CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL
POWER SYSTEMS
MAY 2006
American Bureau of Shipping
Incorporated by Act of Legislature of
the State of New York 1862
Copyright © 2006
American Bureau of Shipping
ABS Plaza
16855 Northchase Drive
Houston, TX 77060 USA
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GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
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Foreword
Harmonics (or distortion in wave form) has always existed in electrical power systems. It is harmless
as long as its level is not substantial. However, with the recent rapid advancement of power
electronics technology, socalled nonlinear loads, such as variable frequency drives for motor
power/speed control, are increasingly finding their way to shipboard or offshore applications.
Harmonics induced by these nonlinear loads are a potential risk if they are not predicted and
controlled.
The ABS Guidance Notes for Control of Harmonics in Electrical Power Systems has been developed
in order to raise awareness among electrical system designers of the potential risks associated with the
harmonics in electrical power systems onboard ships or offshore installations. These Guidance Notes
encompass topics from the fundamental physics of harmonics to available means of mitigation to
practical testing methods. These Guidance Notes are intended to aid designers to plan an appropriate
means of harmonics mitigation early in the design stage of the electrical power distribution systems to
make the system robust and predictable.
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GUIDANCE NOTES ON
CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL
POWER SYSTEMS
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Introduction ............................................................................ 1
1 Background............................................................................1
2 The Use of Electric Drives in Marine Applications.................5
3 Main Propulsion Drives..........................................................7
4 The Future? ...........................................................................9
FIGURE 1 Input Waveforms (440 V) to 6Pulse DC SCR
Drive.............................................................................2
FIGURE 2 Linetoline Voltage (440 V) at Input to a 6Pulse DC
SCR Drive ....................................................................2
FIGURE 3 415 V Linetoline Volts on Ship with Four 1100 kW/
1500 HP AC SCR Converterfed Thruster Motors.......3
FIGURE 4 Primary Voltage (11 kV) of Transformer Supplying a
2 MW (2680 HP) Variable Frequency Drive ................3
FIGURE 5 Typical Power System Single Line Diagram for DP
Class 3 Drilling Rig.......................................................5
FIGURE 6 Electricallydriven Podded Propulsor...........................8
FIGURE 7 Dynamicallypositioned Shuttle Tanker Equipped
with AC Electric Variable Speed Main Propulsion
and Thrusters...............................................................8
SECTION 2 The Production of Harmonics............................................. 11
1 Production of Harmonics .....................................................11
2 Characteristic Harmonic Currents........................................15
3 Effect of Harmonic Currents on Impedance(s) ....................19
4 Calculation of Voltage Distortion..........................................20
5 Harmonic Sequence Components.......................................22
6 Line Notching.......................................................................22
7 Interharmonics .....................................................................25
8 Subharmonics......................................................................27
TABLE 1 Harmonic Sequence Components for 6Pulse
Rectifier ......................................................................22
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FIGURE 1 Voltage and Current Waveforms for Linear Load ......11
FIGURE 2a Single Phase Full Wave Rectifier...............................11
FIGURE 2b Load and AC Supply Currents ...................................11
FIGURE 3a Simple Single Line Diagram......................................12
FIGURE 3b Load Current and Volt Drop Waveforms....................12
FIGURE 4 How Voltage Distortion is Produced (Simplified) .......12
FIGURE 5 Typical Computer Nonlinear Load .............................13
FIGURE 6 Singlephase Switched Mode Power Supply.............13
FIGURE 7 Harmonic Spectrum of Currents Drawn by
Computer Switched Mode Power Supply ..................14
FIGURE 8 Construction of Complex Wave .................................14
FIGURE 9 Computer Power Supply with Singlephase Full
Wave Bridge Rectifier ................................................16
FIGURE 10 Computer SMPS Input Current Waveform ................16
FIGURE 11 Typical Waveform from Computer Switched Power
Supply ........................................................................17
FIGURE 12 Typical 6Pulse PWM AC Drive .................................17
FIGURE 13 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveforms
for One Phase............................................................18
FIGURE 14 Typical Harmonic Spectrum for 6Pulse AC PWM
Drive...........................................................................18
FIGURE 15 Distorted Currents Induce Voltage Distortion ............19
FIGURE 16 How Individual Harmonic Voltage Drops Develop
Across System Impedances ......................................19
FIGURE 17 Simple Threephase SCR Bridge for Phase
Control........................................................................23
FIGURE 18 Exaggerated Example of “Line Notching” ..................23
FIGURE 19 Voltage Notching due to SCR Bridge
Commutation..............................................................24
FIGURE 20 SCR Line Notching and Associated “Ringing” ...........24
FIGURE 21 Cycloconverter Current Spectrum – Includes
Interharmonics ...........................................................25
FIGURE 22 Waveform Containing both Harmonics and
Interharmonics ...........................................................26
FIGURE 23 Peak Voltage Deviations due to Interharmonics
Voltage.......................................................................27
SECTION 3 Effects of Harmonics........................................................... 29
1 Generators ...........................................................................29
1.1 Thermal Losses...............................................................29
1.2 Effect of Sequence Components.....................................30
1.3 Voltage Distortion............................................................30
1.4 Line Notching and Generators.........................................32
1.5 Shaft Generators.............................................................33
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2 Transformers........................................................................33
2.1 Thermal Losses............................................................... 33
2.2 Unbalance, Distribution Transformers and Neutral
Currents .......................................................................... 34
2.3 Transformer Derating or Kfactor Transformer ................ 34
3 Induction Motors ..................................................................36
3.1 Thermal Losses............................................................... 36
3.2 Effect of Harmonic Sequence Components .................... 37
3.3 Explosionproof Motors and Voltage Distortion............... 38
4 Variable Speed Drives .........................................................39
5 Lighting ................................................................................41
5.1 Flicker ............................................................................. 41
5.2 Effects of Line Notching on Lighting................................ 42
5.3 Potential for Resonance.................................................. 42
6 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS).................................42
7 Computers and Computer Based Equipment ......................43
8 Cables..................................................................................45
8.1 Thermal Losses............................................................... 45
8.2 Skin and Proximity Effects .............................................. 45
8.3 Neutral Conductors in Fourwire Systems....................... 47
8.4 Additional Effects Associated with Harmonics ................ 48
9 Measuring Equipment ..........................................................48
10 Telephones ..........................................................................51
11 Circuit Breakers ...................................................................51
12 Fuses ...................................................................................52
13 Relays ..................................................................................52
14 Radio, Television, Audio and Video Equipment ..................53
15 Capacitors............................................................................53
FIGURE 1 Equivalent Circuit for a Generator .............................31
FIGURE 2 Low Pass Filter for Generator AVR Sensing on
Nonlinear Loads.........................................................33
FIGURE 3 Typical Transformer Derating Curve for Nonlinear
Load ...........................................................................35
FIGURE 4 Proposed NEMA Derating Curve for Harmonic
Voltages .....................................................................38
FIGURE 5 AC PWM Drive Current Distortion on Weak
Source........................................................................40
FIGURE 6 PWM Drive “Flat Topping” due to Weak Source........41
FIGURE 7 Voltage “Flat Topping” due to Pulse Currents ...........43
FIGURE 8 Effect of DC Bus Voltage with Flat Topping...............43
FIGURE 9 Flat Topping Reducing Supply Ridethrough.............44
FIGURE 10 Cable AC/DC Resistance, k
c
as a Function of
Harmonic Numbers....................................................46
FIGURE 11 4/0 AWG Cable – Proximity and Skin Effect due to
Harmonics..................................................................47
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FIGURE 12 12 AWG Cable – Proximity and Skin Effect due to
Harmonics..................................................................47
FIGURE 13 Peak and rms Values of Sinusoidal Waveform..........49
FIGURE 14 Difficulties Conventional Meters Have Reading
Distorted Waveforms .................................................49
SECTION 4 Sources of Harmonics......................................................... 55
1 Distribution Systems with Singlephase Nonlinear
Loads ...................................................................................55
1.1 Threewire Distribution Systems......................................55
1.2 Fourwire Distribution Systems........................................55
2 Singlephase Nonlinear Loads.............................................58
2.1 Computerbased Equipment............................................58
2.2 Fluorescent Lighting........................................................60
2.3 Televisions ......................................................................64
2.4 Singlephase AC PWM Drives.........................................64
3 Threephase Nonlinear Loads .............................................65
3.1 DC SCR drives................................................................66
3.2 AC PWM drives...............................................................70
3.3 AC Cycloconverter Drives ...............................................76
3.4 AC Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) ...............................84
4 Additional Threephase Sources of Harmonics ...................90
4.1 Rotating Machines...........................................................90
4.2 Transformers...................................................................90
4.3 UPS Systems ..................................................................91
4.4 Shaft Generators.............................................................92
FIGURE 1 Fourwire System Linear Phase Currents Return
via Neutral Conductor where Balanced Phase
Current Cancel Out ....................................................56
FIGURE 2 Triplen Harmonics Add Up Cumulatively in Neutral
Conductors with Singlephase Nonlinear Loads in
Fourwire System.......................................................56
FIGURE 3 Neutral Current due to Triplen Harmonics (150 Hz
for 50 Hz Supply) on Fourwire System.....................57
FIGURE 4 Harmonic Spectrum Associated with Neutral
Current Waveform Shown in Figure 3 .......................57
FIGURE 5 Typical Switched Mode Power Supply for
Computer Based Equipment......................................58
FIGURE 6 Typical Voltage and Current Waveforms
Associated with a Switched Mode
Power Supply.............................................................59
FIGURE 7 Harmonic Current Spectrum of Typical Switched
Mode Power Supply  I
thd
is 128%..............................59
FIGURE 8 Typical Neutral Current due to Triplen Harmonics
in Connected Loads on a Fourwire System..............60
FIGURE 9 Waveforms for Lighting Panel Comprising
Fluorescent Lighting with Magnetic Ballasts
and T12 Lamps.........................................................61
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FIGURE 10 Neutral Current Waveform on Distribution Panel
with Fluorescent Lighting with Magnetic Ballasts
and T12 Lamps on a Fourwire System...................61
FIGURE 11 Same Lighting Panel as per Figure 9, but with
Electronic Ballasts (Instead of Magnetic Types)
and T8 Lamps...........................................................62
FIGURE 12 Neutral Current Waveform on Same Fluorescent
Lighting Panel as Figure 10, but with Electronic
Ballasts and T8 Lamps on Fourwire System...........62
FIGURE 13 Comparison of Phase Current Harmonic Spectrum
for Magnetic and Electronic Ballasts for Typical
Fluorescent Lighting Distribution Panel
I
thd
was 12.8% and 16.3%, Respectively ...................63
FIGURE 14 Comparison of Neutral Current Harmonic Spectrum
for Magnetic and Electronic Ballasts for Typical
Fluorescent Lighting Distribution Panel
I
thd
was 171.28% and 44%, Respectively ..................63
FIGURE 15 Television – Typical Current Waveform.....................64
FIGURE 16 Television – Typical Harmonic Current Spectrum.....64
FIGURE 17 Singlephase AC PWM Drive – Typical I
thd
is 135%......................................................................65
FIGURE 18 Singlephase AC PWM Drive Current Spectrum.......65
FIGURE 19 Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive with Shuntwound
DC Motor....................................................................66
FIGURE 20 Concept of “Constant Torque” and “Constant Power”
with DC Shuntwound Motors ....................................67
FIGURE 21 Typical Dual Converter for DC Shuntwound
Motor ..........................................................................68
FIGURE 22 Concept of “Four Quadrant Control” for DC Motors
and Dual Converters..................................................68
FIGURE 23 Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive Current Waveform
at 100% Load.............................................................69
FIGURE 24 Harmonic Current Spectrum of Typical 6Pulse DC
SCR Drive at Rated Load ..........................................69
FIGURE 25 Typical AC PWM Drive Block Diagram......................70
FIGURE 26 Pulsed Nature of AC PWM Drive Input Current.........71
FIGURE 27 Typical AC PWM Drive Output (Inverter) Bridge
Configuration..............................................................72
FIGURE 28 Basic Principle of Pulse Width Modulation ................72
FIGURE 29a AC Motor/PWM Drives Standard Speed/Torque
Characteristics ...........................................................73
FIGURE 29b AC Motor/PWM Drives Standard Speed/Power
Characteristics ...........................................................74
FIGURE 30 Input Current – 150 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% DC
Bus Reactor – I
thd
= 39.23%.......................................75
FIGURE 31 Harmonic Current Spectrum of 150 HP AC PWM
Drive with 3% DC Bus Reactor – I
thd
= 39.23%.........75
FIGURE 32 SinglephasetoSinglephase Cycloconverter ..........76
FIGURE 33 Waveforms for SinglephasetoSinglephase
Conversion.................................................................77
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FIGURE 34 Threephase 6Pulse Cycloconverter ........................79
FIGURE 35 Simplified Connection of Intergroup Reactor on One
Phase of Circulating Current Cycloconverters...........80
FIGURE 36 Waveforms for Blocking Mode Cycloconverters........80
FIGURE 37 Waveforms for Circulating Current Mode
Cycloconverters .........................................................81
FIGURE 38a Input Current Associated with a 20 MW, 12Pulse
Cycloconverter ...........................................................82
FIGURE 38b Harmonic Current Frequency Spectrum Associated
with a 20 MW, 12Pulse Cycloconverter....................82
FIGURE 39 2Pulse Cycloconverter with Threephase
Synchronous Motor....................................................83
FIGURE 40 Harmonic Spectrum of 12Pulse Cycloconverters
Including Interharmonic Sidebands............................84
FIGURE 41 Typical 6Pulse ASCI CSI Inverter with a Squirrel
Cage Induction Motor.................................................85
FIGURE 42 Output Voltage Commutation Spikes – CSI with
Squirrel Cage Induction Motor ...................................85
FIGURE 43 12Pulse Load Commutated Inverter with
Synchronous Motor....................................................86
FIGURE 44 12Pulse Load Commutated Inverter with Squirrel
Cage Motor and Output Filter ....................................87
FIGURE 45 Output Voltage of LCI with Synchronous Motor or
Squirrel Cage Motor with Output Filter ......................87
FIGURE 46 Six Step Square Wave Current – LCI with
Synchronous Motor....................................................88
FIGURE 47 Input Waveform of 6Pulse Load Commutated
Inverter .......................................................................89
FIGURE 48 Harmonic Spectrum Associated with a 6Pulse
Load Commutated Inverter ........................................89
FIGURE 49 Input Voltage and Current Waveforms of 6Pulse
37.5 kVA, 480 V, 60 Hz UPS.....................................91
FIGURE 50 Harmonic Input Current Spectrum for 6Pulse
37.5 kVA, 460 V, 60 Hz UPS.....................................91
FIGURE 51 Traditional Shaft Generator System...........................92
FIGURE 52 Inverter Output Voltage Waveform............................93
SECTION 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor ............................... 95
1 Power Factor in Systems with Linear Loads Only...............95
2 Power Factor in Power System with Harmonics..................95
3 How the Mitigation of Harmonics Improves True Power
Factor ...................................................................................97
FIGURE 1 Power Factor Components in System with Linear
Load ...........................................................................95
FIGURE 2 Power Factor Components in System with
Harmonics..................................................................96
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SECTION 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion.... 99
1 Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion (V
thd
) ..............................99
2 Total Harmonic Current Distortion (I
thd
) and Reduced
Loading ................................................................................99
2.1 AC PWM Drives .............................................................. 99
2.2 DC SCR Drives ............................................................. 102
2.3 Load Commutated Inverters.......................................... 103
2.4 Cycloconverters ............................................................ 103
2.5 Conclusion: Harmonic Current Magnitude and its
Effect on Voltage Distortion........................................... 105
FIGURE 1 Typical 6Pulse PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line
Reactor) at 100% Load – I
thd
Measured at 37.5%....100
FIGURE 2 Typical Harmonic Spectrum of AC PWM Drive
(with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 100% Load – I
thd
Measured at 37.5%..................................................100
FIGURE 3 Typical AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor)
at 30% Load – I
thd
Measured at 65.7%. ...................101
FIGURE 4 Typical Harmonic Spectrum of AC PWM Drive
(with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 30% Load – I
thd
Measured at 65.7%..................................................101
FIGURE 5 6Pulse DC Drive at 70% Loading – I
thd
is 35.1%....102
FIGURE 6 Harmonic Current Spectrum of 6Pulse DC Drive
at 70% Loading – I
thd
is 35.1%.................................103
FIGURE 7 Multiple 6Pulse Cycloconverters Input Current
and Voltage Harmonic Spectrums at Low Output
Frequency/Low Load ...............................................104
FIGURE 8 Multiple 6Pulse Cycloconverters Input Current
and Voltage Harmonic Spectrums at High Output
Frequency/High Load...............................................104
SECTION 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on
Harmonics........................................................................... 107
1 “Stiff” and “Soft” Sources ...................................................107
2 Illustrations of the Effect of kVA and Source Impedance
Harmonics.........................................................................108
3 Parallel Generator Operation and Calculation of
Equivalent Short Circuit Ratings........................................116
TABLE 1 Variation of I
thd
and V
thd
with Variation of kVA and
Impedance (or X
d
″)...................................................115
FIGURE 1a 2000 kVA and 5.2% Impedance – I
SC
/I
L
= 33.3:1,
I
thd
= 24.2%, V
thd
= 4.7%...........................................108
FIGURE 1b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2000 kVA/
5.2% Impedance Source with 950 HP AC PWM
Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load .......................109
FIGURE 2a 2000 kVA and 14% Subtransient Reactance
I
SC
/I
L
= 29.1:1, I
thd
= 19.1%, V
thd
= 9.8%..................110
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FIGURE 2b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2000 kVA/
14% Subtransient Reactance Source with
950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW
Linear Load ..............................................................111
FIGURE 3a 4000 kVA and 5.2% Impedance – I
SC
/I
L
= 67.1:1,
I
thd
= 27.1%, V
thd
= 2.7%...........................................112
FIGURE 3b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 4000 kVA/
5.2% Impedance Source with 950 HP AC PWM
Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load .......................113
FIGURE 4a 4000 kVA and 14% Subtransient Reactance
I
SC
/I
L
= 26.6:1, I
thd
= 22.9%, V
thd
= 5.8%...................114
FIGURE 4b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 4000 kVA/
14% Subtransient Reactance Source with
950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW
Linear Load ..............................................................115
FIGURE 5 Paralleling of Generators .........................................116
FIGURE 6 Example of Paralleled Generators...........................117
SECTION 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage
Distortion............................................................................ 119
1 Balanced Systems .............................................................119
2 Unbalanced Systems.........................................................119
2.1 Definition of Voltage Unbalance ....................................120
2.2 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Rotating
Machines.......................................................................121
2.3 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Harmonics ................123
2.4 Voltage Unbalance and Multipulse Drives and
Systems.........................................................................125
2.5 Background Voltage Distortion and Multipulse Drives
and Systems..................................................................127
2.6 The Effect of Voltage Unbalance and Background
Voltage Distortion Using Software Modeling .................128
2.7 Drive Mitigation – Unbalance and Background
Voltage Distortion..........................................................134
TABLE 1 Variation in I
thd
and V
thd
with Voltage Unbalance
and Preexisting Voltage Distortion .........................134
FIGURE 1 Balanced System.....................................................119
FIGURE 2 Unbalanced System.................................................119
FIGURE 3 Symmetrical Components of an Unbalanced
System.....................................................................120
FIGURE 4 Reduction of Insulation Life with Temperature ........122
FIGURE 5 Derating on Induction Motors of Unbalanced
Supplies ...................................................................123
FIGURE 6 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current
Waveform on Balanced Voltages.............................124
FIGURE 7 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current
Waveform on 5% Voltage Unbalance......................124
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FIGURE 8 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current
Waveform on 15% Voltage Unbalance....................124
FIGURE 9 Harmonic Spectrum of 6Pulse AC PWM Drive on
Unbalanced Voltages (Fundamental Component
Removed).................................................................125
FIGURE 10 Unbalance and the Effect on 12Pulse Drives.........126
FIGURE 11 Unbalance and the Effect on 18Pulse Drives.........126
FIGURE 12 Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on
18Pulse AC PWM Drive..........................................127
FIGURE 13a No Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
–
I
thd
= 5.2%, V
thd
= 4.9%.............................................129
FIGURE 13b Voltage and Current Waveforms No Voltage
Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
...............................129
FIGURE 14a 2% Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
–
I
thd
= 14.5%, V
thd
= 5.2%...........................................130
FIGURE 14b Voltage and Current Waveforms 2% Voltage
Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
...............................130
FIGURE 14c Threephase Current Waveforms 2% Voltage
Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
...............................131
FIGURE 15a No Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
–
I
thd
= 10.9%, V
thd
= 6.2%...........................................131
FIGURE 15b Voltage and Current Waveforms No Voltage
Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
..............................132
FIGURE 16a 2% Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
–
I
thd
= 18.5%, V
thd
= 6.0%...........................................132
FIGURE 16b Voltage and Current Waveforms 2% Voltage
Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
..............................133
FIGURE 16c Threephase Current Waveforms 2% Voltage
Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
..............................133
SECTION 9 Resonance.......................................................................... 135
1 What is Resonance?..........................................................135
2 The Conditions under which Resonance Occurs ..............135
2.1 Series Resonance......................................................... 135
2.2 Parallel Resonance....................................................... 136
3 Prevention of Resonance ..................................................137
3.1 The Effect of Adding a Detuning Reactor...................... 139
4 Possibilities of Resonance on Vessels and Offshore
Installations........................................................................140
FIGURE 1a Series Resonance....................................................135
FIGURE 1b Parallel Resonance..................................................135
FIGURE 2 Series Resonance Frequency Response ................137
FIGURE 3 Typical Industrial Drive Application where
Resonance is Possible.............................................138
FIGURE 4 Simplified Connection of Detuning Reactor to
Capacitor Bank ........................................................139
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SECTION 10 Mitigation of Harmonics.................................................... 141
1 Effect of Phase Diversity on Harmonic Currents ...............141
2 Effect of Linear Load on Harmonic Currents .....................142
3 Mitigation of Harmonics on Threewire Singlephase
Systems .............................................................................143
3.1 Phase Shifting ...............................................................143
3.2 Active Filtering...............................................................144
4 Mitigation of Harmonics on Fourwire Singlephase
Systems .............................................................................144
4.1 Zero Sequence Mitigation of Triplens on Fourwire
Singlephase Systems...................................................144
4.2 Active Filters for Fourwire Systems..............................146
5 Standard Reactors for Threephase AC and DC
Drives.................................................................................147
5.1 Reactors for AC PWM Drives........................................148
6 AC Line Reactors for DC SCR Drives and AC Drives
with SCR Input Rectifiers...................................................153
7 Special Reactors for Threephase AC and DC Drives ......156
7.1 Wide Spectrum Filters ...................................................156
7.2 Duplex Reactors............................................................160
8 Passive LC Filters.............................................................166
9 Transformer Phase Shifting (Multipulsing) .......................171
9.1 Doublewound Isolating Transformer Phase Shift
Systems.........................................................................172
9.2 Polygonal Nonisolating Autotransformer Phase Shift
Systems.........................................................................173
9.3 The Effect of Voltage Unbalance on Phase Shift
Performance..................................................................175
9.4 The Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on
Phase Shift Performance...............................................177
10 Transformer Phase Staggering (Quasi Multipulse)
Systems .............................................................................178
11 Electronic Filters ................................................................179
11.1 Active Filters..................................................................179
11.2 Hybrid ActivePassive Filters.........................................185
12 “Active Front Ends” for AC PWM Drives............................188
TABLE 1 Estimated Harmonic Current Distortion Using
Quasi24Pulse Phase Staggering System .............179
FIGURE 1 Harmonic Voltage Data to 50
th
Harmonic with
Respective Phase Angle Information.......................142
FIGURE 2 Phase Shifting of Threewire Nonlinear Loads ........143
FIGURE 3 Fourwire System with Nonlinear Loads..................144
FIGURE 4 Operation of a Zero Sequence Transformer............145
FIGURE 5 Zero Sequence Transformer on Fourwire
System.....................................................................145
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FIGURE 6 Zero Sequence Transformer and Combined Phase
Shift Transformer with ZST to Cancel Triplen and
5
th
and 7
th
Harmonic Currents..................................146
FIGURE 7 Block Diagram of Active Filter on Fourwire
Application................................................................147
FIGURE 8 Circuit Diagram of Standard 6Pulse AC PWM
Drive.........................................................................148
FIGURE 9 Variation of Harmonic Currents with AC Line
Reactance Only .......................................................150
FIGURE 10 DC Bus Reactance Only in AC PWM Drive.............152
FIGURE 11 Variation in 5
th
Harmonic Current for Differing
Values of AC Line Reactance and DC Bus
Reactance................................................................153
FIGURE 12 Primary and Secondary Notching............................154
FIGURE 13 Line Impedance Distribution and the Effect of
Notching...................................................................154
FIGURE 14 Wide Spectrum Filter Schematic..............................157
FIGURE 15 200 HP/150 kW AC PWM Drive with 3% DC Bus
Reactor – I
thd
= 39.9%..............................................157
FIGURE 16 Typical Wide Spectrum Filter Connection
Diagram – AC PWM Drive .......................................158
FIGURE 17 Trapezoidal Output Voltage from
Wide Spectrum Filter ...............................................158
FIGURE 18 Mains Waveform with Wide Spectrum Filter –
I
thd
= 4.6%.................................................................159
FIGURE 19 Typical Wide Spectrum Filter Performance –
350 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% AC Line
Reactance................................................................159
FIGURE 20 Wide Spectrum Filter with 12Pulse AC
Drive.........................................................................160
FIGURE 21 Duplex Reactor Schematic ......................................161
FIGURE 22a System Voltage Waveform......................................161
FIGURE 22b Duplex Reactor Correction Voltage .........................162
FIGURE 22c “Corrected” System Voltage.....................................162
FIGURE 23 Application of Duplex Reactors on Main
Propulsion Drives.....................................................163
FIGURE 24 Variation of System V
thd
with Number of
Generators on Line (Figure 23) ...............................163
FIGURE 25 Duplex Reactors on Passenger Ships with
2 × 20 MW Cycloconverters.....................................164
FIGURE 26 Application of Duplex Reactors on Shaft
Generators ...............................................................165
FIGURE 27 Application of Duplex Reactors Vessel with
Multiple AC SCR Based Drives................................166
FIGURE 28 Absolute Impedance Characteristics for Tuned 7
th
Harmonic Series Filter .............................................167
FIGURE 29 Common Configuration of Passive Filters ...............168
FIGURE 30 Simplified Connection of Multilimbed Passive
Filter .........................................................................168
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FIGURE 31 Impedance Characteristics of Multilimbed Passive
Filter .........................................................................169
FIGURE 32 Simplified “Drive Applied” or “Trap” Filter for
Variable Speed Drives .............................................170
FIGURE 33 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Doublewound
Phase Shift Transformer ..........................................172
FIGURE 34 Doublewound 12Pulse Phase Shift Transformer
Unbalance Between Secondary Voltages ...............173
FIGURE 35 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Polygonal
Autotransformer .......................................................174
FIGURE 36 Variation on Harmonic Currents vs. AC Reactance
for a 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Polygonal
Autotransformer .......................................................175
FIGURE 37 Typical 18Pulse Drive System................................176
FIGURE 38 Effect of 2% Unbalance on 18Pulse Drive..............176
FIGURE 39 Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on an
18Pulse Drive..........................................................177
FIGURE 40 Quasi24Pulse System Using Phase Staggering
Techniques...............................................................178
FIGURE 41 Block Diagram of Shunt Connection Active Filter
with Associated Current Waveforms........................180
FIGURE 42 Simplified Power Circuit of Active Filter ...................181
FIGURE 43 Typical AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform
(L
L
) as per Figure 41 ................................................182
FIGURE 44 Active Filter “Compensation Current” Waveform
(L
f
) as per Figure 41.................................................182
FIGURE 45 Source Current Waveform (L
S
) as per Figure 41 .....182
FIGURE 46 Typical Active Filter Performance with 150 HP
AC PWM with 3% AC Line Reactor .........................183
FIGURE 47 Theoretical Shunt PassiveActive Hybrid Filter........185
FIGURE 48 Thermal Limits of Shunt Active per Harmonic
Current .....................................................................186
FIGURE 49 Practical Example of Hybrid Shunt PassiveActive
Filter .........................................................................187
FIGURE 50 Application of an IGBT “Active Front End” to an AC
PWM Drive...............................................................188
FIGURE 51 ”Active Front End” Input Current and Voltage
Waveforms...............................................................189
FIGURE 52 Typical Harmonic Current Input Spectrum for AC
PWM Drive with an “Active Front End”. Note the
Harmonic Currents Above the 50
th
...........................190
SECTION 11 Harmonic Limit Recommendations.................................. 191
1 General Systems ...............................................................191
2 Dedicated Systems............................................................191
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SECTION 12 Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion.................... 193
1 Manual Calculation of Voltage Distortion...........................193
2 Software Estimation of Harmonic Distortion......................199
TABLE 1 Summary of Harmonics to 25
th
................................195
TABLE 2 Summary of Harmonics to 25
th
................................198
SECTION 13 Provision of Information on Harmonics........................... 201
1 Information to be requested from Vendors ........................201
2 Information to be included with a Harmonic Analysis........201
SECTION 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment .......... 203
1 Safety Precautions during Harmonic Surveys ...................203
2 Planning the Harmonic Survey or Measurements.............204
3 Information to be recorded from Harmonic
Measurements ...................................................................205
4 Examples of Harmonic Analyzers......................................206
4.1 The Fluke 43B............................................................... 206
4.2 AEMC 3945................................................................... 209
4.3 Hioki 3196..................................................................... 216
5 Measurements on Voltages above 690/750 V AC.............220
FIGURE 1 Fluke 43B Harmonic/Power Quality Analyzer..........206
FIGURE 2 Fluke 43B Harmonics Screen Data Available
(In This Case Current) [Voltage and power
harmonic data are also available.] ...........................207
FIGURE 3 Fluke 43B Can Measure Sags and Swells up to
16 Days on a Per Cycle Basis .................................207
FIGURE 4 Up to 40 Transients (Voltage or Current) Can Be
Captured with the Fluke 41B....................................208
FIGURE 5 True rms Voltage and Current Waveform
Display(s) from Fluke 43B........................................208
FIGURE 6 AEMC 3945 Threephase Harmonic/Power Quality
Analyzer with Real Time Color Display....................209
FIGURE 7 AEMC 3945 Connected Onsite Illustrating
“Wraparound” Rogowskitype, AmpFlex
6500 A Current Probes ............................................210
FIGURE 8 Sample Displays of Voltage and Current
Waveforms...............................................................211
FIGURE 9 Threephase Voltage Waveforms ............................211
FIGURE 10 Transient Current Waveforms..................................212
FIGURE 11 Threephase Voltage Harmonics .............................212
FIGURE 12 Harmonic Direction ..................................................213
FIGURE 13 Harmonic Sequences...............................................213
FIGURE 14 Phasor Diagram.......................................................214
FIGURE 15 AEMC 3945 Configuration via Computer.................214
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FIGURE 16 Real Time Current Waveforms via Computer..........215
FIGURE 17 Real Time Computer Display of Harmonic
Currents ...................................................................215
FIGURE 18 Unbalance in Real Time via Computer ....................216
FIGURE 19 Hioki 3196 Power Analyzer with Voltage and
Current Probes.........................................................217
FIGURE 20 AC VFD Threephase Voltage and Current
Measurements from Hioki 3196...............................217
FIGURE 21 Harmonic FFT Measurements from Hioki 3196
with 5
th
Harmonic Selected ......................................218
FIGURE 22 Power System V
thd
Trend Recording via Hioki 3196
as a Number of AC VFDs Are Switched On ............218
FIGURE 23 V
thd
of all Three Phases Recorded by Hioki 3196
when Active Filter Switched in on Oil Production
Platform....................................................................219
FIGURE 24 Summary of Data Sampled from Hioki 3196 ...........219
FIGURE 25 Recorded Harmonic Currents by Hioki 3196 on
12Pulse AC Drive ...................................................220
APPENDIX 1 Recommended Reading.................................................... 221
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S E C T I O N 1 Introduction
1 Background
Over recent years, there has been a significant increase in the installation and use of power electronic
equipment onboard ships and on offshore installations. The operation of this equipment has in many
cases significantly degraded the ship or offshore installation electrical power quality to such an extent
that measures have to be implemented in order to minimize the resultant adverse effects on the
electrical plant and equipment.
The quality and security of voltage supplies are important to the safety of any vessel and its crew and
to the protection of the marine environment. Any failure or malfunction of equipment such as
propulsion or navigation systems can result in an accident at sea or close inshore with serious
consequences. Many power quality issues are transient, for example, the starting of a large electric
thruster motor resulting in a momentary dip before the generator regulators correct the situation and
reinstate the correct level of voltage and frequency.
However, as the title suggests, the specific power quality issue to be addressed in these Guidance
Notes is that of the harmonic distortion of voltage supplies caused by the operation of electronic
devices which draw nonlinear (i.e., nonsinusoidal in nature) currents from the voltage supplies.
These same items of “nonlinear” equipment can also be affected by harmonic currents and the
subsequent voltage distortion they produce, as can the majority of “linear” equipment (particularly
generators, AC motors and transformers). As harmonic distortion is “steady state” and continuous,
the issue of electrical power quality associated with harmonics is an important concern to the marine
safety aspects and in addition, to any adverse effects harmonic distortion has on the performance and
reliability of the majority of marine and offshore systems and equipment.
Examples of the serious impact of harmonics and associated power quality effects on marine and
offshore supply voltage waveforms, in these instances, due to electrical variable speed drives (the
main producer of harmonic currents on marine and offshore installations) are illustrated in Section 1,
Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Section 1 Introduction
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FIGURE 1
Input Waveforms (440 V) to 6Pulse DC SCR Drive
FIGURE 2
Linetoline Voltage (440 V) at Input to a 6Pulse DC SCR Drive
Section 1 Introduction
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FIGURE 3
415 V Linetoline Volts on Ship with Four 1100 kW/1500 HP AC SCR
Converterfed Thruster Motors
FIGURE 4
Primary Voltage (11 kV) of Transformer Supplying a 2 MW (2680 HP)
Variable Frequency Drive
Section 1 Introduction
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The American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) is concerned with the effects of harmonic voltage distortion
and the possible resultant consequences should some critical item of equipment malfunction or fail.
This concern is largely a result of the increasing demand for high power nonlinear equipment, such
AC and DC variable speed drives, used for main propulsion, thrusters and other duties. Therefore,
ABS has imposed limitations on the magnitude of harmonic voltage distortion permitted on classed
vessels.
The aim of these Guidance Notes, which solely address the harmonics issue, is to provide information
as to what harmonics are and how they interact with the supply impedances, what effects they have on
the different types of equipment, what items of equipment typically produce harmonic currents and
how harmonic currents can be attenuated or mitigated such that any adverse effects are significantly
reduced.
As indicated in the title, these Guidance Notes are designed to be practical “guidance notes”, not a
reference book on harmonics. It is aimed at the “nonexpert”, hence the use of a minimum of
complex math. There are a number of highquality harmonics and power quality reference books
available, although very few dealing with harmonics and power quality issues specifically from the
marine viewpoint. The Appendix recommends some of these books should the reader wish further
information.
These Guidance Notes will indicate that there are a number of sources of harmonic currents. “Linear”
equipment, such as generators, AC motors and transformers, is also known to produce harmonics,
albeit in limited qualities compared to large “nonlinear loads”. However, in the context of the marine
and offshore installations, it is the electric variable speed drive (a combination of an electric motor
and electronic power converter) whether AC or DC based, which, due to its increased popularity in a
host of applications, is the main source of harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion.
Therefore, the electric variable speed drives and harmonic mitigation of this type of equipment will be
a primary focus of these Guidance Notes.
However, singlephase electrical and electronic equipment, including fluorescent lighting, variable
speed drives and computerbased equipment all produce harmonic currents and therefore will distort
the voltage supplies. On large passenger vessels, 4wire systems [threephase and neutral (grounded
or insulated)] are now being installed, resulting in potentially high levels of neutral currents due to
arithmetic addition of triplen harmonics in that conductor, up to almost twice the phase current values.
Therefore, lower voltage singlephase equipment down to 110 V is also of significant importance in
many vessels in terms of harmonics and associated effects.
Section 1, Figure 5, below, illustrates the popularity and the reliance some classes of vessel now have
with regard to electrical variable speed drives (in this instance a selfpropelled drilling rig).
Section 1 Introduction
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FIGURE 5
Typical Power System Single Line Diagram for DPS3 Drilling Rig
2 The Use of Electric Drives in Marine Applications
For the first half of the 20
th
century, the majority of vessels were steam turbine or diesel engine
driven. DC generators were common and therefore, ships utilized DC motors to power a host of
applications, including cargo winches, windlasses, pumps, fans and other auxiliary driven equipment.
Speed control was easily achieved using resistancebased control systems for both armature voltage
control (for speed variation up to base speed) and field control (above base speed). As no “voltage
conversion” was taking place (e.g., AC to DC) no harmonic currents were produced by this type of
equipment.
From the early 1960s, AC generators were installed in new vessels as the benefits of AC voltage
supplies became common. With the introduction of AC power, however, the ease in which electric
motor speed control was previously achieved was significantly diminished for all but some
specialized applications. For duties where speed control was considered necessary (for example,
windlass or mooring winch applications), special systems including the “WardLeonard” AC motor
DC generator system were developed. The WardLeonard set supplied a DC motor which powered
the driven load. The voltage, and hence speed and torque, of the DC drive motor was controlled by
the excitation of the Ward Leonard DC generator driven by a fixedspeed AC motor and the “field
controller” should speeds above base speed be needed. No “voltage conversion” (AC to DC, in this
case) was necessary. Therefore, harmonic distortion was not an issue that had to be considered.
Section 1 Introduction
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Around the midtolate 1960s, the first generation of solid state SCR (“silicon controlled rectifier” or
“thyristor”) based variable speed drive systems were introduced for the control of DC motors. The
power conversion process from AC voltage to DC voltage draws “nonlinear” (nonsinusoidal)
currents from the supply, resulting in harmonic voltage distortion as the harmonic currents produced
interact with supply impedances. It has to be noted that the theory of harmonics with respect to
electrical networks has been known since the start of the 20
th
Century, but until relatively recently,
there was no effective or accurate monitoring equipment available to measure it.
Common applications for DC SCR drives on AC vessels from the midtolate 1960s included
windlasses, mooring winches and some cargo winches, while the majority of engine room auxiliaries;
pumps, fans, compressors and other equipment were driven by fixedspeed AC motors with bypass
systems, valve throttling or damper control used to vary flow. It was common on these vessels fitted
with DC SCR cargo handling systems to experience light “flicker”, caused by a combination of “line
notching”, “interharmonics” and harmonic currents interacting with the generator(s), cabling and
other supply impedances when cargo was being worked.
From the mid 1960s, DC SCR drives were used extensively on drilling rigs for main propulsion, mud
pumps, drawworks, anchor windlasses and other duties. As can be seen in Section 1, Figure 5, DC
SCR drives have now largely been replaced by AC drives.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, AC variable frequency drives (“VFDs” or “inverters”) were
developed in various forms, “quasi square wave drives” and “current source drives”, being two
common examples. However, it was only in the late 1980s that AC drive technology (most notably in
the form of “pulse width modulation” (“PWM”) drives) started to appear on ships in any numbers,
although they were installed on offshore oil production installations from the mid 1980s for a few
duties, especially including downhole pumps, where the initial benefit was as “softstarters” for the
pumps. Shortly thereafter, the speed control feature was utilized as oil reservoirs became depleted
and flow rate had to be controlled.
Offshore, on applications where robust, variable speed control was needed, DC SCR drives were most
common. DC SCR drives went largely unchallenged until the earlytomid 1990s. However, from
that time on, as the physical size, performance, reduction in maintenance of AC motors compared to
DC motors, cost, and reliability of AC drives continued to improve, their popularity increased making
AC drives comparable to DC SCR drives. As can be seen from Section 1, Figure 5, AC PWM drives
have completely replaced DC drives in the majority of drilling rig applications.
With the exception of large main propulsion drives (above 58 MW/670010700 HP), where “load
commutated inverters” and “cycloconverters” are still more common, AC PWM drives are popular
(for example, for small main propulsion systems, thrusters, cargo pumps and other LV and HV
applications). The increased installed drive capacity on vessels, whether based on AC or DC
converters, has led to a significant increase in harmonic voltage distortion levels on a large number of
vessels. Although in many cases harmonic mitigation has been used, these may not be sufficient to
attain the levels of attenuation necessary to guarantee compliance with the harmonic limits imposed
by classification societies. In a relatively large number of cases, the harmonic voltage distortion has
reached surprising levels, well in excess of the classification societies’ limitations.
AC PWM drives with “active front ends” (sinusoidal input rectifiers), which offer relatively low
harmonic current levels compared to present “standard” AC converter drives, have been available for
a number of years. There are a number of significant commercial and technological issues still to be
completely resolved, including cost, physical size, increased levels of electromagnetic interference
(EMI), input bridge carrier frequency suppression which needs large passive reactorcapacitorreactor
(LCL) filters, the production of high order harmonics (usually above the 40
th
or 50
th
) and
compatibility with generatorderived supplies regarding suitably low values of source impedance.
However, despite these issues, their use in marine applications is increasing. There are a number of
harmonic mitigation solutions which, when used with “standard” 6pulse AC drives, offer similar
levels of performance at less cost, reduced complexity, higher efficiency, less EMI and higher
reliability.
Section 1 Introduction
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DC SCR drives are still operating in older vessels and in new, specialist survey vessels, for example,
where low noise and vibration levels are important. The power ratings of DC drives systems,
however, are largely limited to a few MWs due to restrictions on the brushgear and mass of the DC
motor armature.
It should be noted that the present power restrictions with AC PWM converters is due to lack of
suitable power semiconductors in terms of current and voltage ratings. It is estimated that ratings up
to 50 MW for AC PWM drives may be available within a few years based on new types of power
devices.
3 Main Propulsion Drives
Electric drives for propulsion have been used onboard ship for the majority of the 20
th
Century, albeit
in very small numbers. Indeed, small inland vessels with DC electric motors for propulsion operated
in the United Kingdom and Russia as early as 1893.
Large seagoing vessels first appeared with full electric propulsion in the 1920s with the introduction
of the Panama Pacific Line ships, Virginia and California, each powered by two synchronous motors
each rated at 6750 HP. In Europe around the same time, four synchronous motors with a total of
116MW (155,500HP) propelled the French passenger liner, Normandie. During the Second World
War, DC propulsion motors were used extensively on USbuilt T2 tankers. Cruise liners in the 1960s,
including Canberra, were fitted with 30 MW (40,000 HP) synchronous propulsion motors. In the mid
1980s, Queen Elizabeth II was converted from steam turbine to electric propulsion by installing two
40 MW synchronous motors and converters. A large proportion of modern cruise liners also utilize
full electric propulsion, either via conventional shaft arrangements or via podded propulsors.
The application of electric propulsion has increased in the last five years, largely due to the
introduction of new classes of vessels and the expansion of new builds, including Ropax ferries,
offshore supply vessels, survey ships, “floating production storage and offloading” vessels (FPSOs),
shuttle tankers, cableships and cruise liners, where electric propulsion provides significant benefits,
including increased cargo carrying capabilities, lower running costs, less maintenance, reduced
manpower, greater redundancy, lower emissions and improved maneuverability (with podded or
azimuth type propulsors – see Section 1, Figure 6.).
As of the year 2000, over 2% of vessels over 500 gross tons were fitted with electricallydriven
propulsion. The percentage of new vessels being built with electric propulsion continues to increase
annually.
Section 1, Figure 7, shows a typical application of an electricallypropelled vessel, in this instance a
dynamicallypositioned shuttle tanker using AC drives; 12 MW cycloconverters for main propulsion
and PWM drives for thrusters, fixed and podded, in addition to main cargo pumps.
The decision as to whether to install electric propulsion in a vessel is complex and is usually
dependent on the type of vessel and the operating profile envisaged. Naval warship design, however,
is currently also being significantly changed with the adoption of fullyintegrated electric propulsion
systems, which will accrue significant strategic additional benefits from new generations of electric
weapon platforms that will utilize the increased onboard power generating capacity necessary for the
main electric propulsion systems.
Section 1 Introduction
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FIGURE 6
Electricallydriven Podded Propulsor
FIGURE 7
Dynamicallypositioned Shuttle Tanker Equipped with AC Electric
Variable Speed Main Propulsion and Thrusters
Section 1 Introduction
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4 The Future?
The use of electric variable speed drives, particularly AC converters, for main propulsion and a host
of other applications within the marine and offshore sectors will continue to increase.
The continual advances in power semiconductors, electromagnetics, control systems, software
engineering and other related technologies will lead to the development of higher performance, more
compact, more cost effective and more efficient types of electric drives and motors.
The majority of the emerging AC drive converter types, including “matrix converters”, “resonant
converters” and “pulse frequency modulated” (PFM) converters will all have low harmonic profiles
compared to the majority of generic drive technologies available at present.
However, it may be some years before these emerging AC drive converter developments permeate
through from mainly military (naval) development programs and are available to commercial
organizations. Their financial viability for any applications other than specialized naval warship
duties may also have to be carefully assessed. In the meantime, the issue of harmonic distortion and
the effects on plant and equipment has to be addressed to ensure the safety of the ship or offshore
installation, the protection of the crew, and where appropriate, the passengers and the marine
environment.
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
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S E C T I O N 2 The Production of Harmonics
1 Production of Harmonics
In a power system, any item of equipment which draws current from the supply which is proportional
to the applied voltage is termed a “linear” load. Examples of linear loads include resistance heaters
and incandescent lamps. The current and voltage waveforms associated with linear loads are shown in
Section 2, Figure 1.
FIGURE 1
Voltage and Current Waveforms for Linear Load
Voltage
Linear Load
Current
The term “nonlinear” is used to describe loads which draw current from the supply that is dissimilar in
shape to the applied voltage. Examples include discharge lighting, computers and variable speed drives.
In order to explain pictorially how nonlinear current distorts the voltage supply waveform it is
necessary to refer Section 2, Figures 2 and 3.
Section 2, Figure 2a illustrates a simple singlephase full wave rectifier supplying a load containing
both inductance and resistance. The impedance of the AC supply is represented by the inductance
L
ac
. Section 2, Figure 2b illustrates the DC load current (I
dc
) and AC input current (I
ac
), respectively.
FIGURE 2a
Single Phase Full Wave Rectifier
FIGURE 2b
Load and AC Supply Currents
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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Section 2, Figure 3a shows a simple single line diagram comprising source voltage (u) and source
impedance (L
N
). The harmonic current (i
N
) passing through the source impedance produces a voltage
drop (U
L
) according the following formula:
dt
di
L U
N
N L
. = .................................................................................................................... (2.1)
Section 2, Figure 3b illustrates the nonlinear current (i
N
) and voltage drop (U
L
) waveforms.
FIGURE 3a
Simple Single Line
Diagram
FIGURE 3b
Load Current and Volt Drop
Waveforms
The voltage drop across the source impedance (U
L
) is subtracted from the induced voltage (u),
resulting in the distortion of the supply voltage waveform, as illustrated in Section 2, Figure 4.
Note: The example below has been exaggerated in order to illustrate the principle graphically of how nonlinear current
distorts the supply voltage.
FIGURE 4
How Voltage Distortion is Produced (Simplified)
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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The majority of nonlinear loads is equipment that utilizes power semiconductor devices for power
conversion (e.g., rectifiers). They include, for example, computer switched mode power systems
(SMPS) for converting AC to DC. Section 2, Figure 5 illustrates a typical current waveform of a
computer switched mode power supplier unit.
FIGURE 5
Typical Computer Nonlinear Load
Voltage
Nonlinear Load
Current
In order to appreciate why the current waveform shown in Section 2, Figure 5 is of a “pulsed” nature,
it is beneficial to consider the design of switched mode power supplies, an example of which is
illustrated in Section 2, Figure 6.
FIGURE 6
Singlephase Switched Mode Power Supply
This type of power supply uses capacitors to smooth the rectified DC voltage and current prior to it
being supplied to other internal subsystems and components. The semiconductor diode rectifiers are
unidirectional devices (i.e., they conduct in one direction only). The additional function of the
capacitor is to store energy which is drawn by the load as necessary. When the input voltage (V
i
) is
higher in value than the capacitor voltage (V
c
), the appropriate diode will conduct and nonsinusoidal,
“pulsed” current will be drawn from the supply. This nonsinusoidal current contains “harmonic
currents” in addition to the sinusoidal fundamental (50 Hz or 60 Hz) current, as illustrated in Section
2, Figure 7.
Note: As can be seen below, the harmonic spectrum contains only “odd” harmonics (1, 3, 5, 7…). This is due to the
“full wave rectification” used in the SMPS. If the SMPS were to use “half wave” rectification “even” order (2, 4,
6, 8…) harmonics would also be present.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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FIGURE 7
Harmonic Spectrum of Currents Drawn by
Computer Switched Mode Power Supply
Harmonic voltages and currents are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. On 60 Hz
supplies, for instance, the 5
th
harmonic is 300 Hz; the 7
th
harmonic is 420 Hz, and so forth. When all
harmonic voltages and currents are added to the fundamental, a waveform known as a “complex
wave” is formed. An example of complex wave consisting of the fundamental (1
st
harmonic) and 3
rd
harmonic is illustrated in Section 2, Figure 8.
FIGURE 8
Construction of Complex Wave
60 Hz Fundamental
180 Hz (3rd Harmonic)
Complex Wave
Section 2, Figure 8 is an example of a symmetrical waveform in which the positive portion of the
wave is identical to the negative portion. It should be noted that symmetrical waveforms only contain
odd harmonics, whereas asymmetrical waveforms (where both positive and negative portions are
different) contain even and odd harmonics and possibly DC components. An example of an
asymmetrical waveform would be that produced by a half wave rectifier.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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2 Characteristic Harmonic Currents
Power conversion using full wave rectifiers generates idealized characteristic harmonic currents given
by the formula:
h = np ± 1............................................................................................................................. (2.2)
where
h = order of harmonics
n = an integer 1, 2, 3…
p = number of current pulses per cycle
It should be noted that in the “ideal” harmonic theory, the following hypotheses are assumed for all
rectifiers:
• The impedance of the AC supply network is zero.
• The DC component of the rectifier configuration is uniform.
• An AC line or commutating reactor is not used in front of the rectifier.
• The AC supply network is symmetrical (i.e., balanced).
• The AC supply is sinusoidal, free from harmonics.
• There are no “overlap” or delay angles for the devices.
Note: Any divergence from any of the above hypotheses will introduce “noncharacteristic” harmonics, including
possibly DC, into the harmonic series. In practical terms, it has to be noted that supply networks or connected
equipment are never “idealized” (i.e., based on the above hypotheses) and, therefore, any actual harmonic currents
measured will not be exactly as calculated using the above simplified formula.
In addition, in idealized harmonic theory, the magnitude of the harmonic current is stated as the
reciprocal of the harmonic number:
h
I
1
= ................................................................................................................................... (2.3)
Therefore, in theory, the 5
th
harmonic current and 7
th
harmonic current, for example, should represent
20% and 14% of the total rms current, respectively. However, again, this is never transferred into
practical reality as the magnitudes of the various harmonic currents are determined by the perphase
inductance of the AC supply connected, the rectifier and the impedance of the rectifier as “seen” by
the AC supply.
In rectifiers without added inductance (e.g., AC line reactors) it is not uncommon to measure 5
th
harmonic current up to ~80% on singlephase rectifiers and 65% on threephase rectifiers.
Section 2, Figure 9 illustrates a typical singlephase computer switched mode power supply with full
wave bridge rectifier.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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FIGURE 9
Computer Power Supply with Singlephase Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
Switch Mode
DCtoDC
I
s
C
f
i
ac
v
ac
Rectifier
Bridge
Smoothing
Capacitor
Load
For the single full wave diode bridge rectifier above, the characteristic harmonic currents based on
two rectified current pulses per cycle (i.e., one per half cycle per phase), as shown in Section 2, Figure
10, converted into DC load will be:
h = np ± 1
h = n ⋅ 2 ± 1
h = 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15…
where
h = harmonic number
n = integer, 1, 2, 3…
p = pulses, (2)
FIGURE 10
Computer Switch Mode Power Supply Input Current Waveform
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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The harmonic series calculated for a singlephase full wave rectifier is shown in Section 2, Figure 11.
FIGURE 11
Typical Waveform from Computer Switched Power Supply
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Note: It should be noted that in fourwire distribution systems (threephase and neutral), the currents in the three phases
return via the neutral conductor, the 120degree phase shift between respective phase currents causes the currents
to cancel out in the neutral, under balanced loading conditions. However, when nonlinear loads are present, any
“triplen” (3
rd
, 9
th
…) harmonics in the phase currents do not cancel out but add cumulatively in the neutral
conductor, which can carry up to 173% of phase current at a frequency of predominately 180 Hz (3
rd
harmonic).
This issue will be discussed in more detail in Section 4, “Sources of Harmonics”.
Section 2, Figure 12 shows a typical 6pulse PWM AC drive, where the rectifier bridge supplies the
DC link section of the drive.
FIGURE 12
Typical 6Pulse PWM AC Drive
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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For a threephase full wave diode rectifier bridge [also known as a “6pulse bridge”, as it rectifies six
current pulses (one per half cycle per phase) into the load side of the bridge], the characteristic
harmonic currents will therefore be:
h = np ± 1
h = n ⋅ 6 ± 1
h = 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19…
where
h = harmonic number
n = integer, 1, 2, 3…
p = pulses, (6)
Similarly, the characteristic harmonic currents for a 12pulse rectifier will be:
h = n ⋅ 12 ± 1
h = 11, 13, 23, 24, 35, 37…
Section 2, Figures 13 and 14, respectively, show the input phase current waveforms and harmonic
current spectrum measured on a typical 6pulse AC PWM drive.
FIGURE 13
6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveforms for One Phase
FIGURE 14
Typical Harmonic Spectrum for 6Pulse AC PWM Drive
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
harmonic
%
F
u
n
d
.
.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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3 Effect of Harmonic Currents on Impedance(s)
Section 2, Figure 15 shows in a simplified form that when a nonlinear load draws distorted
(nonsinusoidal) current from the supply, that distorted current passes through all of the impedance
between the load and power source. The associated harmonic currents passing through the system
impedance cause voltage drops for each harmonic frequency based on Ohm’s Law (V
h
= I
h
× Z
h
).
The vector sum of all the individual voltage drops results in total voltage distortion, the magnitude of
which depends on the system impedance and the levels of harmonic currents at each harmonic
frequency.
FIGURE 15
Distorted Currents Induce Voltage Distortion
Impedance
Distorted
Current
Distorted
Voltage
No
Voltage
Distortion
Source
Nonlinear
Load
Section 2, Figure 16 shows in detail the effect individual harmonic currents have on the impedances
within the power system and the associated voltages drops for each. Note that the “total harmonic
voltage distortion”, V
thd
(based on the vector sum of all individual harmonics), is reduced as more
impedance is introduced between the nonlinear load and the source.
FIGURE 16
How Individual Harmonic Voltage Drops Develop
Across System Impedances
∧
∧
Z
Sh
Z
Th
Z
Ch
~
∧
∧
V
h
@ Source
V
h
@ Transf.
V
h
@ Load
Nonlinear
Load
Harmonic
Current
Source
I
h
Sinusoidal
Voltage
Source
Nonlinear
Load
Cable
Z
Ch
Transf.
Z
Th
Source
Z
Sh
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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V = I
h
× Z
h
(Ohm’s Law)
At the load: V
h
= I
h
× (Z
Ch
+ Z
Th
+ Z
Sh
)
At the trans.: V
h
= I
h
× (Z
Th
+ Z
Sh
)
At the source: V
h
= I
h
× (Z
Sh
)
where
Z = impedance at frequency of harmonic (e.g., 250 Hz)
V
h
= harmonic voltage at hth harmonic (e.g., 5
th
)
I
h
= harmonic current at hth harmonic (e.g., 5
th
)
V
thd
= total harmonic voltage distortion
4 Calculation of Voltage Distortion
Any periodic (repetitive) complex waveform is composed of a sinusoidal component at the
fundamental frequency and a number of harmonic components which are integral multipliers of the
fundamental frequency. The instantaneous value of voltage for nonsinusoidal waveform or complex
wave can be expressed as:
v = V
0
+ V
1
sin(ωt + φ
1
) + V
2
sin(2ωt + φ
2
) + V
3
sin(3ωt + φ
3
) +... V
n
sin(nωt + φ
n
) .............. (2.4)
where
v = instantaneous value at any time t
V
0
= direct (or mean) value (DC component)
V
1
= rms value of the fundamental component
V
2
= rms value of the second harmonic component
V
3
= rms value of the third harmonic component
V
n
= rms value of the nth harmonic component
φ = relative angular frequency
ω = 2πf
f = frequency of fundamental component (1/f defining the time over which the
complex wave repeats itself)
It is usually more convenient, however, to interpret a complex wave by means of “Fourier Series” and
associated analysis methods. Joseph Fourier, a 19
th
century French physicist introduced a theory that
any periodic function in a interval of time could be expressed by the sum of the fundamental and a
series of higher order harmonic frequencies which are integral multipliers of the fundamental
component.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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Ignoring any DC components in the above formula, where V
1
and I
1
represent the fundamental voltage
and current, respectively, the instantaneous rms voltage, V
h
, can be represented as a Fourier Series:
( ) ( ) ( )
h h
h h
h
t h V t v t v φ ω + = =
∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
0
1 1
sin 2 ............................................................................ (2.5)
The rms value of voltage can be expressed as:
( )dt t v
T
V
T
rms
∫
=
0
2
1
=
∑
∞
=1
2
h
h
V =
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
.....
n
V V V V + + + ............................................. (2.6)
( )dt t i
T
I
T
rms
∫
=
0
2
1
=
∑
∞
=1
2
h
h
I =
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
.....
n
I I I I + + + ................................................. (2.7)
The rms voltage or current “total harmonic distortion”, V
thd
and I
thd
, respectively can be expressed as:
% 100
1
2
2
× =
∑
∞
=
V
V
V
h
h
thd
= % 100
........
1
2
4
2
3
2
2
×
+ + +
V
V V V V
n
n
......................................... (2.8)
% 100
1
2
2
× =
∑
∞
=
I
I
I
h
h
thd
= % 100
........
1
2 2
4
2
3
2
2
×
+ + +
I
I I I I
n
........................................... (2.9)
Other simple but practical harmonic formulae include:
Total rms current:
2 2
harm fund rms
I I I + = ................................................................ (2.10)
or
2
100
1 
.

