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You are on page 1of 11

03-2-2007

Text: William Stalling

Chap 1-6 Assignment - To be submitted on 17-2-2007

1. Chap 2 Fundamentals

a. Problems

Q 7 What is the channel capacity for a teleprinter channel with a 300Hz bandwidth and a signal to

noise ratio of 3 dB?

We have W = 300 Hz (SNR)dB = 3

Therefore, SNR = 100.3

C = 300 log2 (1 + 100.3) = 300 log2 (2.995) = 474 bps

Q 8a A digital signaling system is required to operate at 9600 bps. If a signal element encodes a 4-bit

word, what is the minimum required bandwidth of the channel?

We have C = 9600 bps

a. log2M = 4, because a signal element encodes a 4-bit word

Therefore, C = 9600 = 2B × 4, and

B = 1200 Hz

Q 9 Study the works of Shannon & Nyquist on channel capacity. Each places an upper limit on the bit

rate of a channel based on two different approaches. How are they related?

Ans. Nyquist analyzed the theoretical capacity of a noiseless channel; therefore, in that

case, the signaling rate is limited solely by channel bandwidth. Shannon addressed the

question of what signaling rate can be achieved over a channel with a given bandwidth, a

given signal power, and in the presence of noise.

Q10 Given a channel with an intended capacity of 20 Mbps, the bandwidth of the cahnnel is 3 MHz.

What signal-to-noise ratio is required to achieve this capacity?

20 × 106 = 3 × 106 × log2(1 + SNR)

log2(1 + SNR) = 6.67

1 + SNR = 102

SNR = 101

QA 1

DKV/MET

Q11 Show that doubling the transmission frequency or doubling the distance between transmitting

antenna and the receiving antenna attenuates the power received by 6 dB.

Ans. From Equation 2.1, we have LdB = 20 log (4πd/λ) = 20 log (4πdf/ v), where λf

= v (see Question 4). If we double either d or f, we add a term 20 log(2), which

is approximately 6 dB.

Q13 If an amplifier has a 30 dB voltage gain, what voltage ratio does the gain represent?

NdB = 30 = 20 log(V2/V1)

V2/V1 = 1030/20 = 101.5 = 31.6

1. If a signal with a power level of 10mW is inserted onto a transmission line and the

measured power some distance away is 5mW, the loss can be expressed as

L dB = 10 log(10/5) = 10(0.3) = 3 dB

2. Decibels are useful in determining the gain or loss over a series of transmission elements.

Consider a series in which the input is at a low power level of 4 mW, the first lement is a

transmission line with a 12 dB loss, the second element is an amplifier with a 35 dB gain,

and the third element is a transmission line with a 10 dB loss.

Review Questions

Ans. A continuous or analog signal is one in which the signal intensity varies in a smooth

fashion over time while a discrete or digital signal is one in which the signal intensity

maintains one of a finite number of constant levels for some period of time and then

changes to another constant level.

Ans. Amplitude, frequency, and phase are three important characteristics of a periodic

signal.

QA 2

DKV/MET

2. Chap 5 Antennas

a. Review Questions

The two functions of an antenna are: (1) For transmission of a signal, radio-

frequency electrical energy from the transmitter is converted into electromagnetic

energy by the antenna and radiated into the surrounding environment (atmosphere,

space, water); (2) for reception of a signal, electromagnetic energy impinging on the

antenna is converted into radio-frequency electrical energy and fed into the receiver.

Q2. What is isotropic antenna?

An isotropic antenna is a point in space that radiates power in all directions

equally.

A parabolic antenna creates, in theory, a parallel beam without dispersion. In

practice, there will be some beam spread. Nevertheless, it produces a highly

focused, directional beam.

Q6. What is the primary cause of signal loss in satellite communication?

Free space loss.

Thermal noise is due to thermal agitation of electrons. Intermodulation noise

produces signals at a frequency that is the sum or difference of the two original

frequencies or multiples of those frequencies. Crosstalk is the unwanted coupling

between signal paths. Impulse noise is noncontinuous, consisting of irregular

pulses or noise spikes of short duration and of relatively high amplitude.

