Articles

TERRORO'N THE S'TREE,TSOFL~TE VICTORIAN SALFORD AND MANCHES'TER: THE SCUTTLING MENACE
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Philip Gooderson
Nowadays it is widely ~ecQgnised. that Ju'VenUeviolence
has a long hiS'bJry. HistoFians ate a,f pains to 'Show that there is nothing new about iUsordeF on the streets. Tille idea or a .steady deCline in social discipline has been shown ito Ire a. myth.' Each decadepr·adllces, new varfattorrs-on an old theme, whether we are ,diseussing. ithe (Mtban gang&C)' Ihe 1980s, 0)' the scuttling. gangs 0'1 the iJi880s. .

- mali'lly middle-class - values and dis.cipJill~on w@rlbimgclass.youth. Among.fhe instruments of this: 8UPpOSed class
oppressien were the elementary school un€! the police, €orCe,$ In tMs ~rlicle some 'Of these assumptions ab~ut scuttling as you~h.l[ea@~ion dlF,ected against such institutlens wi'll be challenged. An attempt willals« be made to shm the £IX>US of analysisaw;ay frem micfd'I~H:;:lass oral panic m so well exp~sed by Humphries and Pearson eoncentrating insteacll on aspects of youth riot and de~tl!lquen~'y per se ~f! the c0Atext of 1 ate- Vicit€lfilanSalford and. Manchester.
Scuttling -as a sueei-gang actiivi.ty emerging from and melting ibac~ into mere street dis;0rder before and after its grea] fiowuing of 1870 to }L900 - was, part of ell national phenomenon. The great cities of BriMin showed Slimillar, ,although not identlea], patterns of j,uvenile unrest Youth diso~del' went by djffer~nt names in diifferent towns. Tine deliiyaniion of scuttllog is not entire!i,y deaf: the (j}.E.l1. nelllis us tha] to "scuttle a person's nol}" is ile break his or her head; while Lancashire dialect gives "seuft" as strike or beae, and "scatter' as to hUF.ry or run." Scuttliifllg iavolved both runnin,g and fighting. If Manshester and Salford had! itheir scutMets, B'irmi'nghain had sloggers and llater peaky blinders, while' London had n(\)@lli,gans.lt is'sYJuptomatlic of lthe cominuing supremacy of the capital, irn spilte of tme ifI!,grona'lc.naHenge posed by the' 1I1dus.triil~'Rev,o·llution" tfual hooliganism passed into the natlen's vocabulary, while scuttling and sloggling have long 'dlisappeaf.e6, even from local osage. I~ would Ibe a mis'taI<e to consider that these

Unlike s,odoJogists, for whom juyenil:e gang~ have had a leng Iaseinatlan, hist.@rian&ha.v~ been rdath!(;\ly sl0w to dev,elnp profiles of gangs of the: past .. There are obvious plioblemscOf 'evidente, but newspapers, police (;@UF,t records and oral h~storyare among a number of saurees dlfOugh which tile gangs of modern Br,itain !ll<\y be approached,and ideAt~fi~dI,l'he !piort,eerl~ w,ork of S'tephen Humphries has lihrQw,n much light 0101 the place of scuttllng in the ·efforts of middle-class agencies - not least the state - to eo ntro I and remonld w,ofk.ing-d'ass youdl at Qlimes of national crisis sueh
as,

the Boer War and t~e: FirM Worlld War,1 Yet

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Charles Russell can be reli,ed upon, sC!!Ittling's most notorious days were alr,eady over before tro,e @utb~ea'kof the 'South African War..J As 'a r~sUltt, oral history may be less valuab!tlli1n file linv·estigatkm of seunFing ,in, its, Ine¥d!ay than more traditional records ..This article seelcs to highlight the signiflcance of the years before 190'0 USIng the IreSUliJts of empirical work on the seuttlers fr~m Safford! p€JlicecolHt records and local newspapers," Humphries and others have' argued that 'street turbulence such as scuttling was, in large measure, a I~eacti'on to attempts to limpose a system OF alien