\

+ =
thd
fund rms
I
I I ........................................................... (2.11)
Fundamental current:
2
1
thd
rms
fund
I
I
I
+
= ....................................................................... (2.12)
Total fundamental current distortion: 1
2
) (
−


.

\

=
fund
rms
fund thd
I
I
I ............................... (2.13)
Total Demand Distortion (TDD) =
load
h
h
I
I
∑
∞
=2
2
=
load
n
TDD
I
I I I I
I
2 2
4
2
3
2
2
..... + + +
= ....... (2.14)
where
I
load
= maximum demand load current (fundamental) at the PCC
TDD = ‘total demand distortion’ of current (expressed as measured total harmonic
current distortion, per unit of load current. For example, a 30% total current
distortion measured against a 50% load would result in a TDD of 15%).
Note: In the above Equations 2.10 to 2.13, the voltage (V) can be substituted for the current (I).
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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5 Harmonic Sequence Components
Each harmonic has an order (number), a frequency which is an integer multiple of the fundamental
frequency and a “sequence”. The sequence refers in vector rotation with respect to the fundamental.
Section 2, Table 1 details the harmonic sequence components for an idealized 6pulse rectifier.
TABLE 1
Harmonic Sequence Components for 6Pulse Rectifier
Harmonic 1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25….
Sequence +  +  +  +  +
Rotation F B F B F B F B F
Harmonics such as the 7
th
, 13
th
, 19
th
and 25
th
, and so on, which rotate in a forward direction (i.e., in the
same sequence as fundamental) are termed “positive sequence harmonics” whereas the 5
th
, 11
th
, 17
th
,
23
rd
, and so on, which rotate in the opposite direction to the fundamental are termed “negative
sequence harmonics”.
Triplen harmonics (3
rd
, 9
th
…), as produced in singlephase full wave rectifiers, for example, do not
rotate. They are in phase with each other and are therefore termed “zero sequence harmonics”.
The impact of sequence harmonics on rotating machines will be discussed in Section 3, “Effects of
Harmonics”.
6 Line Notching
Although not strictly “harmonics”, “line notching” is a phenomenon normally associated with the
SCR (thyristor) based “phasecontrolled” rectifiers such as those utilized in AC and DC variable
speed drives and UPS systems, also sources of harmonics. Diode bridges can also exhibit
“commutation notches”, but to a lesser extent than those associated with SCR bridges. The effects of
“line notching” can have a serious impact on the supply system and other equipment.
Section 2, Figure 17 depicts a simple threephase full wave SCR bridge network supplying a DC load.
Section 2, Figure 18 illustrates theoretical notching at the terminals of the SCR input bridge and
therefore assumes no additional inductance in the circuit. The voltage notches occur when the
continuous line current commutates (i.e., transfers) from one phase to another. During the
“commutation period”, the two phases are shortcircuited (i.e., connected together) for very short
durations through the converter bridge and the AC source impedance. The result is that the voltage,
as illustrated, reduces to almost zero as the current increases, limited only by the circuit impedance.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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FIGURE 17
Simple Threephase SCR Bridge for Phase Control
DC
+
−
3φAC
FIGURE 18
Exaggerated Example of “Line Notching”
In practical terms, the notches can be present anywhere in the respective half cycles, as the phase
angle of SCRs varies according to the needed output voltage (or current for current source AC drives).
The disturbances associated with line notching tend to progressively reduce nearer to a “stiff” source
impedance (i.e., an impedance of relatively low value with relatively high short circuit capacity) due
to the additional impedances downstream in the circuit, including that associated with cabling.
With reference to Section 2, Figure 19, the area of the notch (depth and width) is dependent on the
voltmilliseconds absorbed in the circuits in the line from the source generator or transformer to the
SCR bridge input terminals. It is common practice to add “commutation reactors” or isolation
transformers in the AC line of the SCR bridge to minimize the notch, but regardless of how much
inductance is added at the bridge terminals, the notch area tends to remain constant as the addition of
AC line inductance will reduce the notch depth but will increase the notch width. It should be noted
that the only real practical way to reduce the notch area is to provide part of the necessary
commutation energy from a capacitor bank.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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FIGURE 19
Voltage Notching due to SCR Bridge Commutation
In severe cases, especially where no additional AC line reactance is present, the voltage can be
reduced to zero creating additional “zero crossovers” (i.e., the points where the voltage would
normally change polarity). Section 1, Figures 2 and 3 illustrates the significant effects of line
notching. The oscillograph in Section 1, Figure 3 refers to a vessel where up to four AC SCR input
bridge drives were operating.
Although secondary to line notching, an important phenomenon associated with SCR phase control is
“ringing”. “Ringing” is the term given high frequency oscillations due to the rapid switching of the
SCRs, as illustrated in Section 2, Figure 20. It is the result of high frequency “resonance” occurring in
the rectifier circuit due to inherent inductance and capacitance in the equipment circuitry.
FIGURE 20
SCR Line Notching and Associated “Ringing”
It should be noted that line notching and associated ringing do not usually influence the V
thd
, as the
harmonics associated with them are of high frequency, usually above the highest measured (i.e., 50
th
).
However, line notching and ringing can have significant effects on voltage quality, as shown in
Section 1, Figure 4. The effects of line notching on generators and other equipment will be discussed
in Section 3.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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7 Interharmonics
Interharmonics are defined in IEC Standard 100021 as: “Between the harmonics of the power
frequency voltage and current, further frequencies can be observed which are not an integer of the
fundamental. They appear as discrete frequencies or as a wideband spectrum”.
Interharmonics can therefore be considered as the “intermodulation” of the fundamental and
harmonic components of the system with any other frequency components. These can be observed
increasingly with nonlinear loads, including large AC frequency converters drives (especially under
unbalanced conditions and/or levels of preexiting voltage distortion), cycloconverters (see Section 2,
Figure 21) and static slip recovery drives.
FIGURE 21
Cycloconverter Current Spectrum – Includes Interharmonics
Both harmonics and interharmonics can be defined in a quasisteady state in terms of their spectral
components over a range of frequencies as detailed below:
Harmonics: f = h ⋅ f
1
where h is an integer > 0
DC: f = 0 Hz (f = h ⋅ f
1
, where h = 0)
Interharmonics: f is not equal to h ⋅ f
1
,
where h is an integer >0
Subharmonics: f > 0 and f < f
1
, where f
1
is the fundamental frequency
Waveforms which contain both harmonics and interharmonics of constant amplitude but differing
frequencies are rarely periodic (i.e., repetitive), as Section 2, Figure 22 illustrates. The effect of
interharmonics on equipment will be discussed in later Sections. See 3/5.1, 3/6, 4/3.3, 6/2.4 and
10/11.1.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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FIGURE 22
Waveform Containing both Harmonics and Interharmonics
Due to the modulation of steady state harmonic voltages, the supply voltage will vary in amplitude
and rms value according to:
v(t) = sin(2πf
1
t) + a sin(2πf
i
t)............................................................................................. (2.15)
where
f
1
= fundamental frequency
a = amplitude (per unit) of the interharmonics voltage
(amplitude of the fundamental voltage = 1.0 per unit *)
f
i
= interharmonics frequency
* The per unit system is based on the formula below. Using this method, quantities are expressed as ratios,
similar to the use of percentage values.
quatitiy base
quantity actual
unit per =
Note: Maximum voltage change in the voltage amplitude is equal to the amplitude of the interharmonics voltage, while
the change in the voltage rms value is dependent on both the amplitude and the interharmonics frequency.
The rms voltage value can be given by:
( ) dt t v
T
V
T
2
0
1
∫
= ...............................................................................................................(2.16)
where the period of integration T = 1/f
1
.
The maximum percentage rms voltage deviation over several periods of the fundamental due to
interharmonics can be calculated by combining Equations 2.15 and 2.16.
In equipment which utilize capacitors on the DC side (for example, AC PWM drives), current is only
drawn from the supply when the AC voltage is greater than the DC side capacitor voltage, and as
such, it is the AC peak voltage which normally recharges the capacitor(s). The resultant integer
harmonics in the voltage supply do not effect the AC peak voltage as these integer harmonics are
synchronized with the fundamental frequency. However, interharmonics are not synchronized with
the fundamental and therefore affect the peak amplitude of the AC supply voltage (see Section 2,
Figure 23) causing deviations of peak voltage which can adversely effect the connected equipment,
both those utilizing capacitors and also several types of lighting.
Section 2 Production of Harmonics
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FIGURE 23
Peak Voltage Deviations due to Interharmonics Voltage
The distorted voltage waveform depicted in Section 2, Figure 23 can be calculated as:
V(t) = V
1
sin(2πf
1
t) + V
n
sin(2πf
n
t)..................................................................................... (2.17)
where
V
1
= amplitude of fundamental voltage
t = time
f
1
= fundamental voltage
V
n
= amplitude of interharmonics n
n = fractional real number of interharmonics order
The variation of the supply voltage amplitude is calculated from the difference between the maximum
and minimum peak values (V
max
and V
min
) recorded over several cycles of the function V(t).
Therefore:
∆V = V
max
– V
min
.................................................................................................................(2.18)
Note: The measurement of interharmonics, compared to that of integer harmonics, poses considerable problems for
traditional harmonic measuring equipment, which uses phaselocked loops and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
techniques. This is due to the interharmonic frequency components being nonrelated to the fundamental
frequency and nonperiodic. However, for the measurement and identification of interharmonics it may not be
necessary to perform an analysis which depends on the supply fundamental frequency. Methods of analysis used
in the communication industries have been adapted for use in the measurement and analysis of interharmonics
components.
8 Subharmonics
“Subharmonics” is an unofficial but common definition given to interharmonics whose frequency is
less than that of the fundamental (i.e., f > 0 Hz and f < f
1
). The more technically correct term,
“subsynchronous frequency component”, is also used to define subharmonics.
Therefore, it should be noted that the calculations provided above associated with interharmonics are
valid for “subharmonics” also.
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S E C T I O N 3 Effects of Harmonics
1 Generators
In comparison to shorebased utility power supplies, the effects of harmonic voltages and harmonic
currents are significantly more pronounced on generators due to their source impedance being
typically three to four times that of utility transformers.
The major impact of voltage and current harmonics is the increase in machine heating caused by
increased iron losses, and copper losses, both frequency dependent. [On shore installations, it is
relatively common practice to “derate” (reduce the output of) generators when supplying nonlinear
loads to minimize the effects of harmonic heating.] In addition, there is the influence of harmonic
sequence components, both on localized heating and torque pulsations.
1.1 Thermal Losses
The iron losses comprise two separate losses, “hysteresis losses” and “eddy current losses”.
The hysteresis loss is the power consumed due to nonlinearity of the generator’s flux
density/magnetizing force curve and the subsequent reversal in the generator’s core magnetic field
each time the current changes polarity (i.e., 120 times a second for 60 Hz supplies). Higher hysteresis
losses occur at harmonic frequencies due to the more rapid reversals compared to those at
fundamental frequency. Hysteresis losses are proportional to frequency and the square of the
magnetic flux.
Eddy currents circulate in the iron core, windings and other component parts of the generator induced
by the stray magnetic fields around the turns in the generator windings. Eddy currents produce losses
which increase in proportion to the square of the frequency. The relationship of eddy current losses
and harmonics is given by:
2
max
1
2
h I P P
h
h
h EF EC ∑
=
= ........................................................................................................... (3.1)
where
P
EC
= total eddy current losses
P
EF
= eddy current losses at full load at fundamental frequency
I
h
= rms current (per unit) harmonic h
h = harmonic number
On linear loads, the eddy current losses are fairly minor but become more significant as the harmonic
loading increases.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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Copper losses are dissipated in the generator windings when current is passed through the winding
resistance. For a given load, when harmonic currents are present, the total rms value of the current
passing through the windings will be increased, thereby increasing the losses according to:
R I P
rms CU
2
= .........................................................................................................................(3.2)
where
P
CU
= total copper losses
I
rms
= total rms current
R = resistance of winding
The copper losses are also influenced by a phenomenon termed “skin effect”. Skin effect refers to the
tendency of current flow to be confined in a conductor to a layer close to its outer surface. At
fundamental frequency, the skin effect is negligible and the distribution of current across the cable is
uniform. However, at harmonic frequencies, skin effect is substantially more pronounced,
significantly reducing the effective cross sectional area of the conductor and increasing its resistance.
The higher the resistance, the higher the I
2
R losses.
The harmonic stator current drawn by the nonlinear load will result in air gap fluxes, similar in shape
to the fundamental but rotating at harmonic frequencies, inducing currents in the rotor iron and
windings, adding to rotor losses and the associated temperature rise.
1.2 Effect of Sequence Components
Harmonic currents occur in pairs each having a negative or a positive sequence rotation. The 5
th
harmonic is negative sequence and induces in the rotor a negativelyrotating 6
th
harmonic; the 7
th
harmonic is positive and similarly induces a positivelyrotating 6
th
harmonic in the rotor. The two
contrarotating 6
th
harmonic systems in the rotor result in “amortisseur” or “damper” winding currents
which are stationary with respect to the rotor, causing additional, localized losses and subsequent
heating. Within the rotor, this effect is similar to that caused by singlephase or unbalancedphase
operation, and overheating is unlikely provided the rotor pole faces are laminated. Similarly, the 11
th
and 13
th
harmonics will induce both negatively and positively rotating 12
th
harmonics in the rotor.
Harmonic pairs, in addition to causing additional heating, can create mechanical oscillations on the
generator shaft. For 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic frequency, for example, the torque pulsations will be at six
times for fundamental (360 Hz based on 60 Hz fundamental, relative to the stator). These result from
the interaction between harmonic and fundamental frequencies exciting a specific mechanical
resonant frequency. Shafts can be severely stressed due to these oscillations.
1.3 Voltage Distortion
A generator is designed to produce sinusoidal voltage at its terminals, but when nonlinear current is
drawn, the harmonic currents interact with the system impedances to produce voltage drops at each
individual harmonic frequency, thereby causing voltage distortion.
A simplified equivalent circuit for one phase of a threephase generator is shown in Section 3, Figure
1. Note that the resistances are ignored as they are relatively small compared to the reactance. The
iron and damper windings, D
d
and D
q
, respectively, prevent any rapid flux changes in the rotor.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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FIGURE 1
Equivalent Circuit for a Generator
To calculate the rms harmonic voltage due to the respective harmonic current, the following method
can be used:
V
h
= 3 × I
h
× h × X
gen
....................................................................................................... (3.3)
where
V
h
= LL rms voltage of the harmonic h
I
h
= harmonic current at order h
X
gen
= generator reactance, in ohms
h = harmonic number
To calculate the LL rms harmonic voltage as a percentage of rms fundamental voltage:
rms
h
V
V % 100 ×
.......................................................................................................................... (3.4)
where
V
h
= LL rms voltage of the harmonic h
V
rms
= LL fundamental rms voltage
Example 1
Calculate the LL rms 5
th
harmonic voltage for a 480 V generator with reactance X of 0.0346
ohms when the 5
th
harmonic current is 135 A. Also, express the harmonic voltage as a
percentage of the fundamental rms voltage.
V
h
= 3 × I
h
× h × X
gen
= 1.732 × 135 × 5 × 0.0346
= 40.45 V
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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5
th
harmonic voltage as a percentage of the fundamental rms voltage:
=
rms
h
V
V % 100 ×
=
480
100 45 . 40 ×
= 8.43%
Note: Other percentage harmonic voltage components can be estimated by performing similar calculations for
each harmonic current.
As detailed in Equation 2.6, V
rms
, the total rms voltage including harmonic voltages, can be calculated
using:
( ) = =
∫
dt t v
T
V
T
rms
0
2
1
∑
∞
=1
2
h
h
V =
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
.....
n
V V V V + + +
Similarly, the V
thd
“voltage total harmonic distortion” can be expressed using Equation 2.8:
% 100
1
2
2
× =
∑
∞
=
V
V
V
h
h
thd
= % 100
........
1
2
4
2
3
2
2
×
+ + +
V
V V V V
n
n
Note: See Subsection 12/1 for practical examples of manual voltage distortion calculations.
1.4 Line Notching and Generators
Harmonic currents can cause significant problems in generators in addition to those attributable to
additional losses and torsional pulsations. Modern generators use electronic governors to regulate the
output voltage, to control the speed, and hence frequency, of the prime mover and to proportionally
distribute the kW load of parallel connected generators.
Many electronic regulator units utilize measurement and control circuits which depend on “zero
crossovers” (the point on a sine wave when the sinusoidal voltage or current cuts through the zero
axis). Where “line notching” or “ringing” occurs, for example with large SCR phase control loads,
additional zero crossovers may appear. The combination of harmonic distortion and line notching can
cause hunting and instability in voltage and frequency regulation control loops. Many of these
problems can be resolved, however, using low pass filters at the input of the appropriate sensing
circuits, as shown in Section 3, Figure 2.
In addition, line notching often makes it difficult to correctly load share when parallel generators are
operating. Load sharing depends on the measurement of the kW load on each generator. The rms
value of current, which assumes fundamental only is normally used in the computation of the kW
loading. When harmonic currents are present, false readings can occur when measurements based on
average values are used. (Based on sinusoidal waveforms, the rms value is 1.11 times the average
value. On waveforms containing harmonics, this assumption is no longer valid.)
Only equipment utilizing “true rms” techniques indicate correct readings for supplies containing
harmonics. This is also valid for switchboard instrumentation. The effect of harmonics on
instrumentation will be discussed in Subsection 3/9.
Note: For generator AVRs subject to voltage distortion, a low pass filter as detailed in Section 3, Figure 2, below, is
recommended. This will result in the majority of the distortion from the voltage control signal being attenuated.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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FIGURE 2
Low Pass Filter for Generator AVR Sensing on Nonlinear Loads
1.5 Shaft Generators
Shaft generators are generally unaffected by the import of external power system harmonics due to the
filtering effects of the generator converter, rotary condenser and line reactors.
2 Transformers
2.1 Thermal Losses
Transformer losses comprise “no load losses”, which are dependent on the peak flux levels necessary
to magnetize the transformer core and are negligible with respect to harmonic current levels, and
“load losses”, which significantly increase at harmonic frequencies when transformers supply
nonlinear current.
The effect of harmonic currents at harmonic frequencies in transformers causes increases in core
losses through increased iron losses (i.e., eddy currents and hysteresis). In addition, copper losses and
stray flux losses which can result in additional heating, winding insulation stress, especially if high
levels of dv/dt (i.e., rate of rise of voltage) are present. Temperature cycling and possible resonance
between transformer winding inductance and supply capacitance can also cause additional losses.
Potential small laminated core vibrations can appear as additional audible noise.
The increased rms current due to harmonics will increase the I
2
R copper losses. The copper losses
can be calculated using Equation 3.2, as shown below:
R I P
rms CU
2
=
where
P
CU
= total copper losses
I
rms
= total rms current
R = resistance of winding
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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The eddy current losses can be calculated using Equation 3.5:
2
1
2
max
h I P P
h
h
h EF EC ∑
=
= ............................................................................................................. (3.5)
where
P
EC
= total eddy current losses
P
EF
= eddy current losses at full load at fundamental frequency
I
h
= rms current (per unit) harmonic h
h = harmonic number
The hysteresis loss is the power consumed due to nonlinearity of the transformers flux
density/magnetizing force curve and the subsequent reversal in the transformer core magnetic field
each time the current changes polarity (i.e., 120 times a second for 60 Hz supplies). Higher hysteresis
losses occur at harmonic frequencies due to the more rapid reversals compared to that at fundamental
frequency. Hysteresis losses are proportional to frequency and the square of the magnetic flux.
2.2 Unbalance, Distribution Transformers and Neutral Currents
Distribution transformers used in fourwire (i.e., threephase and neutral) distribution systems (for
example, those used in some cruise liners) have a deltawye (deltastar) configuration. Triplen (i.e.,
3
rd
, 9
th
, 15
th
…) harmonic currents cannot propagate downstream but circulate in the primary delta
winding of the transformer causing localized overheating.
With linear loading, the threephase currents will cancel out in the neutral conductor. However, when
nonlinear loads are being supplied, the triplen harmonics in the phase currents do not cancel out, but
instead add cumulatively in the neutral conductor, which can carry up to 173% of phase current at a
frequency of predominately 180 Hz (3
rd
harmonic), overheating transformers and on occasion,
overheating and burning out neutral conductors.
2.3 Transformer Derating or Kfactor Transformer
Transformers are of prime importance in any power system. When supplying nonlinear loads, they
are particularly vulnerable to overheating and earlylife failure. In order to minimize the risk of
premature failure, two methods are used by designers:
• “Derate” the transformer (i.e., oversize it such that it operates at less than the rated load capacity)
or if existing, consider reducing the loading on it.
• Use “Kfactor” or “Krated” transformers. Krated transformers are specifically designed for
nonlinear loads and operate with lower losses at harmonic frequencies. Krated transformer
modifications can include additional cooling ducts, a redesign of the magnetic core based on
lower normal flux density by using higher grades of iron, using smaller insulated secondary
conductors wired in parallel and transposed to reduce heating due to skin effect and AC resistance
and enlarging the primary winding to withstand triplen harmonics present on singlephase
nonlinear loads.
Krated transformers are usually preferred to derated transformers, as they are designed to run at rated
kVA loads in the presence of harmonic currents and also they normally comply with Underwriters
Laboratory (UL) and NEC requirements for transformers supplying nonlinear loads. Section 3, Figure
3 illustrates a typical relationship with transformer derating and Kfactor for nonlinear loads.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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FIGURE 3
Typical Transformer Derating Curve for Nonlinear Load
UL developed the Kfactor system to indicate the capability of transformers to handle harmonic loads.
The subsequent ratings are described in UL1561. Essentially, the Kfactor is a weighting of the
harmonic current loads according to their effects on transformer heating as derived from ANSI/IEEE
C57.110. A Kfactor of 1.0 indicates a linear load (i.e., no harmonic loading). The higher the
Kfactor, the greater the heating effect on a given transformer. The equation for calculating Kfactor
is the ratio of eddy current losses when supplying nonlinear and linear loads:
2
max
1
2 1
h I
P
P
K
h h
h
h
f
∑
=
=
= = ....................................................................................................... (3.6)
where
K = Kfactor
P
1
= eddy current losses on linear load
P
f
= eddy current losses on nonlinear load
h = harmonic number
I
h
= harmonic current (per unit)
One acknowledged problem associated with calculating Kfactors is selecting the most appropriate
range of harmonic frequencies. Based on the upper limit, for example, of 15
th
, 25
th
or 50
th
harmonics,
the calculations can yield significantly different Kfactors for the same load. IEEE 519 (1992)
considers harmonics up the 50
th
. However, in many calculations harmonic orders up to 25
th
are
commonly used.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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In Europe, the Kfactor is termed “Factor K”, with significantly more complicated calculations
according to BS 7821 Part 4:
5 . 0
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\



.

\


.

\

+
+ =
∑
=
+
N n
n
n q
I
I
n
I
I
e
e
K ............................................................................. (3.7)
where
e = eddy current loss at fundamental frequency divided by the loss due to DC current
equal to the rms value of the sinusoidal current, both a reference temperature
n = harmonic number
I = rms value of the sinusoidal current including all harmonics given by:
= ( )
5 . 0
1
2
1
1
5 . 0
1
2
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

=


.

\

∑ ∑
=
=
=
=
N n
n
n
N n
n
n
I
I
I I .................................................................. (3.8)
I
n
= magnitude of nth harmonic
I
1
= magnitude of fundamental current
q = an exponential constant which is dependent on the type of winding and
frequency. Typical values are 1.7 for transformers with round or rectangular
cross sections in both windings and 1.5 for those with foil low voltage windings.
3 Induction Motors
3.1 Thermal Losses
Harmonics distortion raises the losses in AC induction motors in a way very similar to that apparent in
transformers with increased heating, due to additional copper losses and iron losses (eddy current and
hysteresis losses) in the stator winding, rotor circuit and rotor laminations. These losses are further
compounded by skin effect, especially at frequencies above 300 Hz.
Leakage magnetic fields caused by harmonic currents in the stator and rotor end windings produce
additional stray frequency eddy current dependent losses. Substantial iron losses can also be
produced in induction motors with skewed rotors due to highfrequencyinduced currents and rapid
flux changes (i.e., due to hysteresis) in the stator and rotor. The magnitude of the iron losses is
dependent on the iron loss characteristic of the laminations and the angle of skew.
The formulae used to calculate copper losses and eddy current losses used for transformers are also
applicable for induction motors:
R I P
rms CU
2
=
where
P
CU
= total copper losses
I
rms
= total rms current
R = resistance of winding
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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The eddy current losses can be calculated using Equation 3.5:
2
max
1
2
h I P P
h
h
h EF EC ∑
=
=
where
P
EC
= total eddy current losses
P
EF
= eddy current losses at full load at fundamental frequency
I
h
= rms current (per unit) harmonic h
H = harmonic number
Motors with deep bar or double cage rotors are susceptible to additional losses, particularly on highly
polluted supplies containing high order harmonics. This can in extreme cases, lead to “hot rotors”
which, due to conduction along the shaft, can degrade the bearing lubrication and result in bearing
collapse. Harmonic currents also can result in bearing currents. This can be prevented through the
use of an insulated bearing, a practice common in AC variable frequency drivefed AC motors.
Overheating imposes significant limits on the effective life of an induction motor. For every 10°C
rise in temperature (continuous) above rated temperature, the life of motor insulation may be reduced
by as much as 50%. Squirrel cage rotors can normally withstand higher temperature levels compared
to wound rotors.
The motor’s windings, especially if insulation is class B or below, are also susceptible to damage due
high levels of dv/dt (i.e., rate of rise of voltage) such as those attributed to line notching and
associated ringing.
3.2 Effect of Harmonic Sequence Components
Harmonic sequence components also adversely affect induction motors. Positive sequence
components (i.e., 7
th
, 13
th
, 19
th
…) will assist torque production, whereas the negative sequence
components (5
th
, 13
th
, 17
th
…) will act against the direction of rotation resulting in torque pulsations
which are significant. Zero sequence harmonics (i.e., triplens) do not rotate (i.e., they are stationary);
any harmonic energy associated with them is dissipated as heat. The magnitude of torque pulsations
due to sequence components can be estimated as follows to assess possible shaft torsional vibration
problems based on a nominal voltage:
( )  
2 / 1
2 2
3
cos 2
− + − + − +
− − + =
n n n n n n k
I I I I T φ φ per unit....................................................... (3.9)
where
I
n+
, I
n–
= per unit values
n+ = represents the 1 + 3k harmonic orders
n– = represents the 1 – 3k harmonic orders
For example, if we consider a 50 Hz supply with 4% voltage distortion based on motor harmonic
currents of 0.03 and 0.02 per unit for the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics, respectively. Assuming no phase
displacement between harmonics and full value of voltage, the torque will have a varying component
at 300 Hz with an amplitude of torque fluctuation of 0.01 per unit. If the harmonics have the worst
case phase relationship, then the amplitude of the torque fluctuation will be 0.05 per unit
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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3.3 Explosionproof Motors and Voltage Distortion
A practical application of AC induction motors worth noting is that of “explosionproof motors” (i.e.,
flameproof motors). This type of motor relies on the principle that no matter what happens inside the
flameproof enclosure (e.g., an internal explosion) it cannot transmit to the surrounding hazardous
area. While that may be perfectly valid on pure sinusoidal supplies, it may not be so on supplies
distorted by harmonics. An explosionproof motor relies on the flameproof enclosure and
shaftmounted flameproof seals to contain any internal explosion in the event of an escape of gas or
vapor. However, in the presence of harmonics and deep bar or double cage rotors, the rotor may
overheat and degrade the flameproof seals, and if there is an internal explosion (more likely due to
excessive rotor temperatures), it may not be successfully contained but transmit to the external
“hazardous area” with significant consequences. Dependent on the magnitude of the voltage
distortion, the rotor temperature may exceed the motor “T class” [i.e., temperature class (for example,
200°C for T3)]. As detailed above, hot rotors can also result in bearing degradation.
It should also be noted that “explosionproof motors” are designed and certified based on “clean”
sinusoidal supplies. According to EN600341, explosionproof protection concepts EExd (flameproof
motors), EExe (increased safety) and EExp (pressurised) are permitted only 2% voltage distortion
before they are classed “as operating outside the conditions envisaged when they were certified”.
For EExN motors (nonsparking motor) 3% voltage distortion is permitted under EN6003412.
Higher levels of voltage distortion can be accommodated for all protection concepts, subject to special
tests and certification.
Where a certified explosionproof motor is driven by the variable frequency drive, the safety
certificate of the motor is no longer valid unless the safety certification has been based on the tests
using that particular variable frequency drive.
In North America, NEMA standard MG1 “Application Considerations for Constant Speed motors
used on Sinusoidal Bus with Harmonic Content and General Purpose Motors used with Variable
Voltage or Variable Frequency Controls or both” proposes the amount of motor derating necessary for
both fixedspeed motors on distorted supplies or those fed by variable frequency supplies, as
illustrated by Section 3, Figure 4. MG1 refers to explosionproof motors, on distorted supplies, for
use in hazardous areas to NEMA 30.02.2.11.
FIGURE 4
Proposed NEMA Derating Curve for Harmonic Voltages
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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The “Harmonic Voltage Factor” (HVF) can be defined as:
∑
∞ =
=
=
n
n
n
n
V
HVF
5
2
............................................................................................................... (3.10)
where
n = odd harmonic, not including triplens
V
n
= per unit magnitude of the voltage at the nth harmonic
Example 2
Calculate the HVF based on the per unit harmonic voltages of 0.09, 0.065, 0.042, 0.038 for
the 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
harmonics, respectively.
HVF =
∑
∞ =
=
n
n
n
n
V
5
2
HVF =
13
038 . 0
.
11
042 . 0
7
068 . 0
5
09 . 0
2 2 2 2
+ + +
HVF = 0.0505 (or 5.05% voltage distortion)
4 Variable Speed Drives
Electrical variable speed drives of all types (i.e., AC or DC) use power semiconductors to rectify the
AC input voltage and current and thereby create harmonics. However, these can be also susceptible
to disruption and component damage due to input line harmonics.
However, harmonics can be beneficial for drives as they cause flattening of the peak voltage (i.e.,
termed “flat topping” – see Subsection 3/7, “Computers and Computer Based Equipment,” for more
details) which reduces the stress on rectifiers. Conversely, large numbers of 2pulse drives (or other
singlephase nonlinear loads) can increase the peaktopeak voltage magnitudes, increasing stress the
on rectifiers.
Generally, the larger rating a drive is, the more it is immune to the effects of harmonics and line
notching. Line commutated inverters (LCIs, also known as “current source inverters” when used on
smaller induction motor applications) and cycloconverters are more commonly used in higher ratings
(i.e., above 2000 HP). These are assumed to be relatively immune to the normal level of harmonics.
Both harmonics and line notching effect variable speed drives. The effect of line notching is more
pronounced when the drive(s) is at low speed and high load. Ringing, associated with line notching is
also problematic.
Small, singlephase (2pulse) PWM drives with no reactors have high levels of I
thd
, often up to
130140% including a large 3
rd
harmonic which adds cumulatively in the neutral conductor,
significantly increasing the neutral current up to 173% of phase current and increasing neutralto
ground voltages. The resultant excessive localized harmonic current can be reflected into the DC bus,
causing overheating on the smoothing capacitors. Ringing associated with line notching increases DC
bus levels at no or light loading with consequential overvoltage tripping.
2pulse (i.e., singlephase) and small 6pulse SCR DC drives which do not have commutating reactors
or isolation transformers can misfire in the presence of line notching and/or high levels of harmonic
current.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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Small 6pulse PWM (“pulse width modulation”) drives (i.e., up to 10 HP/7.5 kW) usually have no AC
line or DC bus reactors. On supplies with line notching, any overshoot may increase the DC bus
voltage on noload or light load, resulting in drive “overvoltage trip”. Larger PWM drives with a
simple input diode bridge with either AC line or DC bus reactors are usually relatively robust and can
operate in a harmonics environment without significant problems.
AC PWM drives with SCRs for precharge (i.e., “soft starting” of DC bus voltage) or for variable
voltage DC bus control may experience misfiring of SCRs due to incorrect or irregular conduction
and excessive heating of DC bus capacitors and smoothing reactors if the supply voltage is
significantly contaminated by line notching or high levels of harmonics. Line notching can also result
in excessive heating of SCR snubber components.
Standard 6pulse AC PWM drives, the most common type used, are relatively robust and can usually
withstand line disturbances due to harmonics below 5% V
thd
. Above 1015 HP (7.511 kW), most
drives “filter” the harmonics to varying degrees using AC line reactors, and in some cases, passive
filters (i.e., this also applies to drives with “active front ends” which synthesize an input sinusoidal
current wave shape. These need special filtering to attenuate the input bridge carrier frequency
affecting the supply system and to reduce the overall EMI which is significantly more than emitted
from standard diode or SCR precharge input stages).
6pulse SCR DC drives above 10 HP/7.5 kW usually have AC commutating reactors or isolation
transformers installed between the drive and the line to attenuate the line notches on the supply side.
These also reduce the effects of line notching and harmonics impressed on the drive. However, if the
line notching or levels of harmonic current are significant, SCR misfiring can result, possibly blowing
fuses or tripping circuit breakers downstream.
Phase displacement transformers (i.e., for 12, 18, 24pulse…) for AC or DC drives reduce the
effects of downstream harmonics and line notching at the drive terminals.
On weak supplies (i.e., supplies with high source impedance), voltage “flat topping” (see Section 3,
Figures 5 and 6) can occur, reducing the DC bus voltage levels, which prevents the drive from
achieving the nominal power output for drive and the motor. In addition, it can reduce the drive
ridethrough in the event of line disturbances and increase the output current to the motor, thereby
raising its temperature due to additional I
2
R losses.
FIGURE 5
AC PWM Drive Current Distortion on Weak Source
0.0 Units
20.0
40.0
60.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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FIGURE 6
PWM Drive “Flat Topping” due to Weak Source
0.0 V×10
20.0
40.0
60.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
80.0
Unwanted “electrical noise” (i.e., EMI) can be induced into drive signal and control cables, if power
cabling is not sufficiently segregated from the control cables or if shielding or grounding is not
adequate, resulting in spurious command and feedback signals into the drive. In severe cases, where
rerouting cabling is not feasible, the retrofitting of low pass filters to drive input may be necessary.
Control relays may fail to operate correctly and measuring equipment may be adversely effected.
Note: Filtering of the drive high frequency currents is not normally possible in IT power systems (insulated neutrals).
The voltage across any input EMC filter capacitors would be 1.73 times higher in the event of a ground fault,
damaging or destroying the filter capacitors.
5 Lighting
5.1 Flicker
One noticeable effect on lighting is the phenomenon of “flicker” (i.e., repeated fluctuations in light
intensity). Lighting is highly sensitive to rms voltage changes; even a deviation of 0.25% is
perceptible to the human eye in some types of lamps.
The severity of the flicker is dependent on a number of factors including:
• The type of light (incandescent, fluorescent or high intensity discharge)
• The magnitude of the voltage fluctuations
• The “frequency” of the voltage fluctuations
• The “gain factor” of the lamp (i.e., % relative change in light level divided by % relative fluctuation
in rms voltage)
• The amount of ambient light in lighted area
Superimposed interharmonic voltages in the supply voltage are a significant cause of light flicker in
both incandescent and fluorescent lamps, albeit at different levels of intensity.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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Incandescent lamps at higher voltages are usually more susceptible to voltage changes due to smaller
filaments and shorter time constants than lamps of similar power rating but lower voltage. In
fluorescent lamps, the type of ballast used impacts on the amount of flicker. The older, magnetic type
ballasts are more susceptible to flicker than the more modern, high frequency types.
The luminous flux (i.e., light intensity in “lumens”) of lamps under voltage fluctuations can be
expressed by:
6 . 3


.

\

Φ = Φ
n
n V
V
V
for incandescent lamps................................................................ (3.11)
and
8 . 1


.

\

Φ = Φ
n
n V
V
V
for fluorescent lamps .................................................................. (3.12)
where Φ
V
is luminous flux at rated voltage, V
n
.
Any voltage fluctuations also impact on the life of lamps, which may have safety implications for the
vessel. In the case of incandescent lamps, the reduction in working life with changes in voltage can
be expressed as:
14 −


.

\

=
n
V
V
V
T .................................................................................................................... (3.13)
where durability at rated voltage, V
n
, usually equates to 1000 hrs.
5.2 Effects of Line Notching on Lighting
Line notching will also effects lighting to varying degrees. The consequential reduction in rms
voltage will cause a reduction in the intensity of illumination, especially in incandescent lamps. If the
notches are severe or where ringing occurs, transient suppression may be necessary at lighting
distribution board level to protect the individual light fittings.
Fluorescent fittings used with occupancy sensors which are based on zero crossover detection may
experience difficulties if the notching is severe and multiple crossovers result.
5.3 Potential for Resonance
The interaction between harmonic current and power factor correction capacitors inside individual
fluorescent lighting units can result in parallel resonances being excited between the capacitors and
power system inductances resulting in damage of the lighting units. Ideally, individual power factor
correction should be avoided and group power factor correction with detuning reactors should be
installed at lighting distribution panel level.
6 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
Due to the phenomenal increase in “power quality”sensitive loads such as computers and navigation
or radio communications equipment, uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) are now commonly
provided and can range from a 100 VA to several MVA.
UPS are very similar in architecture to variable speed drives. Therefore, the effects of harmonics on
components within UPS systems will be almost identical with additional heating on power devices,
smoothing capacitors and inductors, where installed. Batteries may overheat due to excessive
harmonics and interharmonics on the DC side of the rectifier.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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Excessive voltage distortion or notching/ringing can cause misfiring of input rectifier SCRs possibly
resulting in fuse rupture. On high levels of distortion, bypass sensing circuits may disable the bypass
circuit, inhibiting the alarm system advising of problems in the bypass system.
If resonance occurs, perhaps due to the UPS input filter, UPS may shut down, displaying a “loss of
AC supply” alarm and bypass to inverter mode. In the presence of harmonics, the UPS line side filter
(to reduce the harmonics from the rectifier input stage) may act as a sink (i.e., attract harmonic
currents from upstream) damaging the harmonic filter.
It should be noted that UPS systems do also produce harmonic currents. This will be discussed in
Section 4.
7 Computers and Computer Based Equipment
The majority of computer based equipment derives the internal voltage supplies from switched mode
or similar power supply units and it is often here where harmonic problems are noticed.
Section 2, Figure 7 shows the current drawn from the supply by SMPS with two pulses per cycle
while the SMPS capacitors are charging. As can be seen in Section 3, Figure 7, below, the pulsed
nature of the current causes a voltage drop at the peak of the voltage wave.
FIGURE 7
Voltage “Flat Topping” due to Pulse Currents
Voltage flat topping reduces the operating DC bus voltage (Section 3, Figure 8), resulting in increased
current being drawn and increased I
2
R losses in the equipment and associated cabling, which can
manifest itself in early life failure of components due to high operating temperatures.
FIGURE 8
Effect of DC Bus Voltage with Flat Topping
Higher voltage trace = Normal DC bus level
Lower voltage trace = DC bus volts due to flat topping
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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Example 3
Determine the per unit increase in I
2
R losses based on a 10% decrease in DC bus voltage due
to flat topping.
P = V ⋅ I
where
P = power (per unit)
V = voltage (per unit)
I = current (per unit)
If V is 0.9 per unit, 11 . 1
9 . 0
0 . 1
= = =
V
P
I per unit
P
loss
= I
2
R = (1.11)
2
⋅ (1) = 1.23 per unit
Power losses increase by 23%
Note: The above is only valid for circuits where the current is not limited and power control is dominant. If
passive components predominate in the circuit, the impedance will remain mostly unchanged and current
will decrease in proportion with the voltage. In the case of AC PWM drives (single or threephase
input), the current is not permitted to rise above a predetermined value by the current control system.
Similarly, Section 3, Figure 9 shows how the reduction in DC bus voltage on the capacitors
reduces the stored energy within the power supply thus reducing its ridethrough capability.
FIGURE 9
Flat Topping Reducing Supply Ridethrough
Higher voltage trace = Normal DC bus level
Lower voltage trace = DC bus volts due to flat topping
The energy available from the DC capacitors during ridethrough can be expressed as:
( )
2
2
2
1
1
V V C
C
W
R
− = ............................................................................................. (3.14)
where
V
1
= normal voltage (per unit)
V
2
= reduced voltage (per unit)
C = value of capacitor
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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Example 4
Determine the reduction in ridethrough capability in SMPS due to flat topping and 10%
decrease in peak voltage. Assume a system dropout voltage of 70%.
V
1
= 1 per unit, V
2
= 0.7 per unit
At normal voltage, V
1
⋅ W
R
= (1
2
– 0.7
2
) = 0.51 per unit
At 10% reduction (0.9 per unit) = (0.9
2
– 0.7
2
) = 0.32 per unit
Therefore, reduction in ridethrough = % 100
51 . 0
32 . 0 51 . 0
×
−
= 37%
Note: The above effects are similar to those experiences by singlephase and threephase AC PWM drives
which a diode rectifier and capacitive DC bus.
8 Cables
8.1 Thermal Losses
Cable losses, dissipated as heat, are substantially increased when carrying harmonic currents due to
elevated I
2
R losses, the cable resistance, R, determined by its DC value plus skin and proximity effect.
As stated in Equation 2.7, the rms current I
rms
in a distorted current waveform can be calculates thus:
( )dt t i
T
I
T
rms
∫
=
0
2
1
=
∑
∞
=1
2
h
h
I =
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
.....
n
I I I I + + +
therefore:
2
100
1 
.

\

+ =
thd
FUND rms
I
I I
Example 5
Calculate the rms current carried by a power cable based on a current total harmonic
distortion (I
thd
) of 42% and fundamental current of 600 A.
I
rms
=
2
42 . 0 1 600 +
I
rms
= 651 A
Ignoring the effects of skin and proximity effects, the I
2
R losses in the cable due to harmonic
currents would increase by:
% 100
600
651
2
× 
.

\

= 17.73% compared to heating effect at fundamental frequency.
8.2 Skin and Proximity Effects
The resistance of a conductor is dependent on the frequency of the current being carried. Skin effect is
a phenomenon whereby current tends to flow near the surface of a conductor where the impedance is
least. An analogous phenomenon, proximity effect, is due to the mutual inductance of conductors
arranged closely parallel to one another. Both of these effects are dependent upon conductor size,
frequency, resistivity and the permeability of the conductor material.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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At fundamental frequencies, the skin effect and proximity effects are usually negligible, at least for
smaller conductors. The associated losses due to changes in resistance, however, can increase
significantly with frequency, adding to the overall I
2
R losses.
The harmonic frequencies produce a ratio of AC to DC resistance, k
c
, which can be defined as:
PE SE
DC
AC
c
k k
R
R
k + + = = 1 ................................................................................................ (3.15)
where
k
SE
= resistance gain due to skin effect
k
PE
= resistance gain due to proximity effect
Skin effect parameter, x, as a function of frequency and DC resistance can be found in cable
handbooks, but can also be expressed as:
DC
R
u f
x
.
027678 . 0 = ......................................................................................................... (3.16)
where
f = frequency, in Hz
u = magnetic permeability of the conductor
R
DC
= DC resistance in ohms/304.8 m (1000 ft)
The resistance gain due to proximity effect can be expressed by:


.

