) Can be activated/deactivated anywhere between initial and final approach.

Conditions to activate Auto Land are typically: • • • • • Airspeed of 250 kts IAS. Heading of 30° to 50° deviation from runway heading. At about 15 Nm from the airport. Altitude of 3,000 to 3,500 feet AGL. Runway ILS frequency is dialed into NAV1.

Assuming these preconditions are met, the Auto Land has several states which can be read in the tooltip when you place your mouse over the LND button. The various states are incremental starting from State 0 to State 10 and summarizes the following handlings. 0. LND is OFF 1. LND is Armed (awaits ILS needles to come alive) - Sets AP Master to ON when OFF. - Sets HeadingHold ON at current heading. - Sets ALTHold ON at 3,000 feet AGL and maintains 3,000 feet AGL. - Sets IASHold ON at 250 kts. - When Localizer and GlideSlope needles are detected sets speed to 180 kts, and ILSHold ON. Active (awaits Localizer interception) - Sets Flaps to 8° when speed is less than 200 kts. - Sets Flaps to 11° when speed is less than 190 kts. - At Localizer intercept, proceed to State 3. Active (awaits GlideSlope needle to come alive) - Waits until the GlideSlope needle begins to move (at approx. 11 Nm). - When it does: sets flaps to 18° and speed to 160 kts. Active (awaits GlideSlope interception) - Waits until the GlideSlope is intercepted (at approx. 9 Nm) - When it does: performs a number of checks (Maximum Landing Weight, cross and tailwind, minimum activation altitude). Active (following GlideSlope) Active (at 2,000 feet or at approx. 6 Nm) - Sets flaps to 25° and speed to a weight-dependant speed. Active (at 1,700 feet or at approx. 5 Nm) - Lowers the landing gear - Sets taxi and landing lights to ON

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

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8.

Arms the lift dumpers Arms the ARM-L from GroundHandling. See paragraph 3.2.8.

Active (at 1,400 feet or at approx. 4.5 Nm, around Outer Marker) - Sets flaps to full (42°) and speed to weight-dependant landing speed.

9. Active (flare) - At 40 feet, disengage the AP, deploys speedbrake and starts a flare by forcing elevator a little upward. - At 15 feet, applies rudder to align the aircraft with the runway (in case of crosswind). 10. Active (landing) - After touchdown, the lift dumpers are extended, speed brakes are deployed and the aircraft is steered at runway heading. - At 40 Kts, the gauge relinquishes all controls. - At 40 Kts, the ARM-L gauge retracts Airbrakes, flaps and lift dumpers, and activates the Taxi speed from the GroundHandling, (default taxi speed: 15 kts, user-settable during approach from the GroundHandling gauge. See 3.2.8.). The LND button light is: • • • • OFF Flashing Green Green Flashing Amber : when disengaged : when “armed” : when in an active state : when aborted by the gauge (see error states)

Error States (read from the tooltip): State -1: State -2: State -3: State -4: State -5: Aircraft cannot intercept ILS: CDI or GSI needle becomes invalid Approach/Landing check: Aircraft too high (above GlideSlope) Initiation/Landing check: Aircraft too low (below 1,500 feet) Landing check: Aircraft too heavy (consider fuel dumping, see 3.2.7) Landing check: Too much wind (>25 kts cross wind and/or >10 kts tail wind and/or >25 kts total wind)

Of course this "landing by the book" procedure can also be done manually. Notes a) When you disengage LND during approach, or if any of the landing checks at GlideSlope interception result in an error, the aircraft will then perform an automated climb-out with a V/S Hold of 1,500 fps at 250 kts IAS. In such cases the landing gear, airbrakes, flaps are then automatically retracted and taxi and landing lights will be switched off. Please note that this is not a Go Around procedure. This could be used as an initial step for a Go Around, but will always require pilot’s interaction to complete the Go Around procedure.

3.2.5

TEST FLIGHT – ILS AND AUTO LAND We have added a Test Flight in the F28 software base package which we used during our testing’s for the ILS and AutoLand system. You can use this Test Flight to practice your landings with ILS or AutoLand or even fully controlled. Start FS2004 (FS9). From the menu Flights, scroll down and look for the flight with the name: PROJECT Fokker ---- F28 ILS/LND Test Flight ---Select this flight and click the button “Fly now!” A new window will then open which shows all details to perform the flight. It is recommended that you make a print of the description by pressing the “Print” button of that window. Finally, click the “OK” button to begin flying.

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3.2.6

COMPARATOR The AP status can be monitored by the COMPARATOR in the main panel.

