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Leadership

Leadership

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Wack Leadership Study by Karel San Juan, SJ. Good stuff right here!
Wack Leadership Study by Karel San Juan, SJ. Good stuff right here!

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Published by: api-3707305 on Oct 17, 2008
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Leadership and Spirituality in Governance

Karel San Juan, SJ Xavier University 5 January 2008
1

Question
• As a leader, what makes your life challenging? • What about leadership is challenging and difficult for you?

2

LEADERSHIP in GOVERNANCE is a complex and difficult endeavor
3

Leadership is different from Management
VMGs, strategies, techniques, plans, interventions, tools  Area of MANAGEMENT Basic underlying assumptions: the unconscious, taken for granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, motivations, the “self”, relationships, culture, change management  Area of LEADERSHIP
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Leadership is different from Management
 Management follows leadership, not vice-versa  Management maintains; leadership drives, inspires, energizes  Leadership sets vision; management implements it  Management tends toward mechanical, linear, & technical approaches; leadership tends toward creativity, flexibility & adaptiveness 5

WHAT CHALLENGES OUR LEADERSHIP?
EFFECTIVENESS Achieving our goals; doing things well

KEY CHALLENGES IN LEADERSHIP
ETHICS Doing things morally; doing good things AVAILABILITY Willingness & readiness to lead; doing things with commitment 6

GOVERNANCE INVOLVES MANY THINGS
VISION MISSION GOALS OBJECTIVES STRATEGIES PROGRAMS PROJECTS ACTIVITIES TASKS

CAPABILITY-BUILDING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION STRUCTURES, SYSTEMS, RESOURCES, PROCESSES VALUES STAKEHOLDERS NETWORKS

7

Getting to this is challenging enough. We hope it is as neat as this.
VISION MISSION GOALS OBJECTIVES STRATEGIES PROGRAMS PROJECTS ACTIVITIES TASKS

CAPABILITY-BUILDING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION STRUCTURES, SYSTEMS, RESOURCES, PROCESSES VALUES STAKEHOLDERS NETWORKS

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But it is not as neat as this. This is governed by COMPLEXITY.
VISION MISSION GOALS OBJECTIVES STRATEGIES PROGRAMS PROJECTS ACTIVITIES TASKS

CAPABILITY-BUILDING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION STRUCTURES, SYSTEMS, RESOURCES, PROCESSES VALUES STAKEHOLDERS NETWORKS

9

COMPLEXITY AT DIFFERENT LEVELS
Leader’s CONTEXT AND ENVIRONMENT

Leader’s SELF

Leader’s RELATIONSHIP WITH FOLLOWERS
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The complexity of context
 Persistence of global problems: poverty, natural calamities, environment, terrorism, ethno-religious conflicts  Rapid changes: technology, knowledge & information, communications, media  Globalization vis-à-vis localization: business, livelihood, health, population
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The complexity of context
 Turbulence, chaos: magnitude of problems  More difficult to predict, control  Ambiguity & uncertainty  Tensions & contradictions  Plurality of meanings & interpretations of reality & truth  The “unconscious” in organizations
12

The organizational iceberg
VMGs, strategies, techniques, plans, interventions, tools  the visible Basic underlying assumptions: the unconscious, taken for granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, motivations, the “self”, relationships, culture, change management  the invisible
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The complexity of leader’s self
 The psychology of leaders: needs, motivations, drives, impulses, fears, emotions; conscious and unconscious  Leader’s “inner theater”/ backstage vis-à-vis outward / onstage behavior  Leader’s exposure to power and public attention
14