Street ioafers.from

RlusseU's "Manchester Boys" (1905), were portrayed as

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amiable successors to scuttlers.
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as Sir John Mantell. and Hankinson Street. as a stereotype lilly.has pointed out. They defended themselves agaiJilst the 5 . scbo@l. Bury wrcte: The Salford ScuUJi.miliaF to the hist®f'ian fwm the local press of Manchester and Salf!}rdi in the t 870~.d between 1188§ andl9DO.peared before the Salford courts between 1..it@riaFity wltichtllr0ady eJdstedlin the stteets"oHhe two clil." 'fNe word panic is not mappropriate here as the danger to." Sometimes scuttling tmCl'kthe form (if a collective attack en one or two individuals.ing.iIIexclusively of lads-with Irish names.~"caus~s ..' Scuttling too 'seems to havelest much of Its enginal 'vigour Iby the' turn of the century.ns and cities had a justified reputation for street-fighting partly derived from fuml tradition." (. . ailtlio\Agh in ~88'9 they accounted for 20 per peJ1lt of the apprehensiens fo.'! ereven (as. he was wid plainly that it had started with "the Irish 'in ene street figl1tiing the Irish il'l another" . Mancllester . as Stones Were thrown Ibetween Jews and Gentiles on rhe slopes below Strange\yays prison.eocomp0se€l . U'!. and of these seventy occurred in the two years 1889 and 11890. wrote. WheJil the Horne Secretimy asked the oeputaliOin from Manchester and Salford in 1890 about the origins of the problem. printers at the several works @n the banks oj the rtver Medlock . but ltseems ithatilt was an oM practice wAich had merely taken on new proportions. as llil'l Wi'l:liams has shown.thnki'tiy Scu~tlIing was described by Alex De. the latter became rare ln evercrawded areas such as Bal'ford and the Bradford aI'ea of MancilesteF1 "in tfue. The-Salford gangs were known to th& po'hce. But already there had! boon migration fl. land none of Salford's 116 police t@lUl't (gases had Identifiably "'Itis..itical @t' them" andl the The dyers and calico. in I88S1. famously.23 However. .as far as we can ite. even hooliganism was bemg diluted as "a term to eoy·er any violence by stlieet FOu. assize judge) would comprehend the' necessi ty for severityin these eases".p. was ithe home of a major gang in 1:875." In SaclforJ()lhis was partly t a fuY-l"wri'llct of territoriality. it was a Jewish rather than an Inlsh presence which was provWilllg the ethnic dlmenslon to seuttling.nd 'local oo. described scuttling as "a 'lot of lads." The "Scuttling Nuisance" becomes ffa. thenerowds as big 'as. beys.ilies were anxious to stamp out the practice. o'bli'ged the magistrates and the borough watch committee to .arely 'more . for all kinds of groups.notably 11812.idents causing damage lopropcrty.0.ln fact the Irish-born . Two local writees.often cheek by jowl with otl1eli' new suburbs :liiterally . both te~tify to. winl1 Jewish beys fightilllg @JiI botih sides.Ctli~tl." By 1889 ll1e 'b.ulati0fl. not 'by district but b¥ street . parts of Irelandl.se'lll.h'$gins land.885 and 1900 wer. revenge being apparently a strong metive: Seuttling I}ecame regarded as an offence b~ the liI'Iag. however" there was virtual war between whole townships. CRades Rowley lin 18:6413 and lames Bury in 181'9. havi1ng a pitched battle with some other lad's with stones. belts and smclt like".howeve«. Beerheuses. there were fights between Irishmen of @lifferent politieal persuasion and from d'i. .17 It was easy enough' to blame the Irish. but still overcrowded. pulitie stl"ee~s". by the aarrre of lhe street or district frem which they had eome" met each other "I'm Will if eeeft or epea sgace.identieal phenomena" but 'in lheili primarily comprised juvenile gang activity. although many gangs remained in the Jilume.eifllforcoo.cts.ies.S~ree't gangs had! often about twenty supporters and r. frem wfuer. JP. the evidence from the Salford arrests suggests no strong correlation I'>etween scuttllrsg and drinking convietions. heyday each different names described pol'ice. By 1900. These 116 cases form tile 'kernel !CIt' . Patrick's Day..Maglistratesi' Court.W. Queen S:tFeet in the Greengate district of S~M()rd. ll6casd Of1. Y.R PC Hunt of Gorton. and ve. 12 Ahhough tihe S"al~or~ 'I:"lUmhOf.90. tJ In Sa1T0r. t 875~6.ng Gangs Cantemporary seurces errable us to 'compile' a profile of sel.ger Iris". ag.gms".ty.at y'ear in 'Sialf@rdI19 However.other. there were pericdic outbreaks at various points between I870 and 1~OO .ggesn gangs in 8a'JfoJ1m were those of 0:rdsalJII Lane. those which affected (Jlasg~w im 1875.s"'and places of work. pointed out in IIc876 "no stranger (i. Adult-sponsored iinst.were a decreasing proportmn of Ithe l:ocal population.et they did not hav." In facr none of the ten er S€J scuttling gangs whose "mel11be~s"ap. but dif€iel!lit Fer 'UiS 'to verify. Rather than a contlnuous problem." drunkenness and 13 percent of all arrests tll.i.itutions oadr trhmlphed after all. When.JiJobmse Ithe pelice..lycalled blue-dippers and ties. such as the 'Bengal Tiger' and the 'Forty Ruw' . in the forml of broken windows and street lamps or linJury to persons.. life and limb from scuttlers 'WaS minimal.although Victorian meddle-class opinion was highly cr.ercr0wd'ed town centre and new areas such as Regemt Road developed .re. no doubt.tlhan tif.~ferent. that gangs were often known after the 'ploodtuhs~ or beerhouses which they frequented.d a young slipper finisheref Queen $tveet in l·e·85.. $ef their boy assistants. partof gang warfare. London and New York.. the foremost contemporary eommentater on. such as Gortnn er Bradford agains1 Openshaw.). the prodnct of rivalry between DOYS of dlfferent distri.neer. B)1 19(1). There is ne evidence to suggest that all or even most scutrlers were under the Influence ofallcohol er that scuttling was the result of heavy dirinkling.. reflecting the-strong Irish element in the local po.and was F.an4 Salford witnessed no majer Irish riots such as.s' clu~ pi9. were traditierral meeting places. 'This was Irish practice lin Lancashire. Irish settlers in mal'lY 10... as what 'happened when "two organ i sed ~a!n<fs of ladS'. Of the sixty scuulers who made at least two appearances before the magistrates for street offences.olrll Ithe ov. eommuJ1l1ty . C'atmo'licS" fQugl1t Protestants. the fact that se'Uttlingwas at least fifly I{)I' shty years old.e they could launch attacks across the river on the Manchester districts of Strangeways and Angel M~adow (see map epposne). occasionally leading to death (@sin the case of Christephe« 8l'iefflel. Erven this was soon to break down into tenit@niall combat. ene of fhe unfortunate constables w'no had to run the gauntletof ithe scuttlers.e .a stone's ~hr®w acros. Charles Rus. [hi these year. two er three hl!ltlOlred might be expeeted en either stde. the law gave them very restricted sanctions and.ric:ally tleclining. e~ghteei1 had coo'O'lctrons for being drunk and disorderly . central district of Qreengate.came before the.yine.. E.istrates and the police in the 18708.e a monopely @If street-fighting. 1879-'80 and 1889-9.scuttling.g the river lrwell.analysis for tMs article. genemlly kn~wn. news reporter 'a.press comment and j101ice merhods. hut sometimes.s a rash ef more serious 'im.ainst eacl.ittliiilg.)'. 16 SCl!Ittl'ing was also referred 'tel frequently as "juvenile facaon fights". as Andrew Davies. Perhaps ene iin foul' @f the 2"35 arrested f<"r scuttling in Salfmd ill this period had Irish conrrectiens.as opposed to the muoh lar. fFeliluently in the f6rm of sltab!)ings of other juveniles.ZQ If Irislit Iactlenalism pla!yed a part h was merely eo reinforce the strong sense of terr.unlike tlte scuttle between the Irish in Gorton on St. Hope Street.fY few convicted scuttlers were bom lit Ieelano.cnl'l'icat.