IAS, NAV and ALT are monitored

Here is how the COMPARATOR functions: • • • The COMPARATOR monitors the state of the AP system. When any of the COMPARATOR lights goes ON, this means that the indicated AP function has been activated. Resetting the COMPARATOR by clicking anywhere on the gauge will make all COMPARATOR lights to go OFF. This function has no effect to any of the AP functions which have been activated before reset. Whenever any of the AP functions is activated, will lit the indicated subsequent COMPARATOR light again. The light will stay ON until reset, or until the AP function is deactivated. The COMPARATOR pushbutton Lamp Test will illuminate all lights including the warning light for AP OUT.
AP OUT ON

Lamp Test,

COMPARATOR lights ON

COMPARATOR lights indications: Light goes ON when… IAS - Current airspeed is maintained. HDG - Current or Selected HEADING is maintained. -When ILS is “armed”, but will go OFF when ILS has intercepted the Localizer, at which point LOC goes ON. NAV - Selected COURSE To/From the tuned VOR1 is intercepted and maintained. V/S - Current vertical speed (ascent or descent) is maintained. LOC - When Localizer is intercepted. Will go OFF when ILS is set to OFF. GS - When GlideSlope is intercepted. Will go OFF when ILS is set to OFF. ALT - Current flying altitude is maintained. - When ILS is “armed”. Will go OFF when ILS has intercepted the GlideSlope, at which point GS goes ON. Although not part of the COMPARATOR but coupled to the Lamp Test pushbutton: APU OUT - When AP is OFF (disengaged).

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3.2.7

GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (GPWS) The fully-featured GPWS is located in the main panel [M21] and offers the following features: • • Clickable switches, with Test / Inhibit function. 8 different warning modes with individual switches/lights (see tooltips), with all the usual aural warnings, like "Pull-up", "Sink rate", "Terrain Terrain", "Wind shear" and normal Altitude callouts.

The GPWS is controlled by simple mouse-clicks. The GPWS has three main states: • Off When Off (red light ON), all other lights/switches are disabled and made invisible. By clicking the Master switch to ON, the gauge state goes into Test mode. The gauge is tested (green light ON) and a test sound is heard like “WhoopWhoopGlideSlope”. When finished, the state is set to ON (light OFF). All GPWS Modes are Active (all lights OFF). When the Master switch is clicked again, the gauge is set to OFF again.

• •

Test On

GPWS Warning Modes: Mode 1 - Excessive descent rate. This mode is activated when the aircraft descends too fast. Callouts: "WhoopWhoopPullUp" or "SinkRate". Mode 2 - Excessive terrain closure rate. This mode is activated when the distance between aircraft and ground surface decreases too fast. Because the aircraft is descending and/or the ground surface is rising (e.g. hills/mountains). Callouts: "WhoopWhoopPullUp" or "TerrainTerrain". Mode 3 - Loss of altitude after takeoff. This mode is activated when, during climb, the distance between aircraft and ground surface is decreasing. Callouts: "Don’t Sink" or "TerrainTerrain". Mode 4 - Insufficient terrain clearance. This mode is activated when the distance between aircraft and ground surface is too short, while the aircraft is not in its landing configuration. Unlike Mode-2, this mode is independent on the rate of closure. Landing configuration means: Gear down and Flaps set to 18° or more. Callouts: "TooLowTerrain", "TooLowFlaps" or "TooLowGear". Mode 5 - Excessive GlideSlope deviation. This mode is activated when the aircraft, during approach, flies too low in relation to the GlideSlope (when GS is detected). Callouts: "GlideSlope". Mode 6 - Excessive banking. This mode is activated when the aircraft banks too much. Callouts: "Bankangle" Mode 7 - Wind shear. This mode is activated when wind shear is detected at low altitude. Callouts: "WindshearWindshearWindshear". Mode 8 - Altitude callouts. When the aircraft descends through certain altitudes for landing. Callouts: starting from "2500" down to "10" feet, and "Minimums". The "Minimums" callout is given when the aircraft descends below the Decision Height [M22] when in landing configuration.

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3.2.8

GROUND HANDLING SERVICES One gauge handles all.

The Ground handling gauge in the MAIN-panel is located in one separate window (overlaying the autopilot), and is accessible via the simicon [M8] for ground handling. The gauge is controlled by simple mouse-clicks. The gauge offers the following features: • Pushback - The Pushback sequence can be performed automatically by setting the distance the aircraft should be pushed straight back, plus the desired turn angle to left or right. - During pushback, you can pause the system without interrupting the pushback procedure. - To support pushback operation, the cockpit-ground conversations is made audible. Taxi speed - Controls the aircraft groundspeed while taxiing, by manipulating the throttles and brakes if needed. AutoTaxiAfterLanding switch (ARM-L) - This switch allows you to arm the Taxi speed controller when flying in air. After the aircraft has landed, and the speed has reduced to below 40 knots, the taxi speed controller is automatically activated. If applicable, it also retracts flaps and speedbrake. Users with toe-brakes should amend two strings for gauge01 in section [Windows.06] from the panel.cfg file. Just remove the two slashes from one string and include into the other gauge01. Parking brake switch - This switch shows the position of the parking brakes, and lets you (de-) activate them. Brake sound - This gauge makes the sound of the brakes audible. This brake sound will be heard when the aircraft is on the ground and the brake pressure is >30% with groundspeed is >5 knots. Take-off V-speeds - This displays and calls out the V-speeds (V1, Vr, V2) at take-off. The values are dynamically calculated depending on flap position and actual weight. Changing flaps will also change the take-off V-values. - Checks several take-off conditions with displayed warnings in red: WGHT Max. take-off weight (MTOW) exceeded. Reduce fuel or payload. Read par. 3.2.7 Fuel Dump/Load section. SPBRK Speedbrake flaps extended. Close speedbrake. LIFTDP Lift dumpers extended. Retract lift dumpers FLAPS Flaps too much. Set flaps to 18° or less. - When any of the take-off conditions is false, a warning tone is played when the aircraft exceeds 40 knots during take-off. - Flaps/gear advisory callouts during climb out.

