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Vertical Machining Centre (VMC)

Vertical Machining Centre (VMC)

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Published by anil chejara

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Published by: anil chejara on Oct 28, 2011
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10/30/2011

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Name: Anil Chejara

VERTICAL MACHINING CENTRE
Aim:

Roll no. : 9003022 Group no. : 5

1. To understand the working principle and application of CNC machines. 2. To able to prepare CNC part programmes for machining 2-D work pieces. 3. To understand the structure and low of a CAM system.

Background:
CNC is a soft automation and its application covers many kinds of manufacturing process. CNC may be considered to be a means of operating a machine through use of discrete numerical values fed into the machine. In CNC VMC the slides are driven by AC servo motors through recalculating ball screw & nut assemblies. The positioning information coded in CNC part program is decoded by the CNC controller and the slides is moved to the programmed position at the required feed rate. VMC is built with massive bed and column manufactured out of casting. The saddle manufactured out of fabrication. The VMC works on the G & M code feed by the user or it can also use a CAD design to operate. In this experiment we shall be using a G & M code to perform the test. The machine is assigned three arises as per the following Orientation of the machine spindle is, Table, horizontal movement = X axis Saddle, horizontal movement = Y axis Spindle carrier, vertical movement = Z axis There is a pneumatic driven Automatic Tool Changer (ATC) it consists of 12 different kinds of tools and hence multiple operations can be performed in one program. Its tools can be changed pneumatically. The machine used by us is a CHETAK 35 MC which had a CNC control system of SIEMENS-80 2D SL CNC.

CNC PART PROGRAMMING & APPLICATION:
A part program is designed to control Dimensional movement and position, rates of metal removal and speed of positioning, federate, coolant, tool changes and program stops. The command line consists of some or all of the following sequence of code: N-G-X-Y-Z-I-J-K-F-S-T-M

Where, N : for the order, G : define the motion weather the motion is liner, clockwise rotation, etc. also the origin, it is also used to define functions like thread cutting, etc. X,Y,Z : Co-ordinates I,J,K : Angular data F : feed S : spindle rotation speed T : tool turret Position M : for start, stop, etc. do not relate with the horizontal, vertical movement of the machine. Some of the codes for different operation are listed below: G90: absolute co-ordinate system G91: Relative Co-ordinates w.r.t. the previous point G70: dimension in Inches G71: dimension in millimeter G01/G02/G03: Linear, Circular Clockwise, Circular anticlockwise movement respectively G00: rapid movement M03/M04: spindle rotation start in clockwise/anticlockwise M05: spindle rotation stop M30: End of Program Fx: feed rate of x mm/rev or inch/rev (x is variable) Sy: spindle rotation of y RPM (y is variable)

Assignment Code
Assuming center is given to G54, where X- 105.995, Y- 58.825, Z- -162.328 N10 G90G17G71 N20 G54 N30 G00Z50 N40 G00Z05 N50 G01X0Y0M03S1000

N60 Z-0.5F50 N70 X50F100 N80 G03X50Y50I0J25 N90 G01X0 N100 Y0 N110 Z5 N120 Z50 N130 M05M30

Result:
The functioning of VMC machine was understood. Also, all the sub parts were also learnt. The functions of various buttons like Var, Jog, single block, cycle stop, cycle start, offset, input, etc. were studied. The given assignment coding was written and successfully compiled.

Sources of Error:
1. Human Error- error while feeding the program. 2. Since the tool used is circular and having considerable radius so we must consider the offset otherwise the actual results may vary from the required output. 3. The programme should be written in sequence other-wise error will occur.

Precautions:
1. Care should be taken while starting the program the tool must be brought very slowly to the work piece otherwise it may break. 2. Large depths of cuts are not recommended to avoid tool wear and braking. 3. Cutting fluids can be used to cool down the temperature at the cutting edge.

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