Threatening b~l1av1our rather than I~neft 'Vilas the lypical feature of scuttling . at least in Salford.acltivll~y.29 . Some incli\liduah~lalifeady had eenvietions for pelty larceny be fOlie ~onvlctions for sClmUng i. who were unfortuaaje eaeugh to meeta sCllHJjng gang in the street and be identified as hostile or alien.ire ~n hishand." Of the suspects.pr@files (ilf the. Other gan.Ile(1tto the borough -sessioas . shaw scuttling aUaCKs ~o have been on irrdivlduals wilt.ts of Salford.. gi. as well as. The overall impriessiQn is that the Salford. G@rtl®n was)l fam~us. table 'legs.The Lambeth hooligans of the II 90s 8 were saic(. 'twenty-one were young men 'between . aged eighteen.ge on witnesses was a reason fer attack: "Mere's lhat Jlinlliny *** .perhaps. let .f Peter Moffatt slrro~s.ng three .) refused ~hem rnQney.rly 1'870s a weekday dinner hour was the most popular time for Jadsemployed at different works .welie 'referred It@ In abeut half the 116 'salford cases. but o~teliltl!tcy were cha~k!\ged wiln phrases such as "Het·c' s one ef therrs!" or "Are yon ene of the' *:1. A group of girls might . as Tine role of girls in scutttlng IS oyerk)~kedl at our peril.perhaps Ito gain a lighter sentence -but He bad been seen with a kn. . Manchester's Gor~(m House was opened as a memoria] to him b~' lDe\liifle and othera in 1881t24 'Bu. Moffatt was born .to pick pockets. although most frequent in fine Weather such as the glorious June of 1. and these of itheir peer group.. IloitT'Re.~6 However. Such arrangements. M@ffatt denied Ire was the leader of the Ordsall Lane.3SeS. but stab-wounds provoked retaliation as the career D.gactivi.addiltionaicharge of 'theft. . Of the remainil1g ten. he was already known La the pollice wlilen.oo'ly seven of the nil1ety-'One sent in 1889-90 were fema'le.individuals. like the' Challle¥ Street [asses who. By 1879.ish to 8alf@rd: racecourse in 1887 .v@o." ThIS analysis is-also applicable to Ihe pattern of scuHliln.tempesance movemel'lt eamJilai~ned to reduce their number. cart -shaf's. H~w~¥er.)!.a'l a besiege a particular house.ma~ter town Centre gangs llike Brown Street. MFS Allen j. Moffatt had 'Onlyjust fueeflilieleased frem $lf<lng. only twenty out of 23$ were girls.sordedy eonduct. Hulm~ ~ incl. He was sentenced to nine monms' hard Iabour. Instead their offences were mainly those lof the comffiulilil. namely drunkenness and stJeetdisturban6es. This was _perJilaps. s'uch James Ashto:n.e m:unbeFs of gangs by members )01' anether gang". woundililg. 'of assault. however. Of those arrested.gang and received four stabwounds with a . Allhnar'k.iii! 8nHtlinig Was an all." Moffatt was stabbed three times andl kicked. girls wer~ a major cause of scuttles -as.. than petty 'larceny or theft. limlsy Moffatt was carrying a knife." A. were likened to 'Imdlians' .g~rls.and was. si1lgl.ngs with tll-!'e o1bs:er~a~iOlil that: "generalty violence is ~isited oil..ir careers. as :otm. '011 arrival.the name taken b. teld the Home !Secretary in: 1890 that -~h~ presence of 'their women' clid mucn toaggraviHe .y at large. something wh'ic~ has not been Jjl@ssH"I~here.' In thilS one career we can see bmw the use of kni yes escalated both !he vielence and -its censequences and unleashed a vendetta. Howev-er. They might l1e!p to bring up-reinfercernents.fH:teen and twentyone. gang . ahQ seventeen. contributor to the beys' horne movement.their lads·. There were thirty-four individual victims (other nhan polleemen) of scutuing . . at di.tls alse took part in the -scuttles and would take' off their dogs te nght other gangs or to prevent policemeu from making an arrest.itself. in Aprill l890 POi tile falrground ln 'Ori<i1sa:lI Lane" he was told that he was wanted b~ -some men in a Ibeerhouse in Ho~e S~l1eet. 'afie knives in about onethird.ir shawls. Pendleton. A pitched lbattle between the Hope Street and Ordsall Lane gangs.ecretary was told that sGuttier's did not rob shops. Leresche.rd~salJLane.Y aHac'Ks lOll . or S~l.21 S0l111etfmes g. without an. became too easy a target for police 'interference. tlel'ts and knives".at the agy ef nineteen.~heviolence. well as weekend scuttles.~5 Sometimes: scuttlers.. Of ~he thirty-three identlfiable members or associates ofthe 'Lane' gang. according to ene detective.scnt back to prison wilb a three-month sentence . the peak of scuttling in 188J)-9Q in Salford led to mid-week as.. so 'the scuttlers Changed! their times. The use of knives rarely led to even serrous wounding. then rt@ook place in Hampson Street.JiJ scuttling charges in Salfocd between 1885 and 1900 were confined te the charges. he was attacsed by "about thirty young lTI~fl" wllo Hearne rushing out of the place armed with .~yers against iron meutders. OJ 6 Belts -~he typicalseutjling weapons.udi.889. In . A labourer of no fixed abode.aJ'cme @eatb. received a nlhree~month 1 sentence for assauttirrg PC Chapman lil1June 189. a reflectionof the move to the suburbs and perhaps even heralded fhe eventual wealllening of scutdiil'lg. Jerome Caminada observed fhat they lDo~h screened and perjured themsel Yes for .eways when.ffal@ Bill's' .)f Pimblott Street.iity of some juvenile gangs in the midn'ineteeliltih .. In th~ ea. Victlims always claimed 10" ltJeinnocent of any pan iii! the scuttling. Mahdil' ~ at!! Mefph'i g~ng perhaps impFessed by the Sudanese conqueror of General Gordon Khartoum 'in t88i:l-$.anether dangerous andendlangere€l species.. sluc'has 'The. was attacked by the 'Lane' .n 1889:"'90.glory in 'Street fighting. when twelve cases @f scuttling occ'Ufl'ed ililS:allford.~8~mthe Horne S. accompanied by three others. twenl}Hbree lived ~nstreets which ran either diH~c.gs'had interestil!l!gl~ t@picaI names. six lived across Regent's Bridge in. WaS stru'c~k the face and had' her in shawl 'sna1che~.-year-iround. fuewas fined for bei/ilg drunk and drsorderly in Otdsallll Lane ilil May 1889.illl alford in S 18:70. more scunless WeF'¢ found to have cemmttted street offences.0.gatrlgs in ~wen'y-eight of the I I (j scuttling cases in 'Salfarrl between 11885 and I'900.y the gang in Chaney Street" Pendleton . Of these.t)i. Such dispersal may' aceount for the man. 1 The ~~tenl of crlrninality among the scuttlers' leaders could omly be establis:ned by developing.no dOlJbt resulted from Ithe Wild West Show's ".!:. two .' for JjlFeventingher daughter from going eut with a gang.courtship bondsmight well stray outside a gang's territory 'into that of another. In nne dock.. Within thFee weeks he was 'foundgullty of the malicious wounding of John AUmark in OMlfield Road.. Sanders.Itherlll. maTnely street ~ambllng" disorderly conduct ancli sleeping out __:_ wi~h a ~ittrepetty larceny to boot.oc~et"knif~ for wJhi:6hhe was treated in Salford Hospital. !!I nti I the polrce arrived. However. $aturday evenings and Sunday aftemoons had become popular.()elil~ury. scuttlers were not a cpiminal fraterlllt'¥. 11 stipendiary magistrate.dy @r ai one remove into o. aged seventeen and Edward Lavin. Moffatt was never again "rn~~. conctudes his discussion @f cl'>nnrct between }:omth ga. Admitted!'y they only made up a minority of scutelers. while of those imprisoned or .st~d scuttling.er gangs tried] to selze on ()Ul~ying members as they passed through enemy territory. an eminent US crtminologjst. Some studies of urban juvenile gangs have found theft te be a premlnenr feature of Iheir activities.irls concealed weapons under the. aged seventeen.2~ Another s·uch case of attacking a house and assaulting the weman inside ga:ve three-girls already known to the police fourteen days:' halld 'labOUF November 1890-.and tl1~ Other four Iieed in d~Ffetel1U jJat. PiekilTlgpockets was the main activ.in $a~fQtd.. Only The newer gangs such as Ordsall Lane and Hepe Street showed a more dispersed 'residence pattern tnan the). although hiS for si-ster Margaret. had "a regular whoop".