Continues on next page.

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Fuel Dump/Load This Fuel Dump/Load provides (in-flight) refueling and fuel dumping, with a pilotsettable rate and units-of-fuel. This part of the gauge has the following clickable area's (see also the tooltips): A three-position switch - Up: Add fuel. Only possible when the aircraft is standing still. - Center: OFF - Down: Dump fuel. This is only possible when aircraft is standing still, or when the aircraft is flying above 1000 feet. Left Clicking the switch changes the switch position Up and Down. Right Clicking the switch toggles between Fuel-units (Lbs, Gal, Lit. and Kg). Defaults setting is Pounds (fuel weight) and PoundsPerMinute (dump/load rate). Light above the switch For Fuel load indication: - Off: OFF - Flashing Green: Fuel loading is active - Red: Fuel loading has stopped, because: All tanks are full The aircraft is moving Light below the switch For Fuel dump indication: - Off: OFF - Flashing Green: Fuel dumping is active, total fuel is still greater than 10% - Flashing Amber: Fuel dumping is active, total fuel is between 5% and 10% - Red: Fuel dumping has stopped, because: Total tank contents is below 5%. Altitude is below 1000 feet AGL, or the aircraft is moving. Fuel Dump/Load rate In units per minute. - You can set this rate by clicking the rate field. Default is 2,000 and minimum 10 'Units'PerMinute. - Left Clicking in-/decreases rate in steps of 100 units. - Right Clicking in-/decrease rate in steps of 10 units. Total Fuel The current amount of fuel, in the selected 'Units'. The tooltip indicates the current amount as percentage of the maximum capacity.

Notes a) After Fuel Load/Dump is stopped automatically for whatever reason (the light is Red), the switch must be clicked Off manually. b) Changing the aircraft fuel quantity via the FS9 menu Aircraft-FuelAndPayload ONLY works correctly when the APU is OFF and the FuelLoadDump gauge is OFF.
Fuel Dump/Load gauge by Doug Dawsons

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3.2.9

AIRCRAFT WEIGHT vs FUEL & PAYLOAD When you create a new flight in FS2004 (FS9), FS2004 will then assign the default payload and maximum allowable fuel to the selected aircraft, as defined in the aircraft.cfg file. For the Fokker F28, this means that the aircraft weight will exceed the maximum weight and will therefore result in: • • An "OVERWEIGHT" message in the V-speed gauge display from the Ground Handling Services in 3.2.8. An alarm tone when your aircraft exceeds 40 knots during Takeoff roll.

This means that you have to reduce fuel (or payload) before Takeoff. You can do this via the FS9 menu option "Aircraft - Fuel and Payload". Or even better with the Fuel Dump in 3.2.8. Appropriate fuel values to stay below maximum weight are (assuming the default payload): • For the Mk1000 (max. weight 65000 lbs): - Left/Right tanks: 74% - Center tank: 0% For the Mk4000/6000 (max. weight 73000 lbs): - Left/Right tanks: 90% - Center tank: 0%

Notes a) Changing the aircraft fuel quantity via the FS9 menu Aircraft-FuelAndPayload ONLY works correctly when the APU is OFF and the FuelLoadDump gauge is OFF. b) In FS2004 the actual aircraft weight = aircraft empty weight + fuel weight + payload weight c) FS2004 only has one parameter for maximum weight: "maximum gross weight". d) Maximum Takeoff Weight equals Maximum Gross Weight, and is checked at Takeoff by the V-speed gauge. e) Maximum Landing Weight (Mk1000: 59,000 lbs and Mk4000/6000: 65,000 lbs) is not checked by any gauge. 3.2.10 LANDING SPEED The landing speed for the F28 is somehow critical with regards to pitch, flap position and ILS GlideSlope tracking. To support the pilot during his (final) approach, the Landing Speed Indicator [M56] is there to provide useful information: • • - - - - Dash marks indicate that the F28 is not in its Landing Configuration (not in air, and/or flaps not set to 25°or 42°). 130 Suggested Landing Speed (amber) with flaps set to 25°or 42°. The pilot should try to reach and maintain this speed for a suitable landing. The suggested Landing Speed is calculated from: - The actual flap position (25°and 42°) - The actual gross weight of the aircraft, which include fuel burn WGHT WGHT (red). When the F28 is above its Maximum Landing Weight (Mk1000: 59,000 lbs and Mk4000/6000: 65,000 lbs). In such case, landing with the current air speed could mean: - Pitch to high, makes it difficult to visually see the runway during approach. - Landing could be rough or even crash. When the WGHT indicator is lit, the pilot should consider to abort his land and perform a Go Around and burn fuel to reach MLW. It is also possible to dump fuel while in air until MLW is reached and a suggested Landing Speed is shown in amber in the display. Read paragraph 3.2.8 on how to dumb fuel.