\

+
+
=
2 2
312 . 0
27 . 0
18 . 1
σ σ
SE
SE PE
k
k k ............................................................................. (3.17)
where σ is the ratio of the conductor diameter and the axial spacing between conductors.
Section 3, Figure 10 plots the AC/DC resistance ratio, k
c
, at different harmonic numbers of four sizes of
power cable with conductors, 500 kcmil, 4/0 AWG, 1/0 AWG and 12 AWG. The spacing used to obtain
the σ values for the four cable types is based on National Electric Code (NEC) insulation type THHN.
FIGURE 10
Cable AC/DC Resistance, k
c
as a Function of Harmonic Numbers
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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Section 3, Figures 11 and 12 illustrate the difference of varying harmonic numbers on both proximity
effect and skin effect for 12 AWG and 4/0 AWG cable, respectively. As can be noted, the proximity
effect is more significant in the smaller cable, whereas with the large cable, the proximity effect may
be more significant at lower frequencies but not at higher frequencies. Therefore, it can be noted that
proximity effects due to harmonics tends to be the more significant in power cables.
FIGURE 11
4/0 AWG Cable – Proximity and Skin Effect due to Harmonics
FIGURE 12
12 AWG Cable – Proximity and Skin Effect due to Harmonics
8.3 Neutral Conductors in Fourwire Systems
On fourwire distribution systems, such as now installed on large passenger vessels, which may have
a large percentage of nonlinear loads (e.g., computers, ballast lighting, etc.), a large component of
triplen harmonics are often present. The phase currents do not cancel in the neutral conductors as
with linear loading but sum in the neutral conductor.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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The overloading on the conductors (and the distribution transformer primary, assuming deltawye
configuration), can be significant (up to 173% of phase current), therefore, the neutral current should
be dimensioned accordingly or mitigation equipment installed to attenuate the level of triplen
harmonics. In addition, triplen currents are problematic on generators due to the associated additional
temperature rise on the machines.
Refer to 4/1.2 for further information.
8.4 Additional Effects Associated with Harmonics
Harmonic currents can on occasion excite parallel resonance between cable capacitance and system
inductances, especially when very long cable lengths are used. This has been documented on offshore
installations when platforms with no onboard generating capacity are supplied from other platforms a
considerable distance away by long subsea cables.
Harmonic voltages increase the dielectric stress on cables, thereby decreasing the reliability and the
working life of cables in proportion to the crest voltages.
Power cables carrying harmonic loads act to introduce EMI (electromagnetic interference) in adjacent
signal or control cables via conducted and radiated emissions. This “EMI noise” has a detrimental
effect on telephones, televisions, radios, computers, control systems and other types of equipment.
Correct procedures with regard to grounding and segregation within enclosures and in external wiring
systems must be adopted to minimize EMI.
9 Measuring Equipment
Conventional meters are normally designed to read sinusoidalbased quantities. Nonlinear voltages
and currents impressed on these types of meters introduce errors into the measurement circuits which
result in false readings.
Conventional meters are calibrated to respond to rms values. Root mean square (rms) can be defined
as the magnitude of sinusoidal current which is the value of an equivalent direct current which would
produce the same amount of heat in a fixed resistive load which is proportional to the square of the
current averaged over one full cycle of the waveform (i.e., the heat produced is proportional to the
mean of the square; therefore the current is proportional to the “root mean square”).
Refer to Section 3, Figure 13. For a pure sine wave, the rms value is 0.707 times the peak value and
the peak value is 1.414 times the rms value). If the magnitude of the sine wave is “averaged” (i.e., the
negative half cycle is inverted) the mean value will be 0.636 times the peak value or 0.9 times the rms
value.
For a sine wave, these two important ratios relevant to current and voltage measurement can be derived:
value rms
value Peak
factor Peak = ................................................................................................ (3.18)
value Mean
value rms
factor Form = .............................................................................................. (3.19)
Most analogue meters and a large number of digital multimeters are designed to read voltage and
current quantities based on a technique termed “average reading, rms calibrated”. This technique
entails taking a measurement of the average (or mean) value (0.636 × peak) and multiplying the result
by the form factor (1.11 for a sine wave). The result is 0.7071 times the peak value, which is
displayed as “rms”. This assumption is valid only for pure sinusoidal waveforms.
However, only “true rms” instruments are capable of accurately measure distorted values.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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FIGURE 13
Peak and rms Values of Sinusoidal Waveform
The difficulty in accurately measuring distorted values with conventional meters is illustrated by the
current drawn by a switched mode power supply (Section 3, Figure 14). Using a true rms meter, the
real current is 1.0 A, the peak value of 2.6 A with an average of 0.55 A. Using a conventional
“average reading, calibrated rms” meter the “rms current” displayed would be 0.61 A, almost 40%
lower than the real current value.
FIGURE 14
Difficulties Conventional Meters Have Reading Distorted Waveforms
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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The “crest factor” of a waveform can be defined as:
value rms
value Peak
factor Crest = ................................................................................................ (3.20)
For a pure sine wave, the crest factor is 1.414 (1.0/0.707). For pulsed waveforms, this will be
significantly higher. The higher the crest factor a true rms instrument has, the more accurate it will be
in the measurement of distorted waveforms. The use of meters with crest factors less than three (3) is
not recommended.
Standard toroidaltype current transformers used for measuring distorted currents must be of high
quality, with linear response and a very wide bandwidth in order to accurately read frequencies up to
50
th
harmonic (3 kHz based on 60 Hz fundamental). Hall Effect currents transducers, commonly used
with probable instruments (e.g., harmonic analyzers, power meters, etc.) do accurately measure
nonlinear currents, but should be calibrated on a regular basis.
On high voltage networks, magnetic voltage transformers designed to operate on fundamental
frequencies are commonly used. For use up to 11 kV, this type of voltage transformer can measure
harmonic voltages under 5 kHz (i.e., 83
rd
harmonic at 60 Hz fundamental) to an accuracy of around
3%, provided no resonance is introduced which causes phase and ratio errors. The response of the
transformer is largely dependent on the burden used on the LV side, whereas the bandwidth is limited
by the frequency response of the magnetic core, the windingtowinding, windingtoground and turn
toturn capacitance, plus other stray capacitance.
The accurate measurement of power factor does present a problem with nonlinear loads when two
different power factors are present (see Section 5): the “displacement power factor”, which is the
power factor of the fundamental component only and the “true” or “real” power factor, which includes
both the fundamental and harmonic components. In a sine wave, the power factor is simply a measure
of the cosine of phase angle between voltage and current; this is not valid for nonlinear loads. The
way to accurately measure nonlinear power factor is to measure the average instantaneous power and
divide it by the product of the true rms voltage and true rms current:
( )
trms trms
inst
I V
P
.
cos True = φ .................................................................................................. (3.21)
where
cos φ = nonlinear load true power factor
P
inst
= average instantaneous power (kW)
V
trms
= true rms voltage
I
trms
= true rms current
The above method is commonly used in digital power instrumentation.
Note: Any telemetry, protection or other equipment which relies on conventional measurement techniques or the heating
effect of current will not operate correctly in the presence of nonlinear loads. The consequences of under measure
can be significant; overloaded cables may go undetected with the risk of catching fire. Busbars and cables may
prematurely age. Fuses and circuit breakers will not offer the expected level of protection. It is therefore
important that only instruments based on true rms techniques be used on power systems supplying nonlinear loads.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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10 Telephones
On ships and offshore installations where power conductors carrying nonlinear loads and internal
telephone signal cable are run in parallel, it is likely that voltages will be induced in the telephone
cables. The frequency range, 540 Hz to 1200 Hz (9
th
harmonic to 20
th
harmonic at 60 Hz
fundamental) can be troublesome. On fourwire systems where a large number of singlephase
nonlinear loads are present (for example, large amounts of fluorescent lighting or large numbers of
lighting dimmers and/or singlephase AC inverter drives on cruise liners), triplen harmonics are
troublesome as they are present in all threephase conductors and cumulatively add in the neutral
conductor. The use of twisted pair cables and correct shielding/grounding, as well as correct levels of
spacing and segregation should minimize potential problems.
There is also the possibility of both conducted and radiated interference above normal harmonic
frequencies with telephone systems and other equipment due to variable speed drives and other
nonlinear loads, especially at high carrier frequencies. EMI filters at the inputs may have to be
installed on drives and other equipment to minimize the possibility of inference. However, this is
often difficult when the vessel or offshore installation is based on an IT power systems (insulated
neutrals), and in such instances, other measures have to be adopted.
11 Circuit Breakers
The vast majority of low voltage thermalmagnetic type circuit breakers utilize bimetallic trip
mechanisms which respond to the heating effect of the rms current. In the presence of nonlinear
loads, the rms value of current will be higher than for linear loads of same power. Therefore, unless
the current trip level is adjusted accordingly, the breaker may trip prematurely while carrying
nonlinear current.
Circuit breakers are designed to interrupt the current at a zero crossover. On highly distorted supplies
which may contain line notching and/or ringing, spurious “zero crossovers” may cause premature
interruption of circuit breakers before they can operate correctly in the event of an overload or fault.
However, in the case of a short circuit current, the magnitude of the harmonic current will be very
minor in comparison to the fault current.
The original type peaksensing, electronictype circuit breaker responds to the peak value of
fundamental current. When carrying harmonic current, this type of breaker may not operate correctly
due to the peak value of nonlinear currents being higher than for respective linear loads. This type of
breaker therefore may trip prematurely at relatively low levels of harmonic current.
New designs of electronic breakers include both methods of protection; peak current detection and
rms current sensing. The peak detection method of protection, however, may still trip on relatively
low values of peak harmonic current and trip levels therefore may have to be readjusted accordingly.
Similarly, the rmssensing measures the heating effect of the rms current (as per the conventional
thermalmagnetic type) and may also have to be readjusted to prevent premature tripping on nonlinear
loads.
The failure of large air circuit breakers has on occasion been attributed to harmonic distortion which
delays the operation of the blowout coils, especially in cases of high levels of distortion and low
current. In these instances, the failure of the blowout coil prolongs the arcing period and may cause
reignition of the arc, resulting in failure of the breaker to operate correctly. Vacuumtype circuit
breakers, which use magnetic blowout systems, are less susceptible to harmonics.
Note: Guidance may have to be sought from circuit breaker manufacturers regarding trip level adjustments for nonlinear
loads.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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12 Fuses
Fuse rupture under overcurrent or shortcircuit conditions is based on the heating effect of the rms
current according to the respective I
2
t characteristic. The higher the rms current, the faster the fuse
will operate. On nonlinear loads, the rms current will be higher than for similarlyrated linear loads,
therefore fuse derating may be necessary to prevent premature opening.
In addition, fuses at harmonic frequencies, suffer from skin effect and more importantly, proximity
effect, resulting in nonuniform current distribution across the fuse elements, placing additional
thermal stress on the device.
At fundamental frequency, the power loss in the fuses equals:
P
N
= I
N
2
⋅ R
N
2
..................................................................................................................... (3.22)
where I
N
and R
N
are the nominal fuse rated current and resistance at the fundamental frequency.
At harmonic frequencies the resistance of the fuse will increase to a value, R
H
therefore the nominal
fuse current rating needs to be decreased to a value, I
H
to maintain the total power losses, and hence
temperature of the fuse elements, within the value at fundamental frequency, P
H
.
The derating factor, F
P
can be expressed as:
H
N
N
H
p
R
R
I
I
F = = .............................................................................................................. (3.23)
where
I
H
= derated value of current due to harmonics
I
N
= fuse nominal current at fundamental frequency
R
H
= fuse resistance due to harmonic frequencies
R
N
= fuse resistance at fundamental frequency
Note: The above formula is used for general guidance only. Fuse manufacturers should be contacted for advice on the
correct level derating for a particular application.
13 Relays
Conventional electromechanical control relays are rarely susceptible to harmonic problems as the
operating coils are usually low voltage (e.g., 24 V) or fed via stepdown transformers which attenuate
the harmonics. However, where the voltage supply to conventional control relays does contain harmonic
voltages or current, they may tend to operate more slowly and/or with higher pickup values and may
experience early life failure due to additional heating within the coil. Solid state relays may be
stressed when subjected to high levels of harmonic distortion and/or line notching thus reducing reliability.
Protection relays usually fall into three types: electromechanical, solid state and microprocessor
based. Electromechanical relays are operated via the torque proportional to the square of the flux
determined by the input current. This type of relay responds to the rms value of current. Solid state
relays normally respond to the peak value of the input signal. The operation of both types of relay
may be affected by harmonics, although the voltage distortion, V
thd
, usually has to reach levels of 10
20% before significant operational problems occur. The exact performance will vary depending on the
relay specification and the manufacture.
Microprocessorbased relays, which can use either rms current or peak values (or both) are more
sophisticated and normally utilize digital filters to extract the fundamental component of the signal
value. The nonfundamental components can therefore be attenuated.
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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14 Radio, Television, Audio and Video Equipment
Radios and televisions are susceptible to interference by harmonics both radiated and conducted,
especially on LW and AM bands, from DC up to 150 kHz, which is above normal harmonic
frequencies (50
th
harmonic at 60 Hz fundamental is 3 kHz) and into RFI frequency ranges (radio
frequency interference).
Audio and video signals can be affected on fourwire systems due to high groundtoneutral voltages.
15 Capacitors
Conventional power factor correction equipment is rarely installed on ships or offshore installations.
Therefore, it is not necessary to describe the interaction between harmonics and power factor
correction capacitors, which are generally installed in industrial plants and commercial buildings.
Fluorescent lighting, as installed across the shorebased industries, does, however, normally have
capacitors fitted internally to improve the individual light fitting’s own power factor.
In general, the effects of harmonics on general capacitors can be summarized as follows:
• Capacitors act as a “sink” for harmonic currents (i.e., they attract and absorb harmonics) due to
the fact that their capacitive reactance decreases with frequency. The capacitors can become
easily overloaded, destroying capacitors and blowing fuses where fitted.
• Capacitors (and on occasion, cable capacitance) combine with source and other inductances to
form a parallel resonant circuit (see Section 9). In the presence of harmonics, the harmonics are
amplified causing high, often localized, voltages and currents to flow, disrupting and/or damaging
plant and equipment.
• The presence of harmonics, especially voltage harmonics, tend to increase the dielectric losses on
capacitors increasing the operating temperature and reduces the reliability.
The dielectric loss can be expressed by:
( )
2
1
tan
n n
n
V C ω δ
∑
∞
=
............................................................................................................... (3.24)
where
tan δ = R/(1/ωC) is the loss factor
ω
n
= 2πf
n
V = rms voltage of nth harmonic
For capacitors directly connected to the power system without series reactance, the additional thermal
stress can be approximately calculated via the assistance of a special capacitor weight THD (total
harmonic distortion) factor, defined using:
( )
1
1
2
V
nV
THD
N
n
n
C
∑
=
= ......................................................................................................... (3.25)
where
V
1
= fundamental rms voltage
V
n
= rms voltage of the nth harmonic
Section 3 Effects of Harmonics
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As described in Section 9, the presence of capacitors in the power system can result in series and
parallel resonances leading to overvoltages and high currents, with subsequent damage to equipment
and additional risks to personnel. However, as conventional capacitorbased power factor correction
equipment is rarely used in the marine sector, the possibility of resonance may only exist due to
fluorescent lighting integral power factor correction capacitors, cable capacitance and due to other
equipment using “external” (i.e., directly connected to the power system), for example, starting
capacitors on singlephase motors.
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S E C T I O N 4 Sources of Harmonics
Many types of electrical and electronic equipment which are adversely affected by harmonic voltages
and currents also produce them in varying degrees, due to, for example, semiconductor power
conversion or magnetic saturation in the case of transformers.
1 Distribution Systems with Singlephase Nonlinear Loads
1.1 Threewire Distribution Systems
Threewire, distribution systems (i.e., IT power systems with insulated neutrals) are one of the
common types of systems used on vessels for distribution due to the ease of locating and rectifying
ground faults and for security of supply of essential equipment during ground faults.
In threewire systems, unlike the fourwire system detailed below, no “zero sequence harmonics”
should exist. If they do exist, however, their phase sequence is determined by the phase angle of the
3
rd
harmonic current (and other triplens) and its current magnitude in each of the three phases. In a
threewire balanced system, therefore, the 3
rd
harmonics usually cancel out.
However, depending on the type and nature of the nonlinear loads(s), other harmonic currents will be
present in the system, usually in the order 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
… and perhaps some uncharacteristic
harmonics, including DC and even orders. These harmonics will be very similar to those described
for fourwire systems but with no 3
rd
harmonic present.
1.2 Fourwire Distribution Systems
On large passenger liners, it is now relatively common to use fourwire systems [i.e., threephase and
neutral (grounded or insulated)] for “domestic” supplies, including lighting, in order to minimize
inconvenience to passengers in the event of a ground fault. Large or multiple singlephase nonlinear
loads can be problematic on fourwire systems due to significant triplen harmonics caused by their
cumulative addition in the neutral conductor, resulting in:
• Overloaded and overheating neutral conductors
• Overheated delta winding in distribution transformers
• High groundtoneutral voltages
• Distortion of voltage waveform (flat topping)
• Poor power factor
As can be seen in Section 4, Figure 1, the phase current’s return path is via the neutral conductor. In a
fourwire distribution system with only linear loads, the 120degree phase shift between linear load
currents results in their balanced portions canceling out in the neutral.
However, in distribution systems with nonlinear or mixed linear and nonlinear loads, the current on
one phase will not have a “pulse” on either of the two other phases with which to cancel with (see
Section 4, Figure 2). These current pulses add together in the neutral conductor, which can carry up
to 173% of phase current, even if all phases are completely balanced. The frequency of the neutral
current is predominately 180 Hz (for 60 Hz supplies) and mainly 3
rd
harmonic and other triplens.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 1
Fourwire System
Linear Phase Currents Return via Neutral Conductor
where Balanced Phase Current Cancel Out
FIGURE 2
Triplen Harmonics Add Up Cumulatively in Neutral Conductors
with Singlephase Nonlinear Loads in Fourwire System
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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Section 4, Figure 3 illustrates an example of a neutral current waveform on a fourwire installation
with a large number of singlephase nonlinear loads.
FIGURE 3
Neutral Current due to Triplen Harmonics
(150 Hz for 50 Hz Supply) on Fourwire System
Sectoin 4, Figure 4 displays the harmonic spectrum associated with the fourwire system neutral
current waveform illustrated in Section 4, Figure 3. Note the presence of 3
rd
and 9
th
(triplen
harmonics) and relatively low level of fundamental current.
FIGURE 4
Harmonic Spectrum Associated with Neutral Current
Waveform Shown in Figure 3
The importance of large numbers of singlephase, nonlinear loads is often underestimated. Large
vessels such as cruise ships have large hotel loads often comprising large number of televisions,
computers, lighting dimmers, UPS systems, fluorescent lighting, small singlephase cooling fan
variable frequency drives and other nonlinear loads. This produces considerable harmonic currents at
characteristic frequencies.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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On nonpassenger vessels, the amount of fourwire (singlephase) nonlinear load can also be
significant. The low voltage supplies, fed via distribution transformers, have relatively high source
impedance resulting in significant distortion of the voltage waveform. The low voltage supplies are
important since the sensitive equipment is connected to it. Appropriate harmonic mitigation may be
necessary on distribution systems to reduce the voltage distortion to within permissible levels, thus
maintaining the safety of the vessel and the operational integrity and reliability of connected
equipment.
2 Singlephase Nonlinear Loads
Computerbased equipment and fluorescent lighting represent substantial loading on marine and
offshore fourwire distribution systems, especially on larger vessels, such as cruise liners.
Other significant nonlinear singlephase loads include singlephase variable speed drives, lighting
dimmers, UPS systems, televisions and video recorders. In small numbers, these types of loads
usually are not problematic. However, on large cruise liners, these loads can be significant, creating
substantial voltage distortion on the fourwire distribution system and with possible additional
overloading of the neutral conductors.
2.1 Computerbased Equipment
The majority of computerbased equipment, for example navigation and control systems, have
switched mode power supply (SMPS) units similar to that depicted in Section 4, Figure 5, below.
FIGURE 5
Typical Switched Mode Power Supply for Computer Based Equipment
As described in Section 2, the SMPS unit only draws current from the supply when the rectified
voltage is greater than the DC bus voltage. Typical resultant current and voltage waveforms are
illustrated in Section 4, Figure 6 with a typical harmonic current spectrum illustrated in Section 4,
Figure 7.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 6
Typical Voltage and Current Waveforms Associated
with a Switched Mode Power Supply
FIGURE 7
Harmonic Current Spectrum of Typical Switched Mode Power Supply
I
thd
is 128%
Typical Switched Mode Power Supply Current Spectrum
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
Harmonic No
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
h
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
d
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
As can be seen from Section 4, Figure 7, significant odd zero sequence triplen harmonics (3
rd
, 9
th
15
th
,
21
st
) harmonics are generated, which add due to other nonlinear singlephase loads in the neutral
conductor in fourwire systems, as illustrated in Section 4, Figure 8. Note that the frequency of the
neutral current depicted in Section 4, Figure 8 is 180 Hz (60 Hz fundamental).
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 8
Typical Neutral Current due to Triplen Harmonics
in Connected Loads on a Fourwire System
2.2 Fluorescent Lighting
Fluorescent lighting represents substantial loading on marine and offshore fourwire distribution
systems, especially larger vessels such as cruise liners.
Fluorescent lights are classed as discharge lamps as they need a “ballast” to initiate the high voltage
between the two electrodes in order to facilitate current flow. Once the arc is initiated and the current
increases, the voltage reduces. After, initiating the high voltage, the ballast also provides a measure
of current limiting for the light fitting.
The total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) and harmonic current spectrum of fluorescent lighting is
dependent on the type of ballast employed. Two types of ballast are in use; the iron cored magnetic
ballast, essentially a transformer combined with a capacitor, and the newer electronic ballast. The
latter utilizes a switched mode power supply to convert the fundamental frequency to a higher
frequency, usually around 2540 kHz. A small inductor is also used in the electronic type to limit the
current.
As an example, for comparison purposes, the phase voltage, phase current and neutral current
waveforms associated with distribution panels supplying wholly fluorescent lighting, using both
magnetic and electronic ballasts are illustrated below.
Section 4, Figures 9 and 10, below, depict an electrical load wholly comprising fluorescent lighting
with magnetic ballasts and T12 lamps. The total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) for phase currents
was 13.9% and for the neutral current, 141.3%
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 9
Waveforms for Lighting Panel Comprising Fluorescent Lighting
with Magnetic Ballasts and T12 Lamps
FIGURE 10
Neutral Current Waveform on Distribution Panel with Fluorescent
Lighting with Magnetic Ballasts and T12 Lamps on a Fourwire System
Similarly, Section 4, Figures 11 and 12, below, depict the same lighting panel with electrical load
wholly comprising fluorescent lighting with electronic ballasts and T8 lamps. The total harmonic
current distortion (I
thd
) for phase currents was 17.2% and for the neutral current, 85.3%.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 11
Same Lighting Panel as per Figure 9, but with Electronic Ballasts
(Instead of Magnetic Types) and T8 Lamps
FIGURE 12
Neutral Current Waveform on Same Fluorescent Lighting Panel as Figure
10, but with Electronic Ballasts and T8 Lamps on Fourwire System
As can be seen with reference to Section 4, Figures 13 and 14, fluorescent lighting with electronic
ballast have significantly less triplen harmonics (3
rd
, 9
th
…) than magnetic types, which suggests that
the additive effect in the neutral conductor discussed earlier will be significantly reduced. However,
as can also be seen, electronic ballasts have an increased harmonic spectrum up to around the 33
rd
harmonic. The resultant I
thd
for the phase currents for magnetic and electronic ballasts were 12.8%
and 16.3%, respectively. In the neutral conductors, the difference in I
thd
for magnetic and electronic
ballasts was more significant, at 171.2% and 44%, respectively. The use of electronic ballast would,
from this example, significantly reduce the triplen harmonics produced and carried by the neutral
conductor although would slightly increase the phase current distortion.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 13
Comparison of Phase Current Harmonic Spectrum for Magnetic and
Electronic Ballasts for Typical Fluorescent Lighting Distribution Panel
I
thd
was 12.8% and 16.3%, Respectively
Fluorescent Lighting Comparison  Phase Current Spectrum
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33
Harmonic No
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
H
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
D
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
Magnetic
Electronic
FIGURE 14
Comparison of Neutral Current Harmonic Spectrum for Magnetic and
Electronic Ballasts for Typical Fluorescent Lighting Distribution Panel
I
thd
was 171.28% and 44%, Respectively
Fluorescent Lighting Comparison  Neutral Current Spectrum
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 18 21 23 25 27 29 31 33
Harmonic No
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
H
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
D
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
Magnetic
Electronic
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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2.3 Televisions
Section 4, Figures 15 and 16 illustrate the current waveform and harmonic current spectrum, respectively,
from a typical television.
FIGURE 15
Television – Typical Current Waveform
FIGURE 16
Television – Typical Harmonic Current Spectrum
2.4 Singlephase AC PWM Drives
Singlephase AC drives, commonly used up to 5 HP/3.7 kW for applications such as cabin fan drives,
usually have no additional reactance fitted, resulting in an I
thd
up to 135%, as can be appreciated with
reference to Section 4, Figures 17 and 18. Note that these results are similar to those produced by
singlephase UPS. Section 4, Figure 18 depicts a large triplen component. On large installations, this
would result in high neutral currents (as the triplens are additive).
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 17
Singlephase AC PWM Drive – Typical I
thd
is 135%
FIGURE 18
Singlephase AC PWM Drive Current Spectrum
3 Threephase Nonlinear Loads
Onboard ship or on offshore installations, a common type of threephase nonlinear load is variable
speed drives, either AC or DC. UPS systems and shaft generators both also produce harmonic currents.
The harmonics produced by these nonlinear items will be discussed in Subsections 4/3 and 4/4.
“Linear” equipment, such as rotating machines (generators and motors), produce harmonics, although
relatively minor in magnitude compared to nonlinear loads. In addition, transformers also produce
harmonics. These items of equipment will be mentioned briefly in Subsections 4/1 and 4/2.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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3.1 DC SCR drives
Up until some 510 years ago, DC SCR drives were a common choice for low to medium power
electrical variable speed duties on ships, drilling rigs and offshore installations. Common applications
included windlasses, winches, propulsion motors, drawworks motors, mud pumps, cranes, etc.
As can be seen with reference to Section 4, Figure 19, below; the DC converter comprises six SCR
drives (thyristors) in a full wave bridge configuration with a separatelyexcited shunt field fed by a
full wave diode bridge (note – this can be single or twophase supplies). DC motors are available in
various designs, including serieswound, shuntwound and a number of derivatives of compound
wound; the application of which specific type is dependent on the necessary speed/torque
characteristic of the given duty. However, the configuration of the SCR drive converter is the same
for each type.
FIGURE 19
Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive with Shuntwound DC Motor
+
−
AC
Supply
a
b
c
T1
T4
T3
T6
T5
T2
D1
D2
D3
D4
L
a
R
a
R
f
L
f
Separately
Excited DC
Motor Field
DC Motor
Armature
The above illustration (Section 4, Figure 19) depicts a shuntwound motor with separatelyexcited
field, one of the common types of DC motor in general use. L
a
and R
a
are the armature inductance
and resistance, respectively, and similarly, L
f
and R
f
are the shunt field inductance and resistance.
With the shunt field current at constant maximum value, (hence maximum field flux), the speed (and
torque) of the DC motor can be controlled infinitely by varying the mean output voltage from the DC
converters applied to the DC motor armature. This is achieved by modifying the delay angle of the
SCRs over a 120degree angle (the first 30 deg and final 30 deg of the theoretical 180degree
conduction period cannot be utilized for commutation reasons).
Thus, the motor speed can be controlled up to “base speed” (based on maximum field flux) using
“armature voltage control”. In this region, the power of the motor is directly proportional to the
applied voltage (less armature reaction), and hence speed. This is termed the “constant torque
region”, as the torque is constant while the power rises in direct proportion to speed.
Speed above “base speed” is achievable by maintaining the armature voltage at a maximum value and
then reducing the shunt field current, hence flux. Therefore, the use of a variable SCRbased field
weakening controller is necessary. Operation above base speed is in the constant power region since
the power is constant, but the available flux hence torque is inversely proportional to speed. Section
4, Figure 20, below, illustrates the concepts of constant torque and constant power.
Note: This concept can also be applied to AC PWM drives and induction motors (see 4/3.2 on AC PWM drives).
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 20
Concept of “Constant Torque” and “Constant Power”
with DC Shuntwound Motors
DC motors with single converters can drive in the forward direction and need either field reversal or
armature voltage reversal in order to drive in the reverse direction. However, if the DC motor is
supplying an overhauling load (i.e., one that feeds converted kinetic energy into the drive) the load
current will remain in the same direction but the DC voltage will be reversed. In these circumstances,
the DC converter voltage opposes the DC voltage back EMF. The DC motor voltage is therefore
limited to a maximum conduction angle of 90 degrees, thus maintaining a stable area of the operation
without the potential of losing control of the DC motor.
They cannot brake regeneratively (i.e., dump the excess electrical energy which has been converted
from kinetic energy during the braking process into the supply) due to the blocking action of the
SCRs, however, DC motors fitted with dual converters (Section 4, Figure 21) are capable of “four
quadrant operation” [i.e., motoring and braking (generating)] in both directions of rotation as
illustrated in Section 4, Figure 22.
In the four quadrant DC drive system depicted in Section 4, Figure 21, “commutating reactors” have
been used to reduce both the line notching and attenuate the harmonic currents. These are
recommended for all DC drives. Most DC motors have sufficient inherent inductance to facilitate
rapid current reversal during braking and reversal. However, for applications where minimizing noise
levels is important (e.g., fishery survey vessels), additional DC side inductors are often used.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 21
Typical Dual Converter for DC Shuntwound Motor
FIGURE 22
Concept of “Four Quadrant Control” for DC Motors and Dual Converters
The harmonic currents produced by DC SCR drives are a function of the pulse number (“pulse
number ± 1”, so for 6pulse, 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
…) and the delay angle of the SCRs at a particular
operating point as described in Section 6. The harmonic currents will be at a maximum value at full
load. A typical current waveform and harmonic current spectrum at rated load are illustrated in
Section 4, Figure 23 and 24, respectively.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 23
Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive Current Waveform at 100% Load
FIGURE 24
Harmonic Current Spectrum of Typical
6Pulse DC SCR Drive at Rated Load
6 pulse DC SCR drive
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
5
t
h
7
t
h
1
1
t
h
1
3
t
h
1
7
t
h
1
9
t
h
2
3
t
h
2
5
t
h
2
9
t
h
3
1
t
h
3
5
t
h
3
7
t
h
4
1
s
t
4
3
r
d
4
7
t
h
4
9
t
h
Harmonic
T
o
t
a
l
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
h
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
d
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
For the relationship between the magnitude of the harmonic currents produced and the drive loading,
please refer to Section 6, “The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Distortion”. Note that as the drive
input rectifier is SCR based, the input displacement power factor will vary as a function of the delay
angle of the SCRs.
Due to the use of phasecontrolled SCRs (thyristors) line notching will also be present. For further
information on line notching, please refer to Section 2).
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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3.2 AC PWM drives
AC voltagefed pulse width modulated (PWM) drives are a commom type of electrical variable drive
used today in marine, offshore and general industrial applications for low to medium power
applications.
The benefit of being able to control standard squirrel cage induction motors was significant.
However, squirrel cage induction motors are generally designed for pure sinusoidal supplies, and the
effects of the often harmonicallyrich output waveforms had to be taken into account with regard to
the level of motor thermal derating, according to the speed range driven load torque characteristic,
high level of dv/dt on motor winding insulation and torque production at low frequencies and bearing
currents (more applicable on large machines). Rotor design was also an important factor, as double
cage and deep bar rotors (e.g., NEMA C and D designs) tended to significantly rise in temperature
when on variable frequency supplies due to considerably increased iron losses, copper losses and skin
effect; in the early days of PWM drives (mid 1980s). Some large motors had to be fitted with copper
rotors due to the increased heating. With hot rotors, bearing lubrication was also a problem. Often
special high temperature grease was necessary.
However, the motor industry took up the challenges in the mid 1990s and currently produces squirrel
cage motors more suitable for variable frequency drive operation, subject of course to the necessary
thermal derating (TEFC squirrel cage motors in constant torque applications usually still need to be
derated according to the speed range). Motors on quadratic duties (centrifugal pumps and fans) rarely
need to be derated. Presently, motor cooling options (for large motors) include forced cooling and
water cooling, reducing the need for derating, and thereby reducing the necessary motor frame size
and rating of the AC PWM drive.
A block diagram configuration of a typical AC PWM drive is shown in Section 4, Figure 25, below.
FIGURE 25
Typical AC PWM Drive Block Diagram
×
×
×
M
~
3 Phase
AC Supply
Diode
Rectifier
PWM
Inverter
AC
Motor I
D
V
D
Control Circuits
With reference to Section 4, Figure 25; the incoming threephase supply is rectified by the input (or
“front end”) rectifier. In this instance, a diode full wave bridge has been used, but in larger drives
(i.e., above 40 HP/30 kW), SCR “precharge” front ends are used to “soft start” the DC bus to
minimize any inrush current. Once the DC bus is fully charged, the SCRs act as diodes (i.e., they are
no longer controlled).
The resultant voltage output from the input bridge is in the form of DC voltage with six peaks; one
peak for each of the positive and negative half cycles of the rectified threephase input waveform, thus
the term “6pulse drive”. Similarly, a singlephase AC PWM would be “2pulse” due to having one
rectified peak per positive and negative half cycle. After rectification, the DC voltage is smoothed by
the action of the DC bus capacitors.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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An AC PWM drive operates similarly to a switched mode power supply. Power is only drawn from
the mains supply when the DC bus voltages falls below that of rectified AC mains level, hence the
pulse nature of the input current, as shown in Section 4, Figure 26. The “intermediate” (i.e., between
the input and output bridges) DC bus serves as a reservoir of energy, only being recharged as
necessary. The DC bus voltage is in the order of 1.35 × the AC LL rms voltage level (e.g., for 480 V
AC mains the DC bus would be in the order of 648 V DC).
FIGURE 26
Pulsed Nature of AC PWM Drive Input Current
While the operation of the “front end” of an AC PWM drive is relatively simple, the operation of the
output (or “inverter”) bridge is more complex, especially from the control aspect. As can be seen
from Section 4, Figure 25, the input bridge rectifies the threephase voltage supply which is further
smoothed by the DC bus capacitors, which act as a power storage unit. The DC bus voltage is
maintained at a constant level. The inverter bridge, usually comprises insulated gate bipolar
transistors (IGBTs), controls both the output voltage and the output frequency. A constant
voltage/frequency (V/F) is needed to maintain the desired level of torque in the driven induction
motor.
Section 4, Figure 27, below, depicts a typical IGBT out rectifier. The diodes across the IGBT devices
are termed “flywheel diodes” and are in the circuit to assist commutation (i.e., the transfer of current
from one device to another).
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 27
Typical AC PWM Drive Output (Inverter) Bridge Configuration
Pulse width modulation control strategies were introduced in the early 1980s to overcome the heating
and torque pulsations of the then “square wave drives” (also known as “quasisquare wave” or “six
step drives”). The purpose was to reduce the output harmonics, especially the low order harmonics, to
the motor. Since that time, the various PWM strategies have been improved significantly such that
present series of drives usually have output current waveforms (i.e., not the output voltage) which are
relatively sinusoidal. This was achieved due to a combination of PWM techniques and advances in
fast power semiconductors such as IGBTs.
The basic principle of pulse width modulation can be seen with reference to Section 4, Figure 28,
below.
FIGURE 28
Basic Principle of Pulse Width Modulation
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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As illustrated in Section 4, Figure 28(a), a sawtooth waveform (shown as “triangle wave”) is
produced by the control system based on the desired switching frequency. This is compared to a
sinusoidal reference waveform (shown as “reference wave”) whose frequency and output are
proportional to the desired output waveform.
In Section 4, Figure 28(b), the voltage V
AN
is switched high whenever the sinusoidal reference voltage
is larger than the triangular waveform. Similarly, in Section 4, Figure 28(c), V
BN
is controlled in a
similar manner by the triangular waveform, but in this instance, the sinusoidal reference waveform is
shifted by 180 degrees. The result is a phasetophase voltage waveform as depicted by Section 4,
Figure 28(d), which is the difference between waveforms V
AN
and V
BN
, which is a series of voltage
pulses whose width is related to the magnitude of the sinusoidal reference waveform at a particular
instance in time. It is the rms value of this voltage which the motor “sees”. If this rms voltage was
superimposed on the waveform in Section 4, Figure 28(d), the voltage would be seen to be
approximately sinusoidal with zero crossovers as per the PWM waveform. The current which the
motor “sees” also approximates a sine wave in nature.
In 4/3.1 on DC SCR drives, the possibility of operating the DC motor above base speed was
described. It is also possible to operate an AC PWM drive and squirrel cage induction motor
similarly, as will be shown in Section 4, Figures 29a and b, below.
Up to base speed (i.e., the motor’s natural synchronous speed) the AC drive maintains a constant
voltage/frequency ratio (e.g., at 50% output frequency on 480 V supplies, the V/F ratio would be
approximately 240 V/30 Hz). Above base speed, it is usually not possible to increase the output
voltage, therefore only the frequency is increased. However, similar to DC drives, the torque
availability with AC PWM drives reduces with increased output frequency above base speed and
limits the maximum frequency achievable. The effect of high speed on the bearings and lubrication
are also often a factor regarding the maximum frequency of operation.
FIGURE 29a
AC Motor/PWM Drives Standard Speed/Torque Characteristics
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 29b
AC Motor/PWM Drives Standard Speed/Power Characteristics
As can be seen in Section 4, Figure 29a, the motor has to be thermally derated for constant torque
duty. It is possible, however, to use motors with higher pole numbers (e.g., a 6pole motor operated at
990 Hz in order to obtain a 10:1 speed range at constant torque plus 40% higher starting torque) or
with nonstandard winding configurations (e.g., 587 Hz on 50 Hz mains for 17:1 speed range at
constant torque).
The harmonic currents produced by AC PWM drives are dependent on the pulse number (with 6pulse
drives being the most popular) and whether any additional reactance has been installed in the drive
(see Section 10, “Mitigation of Harmonics”). Additional reactance, either in the AC line or in the DC
bus serves additional purposes other than harmonic attenuation and is commonly fitted to drives
above 10 HP (7.5 kW). Section 4, Figure 30, below, illustrates the input current and voltage
waveforms from a 150 HP (110 kW) AC PWM drive with 3% DC bus reactance running at rated load.
The total harmonic current distortion was measured at 39.23% (without the DC bus reactor the I
thd
would be approximately 67%). Section 4, Figure 31 depicts the harmonic current spectrum associated
with this particular drive.
Information on how the harmonic current varies with load can be found in Section 6.
Note: Other AC voltagefed drive output waveform control technologies exist, such as “field vector orientation” (i.e.,
“vector control”) and “direct torque control” (DTC), both of which provide enhanced motor performance, akin to
flux control in DC motors. These types are also used in marine and offshore applications.
However, as the input bridge and DC bus architecture of these drives are almost identical to that of PWM drives,
the harmonic currents and input waveforms will be similar to those described in 4/3.2 on AC PWM drives.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 30
Input Current – 150 HP AC PWM Drive
with 3% DC Bus Reactor – I
thd
= 39.23%
FIGURE 31
Harmonic Current Spectrum of 150 HP AC PWM Drive
with 3% DC Bus Reactor – I
thd
= 39.23%
150HP 6 pulse AC PWM drive  39.23% Ithd
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
5
t
h
7
t
h
1
1
t
h
1
3
t
h
1
7
t
h
1
9
t
h
2
3
t
h
2
5
t
h
2
9
t
h
3
1
t
h
3
5
t
h
3
7
t
h
4
1
s
t
4
3
r
d
4
7
t
h
4
9
t
h
Harmonic
T
o
t
a
l
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
h
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
d
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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3.3 AC Cycloconverter Drives
Cycloconverters are a common form of electrical variable speed drive in the higher power range and,
as such, are used for main propulsion drives.
Unlike other forms of AC drives, for example AC PWM drives and load commutated inverters (LCI),
both of which have an intermediate stage (i.e., DC bus) to facilitate dual conversion [AC to DC and
DC to AC], the cycloconverter is a direct conversion drive which converts one frequency to another
without the need for an intermediate stage. Cycloconverters have been in operation since the 1930s
(then based on mercury arc rectifiers) on applications such as railway transportation, steel works and
coal mine winders.
Cycloconverters are characterized by having a maximum output frequency of 33% of the input
frequency, which often negates the use of gearboxes for final speed reduction with the ability to
provide full fourquadrant control with high torque and high dynamic response. When used to control
the rotor of a wound rotor induction motor, the cycloconverter is termed a “static Scherbius” drive.
In power conversion terms, the operation of a cycloconverter is complex with both positive and
negative bridges necessary per motor phase. In order to briefly describe the operation of
cycloconverters, it is necessary to consider the operation of a singlephasetosinglephase device with
full wave rectifiers and a resistive load, as shown in Section 4, Figure 32, below:
FIGURE 32
SinglephasetoSinglephase Cycloconverter
As illustrated in Section 4, Figure 32, V
s
is the input voltage at frequency f
1
. In this example, it is
assumed that the SCRs are acting as diodes with α = 0 degrees firing angle. Note that α
p
and α
n
are
termed the firing angles of the positive and negative bridges, respectively.
Refer to Section 4, Figure 33(b), below. In order to achieve, for example, an output frequency of 25%
of the input frequency (e.g., 15 Hz output for an input of 60 Hz) the positive bridge supplies current to
the load for the first two cycles of V
s
as it rectifies the incoming AC voltage V
s
into four positive half
cycles as illustrated.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 33
Waveforms for SinglephasetoSinglephase Conversion
(a) Input voltage
(b) Output voltage, V
o
, for 0 deg firing angle
(c) Output voltage, V
o
, with firing angle π/3 rad.
(d) Output voltage, V
o
, with variable firing angle
During the next two cycles of V
s
[Section 4, Figure 33(c)], the negative converter supplies current to
the load in the reverse direction. (Note that the current waveform is not depicted in Section 4, Figure
33 as being wholly resistive. It will have the same waveshape as the voltage). In the configuration
above, when one bridge is operating, the other is disabled or “blocked”.
As can be seen above, the frequency of the output voltage, V
o
, in Section 4, Figure 33(b) is 25% of the
input voltage V
s
(i.e., f
o
/f
1
= 1/4). The output frequency, f
o
, can be varied by adjusting the number of
cycles the positive and negative converters operate.
Note that cycloconverters can be used for “step up” operation as well as “step down” operation,
although the latter is considerably more common.
As can be seen in the above example, the output frequency can be varied (i.e., up to a maximum of
onethird the input frequency). The singlephasesinglephase cycloconverter can also supply a
voltage based on firing angle, α. The DC output of each bridge would be:
α
π
cos
2 2
V V
d
= ............................................................................................................... (4.1)
where
V = input rms voltage
V
d
= DC output voltage
Note: The DC output voltage per half cycle is shown dotted in Section 4, Figure 33(d).
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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The peak fundamental output voltage will be:
( ) α
π π
cos
2 2 4
1
0
V t v = ....................................................................................................... (4.2)
where
V = input rms voltage
V
0
= peak fundamental voltage
Therefore, it follows that the fundamental output voltage v
0
is dependent on firing angle, α. For α = 0
degrees:
do do
V V V = × = 1
1
0
where α
π π
cos
2 2 4
1
0
V v = .
For example, if α is increased to π/3 radians, as illustrated in Section 4, Figure 33(d), then output
voltage
1
0
V = V
do
0.5.
The above is a simplistic explanation regarding the basic theory of cycloconverters. Please note that
operation with a constant firing angle, α, results in a very crude output waveform with considerable
harmonic content. In reality, the square waves shown in Section 4, Figure 33(b) and (c) would be
modified to approximate a sine wave by sinusoidally modulating the firing angle α, as illustrated in
Section 4, Figure 33(d). This would serve to reduce the output harmonics and supply a better wave
shape to the motor.
Section 4, Figure 34 shows a typical threephase cycloconverter with three bridges, each phase
displaced by 2π/3 radians (120 degrees).
As mentioned previously, the cycloconverter can operate in all four quadrants. Both positive and
negative bridges can therefore supply voltages of either positive or negative polarity, depending on
the necessary duty at any instance in time. It must be noted the positive bridge can only supply
positive current and the negative bridge can only supply negative current, and that consequently, the
polarity of the current determines which converter supplies the load at that instance. When the
polarity of the load current changes, the respective bridge previously supplying the current is disabled
and the other bridge is enabled in order to reverse the current (e.g., from rectification to inversion).
However, the motor needs the magnitude of the fundamental rms voltage to be continuous at all times,
so during current reversal, the average rms voltage supplied by both bridges are “forced” to be of the
same magnitude in order to prevent voltage jumps and current “spikes” occurring.
Section 4, Figure 34 shows a typical 6pulse cycloconverter connected to a starconnected induction
motor. However, cycloconverters can be used with both synchronous and squirrel cage induction
machines. There are certain advantages, however, when operating with synchronous motors due to
the machine’s output power factor characteristics. Cycloconverters, whose input displacement power
factor is always lagging, can supply leading, lagging or unity power factor loads. The characteristic
that a synchronous motor can draw variable levels of power factor from a converter is ideally suited to
the cycloconverters, whereas induction motors can only draw lagging current.
The output voltages produced by cycloconverters have a high harmonic content which can be reduced
by careful systemization of the bridge(s) firing angle algorithms. In addition, AC synchronous and
squirrel cage induction motors normally filter (i.e., absorb) the majority of higher order harmonics
and, in addition, attenuate a measure of lower order harmonics due to their inherent leakage reactance.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 34
Threephase 6Pulse Cycloconverter
Since current reversal is necessary, standard cycloconverters are usually designed in two formats;
“blocking mode” or “circulating current mode” converters. In the “blocking mode” cycloconverters,
as the name implies, one bridge is disabled or “blocked” while the other is operating. If both bridges
were operating simultaneously, a short circuit would occur across the supply. To avoid this, an
“intergroup reactor” can be connected between the two bridges (per phase), as shown by Section 4,
Figure 35, below, to form a “circulating current mode” converter.
Unlike the “blocking mode” converter; in the “circulating current mode” converter, both bridges are
enabled during current reversal, thus allowing a circulating current to flow between the bridges and
the load. This circulating current is unidirectional due to the blocking action of the other SCR bridge.
Most circulating current cycloconverters operate in a circulating current mode, with both bridges
enabled when running.
There advantages and disadvantages of both types. Blocking mode converters do not need large
intergroup reactors and are therefore physically smaller and less expensive that the circulating current
type. In the blocking mode type, when the current decays to zero, awaiting reversal, both bridges (per
phase) are disabled. During this delay time period, the current distorts the voltage and current
waveforms. It is therefore necessary to program complex harmonic elimination patterns into the
firing control software to minimize the level of distortion. The current reversal process also
introduces added complexity into the firing and protection control systems. However, the blocking
mode converter is more efficient (as only one bridge operates at any one time).
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FIGURE 35
Simplified Connection of Intergroup Reactor on One Phase
of Circulating Current Cycloconverters
The waveforms associated with blocking mode cycloconverters are shown below in Section 4, Figure 36.
FIGURE 36
Waveforms for Blocking Mode Cycloconverters
(a) Positive bridge output voltage
(b) Negative bridge output voltage
(c) Load (motor) voltage
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In the circulating current cycloconverters, both bridges operate simultaneously with fundamental rms
output voltages of similar magnitudes. When one bridge is converting (ACDC), the other is inverting
(DCAC). Note that if the output voltage from both bridges were sinusoidal, however, there would be
zero circulating current as the instantaneous potential difference between the two bridges would be
zero. In reality, however, this is not the case, and the intergroup reactor is necessary to facilitate
operation. The waveforms associated with a circulating current cycloconverter and also the voltage
waveform across the intergroup reactor, which is the instantaneous potential difference between the
two bridges, are depicted in Section 4, Figure 37.
FIGURE 37
Waveforms for Circulating Current Mode Cycloconverters
(a) Positive bridge output voltage
(b) Negative bridge output voltage
(c) Load (motor) voltage
(d) Intergroup reactor voltage
The circulating current cycloconverters normally have a smoother output voltage waveform,
containing fewer harmonics, than the blocking mode type. Due to the lack of current reversal
complications associated with the blocking mode converter, control is simplified. The main
disadvantage of the circulating current type is the additional size, weight and cost associated with the
intergroup reactor. However, hybrids have been developed which can provide the advantages of both
types. One example has architecture similar to a circulating current mode converter but with a much
reduced intergroup reactor. When operating unidirectionally, only one bridge is enabled. When the
motor current reverses and decreases below a predetermined level, both bridges are enabled and a
smooth reversal of current occurs. Similarly, when the reversed current increases above the
predetermined level, the other bridge is disabled. The efficiency is still less than the blocking mode
type, however, but it has the advantage of reduced inherent distortion around zero current permitting
less complex firing control compared to the standard blocking mode converter.
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Cycloconverter input current characteristics and associated harmonic content are complex and
dependent on a number of factors, including:
• The pulse number of the cycloconverters
• The relative magnitude of the output fundamental voltage
• The ratio of the input and output frequencies
• The displacement power factor of the load
• The firing control strategy
In applications with large drives, 6pulse drives are not common. Multipulse drives, including 12
pulse, are the norm to minimize the input harmonic currents and associated disruption of the power
supply system. Section 4, Figure 38(a) illustrates the input current waveform and Section 4, Figure
38(b) the harmonic current frequency spectrum associated with a 20 MW (26,810 HP) 12pulse
cycloconverter.
Section 4, Figure 39 shows a 12pulse cycloconverter operating with a threephase synchronous motor
with the rotor field current controlled by a separate 6pulse, fullycontrolled rectifier.
FIGURE 38a
Input Current Associated with a 20 MW, 12Pulse Cycloconverter
FIGURE 38b
Harmonic Current Frequency Spectrum Associated
with a 20 MW, 12Pulse Cycloconverter
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FIGURE 39
2Pulse Cycloconverter with Threephase Synchronous Motor
In addition to the production of standard “pulse number ± 1” harmonic currents, cycloconverters often
produce, due to supply unbalance, uncharacteristic harmonics (including even order and triplen
harmonics) in addition to significant magnitudes of interharmonics. Indeed, the attenuation of these
interharmonics is often more difficult than the reduction of the integer harmonic currents.
The characteristic harmonics generated by cycloconverters are:
f
h
= (pm ± 1)f ± 6nf
o
............................................................................................................. (4.3)
where
f
o
= output frequency
f
h
= harmonic current frequency
m = a number, 1, 2, 3....
n = a number, 0, 1, 2…
With reference to Section 4, Figure 40 (and to an extent, Section 4, Figure 38), it should be noted that
each characteristic integer harmonic has a so called “side band” of interharmonics associated with it.
This is a result of the modulation of the constant input current frequency with the varying output
motor frequency. Therefore, both the fundamental current and the characteristic harmonic currents
are accompanied by additional harmonic components of frequencies based on:
f = n ⋅ fL ± k ⋅ 6 ⋅ fM............................................................................................................. (4.4)
where both n and k are integer numbers.
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As mentioned previously, cycloconverter input harmonic currents, including the interharmonics, tend
to vary according to the operating point, so the harmonic spectrum constantly changes with output
frequency.
Section 4, Figure 40 depicts a typical 12pulse cycloconverter harmonic (including interharmonics)
current spectrum.
Note: Cycloconverters generate significant amounts of reactive power which often have to be compensated for, often
employing high pass harmonic filters instead of conventional power factor correction capacitor banks. These high
pass filters act as a low impedance path for higher order harmonic currents in addition to providing compensation
for the reactive power at fundamental frequencies.
FIGURE 40
Harmonic Spectrum of 12Pulse Cycloconverters
Including Interharmonic Sidebands
3.4 AC Load Commutated Inverter (LCI)
“Load commutated inverters”, also known as “current source inverters” (CSIs) were, for many years,
common in industrial applications where squirrel cage induction motors (rated 600HP/450 kW and
above); for example: centrifugal pumps and fan loads where high starting torque is not needed.
However, their use has diminished due to availability of the less expensive and physically smaller AC
PWM drives.
The load commutated inverter (LCI), so called due to the fact that the motor current commutates the
inverter bridge (i.e., it facilitates transfer of current from one phase to another). It is characterized by
a large inductor included in the DC bus, as depicted in Section 4, Figure 41, below. Load
commutated inverters are known as “constant current” drives due to the action of the large DC bus
inductor (i.e., it has an “inductive DC bus”), whereas AC PWM drives have a “capacitive DC bus”,
due to the presence of the large capacitor bank.
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FIGURE 41
Typical 6Pulse ASCI CSI Inverter with a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
As can be seen from Section 4, Figure 41, the load current source inverter comprises a fully controlled
SCR input bridge which varies the input DC voltage and a large inductor which converts the variable
DC voltage into a current source. The output or “inverter” bridge controls the output frequency to the
motor. The squirrel cage induction motor has a lagging power factor, so forced commutation is
necessary to transfer current through the motor phases.
Another common inverter bridge configuration, used mainly with squirrel cage induction motors, as
illustrated below, was the “autosequentially commutated inverter” (ASCI). However, this commutation
process results in transient overvoltages, termed “commutation spikes”, being superimposed on the
output voltage waveform, as shown in Section 4, Figure 42. In recent years, the use of this
configuration has diminished due to the AC PWM drives.
FIGURE 42
Output Voltage Commutation Spikes – CSI with Squirrel Cage Induction
Motor
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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Careful design of the squirrel cage motor and the ASCI circuit is necessary to minimize the
commutation spikes. The motor insulation also has to be capable of withstanding the dv/dt (i.e., rate
of rise of voltage associated with commutation spikes). Squirrel cage induction motors for use with
load commutated inverters need a higher level of magnetizing current, to assist commutation,
compared to motors for AC PWM drives or for sinusoidal supplies.
Load commutated inverters are mainly used with synchronous motors. It is the synchronous motors,
therefore, which provide the commutation current for the converter (hence the term “load commutated
inverter”) via the back EMF of the motor. The synchronous motor, therefore, has to operate with a
leading power factor and also needs a special excitation circuit for the rotor, as shown in Section 4,
Figure 43.
FIGURE 43
12Pulse Load Commutated Inverter with Synchronous Motor
As described above, load commutated inverters with ASCI inverter bridge configurations result in
commutation spikes, the majority of which are within the withstand capability of modern LV motors.
However, if squirrel cage motors are to be operated at higher voltages, then special measures are
necessary so that commutation is provided by the load, as shown in Section 4, Figure 44, below. In
this example, 12pulse is needed due to the high power necessary, therefore a special output filter
(which supplies a leading power factor to the inverter) is selected which supplies the commutating
current up to around 50% of output frequency. Above 50% output frequency, the commutation is
achieved due to a combination of the output filter and the motor.
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FIGURE 44
12Pulse Load Commutated Inverter
with Squirrel Cage Motor and Output Filter
As can be seen from Section 4, Figure 45, the output voltage waveform (for squirrel cage or
synchronous motors) does not contain commutation spikes, as associated with ASCI CSIs, but does
contain notches, very similar to that associated with the input of phasecontrolled drives, such as DC
SCR and quasisquare wave drives.
FIGURE 45
Output Voltage of LCI with Synchronous Motor
or Squirrel Cage Motor with Output Filter
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One drawback of the load commutated inverter is the difficulty in starting the drive system due to the
fact that below around 10% speed there is insufficient back EMF to commutate the inverter bridge. A
method known as “DC link pulsing” is necessary to initiate commutation. This entails the reduction
of the DC bus current to zero by temporarily operating the inverter bridge in the inversion mode (i.e.,
regenerating into the DC bus), thus permitting the SCRs to regain their blocking capability and
thereby commutate the motor current and rotate the motor. In high power applications, reactive
power may be necessary due to the very low power factor at low output frequencies and low loading.
In order to satisfy the needs of SCRs regarding turnoff, the synchronous motor must, as mentioned
above, be operated with a leading power factor. Similarly, squirrel cage motors need an output filter
with leading power factor.
The starting torque of load commutated inverterfed squirrel cage motors is poor, as indicated above.
Fourquadrant control is inherent in the design. However, the poor dynamic performance, unless
utilizing vector control or similar control strategies, results in the LCI being unable to be applied to
the more demanding fourquadrant applications. Power factor at 100% load/speed is usually around
0.88 – 0.9, but due to the input SCR bridge, reduces to zero at very low loads. Speed range is usually
restricted to 10:1 due to commutation issues but is improved if vector control or a similar strategy is
applied. For continuous operation below 10%, “pulsed mode” operation is necessary, as a method
needed for starting, and is also necessary in order to minimize torque pulsations and associated
vibration on the motor rotor and driven load, in addition to providing sufficient commutation current
for the inverter bridge.
The output current of a LCI is a “six step” square wave, as shown in Section 4, Figure 46, which
contains significant harmonics, the result of which is additional motor heating and torque fluctuations
at low speeds due to the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic currents interacting with the fundamental flux to cause
6
th
harmonic torque oscillations. On larger installations, sixphase motors with one “star” and one
“delta” (30degree phase displacement) supplied by two inverter bridges reduce torque fluctuations by
50%.
FIGURE 46
Six Step Square Wave Current – LCI with Synchronous Motor
The input current wave shape of load commutated inverters, as shown below in Section 4, Figure 47,
is very similar to a DC SCR drive of similar pulse number due to the controlled SCR input bridge and
DC bus inductance.
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FIGURE 47
Input Waveform of 6Pulse Load Commutated Inverter
A typical harmonic spectrum associated with a 6pulse load commutated inverter is shown in Section
4, Figure 48.
FIGURE 48
Harmonic Spectrum Associated with a
6Pulse Load Commutated Inverter
6 pulse load commutated inverter
0
5
10
15
20
25
5
t
h
7
t
h
1
1
t
h
1
3
t
h
1
7
t
h
1
9
t
h
2
3
t
h
2
5
t
h
2
9
t
h
3
1
t
h
3
5
t
h
3
7
t
h
4
1
s
t
4
3
r
d
4
7
t
h
4
9
t
h
Harmonic
T
o
t
a
l
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
h
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
d
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
Load commutated inverters are available for large power systems. For loads with 35 MW (40007000
HP), inverters of this type are used when the system voltage is above 1kVand would commonly use
multipulse rectifiers at the input to reduce harmonic distortion (12pulse or higher depending on
power and supply limitations) and possibly multipulse on the output to reduce the torque ripple on
the machine and the load. (Typically, 12pulse via two discrete motor windings, 30degree phase
displaced. Alternatively, two separate converters could supply the motor with either the converters
12pulse or the motor 12pulse. This permits operation on 6pulse should any converter or a motor
winding fail. Typically, the 6pulse operation is 50% of the rated motor loading).
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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4 Additional Threephase Sources of Harmonics
4.1 Rotating Machines
Linear loads, such as generators and motors, can also be considered a source of harmonics, albeit
relatively small in comparison with electronic nonlinear loads such as adjustable speed drives.
The windings of the rotating machines, irrespective of type, are embedded into slots within the stator
pack. As a result, the magnetomotive force (MMF) is not evenly distributed, and therefore, distortion
will occur which produces harmonics. In larger machines, “coil spanning” (i.e., careful design of
winding/slot profile) is used to attenuate the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics. However, compared to electronic
nonlinear loads, rotating machine harmonics are relatively small in magnitude and rarely troublesome.
In synchronous machines, the magnitude of harmonic electromotive force (induced voltage) is
dependent on the following factors:
• The magnitude of the harmonic fluxes
• The effective phase spread of the winding
• The coil span
• Method of interphase connection
By careful choice of the above four factors the magnitude of the harmonic EMFs and associated
harmonics can be minimized.
Harmonics produced by induction motors, are speed dependent and result from the harmonic content
of the MMF distribution within the machine air gap. Harmonic production within induction motors
(i.e., squirrel cage and wound rotor) can also result from voltage unbalance. During testing, the
generatorinduced harmonics are usually checked for compliance against the relevant standard.
4.2 Transformers
Harmonics are produced by transformers as a result of the nonlinear relationship between voltage and
current and the magnetic materials used in manufacture. This results in the transformer magnetizing
current being nonsinusoidal and containing harmonics, especially 3
rd
and other triplens. It should be
noted that if the input voltage was perfectly sinusoidal, the current would be nonlinear and would
contain harmonics. Conversely, if the magnetizing current were sinusoidal, the output voltage would
be nonlinear. However, similar to rotating machines, the magnitude of harmonics are rarely
problematic and are almost negligible compared to harmonics from electronic sources.
In order to maintain relatively sinusoidal output voltages, threephase power transformers are
designed with a delta winding or an ungrounded wye (i.e., Y or star) connection which acts as a block
for 3
rd
and other zero sequence triplen harmonics.
Transformers when in saturation (i.e., overly excited), for example if subject to a large increase in
voltage, tend to produce odd order harmonics (5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
…). Triplens are also produced, but
are restricted (i.e., absorbed) due to delta or ungrounded wye configuration.
Inrush current, especially in larger transformers, does contain relatively large odd order harmonics,
but as the inrush time is only a few seconds, the effects are usually not significant with regard to the
harmonic distortion. However, it may initiate shutdown of differential protection systems and
ultimately, the generator(s,) although more modern differential protection systems do attempt to
compensate and reduce the likelihood of a shutdown. Unbalance can also produces odd order
harmonics. This is especially true if there is a large DC component on the secondary of the
transformer.
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4.3 UPS Systems
Uninterruptible power supply systems are usually used to provide “secure power” in the event of
generator shutdown or other similar power failure. Dedicated individual computer UPS systems are
usually singlephase and have an input current waveshape and harmonic current spectrum similar to
that produced by singlephase switched mode power supplies (SMPS).
Threephase UPS systems are also available. The majority of threephase UPS systems have a
controlled, SCR input bridge rectifier with characteristic harmonics based on the “pulse number ± 1”
format. Section 4, Figure 49, below, shows the voltage and current waveforms from a typical three
phase 480 V, 60 Hz UPS rated 37.5 kVA. The I
thd
at the input is 19.1%. Section 4, Figure 50 depicts
the harmonic current spectrum associated with this UPS.
Active front ends (i.e., sinusoidal input rectifiers) and 12pulse configurations are also now available
which may have better harmonic performance.
FIGURE 49
Input Voltage and Current Waveforms
of 6Pulse 37.5 kVA, 480 V, 60 Hz UPS
FIGURE 50
Harmonic Input Current Spectrum for 6Pulse 37.5 kVA, 460 V, 60 Hz UPS
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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4.4 Shaft Generators
Shaft driven generators are sometimes provided, as they provide the vessel with electric power when
underway while reducing fuel and decreasing operational costs.
A traditional shaft generator system, shown in Section 4, Figure 51, comprises a synchronous
generator, a converter with SCR input rectifier, DC bus inductor and SCR inverter bridge, AC line
reactor and “synchronous compensator” (also known as a “rotary condenser”). The synchronous
compensator’s duties are to start the system by providing the initial starting voltage for the SCR
inverter and to provide reactive power and to facilitate commutation of the inverter bridge SCRs.
FIGURE 51
Traditional Shaft Generator System
In the above example, the commutation notches in the output voltage waveform (Section 4, Figure 52)
of the inverter bridge are largely due to the subtransient inductance (L
s
″) of the synchronous
compensator; necessary to provide commutation current to the inverter. The provision of the AC line
reactor does serve to reduce the harmonic currents in the output waveform, but the overlap angle of
the output current is increased, increasing the notch area.
The inverter output voltage waveform consists of both harmonics and line notches and may not be of
sufficient quality to supply the load and/or operate in parallel with diesel or other auxiliary generators.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics
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FIGURE 52
Inverter Output Voltage Waveform
The harmonics produced by the inverter bridge are based on the “pulse number ± 1” format. A
6pulse system would therefore produce characteristic harmonic currents of 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
….
In addition to providing reactive power and commutation current, the synchronous compensator also
provides a measure of harmonic filtering. The low harmonic reactance of the compensator attracts a
relatively large degree of harmonic currents which would otherwise be injected into the load. The
induced voltages in the compensator are essentially sinusoidal; therefore the output voltage will also
be relatively sinusoidal.
The example used was to advise the reader as to the fact that shaft generators, due to their electronic
power conversion, are a source of harmonics. There are a number of other shaft generator systems in
operation which utilize other techniques. Some use doublewound induction motors, others IGBT
converters (very similar to AC PWM drives with “active front ends”) or “duplex reactors”. However,
the object is identical: to minimize the harmonics and notching and to address other power quality
concerns, such that the output voltage is as sinusoidal as practicable.
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S E C T I O N 5 Harmonics and System Power
Factor
1 Power Factor in Systems with Linear Loads Only
In power systems containing only linear loads, the vector relationship between voltage and current,
the “power factor” (cos φ), can be illustrated with reference to Section 5, Figure 1, below:
FIGURE 1
Power Factor Components in System with Linear Load
Where the power factor,
kVA
kW
S
P
= = φ cos ...................................................................................... (5.1)
The apparent power,
2 2 2 2
) ( kVAr kW Q P kVA S + = + = ......................................................... (5.2)
where
P = active power (i.e., it produces useful work), in kW
S = apparent power (kVA)
Q = reactive power, which produces no useful work, (kVAr)
2 Power Factor in Power System with Harmonics
In power systems which contain nonlinear loads, there are essentially two power factors; the
“displacement power factor” (i.e., the power factor of the fundamental component) and the “true
power factor”, which is a measure of the power factor of both the fundamental and harmonic
components in the power system.
Section 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor
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FIGURE 2
Power Factor Components in System with Harmonics
With reference to Section 5, Figure 2 above:
The power factor,
kVA
kW
S
P
≠ = φ cos (i.e., the power factor does not equal
kVA
kW
).
The apparent power, S(kVA)
2 2 2 2 2 2
H
kVAr kVAr kW D Q P + + = + + = ................................ (5.3)
The active power, P can be calculated using:
∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
+ + = =
2
1 0
0
cos
h
h h
h
h h
P P P I V P ϕ ............................................................................... (5.4)
where φ
H
is the phase of the nth harmonic.
Similarly, the reactive power, Q, can also be defined as:
∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
+ = =
2
1
1
sin
h
h h
h
H H
Q Q I V Q
rms rms
ϕ .............................................................................. (5.5)
where
ϕ
h
= phase angle between voltage and current of individual harmonics
P
0
= DC component of active power
P
1
/Q
1
= fundamental component of active/reactive power respectively
P
h
/Q
h
= active/reactive component of individual harmonics
The apparent power, S, can also be expressed using the following formulae:
S = V
rms
⋅ I
rms
....................................................................................................................... (5.6)
=
∑
∞
=1
2 2
h
rms
H
rms
H
I V ......................................................................................................... (5.7)
=
2 2
1 1
1 1
I V
rms rms
THD THD I V + + ............................................................................... (5.8)
=
2 2
1
1 1
I V
THD THD S + + ............................................................................................ (5.9)
where S
1
is the apparent power at the fundamental frequency.
Section 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor
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As can be seen from Section 5, Figure 2; in power systems where harmonics are present, the apparent
power, S, comprises active power (P), reactive power (Q) and H (distortion power) where the
distortion power, D, can be defined as:
D
2
= S
2
– (P
2
+ Q
2
) ............................................................................................................ (5.10)
As detailed above, the power factor is the ratio of the active power in kW to the apparent power in
kVA. For systems containing nonlinear loads, the power factor can therefore be expressed as:
Power factor:
dist disp
I V
THD THD
S
P
S
P
φ φ φ cos cos
1 1
1
cos
2 2
1
⋅ =
+ +
= = ..................... (5.11)
Displacement power factor:
1
cos
S
P
disp
= φ ....................................................................... (5.12)
Distortion power factor:
S
S
I
I
V
V
THD THD
rms
rms
rms
rms
I V
dist
1
1 1
2 2
.
1 1
1
cos = =
+ +
= φ ........... (5.13)
where
cos φ
disp
= displacement power factor (fundamental components)
cos φ
dist
= distortion power factor (harmonic components)
Note: Many AC PWM drive manufacturers cite “high power factor at all loads” as an advantage when selling this type of
drive. However, this “high power factor” (typically 0.960.98) refers only to the displacement power factor, not
the true power factor. Please note that the majority of utility power factor meters can only read displacement
power factor.
3 How the Mitigation of Harmonics Improves True Power
Factor
As can be seen from Section 5, Figure 2, if the distortion power, D, is reduced by mitigation, the true
power factor will increase accordingly. Any form of harmonic mitigation, passive or active, will
increase the true power factor.
On drives or other loads with fully controlled input bridge rectifiers (e.g., DC drives, AC variable
voltage drives, load commutated inverters, UPS systems) the true power factor will also vary,
depending on the conduction angle of the bridge rectifier, due to changing speed and/or load demands.
On this type of equipment, it can be beneficial, subject to a study of the effects on the power system,
to use passive inductorcapacitor (LC) filters (see Section 10), tuned to a specific harmonic frequency
(usually 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics). These filters can provide harmonic mitigation and a degree of power
factor correction via the filter capacitors. However, measures may have to be taken at light loads,
such as switching out stages of the filter, to prevent a leading power factor from occurring.
Active filters (see Section 10) can also provide a measure of inherent power factor correction. Active
filters are usually rated based on “harmonic cancellation current” [i.e., based on the magnitude of the
harmonic currents being produced by the load(s)]. This is injected into the power system and
provides the nonlinear load with the harmonic currents it needs in order to function. In theory, and
assuming the active filter is rated correctly, the power system then supplies only the fundamental
current.
Section 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor
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In addition to the harmonic cancellation current, reactive current compensation is also provided which
can correct for a leading or lagging power factor at any load (i.e., this statement is based on an active
filter with digital control system). For example, for a 300 A, 480 V active filter, the available reactive
power would be 249.4 kVAr. However, the reader has to be aware of one type of analogcontrolled
active filter which has a tendency to supply uncontrolled reactive current into the power system,
producing a leading power factor when the harmonic load is light or the nonlinear equipment is
switched off. On utility supplies, this may not cause problems, but it will be problematic when the
supplies are generator derived.
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S E C T I O N 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic
Current Distortion
1 Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion (V
thd
)
As illustrated in Section 2, in power systems containing nonlinear loads, the total harmonic voltage
distortion (V
thd
) is dependent on the magnitude of each harmonic current at its specific harmonic
frequency acting upon the source impedance and other individual circuit impedances to produce
individual harmonic voltage drops, all of which are summed and compared with the fundamental
voltage to obtain, in percentage terms, the V
thd
.
The resultant voltage distortion, unless resonance is present in the system, tends to decrease the
further it is measured from the harmonicproducing load. It is usually the highest nearer to the
harmonic load and progressively reduces the nearer to the source it is measured, due to the effect of
cables, transformers and other impedances, and to a degree, the amount of linear load (such as
induction motors), which tends to act as a “harmonic sink” (i.e., it absorbs harmonic current) in the
circuit. The higher the magnitude of harmonic current, the higher the voltage distortion for a given
impedance.
2 Total Harmonic Current Distortion (I
thd
) and Reduced
Loading
In nonlinear loads, the magnitude of the characteristic harmonic currents is normally proportional to
the load demand. At rated load, the harmonic current levels tend to be at the highest levels, except
under resonant conditions where specific harmonic currents at the resonant frequency can have
significantly higher values. The effect of loading, therefore, will affect percentage total harmonic
current distortion (I
thd
).
Since the majority of large nonlinear loads installed on marine vessels and offshore installations are
variable speed drives, it may be worthwhile to briefly consider the effect of loading on the more
common types of variable speed drives used in the marine sector, including AC PWM (variable
frequency) drives, AC load commutated inverters (LCIs), DC SCR drives and AC cycloconverters.
2.1 AC PWM Drives
AC PWM drives are the common type used in the marine sector. Recent designs have increased
power ratings and higher voltage levels. As described in Section 4, this type of drive architecture is
characterized by the presence of an input bridge rectifier, a DC bus with capacitor bank and an
inverter output bridge.
Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion
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Section 6, Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the current time domain waveform and harmonic spectrum,
respectively, of a typical 6pulse AC PWM drive at rated load. Note that the drive contains a 3% AC
line reactor which reduces the I
thd
and improves the true power factor. Without the AC line (or DC
bus) reactor, the I
thd
and harmonic currents would be significantly higher.
The AC PWM drive illustrated has a total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) of 37.5% at 100% loading.
True power factor was 0.94 lag.
FIGURE 1
Typical 6Pulse PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 100% Load
I
thd
Measured at 37.5%
FIGURE 2
Typical Harmonic Spectrum of AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor)
at 100% Load – I
thd
Measured at 37.5%
Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion
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With AC PWM drives, the I
thd
will increase as the loading is reduced due to the more “discontinuous”
nature of the pulsed current drawn from the capacitive DC bus. As described in Section 4, current is
only drawn from the mains supply when the instantaneous AC line voltage exceeds the DC bus
voltage, hence the pulsed nature of the current. As the drive load is reduced, the current pulse will
become “sharper”. Section 6, Figure 3 illustrates this effect on the AC PWM used in this example.
FIGURE 3
Typical AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 30% Load
I
thd
Measured at 65.7%.
Section 6, Figure 4, below, illustrates the harmonic current spectrum associated with the AC PWM
drive waveform based on 30% loading. Note the increased 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic components. True
power factor was 0. 83 lag.
FIGURE 4
Typical Harmonic Spectrum of AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor)
at 30% Load – I
thd
Measured at 65.7%
Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion
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Although it has been shown that the total harmonic current distortion will increase with reducing load
it is the magnitude of the harmonic currents and the resultant effect on circuit impedances (which
produce voltage distortion) which are more important. However, it should be noted that if AC PWM
drives are “oversized” for any reason, the I
thd
will be higher than expected at any load as the drive is
not “matched” to the load as far as the kW/HP rating is concerned. This may have to be taken into
account when calculating harmonic mitigation.
2.2 DC SCR Drives
Unlike variable frequency drives, DC drives do not have an intermediate circuit between the input
rectifier and the output to the DC motor. The input rectifier directly controls the output voltage (i.e.,
motor armature voltage) by variation of the firing angle of the SCRs. The harmonic current distortion
(I
thd
) is largely determined by the SCR firing angles, with the worse case at reduced load being at
90 degrees firing angle (i.e., low voltage and speed) and rated load.
In common with AC PWM and other drive types, the magnitude of harmonic current is usually
highest at rated load. As DC drives have, due to the presence of the DC armature, primarily
“inductive buses”, the percentage I
thd
will rise with reducing load but be less than with comparable
AC PWM drives which have capacitive buses. DC drives tend to operate in continuous current mode
(see Section 6, Figures 5 and 6) down to around 1015% load after which the I
thd
will rise more
significantly. However, at low speeds, the magnitude of the harmonic currents is usually relatively
small and nonproblematic.
FIGURE 5
6Pulse DC Drive at 70% Loading
I
thd
is 35.1%
Section 6, Figure 5, above, illustrates the typical current waveform of a 6pulse DC drive at 70%
loading (35.1% I
thd
). A comparable 6pulse AC PWM drive with 3% AC line reactor at similar
loading would present an I
thd
of around 4244%. Section 6, Figure 6, below, depicts the harmonic
current spectrum of the DC drive at 70% loading.
Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion
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FIGURE 6
Harmonic Current Spectrum of 6Pulse DC Drive at 70% Loading
I
thd
is 35.1%
2.3 Load Commutated Inverters
The input harmonic currents and input current waveforms produced by load commutated inverters
(also called current source or currentfed inverters) are similar to those produced by DC SCR drives.
This is due to the large inductance inserted in the DC bus to provide a constant current source. As per
DC drives, the harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) produced by load commutated inverters is also a
function of the input SCR rectifier firing angles, so as with DC drives, the maximum value of I
thd
should occur at very low speed (or zero speed) and high loading.
The variation in I
thd
with load for load commutated converters will be similar to that described for DC
SCR drives.
2.4 Cycloconverters
As described in Section 4, cycloconverters are very complex drives from both the input and output
harmonic perspectives. As also mentioned in Section 4, the characteristic harmonics are generally
less than other drive types of the same pulse number, but the interharmonics are usually significantly
higher.
As stated previously, the characteristic harmonics are related to the pulse number and system
characteristics. Any deviation from the ideal can introduce noncharacteristic harmonic currents, such
as the 2
nd
and 3
rd
, whereas the input interharmonic currents are related to the output frequency, the
mode of operation (i.e., blocking mode or circulating mode), the motor loading and the motor ripple
current.
At low frequency operation (i.e., low motor speed and load), the magnitudes of the characteristic
harmonic currents produced are typically similar to DC drives under the same load conditions. At low
speed operation, the interharmonics are generally of low value.
As the output frequency, hence motor speed and load, are increased up to rated speed and load, the
characteristic harmonic currents tend to decrease while the interharmonic current sidebands increase.
For 6pulse cycloconverters, the interharmonics associated with the fundamental, 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics should not be significant, but above those harmonic frequencies, the magnitude of the
interharmonic side bands can often exceed those of the characteristic harmonics.
Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion
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It has to be stated that cycloconverters applied in the marine sector tend to be in the MW range with
12pulse or higher configurations. Therefore, a measure of both reactive power compensation (i.e.,
power factor correction) and harmonic filtering may be installed to minimize any adverse effects on
the power system of such large drives.
Section 6, Figures 7 and 8 illustrate the effect of output frequency on both the input current and input
voltage harmonic spectrums. This application involved six, 6pulse cycloconverters on a common
bus, all operating at identical output frequency and loading.
FIGURE 7
Multiple 6Pulse Cycloconverters Input Current and Voltage Harmonic
Spectrums at Low Output Frequency/Low Load
FIGURE 8
Multiple 6Pulse Cycloconverters Input Current and Voltage Harmonic
Spectrums at High Output Frequency/High Load
Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion
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2.5 Conclusion: Harmonic Current Magnitude and its Effect on Voltage Distortion
It should be reemphasized that it is not the percentage of total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) which
is of main concern. It is the magnitude of the harmonic currents associated with the I
thd
which is of
more importance, as it is the magnitudes of these harmonic currents which interact with the system
impedances to produce the individual harmonic voltage drops at the harmonic frequencies which
result in the total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
).
It is therefore the total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
) which is to be the main concern in order to
minimize any adverse effects on the installed system and equipment. Therefore, it should be the
purpose of any harmonic mitigation measure employed to reduce the total harmonic voltage distortion
(V
thd
) to within the necessary limits under all operating conditions.
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S E C T I O N 7 Influence of Source Impedance
and kVA on Harmonics
1 “Stiff” and “Soft” Sources
Power sources in relation to harmonics are often characterized by the terms “stiff source” and “soft
source”, and both have a significant effect on both the nonlinear currents drawn by the load and the
resultant voltage distortion.
“Stiff sources” are often associated with transformers, whether utilityowned or customerowned
within their system. Their source impedance is often on the order of 56% (Z). Generators, however,
are considered as “soft sources” whose “source impedance” is actually the “substransient reactance
(X
d
″),”often in the range of approximately 0.1 – 0.18 per unit.
“Stiff sources”, having higher short circuit capability, permit a given nonlinear load(s) to draw higher
magnitudes of harmonic current for a given kW value of nonlinear load, as it is not as limited by the
leakage reactance of the source. The higher harmonic current does not usually significantly distort the
voltage. The stiffer the source, the higher the harmonic current that will be drawn by the nonlinear
load(s) and the less the subsequent voltage distortion for a given load.
“Soft sources”, such as generators, tend to have reduced short circuit capability and limit the
magnitude of the harmonic currents drawn by the given nonlinear load(s). However, that lower value
of harmonic current will produce significantly higher levels of voltage distortion.
Generators for low harmonic distortion would need a low value of subtransient reactance, X
d
″, such as
that achieved by “oversizing” the kVA rating, which results in an increase in short circuit current.
The generator rotor damper cage, designed for linear loads, is subject to higher levels of current when
nonlinear loads are present. The machine subtransient reactance, X
d
″, should be relatively low to
maintain the voltage distortion within the necessary limits. The damper winding is to be designed
such that the sinusoidal voltage waveform is maintained. The solution will depend on the type of
nonlinear load, the magnitude of the harmonic currents produced and the subsequent voltage
distortion permissible in the power system.
The kVA rating also has an impact on the magnitude of harmonic currents and subsequent voltage
distortion for a given load as the short circuit capability and associated I
SC
/I
L
(load current to short
circuit current ratio) varies. The higher the kVA (or MVA), the higher the harmonic current
distortion, I
thd
, and the lower the resultant harmonic voltage distortion, V
thd
, assuming the source
impedance is unchanged.
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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2 Illustrations of the Effect of kVA and Source Impedance on
Harmonics
In order to illustrate the effect of varying kVA and source impedance (or substransient reactance) of
the power source, a harmonic estimated program (SOLV) has been utilized. Note that the illustrations
of the power source do not differentiate between transformer and/or generator derived supplies (the
illustrations are “transformers”), but the subsequent calculations are unaffected (i.e., the effects of
varying the values of impedance (or X
d
″) and kVA are similar for both transformers and generators).
The voltage and current waveforms at the PCC#1 (point of common coupling are also included).
Example 1 – 2000 kVA, 5.2% Impedance
This is based on a transformer rated at 2000 kVA with impedance of 5.2% and secondary
voltage of 480 V, 60 Hz. The loads are two AC PWM drives, one of 600 HP with 3% AC
line reactor and one of 350 HP with 3% DC bus reactor. Linear load is 180 kW at 0.85 lag
power factor.
FIGURE 1a
2000 kVA and 5.2% Impedance – I
SC
/I
L
= 33.3:1, I
thd
= 24.2%, V
thd
= 4.7%
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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FIGURE 1b
Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2000 kVA/5.2% Impedance Source
with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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Example 2 – 2000 kVA, 14% Subtransient Reactance
This is based on a generator similarly rated at 2000 kVA, with substransient reactance (X
d
″)
of 14% and secondary voltage of 480 V, 60 Hz. The loads are as per Example 1, with two
AC PWM drives, one of 600 HP with 3% AC line reactor and one of 350 HP with 3% DC bus
reactor. Linear load is 180 kW at 0.85 lag power factor.
FIGURE 2a
2000 kVA and14% Subtransient Reactance
I
SC
/I
L
= 29.1:1, I
thd
= 19.1%, V
thd
= 9.8%
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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FIGURE 2b
Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2000 kVA/14% Subtransient
Reactance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load
and 180 kW Linear Load
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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Example 3 – 4000 kVA, 5.2% Impedance
The transformer rating is now increased to 4000 kVA, but the impedance of 5.2% and
secondary voltage of 480 V, 60 Hz remain the same. The loads are two AC PWM drives, one
of 600 HP with 3% AC line reactor and one of 350 HP with 3% DC bus reactor and linear
load is 180 kW at 0.85 lag power factor are identical to that illustrated in Example 1.
FIGURE 3a
4000 kVA and 5.2% Impedance – I
SC
/I
L
= 67.1:1, I
thd
= 27.1%, V
thd
= 2.7%
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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FIGURE 3b
Current and Voltage Waveforms for 4000 kVA/5.2% Impedance Source
with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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Example 4 – 4000 kVA, 14% Subtransient Reactance
The generator is also now increased to 4000 kVA with substransient reactance (X
d
″) of 14%
and secondary voltage of 480 V, 60 Hz maintained. The loads are as per Example 2, with two
AC PWM drives, one of 600 HP with 3% AC line reactor and one of 350 HP with 3% DC bus
reactor and linear load is 180 kW at 0.85 lag power factor retained.
FIGURE 4a
4000 kVA and14% Subtransient Reactance
I
SC
/I
L
= 26.6:1, I
thd
= 22.9%, V
thd
= 5.8%
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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FIGURE 4b
Current and Voltage Waveforms for 4000 kVA/14% Subtransient
Reactance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load
and 180 kW Linear Load
A summary of all four examples above is given in Section 7, Table 1 below:
TABLE 1
Variation of I
thd
and V
thd
with Variation of kVA and Impedance (or X
d
″)
kVA – Z or X
d
″ I
SC
/I
L
I
thd
V
thd
2000 kVA – 5.2% Z 33.3 24.2% 4.7%
2000 kVA – 14% X
d
″ 12.1 19.1% 9.8%
4000 kVA – 5.2% Z 67.1 27.1% 2.7%
4000 kVA – 14% X
d
″ 24.6 22.9% 5.8%
The kVA rating and transformer impedance (Z) or [substransient reactance (X
d
″) for generators] have
an important effect on the magnitude of the harmonic currents drawn and the resultant voltage
distortion. It can be seen that the resultant voltage distortion for a given nonlinear load varies in
proportion to the source impedance (i.e., for generators, the lower the X
d
″, the less the resultant
voltage distortion) and installed kVA.
Achieving a low level of X
d
″ usually involves a special winding design with a high level of excitation
and therefore high magnetic flux or the use of “derated” generators (i.e., of a larger kVA rating than
one based on the kW load.). The value of X
d
″ varies from generator to generator and is inversely
proportional to the square of the generator working voltage.
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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In Example 2 above, the 2000 kVA, 480 V, 60 Hz generator used in the illustrations and calculations
above had an X
d
″ of 14% or 0.14 per unit. At 1000 kVA loading, the effective subtransient reactance
(X
d
″) will be:
% 7 % 14
kVA 2000
kVA 1000
"
= × =
d
X
Therefore, at reduced generator loading, the effective X
d
″ will be reduced, thus decreasing the voltage
distortion for given nonlinear load. Modern generators have excitation systems which can cope with
voltage and current distortion provided that they are correctly designed for the nonlinear load(s) in
terms of thermal rating and have an appropriate level of winding insulation.
3 Parallel Generator Operation and Calculation of Equivalent
Short Circuit Ratings
When calculating harmonic voltage and current distortion, either the short circuit rating or the
generator kVA (or MVA) and the subtransient reactance, X
d
″, is necessary. (Similar data is necessary
for transformers with impedance, Z, instead of X
d
″.) The calculation based on one generator running
is straightforward with the generator kVA and X
d
″ inserted into program (or used for manual
calculations).
However, when more than one generator, perhaps of differing values of kVA and X
d
″, are running in
parallel to share the loading, it is significantly more complicated. Therefore, a method of calculating
the parallel system kVA and equivalent X
d
″ (illustrated below) is necessary and is similar to that used
for short circuit calculations.
FIGURE 5
Paralleling of Generators
One of the generators must be selected as the “base unit”. In this case S
1
will be designated “base
unit” in terms of kVA and X
d
″.
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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If
1 d
X ′ ′ (S
1
) is the base unit, we must determine
base d
X
2
′ ′
and
base d
X
3
′ ′ , as follows:
2
1
2 2
S
S
X X
d base d
′ ′ = ′ ′ .............................................................................................................. (7.1)
3
1
3 3
S
S
X X
d base d
′ ′ = ′ ′ ............................................................................................................... (7.2)
Once all generators are on the same base, the total system equivalent subtransient reactance can be
calculated, as follows:
base d d
base d d
base d
X X
X X
X
2 1
2 1
2 , 1
′ ′ + ′ ′
′ ′ ⋅ ′ ′
= ′ ′ ................................................................................................. (7.3)
base d base d
base d base d
base d
X X
X X
X
3 2 , 1
3 2 , 1
3 , 2 , 1
′ ′ + ′ ′
′ ′ ⋅ ′ ′
= ′ ′ ........................................................................................ (7.4)
The total system short circuit capacity therefore can be calculated:
base d
base
SC
X
S
S
, 3 , 2 , 1
′ ′
= ............................................................................................................... (7.5)
Example 5
Calculate the equivalent subtransient reactance and short circuit capacity of three paralleled
generators rated at 2 × 2000 kVA/16% X
d
″ and 1 × 1500 kVA/18% X
d
″ depicted in Section 7,
Figure 6, below:
FIGURE 6
Example of Paralleled Generators
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics
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Generator S
1
is, in this example, designated the “base unit” S
base
, therefore:
2
1
2 2
S
S
X X
d base d
′ ′ = ′ ′ %) 24 ( 24 . 0
1500
2000
. 18 . 0 = =
3
1
3 3
S
S
X X
d base d
′ ′ = ′ ′ %) 16 ( 16 . 0
2000
2000
. 16 . 0 = =
base d d
base d d
base d
X X
X X
X
2 1
2 1
2 , 1
′ ′ + ′ ′
′ ′ ⋅ ′ ′
= ′ ′ %) 6 . 9 ( 096 . 0
4 . 0
0384 . 0
24 . 0 16 . 0
24 . 0 . 16 . 0
= =
+
=
base d base d
base d base d
base d
X X
X X
X
3 2 , 1
3 2 , 1
3 , 2 , 1
′ ′ + ′ ′
′ ′ ⋅ ′ ′
= ′ ′ %) 6 ( 06 . 0
256 . 0
01536 . 0
16 . 0 096 . 0
16 . 0 . 096 . 0
= =
+
=
base d
base
SC
X
S
S
, 3 , 2 , 1
′ ′
= = =
06 . 0
2000
33.333 MVA
The results calculated above are based on one set of generator running conditions and will
vary according to the number, kVA and X
d
″ of the generators on line at any one time.
Consequently, both the magnitude and percentage of total harmonic current and harmonic
total voltage will vary also.
Note: The short circuit MVA of parallel transformers can also be calculated using a similar method to that
above.
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S E C T I O N 8 The Effect of Unbalance and
Background Voltage Distortion
1 Balanced Systems
In a power system with balanced sinusoidal voltages, the three linetoneutral voltages are all of equal
magnitude and displaced by 120 electrical degrees from each other, as shown in Section 8, Figure 1,
below:
FIGURE 1
Balanced System
V
a
V
b
V
c
2 Unbalanced Systems
An unbalanced power system is so called when the magnitudes of the phase voltages are not equal
and/or where the phase shift deviates from the normal phase separation value of 120 degrees, as
depicted in Section 8, Figure 2, below:
FIGURE 2
Unbalanced System
V
a
V
b
V
c
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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Deviations from a balanced supply system can be attributed to the following:
• Unequal impedances within the power distribution system
• Asymmetries in AC and DC drive commutation reactances
• Large or unequal distribution of singlephase loads
• Negative sequence fundamental frequency components in commutating voltages
• Harmonic distortion of positive and negative sequence components
• Unbalanced threephase loads
2.1 Definition of Voltage Unbalance
Power system voltage unbalance can be defined using two methods. The first method is based on the
theory of symmetrical components, which mathematically defines an unbalanced system into three
separate balanced systems termed “positive sequence”, “negative sequence” and “zero sequence”
systems as depicted in Section 8, Figure 3 below.
For a perfectly balanced system, both the negative sequence and zero sequence components would be
absent.
FIGURE 3
Symmetrical Components of an Unbalanced System
V
a1
V
b1
V
c1
V
b2
V
a2
V
c2
V
a0
V
b0
V
c0
Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero Sequence
As described in Section 3; when negative sequence components are applied to an induction motor, the
resultant torque opposes the normal direction of rotation. Zero sequence components cannot produce
a rotating magnetic field.
There are generally two definitions using symmetrical components which can be used to determine
unbalance:
i) Negative Sequence Voltage Unbalance Factor =
1
2
V
V
......................................................... (8.1)
ii) Zero Sequence Unbalance Factor =
1
0
V
V
............................................................................. (8.2)
where
V
1
= positive sequence voltages
V
2
= negative sequence voltages
V
0
= zero sequence voltages
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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Zero sequence currents cannot flow in threewire systems. Therefore it is the negative sequence
components which must be used as a measure of unbalance. The negative sequence voltage
unbalance factor, also known as the “Voltage Unbalance Factor” (VUF), or the “IEC definition” can
be expressed as:
Negative sequence voltage unbalance =
β
β
6 3 1
6 3 1
1
2
− +
− −
=
V
V
............................................. (8.3)
where
β =
( )
2
2 2 2
4 4 4
ca bc ab
ca bc ab
V V V
V V V
+ +
+ +
........................................................................................... (8.4)
However, the NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association, in the USA) has a much
simpler definition:
Voltage unbalance =
( )
( )
ca bc ab
ca bc ab
V V V
V V V
, , of Mean
, , of mean from deviation Maximum
........................... (8.5)
Note that in Equations 8.3/8.4 and 8.5, linetoneutral voltages should not be used, as the associated
zero sequence components will introduce errors. Also note that the IEC definition (Equations
8.3/8.4), being more mathematical, tends to be the more accurate.
When a balanced threephase load is connected to an unbalanced supply, the currents then drawn from
the supply will also be unbalanced. As it is impossible to guarantee completely balanced supplies, it
is normal to stipulate the amount permissible on a power system in order that equipment, especially
rotating machines, is not adversely affected (see 8/2.2). 2%2.5% is usually the maximum unbalance
specified.
2.2 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Rotating Machines
A significant effect of unbalance is that associated with induction motors, which often form a
substantial part of the electric load. As mentioned above on unbalanced voltages, the negative
sequence components in the machine air gap oppose the direction of rotation, causing torque
pulsations and increasing the temperature rise of the motor as it tries to maintain its output torque and
speed. Induction motors on unbalanced supplies will also exhibit additional audible noise.
It is worth reemphasizing that for every 10°C rise above rated temperature, the life of motor winding
insulation reduces by 50% (i.e., on a 20°C rise the motor insulation life is reduced by 75%) as
illustrated in Section 8, Figure 4.
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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FIGURE 4
Reduction of Insulation Life with Temperature
In addition, when a balanced induction motor is connected to an unbalanced supply, the resultant line
currents can be several times that of percentage voltage unbalance as shown below.
For positive sequence voltages the motor slip, S
1
, would be:
s
r s
N
N N
S
−
=
1
..................................................................................................................... (8.6)
where
N
s
= synchronous speed
N
r
= rotor speed
For negative sequence voltages, the motor slip, S
2
, can be expressed in terms of slip, S
i
, as follows:
s
r
s
r
s
r s
s
r s
N
N
S
N
N
N
N N
N
N N
S 2 2
1 2
+ = +
−
=
+
=
s
r
s
r s
N
N
N
N N
S − =
−
= 1
1
, therefore,
1
1 S
N
N
s
r
− =
S
2
= S
1
+ 2(1 – S
1
) = 2 – S
1
.................................................................................................. (8.7)
The impedance of an induction motor is largely dependent on the motor slip. At conditions of high
slip (for example, at startup or locked rotor), the impedance is small. Consequently, the impedance
will be large at conditions of low slip, such as that associated with normal running conditions.
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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Similarly, the positive sequence slip, S
1
, is usually negligible (i.e., almost zero), whereas the negative
sequence slip, S
2
, would be large. Therefore, the ratio of positive sequence to negative sequence
impedance could be expressed by:
running
starting
I
I
Z
Z
≈
2
1
...................................................................................................................... (8.8)
If the positive sequence current is expressed as
1
1
1
Z
V
I = ,
and the negative sequence current by
2
2
2
Z
V
I =
It can be seen therefore that
running
starting
I
I
V
V
I
I
× =
1
2
1
2
.............................................................................. (8.9)
Using the above Equation 8.9, it can be determined that the connection of an induction motor with a
locked rotor current of 600% full load current would result a 30% unbalance in motor currents if
connected to a supply system with 5% unbalance.
In order to minimize the effect on motors due to unbalanced voltages, NEMA has produced
graphically the necessary motor derating factor according to the degree of voltage unbalance (Section
8, Figure 5). Please note that NEMA also do not advise any motor to be operated if the voltage
unbalance is more than 5%, whatever the actual motor loading.
FIGURE 5
Derating on Induction Motors of Unbalanced Supplies
2.3 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Harmonics
The wave shape and characteristic harmonics of rectifier bridges are significantly affected by voltage
unbalance. Section 8, Figure 6 shows a typical input current waveform from a threephase 6pulse
AC PWM drive with additional reactance (AC line reactor or DC bus) on a system with balanced
supplies.
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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FIGURE 6
Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current
Waveform on Balanced Voltages
The effect when 5% and 15% voltage unbalance is introduced is illustrated in Section 8, Figures 7 and
8, below:
FIGURE 7
Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current
Waveform on 5% Voltage Unbalance
FIGURE 8
Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current
Waveform on 15% Voltage Unbalance
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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The affect of voltage unbalance is to introduce uncharacteristic harmonics, including 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 9
th
, etc.,
and possibly DC in the power system. In addition, the unbalanced currents can lead to increased
thermal stress on the drive components. The magnitude of the drive DC bus voltage on AC PWM
drives would also be reduced, resulting in subsequent tripping on “undervoltage – DC bus”.
Unbalance also contributes to the misfiring of SCRs and other power devices, which further increases
the production of uncharacteristic harmonics and the total harmonic current distortion.
The problem with the nature of uncharacteristic harmonics is that they are difficult to predict and,
consequently, rarely are accounted for in the design of equipment. It is often easier to address the
causes of the uncharacteristic harmonics, such as unbalance, than attempt to “designout” their effect
with harmonic filters.
Section 8, Figure 9, below, illustrates the effect of unbalance on the harmonic spectrum of a 6pulse
AC PWM drive. Note the large 3
rd
harmonic and other triplens (6
th
, 9
th
, 15
th
, 21
st
…) and even order
harmonics (e.g., 4
th
and 6
th
) and DC.
FIGURE 9
Harmonic Spectrum of 6Pulse AC PWM Drive on Unbalanced Voltages
(Fundamental Component Removed)
2.4 Voltage Unbalance and Multipulse Drives and Systems
Voltage unbalance (and voltage distortion) significantly degrades the performance of phase shift and
other multipulse harmonic mitigation systems (e.g., quasimultipulse). When 12pulse, 18pulse and
other configurations are discussed, it is often assumed that there is total harmonic cancellation of
specified harmonics due to the respective phase shift. For example, a 30degree shift in theory
cancels the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics (see Section 10, “Harmonic Mitigation,” for full information).
However, due to tolerances in the transformer windings, interbridge reactors, rectifier bridges, etc.,
there will be residual 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic currents present after mitigation.
More significantly, the effect of supply unbalance can erode the performance of multipulse drives
and other phaseshifted systems. Section 8, Figures 10 and 11 illustrate the effect of 1%, 2% and 3%
voltage unbalance on 12pulse and 18pulse drive system, respectively.
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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FIGURE 10
Unbalance and the Effect on 12Pulse Drives
FIGURE 11
Unbalance and the Effect on 18Pulse Drives
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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2.5 Background Voltage Distortion and Multipulse Drives and Systems
Background voltage distortion adversely affects the performance of most forms of harmonic
mitigation, especially multipulse drive systems, and can cause damage to those types utilizing “front
end” capacitors [i.e., directly subject to high levels of distortion (e.g., EMI and carrier frequency
filters within active filters)]. With a V
thd
of 5% on a marine power systems, it is not known to what
degree background voltage distortion will further degrade the performance of drive systems which
depend on phase shift for harmonic mitigation.
Section 8, Figure 12 illustrates the effect of background distortion on an 18pulse drive at 50% and
100% loading.
Note: To estimate the effect on 12pulse drives using doublewound phase shift transformers, add around 5% to the I
thd
figures below. (For example, at 100% load and 1% background V
thd
, the I
thd
would be 5% for 18pulse, therefore
approximately 10% for 12pulse, and so on).
FIGURE 12
Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on 18Pulse AC PWM Drive
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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2.6 The Effect of Voltage Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion Using
Software Modeling
Using harmonic estimation software, it is possible to further illustrate the relationship between voltage
unbalance and/or preexisting voltage distortion on multipulse drives (and other types of mitigation),
the subsequent production of total harmonic current distortion and the resultant total harmonic voltage
distortion.
In the examples cited below, a generator rated at 5000 kVA, 480 V, 60 Hz and X
d
″ of 14% was loaded
with two off 900 HP, 12pulse AC PWM drives (e.g., thruster drives) and 180 kW of linear load. The
12pulse drives were chosen as being the most common multipulse configuration in the marine
sector.
Four sets of supply conditions were modeled:
• 0% voltage unbalance and 0% preexisting voltage distortion
• 2% voltage unbalance and 0% preexisting voltage distortion
• 0% voltage unbalance and 5% preexisting voltage distortion
• 2% voltage unbalance and 5% preexisting voltage distortion
The examples below illustrate the differing total harmonic current distortion and associated total
voltage distortion and voltage and current waveforms at the PCC#1 for each of the above supply
conditions.
Note: If a smaller generator kVA and/or a higher value of X
d
″ been chosen for the given load, the resultant total voltage
distortion in each supply condition would have been increased. The total harmonic current distortion would be
reduced due to being limited by the leakage reactance of the “softer” source.
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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FIGURE 13a
No Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
– I
thd
= 5.2%, V
thd
= 4.9%
FIGURE 13b
Voltage and Current Waveforms
No Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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FIGURE 14a
2% Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
– I
thd
= 14.5%, V
thd
= 5.2%
FIGURE 14b
Voltage and Current Waveforms
2% Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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FIGURE 14c
Threephase Current Waveforms
2% Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting V
thd
FIGURE 15a
No Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
– I
thd
= 10.9%, V
thd
= 6.2%
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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FIGURE 15b
Voltage and Current Waveforms
No Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
FIGURE 16a
2% Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
– I
thd
= 18.5%, V
thd
= 6.0%
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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FIGURE 16b
Voltage and Current Waveforms
2% Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
FIGURE 16c
Threephase Current Waveforms
2% Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting V
thd
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
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The summary of results for the resultant total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) and total harmonic
voltage distortion (V
thd
) for the above examples is tabled below:
TABLE 1
Variation in I
thd
and V
thd
with Voltage Unbalance
and Preexisting Voltage Distortion
% Unbalance % V
thd
I
thd
V
thd
0% 0% 5.2% 4.9%
2% 0% 14.5% 5.2%
0% 5% 10.9% 6.2%
2% 5% 18.5% 6.0%
2.7 Drive Mitigation – Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
Voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion both have a significant effect on drive harmonic
mitigation, especially those using phase shifting techniques. A complete approach may be therefore
necessary in order to maximize the performance of multipulse drives.
A number of socalled “broadband filters” for smaller drives offer good mitigation performance up to
2% unbalance and up to 2% background voltage distortion. Other designs, available up to
significantly higher powers, can offer increased performance on both voltage unbalance and
background distortion, well above 2%. (For example, there is a documented case of one patented
design of “broadband filter” which is operating successfully on a cableship in excess of 22%
background voltage distortion (V
thd
) due to the vessel having full electric propulsion.)
Active filters, usually designed based on IEEE 519 (1992) (i.e., a maximum of <5% V
thd
) may be
unable to function reliably on higher levels of background V
thd
unless specifically designed for the
given application.
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S E C T I O N 9 Resonance
1 What is Resonance?
The presence of capacitance in the power system can have a significant effect on the system
impedance as it varies due to harmonic frequencies. In marine and offshore power supplies,
conventional capacitorbased power factor correction banks may not be common, however directly
connected capacitors are used in fluorescent lighting fittings for power factor correction and in other
equipment. In addition, cable capacitance can also be problematic. Resonance results in high
voltages and/or currents being present in the power system, causing damage to equipment and
endangerment of personnel.
2 The Conditions under which Resonance Occurs
The system inductive reactance (X
L
) is proportional to the frequency, whereas the capacitive reactance
(X
C
) is inversely proportional to frequency. “Resonance” is said to be achieved when the values of X
L
and X
C
are of the same value. There are two forms of resonance which need to be considered: “series
resonance” and “parallel resonance”, as shown below in Section 9, Figure 1.
FIGURE 1a
Series Resonance
FIGURE 1b
Parallel Resonance
2.1 Series Resonance
For the series resistanceinductancecapacitance (RLC) circuit (see Section 9, Figure 1a), the total
impedance at the resonant frequency reduces to the resistance component only. Where this value is
low, high values of current at the resonant frequency will flow in the circuit at relatively low levels of
exciting voltage. Under these conditions, series resonant will exist when:


.

\

− =
2
2
C
l
t C
t
s
S
S
Z S
S
f f ...................................................................................................... (9.1)
Section 9 Resonance
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where
f
s
= series resonant frequency
f = fundamental frequency
S = transformer (or generator) rating
Z = transformer per unit impedance (or generator X
d
″)
S
C
= capacitor rating
S
t
= load resistive rating
The main area of concern applicable to series resonance is that high capacitor currents can flow at
relatively low levels of harmonic voltages. The actual current magnitudes are determined by the
“quality factor”, Q, of the resonant circuit:
R
X
Q
r
= ............................................................................................................................... (9.2)
where
Q = quality factor
X
r
= reactance at resonance
R = resistance
2.2 Parallel Resonance
In a parallel resonant circuit (Section 9, Figure 1b), the parallel impedance is significantly different.
At the resonant frequency, the impedance is significantly high, resulting in high voltages being
present in the circuit for relatively low source current values, although significantly larger magnitudes
of circulating current also flow in the inductivecapacitance loop.
If the power system impedance is assumed to be entirely inductive, the resonant frequency, f
p
, can be
calculated as:


.

\

=
c
s
p
S
S
f f ..................................................................................................................... (9.3)
where
f
p
= resonant frequency
f = fundamental frequency
S
s
= short circuit rating
S
c
= load resistive rating
The above formula can also be written as:


.

\

=
cap
sc
p
kVAr
MVA
f f ............................................................................................................ (9.4)
Note: Due to circuit topography, in the majority of systems with series resonance, parallel resonance will also occur,
albeit at a lower frequency, as shown in Section 9, Figure 2, due to the contribution of the source inductance.
Section 9 Resonance
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FIGURE 2
Series Resonance Frequency Response
Parallel resonance is, however, generally more common than series resonance as the majority of
equipment is connected in parallel with switchboards. The example illustrated in Section 9, Figure 3
will therefore be based on parallel resonance.
Common problems associated with resonance include capacitor fuse failure and damaged capacitors
(industrial power systems), spurious protective relay tripping, overheating on equipment and
telephone interference.
3 Prevention of Resonance
In order to illustrate a common potential parallel resonance condition and how it can be prevented, it
is necessary to use, as an application (see Section 9, Figure 3), a typical industrial system where AC
variable speed drives are to be connected to a switchboard which also has capacitorbased power
factor correction equipment attached.
The above application has two areas of concern:
i) The possibility of parallel resonance due to the presence of the drive harmonic currents and
the installed capacitance and
ii) The effect of the harmonics produced by the 2 × 110 kW and 2 × 132 kW AC drives on the
capacitors.
Section 9 Resonance
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FIGURE 3
Typical Industrial Drive Application where Resonance is Possible
The resonance frequency based on the short circuit capacity of 30 MVA and capacitor bank rating of
600 kVAr can be calculated using the formula below:


.

\

=
cap
sc
p
kVAr
MVA
f f


.

\

=
kVAr
MVA
f
p
600
30
60
f
p
= 353 Hz
It will be noted at that the fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, the parallel resonant frequency occurs in
the power system illustrated in Section 9, Figure 2 at around the 3rd harmonic (150 Hz). In order to
prevent resonance, a “detuning reactor” has to be connected to “adjust” the parallel resonance point
such that it does not coincide with any major characteristic harmonics (5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
, etc.).
The usual practice is to reduce the resonance point to below the 5
th
harmonic. The detuning reactor
can be used to tune the circuit to around 225 Hz235 Hz (4.5
th
4.7
th
, being typical frequencies). The
tuned resonant frequency may be reduced to below the 3
rd
harmonic if significant triplen harmonics
are also present (more common on fourwire systems). On 60 Hz supplies, the tuned frequencies
would be 20% higher.
Section 9 Resonance
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3.1 The Effect of Adding a Detuning Reactor
The addition of the detuning reactor does not protect the capacitors from the effect of harmonic
currents. That problem will still exist. The detuning reactor only prevents resonance with major
characteristic harmonics occurring. However, the connection of the reactor to the capacitor bank does
increase the voltage at fundamental frequency. This is due to the fact that the inductive reactance
subtracts from the capacitive reactance, thus decreasing the circuit reactance overall and increasing
the capacitor bank fundamental current. The higher value of fundamental current significantly
increases the capacitor voltage, as illustrated in Section 9, Figure 4.
FIGURE 4
Simplified Connection of Detuning Reactor to Capacitor Bank
With reference to Section 9, Figure 4 above, the total reactance at fundamental frequency (50 Hz, in
this case) :
X = X
C
– X
L
.......................................................................................................................... (9.5)
X
X
V V
C
sup C
⋅ = ................................................................................................................... (9.6)
where
V
C
= capacitor voltage
V
sup
= supply voltage
X = resultant reactance
X
C
= capacitive reactance
X
L
= inductive reactance
Section 9 Resonance
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For example, using the above formula, a value of reactor 10% the value of the capacitive reactance is
connected to the capacitor bank, therefore:
X = 1 – 0.1 = 0.9
so
9 . 0
1
. 380 =
C
V = 423 V (11% voltage increase)
As capacitor banks are usually rated for a maximum of 10% overvoltage, ignoring any supply
variations and tolerances, the capacitors may have to be replaced. However, a number of reactor
manufacturers do produce designs of detuning reactors which do not increase the capacitor voltage
levels significantly.
However, if the supply voltage is less than the capacitor rated voltage (capacitor voltage ratings are
usually in steps), then it may be possible to retain the original capacitor bank subject to it being
derated (i.e., having its kVAr capability reduced) from nameplate value using the following formula:
2


.

\

=
nameplate
C
nameplate actual
V
V
kVAr kVAr .............................................................................. (9.7)
For example, a 460 V rated, 600 kVAr capacitor bank nominally used on 380 V would have to be
derated based on a 10% detuning reactor being connected:
2
460
432
kVAr 600 
.