'in IS90and .ion rather than conviction fQr petty offences. Gillis and Humphries have emphasised interactfon between pglice and ueban youth as a fae!tQf leading to increased juvenile delin.Hampson Street. although scunling acceunted f0t 25\per cel'lil of juvenilearrests ifIiI 1889 and 28"per cent In 1890. . The pianist at the Custom Rou&<fHotet in Chapel Sl~reet was knocked off her stool ~y a .3() policemen 111 Salford had :otl1er concerns in their task of policing a PQPulationQf nearly 20®.ing of Bkmingham's sloggers. Usually thei!!' injuries Were the direct result of JlllaJ(iing an a!Crest and dragging the prisoner back to. If ~he police had been more. Horrocks that got Gallagher fourteen days". at least two.'>orkeeper of the Prince of Wales Theatre' in biverpoo~ Street was set lupon wi~hoUitany apparent cause. determlned they W01!dd have' employed lal'ger numbers of officers tllarresl larger numbers ef'seuttlers.rderly ibelilavciioUF. . twiceas many juven~tes as before were arrested bl Salford. reaching. The Salfol1d police fQrce WaS augmented by a further thirty officers.ed because the scuttless-seem merelyte have been in that moed.the power to flog the sCl. . more . and one Or two lecal constables ratber than an 'all-out war.mpany' or going out with boys from :other areas." FollQwing the Summary Jurisdiction Act of (879.uns'uccessfu)'ly . so toe were -a deaf and dumb man and an old woman.four Wefe arrested for drunk and diso.n FuefuHy fema~~ to Police Superintendent Donohue. jus~ when mag.tAe siteo! a famous scuttle between the Hope Stree~ ana OtdsaN Lane &angs in ." SIlQpkeeJ)ers mi. scuu1ing llrrests. only five per cent. The watch commlttee gave financial rewards to. were aUa~k.f twentY' youths .quene~ -a't least in the guises of vielence and anti-f>O'cia' be:haviour. In sixteen €asessome nineteen policemen were .is~rates were annoo with mere liberal sentencing. which may have been more eyidenf.ever. this sense :of Co. Both Acts had a lil\l~ra~l'ising effeot th~one allowing' adrnonlt. Th~ dl. So ~hey put up their .ght be victims of threatening behavleu«. exaggerated lin SalfQrd's.lX Ho''j}'ever." In n~ne of these cases did scuttlers try.alysis.a tiype.Jl Of the tl1irli)'" four ii'ndividoa~ victims fiv~ were girls.lng maglstr.lttlers. complained vociferously' ~o the poliic0'.alse 'victiims of scuttling. How." He might have retorted that 3..April 1980. they wer. lead to an Increase in arrests. ~he station. be over- .shutters.ubtedly one reason. play the piano.~hafll0!le!))rW!» 'Offeniiers. ha'V'e lDeenmere of a cat-and-meuse game between a gang of youtl'ls. In one case' a polieemaa was trying t@ protect itwo young men from a gang ~f seuttlers. conflicts between sCIiIUlers and the polke.as the Home Secretary was ill formed. in court for fear of IbfacikmaU . a peak of over 350 arrests a year by 1886-89 (see Table I). in 1&9091.a. 7 An. of whom had been 'keeping co.tailed o~f thereafter to. Most of d:je rest of the victims.edemanding. fall steeply thereafter.ates the discretionary pow. As Stipendiary Malidnsa. only to. the othergh/.er to release on "recegnisance' .ppear to. unctO. -SimHarly Colonel Vincent's A:ct :of ISS7 tended to. in die handl.of probation. with scunling.4I! However. for which scuttling was. io ambush policemen as they did each other.()ijQ. those constables.n~Jlontation. peaked again lin U~93. case. ImnicaUy. should not..sheuldbe 'captured t when thlir'y or forty people were invotved. Total [uvenlle arrests. wounded or otherwiseconslpicuoi!Js in dealing.When the poHce arrived they found eight of them trY~lilgto.but rarely gave evidence.gang o.