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3.2.11 RADIO/CD-PLAYER

In the OVERHEAD-panel is a hidden Radio/CD-player. This gauge is a modern gimmick in an old cockpit for various audio usage. Default sounds include under FM-1 a “PFJ welcome message”. Under FM-2 to FM-6 and AM1 to AM-6 you will hear various cabin announcements. All these sounds can easily be replaced by any other sounds you may choose from your hard disk. It plays an audio-CD, as well as any of 12 pre-selected sound files. Supported sound files include wav, mid and mp3. How to operate the Radio/CD-player Make the Radio/CD-player visible. You bring the Radio/CD-player upfront when clicking anywhere on the panel-plate [O8] in the OVERHEAD-panel which is shown here on the right. Activate the Radio/CD-player by clicking the on/off button at the right-top in the gauge. This will illuminate the blue display in the middle. To play an “AM” or “FM” channel: • • Click select mode AM or FM. Click a select channel (1-6).

To program/change any of the six “FM” or six “AM” channels: • • • • Click either the select mode FM or AM. Right-click a select channel (1-6). This will bring up your standard Windows file explorer. Search/Select the sound file from the pop-up window and press OK. The selection is then saved under the selected channel.

To play a “CD” • • • • Click select mode CD. Open the CD tray from your PC by clicking the REL button and insert the audio-CD. When the CD is detected, it will then start playing automatically. Click any of the two CD track buttons for playing the previous / next audio track.

Adjust volume using the volume up/down buttons. To switch off the Radio/CD-player, first click the on/off button. Then, click anywhere in the blue display to make the Radio/CD-player disappear after which the panel-plate shows again in its origin state.
Radio/CD-player gauge by Robert L. Clark

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3.3

SOUNDS
The sounds that come with the F28 software base package include stereo/mono sound effects for cockpit, engines, APU and environment.

3.3.1

ENGINES - sound The engine sounds are professionally mastered and dubbed as close to real. The sound effects for engine and wind are faithful to the F28 aircraft. In cockpit view, you will notice that the F28 engine sounds are heard less loud compared to what you experienced to hear with most other twinjet engine aircraft. This is normal to the F28 because the engines are located way back at the rear of the aircraft fuselage. You will experience that the sound for wind is therefore heard louder. The sound effects for the engines simulate -start, -whine, -combust and -shutdown for both internal and external views.

3.3.2

COCKPIT - SOUND Various other sound effects can be heard within the flight deck. These include audible warnings, switches and push button clicks, voice call-outs, ground personnel during pushback and much more.

3.3.3

WIND - SOUND The sound of wind which hits the cockpit windshield should be heard louder than the sound of engines.

3.3.4

GEAR - SOUND The nose-gear is located directly under the flight deck which makes the rumbling sounds of the tires to be heard when rolling. At nose-gear up/down movements, the sound of turbulent wind in the nose-gear bay area is heard from the moment the bay doors are opened until closed. Tire scrapes can be heard only from the nose-gear at touch down.

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3.4

LIVERIES
The F28 base software package contains a variety of liveries including unique Fokker prototypes, Fokker House, as well as a few from real airliners. These base package include: • F28 Mk1000 prototypes (with large pitots) a. Fokker Prototype #1 PH-JHG, green/black colors b. Fokker Prototype #2 PH-WEV, orange/black colors F28 Mk1000 c. Fokker Prototype #3 F28 Mk4000 d. NLM Cityhopper e. Tame Ecuador F28 Mk6000 f. Fokker Prototype #1 PH-MOL, grey/black colors PH-CHD HC-CEH PH-JHG, new House livery

• •

Other liveries have been made available from the website as ‘add-on’ liveries. These can be downloaded directly from the website. You should visit the PFJ website for the latest summary of liveries. The following F28 liveries have been made available at time of document print.

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More liveries may be found at various flightsim portals, such as www.avsim.com.

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3.4.1

REPAINTS & PAINT-KIT PFJ encourage people to repaint the F28 models in various liveries such as from real airliners or virtual airliners. A Policy for repaints applies. Read next paragraph. For those who would like to repaint the F28 models, a Paint-Kit will soon be made available after the release of this F28 base software package. Check the PFJ website at http://fokker.avsim.net for information about the F28 Paint-Kit.

3.4.2

POLICY FOR REPAINTS Repaints are authorized under the following conditions: • • • • You have permission to repaint any of the F28 models. You have no permission to bundle PFJ software together with your livery. Users who would like to fly the F28 with your livery should always download the aircraft model from the PFJ website. Your repaint must be accompanied with text in your readme file saying that permission for repaint was granted by PFJ and that you give credits to PFJ designers. Example of the text could be as following: Permission for repaint was granted by PROJECT Fokker Jetline (PFJ) First, you must download the model from http://fokker.avsim.net Project by Ton van de Laar Models designed by Erez Werber FDE’s developed by Martin Purps Livery painted by <your name> • • • PFJ cannot be hold responsible for any legal steps or actions taken by real airliners of the livery against the author of the repaint. PFJ will not provide support for 3rd party repaints. This is the responsibility of the author of the painted livery. PFJ “End User License Agreement” enforces this POLICY FOR REPAINTS.