The dangers of power
To be big! To be powerful! This is and has always been the longing of those who are little or feel they are little… Whatever men are striving for originates from their urgent attempts to overcome the impression of deficiency, insecurity, weakness … Our guiding ideal is concretized as power over others … The striving for personal power is a disastrous delusion and poisons man’s living together (Adler, 1966)
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Childhood and power
The degree of encouragement and frustration children experience as they grow up…has a lasting influence on their perception of themselves and others and the relationships they form throughout their lives. Any imbalance between their feelings of helplessness and the degree of protective nurturing they receive from their parents will be felt as a psychological injury….[and] will feed their natural sense of impotence…they will commonly respond with feelings of rage, a desire for vengeance, a hunger for personal power, and compensatory fantasies of omnipotence.
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Childhood and power
This dynamic continues throughout life, and if it is not adequately resolved within individuals as they grow up, it is likely to be reactivated with devastating effect when they reach leadership positions and learn to play the game of power. (Kets de Vries, 1993)
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Seeking power
The person who seeks power is the one who is just exactly likely to be the one who shouldn’t have it, because he neurotically and compulsively needs power. Such people are apt to use power very badly; that is, use it for overcoming, overpowering, hurting people, or to say it in other words, they use it for their own self-gratifications, conscious or unconscious, neurotic as well as healthy. 18 (Maslow, 1998)

High power motivation in men
• Four main actions: 2. Power-oriented reading, or reading about sex, sports, aggression 3. Accumulating prestige possessions like guns, cars, credit cards 4. Participating in competitive sports 5. Belonging to and holding office in organizations - McClelland, 1975
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The dangers of narcissism
• Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g. exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements) • Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love

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• Believes that he/she is “special” and unique and can only be understood by, should associate with, other special or high status people • Requires excessive admiration • Has a sense of entitlement (i.e., unreasonable expectations of favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations)

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• Is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her expectations • Lacks empathy; is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others • Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her • Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes - American Psychiatric Association, 1994
22

Self-entitlement & self-justification
When leaders make exceptions or justifications of themselves in moral requirements Based on a claim of leaders as being “special”; hence entitled to more privileges than others

23

The complexity of leader-follower relations
 Transference trap: we project our ideals, fantasies, hopes, fears, problems on our leaders  Freud: “The patient transfers the feelings he had toward his parents as a child to the person of the physician… blows the physician up larger than life…”; all relationships are colored by previous relationships, esp. those with early caregivers  Results in uncritical & automatic loyalty, submission, fascination, seduction, a “hypnotic” effect, unrealistic expectations, dependence

24

COMPLEXITY AT DIFFERENT LEVELS
Leader’s CONTEXT AND ENVIRONMENT

Leader’s SELF

Leader’s RELATIONSHIP WITH FOLLOWERS
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Question
• How do I experience these complexities in my leadership practice? • Which ones affect me the most, and how?

26

Governance is governed by COMPLEXITY of CONTEXT, SELF, RELATIONSHIPS
VISION MISSION GOALS OBJECTIVES STRATEGIES PROGRAMS PROJECTS ACTIVITIES TASKS

CAPABILITY-BUILDING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION STRUCTURES, SYSTEMS, RESOURCES, PROCESSES VALUES STAKEHOLDERS NETWORKS

27

There are leaders who…
• Can formulate great plans, deliver great speeches, yet cannot implement due to personal and interpersonal problems • Do not practice what they preach (e.g. business, sexual ethics, family life) • Are “successful” yet addictive and alcoholic, depressed and isolated • Can exhort others to action, but afraid to take risks when their person and family interests are concerned • Cannot cope with changes in people and their environment, and will just do what they’ve always been used to 28

Underlying this are leaders’ CAPACITIES and DISPOSITIONS
VISION MISSION GOALS OBJECTIVES STRATEGIES PROGRAMS PROJECTS ACTIVITIES TASKS

CAPABILITY-BUILDING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION STRUCTURES, SYSTEMS, RESOURCES, PROCESSES VALUES STAKEHOLDERS NETWORKS

29

Capacities and Dispositions
• Capacities: range of skills, competencies, abilities, capabilities • Dispositions: underlie capacities: attitudes, stances, temperaments, inclinations, preferences; ethos, tenor, character, spirit, potential, intentionality
30

Capacities and dispositions can be…
• SELF-INDULGENT: self-centered, self-directed, feed into needs and motivations of the leader’s ego OR • SELF-TRANSCENDENT: overcomes the self, toward responding to the needs and situations of others and the world • WE HAVE TENDENCIES FOR BOTH. WE LIVE IN TENSION WITH THESE TENDENCIES.