hkinson declared his int~ntitm ef "sending scuttlers to prison'.Juvenile Arr.see Table I. especlally as the Home.unt for such large swings in the Incidence of scuttljag? In one sense.sent ninety-two scuulers nearly all male and with an average ~ge €)f Isevenrteen years.' dubs irn ItheciQt\urbation lby I!!J08. The number of arrests for scuttling which .IHling cases. 1880..4' A SMly of Oxford by Gillis fed to the cO!'lciusiolT . year's increase in . move en tl1eiboro. . Stabbfngs seem to have subsided.886 1687 of SCI.9 On:IV 1 3 280: 1. the .scuttlillg had been so "Ilappil)' grappled Wilfu..' Salt. Where there waS sufficient evidence toeonvict.ests Number of Number Of Gases}! . Salford MfJ. as reported b¥ one of Humphries' Intervieweesf" 1'he "terror" in'S'ailford Qfl889c.esM the career of Moffatt 'shows.Juvenile Arr.had risen 10 seventy-eight in 1'88& and eighty-eIght in t B90 fell ito nine' ill 189 L The' ~ota'l number of juvenile arrests fell p¥ nearly tWI'Hhi'rds jllil Salford between 1893 and 118~9(. iii) Number 01 j. 147 160 97 15 HI il 6.ord Sor. and li\unded .to the lo.restsquring the yQar !lnding 119: eptenibe~ . Secreitary WQuhj ilQte. Salford .igotten.wo months with hard labour for eommon assault. The birch was constantly thought oJ as !he vest remedy.rea'ter rufflan than before". Numbers Courl. :rM 1'894 '~895 ~44 195. faced by the "tenor" of 188. DR.g was a thing of the past In the same year iher!t was-a strong. if there was 110t open war between scuttlers alld: the police.' allt\\l.years. Salford raagistrates.as the press reported it8tipeOJdiary Magistrate t. ]IRCHAND HIS YOUNG FRIENDS. 4 12' 0 i3 no "s 6 4 1 2 0 0 12~ jl19 1167 3 0 ~ How can weacJ:..".the p~lice force. r~l'ICH.However.uthcuhute as well.ines and short gaol sentences" typicallylDetween fourteen days and ~.girls' dubs were founded.90 was. thdr Winter TQtals~ 116 4~30 263 (235i individucils) I Notes: i) These include a number idemtifiedl as scuttlin~ incidents by " and li'om local news~apefs.edltors to itryto 'restore' order to th@-stree(s..There was-ne agreement about the effect.. on thegrourrds 'that. nenewed get-tough policy bote stfOngosi!l!li:laritie& to the approach adopted in the . . OR THE WNDON CHARIVAlU.4V However.onl through clubs was a [reason for [ncseased juvenile delinquency. 'Phis. there were prQbabl:y changes withiJ1l yo.ful. S Source.g. "neal enough before Ohristma$"." In the event no mew lPoweFswere Ileed'eo as the turbutence of Salford youth su'bsided.a!th0~gh Ithere was a major 'ilil@identin Manchester in 1892 and another stabbing ." Thi!i raises an interesting question for Manchester and Satford where lads. pofice and local newspapec..888" 1889 3 t891 f89Z 1690 t89~ 1899 1891 1898' 1899' 1900 46 II 5.in Salford ill 1893.in a rush I!I'IItne late 118BO:$· on.xMnd "flogging" (the birch) 'to those over fourteen. Howeves. . Even as early as 189'1 a policeman's memoili'$ €0uM suggest that sc'Uujin. Inspector Caminada was not alone lin thinKing tmar"'dc{ll!ililg stir" merely enhaneeda youth's reputation and made him "a .ev:i:IlUS. changed .. there was an uoofflela]. Town Hall. ahh@lIgih there were thirty-ene lads.990 . scuttling was punished wider the local Pollee Act 'by [.ewlyestab1ished Borough Sessions or directly to Stralilgeways. years. 'if intermittent" alliance Iiletween watchcommittee."but could not be applied to those OII'er fourteen .uvenile ar. II) Number of cases dunng IhE!calendar yeaf. an annual event perhaps.statl~ had made ills poiot and shown its power and determ~natiOfl.-Ocron<R 2.iyepess of such treatment. Table 11:. if ufisuccess.tha't attempted insti(utj@!'Ia~isat. 7 'I :24 5 4 395' 365' &:78 32G)' 290 295 272.ough " . .estslll SCllItUIr'1. Tension-had flared wimh stabbi ngs caused b¥ pocket k!niiv. 1876-91.Ulgn. soon fOJ. tine assumption that tliley would . Scuttlillg's pattern seems to have.o. 18&5-1900 Year 18851 1." In those two.gistrates Court Records. It became more spasl110dic -.council to reverse tile PI.wv~de alternatwe 'conslFuct1tve' outlets for tne energies !}f sCIJIUlers.. eight months .