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4

FLIGHT TUTORIAL
With the Flight Tutorial you will practice a 45 minutes flight to help you understand the basic controls for flying the Fokker F28 aircraft. You will be flying through the Andes mountains in the beautiful country of Ecuador in South America.

Ecuador

Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bounded by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. The country also includes the Galápagos Islands (Archipiélago de Colón) in the Pacific, about 965 kilometers (600 miles) west of the mainland. Named after the Spanish word for equator which is Ecuador. Ecuador straddles the equator and has an area of 256,370 square kilometers (98,985 sq. miles). The capital city is Quito, with elevation above 9,200 ft from sea-level.
Source: Wikipedia

4.1

FLYING THE FLIGHT
First of all, it would be wise to print all pages in the APPENDIX of this document. There you will find the gauge-numbered table, as well as images of panel layouts showing all gauges and click-spots. You will need these pages to follow the procedures of the tutorial. Start FS2004 (FS9). From the menu Flights, scroll down and look for the flight with the name: PROJECT Fokker --- F28 Flight Tutorial --Select this flight and click the button “Fly now!” A new window will then open which shows all details to perform the flight. It is recommended that you make a print of the description by pressing the “Print” button of that window. Finally, click the “OK” button to begin flying.

4.2

VIDEOS
See videos of real F28 pushback, engine start-up, taxi and take-off from Quito (SEQU) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VckkyHK-q88&mode=related&search http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nKaFIwgncQo See a video of real F28 landing into Quito (SEGU) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GZn-Eu1TUAk See more real F28 flight videos. From the links hereunder, search with keyword F28. http://www.flightlevel350.com http://www.youtube.com

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5
5.1

FOKKER HISTORY
SHORT VERSION
1890 The birth of the legendary aviation pioneer; Anthony H.G. Fokker in Blitar Java in Indonesia (former Dutch Indies) on April 6 In Holland, Fokker built his first aircraft named 'The Spider' In 1912 Fokker established his Fokker Aeroplanbau at Johanneshal, Berlin, Germany. Here he developed a triplane, the Dr.I. in which the Red Baron won his victories during W.W.I Fokker founded Hollands' first aircraft factory on the 21st of July: The Netherlands Aircraft Factory. In the period between the two World Wars, the company owned one plant in Amsterdam and three in the U.S.A. Fokker's best selling aircraft in this period is the three-engined F.VIII-3m, of which 230 were built.
'I have always understood aeroplanes a lot better than women.'

1910

1919

1920 1924 1939 1951 1955

The F.II, one of the first planes developed for passenger transport The F.VII, which KLM used for its first flight overseas to the Dutch Indies With the threat of war, Fokker built many successful military aeroplanes, like the twin-boom Fokker G-1 A new factory was opened at Schiphol Amsterdam after the plant was completely destroyed during W.W.II The first Fokker F27 Friendship made its maiden flight. It was to become the most successful turboprop in its class, worldwide. Fokker sold 786 F27s of which some 600 are still in service The Fokker F28 Fellowship started its operations. It was the world's first short-haul jet of which 241 were sold Fokker launched two new aircrafeet: the Fokker 50 and the Fokker 100 which superseded the F27 and F28 Maiden flight of the Fokker 50 Maiden flight of the Fokker 100 Maiden flight of the Fokker 70 Maiden flight of the Fokker 60 Utility Bankruptcies declared of: N.V. Koninklijke Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek Fokker, Fokker Administration B.V. Fokker Aircraft B.V. Fokker Aviation is founded by the Trustees Operating companies: Fokker Elmo Fokker Aerostructures Fokker Services Fokker Special Products Fokker Defence Marketing Stork acquires Fokker Aviation Fokker Aviation to continue as ‘Stork Aerospace Group’