\

=
actual
kVAr = 530 kVAr
4 Possibilities of Resonance on Vessels and Offshore
Installations
The most likely potential for resonance lies with fluorescent lighting fitting power factor correction
capacitors and/or cable capacitance. Resonance is observable when the high voltages and/or currents
cause damage to equipment, especially directly connected capacitors, or where unusually high,
localized voltage or current readings are measured.
There have been instances of resonance on offshore production installationss with large variable drive
installed load, up to 85% of total loading. Fluorescent lights have burned out due to internal capacitor
resonance. There have been other instances, when another platform with no onboard power
generation has been supplied from a “mother” platform, significant parallel resonance problems were
encountered due to the capacitance of the connecting cable between both platforms. Until then, no
resonance was apparent on the larger platform, which had both a power generation plant and a high
level of power system harmonics.
When using a harmonic analyzer, resonance can be seen where there are abnormally high voltages or
current harmonics at particular frequencies which are not characteristic of the type of equipment
connected to the power system (i.e., the magnitude of harmonic voltage or current should decrease in
inverse proportion to the harmonic number). The harmonic frequency at which the high levels of
voltage or current occur is the resonant frequency.
However, damping is usually provided by supply and load resistances, which significantly reduces the
peak impedances (10% resistive loading has a significant impact on peak impedances). Loads such as
induction motors are mainly inductive and provide limited damping. Long cable lengths, however, do
tend to suppress resonance.
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S E C T I O N 10 Mitigation of Harmonics
The majority of electrical nonlinear equipment, especially threephase types, normally associated with
larger powers will often cause the need for the addition of mitigation equipment in order to attenuate
the harmonic currents and associated voltage distortion to within the necessary limits.
Depending on the type of solution desired, the mitigation may be supplied as an integral part of
nonlinear equipment (e.g., an AC line reactor for AC PWM drive) or as a discrete item of mitigation
equipment (e.g., an active filter connected to a switchboard). The majority of this Section relates to
the mitigation options available for threephase nonlinear equipment, particularly electronic
converters for AC and DC motors, battery chargers, UPS systems, which often share similar input
rectifier architecture. Mitigation for both individual applications (e.g., per drive basis) and for “global
mitigation” (i.e., a common harmonic mitigation solution for a group of nonlinear equipment) are
described. For singlephase threewire and fourwire (i.e., threephase and threephase + neutral)
systems only “global mitigation” has been addressed.
While a minor amount of “natural mitigation” may occur as described below in Subsections 10/1 and
10/2, mitigation measures may have also to be considered in order that voltage distortion, as a result
of the nonlinear load(s), is maintained within permissible limits. The options available, depending on
the application and desired level of attenuation, are:
• Neutral current eliminators and phase shift systems (for fourwire systems)
• Standard AC line and DC bus reactors
• Wide spectrum (reactor/capacitor) filters
• Duplex reactors
• Passive LC (inductance/capacitance) filters
• Multipulse (phase shifting)
• Quasimultipulse (phase staggering)
• Active filters
• Active front ends (sinusoidal input rectifiers)
1 Effect of Phase Diversity on Harmonic Currents
On power systems with multiple nonlinear loads, some harmonic cancellation may occur due to
“phase angle diversification” between the multiple harmonic sources. As can be seen in the example
given in Section 10, Figure 1, each harmonic voltage (or current) has a phase angle associated with it.
Note that the first column is the harmonic (H00 is the DC component), the second column is the
percentage harmonic current distortion and the third column is the respective phase angle (note that
the “–” denotes a negative phase angle. The result of multiple harmonic sources is a degree of
harmonic cancellation which is determined by the respective individual harmonic voltages (or
currents) and the associated phase angles.
Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics
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FIGURE 1
Harmonic Voltage Data to 50
th
Harmonic
with Respective Phase Angle Information
2 Effect of Linear Load on Harmonic Currents
As detailed in Section 3, linear loads such as induction motors and transformers are adversely affected
by harmonic currents and voltages. While these linear loads do not “absorb” harmonics as such, the
harmonic voltages and currents are dissipated as heat losses within the equipment. Therefore it could
be argued that the distortion would be higher on systems without linear loads compared to those with
linear loads, based on the same magnitude of harmonic currents. (This “opinion” appears to be
confirmed by recent industrial research which suggested that harmonic currents travel to ground
through directly connected induction motors in parallel with the path through the utility supply
transformer, the supply cabling and the nonlinear loads. Calculations suggested a reduction in the
resultant harmonics voltage of some 0.06 per unit on a system with induction motors compared to
without induction motors.)
On systems with mixed load (i.e., linear and nonlinear), the “total demand distortion of current”
(“TDD”), as defined in IEEE 519 (1992), will be lower the greater the proportion of linear load to
nonlinear load. Note that the TDD is not the same as the I
thd
. (The TDD is expressed as the
measure of total harmonic current distortion, per unit of load current. For example, a 30% total
current distortion measured against a 50% load would result in a TDD of 15%.)
Induction motors are naturally inductive and are often citied as increasing the level of distortion by
shifting the natural power system resonant frequency nearer to a significant characteristic harmonic,
whereas purely resistive loads generally dampen possible resonance.
Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics
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Induction motors do have higher impedances at higher frequencies and, therefore, can be seen to
“absorb” a portion of the high frequency harmonic currents. However, this does not usually have a
significant effect on the overall harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion within the power
system. The type of rotor (i.e., squirrel cage or wound type) and the air gap has an influence on the
absorption of the higher frequency harmonic currents.
3 Mitigation of Harmonics on Threewire Singlephase
Systems
If large singlephase nonlinear loads (or large numbers of small singlephase nonlinear loads) are
present in the threewire singlephase distribution system, local harmonic mitigation may be necessary
to minimize the contribution of the singlephase nonlinear load(s) to the overall voltage distortion in
the power system.
Depending on the nature and magnitude of the necessary mitigation and power system configuration,
two common methods of local mitigation can usually be applied:
i) Phase shifting
ii) Active filters
3.1 Phase Shifting
Section 10, Figure 2 shows a typical lighting (or distribution) transformer supplying two fluorescent
lighting distribution panels. One panel has no phase shift and the other has 30 degrees displacement
(i.e., phase shift). (Note: Subsection 10/7, “Phase shifting” describes the theory behind this technique.)
Essentially, the 30degree phase shift at the input (i.e., primary side) of the phase shift transformer
causes the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic currents to be in “antiphase” (i.e., 180 degrees out of phase) with the
5
th
and 7
th
harmonic currents produced by the other lighting panel (and any other connected nonlinear
loads). The result is that the majority of the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic currents on the busduct are
“cancelled” in theory (some residual will remain due to, for example, unbalance). Since the 5
th
and 7
th
are the largest two characteristic harmonics, the resultant I
thd
and the subsequent V
thd
will normally be
significantly reduced.
FIGURE 2
Phase Shifting of Threewire Nonlinear Loads
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The above scheme is similar to a “quasi12pulse system” for threephase drives and other large
nonlinear loads (see Subsection 10/8, “Phase Staggering”). Similar schemes are configurable using
larger pulse numbers (and therefore great harmonic cancellation), depending on the number and
ratings of nonlinear loads.
3.2 Active Filtering
Active filters can be used on threewire lighting and other “domestic” distribution (see 10/4.2 and
10/11.1 for further information regarding the theory and operation of this type of equipment).
4 Mitigation of Harmonics on Fourwire Singlephase
Systems
Some vessels, such as passenger ships, have fourwire systems for “hotel loads”, with either grounded
or insulated neutrals. It is necessary to consider how the harmonic currents in these fourwire
systems, often with a large number of nonlinear singlephase loads, can be mitigated.
As described in Section 4, in a fourwire singlephase power system (i.e., threephase + N) the three
individual phase currents contain triplens (i.e., odd multiples of three, particularly 3
rd
harmonic)
which add cumulatively in the neutral, often overloading the neutral conductors and distribution
transformers and causing other problems.
Two common methods of addressing the problem of excessive neutral currents due to triplens are
available. These are specially designed “zero sequence” transformers and active filters, the latter
specifically configured to inject into all three phases and the neutral conductor.
4.1 Zero Sequence Mitigation of Triplens on Fourwire Singlephase Systems
As discussed in Section 4, triplen currents (3
rd
, 9
th
, 15
th
…) add cumulatively in the neutral conductor,
resulting in neutral currents being well in excess of phase currents. On some passenger vessels, this
load can be in the range of 58 MW. It is therefore important that any excessive neutral currents (and
the associated problems thereof due to nonlinear loads) are attenuated as far as practicable. Section
10, Figure 3 reemphasizes why that on fourwire systems with nonlinear load the neutral current can
often exceed the phase currents, even when perfectly balanced.
FIGURE 3
Fourwire System with Nonlinear Loads
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An effective method of reducing the neutral currents in a fourwire system is to use “zero sequence
transformers”, also called “zigzag transformers”. As illustrated in Section 10, Figure 4, below, a zero
sequence transformer comprises multiple windings on a common core. The windings of at least two
phases are wound in opposition around each core leg in order that the magnetic fluxes created by the
zero sequence currents will oppose, and therefore cancel out, providing an alternative low impedance
path when connecting in parallel on a fourwire system. Note that the positive and negative sequence
fluxes (e.g., due to 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
harmonics, etc.) remain 120 degrees out of phase and are not
cancelled out.
FIGURE 4
Operation of a Zero Sequence Transformer
A B C N
C
0
A
0
A
0
B
0
C
0
A
0
Zero Sequence
Currents
Section 10, Figure 5 shows the connection of a zero sequence transformer to the fourwire systems
depicted in Section 10, Figure 2. In practical terms, the zero sequence transformer removes the
majority of the triplen harmonics from the neutral current and returns them to the threephases, and in
doing so, also balances the phase currents.
FIGURE 5
Zero Sequence Transformer on Fourwire System
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4.1.1 Combined Zero Sequence Mitigation and Phase Shifting for Neutral Current
Reduction and Harmonic Mitigation
“Zero sequence transformers” (ZST) can also be used in conjunction with phase shift
transformers to provide effective harmonic attenuation from 3
rd
to up to 19
th
harmonics,
depending on the numbers and rating of discrete loads. Section 10, Figure 6, below,
illustrates the use of ZST and a combined phase shift and zero sequence transformer with
30 degrees phase shift to treat the 3
rd
harmonic current and other triplens and to provide
“cancellation” of the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics within the system.
FIGURE 6
Zero Sequence Transformer and Combined Phase Shift Transformer with
ZST to Cancel Triplen and 5
th
and 7
th
Harmonic Currents
4.2 Active Filters for Fourwire Systems
An alternative method to reduce the triplen harmonics is an active filter. The theory of operation of
active filters in covered in Subsection 10/7. With reference to Section 10, Figure 7, below, the active
filter monitors the current in the three phases (and also the neutral, depending on manufacturer) via
the current transformers (CTs) installed on the load side of the connection (note that source side
monitoring is also used on occasion).
The voltage signal is fed into, for example, a “notch filter”, which removes the fundamental
component (i.e., 50 Hz or 60 Hz component). The remainder of the signal is termed a voltage signal
which is an “image” of the harmonic distortion current. That voltage signal is then converted into a
current signal, amplified and injected into the load as “harmonic cancellation current” which matches
the needs of the nonlinear load. In theory, therefore, the active filter, if rated correctly in terms of
“harmonic cancellation current”, provides the load with the harmonic current it needs to function and
the source is only supplies the fundamental current which is sinusoidal.
Note: The active filter should be dimensioned in terms of “harmonic cancellation current” based on the actual currents
drawn with the filter in circuit.
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FIGURE 7
Block Diagram of Active Filter on Fourwire Application
5 Standard Reactors for Threephase AC and DC Drives
Reactors, also known as “inductors”, are coils of wire wound around a laminated steel core, similar in
construction to power transformers. The laminated steel core is usually impregnated to reduce audible
noise due to eddy currents. Reactors are a simple but effective method to reduce the harmonics
produced by nonlinear loads and are usually applied to individual loads such as variable speed drives.
In order to understand the benefit of a reactor, one must consider the impact it has on the power
circuit. When the current through a reactor changes, the result is an induced voltage (in opposition to
the applied voltage) across its terminals according to the formula:
dt
di
L E = ............................................................................................................................ (10.1)
where
E = induced voltage
L = inductance, in Henrys
dt
di
= rate of rise of voltage
It can therefore be seen that if the voltage available is limited, consequently, the rate of rise of voltage
will also be limited. Similarly, if the circuit current or supply conditions are such that they create a
voltage step change, then the reactor tends to limit the rate of raise of voltage, thus slowing the rate of
rise of current. It is the latter characteristic which is useful in limiting the harmonic currents produced
by electrical variable speed drives and other nonlinear loads.
In addition, the AC line reactor does reduce the total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
)
at the input to
the reactor compared to that at the terminals of the drive or other nonlinear load.
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In electrical variable speed drives, reactors are used in both AC and DC types. They are often used in
addition to other harmonic mitigation methods. On AC drives, reactors are used on the AC line side
(called AC line reactors), in the DC bus (called DC bus reactors) or both, depending on the type of
drive design and/or necessary performance of the supply.
5.1 Reactors for AC PWM Drives
A simple block diagram illustrating a standard 6pulse AC PWM variable frequency drive is shown in
Section 10, Figure 8, below. Depending on the drive rating, most manufacturers offer reactors either
standard or as options.
FIGURE 8
Circuit Diagram of Standard 6Pulse AC PWM Drive
In Section 10, Figure 8, above, the following are represented:
• R1 represents the resistance of the DC bus reactor L1 (if fitted).
• R1 and R2 have negligible effects on the harmonic currents, so will not be considered further.
• L1 represents the inductance of a DC bus reactor of various values (where fitted).
• L2 represents the AC line inductance of various values plus that of the supply.
Please note that in a perfectlybalanced system, the harmonic currents drawn by a 6pulse AC PWM
drive will consist of the fundamental and the characteristic harmonics as represented by:
h = n ⋅ p ± 1
where
h = harmonic number
p = pulse number
n = integer
For 6pulse drives: h = 6n ± 1. The harmonics are therefore 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19….
In order to simplify comparisons regarding the performance of the various inductances of AC line and
DC bus reactors, the DC bus reactor is divided into two discrete elements, as shown in Section 10.
Figure 8 (i.e., the total DC bus reactance is 2 × the value of L1).
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To maintain the results independent of current rating, all the values of reactors will be referred to as
“percentage reactances” referred to the current flowing in the AC supply. This means that the voltage
at the fundamental frequency across the AC line reactor will be “x” percent of input voltage of the
drive [i.e., the voltage will be “x%” of the LL voltage/1.732 (i.e., the phase voltage)].
Percentage reactance can be defined as follows:
3
100 2
%
AC
AC
V
I L f
X
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
π
............................................................................................. (10.2)
where
f = AC line frequency
I
AC
= AC line current
V
AC
= AC line voltage
L = inductance, in Henrys
X = reactance, in %
The formula can be transformed to calculate the necessary reactance in Henrys for any given
percentage impedance as follows:
100 2
3
%
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
=
AC
AC
I f
V
X
L
π
...................................................................................................... (10.3)
Example 1
Calculate the value of reactance in henrys necessary for a 3% reactor for a 630 kW (845 HP),
AC PWM drive having a full load input current of 670 A. The supply to the drive is
threephase, 690 V, 60 Hz.
Necessary reactance L =
100 2
3
%
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
AC
AC
I f
V
X
π
=
100 670 60 2
3
690
3
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
π
=
25258405
2 . 1195
= 47.3 × 10
6
= 47.3 µH (microHenrys)
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Example 2
Calculate the percentage reactance of threephase line reactor having of value of 77 µH for
use with a 315 kW (400 HP) PWM drive on a 480 V, 60 Hz supply. Drive rated input current
is 395 A.
%X =
3
100 2
%
AC
AC
V
I L f
X
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
π
=
3
480
100 395 10 77 60 2
6
⋅ ⋅ × ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
−
π
=
277
1147
= 4.14%
It should be noted that the attenuation of the drive harmonic currents is dependent on the value of
percentage reactance inserted into the drive, whether in the AC line, DC bus or both. The effects of
varying percentage reactance for both AC line and DC bus reactors and their resultant effect on both
the magnitude and harmonic number can be observed by reference to the following illustrations:
5.1.1 AC Line Reactors Only
The use of AC line reactors are more common than DC bus reactors, and in addition to
reducing harmonic currents, also provide a measure of surge suppression for the drive input
rectifier. The disadvantage, as mentioned in 10/4.1, is that there is a voltage drop at the
terminals of the drive, approximately in proportion to the percentage reactance at the
terminals of the drive.
FIGURE 9
Variation of Harmonic Currents with AC Line Reactance Only
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As illustrated above (Section 10, Figure 9), the input harmonics produced by PWM drives with no
reactance is relatively high when the AC line reactor is less than 1%. As the percentage AC line
reactance increases, however, the harmonic currents decrease, although the rate of decrease
diminishes somewhat as percentage reactance increases. AC line reactors of values 23% are
common which 5% being the usual maximum.
Example 3
Using the information in Section 10, Figure 9, the harmonic currents for a 3% AC line reactor
can be estimated:
• 5
th
harmonic – 40%
• 7
th
harmonic – 15%
• 11
th
harmonic – 5%
• 13
th
harmonic – 4%
• 17
th
harmonic – 4%
• 19
th
harmonic – 3%
Based on the above estimation, the total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) as a percentage of
the fundamental current based on harmonics 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 would be:
I
thd
=
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 4 5 5 15 40 + + + + +
I
thd
= 43.49%
Example 4
Using similar information from Section 10, Figure 9, we can also estimate the harmonic
currents and I
thd
for a 5 % AC line reactor.
• 5
th
harmonic – 32%
• 7
th
harmonic – 9%
• 11
th
harmonic – 4%
• 13
th
harmonic – 3%
• 17
th
harmonic – 3%
• 19
th
harmonic – 2%
The total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) as a percentage of the fundamental current based
on harmonics 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 would again be as follows:
I
thd
=
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 3 4 9 32 + + + + +
I
thd
= 33.8%
5.1.2 DC Bus Reactors
A relatively small number of AC PWM drive manufacturers do insert reactance in the DC
bus, thus avoiding any voltage drops associated with AC line reactors. These drives normally
need discrete surge suppression to protect the input bridge rectifier devices and to limit any
surges which could affect the DC bus voltage levels. A similar exercise can be carried out to
estimate the respective harmonic currents when a DC bus reactance is installed (Section 10,
Figure 10).
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Note that below rated load, the DC bus reactor percentage reactance is lower than at rated
load. Therefore, at less than rated load, the percentage harmonic currents will be higher than
anticipated. This is due to the reactors being designed (usually for economic reasons) to
partially saturate at rated load. Therefore, at reduced load, the inductance increases.
FIGURE 10
DC Bus Reactance Only in AC PWM Drive
Example 5
Using the information in Section 10, Figure 10, the harmonic currents for a 3% DC bus
reactor can be estimated:
• 5
th
harmonic – 30%
• 7
th
harmonic – 20%
• 11
th
harmonic – 8%
• 13
th
harmonic – 7.5%
• 17
th
harmonic – 5%
• 19
th
harmonic – 5%
Based on the above estimation, the total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) as a percentage of
the fundamental current based on harmonics 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 would be:
I
thd
=
2 2 2 2 2 2
5 5 5 . 7 8 20 30 + + + + +
I
thd
= 38.35%
5.1.3 Reactance on Both Sides of the Input Rectifier
On larger drives, both AC line and DC bus reactors may be used. Both are used when the
short circuit capacity of a dedicated supply is relatively low compared to the drive kVA or if
the supply susceptible to disturbances.
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Section 10, Figure 11, below, illustrates the effect on the 5
th
harmonic of varying values of
AC line and DC bus reactance.
FIGURE 11
Variation in 5
th
Harmonic Current for Differing Values
of AC Line Reactance and DC Bus Reactance
Note that when the percentage reactance in the DC bus is low, increasing the AC line
reactance does result in a significant reduction in the 5
th
harmonic, as depicted above. A
similar effect is apparent for higher order harmonics. However, when the percentage
reactance in the DC bus is high (4% or more), increasing the percentage reactance in the AC
line results in a smaller reduction in the harmonic currents, the reduction diminishing as the
harmonic number diminishes.
It should be stated that harmonic current magnitudes are also dependent to a lesser extent on
the value of the DC bus capacitance per amp of load current. More importantly, it is the short
circuit capacity of the source which largely determines the harmonic current magnitudes. As
described previously, a “stiff” source (e.g., 5% transformer) will permit more harmonic
current to be drawn by the nonlinear load without unduly distorting the voltage, whereas a
“soft” source (e.g., X
d
″ of 17%) will restrict the magnitude of harmonic current due to its
leakage reactance, but this harmonic current may significantly distort the supply voltage.
6 AC Line Reactors for DC SCR Drives and AC Drives with
SCR Input Rectifiers
AC line reactors for use with AC and DC drives having full controlled SCR input bridges reduce
harmonic currents in a similar manner to that illustrated in 10/4.1.1 on a pro rata basis (i.e., similar
percentage attenuation, but perhaps based on differing individual harmonic current magnitudes
depending on the type of drive and inductance on the DC side of the bridge rectifier). They also
improve the true power factor and provide surge suppression.
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However, another important function of the AC line reactors in these applications is the reduction of
line notching (see Subsection 2/6, “Line Notching”). In DC drives, AC line reactors are therefore
often termed “commutation reactors”.
With reference to Section 10, Figure 12, below; it should be reemphasized that the line notching
occurs 6 times per cycle on a 6pulse bridge and is the result of the commutation of the load current
from one pair of SCRs to another. During this process, the line voltage is short circuited, producing
two primary notches per cycle. In addition, there are four secondary notches of lower amplitude
which are “notch reflections” due to the commutation of the other two legs of the threephase bridge
rectifier. The short circuit current duration, or “notch width”, is a function of the DC output current of
the rectifier and the total inductance in the power system.
FIGURE 12
Primary and Secondary Notching
The notch depth is a function of where the notch is viewed on the power system. The further away it
is seen from the terminals of the bridge rectifier, the less significant it will seem. This can be
explained with reference to Section 10, Figure 13, below.
FIGURE 13
Line Impedance Distribution and the Effect of Notching
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At Point “A” (the rectifier terminals), the notching will be at its most severe, similar to that illustrated
in Section 10, Figure 13, if it is assumed that all the inductances L
1
, L
2
and L
3
are all equal. Due to the
voltage divider type circuit over the three identical inductances, the notch depth at Point “B” (the
input to the AC line reactor), will be 66% of the maximum depth seen at Point “A”. At Point “C”, it
will be 33% of the depth seen at Point “A”. Therefore, it can be seen that the more the inductance
between the source of the notch the less the depth. However, as explained in Section 2, the insertion
of additional inductance will reduce the notch depth but will increase the notch width.
Note: It is the notch depth which is usually the more important due to interference with equipment which relies of zero
crossing for operation.
The notch size can be calculated using the line side inductance and the bridge rectifier load current
during the commutation period.
Notch Depth =
3 2 1
2 1
L L L
L L
+ +
+
............................................................................................ (10.4)
If all inductance are equal, as per the example (Note: Actual L values of inductances will have to be inserted for
practical calculations):
Notch Depth =
1
1
3
2
L
L
= 66%
Notch Area = L ⋅ I ⋅ (Volts – µSecs)................................................................................... (10.5)
where
L = inductance of distribution transformer and supply inductance (cables, etc.) in
microHenrys.
I = DC load current at time of commutation, Amps.
Note that the inductance, L, is frequencydependent and is expressed in Henrys. For generators, the
substransient reactance, X
d
″, is the impedance of the fundamental harmonic frequency and is
expressed in Ohms. In order to compare transformers with generators, one needs to compare the
inductance L and reactance X for both. X
d
″ mainly comprises reactance X and can be expressed in
Ohms [this value, divided by 2πf (frequency)] will result in inductance L.
Notch Depth =
Voltage n Commutatio
Area Notch
.............................................................................. (10.6)
where the commutation voltage = α sin 2 rms E
LL
and
α = delay angle of SCR in degrees
E = line to line voltage at time of commutation.
It should also be noted that only additional reactance at the rectifier terminals will have a desired
effect in attenuating the notching. Placing additional reactance elsewhere usually results in little
improvement.
Note that standard AC line reactances are usually available on a per drive size basis and that
calculations as illustrated above are not normally necessary. The industry standard is a 3% AC line
reactor. This can reduce the notch depth by up to 50% of the depth seen at the rectifier terminals.
Larger reactors, up to 5%, are not common, as the larger reduction in notch depth is accompanied by a
large increase in the notch width, which may interfere with the rectifier operation.
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The effectiveness of any additional inductance is dependent on the impedance of the system. The
lower the impedance, the less effective any additional inductance will be in reducing the notch depth.
Notch limits are specified in North American Harmonic Recommendation IEEE 519 (1992) and are
currently as follows:
Special Applications
(2)
General Systems Dedicated Systems
(3)
Notch Depth 10% 20% 50%
V
thd
3% 5% 10%
Notch Area (AN)
(1)
16,400 22,800 36.500
Notes
The value of AN for other than 480 V systems should be multiplied by V/480.
1 In voltmicroseconds at rated voltage and current.
2 Special applications include airports and hospitals.
3 A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to a converter load.
7 Special Reactors for Threephase AC and DC Drives
As can be seen above, “standard” reactors provide only a limited measure of harmonic attenuation
which is normally not sufficient to maintain compliance with harmonic standards, harmonic
recommendations or to allow problemfree installations. For higher performance, more sophisticated
reactor designs (for example, wide spectrum filter and the “Duplex” reactor) may be considered.
7.1 Wide Spectrum Filters
Wide spectrum filters are multilimbed reactors fitted with a small capacitor bank, as shown in
Section 10, Figure 14, below. The three reactor windings are wound on a common core. L1 on the
source side is the “high impedance winding”, whose design is such that it is “tuned” to prevent the
importation of upstream harmonics. On the load side, the “compensating winding”, L2, decreases the
through impedance, reducing the voltage drop. The output of L2 is tuned to remove a wide spectrum
of loadside harmonics. A unique design of reactor, L3, permits a smaller capacitor bank to be used to
reduce voltage boost and reactive power at no load.
Note: The capacitor bank KVAr is around 30% of installed filter KVA and should operate with any generator.
The wide spectrum filter tend to be largely unaffected by voltage unbalance and background voltage
distortion (e.g., there is a documented case of a marine wide spectrum filter successfully operating
with 22.1% background distortion on a cableship with full electric propulsion) and can be used on
both 6pulse single drive and multiple drive applications. As it is a serial device (see Section 10,
Figure 14), it effectively isolates the loads from the effects of any upstream (i.e., background)
harmonics.
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FIGURE 14
Wide Spectrum Filter Schematic
L3
A3 B3 C3
L1 L2
C1
B1
A1
C2
B2
A2
C
Section 10, Figure 15 illustrates the current and voltage waveform from a standard 6pulse 200
HP/150 kW AC PWM drive with 3% DC link inductance. The I
thd
is 39.9%.
FIGURE 15
200 HP/150 kW AC PWM Drive with 3% DC Bus Reactor – I
thd
= 39.9%
The wide spectrum filter is connected to the drive(s) as per a standard AC line reactor (i.e., between
the mains supply and the drive, as shown in Section 10, Figure 16). The output voltage of the wide
spectrum filter is trapezoidal (Section 10, Figure 17), which forces the drive input bridge rectifier
devices (e.g., diodes or SCRs) to conduct over a longer time period at a lower peak value, thus
reducing the harmonics produced at the input. The performance on 6pulse AC PWM drives reduces
the I
thd
to around 58%, irrespective of whether the drive has AC line or DC bus reactors.
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FIGURE 16
Typical Wide Spectrum Filter Connection Diagram – AC PWM Drive
FIGURE 17
Trapezoidal Output Voltage from Wide Spectrum Filter
Filter output voltage
The effect of the wide spectrum filter on the 200 HP/150 kW AC PWM drive (Section 10, Figure 15)
is to reduce the I
thd
from 39.9% to 4.6%, as illustrated below in Section 10, Figure 18.
The wide spectrum filter can be applied to AC drives, DC drives with fully controlled SCR input
bridges and UPS systems.
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FIGURE 18
Mains Waveform with Wide Spectrum Filter – I
thd
= 4.6%
A typical example of a the performance of a wide spectrum filter and a 350 HP, 480 V, 60 Hz AC
PWM drive is shown in Section 10, Figure 19, below. The drive has a standard 3% AC line reactor
and has an I
thd
of 33.81%. With a wide spectrum filter connected in series, the I
thd
reduces to 3.48%.
FIGURE 19
Typical Wide Spectrum Filter Performance
350 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% AC Line Reactance
Without Filter I
thd
is 33.28%. With Filter I
thd
is 3.48%.
350HP VFD without/with Lineator filter
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
5
1
1
1
7
2
3
2
9
3
5
4
1
4
7
Harmonic
Ithd (%)
Without Lineator
With Lineator
350HP VFD without/with filter
Without filter
With filter
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Wide spectrum filters are available in a range up to around 3000 HP/2250 kW and can be applied to
multiple drives on the basis that the rating (in HP/kW) is a sum of all the connected drives. However,
no fixed speed induction motors or other nondrive load should be connected to a wide spectrum
filter, due to trapezoidal nature of output voltage. Typical applications in the marine and offshore
sectors are drives with power ratings of less than 2.5 MW, for main propulsion, thrusters, cableship
winches, compressors, fan and pump drives, etc.
Wide spectrum filters can be retrofitted to existing drives without the need for drive modifications,
whether for single drive or for multiple drive applications.
Wide spectrum filters may be developed for systems with voltages above 1 KV and with higher power
ratings (above 2.5 MW) for those applications with 6pulse AC drives in systems with voltages above
1 KV.
Note: For 12pulse drives and other loads, a variant of the wide spectrum filter is available. As can be seen from Section
10, Figure 20, below, a wide spectrum filter is inserted in the primary of the phase shift transformer and results in
an I
thd
of around 34%, similar to that expected from a 24pulse drive, but without the susceptibility to performance
degradation due to voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion normally associated with phase shift
drives. The unit is around 3035% the physical size of a standard 6pulse wide spectrum filter.
FIGURE 20
Wide Spectrum Filter with 12Pulse AC Drive
FILTER
The 12pulse variants may be useful, perhaps as retrofits, in applications where the use of single or
multiple 12pulse drives and/or other equipment are insufficient to guarantee compliance with
harmonic recommendations, rules or standards or where levels of voltage distortion are proving
troublesome.
7.2 Duplex Reactors
Duplex reactors originated in Europe in the 1930s and have been used on a number of vessels since
the mid 1980s, mainly for mitigation of the harmonics produced by main propulsion drives and also
with shaft generators to minimize the distortion of the voltage supplied to the ship’s busbar system.
Duplex reactors have two galvanically separated but tightly magnetically coupled coils (Section 10,
Figure 21). The primary coil is connected similarly to that when using standard reactors (i.e., in series
with the load). The secondary coil is connected to the primary coil using an antiparallel connection
so that a corrective voltage is induced which, when “added” to the primary distorted voltage, produces
a clean compensated voltage, as illustrated in Section 10, Figures 22a, 22b and 22c.
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FIGURE 21
Duplex Reactor Schematic
The generator X
G
should be determined from short circuit calculations. The inductance of the duplex
reactor is designed to be equal to the subtransient reactance (X
d
″) of the generator(s). The addition of
the duplex reactor into the system results in the short circuit capacity in “Subsystem 1”, as shown in
Section 10, Figure 21, being 50% of that if it were connected directly to the generator(s). This results
in the system impedance being doubled in value, and therefore, the voltage distortion on this side of
reactor will increase accordingly (if X
G
″ = X
D1
= X
D2
).
FIGURE 22a
System Voltage Waveform
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FIGURE 22b
Duplex Reactor Correction Voltage
FIGURE 22c
“Corrected” System Voltage
Section 10, Figure 23 illustrates a typical application of duplex reactors, applied instead of standard
AC line or “commutating” reactors for the mitigation of inrush voltage during the commutation of
SCR based drive current (in this instance, on a research vessel with two DC SCR main propulsion
drives). The accuracy and quality of the correction voltage is dependent on a number of factors. The
optimum ratio of the winding turns on the duplex reactor results from the ratio of the subtransient
reactance (X
d
″) of the generator(s) to the primary reactance of duplex reactor.
As the reactance at the generators is dependent on the rating and number of generators on line, it is
necessary to either have some means of switching the ratio of turns on the duplex reactor or to base
optimization on one operational condition with a given number of generators on line. For the system
illustrated in Section 10 Figure 23, the optimum condition was with two generators running, as can be
seen from Section 10, Figure 24.
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In Section 10, Figure 23, note the differentiation of the “distorted bus”, fed via the primary windings
of the reactors which are connected to the DC converters, and the “clean bus” (which may contain
“distortion” due to the reduced fault rating), fed via the secondary windings of the duplex reactors.
FIGURE 23
Application of Duplex Reactors on Main Propulsion Drives
FIGURE 24
Variation of System V
thd
with Number of Generators on Line (Figure 23)
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The performance of duplex reactors depends upon the system subtransient reactance, and hence the
number of generators on line at any one time. However, for the duplex reactor performance to be as
independent as possible from the number of generators in service, a configuration is needed such that
the reactors are closely coupled to the generators, as illustrated in Section 10, Figure 25. Some recent
passenger ships with full electric propulsion based on cycloconverter drives have this configuration of
duplex reactors. With reference to Section 10, Figure 25, as the branch for supply of the propulsion
bus carries higher load current than the general service bus, the number of turns on the propulsion
branch of the duplex reactor is 50% of that on the general service branch. As a consequence, there is
a small variation in the voltages on the two systems. However, the generator voltage regulators both
maintain general service bus voltages constant and the variation in voltage between both the
propulsion and general service buses within tolerable limits.
FIGURE 25
Duplex Reactors on Passenger Ships with 2 × 20 MW Cycloconverters
The important points of the configuration in Section 10, Figure 25 are:
i) According to actual measurements performed on one of these passenger vessels (with 2 × 20
MVA cycloconverter drives) on differing numbers of generators operating, the voltage
distortion (V
thd
) in the general service bus will not unduly affected by the propulsion load.
(The 2.7% V
thd
measured on the general service bus was largely attributed to the nonlinear
loads connected to the service bus, not a reflection the propulsion load voltage distortion.)
ii) The prospective short circuit current in the general service bus will be reduced to 33% of that
without the duplex reactors in the circuit. Therefore, any voltage distortion due to the
nonlinear load connected to the general service bus will be slightly higher than without the
diplex reactors.
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iii) The prospective short current in the propulsion bus will be reduced to 66% of that apparent
without duplex reactors. The voltage distortion, V
thd
on the propulsion bus will therefore be
around 33% higher than without duplex reactors installed.
iv) The general bus and propulsion bus are effectively isolated. Therefore any disturbances,
transient or continuous, including any short circuit effects emanating from the propulsion bus,
will not be reflected on the general service bus.
As mentioned previously, duplex reactors are now applied to shaft generators where they can reduce
the V
thd
of the voltage supplied to the ship’s busbars to <8% (Section 10, Figure 26).
FIGURE 26
Application of Duplex Reactors on Shaft Generators
SG
Syn
Comp
Shaft Generator
Diode Input Rectifier
GTO Short Circuit
Protection
SCR Inverter
Bridge
Fuse
Protection
Duplex Reactor
Synchronous
Compensator
Ship's Busbars
Power systems with multiple converter loads can utilize duplex reactors as illustrated in Section 10,
Figure 27, below. This example needed two duplex reactors and optimization would have to be
designed for the parallel operation of two generators. However, it has to be stated that for other than
twogenerator operation, only partial performance would be achieved. The application of duplex
reactors is often a compromise between economics, as mentioned above, and performance. It should
be noted that the generators supplying systems with duplex reactors are subjected to higher levels of
distortion due to reduction in fault rating. This will have to be taken into account in generator
design(s). In addition, on power systems with duplex reactors, large fixed speed AC squirrel cage
motors may have an increased voltage dip and reduced torque at startup. Special design and/or
precautions will be necessary to minimize these effects.
The development and application of duplex reactors may not yet have reached their full potential, and
therefore, their use may not be as straightforward or as wellunderstood as other technologies. Duplex
reactors have to be encompassed in the design of the vessel at an early stage and retrofitting may be
difficult.
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FIGURE 27
Application of Duplex Reactors Vessel
with Multiple AC SCR Based Drives
8 Passive LC Filters
Passive LC filters, comprising inductors, capacitors and occasionally resistors have been utilized for
harmonic mitigation for many years. Their operation relies on the “resonance phenomenon” which
occurs due to variations in frequency in inductors and capacitors; (see Section 9 for further information)
which is:
Z = 2πfL for an inductor................................................................................................... (10.8)
where
Z = impedance
f = supply frequency
L = inductance
Therefore the impedance of an inductor increases with frequency.
fC
Z
π 2
1
= for a capacitor ................................................................................................ (10.9)
where
C = capacitance
The impedance of a capacitor decreases with frequency.
At series resonance, the impedance of an inductor (X
L
) and capacitive reactance (X
C
) of the capacitor
are equal, and therefore, the resistance, which is generally low, is the only impedance in the circuit.
The circuit “Q” (i.e., quality factor), which determines the “sharpness” of the “tuning” of the passive
filter, is calculated thus:
R
X
Q
r
= ........................................................................................................................... (10.10)
where
Q = quality factor (usually in the range of 20 to 100)
X
r
= reactance at resonance
R = resistance in circuit
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The resonant frequency for a series resonant circuit, and in theory, for a parallel resonant circuit, can
be given as:
( ) C L
f
⋅
=
π 2
1
0
.............................................................................................................. (10.11)
where
f
0
= resonant frequency, Hz
L = filter inductance, Henrys,
C = filter capacitance, Farads
The series passive filters, usually connected in parallel with nonlinear load(s), are “tuned” to offer
very low impedance to the harmonic frequency to be mitigated (Section 10, Figure 28 shows the tuned
characteristics of 7
th
harmonic filter). However, the inductance of the source has to be taken into
account due to the production of parallel resonance at a frequency lower than that for series resonance
(perhaps causing power system positive feedback and also resulting in the misfire of power devices,
such as SCRs, for example). Section 10, Figure 28, below, illustrates absolute impedance for a 7
th
harmonic tuned filter over a range of frequencies.
Therefore, the formula above can be modified as follows for parallel resonance:
( ) ( )
F Source F
C L L
f
⋅ +
=
π 2
1
0
....................................................................................... (10.12)
where
L
F
= filter inductance
L
Source
= inductance on busbars
C
F
= filter capacitance
FIGURE 28
Absolute Impedance Characteristics for Tuned 7
th
Harmonic Series Filter
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There are a number of common passive filter configurations which are depicted in Section 10, Figure
29, below, with the “single tuned” filter being one of the most common. In practical use, 5
th
tuned
filters, often with additional 7
th
tuned filters, are the most common configuration. Other multilimbed
filters; including possible 11
th
and 13
th
can also be applied. However, above the 13
th
harmonic,
passive filter performance is poor, and they are rarely applied on higherorder harmonics.
FIGURE 29
Common Configuration of Passive Filters
Section 10, Figure 30, shows the impedance characteristic for a multilimbed filter with four discrete
limbs tuned to the 5
th
(300 Hz), 7
th
(420 Hz), 11
th
(660 Hz) and 13
th
(780 Hz) harmonics depicted in
Section 10, Figure 31). Note the respective parallel resonance for each filter below the series resonant
points (these have been highlighted for the 11
th
harmonic in the example given).
FIGURE 30
Simplified Connection of Multilimbed Passive Filter
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FIGURE 31
Impedance Characteristics of Multilimbed Passive Filter
In the example (Section 10, Figure 30, above), the filtertuned limbs would normally be tuned below
the respective characteristic frequencies to prevent possible overloading and to compensate for the
variation in capacitance over time due to the degradation of the capacitor dielectric (i.e., as the
capacitor ages and/or if subject to higher temperatures, the capacitance decreases, increasing the
reactance and thereby increasing the tuned filter’s resonant frequency). Typical values for each limb
would be 4.7
th
(for 5
th
harmonic), 6.6
th
(for 7
th
harmonic), 10.5
th
(for 11
th
harmonic) and 12.4
th
(for 13
th
harmonic).
The passive resonance shown in Section 10, Figure 31 could be problematic, as the high impedances
could result in additional voltage distortion of the respective harmonic currents at those frequencies.
The parallel resonance frequencies can, however, be modified (i.e., shifted) by careful design of the Q
factor (via the sharpness of the tuning) or by connecting resistance in parallel with the filter reactors,
such as not to coincide with a major characteristic harmonic frequency. This practice is called
“dampening”. A reduction in the Q factor has only a minor effect, and therefore, the addition of
resistance in parallel with the reactor is often preferred, as it can achieve the necessary damping with
relatively low fundamental losses compared to Q factor control. Dampening reduces the “sharpness”
at the tuned frequency and increases the bandwidth of the filter, but at increased cost and reduced
filter harmonic reduction performance.
Passive filters are susceptible to changes in source and load impedances. They do attract harmonics
from other sources (i.e., from downstream of the PCC), and this must be taken into account in their
design. Harmonic and power system studies are usually undertaken to calculate their effectiveness
and to explore possibility of resonance in a power system due to their proposed use.
In order to address the problems above for specific applications, “drive applied” (or “trap”) filters are
available, as illustrated in Section 10, Figure 32, below.
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FIGURE 32
Simplified “Drive Applied” or “Trap” Filter for Variable Speed Drives
As can be seen above, a reactor (typically 5% reactance) is connected between the tuned passive filter
and the source (reducing the supply voltage accordingly). The 5% reactor serves two functions:
i) It effectively isolates the passive filter from the source (and any preexisting voltage distortion)
and reduces the possibility of overloading due to downstream harmonics.
ii) It further reduces the harmonic current spectrum on the source side.
It may be possible for “trap filters” to be applied to drive applications irrespective of source impedance
and possibility of system resonance.
On marine power systems, frequency variations of ±5% are common and would have an adverse
impact on the performance of tuned passive filters. Similarly, if the source impedance were to
change, filter performance would suffer. An example may be a passive filter for a bank of winch
drives on a cableship. The design of the filter is based on that one vessel – if the drives and filter
(often containerized) were moved to another vessel, the source impedances will most probably differ.
Tuned passive filters perform best a rated load with around 1418% I
thd
, usually achievable from a
wellengineered 5
th
and 7
th
limbed filter. At lesser loads, and especially at light load, the passive filter
“leading” kVAr is impressed on the source. On industrial applications and utility supplies, this may
not be problematic, but if connected to marine generators, this can be a significant issue, as most
generators cannot support any more than around 20% leading kVAr due to the potential of “armature
reaction” and resultant overexcitation and AVR (automatic voltage regulator) instability. Also, as
alluded to above, design of passive filters is more complicated on generators due to increased
frequency variations.
In marine and offshore applications, passive filters normally need indepth studies to assess their
suitability. They are often more suited to “dedicated systems” where the usually large, nonlinear
loads, such as main electric propulsion drives and their associated power generation, are discrete from
other loads.
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9 Transformer Phase Shifting (Multipulsing)
For drives supplying 400 HP/300 kW motors (or larger) and other large nonlinear equipment, “phase
shifting” techniques have been commonly employed to reduce the input harmonic currents.
Therefore, multiple input converter bridges are necessary, connected such that the harmonics
produced by one bridge(s) cancels certain harmonics produced by other(s). In theory, certain
harmonics, as determined by the number of converter bridges in the system, are eliminated at the
input (i.e., primary side) of the phase shift transformer.
The technique of “phase shifting” the harmonic currents produced by one converter against those
produced by another is also termed “multipulsing”, hence the term “multipulse drives”. The number
of discrete converters in a system determines the “pulse number”. For example, a standard
threephase drive with one input converter is known as a “6pulse” drive (the number of pulses relates
to the number of pulses on the DC side of the rectifier):
No. of Pulses = 6 × No. of 6pulse input rectifiers in converter ...................................... (10.13)
If a drive, for example has two input rectifiers, it is known as a “12pulse drive”, as depicted in
Section 10, Figure 33, below. Similarly, with three input rectifiers it becomes an “18pulse drive”.
Pulse configurations up to 48pulse are possible for very large systems. In addition to reducing the
line side harmonics, phase shifting also reduces the voltage ripple on the DC side of the rectifier(s).
The theoretical cancellation of certain harmonic current is dependent on the “pulse number” based on
the format, as known:
Pulse Number ± 1
Therefore, in a 12pulse system, the characteristic harmonic currents will be 11, 13, 23, 25, 35, 37,
etc. It will be noted that the 5
th
, 7
th
, 17
th
and 19
th
harmonic are not listed. These are theoretically
cancelled in a 12pulse system where the lowest harmonic is now the 11
th
. Similarly, in an 18pulse
system, the characteristic harmonics will be 17, 19, 35, 37, 47, 49, etc. As can therefore be seen, the
higher the pulse number, the more the lower order harmonics will be theoretically cancelled.
The amount of phase shift, in degrees, necessary is also a function of the number of converters
employed:
Phase Shift° =
converters of Number
60
............................................................................ (10.14)
For example, in the 12pulse drive system illustrated in Section 10, Figure 31 (which has two 6pulse
converters) the necessary phase shift is:
Phase Shift =
2
60
= 30°
Similarly, an 18pulse system having three converters would need a 20 degrees phase shift.
Historically, 12pulse systems were the most common configuration, but in recent years, 18pulse
systems have become common in North America due to the requirements of IEEE 519 (1992). 12
pulse systems are still used in other parts of the world, but they are becoming less common due to the
introduction of harmonic recommendations in an increasing number of countries. In the marine and
offshore environment, however, 12pulse systems were still relatively common, but it is now
recognized that they have increasing difficulty complying with current harmonic recommendations,
especially on larger or multiple loads.
In general terms, there are two main types of phase shift transformer used for drive harmonic mitigation:
i) Doublewound isolating transformer
ii) Polygonal nonisolating autotransformer
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9.1 Doublewound Isolating Transformer Phase Shift Systems
The drive system depicted below (Section 10, Figure 33) comprises a doublewound isolating
transformer with 30 degrees phase shift between the star and delta secondary windings, two 6pulse
input bridges, an “interbridge reactor”, a DC bus and an inverter bridge. This configuration provides
for optimum cancellation of the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic, providing, however, that the circuit is carefully
balanced and 120degree conduction is forced in each of the rectifier bridges through the use of the
DC interbridge reactor. AC interbridge reactors can also be used, but due to the voltage drop across
them, DC reactors tend to be more common.
FIGURE 33
12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Doublewound Phase Shift Transformer
All phase shift systems, irrespective of pulse number, are susceptible to degradation in performance
due to unbalance, whether in the voltage supply or through inaccuracies or tolerances during
manufacturing of the transformer and/or the rectifiers. Section 10, Figure 34 illustrates the effect of
minor unbalance (<1.5%) on performance of the doublewoundbased 12pulse system shown in
Section 10, Figure 33, and is based on the following conditions:
• Transformer leakage impedance of ~ 5%
• Supply impedance is 1.4%
• Completely balanced phase group impedances
• Rectified voltage drops are completely balanced
• The interbridge reactor was dimensioned to limit the pp current between bridges to 15% rated
DC current
Note: There will always be some impedance unbalance, which will lead to an increase in the theoretical level of
harmonics.
As can be seen from Section 10, Figure 34, below, a small increase in unbalance can result in
significant increases in the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics at the primary side of the phase shift transformer. In
order to reduce the effects of unbalance in the secondary windings and rectifiers, the transformer
leakage impedance should be relatively high, with 5% being typical. In order to provide as near to
specified performance, the transformer should be designed with a relatively low value for secondary
voltage unbalance (for example, around 0.3%) to allow for other practical unbalances (e.g., from
rectifiers).
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FIGURE 34
Doublewound 12Pulse Phase Shift Transformer
Unbalance Between Secondary Voltages
Doublewound transformers need an accurately design system and increased leakage reactance. Note
that on carefully designed systems, the interbridge reactor may not be necessary. However, if balance
is not achieved, the results are higher than expected harmonic levels, poor bridge rectifier and
transformer utilization and possible problems in rating the bridge electronic devices (i.e., diodes or
SCRs).
A welldesigned 12pulse drive system, based on a doublewound phase shift transformer can give a
practical performance of around 1012% I
thd
based on ideal supply conditions in terms of background
voltage distortion and voltage unbalance
.
Doublewound transformers tend to be common on marine applications, as they can provide common
mode noise attenuation (i.e., between conductors and ground) via the use of copper shielding between
windings. This can serve the purpose of a crude, but effective, EMI filter for the drive. On vessels
with IT power systems (i.e., insulated neutrals), standard drive EMC or EMI filters cannot be used, as
one side of the filter capacitors needs a connection to ground. The capacitors would be damaged,
therefore, if a ground fault appeared on the system. In these applications, the doublewound isolating
transformer provides galvanic isolation between input and output, thus attenuating the common mode
and other conducted emissions.
9.2 Polygonal Nonisolating Autotransformer Phase Shift Systems
For some marine and offshore applications an alternative to the doublewound transformerbased
phase shift system is that based on the polygonal, nonisolating autotransformer. The performance
may not be as effective, with around 1517% I
thd
being typical for a 12pulse system.
A polygonal autotransformer is essentially a delta winding structure which permits the unbalancing 3
rd
harmonics to circulate. A typical 12pulse drive system based on a polygonal autotransformer is
shown in Section 10, Figure 35, below.
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FIGURE 35
12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Polygonal Autotransformer
The 12pulse polygonal autotransformer above provides ±15° phase shift relative to the input and
thereby 30° between the two bridge rectifiers. Two large interbridge reactors are necessary in this
configuration in order to:
i) Attenuate the significant amounts of 3
rd
harmonics, which would otherwise flow between
bridge rectifiers
ii) Force the bridge rectifiers to appear as balanced loads to each of the two threephase groups
of the polygonal autotransformer
iii) Maintain a relativelybalanced utilization of the rectifier
The performance of a typical polygonal autotransformerbased 12pulse drive system is shown in
Section 10, Figure 36 and is based on the following conditions:
• Transformer impedance of ~ 1%.
• Both interbridge reactors are approximately six (6) times the value for a similar rating of drive
with doublewound transformer.
• Additional AC line reactance of up to 2% is present.
• The impedances per phase group are completely balanced.
• The rectifier voltage drops are completely balanced.
• The drive is operating at rated load.
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FIGURE 36
Variation on Harmonic Currents vs. AC Reactance for a
12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Polygonal Autotransformer
As can be seen from above, the performance of polygonal autotransformers is not as effective as that
offered by doublewound transformers, but may be sufficient for many applications.
9.3 The Effect of Voltage Unbalance on Phase Shift Performance
As mentioned earlier, unbalance does have a detrimental effect of the performance of phase shift
transformers. This unbalance may be due to manufacturing tolerances in the transformers and/or the
rectifiers. However, no supply is completely balanced. In North America, unbalanced voltages
between 13% readily exist in many power systems, impacting on the performance of the phase
shifting scheme, irrespective of pulse number.
Section 10, Figure 38 illustrates the effect on the performance of a typical 18pulse (20degree phase
shift) system, as shown in Section 10, Figure 37. As can be seen with the example, on a balanced
system, the I
thd
at rated load is around 5.6%. This level of performance is maintained down to below
15% load. However, when 2% unbalance is introduced, the performance at 100% load is reduced to
around 21% I
thd
. At reduced load, the performance is markedly poorer, with distortion significantly
increased.
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FIGURE 37
Typical 18Pulse Drive System
FIGURE 38
Effect of 2% Unbalance on 18Pulse Drive
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9.4 The Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on Phase Shift Performance
The presence of “preexisting” or “background” voltage distortion also significantly affects the
performance of phase shifting systems. Section 10, Figure 39 shows the degradation of performance
of a similar 18pulse to that described above, using background voltage distortion values up to 5%.
FIGURE 39
Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on an 18Pulse Drive
As illustrated above, the performance is largely unaffected on background distortion up to 2% V
thd
at
rated load and up to 1% V
thd
at 50% load. However, beyond these levels, the performance diminishes
to around 15% I
thd
at rated load and 23% I
thd
at 50% load, respectively, with 5% background
distortion.
It should be noted that background voltage distortion on some classes of existing ships and offshore
installations may be excess on 10%, with a number of instances recorded where the background V
thd
was in excess of 20%. This may be the case where full electric propulsion has been installed on a
common bus system or where the majority of the electrical load is nonlinear (e.g., on drilling rigs,
dynamically positioned drillships, etc.).
The performance of phase shiftbased drive systems, therefore, has to be carefully considered, if the
necessary level of mitigation is to be achieved under high levels of background distortion. In such
applications, separate mitigation may have to be considered for retrofitting to other nonlinear
equipment in order to reduce the overall voltage distortion such that any installed phase shift systems
can operate more effectively.
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10 Transformer Phase Staggering (Quasi Multipulse) Systems
A derivation of “phase shifting” is “phase staggering”. This technique can be used when there are
multiple loads, ideally of similar or identical ratings, which can be fed from different phase shift
transformers. The degree of phase shift per transformer is dependent on the number of discrete loads
and the desired overall pulse number (e.g., a “quasi18 or 24pulse system”) necessary.
Section 10, Figure 40, below, depicts a system comprising 4 × 132 kW AC PWM drives fed from an
1800 kVA transformer with 6% impedance. To facilitate the “quasi24pulse system”, a minimum of
four drives are necessary. For optimum performance, all the loads should be of identical ratings. In
this case, as in many practical applications, there may not be an ideal load profile. However, it can
still be feasible to construct a quasi24pulse system (or any other pulse number based on a phase
staggering based scheme), albeit with slightly less performance than it would have had if all the loads
were balanced, as illustrated in this example.
FIGURE 40
Quasi24Pulse System Using Phase Staggering Techniques
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As can be seen from Section 10, Figure 40, one 132 kW drive (No. 1) has a 1:1 (i.e., no voltage
transformation) transformer connected with 30 degrees phase shift between primary and secondary
windings. Drive No. 2 is fed directly from the busbars of the switchboard. Drive No. 3 has a
15degree phase shift transformer connected, as has Drive No. 4. This combination of phase shifting
results in the I
thd
reducing to 8.5% when all four drives are operating at rated load, as shown in
Section 10, Table 1.
TABLE 1
Estimated Harmonic Current Distortion Using
Quasi24Pulse Phase Staggering System
Harmonic 6pulse 1 drive 2 drives 3 drives 4 drives
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
36.6%
13%
8%
3%
4%
1.8%
2.5%
1.7%
36.6%
13%
8%
3%
4%
1.8%
2.5%
1.7%
25.9%
9.2%
1.6%
0.6%
2.8%
1.3%
2.5%
1.7%
12.2%
4.3%
2.7%
1%
1.3%
0.63%
2.5%
1.7%
7.3%
2.6%
1.6%
0.6%
0.8%
0.4%
2.5%
1.7%
I
thd
40.1% 40.1% 27.9% 13.5% 8.5%
Note: Polygonal, nonisolating autotransformers were used in this example, hence the slightly lower
performance than may have been expected with regard to the use of doublewound transformers. Also,
please note that in the table above, the calculations were based on ALL drives having similar loading,
and therefore balanced, and 20% residual for phase angle diversity.
Phase staggering can offer good harmonic mitigation performance. It is, however, prone to
performance degradation due to voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion as are
conventional drive dedicated phase shift transformers.
Phase staggering is not as effective in reducing harmonic currents as individual drives with
multipulse, phase shifted inputs of similar pulse number. Nevertheless, phase staggering is an
effective method of reducing the harmonic currents from a number of drives and other nonlinear loads
to within the necessary limits.
Both doublewound and polygonal autotransformers can be used to construct phase staggering
schemes. Doublewound tend to be larger, but offer better mitigation performance, and also
importantly, galvanic isolation (normally a stipulation when EMI/EMC attenuation is necessary for
the drives or other loads in a marine or offshore environment). Polygonal autotransformers are
smaller, but offer lower levels of performance with no galvanic isolation, and therefore will not be as
common on marine and offshore installations.
11 Electronic Filters
11.1 Active Filters
Active filters have been available since the late 1990s and are now relatively common in industrial
applications for both harmonic mitigation and reactive power compensation (i.e., electronic power
factor correction). Unlike passive LC filters, active filters do not present potential resonance to the
network and are unaffected to changes in source impedance.
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Shuntconnected active filters (i.e., parallel with the nonlinear load, as shown in Section 10, Figure 41,
below) are the common configuration of active filter. Less common seriesconnected types are available.
As can be seen in Section 10, Figure 41, there are three currents in the circuit:
I
S
= I
L
– L
F
....................................................................................................................... (10.15)
where
I
S
= source current (fundamental)
I
L
= nonlinear load current
I
F
= active filter current (harmonic)
FIGURE 41
Block Diagram of Shunt Connection Active Filter
with Associated Current Waveforms
With reference to Section 10, Figure 41, the active filter measures the wave shape of the nonlinear
load current waveform via current transformers (CTs) in the line, the actual number of which varies
according to the manufacturer. The reference voltage derived from the CTs is fed into a notch filter or
similar circuit, where the fundamental component is removed. The remaining signal is a measure of
the “distortion current” (i.e., the load current less the fundamental current). This signal is then fed
into the control system which generates the respective IGBT firing patterns necessary in order to
replicate and amplify the “distortion current” (now termed the “compensation current”), which is
injected into the load in antiphase (i.e., 180° displayed) to compensate for the harmonic current.
Note: The active filter should be dimensioned in terms of “harmonic cancellation current” based on the actual nonlinear
currents drawn with the filter in circuit [i.e., due to the filter’s low impedance (<1% Z), the nonlinear loads will
draw more harmonic current than without the filter in the circuit. 1015% higher current is typical for threephase
loads].
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When rated correctly in terms of “harmonic compensation current”, the active filter provides the
nonlinear load with the harmonic current it needs to function while the source provides only the
fundamental current (i.e., 50 Hz or 60 Hz component).
Section 10, Figure 42, below, illustrates a typical power circuit schematic of a shuntconnected active
filter. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) and carrier filters are passive LC networks. The EMI
filter provides common mode filtering [i.e., between all phases and ground (earth) and a measure of
differential mode filtering (i.e., between phases)]. On European Union (EU) applications, an uprated
EMI filter or additional electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) filter is usually necessary in order to
comply with the EU EMC Directive regarding limits of EMI emissions in the range 150 kHz to
30 MHz.
FIGURE 42
Simplified Power Circuit of Active Filter
The “carrier filter” attenuates the IGBT bridge carrier frequency (i.e., ~5 kHz to 20 MHz depending
on the rating of the active filter – on higher ratings (>300 A) the switching frequency is usually
reduced to minimize device power losses). However, after carrier frequency filtering, some leakage
may be apparent which can adversely affect snubber components on SCR front end based drives and
other equipment. In these applications, a 3% AC line reactor between the point of connection of the
active filter and the nonlinear load is normally sufficient to prevent any adverse interaction and to
reduce the harmonic current magnitude. The precharge resistors and associated contactor attenuate
the DC bus inrush current during initial powerup, thereby maximizing the life of the capacitors.
[This is a technique also used in AC variable frequency drives via either precharge (or ‘soft start’)
resistors, mainly used in smaller HP/kW drives, or via 6pulse, half controlled diode/SCR precharge
input bridges (i.e., this is to provide voltage control from powerup to full conduction when DC bus is
charged). The input bridge rectifier acts as diode bridge rectifier during normal operation].
The IGBT bridge and DC bus architecture are similar to that seen in AC PWM drives. The DC bus is
used as an energy storage unit. The precharge contactor and precharge resistor are used to “soft
start” the DC bus (i.e., reduce the inrush current to the DC bus capacitors during initial powerup).
The DC bus is continually recharged via the IGBT package diodes, as shown in Section 10, Figure 42.
The IGBT bridge generates a current wave shape for the harmonic compensation based on the
“distortion current” signal derived from the CTs and notch filter or similar circuit.
Section 10, Figure 43 illustrates a typical current waveform for a 6pulse AC PWM drive:
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FIGURE 43
Typical AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform (L
L
) as per Figure 41
The active filter “compensation current” is illustrated in Section 10, Figure 44, below:
FIGURE 44
Active Filter “Compensation Current” Waveform (L
f
) as per Figure 41
The corrected source current is shown below in Section 10, Figure 45:
FIGURE 45
Source Current Waveform (L
S
) as per Figure 41
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Section 10, Figure 46, below, illustrates typical performance of a correctly rated active filter. The
nonlinear load is an AC PWM drive with 3% AC line reactor. Without the active filter in the circuit,
the I
thd
is 35.28%. With the active filter operating, the I
thd
is reduced to 3.67%.
The active filters should be rated in terms of “harmonic cancellation current”, based on the currents
actual drawn with the filter in circuit. To assist in the reduction of the magnitude of the harmonic
current, AC line reactors of least 3% should be connected between the filter and load(s). The AC line
reactor also serves to provide protection to SCR front endbased drives from the active filter carrier
frequency.
Most active filters cannot operate on high levels of voltage background distortion (>810%), due to
damage to capacitive elements in the filter input.
The rating of an active filter should be based on the load current drawn with the active filter connected,
as detailed above. Failing to do so may result in the active filter being “saturated” prematurely (i.e.,
current limited at its maximum rating), with any additional harmonic current spilling over into the
mains as “distortion current” and raising the source side voltage distortion. However, many active
filters regularly operate intermittently at maximum output current levels without any known problems.
FIGURE 46
Typical Active Filter Performance
with 150 HP AC PWM with 3% AC Line Reactor
Without Active Filter, I
thd
is 35.28%. With Active Filter, I
thd
is 3.87%.
Active Filter Performance
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
3 7
1
1
1
5
1
9
2
3
2
7
3
1
3
5
3
9
4
3
4
7
Harmonic
Ithd
AF OFF
AF ON
Active filters compensate for harmonic currents and provide reactive power compensation (i.e.,
electronic power factor correction). On digitally controlled filters, the amount of each can be selected
via the user interface keypad. However, on older analog control system designs, it is not usually
possible to control the reactive current. This may be problematic. For example, on power systems
where the nonlinear load has been switched off or the load is at low levels, it is possible that
uncontrolled reactive current up to almost the maximum capacity of the active filter can be imposed
on the source. This may not be of concern on “stiff” shoreside utility supplies, but may well be
problematic on “soft” marine and offshore generatorderived voltage supplies.
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The control of the amount of harmonic compensation current to reactive current on digital active
filters is based on its rated capacity and is based on the following formula:
I
AF
= ) (
2 2
r h
I I + ............................................................................................................. (10.16)
where
I
AF
= total output current of the active filter
I
h
= injected harmonic current of the filter
I
r
= injected reactive current
Example
An active filter is rated at 300 A. Calculate the available reactive current if the injected
harmonic current is 220 A.
I
AF
= ) (
2 2
r h
I I +
Thus, I
r
= ) (
2 2
h AF
I I −
I
r
= ) 220 300 (