S. Many werschildren of parents who had newly moved into the cities ..sand even an lnvasion.sorder by corrtemporaries sueh as Russell and Rigby. These dubs were prime eaamplesefmlddte-class 'i(lstiMionalisat[on.ic violence and overcrowding. One explanation is simply demcgraphlc. such as. h took place ill a setting of serious urban poverty.Ai map of the {il'st lads" clubs in Manchester auelldance and Salford. domestic and pubJ. Tersitorlaliry was very powerful and was transferred to the new suburbs as they developed." Hewever. Its members were' set upon one summer evening on their return from a sports day and picnic at Talton Parle Such was their defensive mentality that .51 The unprecedented number of children passing through schoe] and into adolescence durieg the 18805 and 1890$ must itself have been a factor. per cent of the population was under twenty-four ill the . Newspapers help us to identify occupations (us'UaHy given as 'Iabeurer'j for omly a fifth of them.heloyalties of youth. bult the street battles . Street games. from gambling 10 football. but otherwise the clubs were not an aggracation of juvenile disorder.. reaching a peak of 415.t. Magistrates might urge convicted scuttlers to spend their tvenillgs gHin~ully at ~ club [father than on lhe streets.s2 ·of litis cernmenly assumed thai the scuttling tradlrion declined in th€ early twentieth century.oice!Df victim.000.es as a wllole. 55.annum ill the 18'70s. The year 1:889 was. In the years befere 'the Firsl World.w.5 in 1876. in none of the 116 Salford cases between ~885and 1900 was there a. not ene of eeonomic depression and rising unemployment. wi~hemphasis on drill and gymnastic'S . WHSonly abeut 3 . the' frequency and violence of scuttling . Ur()an depriva~ion and overcrowding ceminued..pringhall.the members lOOK heavy stones Ito their summer camp at Rossall in I'sn in case night attack.1881 census.There is evidence that they were not popular with the local "roughs".ny me!'lltiQn of lads' dubs as. They Weft part of a historically large age-cohort. War. and moreplayillg fields were provided. Police ceurts do not record the employment of those charged. 'Boy-labour' was regarded as a cause of street @li. although litwitnessed some spectacular strihes. from eBB Russell's "Manchester Boys" (J 9()5). incidenceand causes of scuttling.and net just the Irish. Mueh eludes l1!O about the panems.and street gangs continued to exert a powerful clatm on . The Adel~hl Club suffered from jeering through the wind'Q. Uniformed youth movements made some impact. perhaps with a revival in the First World War . scene of dfir~1 or reason for dl. In England and Wal." Salford D0rough had a birth rate of over 40 per thousand per .ro. . How far seuttling reflects economic problems lis hard te assess. but has been played down by more recent writers. but the working-class yowth of Manehestel' and Salford remained disadvantaged and reluctant to be dragoened.lminished. were §t'ill a 'preblem' to the police.albeit more rltualised and eceasional .9 Yet much of the environment lin which 4 it had flourished remained unaltered.