1964 1983 1985 1986 1994 1995 1996

1996

1996 1999

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5.2

LONG VERSION
As one of the earliest established aircraft manufacturers in the world, Fokker can look back on a long and rich history. In 74 years, the company has developed some 125 different types of aircraft and built over 6,600 civil and military airplanes. Fokker is one of the few survivors from the early days and still plays its part on the international aviation scene. On July 21st, 1919, Dutchman Anthony H.G. Fokker founded the Netherlands Aircraft Factory Fokker, based at Amsterdam. Only 29 at the time, he was already one of the world's famous aviation pioneers. Anthony Herman Gerard Fokker was born on April 6, 1890. Following education in the Netherlands, he went to Germany for technical training. It was in an empty Zeppelin hangar in Baden-Baden that he built his first aircraft in 1910. With this braced monoplane, the Spider, he gained his pilot's license. In 1912 he founded his own firm, Fokker Aeroplanbau at Johannisthal, Berlin, but moved to Schwerin one year later. During World War I, he built thousands of fighters for the German forces, including such famous aircraft as the Fokker Dr.1 triplane and the D.7. In 1919 Anthony returned to the Netherlands where he set up a new company in Amsterdam. At that time, he was already renowned as an aircraft designer and producer as well as a test pilot. He had proved to be one of those rare and remarkable aviation pioneers whose successes resulted from a combination of airmanship, inventiveness, craftsmanship, commercial insight and perseverance. A characteristic structure provided the basis for the success of the early Fokker aircraft: a welded steeltube fuselage covered with fabric, and thick-profiled wooden wings which in later types were built on the cantilever principle (without external bracing). In 1919, one of the very first airplanes designed for airline operations was marketed: the Fokker F.2. This high-wing monoplane could carry four passengers in a well-furnished cabin, and with its 185 hp engine cruised at 100 miles per hour. The F.2 was the forerunner of a long line of airliners which were used in all parts of the world. Fokker designed and produced the more powerful F.3 and - to meet an American requirement - the 11-seat F.4. Flown by US Army Air Service pilots, this aircraft set new world records for endurance, distance and speed. The climax of its career came in 1922 when an F.4 flown by Oakley Kelly and John McReady made the first non-stop coast-to-coast flight across America, covering the 2,850 miles in 26 hours 51 minutes. The plane is preserved in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. In 1924 the F.7 made its appearance. This airliner, with accommodation for eight passengers, pioneered the air route between the Netherlands and the then Dutch East Indies. It was the progenitor of a very successful series of derivatives. The F.7a came into being in 1925 and was the world's first airliner with an air-cooled engine. It set up world records for altitude and distance, while carrying useful payloads. Anthony Fokker founded an American branch of his company as early as 1921, marking the start of an important contribution to the development of air traffic in the New World. In 1924 Fokker's foothold in the USA assumed the form of an independent company, the Atlantic Aircraft Corporation (later named Fokker Aircraft Corporation and then General Aviation Corporation), which eventually had plants in Teterboro, New Jersey, Brighton Mills, New Jersey, and Glendale, West Virginia. In the late twenties the US Fokker concern had grown to become one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in the world. In addition to civil transports, a long line of military aircraft was developed in the early twenties. They were sold in large numbers, many being built under license abroad. To mention only a few: the C.1, C.4 and C.5 reconnaissance types, the D.10, D.11 and D.13 fighters, the S.1, S.2, S.3 and S.4 primary trainers and the T.1, T.2 and T.3 torpedo floatplanes. In 1925, the F.7 was developed into the F.7a-3m Trimotor and the long span F.7b-3m, which virtually laid the foundation for many of today's major air networks. The Fokker Trimotor became the most successful airliner of those early days of commercial aviation. Most of the larger airlines in Europe, the US and Australasia operated these types. Licenses to build them were sold to manufacturers in seven European countries and they were also produced in Fokker's own American plants. In addition to their multi-engine safety, reliability and passenger comfort, these Fokker Trimotors made many famous and historic flights. Flying the F.7a-3m prototype, Anthony Fokker succeeded in winning the 1925 Ford Reliability Tour, thus establishing his name in American aviation. One year later, Admiral Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett made the first flight over the North Pole with the "Josephine Ford". In 1927, only six weeks after Lindbergh, Byrd crossed the Atlantic in the Trimotor "America" and in the following year, Australian Charles Kingsford Smith made his daring flight across the Pacific from San Francisco to Australia in the famous "Southern Cross". Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly the Atlantic in the "Friendship" in

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1928. The US Army officers Spaatz, Eaker and Quesada, flew the Fokker Trimotor "Question Mark" for more than 150 hours in an early but striking demonstration of air-to-air refueling. Kingsford Smith continued his round-the-world expedition in the "Southern Cross", flying from Australia to England in 1929, and the following year to San Francisco, his original starting point. Meanwhile, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines had inaugurated a regular F.7b-3m service between the Netherlands and the East Indies, at the time the longest air route in the world. By 1930, 54 airlines were operating Fokker aircraft, and licenses for their manufacture were sold to 22 countries. Anthony Fokker withdrew from the American theater in 1931, finding outlets in the Netherlands for his tremendous energy. Successes in the field of military aircraft continued with fighters such as the D.16, D.17 and D.21, the C.10 reconnaissance aircraft, the catapult-launched C.11W floatplane, the C.14W floatplane trainer, the T.4 and T.8W floatplane torpedo bombers and the T.5 bomber. Highlight in this era was the G.1 twinengine, twin-boom fighter. The sturdy Trimotor was further developed into the F.12 and F.18 long distance airliners. This series culminated in the large four-engine F.22 and the mammoth F.36 which, with a capacity of 32 passengers, was at the time one of the world's largest airliners. After 1934, the Fokker company concentrated on the design and production of military aircraft, at the same time acting as European marketing office for the Douglas DC-2 and DC-3 all-metal planes. Fokker's first own all-metal aircraft, the T.9 bomber, flew in 1939 and design work began on the F.24, intended as a DC-3 replacement. Anthony Fokker died in December 1939 in the U.S.A. at the early age of 49, but his illustrious name lived on through the company he had created. In the Second World War the Fokker factory was totally destroyed and the F.24 project had to be shelved. The company rose from its ashes in 1945 and a nucleus of Fokker employees began design and production of a series of small military trainers, the S.11, S.12, S.13 and S.14 Mach Trainer, the company's first jet design. In 1951, the company moved to a new factory erected at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, where several hundreds of Hawker Sea Furies, followed later by Gloster Meteor and Hawker Hunter jet fighters built under license. In the sixties, Fokker produced 350 Lockheed Starfighters, wing center sections of the Breguet Atlantic military patrol aircraft and center-fuselages of the Northrop NF-5. By the early fifties, the company was preparing for a re-entry into the civil airliner market. This led to the introduction of the Fokker F27 Friendship in 1958. The F27 has become the world's best selling turboprop airliner. When production ended in 1986, a total of 786 Friendships had been sold worldwide. The Fokker F28 Fellowship, the F27s jet sister aircraft, was first delivered in 1969. The twin-turbofan also found its way into the world airliner market with 241 sold when production was stopped in 1987. The F27 was first introduced into Africa by Sudan Airways in 1962, followed in the same year with other African airlines as DETA, Mozambique, TAAG and East African Airways. East African Airways broke up into Kenya Airways, Air Tanzania and Uganda Airlines. One of these first hour F27s in Africa is still flying around with Airkenya in scheduled airline services to the Kenyan game reserves and the coastal holiday resorts Mombasa and Malindi. Next to the civil airliners Fokker developed military and maritime variants of the Fokker F27. In total some 112 Fokker F27 Friendships were sold to African operators. The first F28s in Africa were sold to Nigeria Airways (8) in 1972, soon to be followed by Ghana Airways and Ivory Coast. A number of F28s were sold in special governmental/VIP configuration. Eventually 35 Fokker F28s were sold to African operators. On July 22nd, 1978 the Fokker F28 Mk3000 "Lijubantsendzele" was delivered to Royal Swazi National Airways Corporation and has since then set a remarkable record of on-time reliable and dependable service for an aircraft operating under these conditions. By the end of the 1970's the operation of Fokker Aircraft in Africa spanned the whole continent. One could board the F28 of Royal Swazi at Matsapha and fly around from country to country in a full circle and returning to Matsapha only to have flown in the various Fokker Aircraft of African operators all over the continent.