2 2
−
I
r
= 204 A
Active filters have the ability to compensate for any loadside current unbalances, but have been
known to be susceptible to voltage unbalance on the source side of the connection. Please note that
little research has been undertaken with regards to the performance of active filter under unbalance
conditions, but published research work suggests the unbalanced voltages can generate a 2
nd
harmonic
voltage in the DC bus, and thereby a 2
nd
harmonic current, whose amplitude is dependent on the DC
bus capacitance. This 2
nd
harmonic can be reflected on the AC side of the filter as a 3
rd
harmonic,
reducing its harmonic compensation effectiveness.
Excessive background voltage distortion (i.e., >810% V
thd
) may, in addition to damaging the
capacitive elements in the active filter input, also interfere with the generation of reference and other
signals. Therefore, in the presence of high levels of background voltage distortion, the “supply
voltage signals” (i.e., those necessary for control and protection purposed) should be filtered.
For operation above 1 KV, LV active filters can inject into the supply via interposing transformers
with a small loss in performance at higher frequencies. These transformers have to be specifically
designed based on the injection of harmonic currents at frequencies up to 2.5 kHz or 3 kHz (50
th
harmonic based on 50 Hz and 60 Hz fundamentals).
Active filters are relatively simple to apply. They can be connected to any nonlinear load or point of
common coupling (PCC). Their effectiveness in reducing “line notching” due to fully controlled SCR
drives and other similar equipment is dependent on the operating speed of the filter, which varies
according to the manufacturer and/or the amount of commutating reactance in the line. Active filters
can usually reduce the notching, but cannot eliminate it completely.
Note: Some active filters treat only up to the 25
th
harmonic. Some impose limits on the maximum number treated up to
the 50
th
(e.g., up to ten). Unlike the filter described in this Section, the majority of active filters do not treat
interharmonics. Performance depends on the control strategy adopted [“FFT” (selected characteristic harmonics)
based or “broadband” (all nonlinear current)based].
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Active filters are complex products, and it may not be possible for them to be repaired by any party
other than the manufacturer’s service engineers. Also, full commissioning by manufacturers is
necessary to obtain optimum performance, although “self tuning” models are now becoming available.
Active filters do offer good performance in the reduction of harmonics and the control of power
factor. Their use should be examined on a projectbyproject basis, depending on the application
criteria.
11.2 Hybrid ActivePassive Filters
The application of hybrid passiveactive filters may be considered as an alternative to the use of shunt
active filters. For example: on installations needing large amounts of harmonic cancellation. The use
of passive filter elements is often seen as a means to reduce the current rating of the active filter while
still retaining the benefits. In return, the connection of an active filter to a passive filter can eliminate
the disadvantages of conventional passive filters (i.e., the possibility of resonance in a power system
and the effects on the performance of a passive filter should the load characteristic or source
impedance change).
The schematic diagram for a shuntconnected hybrid passiveactive filter is depicted in Section 10,
Figure 47, below, and comprises an active filter and a passive LC filter with 5
th
and 7
th
tuned
harmonic limbs.
FIGURE 47
Theoretical Shunt PassiveActive Hybrid Filter
There is a misconception regarding the operation of hybrid shunt passiveactive filters using “standard”
industrial active filters as depicted in the example shown in Section 10, Figure 47, above. It is assumed
that the passive filter, tuned to the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic, removes the majority of those harmonics and,
therefore, the active filter only has to be rated, based on the filter’s rated current, to provide harmonic
cancellation for the 11
th
harmonic and above. However, it is usually not possible using “standard”
shunt active filters due to thermal considerations. Section 10, Figure 48, below, illustrates the
maximum output currents per harmonic available from a typical “standard” shunt active filter.
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FIGURE 48
Thermal Limits of Shunt Active per Harmonic Current
Active Filter Thermal Limits
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
3 7
1
1
1
5
1
9
2
3
2
7
3
1
3
5
3
9
4
3
4
7
5
1
Harmonic
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
m
a
x
o
u
t
p
u
t
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
Thermal limits per
harmonic
Operation above the limits illustrated (Section 10, Figure 48) per harmonic is “prohibited”, as the
active filter thermal protection circuitry would initiate “saturation” (i.e., the active filter would current
limit) to protect the IGBTs from damage due to overtemperature.
Note: Most active filters are designed to mitigate typical harmonic spectrums, most notably that associated with 6pulse
drives and other nonlinear equipment, which consists mainly of low order harmonics (e.g., 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
, 17
th
and 19
th
etc.). At higher order characteristic harmonic frequencies, there are lower values of currents to mitigate.
For similar rms current levels, the losses in the output devices, usually IGBTs, increase significantly, and
sometimes exponentially, with increases in frequency. Therefore, the power that devices have to be derated
thermally as per Section 10, Figure 48. This is accomplished automatically with the active filter.
The majority of standard active filters, whether they are based on ‘broadband’ performance (i.e. inject all the non
linear current components into the load) and/or ‘selective FFT’ (i.e. they have the option of individual harmonic
attenuation selection’), are affected by these thermal constraints.
Based on the graph in Section 10, Figure 48 and the circuit in Section 10, Figure 47, only 45% of the
active filter current rating would be available to compensate from the 11
th
harmonic upwards without
temperature limits being exceeded (which would be prevented by saturation). Similarly, from the
same graph, if the passive filter contained 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
tuned limbs, the available active filter
current to mitigate from 15
th
harmonic upwards would be 33% rated capacity.
Therefore, as illustrated above, it is not always possible to reduce the rating of a standard shunt active
filter when operated with a passive filter. For example, a 400 A active filter will have 400 A
maximum current available for all harmonic currents from 2
nd
to the 50
th
harmonic. Based on the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic currents being attenuated by the passive filter, as depicted in Section 10, Figure 47,
only 180 A will be available from the active filter for remainder of the harmonic currents from the 11
th
upward. The active filter will of course also mitigate any residual 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics not attenuated
by the passive filter. If the total harmonic current above the 11
th
is above 180 A, a larger rating of
active filter may be necessary. The larger rating of active filter will also have the same thermal
constraints per harmonic current compensation.
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Similarly, for example, if a nonlinear load needed 280 A of mitigation after the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics
were attenuated by a passive filter, then the necessary rating of active filter would be, according to
Section 10, Figure 48:
I
AF
=
45 . 0
A 280
= 623 A
Therefore an active filter of rated current of at least 623 A would be necessary. Likely ratings may be
650 A, 750 A or 800 A. It could be argued, therefore, that the rating of the “standard” active filter
cannot be reduced when used in conjunction with passive filter and that the larger active filter rating
necessary for operation with the passive filter could in fact mitigate all the harmonics of the nonlinear
load without the need for passive filtration. Therefore, it is important that manufacturers be consulted
closely when considering the use of “standard” shunt active filters with a hybrid passiveactive
configuration.
Hybrid passiveactive filters for installations with large nonlinear loads are often custom designed,
some shuntconnected (an example of which is illustrated in Section 10, Figure 49, below) and some
seriesconnected, depending on the application.
FIGURE 49
Practical Example of Hybrid Shunt PassiveActive Filter
As can be seen in Section 10, Figure 49, above, the configuration of the example of custom designed,
hybrid passiveactive filter comprises an active filter connected in series with a passive filter having
two tuned limbs for the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic, respectively.
The active filter and passive filter are connected via coupling transformers. The operation of the
hybrid scheme is such that the active filter, connected in series to the passive filter via the coupling
transformer imposes a voltage at the terminals at connection with the nonlinear load, which forces the
harmonic currents to circulate through the passive filter, attenuating the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic. The
residual 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic and the harmonic currents above the 7
th
would be compensated for by the
active filter.
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The active filter may improve, depending on the configuration, the passive filter compensation
characteristics while also maintaining that the passive filter operates independently of any variations
in natural resonant frequencies or filter characteristics (e.g., due to aging of components which would
normally adversely affect operation). However, the passive filter kVAr at harmonic light load may be
problematic on generatorderived supplies injecting leading reactive current into the source.
By their nature hybrid passiveactive filters are not as simple to apply as standard active filters.
12 “Active Front Ends” for AC PWM Drives
“Active front ends”, also known as “sinusoidal input rectifiers”, are offered by a number of AC drive
and UPS system companies in order to offer a low input harmonic footprint. An example of the
application of an “active front end” (AFE) to an AC PWM drive is shown in Section 10, Figure 50,
below.
As can be seen below, the normal 6pulse diode input bridge has been replaced by a fully controlled
IGBT bridge, an identical configuration to the output inverter bridge. The DC bus and the IGBT
output bridge architecture are similar to that in standard 6pulse AC PWM drives with diode input
bridges.
FIGURE 50
Application of an IGBT “Active Front End” to an AC PWM Drive
Employing PWM (pulse width modulation) waveform control techniques, similar to that utilized in
the construction of the output voltage waveform, the input IGBT bridge synthesizes a sinusoidal input
current waveform as shown in Section 10, Figure 51.
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FIGURE 51
”Active Front End” Input Current and Voltage Waveforms
As can be seen in Section 10, Figure 52, below, the operation of the input IGBT input bridge rectifier
does significantly reduce low order harmonics compared to conventional AC PWM drives with
6pulse diode bridges with a typical I
thd
of 23% (<50
th
harmonic). However, they can also introduce
significant high order harmonics, above the 50
th
, as also illustrated below. The I
thd
of the harmonics
above the 50
th
, according to the information below, are well in excess of the I
thd
for those harmonics
below the 50
th
. (It should be noted that only harmonics up to 50
th
are usually considered in harmonics
calculations, standard harmonic measurements and harmonic rules and recommendations. Harmonics
above the 50
th
may have an adverse effect on plant and equipment unless suitably mitigated).
In addition, the action of IGBT switching introduces a pronounced “ripple” at carrier frequencies
(~23 kHz) into the voltage waveform which must be attenuated by a combination of AC line reactors
(which also serve as an energy store that allows the input IGBT rectifier to act as a boost regulator for
the DC bus) and capacitors to form a passive inductancecapacitanceinductance filter (LCL filter),
as illustrated in the schematic (Section 10, Figure 50). Although a significant amount of the AC
voltage ripple is attenuated, some residual may still appear on the system network, possibly exciting
parallel resonance. Therefore, depending of the magnitude and nature of this residual ripple, further
filtering may be necessary.
In order to minimize the effect of the residual voltage ripple, the ratio of short circuit power to drive
power should be as high as possible, for example, above 20:1, although this may not always be
practicable in many marine installations.
Compared to similarlyrated conventional 6pulse AC PWM drives, AFE drive have significantly
higher conducted and radiated EMI emissions, and therefore, special precautions and installation
techniques may be necessary when applying them.
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FIGURE 52
Typical Harmonic Current Input Spectrum for AC PWM Drive with an
“Active Front End”. Note the Harmonic Currents Above the 50
th
AFE drives are inherently “four quadrant” (i.e., they can drive and brake in both directions of rotation
with any excess kinetic energy during braking regenerated to the supply), and unlike SCR based
drives, will not result in fuse rupture, in the event of a power failure during regenerative braking
commutation. AFE AC drives offer high dynamic response and are relatively immune to voltage dips.
However, the effect of severe regenerative braking on the generators, for example, on main propulsion
drives during emergency reversal, may have to be investigated.
The true power factor of AFE drive is high (approximately 0.981.0). The reactive current is usually
controllable via the drive interface keypad.
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S E C T I O N 11 Harmonic Limit Recommendations
1 General Systems
In general systems, the total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
) should not exceed 5%, as measured at
any point of common coupling (PCC), with any individual harmonic voltage distortion not exceeding
3% of the fundamental voltage value.
The range of harmonics to be taken into account should be up to the 50
th
harmonic.
2 Dedicated Systems
On dedicated systems, such as a dedicated propulsion switchboard, where other ships service loads
are supplied by a separate switchboard, higher levels of total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
) may
be permissible, provided the equipment is designed to operate at the higher limits.
For example: when all of the equipment and consumers connected to the dedicated system are
designed and rated for a total harmonic voltage distortion of 10%, then the system should be operated
within this 10% limit, in lieu of the general 5% limit. Further when the system is operated at the 10%
limit, the voltage distortions from each of the individual harmonics are to be within the ratings of all
of the equipment and consumers connected to the dedicated system.
This method is generally not practical on power systems where propulsion loads, ship service loads
and/or industrial loads are all supplied from a common power system. Generally, there are too many
different manufacturers and too many different branch circuits, for all of the equipment connected to
the system to be designed for an increased level of harmonic voltage distortion.
For example: Most of the large drives on a main 4160V switchboard may be rated for 12%, but the
equipment supplied by one branch circuit off the 4160V switchboard may be rated for only 5%.
Further, the transformers to the 480V system may only be rated for 8% and the equipment supplied
from the branch circuits off the 480V system may only be rated for 5%.
This increased limit of harmonic voltage distortion should be based on formal guarantees or formal
declarations from equipment manufacturers, such that the faultless operation, safety and long term
reliability of all connected equipment can be demonstrated.
The range of harmonics to be taken into account should be up to the 50
th
harmonic.
3 Operating Modes
All operating modes of the vessel and associated electrical power demands should be considered. The
harmonic limit recommendations would be applicable during all operating modes. However, if the
harmonic limit recommendations are exceeded during those operating modes that do not occur
frequently or those operating modes that will not last for an extended period, then it may not be
necessary to provide any further harmonic mitigation provided that immediate adverse effects of
harmonics (e.g. instrumentation errors) will not result.
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S E C T I O N 12 Calculation of Harmonic Voltage
Distortion
The operation of both large individual and/or large cumulative nonlinear loads needs to be considered
with regard to their impact on the power system voltage distortion and subsequent effect on other
loads. These calculations are usually undertaken using dedicated harmonic estimation software which
often have models of various types of nonlinear loads (e.g., 6pulse drives with varying values of AC
line and/or DC bus reactance, 12pulse drives, 18pulse drives, etc.) and include the effects of phase
angle diversity, the connection of linear loads and the effects of cables and other system inductances
on the resultant harmonics at a point of common connection (PCC).
However, in order to appreciate the methodology of harmonic estimation software, examples of
“simple” manual harmonic calculations are given.
Note: For simplicity, these examples do not consider any harmonics above the 25
th
(the exact procedure can be used up
to the 50
th
) nor the effects of phase angle diversification, connected linear loads, the effect of cables or other
system inductance on the resultant harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion.
1 Manual Calculation of Voltage Distortion
Simple voltage distortion calculations can be undertaken based on specific information being
available regarding the nonlinear load(s) percentage harmonic currents and source data [e.g., course
kVA, impedance (or X
d
″) or short circuit capacity].
Example 1
An 850 HP/630 kW 6pulse AC PWM drive with full load input current of 962 A is to be
supplied from a 2000 kVA 6000 V/480 V transformer with 6% impedance. The drive
manufacturer has advised the characteristic harmonic currents to the 25
th
based on a 2% DC
bus reactor on this transformer source to be as below.
Note: The harmonics up to the 50
th
should be used in all practical applications. In this instance, only up to the
25
th
harmonic is used for simplicity in order to demonstrate the principles. For higher order harmonics,
the calculations are exactly the same).
Harmonic spectrum to 25
th
is:
5
th
– 32.27%
7
th
– 11.21%
11
th
– 7.37%
13
th
– 3.91%
17
th
– 3.45%
19
th
– 2.35%
23
rd
– 1.82%
25
th
– 1.51%
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Calculate the source short circuit capacity and supply reactance on secondary of transformer:
i) Transformer full load current (A) =
3 × V Secondary
kVA r Transforme
................................... (12.1)
=
732 . 1 480
10 2000
3
×
×
Transformer full load current (A) = 2406 A
ii) Short circuit current =
impedance r Transforme
current load full r Transforme
........................................ (12.2)
=
06 . 0
2406
Short circuit current = 40,100 A (40.1 kA)
iii) Short circuit MVA = Current Circuit Short V × × 3 ......................................... (12.3)
= 1.732 × 480 × 40100
Short circuit MVA = 33.34 MVA
iv) Supply reactance =
MVA Circuit Short
V
2
............................................................. (12.4)
=
6
2
10 34 . 33
480
×
Supply reactance = 0.00692 Ω
Once the above information has been established, the individual voltage per harmonic order
can be calculated using the following method:
Harmonic current per order = I
rms
× I
h
%
............................................................... (12.5)
where
I
rms
= total rms input current
I
h
%
= percentage harmonic current at harmonic order (e.g., 32.27% at 5
th
)
Voltage (LL) per harmonic order = 3 × h × X
supply
× I
h
................................... (12.6)
where
h = harmonic order (i.e., 5
th
= 5, 11
th
= 11…)
X
supply
= supply reactance, in ohms
I
h
= harmonic current (A) at harmonic order, h
Harmonic voltage as a percentage of LL rms voltage =
rms
h
V
V % 100 ×
.................. (12.7)
where
V
h
= harmonic voltage at order, h
V
rms
= system LL rms voltage
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For 5
th
harmonic:
5
th
harmonic current = I
rms
× I
h
%
= 962 × 0.3227
= 310.44 A
5
th
harmonic voltage (LL) = 3 × h × X
supply
× I
h
= 1.732 × 5 × 0.00692 × 310.44
= 18.6 V
5
th
harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage =
rms
h
V
V % 100 ×
=
480
% 100 6 . 108 ×
5
th
harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = 3.88%
Similarly for 7
th
harmonic:
7
th
harmonic current = I
rms
× I
h
%
= 962 × 0.1121
= 107.84 A
7
th
harmonic voltage (LL) = 3 × h × X
supply
× I
h
= 1.732 × 7 × 0.00692 × 107.84
= 9.04 V
7
th
harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage =
rms
h
V
V % 100 ×
=
480
% 100 04 . 9 ×
7
th
harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = 1.88%
Using the above method for all harmonics up to 25
th
, the following summary table can be
constructed:
TABLE 1
Summary of Harmonics to 25
th
Harmonic I
h
%
I
h
(A) V
h
(V) V
h
%
5 32.27 310.44 18.60 3.88
7 11.21 107.84 9.04 1.88
11 7.37 70.9 9.35 1.95
13 3.91 37.61 5.85 1.22
17 3.45 33.2 6.76 1.41
19 2.35 22.61 5.14 1.71
23 1.82 17.51 4.83 1.01
25 1.51 14.52 4.35 0.91
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Once the above table has been constructed, the total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
) can be
calculated (based on Equation 2.6 in Section 2):
V
thd
=
∑
=
25
5
2 %
h
h
V =
2 %
25
2 %
11
2 %
7
2 %
5
..... V V V V + + + ........................................ (12.8)
V
thd
=
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
91 . 0 10 . 1 71 . 1 41 . 1 22 . 1 95 . 1 88 . 1 88 . 3 + + + + + + +
V
thd
= 5.55%
Alternatively, the sum of individual harmonic voltages can be used to also obtain the V
thd
:
V
thd
=
rms
h
h
V
v
∑
=
×
25
5
% 100
=
rms
V
v v v v
2
25
2
11
2
7
2
5
....... + +
............................................... (12.9)
V
thd
=
480
% 100 64 . 26 ×
V
thd
= 5.55%
Example 2
The same 850 HP/630 kW, 480 V, 962 A, 6pulse AC PWM is to be supplied by a generator
of rating 2000 kVA and subtransient reactance (X
d
″) of 16%. Calculate the voltage distortion
on the generator attributed to drive.
The percentage harmonic current spectrum based on the generator connection is given below.
Note that compared to Example 1, the values are lower. This is normal, as the harmonic
currents drawn from this “soft source” are limited by the leakage reactance of the source.
However, this reduced harmonic current can result in significantly higher voltage distortion,
as can be seen below.
Harmonic spectrum to 25
th
is:
5
th
– 25.63%
7
th
– 7.8%
11
th
– 5.27%
13
th
– 3.43%
17
th
– 1.73%
19
th
– 1.55%
23
rd
– 0.93%
25
th
– 0.78%
Calculate the source short circuit capacity and reactance of the generator:
i) Generator full load current (A) =
3 × V
kVA Generator
............................................ (12.10)
=
732 . 1 480
10 2000
3
×
×
Generator full load current (A) = 2406 A
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ii) Short circuit current (A) =
d
X Generator
current load full Generator
′ ′
................................. (12.11)
=
16 . 0
2406
Short circuit current (A) = 15,038 A (15.038 kA)
iii) Short circuit MVA = 3 × V × Generator Short Circuit Current ..................... (12.12)
= 1.732 × 480 × 15038
Short circuit MVA = 12.5 MVA
iv) Generator reactance =
MVA Circuit Short
V
2
...................................................... (12.13)
=
6
2
10 5 . 12
480
×
Generator reactance = 0.0184 Ω
Once the above information has been established, the individual voltage per harmonic order
can be calculated using exactly the same method as per Example 1:
For 5
th
harmonic:
5
th
harmonic current = I
rms
× I
h
%
= 962 × 0.2563
= 246.6 A
5
th
harmonic voltage (LL) = 3 × h × X
supply
× I
h
= 1.732 × 5 × 0.0184 × 246.6
= 39.29 V
5
th
harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage =
rms
h
V
V % 100 ×
=
480
% 100 29 . 39 ×
5
th
harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = 8.18%
Again, similarly for 7
th
harmonic:
7
th
harmonic current = I
rms
× I
h
%
= 962 × 0.078
= 75.0 A
7
th
harmonic voltage (LL) = 3 × h × X
supply
× I
h
= 1.732 × 7 × 0.0184 × 75.0
= 16.73 V
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7
th
harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage =
rms
h
V
V % 100 ×
=
480
% 100 73 . 16 ×
7
th
harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = 3.49%
As per Example 1, data regarding all the harmonics to 25
th
can be calculated. A summary
table can be constructed as follows:
TABLE 2
Summary of Harmonics to 25
th
Harmonic I
h
%
I
h
(A) V
h
(V) V
h
%
5 25.63 246.6 39.29 8.19
7 7.8 75.0 16.73 3.49
11 5.27 50.7 17.77 3.70
13 3.43 33.0 13.68 2.85
17 1.73 16.65 9.02 1.88
19 1.55 14.91 9.04 1.88
23 0.93 8.95 6.56 1.37
25 0.78 7.5 5.98 1.25
Also, as per Example 1, once the above values have been established, the total harmonic
voltage distortion (V
thd
) can be calculated (based on Equation 2.6 in Section 2):
V
thd
=
∑
=
25
5
2 %
h
h
V =
2 %
25
2 %
11
2 %
7
2 %
5
..... V V V V + + +
V
thd
=
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
25 . 1 37 . 1 88 . 1 88 . 1 85 . 2 70 . 3 49 . 3 19 . 8 + + + + + + +
V
thd
= 10.57%
Alternatively, the sum of individual harmonic voltages can be used to also obtain the V
thd
:
V
thd
=
rms
h
h
V
v
∑
=
×
25
5
% 100
=
rms
V
v v v v
2
25
2
11
2
7
2
5
....... + +
............................................... (12.9)
V
thd
=
480
% 100 73 . 50 ×
V
thd
= 10.57%
Note: From the above examples, the source impedance has a significant effect on the harmonic currents drawn and their
resultant impact on the subsequent voltage distortion.
For information on the calculation of source short circuit MVA for harmonic distortion estimation
purposes on parallel power sources (generators or transformers), please refer to Subsection 7/3).
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2 Software Estimation of Harmonic Distortion
As indicated in Subsection 12/1, the manual calculation for a simple system with one nonlinear load
can be rather repetitive and tiresome. There is also a significant chance of human error being
introduced. However, on a very simple system, it may prove valuable to undertake manual
calculations to provide an indication of harmonic voltage distortion.
In some cases, there may be multiple harmonic current sources, and therefore, some cancellation via
phase angle diversification. The effect of any connected linear load, especially induction motors, may
attenuate higher order harmonics. In addition, the effect of cable and other system inductances will
have an impact on the harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion.
There are a number of harmonic estimation software packages available which are relatively easy to
use. Often, they form part of a comprehensive electrical design and analysis suite where a harmonics
estimation program is only a small part of the overall package.
A number of drive and harmonic mitigation equipment manufacturers do have their own harmonic
estimation software available, either for customers to use via CD or download or indirectly via
company application engineers. However, these simulations should be seen as “estimates” only.
Written guarantees of drive(s) and/or any harmonic mitigation performance should be requested from
the vendor.
Comprehensive power system analysis software packages are also available from dedicated
engineering software engineering companies. These software packages are not provided by the
equipment manufacturers and are therefore should give impartial results.
Many of the harmonics modeling and dedicated electrical design and simulation software packages
can be tailored to individual customer needs.
A comprehensive harmonics software package should have the following capabilities:
i) Have a large number of nodes available for full power system simulations.
ii) Be able to simultaneously model individual harmonic current data and subsequent voltage
distortion based on a range of multiple nonlinear loads types.
iii) Be able to introduce varying values of voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion
into the model.
iv) Be capable of handling all harmonic sequences: positive, negative and zero.
v) Be able to perform frequency scans based on small increments of frequency and to develop
frequency response curves and other data to establish possible resonance points within the
power system.
vi) Have in a library, a full range of nonlinear load models [including AC PWM 6pulse drives
with varying values of AC and/or DC reactance, DC drives (including notching simulations)
with values of AC side commutation reactance together with 12pulse, 18pulse, 24pulse
versions of AC PWM and DC drives, AC cycloconverters, load commutated inverters,
fourwire distribution systems, etc.].
The package should be able to model the more common types of harmonic mitigation,
including passive LC filter, phase staggering, wide spectrum filters, active filters, AFE
drives, etc. In addition, the effect of any connected linear loads should be able to be modeled.
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vii) Calculate and display a full range of time domain voltage and current waveforms, full FFT
harmonic voltage and current spectra to at least 50
th
harmonic at each node.
viii) Be able to adjust automatically for harmonic phase angles based on variations in the fundamental
frequency phase angles.
ix) Be able to model any range or number of transformer and/or generator data (including
equivalent data for paralleled units).
x) Should be easy to understand and have report facilities such as comprehensive report writing.
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S E C T I O N 13 Provision of Information on
Harmonics
1 Information to be requested from Vendors
The following should be the minimum information provided to shipbuilders, consultants, designers,
shipowners and shipoperators et al (as applicable) in order to calculate harmonic voltage distortion:
i) Description of equipment, including type, voltage supply specifications, pulse number and
kW rating.
ii) Details of the total number of units proposed to be installed on vessel or offshore installation.
iii) Total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
), harmonic current spectrum up to 50
th
harmonic (or up
to 100
th
for equipment with “active front ends”) and total magnitude of total harmonic current
per unit, per circuit and per installation at rated load, as applicable.
[The actual source impedance (if transformer) or subtransient reactance (X
d
″) (if generator)
used shall be stated for each calculation.]
[If fourwire systems (threephase and neutral, either grounded or insulated) are utilized for
domestic or lighting supplies, calculations of the estimated neutral currents shall be provided
on a per distribution panel at rated load basis].
iv) Full details of any proposed harmonic mitigation per unit, including estimated attenuation in
total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
) and total harmonic current per unit, per circuit or per
installation up to 50
th
harmonic (or up to 100
th
for equipment with “active front ends”), as
applicable.
2 Information to be included with a Harmonic Analysis
The following information should be included with a harmonic analysis:
i) Single line electrical diagram of vessel showing connection of any significant (singular or
cumulative) nonlinear load(s) on the system.
ii) Description of significant nonlinear load(s), including duty, pulse number, voltage supply
specifications and kW rating.
iii) Total number, type and kW rating of nonlinear loads proposed to be installed in vessel or
offshore installation.
iv) If fourwire systems (threephase and neutral, either grounded or insulated) are utilized for
domestic or lighting supplies, calculations of the estimated neutral currents should be
provided on a per distribution panel at rated load basis.
v) Full details of any proposed mitigation, including estimated attenuation in total harmonic
current distortion (I
thd
) and total harmonic current per unit, per circuit or per installation up to
50
th
harmonic (or up to 100
th
for equipment with “active front ends”), as applicable.
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vi) Calculations of total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
) on the system based on all significant
nonlinear loads operating as designed and on a worse case scenario with regards to the
number and rating of generators running. The calculations should be on a perswitchboard
basis, including any emergency switchboards, and at the terminals of the generators.
The total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
) should be measured in additional to all individual
voltage harmonics up to 50
th
(or up to 100
th
if equipment with “active front ends”) that are
being proposed.
The source impedance or subtransient reactance (X
d
″) used in the calculations should be
stated for each case.
vii) Full details of any proposed mitigation, including estimated attenuation in total harmonic
voltage distortion (V
thd
) and total harmonic voltage up to 50
th
harmonic (or up to 100
th
harmonics for equipment with “active front ends”), as applicable on each switchboard,
including any emergency switchboards and on the generator terminals, based on the worst
case scenario basis as per vi) above.
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S E C T I O N 14 Harmonic Surveys and
Measurement Equipment
This Section outlines the safety precautions, planning, methodology and typical harmonic
measurement/power quality meters and analyzers available to vessel, rig, platform staff or shipyard
electrical engineers should they wish to carry out their own measurements.
There are also a number of specialist independent companies available to carry out harmonic and
power quality surveys in most countries should this be needed. It is standard procedure for a
comprehensive report to be written following the survey.
1 Safety Precautions during Harmonic Surveys
As with all electrical tasks, safety is the main concern. Some of the following recommendations are
common sense, but are necessary for the safety of the vessel, rig or platform and of the individuals
concerned:
i) Measurements should not be undertaken in heavy or rolling seas due to the possible exposure
of live equipment and the risk of injury or death due to individuals coming in contact with
live busbars, terminals, etc., due to the vessel’s movement.
ii) The harmonic measurements should be undertaken by two individuals; one a qualified
electrical engineer conversant with the measurement equipment and a second individual to
assist, who is also fully trained in CPR and other first aid. The latter is necessary when
connecting and disconnecting the harmonic analyzer voltage leads and current probes on to
live equipment.
iii) Proper protective clothing and other safety equipment should be worn when undertaking
measurements.
This should include:
• Fire resistant clothing
• Safety glasses or full face shields
• Safety helmets
• Rubber electrical gloves with full length sleeves
In addition, rubber mats should be placed on the deck where the harmonic analyzer is being
used. They should be moved to each site as necessary.
iv) For safety reasons, it is not recommended that directly connected harmonic measurements
above 690 V/750 V AC (e.g., on high voltage, up to or over 11 kV on some vessels) are
undertaken unless by experienced staff with suitable equipment or by a dedicated, specialist
company with appropriate equipment to safely undertake measurements above these levels.
A number of harmonic analyzers (and accompanying test leads and current probes) are only
suitable for use up to 600 V AC. Others are rated up to 830 or 1000 V AC. Therefore, the
maximum voltage rating of the harmonic analyzer has to be checked against the power system
voltage before undertaking the survey.
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v) All electrical equipment should be deenergized and locked off before connecting the
harmonic measuring equipment. There are a number of safety and operational issues. If the
equipment is provided with door locking mechanism when the equipment is operating, it may
be necessary to stop the equipment in order to gain the necessary access.
Similarly, removing covers from equipment while the equipment is operating is not
recommended. However, if this has to be undertaken, great care must be taken in order that
the metal covers do not touch parts. Rubber gloves, rubber mats and other protective clothing
are therefore recommended as mentioned above.
vi) Before connecting any harmonic measurement equipment, a true rms voltage meter should be
used to confirm the voltage levels OR that the voltage is zero (i.e., the equipment has been
disconnected).
vii) Care should be taken when connecting the harmonic analyzer voltage leads (these can be of
the crocodile type and if not fixed to a suitable point may spring off. Prior to connection, the
most appropriate voltage test points should be established.
Current probes of the “clamp on” type (available to around 1200 A), which usually have
round or rectangular jaws, are simply for use on cables. However, for some types of busbars,
this type of current probe may be problematic, and therefore, AmpFlex type probes are
necessary. (These are flexible current probes, available up to at least 6500 A, which have to
be passed around the busbar and clipped into place. This process entails the individual
placing his/her hands adjacent to and often behind the busbars. Without thick rubber gloves
with full rubber sleeves this can be extremely dangerous and should not be undertaken unless
these are worn with other appropriate protective equipment and a CPRtrained assistant is
available.)
Note: The type of current probe necessary should be established prior to surveys or a range of suitable probes
should be available.
viii) Before undertaking the harmonic measurements, it is advised that the individuals become
fully conversant with the harmonic/power quality analyzer. It is often worthwhile to
undertake some simple measurements, even in a workshop environment, in order to gain this
initial experience.
2 Planning the Harmonic Survey or Measurements
In order to minimize the time necessary to undertake the harmonic survey and/or measurements, some
simple planning is necessary.
A single line diagram is often the most significant source of information. From this, the main sources
of harmonics (i.e., larger nonlinear loads) can be identified (e.g., large variable speed drives).
However, on some power systems (for example, fourwire systems on cruise liners), the large
numbers of nonlinear singlephase loads and their impact may not be apparent from a single line
diagram.
Once the nonlinear loads have been identified, a list or schedule should be compiled of every major
nonlinear load to be measured and recorded.
In addition to measurements at the terminals of every major nonlinear load, recordings should also be
taken on all switchboards, including emergency switchboards, and if possible, on the generators in
operation.
All measurements should be undertaken based on a “worstcase scenario” (i.e., maximum nonlinear
loading, therefore. maximum harmonic distortion, with minimum generators on line based on real
operational conditions). Failing that, measurements must be recorded at full operational loads. It is
important that the information gathered reflects the expected operational conditions.
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With the electrical loading constant, the nonlinear loads furthest away physically from the main
switchboard should be measured first. Then measurements should be recorded for other nonlinear
equipment, progressively towards the main switchboard(s) and generator(s).
Finally, although most harmonic analyzers have sufficient onboard memory and/or can download to a
laptop computer, a paper list of nonlinear equipment to be measured is recommended. Information
such as total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
), total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
), current and
kW of each nonlinear load is useful in the event of misnaming a given load on the harmonic analyzer
or laptop computer (i.e., it often helps in identifying the correct load based on that data).
3 Information to be recorded from Harmonic Measurements
Prior to measurements being undertaken, the equipment should be confirmed to be within calibration
time limits and that the necessary voltage and current probes and full protective equipment are to
hand. Only then should the actual harmonic survey and/or harmonic measurements proceed.
As stated earlier, it is essential that the measurements are taken based on a worstcase scenario, or
failing that, at maximum operational loading and maximum harmonic distortion with regard to the
various nonlinear loads. It should be remembered that the higher the magnitude of harmonic current
in the system, the higher the voltage distortion.
Note: Always connect the ground lead (if applicable), followed by the voltage leads and finally the current probes with
the correct polarity. Removal of the equipment leads and probes should be in the reverse order.
For each nonlinear load selected, the following data should be measured and recorded on all three
phases, (and neutral, if appropriate, on fourwire distribution systems), starting with those further
away from the generators. In addition, similar data should be recorded on the main switchboard(s)
and generators.
Information to be recorded:
i) rms voltage and rms current
ii) Total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
)
iii) Total harmonic current distortion (I
thd
)
iv) Full harmonic spectrum up to 50
th
harmonic (up to 100
th
harmonic for active front end drives).
v) Harmonic text (i.e., FFT data of harmonic spectrum in text) for voltage and current harmonics
giving magnitudes and phase angles.
vi) Time domain waveforms of both voltage and current
vii) Voltage unbalance between phases
viii) Background total voltage distortion (V
thd
) without the specific nonlinear load currently under
test operating would be desirable but may not be practical due to operational reasons.
The majority of harmonic analyzers can capture the data detailed in i) to vi) simultaneously, either
internally and/or via download to a laptop computer. Some can also capture voltage unbalance [vii)].
In addition to the information downloadable to a laptop or stored in the harmonic analyzer, the data in
i) to iii) should also be recorded on paper, as recommended in the previous Subsection. This may
help to identify any misnamed loads.
Once a complete set of measurements have been taken, a full report, complete with waveforms,
harmonic spectra and other data as above, should be compiled. In addition, a simple diagram
detailing the total harmonic voltage distortion (V
thd
) at the various points in the power system is
recommended. (This may be via an enlarged single line diagram). The gathered harmonics data can
then be compared against the appropriate harmonic limit recommendations and/or used to aid the
consideration of harmonic mitigation for specific items of equipment of nonlinear (e.g., electric
variable speed drives) and/or for other specific items of equipment such as switchboards.
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4 Examples of Harmonic Analyzers
There are a number of high quality harmonic and power quality analyzers currently on the market,
some of which are illustrated in the following Paragraphs, together with some sample screen displays.
When selecting a suitable harmonic/power quality analyzer, check that it can read up to at least the
50
th
harmonic, so that the voltage range is suitable for use on all envisaged applications and that a
suitable range of current probes are available for that particular analyzer. [Some equipment is rated to
only measure safely up to 600 V rms. If above that (e.g., 690 V or 750 V), another type of analyzer
may be necessary.]
Most “harmonic analyzers” are “power quality analyzers”, and perform a range of other measurements
and record, in addition to harmonic data, for example, voltage sags and swells, transients, power
usage and power factor measurements. However, most are not normally suitable for measuring the
output data from AC PWM variable speed drives. (For this, special digital multimeters with shielding
and low pass filters are necessary.)
Typical harmonic/power quality analyzers include:
4.1 The Fluke 43B
The Fluke 43B is a harmonic/power quality analyzer, rated up to 600 V rms. It is not a full three
phase unit (i.e., it does not measure all three phases simultaneously) – it measures one phase at a time
(assuming all phases are balanced and data from each is similar, this may be sufficient). It is compact,
lightweight and can store a number of readings (up to 20 screen or data readings based on a maximum
of two selectable parameters) onboard without the need for downloading to computer.
The Fluke 43B measures up to the 50
th
harmonic and is supplied with appropriate software for
downloading and to assist in report compilation. Using suitable proprietary current probes, measurements
up to 2000 A (up to 600 V rms) are possible.
FIGURE 1
Fluke 43B Harmonic/Power Quality Analyzer
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A few samples of screen/computer download data from the Fluke 43B include:
FIGURE 2
Fluke 43B Harmonics Screen Data Available (In This Case Current)
[Voltage and power harmonic data are also available.]
FIGURE 3
Fluke 43B Can Measure Sags and Swells
up to 16 Days on a Per Cycle Basis
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FIGURE 4
Up to 40 Transients (Voltage or Current)
Can Be Captured with the Fluke 41B
FIGURE 5
True rms Voltage and Current Waveform Display(s) from Fluke 43B
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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The Fluke 43B is a good example of a relatively low cost harmonic/power quality analyzer for
applications needing measurements to 600 V rms and up to 2000 A. This meter may be more suited
to fault finding and/or “snapshot sampling”.
A full threephase analyzer may be used for full harmonic surveys and/or for other power quality
tasks, whereby all three phases are measured and/or monitored simultaneously, to prevent data being
“missed” (which may occur with the type of analyzer above if the event occurred on the phase not
being monitored).
Fluke, recognizing the limitation of the 43B for “real” threephase applications has recently launched
the Fluke 433/434 series of threephase harmonic/power quality analyzers which have an excellent
range of features, including voltage to 1000 V rms and current to 2000 A.
4.2 AEMC 3945
This is a good example of a threephase harmonic/power quality analyzer which can measure and
record harmonics to the 50
th
on voltages up to 830 V rms and current per phase up to 6500 A.
FIGURE 6
AEMC 3945 Threephase Harmonic/Power Quality
Analyzer with Real Time Color Display
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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FIGURE 7
AEMC 3945 Connected Onsite Illustrating “Wraparound”
Rogowskitype, AmpFlex 6500 A Current Probes
A range of clampon current probes (to 1200 A) and a scalable adaptor box for use with up to three
existing CTs are also available.
In addition to the full range of harmonic measurements, the AEMC 3945 can measure and record
shortterm flicker, capture up to 50 transients or other disturbances to 1/256
th
of a cycle, record
voltage and current unbalance, trend recordings and monitoring of a number of parameters based on
min/max limits and “photograph” up to twelve data displays. Comprehensive software is provided to
assist in report compilation.
Samples of analyzer real time displays on the instrument include:
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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FIGURE 8
Sample Displays of Voltage and Current Waveforms
FIGURE 9
Threephase Voltage Waveforms
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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2006
FIGURE 10
Transient Current Waveforms
FIGURE 11
Threephase Voltage Harmonics
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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FIGURE 12
Harmonic Direction
FIGURE 13
Harmonic Sequences
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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2006
FIGURE 14
Phasor Diagram
Examples of realtime data via a computer from the AEMC 3945 include:
FIGURE 15
AEMC 3945 Configuration via Computer
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
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2006 215
FIGURE 16
Real Time Current Waveforms via Computer
FIGURE 17
Real Time Computer Display of Harmonic Currents
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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2006
FIGURE 18
Unbalance in Real Time via Computer
Up to 830 V rms voltage measurement and 6500 A, capability of the AEMC 3945 should favor its use
on a wide range of marine power quality applications.
4.3 Hioki 3196
This harmonic/power quality analyzers can offer some advantages, for example in the area of longer
term monitoring plus data recorded and displayed.
The Hioki 3196 can measure currents up to 5000 A and voltages up to 600 V rms, which means, as
per the Fluke 43B, it is unsuitable for 690 V or 750 V systems (the new Fluke 433/434 series can,
however, operate at these higher voltage levels).
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
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2006 217
FIGURE 19
Hioki 3196 Power Analyzer with Voltage and Current Probes
Examples of actual survey measurements from a Hioki 3196 follow:
FIGURE 20
AC VFD Threephase Voltage and Current Measurements from Hioki 3196
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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2006
FIGURE 21
Harmonic FFT Measurements from Hioki 3196 with 5
th
Harmonic Selected
FIGURE 22
Power System V
thd
Trend Recording via Hioki 3196
as a Number of AC VFDs Are Switched On
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
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2006 219
FIGURE 23
V
thd
of all Three Phases Recorded by Hioki 3196 when Active Filter
Switched in on Oil Production Platform
FIGURE 24
Summary of Data Sampled from Hioki 3196
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
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FIGURE 25
Recorded Harmonic Currents by Hioki 3196 on 12Pulse AC Drive
The Hioki 3196 is a good harmonic/power quality analyzer, limited by the maximum voltage rating of
600 V rms.
5 Measurements on Voltages above 690/750 V AC
Some harmonic analyzers do have the capability to measure harmonics on power systems with
voltages up to 690/750/1000 V AC. Above these levels, it is not recommended due to safety reasons,
that shore, vessel, rig or platform staff undertake directlyconnected harmonic measurements/surveys.
In these instances, a specialist company should be subcontracted, who with fully experienced
personnel, specialist safety and measurement equipment rated for higher voltage, can safely carry out
such measurements.
Note: Some vessels and offshore installations have main power systems based on voltages up to or over 11 kV. At these
voltage levels, due to danger of death, special techniques and equipment have to be used in order to directly
measure the harmonic currents and voltages. However, these high voltage systems may have on the main
switchboards, potential transformers (i.e., voltage transformers) and current transformers (e.g., for the Rogowski
type) already installed. Depending on bandwidth (i.e., frequency response) of the transformers (may relatively
accurately measure up to the 50
th
harmonic), the secondaries of the PTs and CTs may be suitable for direct
connection to standard harmonic measurement equipment, subject to suitable scaling being taken into account on
the measurements (i.e., the actual harmonic voltages and currents will have to be scaled up to match ratios of the
transformers) and voltage limits. In these instances, standard harmonic analyzers, including those illustrated,
should be able to be used with reasonable accuracy, subject to the above limitations re PT and CT bandwidth and
scaling accuracy, etc. To this end, scaleable CT adaptor boxes are available as options with some harmonic
analyzers, such as the AEMC 3945.
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A P P E N D I X 1 Recommended Reading
Power System Harmonics, 2
nd
Edition. (2003). Jos Arrillaga and Neville Watson.
ISBN 0470851295.
Assessment of Electric Power Quality in Ships fitted with Converter Subsystems. (2004). Janusz
Mindykowski.
ISBN 8388621076
Electrical Power Systems Quality, 2
nd
Edition. (2002). Roget Dugan, Mark Mc Granaghan et al.
ISBN 0071386220X.
Power Electronic Converter Harmonics. (1996). Derek Paice.
ISBN 0780353943.
Voltage Quality in Electrical Power Systems. (2001). J Schlabbach, D Blume et al.
ISBN 0852969759.
Variable Frequency AC Motor Drive Systems. (1988). David Finney.
ISBN 0863411142.
IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Power Systems. (1992).
IEEE.
ISBN 1559372397.
Hazardous Areas – A User’s Guide to AC Drive Systems. (1989). Ian C Evans & Des Horne,
Elekotrotek Drives Ltd.
Maritime Electrical Installation and Diesel Electric Propulsion. (2004). AlfKare Adnanes. ABB
AS, Norway.
AC Drives : Mitigation – A look at the options. Ian C Evans, Harmonic Solutions Co.Uk. Electricity
+ Control (November 2004).
Handbook of Electrical Calculations, 3
rd
Edition. (2001). H Wayne Beatty.
ISBN 0071362983.
Harmonic Mitigation for Offshore AC Variable Frequency Drives. Ian C Evans, Harmonic Solutions
Co.Uk. Offshore Visie (October 2002).
The Future is Electric – The Progress of Electric Propulsion. Ian C Evans. Motor Ship (September
2003).
From Oars to Reactors – Electric Drive: The Future of Naval Propulsion. Ian C Evans. Motor Ship
(October 2003).
Electrical Power Quality and Ships Safety. (2004). Janusz Mindykowski, Edward Szmit and Tomasz
Tarasiuk. Polish Academy of Sciences.
Harmonic Mitigation for AC Thruster and Small Propulsion Drives. Ian C Evans, Harmonic
Solutions Co.Uk. Marine Propulsion International (October 2002).
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Foreword
Harmonics (or distortion in wave form) has always existed in electrical power systems. It is harmless as long as its level is not substantial. However, with the recent rapid advancement of power electronics technology, socalled nonlinear loads, such as variable frequency drives for motor power/speed control, are increasingly finding their way to shipboard or offshore applications. Harmonics induced by these nonlinear loads are a potential risk if they are not predicted and controlled. The ABS Guidance Notes for Control of Harmonics in Electrical Power Systems has been developed in order to raise awareness among electrical system designers of the potential risks associated with the harmonics in electrical power systems onboard ships or offshore installations. These Guidance Notes encompass topics from the fundamental physics of harmonics to available means of mitigation to practical testing methods. These Guidance Notes are intended to aid designers to plan an appropriate means of harmonics mitigation early in the design stage of the electrical power distribution systems to make the system robust and predictable.
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
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.............................................................................................3 Primary Voltage (11 kV) of Transformer Supplying a 2 MW (2680 HP) Variable Frequency Drive .........................................................................................................................11 Characteristic Harmonic Currents................................................................................7 The Future? ......2 415 V Linetoline Volts on Ship with Four 1100 kW/ 1500 HP AC SCR Converterfed Thruster Motors..... 2006 v .............................................................................................................................8 Dynamicallypositioned Shuttle Tanker Equipped with AC Electric Variable Speed Main Propulsion and Thrusters ...............5 Electricallydriven Podded Propulsor......3 Typical Power System Single Line Diagram for DP Class 3 Drilling Rig...............................................................1 The Use of Electric Drives in Marine Applications...............................................................................................................................................................................................1 1 2 3 4 Background............................................19 Calculation of Voltage Distortion................22 TABLE 1 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ......27 Harmonic Sequence Components for 6Pulse Rectifier ...................................................................5 Main Propulsion Drives ................2 Linetoline Voltage (440 V) at Input to a 6Pulse DC SCR Drive .....9 Input Waveforms (440 V) to 6Pulse DC SCR Drive.....................22 Interharmonics ...............................................GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS CONTENTS SECTION 1 Introduction ...25 Subharmonics ..................................................20 Harmonic Sequence Components.........8 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 SECTION 2 The Production of Harmonics..................22 Line Notching ..................................................................................15 Effect of Harmonic Currents on Impedance(s) ...........11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Production of Harmonics ....................................
............27 SECTION 3 Effects of Harmonics ...............................13 Singlephase Switched Mode Power Supply ................................26 Peak Voltage Deviations due to Interharmonics Voltage .........16 Computer SMPS Input Current Waveform .........14 Construction of Complex Wave ......18 Typical Harmonic Spectrum for 6Pulse AC PWM Drive........................12 How Voltage Distortion is Produced (Simplified) .....................................12 Typical Computer Nonlinear Load ........................11 Single Phase Full Wave Rectifier.......................................1 1...........................................30 Line Notching and Generators........19 How Individual Harmonic Voltage Drops Develop Across System Impedances ...................................18 Distorted Currents Induce Voltage Distortion .....................24 SCR Line Notching and Associated “Ringing” .........29 Effect of Sequence Components.............................................................................................................................11 Load and AC Supply Currents ..........................................................................3 1..............................................16 Typical Waveform from Computer Switched Power Supply .................................................................................................17 Typical 6Pulse PWM AC Drive .................................2 1............................................19 Simple Threephase SCR Bridge for Phase Control...23 Exaggerated Example of “Line Notching” ......................................................................... 29 1 Generators .......32 Shaft Generators ..............................................17 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveforms for One Phase ..................................................................................................4 1..........................................................................................................24 Cycloconverter Current Spectrum – Includes Interharmonics ............................................... 2006 ...........12 Load Current and Volt Drop Waveforms.........13 Harmonic Spectrum of Currents Drawn by Computer Switched Mode Power Supply ......................FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2a FIGURE 2b FIGURE 3a FIGURE 3b FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 Voltage and Current Waveforms for Linear Load .33 vi ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .23 Voltage Notching due to SCR Bridge Commutation......11 Simple Single Line Diagram.......25 Waveform Containing both Harmonics and Interharmonics ............................................30 Voltage Distortion ......5 Thermal Losses.......29 1................................................................................14 Computer Power Supply with Singlephase Full Wave Bridge Rectifier .......
..................................31 Low Pass Filter for Generator AVR Sensing on Nonlinear Loads.47 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...... 42 Potential for Resonance................................51 Circuit Breakers ........................... 2006 vii ..........................................................35 Proposed NEMA Derating Curve for Harmonic Voltages ....................................................................................2 2..........1 8........... 45 Skin and Proximity Effects ............. 41 Effects of Line Notching on Lighting.............................................................................................................................44 Cable AC/DC Resistance...........................................................................................................................................................................53 Capacitors. 42 6 7 8 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)................................1 3.......43 Effect of DC Bus Voltage with Flat Topping...................................3 Thermal Losses..........................51 Fuses ................................................................................................................................................................................. Distribution Transformers and Neutral Currents ..................................38 AC PWM Drive Current Distortion on Weak Source......................................................3 Flicker ...... 34 Thermal Losses..................................43 Flat Topping Reducing Supply Ridethrough.............................4 Thermal Losses........................................................................................... 37 Explosionproof Motors and Voltage Distortion ............................................1 2....................................... 38 3 Induction Motors .... 48 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Measuring Equipment ...........2 8.....46 4/0 AWG Cable – Proximity and Skin Effect due to Harmonics .........................2 Transformers.33 Typical Transformer Derating Curve for Nonlinear Load ..........39 Lighting .......................................... 33 Unbalance...........................40 PWM Drive “Flat Topping” due to Weak Source.................42 Computers and Computer Based Equipment..............................52 Radio............. Audio and Video Equipment ... Television..................43 Cables...3 8..............................................................................52 Relays ......36 3........ 36 Effect of Harmonic Sequence Components ...................................48 Telephones .............41 Voltage “Flat Topping” due to Pulse Currents ..................3 4 5 Variable Speed Drives ...................2 3.2 5............................................................................ 45 Neutral Conductors in Fourwire Systems...........................................................................................33 2.............................45 8...............1 5...... kc as a Function of Harmonic Numbers ....53 Equivalent Circuit for a Generator ........ 47 Additional Effects Associated with Harmonics ....41 5............................................................................................... 34 Transformer Derating or Kfactor Transformer ..................
.55 Fourwire Distribution Systems.....................60 Waveforms for Lighting Panel Comprising Fluorescent Lighting with Magnetic Ballasts and T12 Lamps .....55 Computerbased Equipment.................61 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 viii ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..2 Threewire Distribution Systems....57 Harmonic Spectrum Associated with Neutral Current Waveform Shown in Figure 3 .2 3......64 Singlephase AC PWM Drives.................................................4 3 Threephase Nonlinear Loads ...........55 1........................90 UPS Systems .........58 Fluorescent Lighting ......58 2......60 Televisions ...................................................1 4...........2 2...........59 Harmonic Current Spectrum of Typical Switched Mode Power Supply ........................................3 2........................3 4.............................................................................................................................................................................1 2..................................................64 DC SCR drives .......................Ithd is 128%....................................................................91 Shaft Generators .....49 SECTION 4 Sources of Harmonics..............................................................92 2 Singlephase Nonlinear Loads..............3 3.......................90 Transformers .....4 FIGURE 1 Fourwire System Linear Phase Currents Return via Neutral Conductor where Balanced Phase Current Cancel Out ......................................70 AC Cycloconverter Drives ......56 Triplen Harmonics Add Up Cumulatively in Neutral Conductors with Singlephase Nonlinear Loads in Fourwire System ............... 55 1 Distribution Systems with Singlephase Nonlinear Loads ....4 4 Additional Threephase Sources of Harmonics ......................................................1 3........................................65 3.............................................................................49 Difficulties Conventional Meters Have Reading Distorted Waveforms ....1 1..............................................................................................76 AC Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) ......................................................................59 Typical Neutral Current due to Triplen Harmonics in Connected Loads on a Fourwire System.................FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 12 AWG Cable – Proximity and Skin Effect due to Harmonics ......47 Peak and rms Values of Sinusoidal Waveform...............................................58 Typical Voltage and Current Waveforms Associated with a Switched Mode Power Supply .................................................................................................84 Rotating Machines................................................90 4.................66 AC PWM drives ..................................56 Neutral Current due to Triplen Harmonics (150 Hz for 50 Hz Supply) on Fourwire System..................................................57 Typical Switched Mode Power Supply for Computer Based Equipment....................... 2006 ...............2 4...........
.....................23%.......66 Concept of “Constant Torque” and “Constant Power” with DC Shuntwound Motors .......65 Singlephase AC PWM Drive Current Spectrum ..68 Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive Current Waveform at 100% Load .75 SinglephasetoSinglephase Cycloconverter .......................63 Comparison of Neutral Current Harmonic Spectrum for Magnetic and Electronic Ballasts for Typical Fluorescent Lighting Distribution Panel Ithd was 171............................ Respectively ................68 Concept of “Four Quadrant Control” for DC Motors and Dual Converters .71 Typical AC PWM Drive Output (Inverter) Bridge Configuration...............76 Waveforms for SinglephasetoSinglephase Conversion ............................................63 Television – Typical Current Waveform................................................................................. but with Electronic Ballasts and T8 Lamps on Fourwire System........65 Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive with Shuntwound DC Motor..........................................................FIGURE 10 Neutral Current Waveform on Distribution Panel with Fluorescent Lighting with Magnetic Ballasts and T12 Lamps on a Fourwire System .....69 Typical AC PWM Drive Block Diagram.........23% ......................................... but with Electronic Ballasts (Instead of Magnetic Types) and T8 Lamps............64 Singlephase AC PWM Drive – Typical Ithd is 135% ..........................................72 Basic Principle of Pulse Width Modulation .........................................70 Pulsed Nature of AC PWM Drive Input Current................75 Harmonic Current Spectrum of 150 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% DC Bus Reactor – Ithd = 39...............................................62 Comparison of Phase Current Harmonic Spectrum for Magnetic and Electronic Ballasts for Typical Fluorescent Lighting Distribution Panel Ithd was 12...67 Typical Dual Converter for DC Shuntwound Motor ....8% and 16........ Respectively ..........................................62 Neutral Current Waveform on Same Fluorescent Lighting Panel as Figure 10.........74 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 Input Current – 150 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% DC Bus Reactor – Ithd = 39..............28% and 44%............... 2006 ix ...................................73 FIGURE 29b AC Motor/PWM Drives Standard Speed/Power Characteristics .......................61 Same Lighting Panel as per Figure 9...............................3%.77 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ............64 Television – Typical Harmonic Current Spectrum .69 Harmonic Current Spectrum of Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive at Rated Load .................................................................................................................................................................72 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29a AC Motor/PWM Drives Standard Speed/Torque Characteristics .....................................
..........84 Typical 6Pulse ASCI CSI Inverter with a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor............................................87 Six Step Square Wave Current – LCI with Synchronous Motor..................88 Input Waveform of 6Pulse Load Commutated Inverter .................91 Traditional Shaft Generator System............... 60 Hz UPS .........................................................................................95 Power Factor Components in System with Harmonics ..............................80 Waveforms for Circulating Current Mode Cycloconverters ..........FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 Threephase 6Pulse Cycloconverter .............................................................86 12Pulse Load Commutated Inverter with Squirrel Cage Motor and Output Filter ............. 60 Hz UPS .79 Simplified Connection of Intergroup Reactor on One Phase of Circulating Current Cycloconverters................96 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 x ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ................. 460 V..........80 Waveforms for Blocking Mode Cycloconverters ...............81 FIGURE 38a Input Current Associated with a 20 MW...............................................97 Power Factor Components in System with Linear Load ................. 12Pulse Cycloconverter .............................. 480 V................. 2006 ...............................89 Input Voltage and Current Waveforms of 6Pulse 37.....................85 Output Voltage Commutation Spikes – CSI with Squirrel Cage Induction Motor ...............5 kVA.................82 FIGURE 38b Harmonic Current Frequency Spectrum Associated with a 20 MW.......89 Harmonic Spectrum Associated with a 6Pulse Load Commutated Inverter ..................................................................95 Power Factor in Power System with Harmonics...............83 Harmonic Spectrum of 12Pulse Cycloconverters Including Interharmonic Sidebands......................82 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 2Pulse Cycloconverter with Threephase Synchronous Motor........................................................ 12Pulse Cycloconverter..................... 95 1 2 3 Power Factor in Systems with Linear Loads Only .......93 SECTION 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor ...........................................5 kVA..................92 Inverter Output Voltage Waveform ..................................91 Harmonic Input Current Spectrum for 6Pulse 37....85 12Pulse Load Commutated Inverter with Synchronous Motor...............87 Output Voltage of LCI with Synchronous Motor or Squirrel Cage Motor with Output Filter ..................................................................................................................................................................95 How the Mitigation of Harmonics Improves True Power Factor ............
.........115 2000 kVA and 5.................................99 1 2 Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion (Vthd) ..2 2......................................... 2006 xi ...................................103 Multiple 6Pulse Cycloconverters Input Current and Voltage Harmonic Spectrums at Low Output Frequency/Low Load ...100 Typical AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 30% Load – Ithd Measured at 65... Ithd = 19..........1%...........................101 6Pulse DC Drive at 70% Loading – Ithd is 35.................................... 102 Load Commutated Inverters.......................4 2..........100 Typical Harmonic Spectrum of AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 100% Load – Ithd Measured at 37......8% ....2%.........................................1% ....................................................................................108 Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2000 kVA/ 5........................................101 Typical Harmonic Spectrum of AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 30% Load – Ithd Measured at 65..... 99 DC SCR Drives .............................. Ithd = 24..............1:1....3 2......108 Parallel Generator Operation and Calculation of Equivalent Short Circuit Ratings ....... Vthd = 9........................................107 1 2 3 “Stiff” and “Soft” Sources ....110 TABLE 1 FIGURE 1a FIGURE 1b FIGURE 2a ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..................104 Multiple 6Pulse Cycloconverters Input Current and Voltage Harmonic Spectrums at High Output Frequency/High Load........................2% Impedance – ISC /IL = 33...116 Variation of Ithd and Vthd with Variation of kVA and Impedance (or Xd″)...7%..... 103 Conclusion: Harmonic Current Magnitude and its Effect on Voltage Distortion.......................1% ...................................3:1.............. Vthd = 4................. 105 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 Typical 6Pulse PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 100% Load – Ithd Measured at 37.................5%.......................107 Illustrations of the Effect of kVA and Source Impedance Harmonics....... 103 Cycloconverters ....1 2...........102 Harmonic Current Spectrum of 6Pulse DC Drive at 70% Loading – Ithd is 35..................2% Impedance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load .......................................................SECTION 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion.........7%.............................109 2000 kVA and 14% Subtransient Reactance ISC /IL = 29.....104 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 SECTION 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics.............................99 2..................................99 Total Harmonic Current Distortion (Ithd) and Reduced Loading ......................................... ...........................................................................5%...........7% ......5 AC PWM Drives ...