!74-6.. G:).114-S. and o.the "str~ets. Youth. Humphries. ~ndud1ng sehoel sjrikes.to have a life andl history of its 10WO. ()angs bve their own transient identIties" and ym.anall'sis in this article is derived from the author's '"lne.as alsOcdid lhe stabbing of 10hn AlhnarR. . 1875).eentury ago with ~ome of the same independence whiich It rdisplays'-today. Hi){)ligai1.. 187~1900".G . 'S Humphries. 5 March 1..JBJ9LJ'939U91H). Southern History. PR. the.. . 9 M. II November 1Se16.ite 'of all adult effoats to the contrary."ppAJ-4. Oleteafrer S. Perhaps other events of that year.. SiJcial History SOciety Bulletin.14 Salford.lhe Lancashire Dialed ~Man'ches!ef. Davies. The ages. dissertanon.8. Hie Manchester iC'ily News" 13D6eember 1879 .The club room aJihe AddpM Lads' club.arrest.which strongly 'links ~hem with the school strikes of October 1889 . C.li). Pearson..890. juvenile behavrout.'j There is !'Iotihing..nty eight were twenty~tw0 or over. "'Murrah for Engiand": Schoolingand the Workin. 6 l. pp.gang warfare toa head in 1~89 is by no means certain.artlcle 'has beep t~ emphasise the degreeof'aotonomy whiGh sCl:lttiingliehaviouF demonsteates. oneaf Paenell's lieutelilanls. Sr. IN~(Manchester . H M. . arrested scuttlers lin Sa~ford were Illnder fourteen. 1. c.rlor)! of Working Cla. 'Glossarial Notes roil the Slang of Boyhood".ineteenth Century S·alfofd and Manchester" (unpublished M.) see Table I. I ~1979). Od2J:~ and' Ends. " 10 A. Manchester Boy. Hooligan . Yet the main purpose of'this. II April 188S..contlrured -andi continues . 113 Sa~f{)rd Weekly Cfmmicie.11-1 Z.The meanage 'was eighteen.Jres: here have shewn. What broughrtheir street disorder and.. R0wle. Hooligans. The core . For we do not have the evidence to pfesume tihatjlilveniles were merely retlecting the concerns or behaviour of Itlheh parentsor their slum communities. of scuUler~ show theconunuum from childhood to adult status. in Manchester after his' escape frOnii C'lillilmel Prisen. Increased trade union activity and even the appearance and re. Empire and Society ~119TY). Charks.s4 This last may well haeve beel1 the most significant. A r.1994:)" 1>1'1'. 11980). of William O'Brien MP. Ho{)ll'guns or Rebefs? All Qr'll111l.aU helped to raise the exeiternent of lnat year ." Russett. The rrrost serinus protest about. 23 October 1'889. Hoo/jgan. NOTES (1983)". 1!870-1r9!4'. Fer many scuttling incidents must have gone unreported. 15 Manchester Reference ILibrarM Archives.p~.[. 'Youth Gangs and Urban ''fio'lence: Manches!er and Salford. Millner. Only sill.'u. uniformed organisations and Ilads' clubs. 190.. 2 3 4 II G.}. 20 Oetober 1900. ILi Uurnphr.lth behaved a. Board Sehemls had occurred in 1881. of.e dashes over school1ing.~s Childhood and '!aurk . Pelly Sessions records analyzed 'in conjunction with reports in lhe Salford Repotter.I711-Z07.g Class in Bristol. than the figJ. S Manchester Guardian (hereafter M.generosiey of B'iII Will'iams.scuttlercs·-:.f.<S.in Late N.Ed.'Spriinghall. HumphrieS.There may welt have been m0f. . Ol~arly' there was tenslon between seuttlers and the police as they competed for couteol of .[ owe: Ihls reference t@she .. Russell wasa social worker and mvestigator and Lads' Club pioneer.16.venile (rangs . If! sp. 186'4). Pearson.·p'. 51-3.losSafY (If. University of Manchestc'f.R Noda! andG.(jj .ies. Part !Dne. i\il (. " 7 East bondon AdvertiJeT.~(Manclies(eT.88'9..