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Today, the Fokker 50 PropJetLine and Fokker 70 and Fokker 100 JetLine form the mainstay of Fokker's business. These three new-generation airliners are setting new standards in aviation in terms of technology, economy and passenger comfort. They can boast an impressive order list comprising prestigious customers. First time F27 operators Sudan Airways and Kenya Airways were amongst the first airlines to order the new Fokker 50, recently followed by the Government of Tanzania. With the Fokker 100 the same pattern developed and satisfied F28 operators Air Ivoire and Air Gabon introduced the Fokker 100 into Africa. Since the 2nd World War Fokker has sold more than 1200 civil aircraft worldwide. More than 1000 of them are in day-to-day operation with 232 operators in 76 countries world-wide. In Africa alone more than 120 Fokker aircraft are in operation with 38 operators in 27 countries. To support all these operators of Fokker Aircraft Fokker has a dedicated Product Support organization to provide such services as: maintenance and flight-operations training, documentation, technical field support, maintenance and engineering support, spares support, 24-hours AOG (Aircraft-on-ground) etc., tailor-made to the needs of large customers like American Airlines or Swissair and the specific needs of such smaller African carriers like Air Ivoire or Royal Swazi. As well as being an acknowledged specialist in short-to-medium-haul airliners, Fokker is involved in most aspects of modern aerospace: co-production of the Lockheed F-16 fighter, aircraft repair, overhaul and modification, participation in numerous space ventures, production of various aerospace related products and a wide range of research and development projects. In April 1993 a contract was signed, finalizing the participation of Deutsche Aerospace (Dasa) in Fokker. Such move is a significant contribution to the rationalization of the European Aerospace industry. Fokker will become the lead-company in Design, Engineering, Manufacturing, Sales and Support of aircraft in the 60-130 seat range. 1996 Bankruptcies declared of: N.V. Koninklijke Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek Fokker, Fokker Administration B.V. Fokker Aircraft B.V. 1996 Fokker Aviation is founded by the Trustees Operating companies: Fokker Elmo Fokker Aerostructures Fokker Services Fokker Special Products Fokker Defence Marketing 1996 Stork acquires Fokker Aviation 1999 Fokker Aviation to continue as ‘Stork Aerospace Group’
Source: www.fokkerservices.com

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5.3

MORE FOKKER INFORMATION
http://library.thinkquest.org/C002752/fokker.cgi?page=home http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/index5-0.html http://www.fokker-aircraft.info/fleetlist.htm http://ontwikkel.thinkquest.nl/~ll115/ http://home-1.worldonline.nl/~lbb/fff.htm http://www.fokkerweb.nl/ http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation%20history/airplane%20at%20war/FOKKER.htm http://d.mancini.sites.uol.com.br/ http://www.jusonline.nl/fokker/ http://www.fokkerservices.com/ http://www.rekkof.nl/ http://www.fokkerf27.nl/docs/F28%20Operators.pdf http://www.myfirstfokker.com/