.........................................113 4000 kVA and 14% Subtransient Reactance ISC/IL = 26.116 Example of Paralleled Generators ...................................2 2.........................................123 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform on Balanced Voltages.......124 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform on 5% Voltage Unbalance.115 Paralleling of Generators .......................................................127 The Effect of Voltage Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion Using Software Modeling ......134 TABLE 1 Variation in Ithd and Vthd with Voltage Unbalance and Preexisting Voltage Distortion ..................119 2.........................................114 Current and Voltage Waveforms for 4000 kVA/ 14% Subtransient Reactance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load ..............................................................................................................................7% ....3 2........134 Balanced System .................6 2........................... 2006 ....................................................................................................2% Impedance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load ...121 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Harmonics ..........5 2...............................1:1............119 Unbalanced System.....111 4000 kVA and 5................... Ithd = 22.............2% Impedance – ISC/IL = 67.........9%...........................119 Symmetrical Components of an Unbalanced System ...........7 Definition of Voltage Unbalance ..............123 Voltage Unbalance and Multipulse Drives and Systems.......................... Ithd = 27.............................120 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Rotating Machines ..8% ..................FIGURE 2b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2000 kVA/ 14% Subtransient Reactance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load .......................112 Current and Voltage Waveforms for 4000 kVA/ 5.........................124 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 xii ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ....................................... 119 1 2 Balanced Systems .............6:1..................................................128 Drive Mitigation – Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion ...1%...........................1 2..............122 Derating on Induction Motors of Unbalanced Supplies ............................................119 Unbalanced Systems ..... Vthd = 2...........................................................................................4 2.......... Vthd = 5....120 Reduction of Insulation Life with Temperature .......117 FIGURE 3a FIGURE 3b FIGURE 4a FIGURE 4b FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 SECTION 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion ..........................125 Background Voltage Distortion and Multipulse Drives and Systems.............
....2% ..............................................................132 FIGURE 16b Voltage and Current Waveforms 2% Voltage Unbalance..................................................127 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13a No Voltage Unbalance... 5% Preexisting Vthd ............132 FIGURE 16a 2% Voltage Unbalance....139 FIGURE 1a FIGURE 1b FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..............129 FIGURE 13b Voltage and Current Waveforms No Voltage Unbalance........ 139 3 4 Prevention of Resonance ....... 5% Preexisting Vthd ...135 The Conditions under which Resonance Occurs .................126 Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on 18Pulse AC PWM Drive.........133 SECTION 9 Resonance ......126 Unbalance and the Effect on 18Pulse Drives .......................................130 FIGURE 14c Threephase Current Waveforms 2% Voltage Unbalance....................................................................2%....5%............... No Preexisting Vthd ..........1 Possibilities of Resonance on Vessels and Offshore Installations ..........................9% ............................135 Series Resonance Frequency Response . Vthd = 4.................................. No Preexisting Vthd – Ithd = 14...............133 FIGURE 16c Threephase Current Waveforms 2% Voltage Unbalance............ Vthd = 6..................................130 FIGURE 14b Voltage and Current Waveforms 2% Voltage Unbalance.....9%................ 5% Preexisting Vthd .137 Typical Industrial Drive Application where Resonance is Possible.......................................................................................135 Parallel Resonance..................2 Series Resonance......140 Series Resonance........... No Preexisting Vthd . No Preexisting Vthd – Ithd = 5..................................... 2006 xiii ...........129 FIGURE 14a 2% Voltage Unbalance........0% ....1 2......5%................ 5% Preexisting Vthd – Ithd = 18..........................................................................................131 FIGURE 15b Voltage and Current Waveforms No Voltage Unbalance..............135 1 2 What is Resonance?...125 Unbalance and the Effect on 12Pulse Drives .................. 5% Preexisting Vthd – Ithd = 10......................2% .............. Vthd = 5..........137 3.......124 Harmonic Spectrum of 6Pulse AC PWM Drive on Unbalanced Voltages (Fundamental Component Removed)............................... Vthd = 6........................... 136 The Effect of Adding a Detuning Reactor.....135 2........................FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform on 15% Voltage Unbalance.......................... No Preexisting Vthd .............................................................................. 135 Parallel Resonance .......................................131 FIGURE 15a No Voltage Unbalance...........................138 Simplified Connection of Detuning Reactor to Capacitor Bank ...
..............175 The Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on Phase Shift Performance...............179 Harmonic Voltage Data to 50th Harmonic with Respective Phase Angle Information.............................................144 Operation of a Zero Sequence Transformer..2 Active Filters............141 Effect of Linear Load on Harmonic Currents ............................................................................1 11....................2 9.................... 141 1 2 3 Effect of Phase Diversity on Harmonic Currents ......................185 12 “Active Front Ends” for AC PWM Drives....1 4.........................144 4 Mitigation of Harmonics on Fourwire Singlephase Systems ......................................172 Polygonal Nonisolating Autotransformer Phase Shift Systems.................................................1 7...........188 Estimated Harmonic Current Distortion Using Quasi24Pulse Phase Staggering System ....156 Duplex Reactors..........160 8 9 Passive LC Filters..1 3.........................................................................143 Fourwire System with Nonlinear Loads ..................................4 Doublewound Isolating Transformer Phase Shift Systems...........................171 9......................................146 5 Standard Reactors for Threephase AC and DC Drives .....SECTION 10 Mitigation of Harmonics ..................................153 Special Reactors for Threephase AC and DC Drives .............143 Active Filtering..............................................................................................................177 10 11 Transformer Phase Staggering (Quasi Multipulse) Systems ....................................156 7..........................145 Zero Sequence Transformer on Fourwire System ................142 Phase Shifting of Threewire Nonlinear Loads .................2 Wide Spectrum Filters ..............1 9..........................................................178 Electronic Filters ......3 9.................................................................................................................166 Transformer Phase Shifting (Multipulsing) ..........179 11.................................148 6 7 AC Line Reactors for DC SCR Drives and AC Drives with SCR Input Rectifiers ................145 TABLE 1 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 xiv ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...............................................143 3.......................................2 Phase Shifting ........................144 4.....................................................................................................................147 5.............................................142 Mitigation of Harmonics on Threewire Singlephase Systems ............................................................... 2006 ..............................................................................144 Active Filters for Fourwire Systems ............................173 The Effect of Voltage Unbalance on Phase Shift Performance.179 Hybrid ActivePassive Filters........1 Reactors for AC PWM Drives ......2 Zero Sequence Mitigation of Triplens on Fourwire Singlephase Systems...........
.......148 Variation of Harmonic Currents with AC Line Reactance Only .... 2006 xv ........................146 Block Diagram of Active Filter on Fourwire Application.....157 200 HP/150 kW AC PWM Drive with 3% DC Bus Reactor – Ithd = 39.........................................................................................FIGURE 6 Zero Sequence Transformer and Combined Phase Shift Transformer with ZST to Cancel Triplen and 5th and 7th Harmonic Currents................................................................................167 Common Configuration of Passive Filters .....................................................................................................168 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ........................................................158 Mains Waveform with Wide Spectrum Filter – Ithd = 4.........................................................................................................160 Duplex Reactor Schematic ..................166 Absolute Impedance Characteristics for Tuned 7th Harmonic Series Filter .................................165 Application of Duplex Reactors Vessel with Multiple AC SCR Based Drives....................................................154 Line Impedance Distribution and the Effect of Notching ...9% ...........159 Typical Wide Spectrum Filter Performance – 350 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% AC Line Reactance ......159 Wide Spectrum Filter with 12Pulse AC Drive..........................................................163 Duplex Reactors on Passenger Ships with 2 × 20 MW Cycloconverters.....................................................................................................161 FIGURE 22b Duplex Reactor Correction Voltage .................................................163 Variation of System Vthd with Number of Generators on Line (Figure 23) ..................................................................161 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22a System Voltage Waveform ....................153 Primary and Secondary Notching ..........................168 Simplified Connection of Multilimbed Passive Filter ........................150 DC Bus Reactance Only in AC PWM Drive........162 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 Application of Duplex Reactors on Main Propulsion Drives..................154 Wide Spectrum Filter Schematic.......6%..............................................162 FIGURE 22c “Corrected” System Voltage.........................................................................................157 Typical Wide Spectrum Filter Connection Diagram – AC PWM Drive ...............................152 Variation in 5th Harmonic Current for Differing Values of AC Line Reactance and DC Bus Reactance ..........147 Circuit Diagram of Standard 6Pulse AC PWM Drive............................................................164 Application of Duplex Reactors on Shaft Generators ...............................158 Trapezoidal Output Voltage from Wide Spectrum Filter ...............
...................174 Variation on Harmonic Currents vs......185 Thermal Limits of Shunt Active per Harmonic Current ...........183 Theoretical Shunt PassiveActive Hybrid Filter....................................................................................... Note the Harmonic Currents Above the 50th...177 Quasi24Pulse System Using Phase Staggering Techniques.....176 Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on an 18Pulse Drive.................182 Source Current Waveform (LS) as per Figure 41 ......................................................................................................178 Block Diagram of Shunt Connection Active Filter with Associated Current Waveforms...........173 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Polygonal Autotransformer ..........................................186 Practical Example of Hybrid Shunt PassiveActive Filter ...........190 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 SECTION 11 Harmonic Limit Recommendations.............. 2006 .............................182 Active Filter “Compensation Current” Waveform (Lf) as per Figure 41.......................................176 Effect of 2% Unbalance on 18Pulse Drive..................................175 Typical 18Pulse Drive System .......................................................189 Typical Harmonic Current Input Spectrum for AC PWM Drive with an “Active Front End”..............FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 Impedance Characteristics of Multilimbed Passive Filter ..........187 Application of an IGBT “Active Front End” to an AC PWM Drive ...............................................................................................................................................................................170 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Doublewound Phase Shift Transformer ........169 Simplified “Drive Applied” or “Trap” Filter for Variable Speed Drives .....................................................172 Doublewound 12Pulse Phase Shift Transformer Unbalance Between Secondary Voltages ................182 Typical Active Filter Performance with 150 HP AC PWM with 3% AC Line Reactor ........................................................................................................................180 Simplified Power Circuit of Active Filter .............................................................................................191 xvi ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ........ AC Reactance for a 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Polygonal Autotransformer ...................191 Dedicated Systems ..........188 ”Active Front End” Input Current and Voltage Waveforms .......181 Typical AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform (LL) as per Figure 41 ........................... 191 1 2 General Systems .........................................
211 Transient Current Waveforms................................................213 Phasor Diagram ................................212 Harmonic Direction ..195 Summary of Harmonics to 25th .....1 4.....................204 Information to be recorded from Harmonic Measurements ....................2 4............................................201 Information to be included with a Harmonic Analysis ..199 Summary of Harmonics to 25th ..............................207 Up to 40 Transients (Voltage or Current) Can Be Captured with the Fluke 41B..................210 Sample Displays of Voltage and Current Waveforms ..................209 AEMC 3945 Connected Onsite Illustrating “Wraparound” Rogowskitype......................220 Fluke 43B Harmonic/Power Quality Analyzer......................................198 TABLE 1 TABLE 2 SECTION 13 Provision of Information on Harmonics..........................................214 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..............................................214 AEMC 3945 Configuration via Computer..........................................205 Examples of Harmonic Analyzers.......... 206 AEMC 3945.....................................208 True rms Voltage and Current Waveform Display(s) from Fluke 43B..........................193 Software Estimation of Harmonic Distortion ................................................ 209 Hioki 3196 ........................................... 216 5 Measurements on Voltages above 690/750 V AC........ AmpFlex 6500 A Current Probes ....................193 1 2 Manual Calculation of Voltage Distortion..........................................................206 Fluke 43B Harmonics Screen Data Available (In This Case Current) [Voltage and power harmonic data are also available....................3 The Fluke 43B................................SECTION 12 Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion ...................211 Threephase Voltage Waveforms ..................201 SECTION 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment .......213 Harmonic Sequences..................... 2006 xvii ........................................................212 Threephase Voltage Harmonics .............................] .......208 AEMC 3945 Threephase Harmonic/Power Quality Analyzer with Real Time Color Display................................................203 1 2 3 4 Safety Precautions during Harmonic Surveys ...........................206 4...201 1 2 Information to be requested from Vendors ...............................................203 Planning the Harmonic Survey or Measurements .207 Fluke 43B Can Measure Sags and Swells up to 16 Days on a Per Cycle Basis ............................................................................
.........220 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 APPENDIX 1 Recommended Reading .......FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 Real Time Current Waveforms via Computer...216 Hioki 3196 Power Analyzer with Voltage and Current Probes.......................215 Real Time Computer Display of Harmonic Currents .218 Power System Vthd Trend Recording via Hioki 3196 as a Number of AC VFDs Are Switched On ................................................218 Vthd of all Three Phases Recorded by Hioki 3196 when Active Filter Switched in on Oil Production Platform.................... 2006 ..........217 Harmonic FFT Measurements from Hioki 3196 with 5th Harmonic Selected ...........................................................................219 Summary of Data Sampled from Hioki 3196 ........................217 AC VFD Threephase Voltage and Current Measurements from Hioki 3196 .............................................219 Recorded Harmonic Currents by Hioki 3196 on 12Pulse AC Drive ................215 Unbalance in Real Time via Computer ............................ 221 xviii ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..............................................................................................................
3 and 4. As harmonic distortion is “steady state” and continuous. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Examples of the serious impact of harmonics and associated power quality effects on marine and offshore supply voltage waveforms. The quality and security of voltage supplies are important to the safety of any vessel and its crew and to the protection of the marine environment. Any failure or malfunction of equipment such as propulsion or navigation systems can result in an accident at sea or close inshore with serious consequences. to any adverse effects harmonic distortion has on the performance and reliability of the majority of marine and offshore systems and equipment. Figures 1. However. as can the majority of “linear” equipment (particularly generators. The operation of this equipment has in many cases significantly degraded the ship or offshore installation electrical power quality to such an extent that measures have to be implemented in order to minimize the resultant adverse effects on the electrical plant and equipment. nonsinusoidal in nature) currents from the voltage supplies. for example. there has been a significant increase in the installation and use of power electronic equipment onboard ships and on offshore installations. 2. due to electrical variable speed drives (the main producer of harmonic currents on marine and offshore installations) are illustrated in Section 1. AC motors and transformers).. in these instances.e. 2006 1 . the starting of a large electric thruster motor resulting in a momentary dip before the generator regulators correct the situation and reinstate the correct level of voltage and frequency. the issue of electrical power quality associated with harmonics is an important concern to the marine safety aspects and in addition. These same items of “nonlinear” equipment can also be affected by harmonic currents and the subsequent voltage distortion they produce. the specific power quality issue to be addressed in these Guidance Notes is that of the harmonic distortion of voltage supplies caused by the operation of electronic devices which draw nonlinear (i. as the title suggests.SECTION 1 Introduction 1 Background Over recent years. Many power quality issues are transient.
2006 .Section 1 Introduction FIGURE 1 Input Waveforms (440 V) to 6Pulse DC SCR Drive FIGURE 2 Linetoline Voltage (440 V) at Input to a 6Pulse DC SCR Drive 2 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
2006 3 .Section 1 Introduction FIGURE 3 415 V Linetoline Volts on Ship with Four 1100 kW/1500 HP AC SCR Converterfed Thruster Motors FIGURE 4 Primary Voltage (11 kV) of Transformer Supplying a 2 MW (2680 HP) Variable Frequency Drive ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
hence the use of a minimum of complex math. albeit in limited qualities compared to large “nonlinear loads”. such AC and DC variable speed drives. As indicated in the title. The aim of these Guidance Notes. Therefore. such as generators. not a reference book on harmonics. singlephase electrical and electronic equipment. lower voltage singlephase equipment down to 110 V is also of significant importance in many vessels in terms of harmonics and associated effects. Figure 5. thrusters and other duties. is the main source of harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion. Therefore. The Appendix recommends some of these books should the reader wish further information. although very few dealing with harmonics and power quality issues specifically from the marine viewpoint. the electric variable speed drives and harmonic mitigation of this type of equipment will be a primary focus of these Guidance Notes. below. Section 1. these Guidance Notes are designed to be practical “guidance notes”. There are a number of highquality harmonics and power quality reference books available. is to provide information as to what harmonics are and how they interact with the supply impedances. It is aimed at the “nonexpert”. These Guidance Notes will indicate that there are a number of sources of harmonic currents. This concern is largely a result of the increasing demand for high power nonlinear equipment. it is the electric variable speed drive (a combination of an electric motor and electronic power converter) whether AC or DC based. what effects they have on the different types of equipment. illustrates the popularity and the reliance some classes of vessel now have with regard to electrical variable speed drives (in this instance a selfpropelled drilling rig). 4wire systems [threephase and neutral (grounded or insulated)] are now being installed. due to its increased popularity in a host of applications. up to almost twice the phase current values. which solely address the harmonics issue. used for main propulsion. However. including fluorescent lighting. ABS has imposed limitations on the magnitude of harmonic voltage distortion permitted on classed vessels. 2006 . is also known to produce harmonics. However. which. resulting in potentially high levels of neutral currents due to arithmetic addition of triplen harmonics in that conductor. variable speed drives and computerbased equipment all produce harmonic currents and therefore will distort the voltage supplies. On large passenger vessels. AC motors and transformers. “Linear” equipment.Section 1 Introduction The American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) is concerned with the effects of harmonic voltage distortion and the possible resultant consequences should some critical item of equipment malfunction or fail. Therefore. 4 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . in the context of the marine and offshore installations. what items of equipment typically produce harmonic currents and how harmonic currents can be attenuated or mitigated such that any adverse effects are significantly reduced.
and hence speed and torque. harmonic distortion was not an issue that had to be considered. As no “voltage conversion” was taking place (e. however.. special systems including the “WardLeonard” AC motorDC generator system were developed. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . The voltage.Section 1 Introduction FIGURE 5 Typical Power System Single Line Diagram for DPS3 Drilling Rig 2 The Use of Electric Drives in Marine Applications For the first half of the 20th century. With the introduction of AC power. the ease in which electric motor speed control was previously achieved was significantly diminished for all but some specialized applications. in this case) was necessary. ships utilized DC motors to power a host of applications. 2006 5 . Speed control was easily achieved using resistancebased control systems for both armature voltage control (for speed variation up to base speed) and field control (above base speed). including cargo winches. DC generators were common and therefore. windlasses.g. AC to DC) no harmonic currents were produced by this type of equipment. From the early 1960s. windlass or mooring winch applications). AC generators were installed in new vessels as the benefits of AC voltage supplies became common. The WardLeonard set supplied a DC motor which powered the driven load. Therefore. the majority of vessels were steam turbine or diesel engine driven. fans and other auxiliary driven equipment. No “voltage conversion” (AC to DC. For duties where speed control was considered necessary (for example. pumps. of the DC drive motor was controlled by the excitation of the Ward Leonard DC generator driven by a fixedspeed AC motor and the “field controller” should speeds above base speed be needed.
when used with “standard” 6pulse AC drives. as the physical size. the production of high order harmonics (usually above the 40th or 50th) and compatibility with generatorderived supplies regarding suitably low values of source impedance. fans. their popularity increased making AC drives comparable to DC SCR drives. reduction in maintenance of AC motors compared to DC motors. and reliability of AC drives continued to improve. DC SCR drives were most common. offer similar levels of performance at less cost. where “load commutated inverters” and “cycloconverters” are still more common. It has to be noted that the theory of harmonics with respect to electrical networks has been known since the start of the 20th Century. However. these may not be sufficient to attain the levels of attenuation necessary to guarantee compliance with the harmonic limits imposed by classification societies. have been available for a number of years. “interharmonics” and harmonic currents interacting with the generator(s). AC variable frequency drives (“VFDs” or “inverters”) were developed in various forms. where the initial benefit was as “softstarters” for the pumps. despite these issues. the speed control feature was utilized as oil reservoirs became depleted and flow rate had to be controlled. AC PWM drives with “active front ends” (sinusoidal input rectifiers). the first generation of solid state SCR (“silicon controlled rectifier” or “thyristor”) based variable speed drive systems were introduced for the control of DC motors. cost. caused by a combination of “line notching”. which offer relatively low harmonic current levels compared to present “standard” AC converter drives. drawworks. less EMI and higher reliability. The power conversion process from AC voltage to DC voltage draws “nonlinear” (nonsinusoidal) currents from the supply. Shortly thereafter. As can be seen from Section 1. thrusters. cabling and other supply impedances when cargo was being worked. There are a number of harmonic mitigation solutions which. increased levels of electromagnetic interference (EMI). the harmonic voltage distortion has reached surprising levels. their use in marine applications is increasing. being two common examples. Although in many cases harmonic mitigation has been used. In a relatively large number of cases. AC PWM drives are popular (for example. resulting in harmonic voltage distortion as the harmonic currents produced interact with supply impedances. From the mid 1960s. input bridge carrier frequency suppression which needs large passive reactorcapacitorreactor (LCL) filters. but until relatively recently. 6 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . higher efficiency. from that time on. DC SCR drives have now largely been replaced by AC drives. has led to a significant increase in harmonic voltage distortion levels on a large number of vessels. anchor windlasses and other duties. whether based on AC or DC converters. especially including downhole pumps. mud pumps. AC PWM drives have completely replaced DC drives in the majority of drilling rig applications. on applications where robust. However. Common applications for DC SCR drives on AC vessels from the midtolate 1960s included windlasses. for small main propulsion systems. 2006 . It was common on these vessels fitted with DC SCR cargo handling systems to experience light “flicker”. With the exception of large main propulsion drives (above 58 MW/670010700 HP). “quasi square wave drives” and “current source drives”. performance. In the late 1970s and early 1980s. As can be seen in Section 1. DC SCR drives were used extensively on drilling rigs for main propulsion. valve throttling or damper control used to vary flow. although they were installed on offshore oil production installations from the mid 1980s for a few duties. DC SCR drives went largely unchallenged until the earlytomid 1990s. However. reduced complexity. it was only in the late 1980s that AC drive technology (most notably in the form of “pulse width modulation” (“PWM”) drives) started to appear on ships in any numbers. There are a number of significant commercial and technological issues still to be completely resolved. The increased installed drive capacity on vessels. variable speed control was needed. while the majority of engine room auxiliaries. there was no effective or accurate monitoring equipment available to measure it.Section 1 Introduction Around the midtolate 1960s. including cost. Figure 5. Offshore. pumps. compressors and other equipment were driven by fixedspeed AC motors with bypass systems. mooring winches and some cargo winches. cargo pumps and other LV and HV applications). physical size. well in excess of the classification societies’ limitations. Figure 5.
The application of electric propulsion has increased in the last five years. Figure 7. fixed and podded. each powered by two synchronous motors each rated at 6750 HP.500HP) propelled the French passenger liner. Large seagoing vessels first appeared with full electric propulsion in the 1920s with the introduction of the Panama Pacific Line ships. Figure 6. are largely limited to a few MWs due to restrictions on the brushgear and mass of the DC motor armature. where low noise and vibration levels are important. 3 Main Propulsion Drives Electric drives for propulsion have been used onboard ship for the majority of the 20th Century. Normandie. The percentage of new vessels being built with electric propulsion continues to increase annually. As of the year 2000. over 2% of vessels over 500 gross tons were fitted with electricallydriven propulsion. however. were fitted with 30 MW (40. The decision as to whether to install electric propulsion in a vessel is complex and is usually dependent on the type of vessel and the operating profile envisaged.). which will accrue significant strategic additional benefits from new generations of electric weapon platforms that will utilize the increased onboard power generating capacity necessary for the main electric propulsion systems. is currently also being significantly changed with the adoption of fullyintegrated electric propulsion systems. in addition to main cargo pumps. Section 1. 12 MW cycloconverters for main propulsion and PWM drives for thrusters. for example. reduced manpower. lower running costs. lower emissions and improved maneuverability (with podded or azimuth type propulsors – see Section 1. During the Second World War. survey ships. including Canberra. albeit in very small numbers. small inland vessels with DC electric motors for propulsion operated in the United Kingdom and Russia as early as 1893. either via conventional shaft arrangements or via podded propulsors.000 HP) synchronous propulsion motors. Virginia and California. In Europe around the same time. four synchronous motors with a total of 116MW (155. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . specialist survey vessels. A large proportion of modern cruise liners also utilize full electric propulsion. “floating production storage and offloading” vessels (FPSOs). The power ratings of DC drives systems. Indeed. including Ropax ferries. however. It is estimated that ratings up to 50 MW for AC PWM drives may be available within a few years based on new types of power devices. DC propulsion motors were used extensively on USbuilt T2 tankers. offshore supply vessels. cableships and cruise liners. including increased cargo carrying capabilities. Naval warship design. less maintenance. largely due to the introduction of new classes of vessels and the expansion of new builds. in this instance a dynamicallypositioned shuttle tanker using AC drives. 2006 7 . It should be noted that the present power restrictions with AC PWM converters is due to lack of suitable power semiconductors in terms of current and voltage ratings. greater redundancy. In the mid 1980s. shuttle tankers. Queen Elizabeth II was converted from steam turbine to electric propulsion by installing two 40 MW synchronous motors and converters. shows a typical application of an electricallypropelled vessel. where electric propulsion provides significant benefits. Cruise liners in the 1960s.Section 1 Introduction DC SCR drives are still operating in older vessels and in new.
2006 .Section 1 Introduction FIGURE 6 Electricallydriven Podded Propulsor FIGURE 7 Dynamicallypositioned Shuttle Tanker Equipped with AC Electric Variable Speed Main Propulsion and Thrusters 8 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
more compact. software engineering and other related technologies will lead to the development of higher performance. more cost effective and more efficient types of electric drives and motors. Their financial viability for any applications other than specialized naval warship duties may also have to be carefully assessed. and where appropriate.Section 1 Introduction 4 The Future? The use of electric variable speed drives. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . In the meantime. control systems. electromagnetics. The continual advances in power semiconductors. the passengers and the marine environment. particularly AC converters. the protection of the crew. it may be some years before these emerging AC drive converter developments permeate through from mainly military (naval) development programs and are available to commercial organizations. The majority of the emerging AC drive converter types. for main propulsion and a host of other applications within the marine and offshore sectors will continue to increase. including “matrix converters”. 2006 9 . the issue of harmonic distortion and the effects on plant and equipment has to be addressed to ensure the safety of the ship or offshore installation. “resonant converters” and “pulse frequency modulated” (PFM) converters will all have low harmonic profiles compared to the majority of generic drive technologies available at present. However.
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2006 11 . Figure 1. any item of equipment which draws current from the supply which is proportional to the applied voltage is termed a “linear” load. Figure 2a illustrates a simple singlephase full wave rectifier supplying a load containing both inductance and resistance. Figure 2b illustrates the DC load current (Idc) and AC input current (Iac). Examples include discharge lighting. The current and voltage waveforms associated with linear loads are shown in Section 2. Section 2. FIGURE 1 Voltage and Current Waveforms for Linear Load Voltage Linear Load Current The term “nonlinear” is used to describe loads which draw current from the supply that is dissimilar in shape to the applied voltage. The impedance of the AC supply is represented by the inductance Lac. Examples of linear loads include resistance heaters and incandescent lamps. FIGURE 2a Single Phase Full Wave Rectifier FIGURE 2b Load and AC Supply Currents ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .SECTION 2 The Production of Harmonics 1 Production of Harmonics In a power system. In order to explain pictorially how nonlinear current distorts the voltage supply waveform it is necessary to refer Section 2. respectively. Figures 2 and 3. Section 2. computers and variable speed drives.
... Figure 3a shows a simple single line diagram comprising source voltage (u) and source impedance (LN)..... (2............ Note: The example below has been exaggerated in order to illustrate the principle graphically of how nonlinear current distorts the supply voltage... di N .... 2006 . FIGURE 3a Simple Single Line Diagram FIGURE 3b Load Current and Volt Drop Waveforms The voltage drop across the source impedance (UL) is subtracted from the induced voltage (u).................................... FIGURE 4 How Voltage Distortion is Produced (Simplified) 12 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ... Figure 3b illustrates the nonlinear current (iN) and voltage drop (UL) waveforms...............1) dt Section 2..................... as illustrated in Section 2. The harmonic current (iN) passing through the source impedance produces a voltage drop (UL) according the following formula: U L = LN ...... resulting in the distortion of the supply voltage waveform...Section 2 Production of Harmonics Section 2.. Figure 4..............
Figure 5 illustrates a typical current waveform of a computer switched mode power supplier unit. rectifiers). 5. 4. the appropriate diode will conduct and nonsinusoidal. If the SMPS were to use “half wave” rectification “even” order (2. Figure 6. the harmonic spectrum contains only “odd” harmonics (1. The semiconductor diode rectifiers are unidirectional devices (i. computer switched mode power systems (SMPS) for converting AC to DC. “pulsed” current will be drawn from the supply. They include. Figure 5 is of a “pulsed” nature. Note: As can be seen below. FIGURE 6 Singlephase Switched Mode Power Supply This type of power supply uses capacitors to smooth the rectified DC voltage and current prior to it being supplied to other internal subsystems and components. The additional function of the capacitor is to store energy which is drawn by the load as necessary. When the input voltage (Vi) is higher in value than the capacitor voltage (Vc)...e. 6. an example of which is illustrated in Section 2. 3. Section 2. as illustrated in Section 2. 7…). This is due to the “full wave rectification” used in the SMPS. FIGURE 5 Typical Computer Nonlinear Load Voltage Nonlinear Load Current In order to appreciate why the current waveform shown in Section 2.g. This nonsinusoidal current contains “harmonic currents” in addition to the sinusoidal fundamental (50 Hz or 60 Hz) current. Figure 7.Section 2 Production of Harmonics The majority of nonlinear loads is equipment that utilizes power semiconductor devices for power conversion (e. for example. they conduct in one direction only). 8…) harmonics would also be present. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 13 . it is beneficial to consider the design of switched mode power supplies.
On 60 Hz supplies. whereas asymmetrical waveforms (where both positive and negative portions are different) contain even and odd harmonics and possibly DC components. It should be noted that symmetrical waveforms only contain odd harmonics. An example of complex wave consisting of the fundamental (1st harmonic) and 3rd harmonic is illustrated in Section 2. When all harmonic voltages and currents are added to the fundamental. the 7th harmonic is 420 Hz. 14 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . for instance. 2006 . the 5th harmonic is 300 Hz. Figure 8 is an example of a symmetrical waveform in which the positive portion of the wave is identical to the negative portion. a waveform known as a “complex wave” is formed. An example of an asymmetrical waveform would be that produced by a half wave rectifier. FIGURE 8 Construction of Complex Wave 60 Hz Fundamental 180 Hz (3rd Harmonic) Complex Wave Section 2.Section 2 Production of Harmonics FIGURE 7 Harmonic Spectrum of Currents Drawn by Computer Switched Mode Power Supply Harmonic voltages and currents are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. and so forth. Figure 8.
........... However..........e... it has to be noted that supply networks or connected equipment are never “idealized” (i. the following hypotheses are assumed for all rectifiers: • • • • • • The impedance of the AC supply network is zero......... 3… number of current pulses per cycle It should be noted that in the “ideal” harmonic theory.......Section 2 Production of Harmonics 2 Characteristic Harmonic Currents Power conversion using full wave rectifiers generates idealized characteristic harmonic currents given by the formula: h = np ± 1 . ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . including possibly DC. any actual harmonic currents measured will not be exactly as calculated using the above simplified formula......... again.. in idealized harmonic theory.. 2.................. In rectifiers without added inductance (e. into the harmonic series............. based on the above hypotheses) and..... the magnitude of the harmonic current is stated as the reciprocal of the harmonic number: I= 1 ..................... respectively..... The AC supply network is symmetrical (i...2) where h n p = = = order of harmonics an integer 1............ Figure 9 illustrates a typical singlephase computer switched mode power supply with full wave bridge rectifier.......... There are no “overlap” or delay angles for the devices..... should represent 20% and 14% of the total rms current........ the rectifier and the impedance of the rectifier as “seen” by the AC supply.............. The AC supply is sinusoidal...... therefore.... (2.g...... Any divergence from any of the above hypotheses will introduce “noncharacteristic” harmonics........... the 5th harmonic current and 7th harmonic current......... Section 2..... In practical terms......e... in theory..... Note: In addition........ free from harmonics......... (2..... An AC line or commutating reactor is not used in front of the rectifier.. for example......... this is never transferred into practical reality as the magnitudes of the various harmonic currents are determined by the perphase inductance of the AC supply connected................ balanced).....3) h Therefore........ 2006 15 ...... AC line reactors) it is not uncommon to measure 5th harmonic current up to ~80% on singlephase rectifiers and 65% on threephase rectifiers... The DC component of the rectifier configuration is uniform..
5.e. 11. 2006 . one per half cycle per phase). 13. the characteristic harmonic currents based on two rectified current pulses per cycle (i. Figure 10. as shown in Section 2. 3… pulses. 7. 9. 15… where h n p = = = harmonic number integer. (2) FIGURE 10 Computer Switch Mode Power Supply Input Current Waveform 16 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .. 1. converted into DC load will be: h = np ± 1 h=n⋅2±1 h = 3.Section 2 Production of Harmonics FIGURE 9 Computer Power Supply with Singlephase Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Rectifier Bridge iac vac Is Smoothing Capacitor Load Cf Switch Mode DCtoDC For the single full wave diode bridge rectifier above. 2.
This issue will be discussed in more detail in Section 4. the currents in the three phases return via the neutral conductor. 2006 17 . However. the 120degree phase shift between respective phase currents causes the currents to cancel out in the neutral. Figure 11. Figure 12 shows a typical 6pulse PWM AC drive. Section 2. 9th…) harmonics in the phase currents do not cancel out but add cumulatively in the neutral conductor. when nonlinear loads are present. where the rectifier bridge supplies the DC link section of the drive. any “triplen” (3rd. which can carry up to 173% of phase current at a frequency of predominately 180 Hz (3rd harmonic). FIGURE 12 Typical 6Pulse PWM AC Drive ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 2 Production of Harmonics The harmonic series calculated for a singlephase full wave rectifier is shown in Section 2. “Sources of Harmonics”. FIGURE 11 Typical Waveform from Computer Switched Power Supply 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Note: It should be noted that in fourwire distribution systems (threephase and neutral). under balanced loading conditions.
the characteristic harmonic currents for a 12pulse rectifier will be: h = n ⋅ 12 ± 1 h = 11. FIGURE 13 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveforms for One Phase FIGURE 14 Typical Harmonic Spectrum for 6Pulse AC PWM Drive 100 80 . respectively. 17. show the input phase current waveforms and harmonic current spectrum measured on a typical 6pulse AC PWM drive. 23. 35. 13. 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 harmonic 18 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 37… Section 2. 7. 11. Figures 13 and 14. % Fund. 2. the characteristic harmonic currents will therefore be: h = np ± 1 h=n⋅6±1 h = 5. 1. 3… pulses. 13. 24.Section 2 Production of Harmonics For a threephase full wave diode rectifier bridge [also known as a “6pulse bridge”. 19… where h n p = = = harmonic number integer. as it rectifies six current pulses (one per half cycle per phase) into the load side of the bridge]. 2006 . (6) Similarly.
Vthd (based on the vector sum of all individual harmonics). FIGURE 16 How Individual Harmonic Voltage Drops Develop Across System Impedances Source ZSh Transf. 2006 19 . that distorted current passes through all of the impedance between the load and power source.Section 2 Production of Harmonics 3 Effect of Harmonic Currents on Impedance(s) Section 2. The associated harmonic currents passing through the system impedance cause voltage drops for each harmonic frequency based on Ohm’s Law (Vh = Ih × Zh). ZTh Cable ZCh Sinusoidal Voltage Source ZSh Vh Vh Vh ZTh ZCh Ih Nonlinear Load ∧ ∧ @ Source @ Transf. Figure 15 shows in a simplified form that when a nonlinear load draws distorted (nonsinusoidal) current from the supply. FIGURE 15 Distorted Currents Induce Voltage Distortion Impedance No Voltage Distortion Distorted Current Distorted Voltage Source Nonlinear Load Section 2. Note that the “total harmonic voltage distortion”. is reduced as more impedance is introduced between the nonlinear load and the source. The vector sum of all the individual voltage drops results in total voltage distortion. @ Load ~ ∧ ∧ Nonlinear Load Harmonic Current Source ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the magnitude of which depends on the system impedance and the levels of harmonic currents at each harmonic frequency. Figure 16 shows in detail the effect individual harmonic currents have on the impedances within the power system and the associated voltages drops for each.
250 Hz) harmonic voltage at hth harmonic (e. 2006 .... 20 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .... to interpret a complex wave by means of “Fourier Series” and associated analysis methods. 5th) harmonic current at hth harmonic (e. Vnsin(nωt + φn) .g..: Vh = Ih × (ZCh + ZTh + ZSh) Vh = Ih × (ZTh + ZSh) At the source: Vh = Ih × (ZSh) where Z Vh Ih = = = impedance at frequency of harmonic (e. (2...g.Section 2 Production of Harmonics V = Ih × Zh (Ohm’s Law) At the load: At the trans.. The instantaneous value of voltage for nonsinusoidal waveform or complex wave can be expressed as: v = V0 + V1sin(ωt + φ1) + V2sin(2ωt + φ2) + V3sin(3ωt + φ3) +....4) where v V0 V1 V2 V3 Vn = = = = = = = = = instantaneous value at any time t direct (or mean) value (DC component) rms value of the fundamental component rms value of the second harmonic component rms value of the third harmonic component rms value of the nth harmonic component relative angular frequency 2πf frequency of fundamental component (1/f defining the time over which the complex wave repeats itself) φ ω f It is usually more convenient..g.. Joseph Fourier.. 5th) total harmonic voltage distortion Vthd = 4 Calculation of Voltage Distortion Any periodic (repetitive) complex waveform is composed of a sinusoidal component at the fundamental frequency and a number of harmonic components which are integral multipliers of the fundamental frequency. however... a 19th century French physicist introduced a theory that any periodic function in a interval of time could be expressed by the sum of the fundamental and a series of higher order harmonic frequencies which are integral multipliers of the fundamental component.
.....................5) h =1 The rms value of voltage can be expressed as: Vrms 1 2 = v (t )dt = T ∫ 0 ∑ Vh2 h =1 ∞ = V12 + V22 + V32 .................. where V1 and I1 represent the fundamental voltage and current. + I n I1 × 100% ............... (2......... Vh.. a 30% total current distortion measured against a 50% load would result in a TDD of 15%)............................ + Vnn V1 × 100% ... (2.. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..............7) The rms voltage or current “total harmonic distortion”...6) I rms = 1 2 i (t )dt = T T ∫ 0 ∑ I h2 h =1 ∞ = 2 2 2 2 I 1 + I 2 + I 3 ...... (2........11) 100 .... Vthd and Ithd.....8) I thd = h=2 ∑ I h2 I1 × 100% = 2 2 2 I 2 + I 32 + I 4 .................................. the voltage (V) can be substituted for the current (I)..... For example......... (2................ can be represented as a Fourier Series: v(t ) = ∑ vh (t ) = ∑ h =1 T ∞ ∞ 2Vh sin (hω 0 t + φ h ) ....... (2....... Note: In the above Equations 2................... (2.............. (2......12) 2 2 I rms 2 1 + I thd Total fundamental current distortion: I thd ( fund ) I = rms I fund − 1 .......................................... per unit of load current....9) Other simple but practical harmonic formulae include: Total rms current: or Fundamental current: 2 I rms = I 2 + I harm .....................14) I load maximum demand load current (fundamental) at the PCC ‘total demand distortion’ of current (expressed as measured total harmonic current distortion............ + I n ..................13) ∑I Total Demand Distortion (TDD) = where Iload = TDD = h =2 ∞ 2 h I load = I TDD = 2 2 2 2 I 2 + I 3 + I 4 .......................10 to 2...... (2................... + Vn2 ........................ the instantaneous rms voltage................................ 2006 21 ............ respectively can be expressed as: Vthd = h=2 ∑ Vh2 V1 × 100% = ∞ ∞ V22 + V32 + V42 ..... (2....13...... + I n ............ respectively.. (2..............10) fund I rms = I fund I fund = I 1 + thd ...........................Section 2 Production of Harmonics Ignoring any DC components in the above formula.....
Section 2 Production of Harmonics 5 Harmonic Sequence Components Each harmonic has an order (number). and so on. limited only by the circuit impedance. Table 1 details the harmonic sequence components for an idealized 6pulse rectifier. reduces to almost zero as the current increases. 23rd. Section 2. the two phases are shortcircuited (i. Section 2. 2006 .e. but to a lesser extent than those associated with SCR bridges. connected together) for very short durations through the converter bridge and the AC source impedance. “Effects of Harmonics”.. for example.e. Figure 18 illustrates theoretical notching at the terminals of the SCR input bridge and therefore assumes no additional inductance in the circuit. 11th. 13th. The voltage notches occur when the continuous line current commutates (i. do not rotate. also sources of harmonics. “line notching” is a phenomenon normally associated with the SCR (thyristor) based “phasecontrolled” rectifiers such as those utilized in AC and DC variable speed drives and UPS systems. and so on. which rotate in a forward direction (i. 22 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . transfers) from one phase to another. Figure 17 depicts a simple threephase full wave SCR bridge network supplying a DC load. Triplen harmonics (3rd. 17th. They are in phase with each other and are therefore termed “zero sequence harmonics”. a frequency which is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency and a “sequence”. as illustrated. During the “commutation period”. as produced in singlephase full wave rectifiers. The impact of sequence harmonics on rotating machines will be discussed in Section 3. 19th and 25th. 6 Line Notching Although not strictly “harmonics”. in the same sequence as fundamental) are termed “positive sequence harmonics” whereas the 5th . 9th…). Section 2. which rotate in the opposite direction to the fundamental are termed “negative sequence harmonics”. Diode bridges can also exhibit “commutation notches”.e. The effects of “line notching” can have a serious impact on the supply system and other equipment. TABLE 1 Harmonic Sequence Components for 6Pulse Rectifier Harmonic Sequence Rotation 1 + F 5 B 7 + F 11 B 13 + F 17 B 19 + F 23 B 25…. The sequence refers in vector rotation with respect to the fundamental. + F Harmonics such as the 7th.. The result is that the voltage..
It should be noted that the only real practical way to reduce the notch area is to provide part of the necessary commutation energy from a capacitor bank. the notches can be present anywhere in the respective half cycles.. The disturbances associated with line notching tend to progressively reduce nearer to a “stiff” source impedance (i.e. including that associated with cabling. 2006 23 . Figure 19. as the phase angle of SCRs varies according to the needed output voltage (or current for current source AC drives). ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 2 Production of Harmonics FIGURE 17 Simple Threephase SCR Bridge for Phase Control + 3φAC DC − FIGURE 18 Exaggerated Example of “Line Notching” In practical terms. but regardless of how much inductance is added at the bridge terminals. It is common practice to add “commutation reactors” or isolation transformers in the AC line of the SCR bridge to minimize the notch. an impedance of relatively low value with relatively high short circuit capacity) due to the additional impedances downstream in the circuit. With reference to Section 2. the notch area tends to remain constant as the addition of AC line inductance will reduce the notch depth but will increase the notch width. the area of the notch (depth and width) is dependent on the voltmilliseconds absorbed in the circuits in the line from the source generator or transformer to the SCR bridge input terminals.
an important phenomenon associated with SCR phase control is “ringing”. as illustrated in Section 2. Figures 2 and 3 illustrates the significant effects of line notching. Although secondary to line notching. the voltage can be reduced to zero creating additional “zero crossovers” (i.. usually above the highest measured (i. However. Figure 4. 50th). line notching and ringing can have significant effects on voltage quality.. “Ringing” is the term given high frequency oscillations due to the rapid switching of the SCRs. It is the result of high frequency “resonance” occurring in the rectifier circuit due to inherent inductance and capacitance in the equipment circuitry.Section 2 Production of Harmonics FIGURE 19 Voltage Notching due to SCR Bridge Commutation In severe cases.e. The oscillograph in Section 1. Figure 20. 2006 . as shown in Section 1. as the harmonics associated with them are of high frequency. Section 1. FIGURE 20 SCR Line Notching and Associated “Ringing” It should be noted that line notching and associated ringing do not usually influence the Vthd.e. The effects of line notching on generators and other equipment will be discussed in Section 3. the points where the voltage would normally change polarity). especially where no additional AC line reactance is present. 24 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Figure 3 refers to a vessel where up to four AC SCR input bridge drives were operating.
FIGURE 21 Cycloconverter Current Spectrum – Includes Interharmonics Both harmonics and interharmonics can be defined in a quasisteady state in terms of their spectral components over a range of frequencies as detailed below: Harmonics: DC: Interharmonics: Subharmonics: f = h ⋅ f1 where h is an integer > 0 f = 0 Hz (f = h ⋅ f1.. See 3/5. further frequencies can be observed which are not an integer of the fundamental. where f1 is the fundamental frequency Waveforms which contain both harmonics and interharmonics of constant amplitude but differing frequencies are rarely periodic (i.e. Interharmonics can therefore be considered as the “intermodulation” of the fundamental and harmonic components of the system with any other frequency components.Section 2 Production of Harmonics 7 Interharmonics Interharmonics are defined in IEC Standard 100021 as: “Between the harmonics of the power frequency voltage and current. including large AC frequency converters drives (especially under unbalanced conditions and/or levels of preexiting voltage distortion).1.4 and 10/11. Figure 22 illustrates. 6/2. The effect of interharmonics on equipment will be discussed in later Sections. 2006 25 . 3/6.3. repetitive). Figure 21) and static slip recovery drives. where h is an integer >0 f > 0 and f < f1. These can be observed increasingly with nonlinear loads. where h = 0) f is not equal to h ⋅ f1. 4/3. They appear as discrete frequencies or as a wideband spectrum”. cycloconverters (see Section 2. as Section 2.1. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
............. The maximum percentage rms voltage deviation over several periods of the fundamental due to interharmonics can be calculated by combining Equations 2.........15) where f1 a fi * = = = fundamental frequency amplitude (per unit) of the interharmonics voltage (amplitude of the fundamental voltage = 1..... while the change in the voltage rms value is dependent on both the amplitude and the interharmonics frequency.... AC PWM drives).... Using this method.......................... similar to the use of percentage values... the supply voltage will vary in amplitude and rms value according to: v(t) = sin(2πf1t) + a sin(2πfit)..............15 and 2....... it is the AC peak voltage which normally recharges the capacitor(s)...... The resultant integer harmonics in the voltage supply do not effect the AC peak voltage as these integer harmonics are synchronized with the fundamental frequency...Section 2 Production of Harmonics FIGURE 22 Waveform Containing both Harmonics and Interharmonics Due to the modulation of steady state harmonic voltages........ In equipment which utilize capacitors on the DC side (for example...16) 2 where the period of integration T = 1/f1........ quantities are expressed as ratios.(2...... current is only drawn from the supply when the AC voltage is greater than the DC side capacitor voltage........ The rms voltage value can be given by: V= 1 T ∫0 T v(t ) dt . both those utilizing capacitors and also several types of lighting...... However............... 26 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...... interharmonics are not synchronized with the fundamental and therefore affect the peak amplitude of the AC supply voltage (see Section 2... (2... per unit = Note: actual quantity base quatitiy Maximum voltage change in the voltage amplitude is equal to the amplitude of the interharmonics voltage.......16. 2006 .... and as such. Figure 23) causing deviations of peak voltage which can adversely effect the connected equipment..................................0 per unit *) interharmonics frequency The per unit system is based on the formula below.....................
..... ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ......... “subsynchronous frequency component”.................. (2... 8 Subharmonics “Subharmonics” is an unofficial but common definition given to interharmonics whose frequency is less than that of the fundamental (i............Section 2 Production of Harmonics FIGURE 23 Peak Voltage Deviations due to Interharmonics Voltage The distorted voltage waveform depicted in Section 2...... Therefore: ∆V = Vmax – Vmin .......... 2006 27 ..................... However..................17) where V1 t f1 Vn n = = = = = amplitude of fundamental voltage time fundamental voltage amplitude of interharmonics n fractional real number of interharmonics order The variation of the supply voltage amplitude is calculated from the difference between the maximum and minimum peak values (Vmax and Vmin) recorded over several cycles of the function V(t)........................ which uses phaselocked loops and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) techniques..... The more technically correct term............ compared to that of integer harmonics. Methods of analysis used in the communication industries have been adapted for use in the measurement and analysis of interharmonics components.................. This is due to the interharmonic frequency components being nonrelated to the fundamental frequency and nonperiodic. Figure 23 can be calculated as: V(t) = V1 sin(2πf1t) + Vn sin(2πfnt).....18) Note: The measurement of interharmonics....... f > 0 Hz and f < f1).....e...... poses considerable problems for traditional harmonic measuring equipment..... for the measurement and identification of interharmonics it may not be necessary to perform an analysis which depends on the supply fundamental frequency.. is also used to define subharmonics.. Therefore....................(2.. it should be noted that the calculations provided above associated with interharmonics are valid for “subharmonics” also....
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. 120 times a second for 60 Hz supplies). there is the influence of harmonic sequence components..e. Eddy currents circulate in the iron core...SECTION 3 Effects of Harmonics 1 Generators In comparison to shorebased utility power supplies............. both on localized heating and torque pulsations. it is relatively common practice to “derate” (reduce the output of) generators when supplying nonlinear loads to minimize the effects of harmonic heating......... The major impact of voltage and current harmonics is the increase in machine heating caused by increased iron losses..... “hysteresis losses” and “eddy current losses”.. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ... The relationship of eddy current losses and harmonics is given by: PEC = PEF where PEC = PEF = Ih h = = total eddy current losses eddy current losses at full load at fundamental frequency rms current (per unit) harmonic h harmonic number hmax h =1 ∑ I h2 h 2 ......1) On linear loads. the eddy current losses are fairly minor but become more significant as the harmonic loading increases... the effects of harmonic voltages and harmonic currents are significantly more pronounced on generators due to their source impedance being typically three to four times that of utility transformers.. 2006 29 .... Higher hysteresis losses occur at harmonic frequencies due to the more rapid reversals compared to those at fundamental frequency....... The hysteresis loss is the power consumed due to nonlinearity of the generator’s flux density/magnetizing force curve and the subsequent reversal in the generator’s core magnetic field each time the current changes polarity (i..........] In addition...1 Thermal Losses The iron losses comprise two separate losses................ [On shore installations.... both frequency dependent...... and copper losses................. 1. Eddy currents produce losses which increase in proportion to the square of the frequency... windings and other component parts of the generator induced by the stray magnetic fields around the turns in the generator windings. (3. Hysteresis losses are proportional to frequency and the square of the magnetic flux........
... inducing currents in the rotor iron and windings... but when nonlinear current is drawn. A simplified equivalent circuit for one phase of a threephase generator is shown in Section 3... The 5th harmonic is negative sequence and induces in the rotor a negativelyrotating 6th harmonic...3 Voltage Distortion A generator is designed to produce sinusoidal voltage at its terminals... relative to the stator)........ 1. for example..... at harmonic frequencies..................2) where PCU = Irms R = = total copper losses total rms current resistance of winding The copper losses are also influenced by a phenomenon termed “skin effect”. Skin effect refers to the tendency of current flow to be confined in a conductor to a layer close to its outer surface... The harmonic stator current drawn by the nonlinear load will result in air gap fluxes.. 30 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ... However...2 Effect of Sequence Components Harmonic currents occur in pairs each having a negative or a positive sequence rotation... localized losses and subsequent heating....... prevent any rapid flux changes in the rotor..... These result from the interaction between harmonic and fundamental frequencies exciting a specific mechanical resonant frequency. Harmonic pairs... the torque pulsations will be at six times for fundamental (360 Hz based on 60 Hz fundamental. and overheating is unlikely provided the rotor pole faces are laminated. Similarly... when harmonic currents are present.. can create mechanical oscillations on the generator shaft. Shafts can be severely stressed due to these oscillations. this effect is similar to that caused by singlephase or unbalancedphase operation. At fundamental frequency. adding to rotor losses and the associated temperature rise... the skin effect is negligible and the distribution of current across the cable is uniform. the 11th and 13th harmonics will induce both negatively and positively rotating 12th harmonics in the rotor... thereby increasing the losses according to: 2 PCU = I rms R .. 1.. The higher the resistance.. For a given load....... Figure 1. The iron and damper windings........... similar in shape to the fundamental but rotating at harmonic frequencies.. the harmonic currents interact with the system impedances to produce voltage drops at each individual harmonic frequency............. The two contrarotating 6th harmonic systems in the rotor result in “amortisseur” or “damper” winding currents which are stationary with respect to the rotor.... the total rms value of the current passing through the windings will be increased.. skin effect is substantially more pronounced...(3.. 2006 . the higher the I2R losses... causing additional.. thereby causing voltage distortion.. Within the rotor... For 5th and 7th harmonic frequency. the 7th harmonic is positive and similarly induces a positivelyrotating 6th harmonic in the rotor. significantly reducing the effective cross sectional area of the conductor and increasing its resistance. respectively..Section 3 Effects of Harmonics Copper losses are dissipated in the generator windings when current is passed through the winding resistance..... in addition to causing additional heating. Note that the resistances are ignored as they are relatively small compared to the reactance.. Dd and Dq...
......732 × 135 × 5 × 0...............0346 = 40........................ (3............. express the harmonic voltage as a percentage of the fundamental rms voltage............. the following method can be used: Vh = where 3 × Ih × h × Xgen . (3.......................45 V ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...........................4) Vrms where Vh = LL rms voltage of the harmonic h LL fundamental rms voltage Vrms = Example 1 Calculate the LL rms 5th harmonic voltage for a 480 V generator with reactance X of 0.. Also................................. 2006 31 ..... Vh = 3 × Ih × h × Xgen = 1................................................3) = = LL rms voltage of the harmonic h harmonic current at order h generator reactance.....0346 ohms when the 5th harmonic current is 135 A.......Section 3 Effects of Harmonics FIGURE 1 Equivalent Circuit for a Generator To calculate the rms harmonic voltage due to the respective harmonic current.. in ohms harmonic number Vh Ih h Xgen = = To calculate the LL rms harmonic voltage as a percentage of rms fundamental voltage: Vh × 100% ..............
line notching often makes it difficult to correctly load share when parallel generators are operating. The effect of harmonics on instrumentation will be discussed in Subsection 3/9. of the prime mover and to proportionally distribute the kW load of parallel connected generators. This will result in the majority of the distortion from the voltage control signal being attenuated. As detailed in Equation 2.4 Line Notching and Generators Harmonic currents can cause significant problems in generators in addition to those attributable to additional losses and torsional pulsations.. + Vn2 Similarly. (Based on sinusoidal waveforms. 1. On waveforms containing harmonics.8: Vthd = Note: h=2 ∑ Vh2 V1 × 100% = ∞ V22 + V32 + V42 . The combination of harmonic distortion and line notching can cause hunting and instability in voltage and frequency regulation control loops.. 2006 . additional zero crossovers may appear. for example with large SCR phase control loads. the rms value is 1.45 × 100 480 = 8.. 32 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Load sharing depends on the measurement of the kW load on each generator.. The rms value of current. which assumes fundamental only is normally used in the computation of the kW loading. a low pass filter as detailed in Section 3.43% Note: Other percentage harmonic voltage components can be estimated by performing similar calculations for each harmonic current. and hence frequency. below. however. Figure 2. this assumption is no longer valid. is recommended. as shown in Section 3... This is also valid for switchboard instrumentation. Many of these problems can be resolved. Vrms.6. Note: For generator AVRs subject to voltage distortion. Where “line notching” or “ringing” occurs. Modern generators use electronic governors to regulate the output voltage.. false readings can occur when measurements based on average values are used.11 times the average value. When harmonic currents are present.) Only equipment utilizing “true rms” techniques indicate correct readings for supplies containing harmonics. Figure 2. the Vthd “voltage total harmonic distortion” can be expressed using Equation 2. to control the speed. In addition. + Vnn V1 × 100% See Subsection 12/1 for practical examples of manual voltage distortion calculations..Section 3 Effects of Harmonics 5th harmonic voltage as a percentage of the fundamental rms voltage: = = Vh × 100% Vrms 40. using low pass filters at the input of the appropriate sensing circuits... Many electronic regulator units utilize measurement and control circuits which depend on “zero crossovers” (the point on a sine wave when the sinusoidal voltage or current cuts through the zero axis). the total rms voltage including harmonic voltages.. can be calculated using: Vrms 1 2 = v (t )dt = T T ∫ 0 ∑V h =1 ∞ 2 h = V12 + V22 + V32 .
. rate of rise of voltage) are present. especially if high levels of dv/dt (i. Potential small laminated core vibrations can appear as additional audible noise.5 Shaft Generators Shaft generators are generally unaffected by the import of external power system harmonics due to the filtering effects of the generator converter.e. 2006 33 . In addition. The effect of harmonic currents at harmonic frequencies in transformers causes increases in core losses through increased iron losses (i.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics FIGURE 2 Low Pass Filter for Generator AVR Sensing on Nonlinear Loads 1. as shown below: 2 PCU = I rms R where PCU = Irms R = = total copper losses total rms current resistance of winding ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .1 Transformers Thermal Losses Transformer losses comprise “no load losses”.e. winding insulation stress. 2 2.. copper losses and stray flux losses which can result in additional heating. and “load losses”. eddy currents and hysteresis).2. rotary condenser and line reactors. The copper losses can be calculated using Equation 3. which are dependent on the peak flux levels necessary to magnetize the transformer core and are negligible with respect to harmonic current levels. Temperature cycling and possible resonance between transformer winding inductance and supply capacitance can also cause additional losses. The increased rms current due to harmonics will increase the I2R copper losses. which significantly increase at harmonic frequencies when transformers supply nonlinear current.
Distribution Transformers and Neutral Currents Distribution transformers used in fourwire (i. 120 times a second for 60 Hz supplies).........2 Unbalance. 9th......e. Higher hysteresis losses occur at harmonic frequencies due to the more rapid reversals compared to that at fundamental frequency..... overheating transformers and on occasion...... 2......3 Transformer Derating or Kfactor Transformer Transformers are of prime importance in any power system.... they are particularly vulnerable to overheating and earlylife failure.. 3rd.5: 2 PEC = PEF ∑ I h h 2 ...Section 3 Effects of Harmonics The eddy current losses can be calculated using Equation 3.... Figure 3 illustrates a typical relationship with transformer derating and Kfactor for nonlinear loads.. using smaller insulated secondary conductors wired in parallel and transposed to reduce heating due to skin effect and AC resistance and enlarging the primary winding to withstand triplen harmonics present on singlephase nonlinear loads... Triplen (i. consider reducing the loading on it...... However.. In order to minimize the risk of premature failure... the threephase currents will cancel out in the neutral conductor. 34 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . (3. 15th…) harmonic currents cannot propagate downstream but circulate in the primary delta winding of the transformer causing localized overheating.. the triplen harmonics in the phase currents do not cancel out.. as they are designed to run at rated kVA loads in the presence of harmonic currents and also they normally comply with Underwriters Laboratory (UL) and NEC requirements for transformers supplying nonlinear loads. a redesign of the magnetic core based on lower normal flux density by using higher grades of iron... When supplying nonlinear loads....... oversize it such that it operates at less than the rated load capacity) or if existing.... Hysteresis losses are proportional to frequency and the square of the magnetic flux. those used in some cruise liners) have a deltawye (deltastar) configuration... 2006 .. two methods are used by designers: • • “Derate” the transformer (i. but instead add cumulatively in the neutral conductor.........e..... which can carry up to 173% of phase current at a frequency of predominately 180 Hz (3rd harmonic)... Section 3............e.. 2...5) h =1 hmax where PEC = PEF = Ih h = = total eddy current losses eddy current losses at full load at fundamental frequency rms current (per unit) harmonic h harmonic number The hysteresis loss is the power consumed due to nonlinearity of the transformers flux density/magnetizing force curve and the subsequent reversal in the transformer core magnetic field each time the current changes polarity (i..... Krated transformers are specifically designed for nonlinear loads and operate with lower losses at harmonic frequencies.... Krated transformer modifications can include additional cooling ducts. when nonlinear loads are being supplied.. With linear loading.... overheating and burning out neutral conductors..... Krated transformers are usually preferred to derated transformers...... Use “Kfactor” or “Krated” transformers.e.. threephase and neutral) distribution systems (for example.