31

Dispositions
Self-indulgent DEFENDEDNESS Defending one’s ego from knowing one’s issues of power, control, needs, drives, desires, and fears which affect one’s leadership Self-transcendent INTERIORITY Depth of self-clarity and self-awareness; discipline of reflectiveness and reflexivity; free to be authentic

32

Dispositions
Self-indulgent GRANDIOSITY Inflated view of the self, leading to selfpromotion, overconfidence, entitlement, narcissism, greed for personal power, dismissiveness of others Self-transcendent HUMILITY Openness to listen, be vulnerable, learn from, forgive, care for, accompany, be empathetic, and serve others Free to let go of power and leadership, and be a follower
33

“If you just listen, people feel better”

34

“The final test of the leader is how well his or her successor does”

35

Dispositions
Self-indulgent SELF-PRESERVATION Fear and avoidance of risks and failures, leading to passive detachment, withdrawal, overcautiousness, reluctance to exercise power & leadership, and mediocrity Self-transcendent MAGNANIMITY Generosity and courage of heart and soul, to do and to be more for others and the world Free to give and offer the self, to sacrifice, and embrace suffering and pain
36

Capacities
Self-indulgent BIAS Tendency to decide heavily-influenced (consciously or not) by personal preferences, conditionings, attachments, and shortsightedness Self-transcendent DISCERNMENT Capacity to see, choose, and decide, amid complexity and ambiguity, free from personal biases and inclinations, and based on transcendent values
37

Capacities
Self-indulgent DOMINATION Authoritarian tendency to impose one’s will regardless of others’, obstructing others’ right and freedom Self-transcendent COMPANIONSHIP Capacity to trust others, build resonance with them, work with and empower others, and be accountable for one’s actions; free from domination and transference
38

Capacities
Self-indulgent SELF-COMPLACENCY Tendency to remain in one’s self-sufficient comfort zones, roles, perspectives; and refusal to be challenged of one’s assumptions Self-transcendent SELF-INTEGRATION Capacity to question and assess one’s self, and struggle with it, embrace tensions and contradictions, toward wholeness, growth, integration
39

TRANSCENDENT LEADERSHIP
SELF-INTEGRATION (vs. SELF-COMPLACENCY) INTERIORITY (vs. DEFENDEDNESS) HUMILITY (vs. GRANDIOSITY)

DISCERNMENT (vs. BIAS)

COMPANIONSHIP (vs. DOMINATION)

MAGNANIMITY (vs. SELF-PRESERVATION)
40

Questions
• What are my tendencies toward self-indulgence and toward selftranscendence? • What pushes me toward transcendent leadership? What prevents me from transcendent leadership?
41

Leaders are not and will never be perfect. We have tendencies for both self-indulgence and self-transcendence. The objective is self-knowledge, self-understanding, self-acceptance toward self-transcendence.
42

Transcendence according to Abraham Maslow (1971)
• Entails “rising above one’s own personal will, being in charge, taking control, needing control” • “Transcenders” are drawn to the “values of Being”: perfection, truth, beauty, goodness, unity – “higher motivations” or “metamotivations” • They are devoted, in a stance of “oblation,” to tasks “outside themselves,” like vocation, duty, or “beloved jobs”

43

• They dwell in the realm of Being, or “B-realm,” where one is disposed to peak experiences, insight, conversion, illumination, & fusion with nature & the universe • They possess high levels of “perspicuity,” the capacity to see reality with the least possible “contaminating effect of the observer, & of his fears and wishes and selfish calculations,” increasing one’s capacity to see truth, goodness, & beauty, & calling forth a response of love, devotion, loyalty
44

• They transcend many things: one’s time, culture, past, pain, ego, selfishness, weaknesses, limitations, imperfections, dependency, opinions of others, basic needs, their present situation • They transcend dichotomies: the tendency to think black & white, either-or, zero-sum, we-they, polarities, mutual exclusiveness, oppositeness – toward a way of seeing oriented toward integration, synergy, unity, inclusiveness, wholeness 45

SELFTRANSCENDENCE GOES BEYOND SELFACTUALIZATION

46

Transcendence leads to freedom
 To make choices and decisions free from biases, defendedness, grandiosity, self-preservation, self-complacency, and domination  To struggle to make such free choices is the essence of transcendent leadership