The term fading refers to the time variation of received signal power caused by

changes in the transmission medium or path(s).

QA 3

DKV/MET

Diffraction occurs at the edge of an impenetrable body that is large compared to

the wavelength of the radio wave. The edge in effect become a source and waves

radiate in different directions from the edge, allowing a beam to bend around an

obstacle. If the size of an obstacle is on the order of the wavelength of the signal

or less, scattering occurs. An incoming signal is scattered into several weaker

outgoing signals in unpredictable directions.

Fast fading refers to changes in signal strength between a transmitter and

receiver as the distance between the two changes by a small distance of about

onehalf a wavelength. Slow fading refers to changes in signal strength between

a transmitter and receiver as the distance between the two changes by a larger

distance, well in excess of a wavelength.

Flat fading, or nonselective fading, is that type of fading in which all frequency

components of the received signal fluctuate in the same proportions

simultaneously. Selective fading affects unequally the different spectral

components of a radio signal.

Space diversity involves the physical transmission path and typical refers to the

use of multiple transmitting or receiving antennas. With frequency diversity, the

signal is spread out over a larger frequency bandwidth or carried on multiple

frequency carriers. Time diversity techniques aim to spread the data out over

time so that a noise burst affects fewer bits.

b. Problems

Q 9 Assume that two antennas are half-wave dipoles and each has a directive gain of 3 dB. If the

transmitted power is 1 W and the two antennas are separated by a distance of 10 Km, what is the

received power? Assume that the antennas are aligned so that the directive gain numbers are correct

and the frequency used is 100MHz.

Ans. We have Pr = [(Pt) (Gt) (Gr) (c)2]/(4πfd)2

= [(1) (2) (2) (3 × 108)2]/[(16) (π)2 (3 × 108)2 (104)2] = 0.76 × 10–9 W

b. If the transmitter’s power is applied to a unity gain antenna with a 900 MHz carrier

frequency, what is the received power in dBm at a free space distance of 100 m?

QA 4

DKV/MET

a. From Appendix 2A, PowerdBW = 10 log (PowerW) = 10 log (50) = 17 dBW

PowerdBm = 10 log (PowermW) = 10 log (50,000) = 47 dBm

b. Using Equation (5.2),

LdB = 20 log(900 × 106) +20 log (100) – 147.56 = 120 + 59.08 +40 – 147.56 = 71.52

Therefore, received power in dBm = 47 – 71.52 = –24.52 dBm

QA 5

DKV/MET

3. Chap 6 Encoding

Q. What are the different modulations that can be used to encode digital data for transmission over

analog media?

Ans. Modulation involves operation on one or more of the tree characteristics of the carrier signal:

amplitude, frequency and phase. There are three basic encoding or modulation techniques for

transforming digital data into analog signals: Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying

(FSK) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK).

QA 6

DKV/MET

Q1. What is differential encoding?

signal elements rather than determining the absolute value of a signal element.

Cost, capacity utilization, and security and privacy are three major advantages enjoyed by

digital transmission over analog transmission.

Problems

Q6. Why should PCM be preferable to DM for encoding analog signals that represent

digitized data?

As was mentioned in the text, analog signals in the voice band that represent

digital data have more high frequency components than analog voice signals.

These higher components cause the signal to change more rapidly over time.

Hence, DM will suffer from a high level of slope overload noise. PCM, on the

other hand, does not estimate changes in signals, but rather the absolute value

of the signal, and is less affected than DM.

logical extension of QPSK.

Two different signals (carrier) are sent simultaneously with a phase shift of 90 degree with

respect to one another. Each carrier is ASK modulated. The two different signals are

simultaneously transmitted over the same medium. At the receiver, the two signals are

demodulated and the results combined to produce the original signal.

If two level ASK is used, then each of the streams can be in one of two states and the

combined stream can be in one of 4 = 2x2 states. This is essentially QPSK. If four-level

ASK is used, then the combined stream can be in one of 16=4x4 states.