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6

APPENDIX
List of gauge numbers per panel in following images. OVERHEAD-panel
[O1] [O2] [O3] [O4] [O5] [O6] [O7] [O8] [O9] [O10] [O11] [O12] [O13] [O14] [O15] [O16] [O17] [O18] [O19] [O20] [O21] [O22] [O23] [O24] [O25] [O26] [O27] [O28] [O29] [O30] [O31] Close the OVERHEAD-panel GENERATOR switch ALTERNATOR switch METER switch BATTERY switch AVIONICS switch PAX DOOR switch Radio/CD-player (see paragraph 3.2.11) APU AC LOAD gauge APU % RPM gauge APU MAIN switch AIR PSI switch Engine STARTER SAFE switch Engine FUEL PUMP 1&2 switches Engine STARTER switch AC AMPS 1&2 gauges DC VOLTS 1&2 gauges VSI – Vertical Speed gauge (standby) EPR – Engine Performance Ratio gauge VENTILATION switch VENTILATION Cockpit & Cabin adjust knobs Cockpit & Cabin air temperature gauges AIRCO adjust knob DUCT air temperature gauge CAP – Cabin Altimeter Pressure gauge AIR PSI gauge AIRFOIL ANTI-ICE switch AIRFOIL ANTI-ICE L&R Temperature gauges ENGINE ANTI-ICE 1&2 Temperature gauges ENGINES ANTI-ICE 1&2 switches PITOT HEAT switch

MAIN-panel
[M1] [M2] [M3] [M4] [M5] [M6] [M7] [M8] [M9] [M10] [M11] [M12] [M13] [M14] [M15] [M16] [M17] [M18] [M19] [M20] [M21] [M22] [M23] [M24] [M25] [M26] [M27] [M28] [M29] [M30] [M31] [M32] [M33] [M34] [M35] [M36] [M37] [M38] [M39] [M40] [M41] [M42] [M43] [M44] [M45] [M46] [M47] [M48] [M49] [M50] [M51] [M52] [M53] [M54] [M55] [M56]

OVERHEAD-panel PEDESTAL-panel TCAS radar GARMIN-500 GPS ATC communications Kneeboard GEAR-panel Ground Handling Services (see paragraph 3.2.8) COMPARATOR & AP OUT lamp test [M14] & [M16] AAI – Altitude Alert Indicator (see [M50] ) ASI – Air Speed Indicator RMI – Radio Magnetic Indicator LIFTDUMPER ‘arm’ button and indicator AP OUT - autopilot disconnect indicator Tail number / Aircraft registration COMPARATOR (see paragraph 3.2.6) ADI – Attitude Direction Indicator HSI – Horizontal Situation Indicator MDA – Minimum Distance Altitude warning indicator STD QNH – Standard QNH hold selector (1013/2991) GPWS (see paragraph 3.2.7) RA – Radio Altimeter VSI – Vertical Speed Indicator DME 1&2 – Distance Measurement Equipment Caution light indicator Speedbrake warning light (when set to 60°/full open) APD – Alert Panel Display Altimeter Clock Fuel Quantity – Center fuel tank AUTOPILOT buttons (see paragraph 3.2.3) NAV-GPS switch OVERSPEED indicator APU ON indicator SBI – Speed Brake Indicator TAT – True Air Temperature OMI – Outer, Middle and Inner markers HTI – Horizontal Trim Indicator PRY – Pitch, Roll and Yaw indicator ADI – Attitude Direction Indicator (standby gauge) Fuel Quantity – Left/Right fuel tanks ADI MODE-selectors and Pitch (controls [M17] ) EGT – Exhaust Gas Temperature 1&2 Oil Pressure 1&2 Oil Temperature 1&2 Fuel Flow 1&2 Oil Quantity 1&2 N1 1&2 N2 1&2 AAC – Altitude Alert Controller (see [M10] ) COURSE Selectors and Pushbuttons HEADING Select, to activate selected Heading Hold OMI – Outer, Middle and Inner marker lights Compass Seat Belt / No Smoke Landing Speed Indicator (see paragraph 3.2.10)

PEDESTAL-panel
[P1] [P2] [P3] [P4] [P5] [P6] [P7] [P8] [P9] [P10] [P11] [P12] [P13] [P14] [P15] [P16] [P17] [P18] [P19] [P20] [P21] [P22] [P23] [P24] [P25] LIGHT switches NAV1 frequency select NAV1 standby/active selector NAV2 frequency select NAV2 standby/active selector ADF – Automatic Direction Finder COM1 frequency select COM1 standby/active selector COM2 frequency select COM2 standby/active selector TRANSP left two frequency digits TRANSP right two frequency digits MORSE selectors/lights Weather radar on/off Weather radar range Oil Pressure 1&2 Oil Quantity 1&2 Oil Temperature 1&2 Fuel Flow 1&2 Engines Hybrid 1&2 Thrust Levelers Flap select leveler Speedbrake handle Rudder Trim Aileron Trim

GEAR-panel
[G1] [G2] [G3] [G4] [G5] [G6] Flap Indicator Landing Gear lights Up/Down Landing Gear Brake Pressure 1&2 Landing Gear Hydraulic Pressure 1&2 Landing Gear Hybrid 1&2 Landing Gear Handle

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MAIN-panel

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OVERHEAD-panel

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GEAR-panel

PEDESTAL-panel

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