47

TRANSCENDENT LEADERSHIP NEEDS A CENTER
SELF-INTEGRATION (vs. SELF-COMPLACENCY) INTERIORITY (vs. DEFENDEDNESS) HUMILITY (vs. GRANDIOSITY)

?
DISCERNMENT (vs. BIAS) COMPANIONSHIP (vs. DOMINATION)

MAGNANIMITY (vs. SELF-PRESERVATION)
48

The center of Transcendent Leadership is a RELATIONSHIP
SELF-INTEGRATION (vs. SELF-COMPLACENCY) INTERIORITY (vs. DEFENDEDNESS) Relationship with one’s Transcendence DISCERNMENT (vs. BIAS) COMPANIONSHIP (vs. DOMINATION) HUMILITY (vs. GRANDIOSITY)

MAGNANIMITY (vs. SELF-PRESERVATION)
49

Relationship with one’s Transcendence
• One’s “Transcendence” may be God, Spirit, Higher Power, soul, truth, wisdom, faith, ideology, and others that help a person transcend and be free • This relationship gives energy and inspiration, builds will and intention, demands focus, nurturing and discipline • This relationship with one’s Transcendence is what SPIRITUALITY is all about
50

Transcendence for the Christian
• All human beings experience restlessness, insatiability, contingency: we yearn for truth, love, happiness, freedom, goodness, the infinite, ultimate • Human experiences fall short: only God is infinite, absolute, unconditional, constant; only God suffices • We yearn because the Infinite is within us • Jesus Christ embodies the full potential of a human person, the Infinite God becoming human • Christian transcendence is personal relationship with Jesus 51

Spirituality is different from Religion
• Spirituality is the way in which people connect the activities of their daily lives with their wellsprings of deepest meaning • It is a relationship made possible by our:  opening to the influence of a higher power  acknowledgment of that power’s rightful place,  conscious alignment with its aims, and  assiduous cultivating of its presence. • Religion is a path to spirituality, a system of attitudes, beliefs, and practices.
(Thompson, 2000)
52

Spiritual Intelligence (SQ)
• “The central and most fundamental of all the intelligences because it becomes the source of guidance” of the other three intelligences (mental, physical, emotional)
- Stephen Covey, 2004, The 8th Habit
53

Spiritual Intelligence (SQ) [Covey, 2004] Mental (IQ)

Spiritual (SQ) Social/ Emotional (EQ)

Physical (PQ)
54

Spirituality as integral, an imperative to leadership
• “Leadership in turbulent times is spiritual” (Margaret Wheatley, 2005) • Leaders are “propelled inexorably into the realm of the spiritual” (Peter Vaill, 1998) • Spirituality is not just an option nor a fad in leadership: leadership is an inherently spiritual endeavor
55

What then is leadership about?
• Beyond mere “success”, there must be a greater goal of leadership • Such greater goals may be: to find meaning, to grow and mature, and to transcend • For both leader and follower
56

Loevinger Erikson (ego) (life cycle)
Presocial, autistic Symbiotic Impulsive Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. shame/doubt

Fowler (faith)
Pre-verbal, undifferentiated Magical, projective Mythic, linear Conventional Individual – reflexive Conjuctive faith Universalizing

Maslow (needs)
Physiological Safety

Gilligan (moral)
Selfish Care

Initiative vs. Self-protective guilt Conformist Conscientious Individualistic Autonomous Integrated Industry vs. inferiority Identity vs. role confusion Intimacy vs. isolation Generativity vs. stagnation Integrity vs.

Belongingness Universal Care Self-esteem Self-actualization Selftranscendence

Wilber (synthesis)
Egocentric Socio-centric World-centric
57

Leadership helps transform consciousness
• “Integral leaders” like Mandela, Dalai Lama, Mother Teresa, Eleanor Roosevelt, Martin Luther King, Gandhi – accessed the world-centric level of consciousness • More research shows the correlation of higher levels of consciousness, “maturity,” “character” and leadership capacity & effectiveness
58

“People work for money but die for a cause”

“70% quit their bosses, not their organizations”
59

Transcendent Leaders
SELF-INTEGRATION (vs. SELF-COMPLACENCY) INTERIORITY (vs. DEFENDEDNESS) Relationship with one’s Transcendence DISCERNMENT (vs. BIAS) COMPANIONSHIP (vs. DOMINATION) HUMILITY (vs. GRANDIOSITY)