QA 7

DKV/MET

QA 8

DKV/MET

Review Questions

1. What is the relationship between the bandwidth of a signal before and after it has

been encoded using spread spectrum?

The bandwidth is wider after the signal has been encoded using spread

spectrum.

(1) We can gain immunity from various kinds of noise and multipath distortion. (2)

It can also be used for hiding and encrypting signals. Only a recipient who knows

the spreading code can recover the encoded information. (3) Several users can

independently use the same higher bandwidth with very little interference, using

code division multiple access (CDMA).

With frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), the signal is broadcast over a

seemingly random series of radio frequencies, hopping from frequency to

frequency at fixed intervals. A receiver, hopping between frequencies in

synchronization with the transmitter, picks up the message.

Slow FHSS = multiple signal elements per hop;

fast FHSS = multiple hops per signal element.

With direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), each bit in the original signal is

represented by multiple bits in the transmitted signal, using a spreading code.

6. What is the relationship between the bit rate of a signal before and after it has been

encoded using DSSS?

For an N-bit spreading code, the bit rate after spreading (usually called the chip

rate) is N times the original bit rate.

7. What is CDMA?

CDMA allows multiple users to transmit over the same wireless channel using

spread spectrum. Each user uses a different spreading code. The receiver picks

out one signal by matching the spreading code.

shifts of itself. Cross-correlation is the comparison is made between two

sequences from different sources rather than a shifted copy of a sequence with

itself.

QA 9

DKV/MET

Review Questions

An error detecting code in which the code is the remainder resulting from dividing

the bits to be checked by a predetermined binary number.

Q3. Why would you expect a CRC to detect more errors than a parity bit?

The CRC has more bits and therefore provides more redundancy. That is, it

provides more information that can be used to detect errors.

Modulo 2 arithmetic, polynomials, and digital logic.

Q5. Is it possible to design an ECC that will correct some double bit errors but not all

double bit errors? Why or why not?

It is possible. You could design a code in which all codewords are at least a

distance of 3 from all other codewords, allowing all single-bit errors to be

corrected. Suppose that some but not all codewords in this code are at least a

distance of 5 from all other codewords. Then for those particular codewords, but

not the others, a double-bit error could be corrected.

An (n, k) block code encodes k data bits into n-bit codewords.

An (n, k, K) code processes input data k bits at a time and produces an output of

n bits for each incoming k bits. The current output of n bits is a function of the last

K × k input bits.

A trellis is a diagram that shows the state transitions over time in a convolutional

code.

Detection of errors and retransmission of frames that are received in error.

Go-back-N ARQ is a form of error control in which a destination station sends a

negative acknowledgment (NAK) when it receives an error. The source station

receiving the NAK will retransmit the frame in error plus all succeeding frames

transmitted in the interim.

Problems

Q1. What is the purpose of using modulo-2 arithmetic rather than binary arithmentic in

computing an FCS?

QA 10

DKV/MET

Any arithmetic scheme will work if applied in exactly the same way to the

forward and reverse process. The modulo 2 scheme is easy to implement in

circuitry. It also yields a remainder one bit smaller than binary arithmetic.

Chap 4

Problems.

Q8 . Describe UDP protocol. Why can’t a user program directly access IP?

UDP is a transport level protocol. UDP provides connectionless service fro application-

level procedures. It is basically an unreliable service, delivery and duplicate protection

are not guaranteed.. However, this reduces the overhead of the protocol and may be

adequate in many cases. For example,

- Inward data collection where loss of occasional data unit may not cause problem.

- Request-Response in transaction service where application can handle error.

- Run-time applications such as voice video involving a degree of redundancy or real-

time requirement.

UDP sits on top of IP. Because it is connectionless, UDP may have very little to do.

Essentially it adds port-addressing capability to IP.

UDP provides the source and destination port addresses and a checksum that covers the

data field. These functions would not normally be performed by protocols above the

transport layer. Thus UDP provides a useful, though limited, service.

QA 11

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