. . pp. pp.in Salford District were under nineteen in .. 189). 24 14 December 1889·. $. 3:s S. p. (1908. Coming Age. I!iApril 1890. Over 46 percent of Ihe jlopulation . Hooligans.l] and r5.: The Bourgeois Century.• 1'5 June 1889 .9) -see Census or England and Wa'les. Ages. M..in Mount· Street.9-"Botougl1 of Salford. 118For a contemporary rural facrion fight ill Leughrea.3. . (OXf0fid. 28 June 1'890. J. n 'J? 1 Age: oi 11 . Rigby.W 2: November 1890.). )0 J.96. Annual R~pol1 for 19G1. 32' S. 51. pp. see SaIIt)r.. s~e.e Life.. 20@.Lads:' Clubs and Gymnasium Movement in :Mancfueste~'. p.• 26 April and' 7 lune . p . 51 Borough of Salford.•LlCS/cd 1511>M 2(1 and 2!.. Bury Times.1 Febr:uary ~880: $!1ch faction fights baw 'been found in rural f~an¢e as well as rural Ireland. 36 S. 30 January-S February :188 9.38.. Crime and the Development oj Modern Sbciej!l (1'9'7-6). See R.88~. Gillis.• II Fe~bruaty 1.. General Watch Committee . Caminada. 22 'Six new brid.161'5-1914.... 2.20)-8. '.. Hooligan». Proceedings of the Council: Medical Officer of Health.. Carninada. Hoolr'l:an.126. 49 Russell. 2'1. Ma:gFaw. .. I?P.R . }\86YJ-1960 (1986). l(jM"rch 1889. 38 JI. France . Eight constables were rewarded wi. Ireland. 1889. 1900)~ pAM..98. 11'902" Tab'le 1.G .Ilrnark was Ilatel' identified as 'one . for II slogger's complaints.. p 39 Birmingham Mail.R .l89..B. 43. upon Sarah Ann Gordon 0.. • 29 The attack WIiS.N. 198!. M .90'-1'91:4'." 5 March.[ 6S Arlington Street. 18. 52 Springhall.~. Coming oj' Adolescence in Britain. Proceedings of the Councik. Detective Lile.E.G . pp. Rook..1890. Russell and LM.Wand' Present.. 'Juvenile Delinquency". 2<l C.Afguabll)' in themselves providing new threats to letfito~. Hooligans.0'( the Hope Street gang.Elecem'bef 1890. 67 ~119V5~. R .p. July 1888 25 T. 26 January . . Watch Committee. 31 S:R .. 21 Humphries.R. Salford: A City and its Pas!' '(Salford" 1975). 4S 11.. Crimina! Life' (1890.etecliv. 50 1.l89.p. p. Bergin.in the [ate 'l8)'Os .R .31. III. 17 March.eklY News. 44 Humphries.. Twenty-Five Years 'f)j D. also C. Sanders... Pa. It897.1t S lDecem'ber 1&91. Marital Condition.. Shaw (eds. 28 June f890.Bent. scuttling cases was reponed asbeing outside a night school . po404. . October 1:887'. The Hooligan Ni~hlS (II&99)" .0cl'Ober . Devine on 'The. 40 Salford Archives.. Manchester Boys. 19. 34 W.103-6. Watch Committee Annuall Reports.43. 1.~. p. .R .. 1.B.R. . 47 See A. . R. 26 SR .1). sA.20. W January 1877.329-30. pp. 4(i. M. . 48 H. 199.('1. 54 M .G. (. I ~49). 53 Salford Borough. O.68-9 . 8 March 1890. Springhall.th!! pound or guinea each between June 1890 and June 189.G. Juvenile lJelinquency (New York. ete... 198·3).976).l(Salford.329-.G. G . ..890. 'Gillis. 'Juvenile Delinquency in England. II (Mancl1ester.• 'M. Il..1889. Humphries. S. Only one of the 116 Salford.p. 20 December 1890'. also Humphries. ll. 41 S..J. 28 SR . . LlCS/CO 151 ~M 20.8 June 188St 42 S.). Working Lads' 'Clubs. 1191. Hill.• 20 20 M.1889.d We. !0:2.18. pp. pp. n S.II:90-2..pJ5. Tcbias. 1(} December :)890'. Pearce andl S'... .R .ges werebuilt across the lrwell . . 17 January 1890. The Story of me Adelphi tManchester..iI2. . .224. 33 S.

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