MAGNANIMITY (vs. SELF-PRESERVATION)
60

The process of Governance can be led in Spirit by Transcendent Leaders
VISION MISSION GOALS OBJECTIVES STRATEGIES PROGRAMS PROJECTS ACTIVITIES TASKS

CAPABILITY-BUILDING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, EVALUATION STRUCTURES, SYSTEMS, RESOURCES, PROCESSES VALUES STAKEHOLDERS NETWORKS

61

Leaders, then, bring HOPE to our complex world

62

Contemporary Leadership & Ancient Spiritualities
• Contemporary leadership is learning more & more from the rich ancient spiritual traditions (Taoism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Hindu, Sufi, Confucianism) • The turbulence and complexity of the leader’s environment have led leaders to an inevitable “spiritual threshold,” which necessitates entry to the “domain of spiritual traditions” • Confucian Great Learning teaches: “If you want to be a leader, you have to be a real human being. You must recognize the true meaning of life”
63

ANNEX: IGNATIAN SPIRITUALITY AND LEADERSHIP

64

Themes in Ignatian spirituality
• • • • • The spirit of Magis and the desire for great things Spiritual pilgrimage and discernment in the journey The transformation of self toward interior freedom Engaging the world in ministry Companionship for mission

65

Ignatian spirituality as a spirituality of leadership today
• For Christians, a way of forming Christian leadership in mission • The charisms of other Catholic spiritualities: poverty, silence & solitude, proclamation of truth, monasticism, humanism • Ignatian themes are relevant now to leadership

66

Ignatian spirituality as a spirituality of leadership today
For non-Christians, a way of forming a leadership that is: MAGIS-DRIVEN TRANSCENDENT & INTEGRATING

DISCERNING

VOCATION/MISSIONCENTERED

CARING / ACCOMPANYING
67

Ignatian leadership
Magis-driven leadership
Aligning leadership energy & desire with a spirit of great-hearted generosity, magnanimity, passion, love & service for others, & excellence in everything.
68

The virtue of the sacred heart
“The most difficult work of leadership involves learning to experience distress without numbing yourself. The virtue of the sacred heart lies in the courage to maintain your innocence and wonder, your doubt and curiosity, and your compassion and love even through the darkest, most difficult moments”
(Heifetz & Linsky, 2002)
69

Magis creates moral excellence
• “Bonitas”: moral excellence, goodwill, generosity • “Probitas”: moral integrity, uprightness, probity

70

Ignatian leadership
Transcendent & Integrating Leadership
Accepting one’s self in all its strengths & contradictions, humble & courageous submission to a process of formation & conversion, governed by one’s relationship with a Transcendent
71

Leading toward “hidden wholeness”
Good leadership comes from people who have penetrated their own inner darkness And arrived at the place where we are one with one another, People who can lead the rest of us to a place of “hidden wholeness” Because they have been there and know the way
(Parker Palmer, 2000)
72

73

Ignatian leadership
Discerning leadership
Disciplined sensitivity (sentir), familiarity, & obedience to the movement & directives of the Transcendent active in one’s life & leadership, in one’s inner self & outer world, as contemplatives-in-action
74

Ignatian leadership
Vocation & mission-centered leadership
Grounding one’s leadership in a sense of one’s unique & transcendent calling for self & the world, and in the continuing search in faith that such process requires
75

Discernment and commitment
• Vocation is the place where your deep gladness meets the world’s deep need
(Frederick Buechner)

• The moment one definitely commits oneself, then Providence moves too (W. N. Murray)

76

Ignatian leadership
Caring & Accompanying Leadership
Leading united with others in common mission & journey; inspired by mutual love, friendship, accompaniment, guidance, and conversation: cura personalis, apostolica, socialis
77

Ignatian leadership today
MAGIS-DRIVEN TRANSCENDENT / INTEGRATING DISCERNING

VOCATION / MISSION-CENTERED

CARING / ACCOMPANYING
78

Spiritual formation of leaders
A spiritual practice

Spiritual direction & accompaniment

Leadership as mission, service

Community life

Individual study & reflection
79

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