........... Based on the upper limit.6) h =1 K P1 Pf h Ih = = = = = Kfactor eddy current losses on linear load eddy current losses on nonlinear load harmonic number harmonic current (per unit) One acknowledged problem associated with calculating Kfactors is selecting the most appropriate range of harmonic frequencies.... the Kfactor is a weighting of the harmonic current loads according to their effects on transformer heating as derived from ANSI/IEEE C57.... The subsequent ratings are described in UL1561....... in many calculations harmonic orders up to 25th are commonly used... no harmonic loading)......... (3. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...... The higher the Kfactor.. the greater the heating effect on a given transformer........... 25th or 50th harmonics....... Essentially......110....... the calculations can yield significantly different Kfactors for the same load.. The equation for calculating Kfactor is the ratio of eddy current losses when supplying nonlinear and linear loads: P K= 1 = Pf where h = hmax ∑ 2 I h h 2 .... A Kfactor of 1. However........Section 3 Effects of Harmonics FIGURE 3 Typical Transformer Derating Curve for Nonlinear Load UL developed the Kfactor system to indicate the capability of transformers to handle harmonic loads. 2006 35 .. of 15th....................e. for example.0 indicates a linear load (i.... IEEE 519 (1992) considers harmonics up the 50th....
Typical values are 1.. (3...... Substantial iron losses can also be produced in induction motors with skewed rotors due to highfrequencyinduced currents and rapid flux changes (i.......... The magnitude of the iron losses is dependent on the iron loss characteristic of the laminations and the angle of skew.. Leakage magnetic fields caused by harmonic currents in the stator and rotor end windings produce additional stray frequency eddy current dependent losses. 3 3.....5 .....7) where e n I = = = = eddy current loss at fundamental frequency divided by the loss due to DC current equal to the rms value of the sinusoidal current....... The formulae used to calculate copper losses and eddy current losses used for transformers are also applicable for induction motors: 2 PCU = I rms R where PCU = Irms R = = total copper losses total rms current resistance of winding 36 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ... due to additional copper losses and iron losses (eddy current and hysteresis losses) in the stator winding...................... rotor circuit and rotor laminations.....8) In I1 q = = = magnitude of nth harmonic magnitude of fundamental current an exponential constant which is dependent on the type of winding and frequency................... due to hysteresis) in the stator and rotor...... especially at frequencies above 300 Hz.............5 for those with foil low voltage windings......... (3.......7 for transformers with round or rectangular cross sections in both windings and 1...1 Induction Motors Thermal Losses Harmonics distortion raises the losses in AC induction motors in a way very similar to that apparent in transformers with increased heating.... the Kfactor is termed “Factor K”.. 2006 ..5 n= N ( I n )2 n =1 ∑ 0... with significantly more complicated calculations according to BS 7821 Part 4: 2 n= N nq In 1 + e I1 K= 1 + e I n+ 2 I 1 ∑ 2 0...5 n = N I = I1 n n =1 I 1 ∑ 2 .........Section 3 Effects of Harmonics In Europe... both a reference temperature harmonic number rms value of the sinusoidal current including all harmonics given by: 0.........e....... These losses are further compounded by skin effect..
3..e.. are also susceptible to damage due high levels of dv/dt (i..... the torque will have a varying component at 300 Hz with an amplitude of torque fluctuation of 0. 19th…) will assist torque production. 7th. Harmonic currents also can result in bearing currents.e..02 per unit for the 5th and 7th harmonics. they are stationary).e.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics The eddy current losses can be calculated using Equation 3.... Assuming no phase displacement between harmonics and full value of voltage. (3.03 and 0. 17th…) will act against the direction of rotation resulting in torque pulsations which are significant.. any harmonic energy associated with them is dissipated as heat... then the amplitude of the torque fluctuation will be 0. the life of motor insulation may be reduced by as much as 50%... triplens) do not rotate (i.. due to conduction along the shaft... if we consider a 50 Hz supply with 4% voltage distortion based on motor harmonic currents of 0. The magnitude of torque pulsations due to sequence components can be estimated as follows to assess possible shaft torsional vibration problems based on a nominal voltage: 2 2 T3k = I n+ + I n− − 2 I n + I n − cos(φ n + − φ n − ) [ ] 1/ 2 per unit.. 13th..... 2006 37 ... This can in extreme cases...2 Effect of Harmonic Sequence Components Harmonic sequence components also adversely affect induction motors...9) where In+... The motor’s windings. In– = n+ n– = = per unit values represents the 1 + 3k harmonic orders represents the 1 – 3k harmonic orders For example..... For every 10°C rise in temperature (continuous) above rated temperature. If the harmonics have the worst case phase relationship. 13th.... whereas the negative sequence components (5th......... lead to “hot rotors” which..01 per unit... can degrade the bearing lubrication and result in bearing collapse...05 per unit ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .. especially if insulation is class B or below. Zero sequence harmonics (i.. a practice common in AC variable frequency drivefed AC motors.5: PEC = PEF where hmax h =1 ∑ I h2h2 total eddy current losses eddy current losses at full load at fundamental frequency rms current (per unit) harmonic h harmonic number PEC = PEF = Ih H = = Motors with deep bar or double cage rotors are susceptible to additional losses...e. Squirrel cage rotors can normally withstand higher temperature levels compared to wound rotors. Overheating imposes significant limits on the effective life of an induction motor... Positive sequence components (i. This can be prevented through the use of an insulated bearing. respectively. rate of rise of voltage) such as those attributed to line notching and associated ringing.. particularly on highly polluted supplies containing high order harmonics.
MG1 refers to explosionproof motors. the rotor temperature may exceed the motor “T class” [i.. Dependent on the magnitude of the voltage distortion. as illustrated by Section 3.e. subject to special tests and certification. It should also be noted that “explosionproof motors” are designed and certified based on “clean” sinusoidal supplies. on distorted supplies. As detailed above.. temperature class (for example. FIGURE 4 Proposed NEMA Derating Curve for Harmonic Voltages 38 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .e. 200°C for T3)].g. Figure 4. EExe (increased safety) and EExp (pressurised) are permitted only 2% voltage distortion before they are classed “as operating outside the conditions envisaged when they were certified”. However. For EExN motors (nonsparking motor) 3% voltage distortion is permitted under EN6003412.11. for use in hazardous areas to NEMA 30. 2006 .. hot rotors can also result in bearing degradation.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics 3. explosionproof protection concepts EExd (flameproof motors). In North America.3 Explosionproof Motors and Voltage Distortion A practical application of AC induction motors worth noting is that of “explosionproof motors” (i. an internal explosion) it cannot transmit to the surrounding hazardous area. and if there is an internal explosion (more likely due to excessive rotor temperatures). This type of motor relies on the principle that no matter what happens inside the flameproof enclosure (e.02. Where a certified explosionproof motor is driven by the variable frequency drive. flameproof motors). Higher levels of voltage distortion can be accommodated for all protection concepts. the safety certificate of the motor is no longer valid unless the safety certification has been based on the tests using that particular variable frequency drive. in the presence of harmonics and deep bar or double cage rotors. While that may be perfectly valid on pure sinusoidal supplies. NEMA standard MG1 “Application Considerations for Constant Speed motors used on Sinusoidal Bus with Harmonic Content and General Purpose Motors used with Variable Voltage or Variable Frequency Controls or both” proposes the amount of motor derating necessary for both fixedspeed motors on distorted supplies or those fed by variable frequency supplies. it may not be so on supplies distorted by harmonics.2. the rotor may overheat and degrade the flameproof seals. it may not be successfully contained but transmit to the external “hazardous area” with significant consequences. An explosionproof motor relies on the flameproof enclosure and shaftmounted flameproof seals to contain any internal explosion in the event of an escape of gas or vapor. According to EN600341.
... large numbers of 2pulse drives (or other singlephase nonlinear loads) can increase the peaktopeak voltage magnitudes..e.. also known as “current source inverters” when used on smaller induction motor applications) and cycloconverters are more commonly used in higher ratings (i...+ 5 7 11 13 HVF = 0.... the larger rating a drive is.. Line commutated inverters (LCIs.... 2006 39 ......038 for the 5th.... Ringing associated with line notching increases DC bus levels at no or light loading with consequential overvoltage tripping... The effect of line notching is more pronounced when the drive(s) is at low speed and high load. However...068 2 0..... AC or DC) use power semiconductors to rectify the AC input voltage and current and thereby create harmonics.... causing overheating on the smoothing capacitors....0505 (or 5.. Ringing....e...... increasing stress the on rectifiers. not including triplens per unit magnitude of the voltage at the nth harmonic n Vn = = Example 2 Calculate the HVF based on the per unit harmonic voltages of 0. Generally. singlephase (2pulse) PWM drives with no reactors have high levels of Ithd.... The resultant excessive localized harmonic current can be reflected into the DC bus. “Computers and Computer Based Equipment.. (3............. 0..... singlephase) and small 6pulse SCR DC drives which do not have commutating reactors or isolation transformers can misfire in the presence of line notching and/or high levels of harmonic current. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . often up to 130140% including a large 3rd harmonic which adds cumulatively in the neutral conductor.... termed “flat topping” – see Subsection 3/7.. harmonics can be beneficial for drives as they cause flattening of the peak voltage (i. 0.. associated with line notching is also problematic.. Both harmonics and line notching effect variable speed drives. respectively.. 2pulse (i...........05% voltage distortion) 4 Variable Speed Drives Electrical variable speed drives of all types (i... n =∞ HVF = ∑ Vn2 n n =5 HVF = 0.. These are assumed to be relatively immune to the normal level of harmonics.. 7th.. However..” for more details) which reduces the stress on rectifiers..09 2 0..e. significantly increasing the neutral current up to 173% of phase current and increasing neutraltoground voltages.10) n n =5 odd harmonic. 0.... Small. these can be also susceptible to disruption and component damage due to input line harmonics.......e. the more it is immune to the effects of harmonics and line notching.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics The “Harmonic Voltage Factor” (HVF) can be defined as: HVF = where n =∞ ∑ Vn2 .042..09.. above 2000 HP)..065...........038 2 + + . Conversely.. 11th and 13th harmonics.042 2 0..
voltage “flat topping” (see Section 3. SCR misfiring can result. On supplies with line notching.e. it can reduce the drive ridethrough in the event of line disturbances and increase the output current to the motor. Phase displacement transformers (i. 6pulse SCR DC drives above 10 HP/7.0 40.0 40 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . any overshoot may increase the DC bus voltage on noload or light load. 24pulse…) for AC or DC drives reduce the effects of downstream harmonics and line notching at the drive terminals. reducing the DC bus voltage levels.5 kW usually have AC commutating reactors or isolation transformers installed between the drive and the line to attenuate the line notches on the supply side. Figures 5 and 6) can occur.e.0 20. Standard 6pulse AC PWM drives.e. if the line notching or levels of harmonic current are significant.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics Small 6pulse PWM (“pulse width modulation”) drives (i. Larger PWM drives with a simple input diode bridge with either AC line or DC bus reactors are usually relatively robust and can operate in a harmonics environment without significant problems. up to 10 HP/7. possibly blowing fuses or tripping circuit breakers downstream. 18. These need special filtering to attenuate the input bridge carrier frequency affecting the supply system and to reduce the overall EMI which is significantly more than emitted from standard diode or SCR precharge input stages). this also applies to drives with “active front ends” which synthesize an input sinusoidal current wave shape. the most common type used.e. Above 1015 HP (7.e. most drives “filter” the harmonics to varying degrees using AC line reactors. are relatively robust and can usually withstand line disturbances due to harmonics below 5% Vthd. thereby raising its temperature due to additional I2R losses. supplies with high source impedance).0 80. 2006 . FIGURE 5 AC PWM Drive Current Distortion on Weak Source 60..0 40.0 0. However.5 kW) usually have no AC line or DC bus reactors.. Line notching can also result in excessive heating of SCR snubber components.. resulting in drive “overvoltage trip”.0 Units 20. “soft starting” of DC bus voltage) or for variable voltage DC bus control may experience misfiring of SCRs due to incorrect or irregular conduction and excessive heating of DC bus capacitors and smoothing reactors if the supply voltage is significantly contaminated by line notching or high levels of harmonics. which prevents the drive from achieving the nominal power output for drive and the motor.511 kW). passive filters (i. and in some cases.. for 12. On weak supplies (i.. AC PWM drives with SCRs for precharge (i. In addition. These also reduce the effects of line notching and harmonics impressed on the drive.0 60.
. In severe cases.0 Unwanted “electrical noise” (i.0 0.0 20.0 V×10 20. albeit at different levels of intensity.e. Note: Filtering of the drive high frequency currents is not normally possible in IT power systems (insulated neutrals).25% is perceptible to the human eye in some types of lamps. if power cabling is not sufficiently segregated from the control cables or if shielding or grounding is not adequate. EMI) can be induced into drive signal and control cables.e. 2006 41 ..1 Lighting Flicker One noticeable effect on lighting is the phenomenon of “flicker” (i. even a deviation of 0. 5 5. Control relays may fail to operate correctly and measuring equipment may be adversely effected. where rerouting cabling is not feasible.0 40. fluorescent or high intensity discharge) The magnitude of the voltage fluctuations The “frequency” of the voltage fluctuations The “gain factor” of the lamp (i. repeated fluctuations in light intensity).0 60. resulting in spurious command and feedback signals into the drive.0 40. % relative change in light level divided by % relative fluctuation in rms voltage) The amount of ambient light in lighted area Superimposed interharmonic voltages in the supply voltage are a significant cause of light flicker in both incandescent and fluorescent lamps.0 80. The severity of the flicker is dependent on a number of factors including: • • • • • The type of light (incandescent. The voltage across any input EMC filter capacitors would be 1.73 times higher in the event of a ground fault.0 60. damaging or destroying the filter capacitors. the retrofitting of low pass filters to drive input may be necessary. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .e.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics FIGURE 6 PWM Drive “Flat Topping” due to Weak Source 80.. Lighting is highly sensitive to rms voltage changes.
.13) where durability at rated voltage.... The luminous flux (i..... Ideally............ (3.. UPS are very similar in architecture to variable speed drives.... 5........12) where ΦV is luminous flux at rated voltage.. 2006 42 .......... 6 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) Due to the phenomenal increase in “power quality”sensitive loads such as computers and navigation or radio communications equipment...... The consequential reduction in rms voltage will cause a reduction in the intensity of illumination......Section 3 Effects of Harmonics Incandescent lamps at higher voltages are usually more susceptible to voltage changes due to smaller filaments and shorter time constants than lamps of similar power rating but lower voltage.. Vn...........11) and V ΦV = Φ n V n 1...... In fluorescent lamps..6 for incandescent lamps.. the reduction in working life with changes in voltage can be expressed as: V TV = V n −14 .......8 for fluorescent lamps ............ where installed.. smoothing capacitors and inductors. the effects of harmonics on components within UPS systems will be almost identical with additional heating on power devices. (3..2 Effects of Line Notching on Lighting Line notching will also effects lighting to varying degrees................................. (3. uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) are now commonly provided and can range from a 100 VA to several MVA... high frequency types... Any voltage fluctuations also impact on the life of lamps......... transient suppression may be necessary at lighting distribution board level to protect the individual light fittings...... Therefore... The older. usually equates to 1000 hrs................. the type of ballast used impacts on the amount of flicker.......... magnetic type ballasts are more susceptible to flicker than the more modern.......... If the notches are severe or where ringing occurs......... In the case of incandescent lamps.....e. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ........ Fluorescent fittings used with occupancy sensors which are based on zero crossover detection may experience difficulties if the notching is severe and multiple crossovers result............. 5......... Batteries may overheat due to excessive harmonics and interharmonics on the DC side of the rectifier.............3 Potential for Resonance The interaction between harmonic current and power factor correction capacitors inside individual fluorescent lighting units can result in parallel resonances being excited between the capacitors and power system inductances resulting in damage of the lighting units..... which may have safety implications for the vessel. Vn. especially in incandescent lamps......... individual power factor correction should be avoided and group power factor correction with detuning reactors should be installed at lighting distribution panel level.. light intensity in “lumens”) of lamps under voltage fluctuations can be expressed by: V ΦV = Φ n V n 3.........
inhibiting the alarm system advising of problems in the bypass system. bypass sensing circuits may disable the bypass circuit.. Section 2. which can manifest itself in early life failure of components due to high operating temperatures.e. On high levels of distortion. the pulsed nature of the current causes a voltage drop at the peak of the voltage wave. In the presence of harmonics. 7 Computers and Computer Based Equipment The majority of computer based equipment derives the internal voltage supplies from switched mode or similar power supply units and it is often here where harmonic problems are noticed. below. 2006 43 .Section 3 Effects of Harmonics Excessive voltage distortion or notching/ringing can cause misfiring of input rectifier SCRs possibly resulting in fuse rupture. If resonance occurs. FIGURE 7 Voltage “Flat Topping” due to Pulse Currents Voltage flat topping reduces the operating DC bus voltage (Section 3. perhaps due to the UPS input filter. resulting in increased current being drawn and increased I2R losses in the equipment and associated cabling. Figure 8). attract harmonic currents from upstream) damaging the harmonic filter. This will be discussed in Section 4. It should be noted that UPS systems do also produce harmonic currents. As can be seen in Section 3. FIGURE 8 Effect of DC Bus Voltage with Flat Topping Higher voltage trace = Normal DC bus level Lower voltage trace = DC bus volts due to flat topping ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the UPS line side filter (to reduce the harmonics from the rectifier input stage) may act as a sink (i. Figure 7. Figure 7 shows the current drawn from the supply by SMPS with two pulses per cycle while the SMPS capacitors are charging. displaying a “loss of AC supply” alarm and bypass to inverter mode. UPS may shut down.
.. the current is not permitted to rise above a predetermined value by the current control system..... If passive components predominate in the circuit....14) C ( ) where V1 V2 C = = = normal voltage (per unit) reduced voltage (per unit) value of capacitor 44 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ... Section 3........... FIGURE 9 Flat Topping Reducing Supply Ridethrough Higher voltage trace = Normal DC bus level Lower voltage trace = DC bus volts due to flat topping The energy available from the DC capacitors during ridethrough can be expressed as: WR = 1 C V12 − V22 ........... the impedance will remain mostly unchanged and current will decrease in proportion with the voltage............. P=V⋅I where P V I = = = power (per unit) voltage (per unit) current (per unit) P 1 ..9 If V is 0.......11)2 ⋅ (1) = 1......... Similarly..... I = Ploss = I2R = (1. 2006 ..9 per unit..........23 per unit Power losses increase by 23% Note: The above is only valid for circuits where the current is not limited and power control is dominant. In the case of AC PWM drives (single.........11 per unit V 0.0 = = 1....Section 3 Effects of Harmonics Example 3 Determine the per unit increase in I2R losses based on a 10% decrease in DC bus voltage due to flat topping.... (3.or threephase input).. Figure 9 shows how the reduction in DC bus voltage on the capacitors reduces the stored energy within the power supply thus reducing its ridethrough capability......
V2 = 0.9 per unit) = (0.7 per unit At normal voltage. are substantially increased when carrying harmonic currents due to elevated I2R losses.42 2 Irms = 651 A Ignoring the effects of skin and proximity effects.2 Skin and Proximity Effects The resistance of a conductor is dependent on the frequency of the current being carried. the I2R losses in the cable due to harmonic currents would increase by: 651 ×100% = 17... 8 8. is due to the mutual inductance of conductors arranged closely parallel to one another. resistivity and the permeability of the conductor material.32 × 100% = 37% 0. Irms = 600 1 + 0. 2006 45 .73% compared to heating effect at fundamental frequency.51 per unit At 10% reduction (0. determined by its DC value plus skin and proximity effect. Skin effect is a phenomenon whereby current tends to flow near the surface of a conductor where the impedance is least..51 The above effects are similar to those experiences by singlephase and threephase AC PWM drives which a diode rectifier and capacitive DC bus. R. Assume a system dropout voltage of 70%. Both of these effects are dependent upon conductor size. An analogous phenomenon.. the cable resistance.92 – 0.7. V1 = 1 per unit.72) = 0.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics Example 4 Determine the reduction in ridethrough capability in SMPS due to flat topping and 10% decrease in peak voltage. As stated in Equation 2.1 Cables Thermal Losses Cable losses. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .72) = 0.51 − 0. 600 2 8. + I n therefore: I rms = I FUND 1 + I thd 100 Example 5 Calculate the rms current carried by a power cable based on a current total harmonic distortion (Ithd) of 42% and fundamental current of 600 A. proximity effect. reduction in ridethrough = Note: 0. V1 ⋅ WR = (12 – 0. dissipated as heat.32 per unit Therefore. the rms current Irms in a distorted current waveform can be calculates thus: I rms 1 2 = i (t )dt = T T ∫ 0 ∑ I h2 h =1 2 ∞ = 2 2 I12 + I 2 + I 32 . frequency.
................... the skin effect and proximity effects are usually negligible...... Section 3.... however. at different harmonic numbers of four sizes of power cable with conductors... at least for smaller conductors...... Figure 10 plots the AC/DC resistance ratio......27 + 0.............18 2 k PE = k SE σ 2 k + 0........ which can be defined as: kc = where R AC = 1 + k SE + k PE . The spacing used to obtain the σ values for the four cable types is based on National Electric Code (NEC) insulation type THHN.. The associated losses due to changes in resistance....u .................. 4/0 AWG.............. The harmonic frequencies produce a ratio of AC to DC resistance..... kc.... FIGURE 10 Cable AC/DC Resistance...........312σ ...15) R DC = = resistance gain due to skin effect resistance gain due to proximity effect kSE kPE Skin effect parameter.. (3...... kc......... 1/0 AWG and 12 AWG..... but can also be expressed as: x = 0.......... x..... 500 kcmil................. (3... 2006 ............................. adding to the overall I2R losses....027678 where f ... kc as a Function of Harmonic Numbers 46 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .......................................Section 3 Effects of Harmonics At fundamental frequencies.8 m (1000 ft) RDC = The resistance gain due to proximity effect can be expressed by: 1...................... can increase significantly with frequency.......16) R DC f u = = frequency.. (3........17) SE where σ is the ratio of the conductor diameter and the axial spacing between conductors......... as a function of frequency and DC resistance can be found in cable handbooks.. in Hz magnetic permeability of the conductor DC resistance in ohms/304.
).g. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .3 Neutral Conductors in Fourwire Systems On fourwire distribution systems. FIGURE 11 4/0 AWG Cable – Proximity and Skin Effect due to Harmonics FIGURE 12 12 AWG Cable – Proximity and Skin Effect due to Harmonics 8. Therefore.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics Section 3. which may have a large percentage of nonlinear loads (e. The phase currents do not cancel in the neutral conductors as with linear loading but sum in the neutral conductor. As can be noted. such as now installed on large passenger vessels. respectively. a large component of triplen harmonics are often present. Figures 11 and 12 illustrate the difference of varying harmonic numbers on both proximity effect and skin effect for 12 AWG and 4/0 AWG cable. ballast lighting. whereas with the large cable. 2006 47 . it can be noted that proximity effects due to harmonics tends to be the more significant in power cables.. etc. the proximity effect may be more significant at lower frequencies but not at higher frequencies. the proximity effect is more significant in the smaller cable. computers.
. therefore the current is proportional to the “root mean square”)......... thereby decreasing the reliability and the working life of cables in proportion to the crest voltages..... the heat produced is proportional to the mean of the square... the rms value is 0.. Refer to 4/1..7071 times the peak value. rms calibrated”. computers.. can be significant (up to 173% of phase current).. 9 Measuring Equipment Conventional meters are normally designed to read sinusoidalbased quantities..... This technique entails taking a measurement of the average (or mean) value (0..........11 for a sine wave).......... televisions.. Power cables carrying harmonic loads act to introduce EMI (electromagnetic interference) in adjacent signal or control cables via conducted and radiated emissions..........636 × peak) and multiplying the result by the form factor (1... only “true rms” instruments are capable of accurately measure distorted values..... This has been documented on offshore installations when platforms with no onboard generating capacity are supplied from other platforms a considerable distance away by long subsea cables. the neutral current should be dimensioned accordingly or mitigation equipment installed to attenuate the level of triplen harmonics. Root mean square (rms) can be defined as the magnitude of sinusoidal current which is the value of an equivalent direct current which would produce the same amount of heat in a fixed resistive load which is proportional to the square of the current averaged over one full cycle of the waveform (i.... Refer to Section 3... This assumption is valid only for pure sinusoidal waveforms. Nonlinear voltages and currents impressed on these types of meters introduce errors into the measurement circuits which result in false readings. therefore. these two important ratios relevant to current and voltage measurement can be derived: Peak factor = Form factor = Peak value ........ Harmonic voltages increase the dielectric stress on cables.......... (3......636 times the peak value or 0.............. This “EMI noise” has a detrimental effect on telephones.... (3.......e...414 times the rms value)...9 times the rms value...... assuming deltawye configuration).4 Additional Effects Associated with Harmonics Harmonic currents can on occasion excite parallel resonance between cable capacitance and system inductances.. triplen currents are problematic on generators due to the associated additional temperature rise on the machines.. the negative half cycle is inverted) the mean value will be 0........... especially when very long cable lengths are used.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics The overloading on the conductors (and the distribution transformer primary... Correct procedures with regard to grounding and segregation within enclosures and in external wiring systems must be adopted to minimize EMI..... The result is 0..18) rms value rms value . For a sine wave.. radios... Figure 13... However....e........... 48 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ... control systems and other types of equipment.... which is displayed as “rms”.....19) Mean value Most analogue meters and a large number of digital multimeters are designed to read voltage and current quantities based on a technique termed “average reading........2 for further information.... In addition.. 8........ 2006 ... Conventional meters are calibrated to respond to rms values..... If the magnitude of the sine wave is “averaged” (i....... For a pure sine wave.707 times the peak value and the peak value is 1.
55 A. 2006 49 . Figure 14). Using a true rms meter. calibrated rms” meter the “rms current” displayed would be 0. almost 40% lower than the real current value.61 A.6 A with an average of 0. Using a conventional “average reading. the peak value of 2.0 A. FIGURE 14 Difficulties Conventional Meters Have Reading Distorted Waveforms ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the real current is 1.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics FIGURE 13 Peak and rms Values of Sinusoidal Waveform The difficulty in accurately measuring distorted values with conventional meters is illustrated by the current drawn by a switched mode power supply (Section 3.
. the crest factor is 1....... but should be calibrated on a regular basis...............I trms ) Pinst = Vtrms = Itrms = Note: The above method is commonly used in digital power instrumentation. Fuses and circuit breakers will not offer the expected level of protection....... commonly used with probable instruments (e.. with linear response and a very wide bandwidth in order to accurately read frequencies up to 50th harmonic (3 kHz based on 60 Hz fundamental)... provided no resonance is introduced which causes phase and ratio errors....... The way to accurately measure nonlinear power factor is to measure the average instantaneous power and divide it by the product of the true rms voltage and true rms current: True cos φ = where cos φ = nonlinear load true power factor average instantaneous power (kW) true rms voltage true rms current Pinst .. plus other stray capacitance... this will be significantly higher...... the more accurate it will be in the measurement of distorted waveforms......20) rms value For a pure sine wave....0/0... (3... The consequences of under measure can be significant..... Any telemetry... The response of the transformer is largely dependent on the burden used on the LV side.. For pulsed waveforms.. Hall Effect currents transducers... On high voltage networks.... the power factor is simply a measure of the cosine of phase angle between voltage and current...... the windingtowinding............ 50 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . magnetic voltage transformers designed to operate on fundamental frequencies are commonly used. etc.. 83rd harmonic at 60 Hz fundamental) to an accuracy of around 3%. protection or other equipment which relies on conventional measurement techniques or the heating effect of current will not operate correctly in the presence of nonlinear loads........ windingtoground and turntoturn capacitance....g..21) (Vtrms ....... whereas the bandwidth is limited by the frequency response of the magnetic core. The higher the crest factor a true rms instrument has. power meters............ For use up to 11 kV............707)..... harmonic analyzers.e........ In a sine wave.414 (1.......... this type of voltage transformer can measure harmonic voltages under 5 kHz (i... which is the power factor of the fundamental component only and the “true” or “real” power factor... 2006 ......... this is not valid for nonlinear loads...... (3.. Busbars and cables may prematurely age.... overloaded cables may go undetected with the risk of catching fire.. which includes both the fundamental and harmonic components.... It is therefore important that only instruments based on true rms techniques be used on power systems supplying nonlinear loads. The accurate measurement of power factor does present a problem with nonlinear loads when two different power factors are present (see Section 5): the “displacement power factor”.. The use of meters with crest factors less than three (3) is not recommended...Section 3 Effects of Harmonics The “crest factor” of a waveform can be defined as: Crest factor = Peak value ... Standard toroidaltype current transformers used for measuring distorted currents must be of high quality.............) do accurately measure nonlinear currents........
this is often difficult when the vessel or offshore installation is based on an IT power systems (insulated neutrals). Vacuumtype circuit breakers. the breaker may trip prematurely while carrying nonlinear current. other measures have to be adopted. In the presence of nonlinear loads. Therefore. However. the failure of the blowout coil prolongs the arcing period and may cause reignition of the arc. large amounts of fluorescent lighting or large numbers of lighting dimmers and/or singlephase AC inverter drives on cruise liners). The original type peaksensing. unless the current trip level is adjusted accordingly. the rms value of current will be higher than for linear loads of same power. New designs of electronic breakers include both methods of protection. may still trip on relatively low values of peak harmonic current and trip levels therefore may have to be readjusted accordingly. electronictype circuit breaker responds to the peak value of fundamental current. 2006 51 . spurious “zero crossovers” may cause premature interruption of circuit breakers before they can operate correctly in the event of an overload or fault. The failure of large air circuit breakers has on occasion been attributed to harmonic distortion which delays the operation of the blowout coils. triplen harmonics are troublesome as they are present in all threephase conductors and cumulatively add in the neutral conductor. The frequency range. which use magnetic blowout systems.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics 10 Telephones On ships and offshore installations where power conductors carrying nonlinear loads and internal telephone signal cable are run in parallel. as well as correct levels of spacing and segregation should minimize potential problems. are less susceptible to harmonics. Circuit breakers are designed to interrupt the current at a zero crossover. On highly distorted supplies which may contain line notching and/or ringing. 540 Hz to 1200 Hz (9th harmonic to 20th harmonic at 60 Hz fundamental) can be troublesome. especially at high carrier frequencies. When carrying harmonic current. The peak detection method of protection. In these instances. however. it is likely that voltages will be induced in the telephone cables. peak current detection and rms current sensing. the rmssensing measures the heating effect of the rms current (as per the conventional thermalmagnetic type) and may also have to be readjusted to prevent premature tripping on nonlinear loads. 11 Circuit Breakers The vast majority of low voltage thermalmagnetic type circuit breakers utilize bimetallic trip mechanisms which respond to the heating effect of the rms current. Note: Guidance may have to be sought from circuit breaker manufacturers regarding trip level adjustments for nonlinear loads. this type of breaker may not operate correctly due to the peak value of nonlinear currents being higher than for respective linear loads. There is also the possibility of both conducted and radiated interference above normal harmonic frequencies with telephone systems and other equipment due to variable speed drives and other nonlinear loads. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . On fourwire systems where a large number of singlephase nonlinear loads are present (for example. This type of breaker therefore may trip prematurely at relatively low levels of harmonic current. resulting in failure of the breaker to operate correctly. However. especially in cases of high levels of distortion and low current. Similarly. in the case of a short circuit current. The use of twisted pair cables and correct shielding/grounding. and in such instances. the magnitude of the harmonic current will be very minor in comparison to the fault current. EMI filters at the inputs may have to be installed on drives and other equipment to minimize the possibility of inference.
...... 2006 ....................23) RH derated value of current due to harmonics fuse nominal current at fundamental frequency fuse resistance due to harmonic frequencies fuse resistance at fundamental frequency IH IN RH RN Note: The above formula is used for general guidance only........ 52 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ................ where the voltage supply to conventional control relays does contain harmonic voltages or current......... Electromechanical relays are operated via the torque proportional to the square of the flux determined by the input current. 13 Relays Conventional electromechanical control relays are rarely susceptible to harmonic problems as the operating coils are usually low voltage (e... This type of relay responds to the rms value of current...22) where IN and RN are the nominal fuse rated current and resistance at the fundamental frequency......... the power loss in the fuses equals: PN = IN2 ⋅ RN2 .... The operation of both types of relay may be affected by harmonics...... FP can be expressed as: Fp = where IH = IN = = = = RN .. In addition. usually has to reach levels of 1020% before significant operational problems occur............. therefore fuse derating may be necessary to prevent premature opening........ At harmonic frequencies the resistance of the fuse will increase to a value.. On nonlinear loads.... Solid state relays normally respond to the peak value of the input signal........ the rms current will be higher than for similarlyrated linear loads. At fundamental frequency. IH to maintain the total power losses.. The nonfundamental components can therefore be attenuated.. suffer from skin effect and more importantly.... Solid state relays may be stressed when subjected to high levels of harmonic distortion and/or line notching thus reducing reliability. Vthd...... (3.......... they may tend to operate more slowly and/or with higher pickup values and may experience early life failure due to additional heating within the coil.......Section 3 Effects of Harmonics 12 Fuses Fuse rupture under overcurrent or shortcircuit conditions is based on the heating effect of the rms current according to the respective I2t characteristic...... Protection relays usually fall into three types: electromechanical... fuses at harmonic frequencies.. (3.... The derating factor.. solid state and microprocessorbased... and hence temperature of the fuse elements............. PH......... the faster the fuse will operate..... The higher the rms current.. Fuse manufacturers should be contacted for advice on the correct level derating for a particular application. although the voltage distortion................ 24 V) or fed via stepdown transformers which attenuate the harmonics... proximity effect.......... which can use either rms current or peak values (or both) are more sophisticated and normally utilize digital filters to extract the fundamental component of the signal value.. resulting in nonuniform current distribution across the fuse elements..... Microprocessorbased relays........g.... RH therefore the nominal fuse current rating needs to be decreased to a value..... However.... within the value at fundamental frequency..... placing additional thermal stress on the device..... The exact performance will vary depending on the relay specification and the manufacture.
disrupting and/or damaging plant and equipment.... especially on LW and AM bands..25) V1 Vn = = fundamental rms voltage rms voltage of the nth harmonic ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ... especially voltage harmonics.... In general. The capacitors can become easily overloaded... voltages and currents to flow...e.......... they attract and absorb harmonics) due to the fact that their capacitive reactance decreases with frequency...... normally have capacitors fitted internally to improve the individual light fitting’s own power factor...... (3. 2006 53 ....... Capacitors (and on occasion..... Audio and video signals can be affected on fourwire systems due to high groundtoneutral voltages..................... Audio and Video Equipment Radios and televisions are susceptible to interference by harmonics both radiated and conducted. it is not necessary to describe the interaction between harmonics and power factor correction capacitors. however............. Television............ as installed across the shorebased industries...... which is above normal harmonic frequencies (50th harmonic at 60 Hz fundamental is 3 kHz) and into RFI frequency ranges (radio frequency interference)..... In the presence of harmonics... (3.. 15 Capacitors Conventional power factor correction equipment is rarely installed on ships or offshore installations.......... cable capacitance) combine with source and other inductances to form a parallel resonant circuit (see Section 9)..... the effects of harmonics on general capacitors can be summarized as follows: • Capacitors act as a “sink” for harmonic currents (i............. does... often localized........ the additional thermal stress can be approximately calculated via the assistance of a special capacitor weight THD (total harmonic distortion) factor..................... The presence of harmonics....... destroying capacitors and blowing fuses where fitted.......... Therefore........... from DC up to 150 kHz... Fluorescent lighting..........Section 3 Effects of Harmonics 14 Radio..... defined using: ∑ (nVn2 ) N THDC = where n =1 V1 . the harmonics are amplified causing high........24) n =1 where tan δ = R/(1/ωC) is the loss factor 2πfn rms voltage of nth harmonic ωn V = = For capacitors directly connected to the power system without series reactance......... which are generally installed in industrial plants and commercial buildings.. tend to increase the dielectric losses on capacitors increasing the operating temperature and reduces the reliability.. ∞ • • The dielectric loss can be expressed by: ∑ C (tan δ )ω nVn2 ........
the possibility of resonance may only exist due to fluorescent lighting integral power factor correction capacitors. the presence of capacitors in the power system can result in series and parallel resonances leading to overvoltages and high currents. for example. with subsequent damage to equipment and additional risks to personnel.Section 3 Effects of Harmonics As described in Section 9. However..e. 54 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 . starting capacitors on singlephase motors. as conventional capacitorbased power factor correction equipment is rarely used in the marine sector. directly connected to the power system). cable capacitance and due to other equipment using “external” (i.
the 120degree phase shift between linear load currents results in their balanced portions canceling out in the neutral. Large or multiple singlephase nonlinear loads can be problematic on fourwire systems due to significant triplen harmonics caused by their cumulative addition in the neutral conductor. In a fourwire distribution system with only linear loads. threephase and neutral (grounded or insulated)] for “domestic” supplies. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the phase current’s return path is via the neutral conductor. therefore. the 3rd harmonics usually cancel out. usually in the order 5th. These current pulses add together in the neutral conductor. However. 13th… and perhaps some uncharacteristic harmonics. no “zero sequence harmonics” should exist. distribution systems (i.e. However. even if all phases are completely balanced. 1 1. in order to minimize inconvenience to passengers in the event of a ground fault. depending on the type and nature of the nonlinear loads(s).2 Fourwire Distribution Systems On large passenger liners. resulting in: • • • • • Overloaded and overheating neutral conductors Overheated delta winding in distribution transformers High groundtoneutral voltages Distortion of voltage waveform (flat topping) Poor power factor As can be seen in Section 4. In a threewire balanced system. Figure 1. which can carry up to 173% of phase current. unlike the fourwire system detailed below. The frequency of the neutral current is predominately 180 Hz (for 60 Hz supplies) and mainly 3rd harmonic and other triplens. In threewire systems. in distribution systems with nonlinear or mixed linear and nonlinear loads. due to. other harmonic currents will be present in the system.SECTION 4 Sources of Harmonics Many types of electrical and electronic equipment which are adversely affected by harmonic voltages and currents also produce them in varying degrees. 11th. it is now relatively common to use fourwire systems [i.. Figure 2). however. 7th.e. their phase sequence is determined by the phase angle of the 3rd harmonic current (and other triplens) and its current magnitude in each of the three phases. These harmonics will be very similar to those described for fourwire systems but with no 3rd harmonic present.1 Distribution Systems with Singlephase Nonlinear Loads Threewire Distribution Systems Threewire. the current on one phase will not have a “pulse” on either of the two other phases with which to cancel with (see Section 4. If they do exist. for example. 2006 55 . IT power systems with insulated neutrals) are one of the common types of systems used on vessels for distribution due to the ease of locating and rectifying ground faults and for security of supply of essential equipment during ground faults. 1. including DC and even orders.. including lighting. semiconductor power conversion or magnetic saturation in the case of transformers.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 1 Fourwire System Linear Phase Currents Return via Neutral Conductor where Balanced Phase Current Cancel Out FIGURE 2 Triplen Harmonics Add Up Cumulatively in Neutral Conductors with Singlephase Nonlinear Loads in Fourwire System 56 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 .
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . nonlinear loads is often underestimated. This produces considerable harmonic currents at characteristic frequencies. Figure 4 displays the harmonic spectrum associated with the fourwire system neutral current waveform illustrated in Section 4. fluorescent lighting. Figure 3. lighting dimmers.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics Section 4. computers. Figure 3 illustrates an example of a neutral current waveform on a fourwire installation with a large number of singlephase nonlinear loads. FIGURE 3 Neutral Current due to Triplen Harmonics (150 Hz for 50 Hz Supply) on Fourwire System Sectoin 4. FIGURE 4 Harmonic Spectrum Associated with Neutral Current Waveform Shown in Figure 3 The importance of large numbers of singlephase. UPS systems. Note the presence of 3rd and 9th (triplen harmonics) and relatively low level of fundamental current. 2006 57 . Large vessels such as cruise ships have large hotel loads often comprising large number of televisions. small singlephase cooling fan variable frequency drives and other nonlinear loads.
televisions and video recorders.1 Computerbased Equipment The majority of computerbased equipment. Other significant nonlinear singlephase loads include singlephase variable speed drives. these types of loads usually are not problematic. However. UPS systems. Figure 6 with a typical harmonic current spectrum illustrated in Section 4. 58 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . In small numbers. such as cruise liners. FIGURE 5 Typical Switched Mode Power Supply for Computer Based Equipment As described in Section 2. these loads can be significant. below. Figure 7. The low voltage supplies. The low voltage supplies are important since the sensitive equipment is connected to it. the amount of fourwire (singlephase) nonlinear load can also be significant. 2006 . for example navigation and control systems. lighting dimmers. creating substantial voltage distortion on the fourwire distribution system and with possible additional overloading of the neutral conductors. 2. fed via distribution transformers. thus maintaining the safety of the vessel and the operational integrity and reliability of connected equipment. Appropriate harmonic mitigation may be necessary on distribution systems to reduce the voltage distortion to within permissible levels. Typical resultant current and voltage waveforms are illustrated in Section 4. have relatively high source impedance resulting in significant distortion of the voltage waveform.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics On nonpassenger vessels. have switched mode power supply (SMPS) units similar to that depicted in Section 4. Figure 5. on large cruise liners. the SMPS unit only draws current from the supply when the rectified voltage is greater than the DC bus voltage. 2 Singlephase Nonlinear Loads Computerbased equipment and fluorescent lighting represent substantial loading on marine and offshore fourwire distribution systems. especially on larger vessels.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 6 Typical Voltage and Current Waveforms Associated with a Switched Mode Power Supply FIGURE 7 Harmonic Current Spectrum of Typical Switched Mode Power Supply Ithd is 128% Typical Switched Mode Power Supply Current Spectrum Percentage harmonic current distortion 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Harmonic No As can be seen from Section 4. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . as illustrated in Section 4. Figure 8. Note that the frequency of the neutral current depicted in Section 4. 21st) harmonics are generated. which add due to other nonlinear singlephase loads in the neutral conductor in fourwire systems. 9th 15th. 2006 59 . Figure 7. Figure 8 is 180 Hz (60 Hz fundamental). significant odd zero sequence triplen harmonics (3rd.
3% 60 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . As an example. Section 4. The total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) and harmonic current spectrum of fluorescent lighting is dependent on the type of ballast employed. The latter utilizes a switched mode power supply to convert the fundamental frequency to a higher frequency. using both magnetic and electronic ballasts are illustrated below. Once the arc is initiated and the current increases. the voltage reduces. essentially a transformer combined with a capacitor. Figures 9 and 10. usually around 2540 kHz. After.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 8 Typical Neutral Current due to Triplen Harmonics in Connected Loads on a Fourwire System 2. and the newer electronic ballast. depict an electrical load wholly comprising fluorescent lighting with magnetic ballasts and T12 lamps.2 Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent lighting represents substantial loading on marine and offshore fourwire distribution systems. initiating the high voltage. Fluorescent lights are classed as discharge lamps as they need a “ballast” to initiate the high voltage between the two electrodes in order to facilitate current flow. Two types of ballast are in use.9% and for the neutral current. the iron cored magnetic ballast. The total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) for phase currents was 13. 2006 . below. for comparison purposes. especially larger vessels such as cruise liners. the ballast also provides a measure of current limiting for the light fitting. the phase voltage. 141. phase current and neutral current waveforms associated with distribution panels supplying wholly fluorescent lighting. A small inductor is also used in the electronic type to limit the current.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 9 Waveforms for Lighting Panel Comprising Fluorescent Lighting with Magnetic Ballasts and T12 Lamps FIGURE 10 Neutral Current Waveform on Distribution Panel with Fluorescent Lighting with Magnetic Ballasts and T12 Lamps on a Fourwire System Similarly. Figures 11 and 12. 85. The total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) for phase currents was 17. depict the same lighting panel with electrical load wholly comprising fluorescent lighting with electronic ballasts and T8 lamps. 2006 61 . ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Section 4.2% and for the neutral current. below.3%.
The resultant Ithd for the phase currents for magnetic and electronic ballasts were 12. respectively. the difference in Ithd for magnetic and electronic ballasts was more significant.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 11 Same Lighting Panel as per Figure 9. In the neutral conductors. fluorescent lighting with electronic ballast have significantly less triplen harmonics (3rd. but with Electronic Ballasts (Instead of Magnetic Types) and T8 Lamps FIGURE 12 Neutral Current Waveform on Same Fluorescent Lighting Panel as Figure 10. 2006 . electronic ballasts have an increased harmonic spectrum up to around the 33rd harmonic.2% and 44%. However. but with Electronic Ballasts and T8 Lamps on Fourwire System As can be seen with reference to Section 4. 62 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . as can also be seen. respectively. Figures 13 and 14. at 171. 9th…) than magnetic types. The use of electronic ballast would. significantly reduce the triplen harmonics produced and carried by the neutral conductor although would slightly increase the phase current distortion. from this example.3%.8% and 16. which suggests that the additive effect in the neutral conductor discussed earlier will be significantly reduced.
8% and 16. 2006 63 . Respectively Fluorescent Lighting Com parison .Phase Current Spectrum Percentage Harmonic Current Distortion 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 Harm onic No Magnetic Electronic FIGURE 14 Comparison of Neutral Current Harmonic Spectrum for Magnetic and Electronic Ballasts for Typical Fluorescent Lighting Distribution Panel Ithd was 171.Neutral Current Spectrum Percentage Harmonic Current Distortion 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 18 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 Harm onic No Magnetic Electronic ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .28% and 44%.3%. Respectively Fluorescent Lighting Comparison .Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 13 Comparison of Phase Current Harmonic Spectrum for Magnetic and Electronic Ballasts for Typical Fluorescent Lighting Distribution Panel Ithd was 12.
4 Singlephase AC PWM Drives Singlephase AC drives. 2006 . Figures 17 and 18. On large installations. Note that these results are similar to those produced by singlephase UPS. this would result in high neutral currents (as the triplens are additive). 64 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 4 Sources of Harmonics 2.7 kW for applications such as cabin fan drives. FIGURE 15 Television – Typical Current Waveform FIGURE 16 Television – Typical Harmonic Current Spectrum 2. respectively. Section 4. as can be appreciated with reference to Section 4. resulting in an Ithd up to 135%.3 Televisions Section 4. Figure 18 depicts a large triplen component. commonly used up to 5 HP/3. usually have no additional reactance fitted. Figures 15 and 16 illustrate the current waveform and harmonic current spectrum. from a typical television.
produce harmonics. transformers also produce harmonics. “Linear” equipment. a common type of threephase nonlinear load is variable speed drives. such as rotating machines (generators and motors). These items of equipment will be mentioned briefly in Subsections 4/1 and 4/2. 2006 65 . In addition.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 17 Singlephase AC PWM Drive – Typical Ithd is 135% FIGURE 18 Singlephase AC PWM Drive Current Spectrum 3 Threephase Nonlinear Loads Onboard ship or on offshore installations. The harmonics produced by these nonlinear items will be discussed in Subsections 4/3 and 4/4. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . either AC or DC. UPS systems and shaft generators both also produce harmonic currents. although relatively minor in magnitude compared to nonlinear loads.
With the shunt field current at constant maximum value. the configuration of the SCR drive converter is the same for each type. the application of which specific type is dependent on the necessary speed/torque characteristic of the given duty. below. Thus. Section 4. Figure 19. drilling rigs and offshore installations. 2006 . drawworks motors. and similarly. This is achieved by modifying the delay angle of the SCRs over a 120degree angle (the first 30 deg and final 30 deg of the theoretical 180degree conduction period cannot be utilized for commutation reasons). Common applications included windlasses. Figure 20. La and Ra are the armature inductance and resistance. Speed above “base speed” is achievable by maintaining the armature voltage at a maximum value and then reducing the shunt field current. Therefore. Figure 19) depicts a shuntwound motor with separatelyexcited field. winches. propulsion motors. Note: This concept can also be applied to AC PWM drives and induction motors (see 4/3. mud pumps. DC motors are available in various designs. DC SCR drives were a common choice for low to medium power electrical variable speed duties on ships.1 DC SCR drives Up until some 510 years ago.2 on AC PWM drives). etc. As can be seen with reference to Section 4.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics 3. shuntwound and a number of derivatives of compoundwound. the power of the motor is directly proportional to the applied voltage (less armature reaction). Operation above base speed is in the constant power region since the power is constant. 66 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the DC converter comprises six SCR drives (thyristors) in a full wave bridge configuration with a separatelyexcited shunt field fed by a full wave diode bridge (note – this can be single. the motor speed can be controlled up to “base speed” (based on maximum field flux) using “armature voltage control”. illustrates the concepts of constant torque and constant power. but the available flux hence torque is inversely proportional to speed. as the torque is constant while the power rises in direct proportion to speed. This is termed the “constant torque region”. respectively. In this region. FIGURE 19 Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive with Shuntwound DC Motor La Rf T1 a AC Supply b c T4 T6 T2 D2 T3 T5 D1 D3 Separately Excited DC Motor Field D4 Lf Ra + DC Motor Armature − The above illustration (Section 4. cranes. one of the common types of DC motor in general use. However. Lf and Rf are the shunt field inductance and resistance. including serieswound. and hence speed. (hence maximum field flux).or twophase supplies). the use of a variable SCRbased field weakening controller is necessary. the speed (and torque) of the DC motor can be controlled infinitely by varying the mean output voltage from the DC converters applied to the DC motor armature. hence flux. below.
if the DC motor is supplying an overhauling load (i. Figure 21) are capable of “four quadrant operation” [i. DC motors fitted with dual converters (Section 4. for applications where minimizing noise levels is important (e. In these circumstances.e. The DC motor voltage is therefore limited to a maximum conduction angle of 90 degrees. “commutating reactors” have been used to reduce both the line notching and attenuate the harmonic currents. dump the excess electrical energy which has been converted from kinetic energy during the braking process into the supply) due to the blocking action of the SCRs.. thus maintaining a stable area of the operation without the potential of losing control of the DC motor. However. however. Figure 21. These are recommended for all DC drives. In the four quadrant DC drive system depicted in Section 4. Figure 22. They cannot brake regeneratively (i.. fishery survey vessels). one that feeds converted kinetic energy into the drive) the load current will remain in the same direction but the DC voltage will be reversed.. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .g.. motoring and braking (generating)] in both directions of rotation as illustrated in Section 4. 2006 67 . However. additional DC side inductors are often used.e. the DC converter voltage opposes the DC voltage back EMF. Most DC motors have sufficient inherent inductance to facilitate rapid current reversal during braking and reversal.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 20 Concept of “Constant Torque” and “Constant Power” with DC Shuntwound Motors DC motors with single converters can drive in the forward direction and need either field reversal or armature voltage reversal in order to drive in the reverse direction.e.
A typical current waveform and harmonic current spectrum at rated load are illustrated in Section 4.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 21 Typical Dual Converter for DC Shuntwound Motor FIGURE 22 Concept of “Four Quadrant Control” for DC Motors and Dual Converters The harmonic currents produced by DC SCR drives are a function of the pulse number (“pulse number ± 1”. so for 6pulse. respectively. 13th…) and the delay angle of the SCRs at a particular operating point as described in Section 6. 7th. 11th. The harmonic currents will be at a maximum value at full load. 68 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 5th. 2006 . Figure 23 and 24.
Note that as the drive input rectifier is SCR based. “The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Distortion”.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 23 Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive Current Waveform at 100% Load FIGURE 24 Harmonic Current Spectrum of Typical 6Pulse DC SCR Drive at Rated Load 6 pulse DC SCR drive 30 Total percentage harmonic current distortion 25 20 15 10 5 0 5th 7th 19th 23th 25th 29th 49th 11th 13th 17th 31th 35th 37th 47th 43rd 41st Harmonic For the relationship between the magnitude of the harmonic currents produced and the drive loading. For further information on line notching. the input displacement power factor will vary as a function of the delay angle of the SCRs. please refer to Section 6. Due to the use of phasecontrolled SCRs (thyristors) line notching will also be present. please refer to Section 2). ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 69 .
a singlephase AC PWM would be “2pulse” due to having one rectified peak per positive and negative half cycle. below. Motors on quadratic duties (centrifugal pumps and fans) rarely need to be derated. Once the DC bus is fully charged. the SCRs act as diodes (i. FIGURE 25 Typical AC PWM Drive Block Diagram 3 Phase AC Supply × × × Diode Rectifier ID VD PWM Inverter AC Motor M ~ Control Circuits With reference to Section 4. a diode full wave bridge has been used. in the early days of PWM drives (mid 1980s). Often special high temperature grease was necessary. offshore and general industrial applications for low to medium power applications. However. After rectification. However.. NEMA C and D designs) tended to significantly rise in temperature when on variable frequency supplies due to considerably increased iron losses. Similarly. but in larger drives (i.e. reducing the need for derating. Figure 25.g. and the effects of the often harmonicallyrich output waveforms had to be taken into account with regard to the level of motor thermal derating.2 AC PWM drives AC voltagefed pulse width modulated (PWM) drives are a commom type of electrical variable drive used today in marine. according to the speed range driven load torque characteristic. Figure 25. the motor industry took up the challenges in the mid 1990s and currently produces squirrel cage motors more suitable for variable frequency drive operation. they are no longer controlled). bearing lubrication was also a problem. A block diagram configuration of a typical AC PWM drive is shown in Section 4. In this instance. the DC voltage is smoothed by the action of the DC bus capacitors. one peak for each of the positive and negative half cycles of the rectified threephase input waveform. SCR “precharge” front ends are used to “soft start” the DC bus to minimize any inrush current. Rotor design was also an important factor.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics 3. as double cage and deep bar rotors (e. Presently. copper losses and skin effect. motor cooling options (for large motors) include forced cooling and water cooling.e. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . high level of dv/dt on motor winding insulation and torque production at low frequencies and bearing currents (more applicable on large machines). and thereby reducing the necessary motor frame size and rating of the AC PWM drive. Some large motors had to be fitted with copper rotors due to the increased heating. squirrel cage induction motors are generally designed for pure sinusoidal supplies.. With hot rotors. subject of course to the necessary thermal derating (TEFC squirrel cage motors in constant torque applications usually still need to be derated according to the speed range).. thus the term “6pulse drive”. The benefit of being able to control standard squirrel cage induction motors was significant. above 40 HP/30 kW). The resultant voltage output from the input bridge is in the form of DC voltage with six peaks. 2006 70 . the incoming threephase supply is rectified by the input (or “front end”) rectifier.
The “intermediate” (i. As can be seen from Section 4.. Power is only drawn from the mains supply when the DC bus voltages falls below that of rectified AC mains level.e. Section 4. 2006 71 . Figure 26. below.. The inverter bridge. A constant voltage/frequency (V/F) is needed to maintain the desired level of torque in the driven induction motor.e. the input bridge rectifies the threephase voltage supply which is further smoothed by the DC bus capacitors. usually comprises insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). which act as a power storage unit.g. FIGURE 26 Pulsed Nature of AC PWM Drive Input Current While the operation of the “front end” of an AC PWM drive is relatively simple. Figure 25. the transfer of current from one device to another). the operation of the output (or “inverter”) bridge is more complex..Section 4 Sources of Harmonics An AC PWM drive operates similarly to a switched mode power supply. only being recharged as necessary. hence the pulse nature of the input current. depicts a typical IGBT out rectifier. The diodes across the IGBT devices are termed “flywheel diodes” and are in the circuit to assist commutation (i. Figure 27. controls both the output voltage and the output frequency. for 480 V AC mains the DC bus would be in the order of 648 V DC). The DC bus voltage is in the order of 1. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . The DC bus voltage is maintained at a constant level.35 × the AC LL rms voltage level (e. between the input and output bridges) DC bus serves as a reservoir of energy. as shown in Section 4. especially from the control aspect.
Since that time. FIGURE 28 Basic Principle of Pulse Width Modulation 72 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . The basic principle of pulse width modulation can be seen with reference to Section 4. Figure 28. 2006 . the various PWM strategies have been improved significantly such that present series of drives usually have output current waveforms (i.. below. not the output voltage) which are relatively sinusoidal. This was achieved due to a combination of PWM techniques and advances in fast power semiconductors such as IGBTs. to the motor.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 27 Typical AC PWM Drive Output (Inverter) Bridge Configuration Pulse width modulation control strategies were introduced in the early 1980s to overcome the heating and torque pulsations of the then “square wave drives” (also known as “quasisquare wave” or “six step drives”).e. especially the low order harmonics. The purpose was to reduce the output harmonics.
but in this instance. the sinusoidal reference waveform is shifted by 180 degrees. the V/F ratio would be approximately 240 V/30 Hz).. It is also possible to operate an AC PWM drive and squirrel cage induction motor similarly. Figure 28(d). In 4/3. However. the voltage VAN is switched high whenever the sinusoidal reference voltage is larger than the triangular waveform. The current which the motor “sees” also approximates a sine wave in nature. Figure 28(b). Figure 28(a). at 50% output frequency on 480 V supplies. therefore only the frequency is increased. The effect of high speed on the bearings and lubrication are also often a factor regarding the maximum frequency of operation. which is the difference between waveforms VAN and VBN. as will be shown in Section 4. The result is a phasetophase voltage waveform as depicted by Section 4. the torque availability with AC PWM drives reduces with increased output frequency above base speed and limits the maximum frequency achievable. FIGURE 29a AC Motor/PWM Drives Standard Speed/Torque Characteristics ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Figure 28(d). It is the rms value of this voltage which the motor “sees”. In Section 4. Figures 29a and b.e.1 on DC SCR drives. This is compared to a sinusoidal reference waveform (shown as “reference wave”) whose frequency and output are proportional to the desired output waveform. which is a series of voltage pulses whose width is related to the magnitude of the sinusoidal reference waveform at a particular instance in time. in Section 4. Similarly. a sawtooth waveform (shown as “triangle wave”) is produced by the control system based on the desired switching frequency. similar to DC drives. Up to base speed (i. the voltage would be seen to be approximately sinusoidal with zero crossovers as per the PWM waveform.g. 2006 73 . the motor’s natural synchronous speed) the AC drive maintains a constant voltage/frequency ratio (e.. the possibility of operating the DC motor above base speed was described. If this rms voltage was superimposed on the waveform in Section 4. below. it is usually not possible to increase the output voltage. Above base speed. Figure 28(c).Section 4 Sources of Harmonics As illustrated in Section 4. VBN is controlled in a similar manner by the triangular waveform.
“vector control”) and “direct torque control” (DTC). the motor has to be thermally derated for constant torque duty. Additional reactance. illustrates the input current and voltage waveforms from a 150 HP (110 kW) AC PWM drive with 3% DC bus reactance running at rated load. such as “field vector orientation” (i. The harmonic currents produced by AC PWM drives are dependent on the pulse number (with 6pulse drives being the most popular) and whether any additional reactance has been installed in the drive (see Section 10. the harmonic currents and input waveforms will be similar to those described in 4/3. a 6pole motor operated at 990 Hz in order to obtain a 10:1 speed range at constant torque plus 40% higher starting torque) or with nonstandard winding configurations (e. Section 4. as the input bridge and DC bus architecture of these drives are almost identical to that of PWM drives. It is possible. “Mitigation of Harmonics”). The total harmonic current distortion was measured at 39. below. both of which provide enhanced motor performance. either in the AC line or in the DC bus serves additional purposes other than harmonic attenuation and is commonly fitted to drives above 10 HP (7.23% (without the DC bus reactor the Ithd would be approximately 67%).g. Section 4.. Figure 29a. 2006 . Note: Other AC voltagefed drive output waveform control technologies exist. 74 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 29b AC Motor/PWM Drives Standard Speed/Power Characteristics As can be seen in Section 4. akin to flux control in DC motors. Information on how the harmonic current varies with load can be found in Section 6. to use motors with higher pole numbers (e. Figure 30. however. However.. Figure 31 depicts the harmonic current spectrum associated with this particular drive.g. 587 Hz on 50 Hz mains for 17:1 speed range at constant torque).5 kW).e. These types are also used in marine and offshore applications.2 on AC PWM drives..
23% 150HP 6 pulse AC PWM drive .23% FIGURE 31 Harmonic Current Spectrum of 150 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% DC Bus Reactor – Ithd = 39.39. 2006 75 .23% Ithd 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5th 7th 19th 23th 25th 29th 49th 11th 13th 17th 31th 35th 37th 47th 43rd 41st Total percentage harmonic current distortion Harmonic ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 30 Input Current – 150 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% DC Bus Reactor – Ithd = 39.
Vs is the input voltage at frequency f1. Figure 32.3 AC Cycloconverter Drives Cycloconverters are a common form of electrical variable speed drive in the higher power range and. 76 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . as such. below. which often negates the use of gearboxes for final speed reduction with the ability to provide full fourquadrant control with high torque and high dynamic response. the operation of a cycloconverter is complex with both positive and negative bridges necessary per motor phase. In this example. as shown in Section 4. In order to achieve. steel works and coal mine winders. When used to control the rotor of a wound rotor induction motor. Figure 33(b). Unlike other forms of AC drives. In power conversion terms. it is assumed that the SCRs are acting as diodes with α = 0 degrees firing angle. Note that αp and αn are termed the firing angles of the positive and negative bridges.g. Refer to Section 4. for example AC PWM drives and load commutated inverters (LCI). Cycloconverters are characterized by having a maximum output frequency of 33% of the input frequency.. the cycloconverter is termed a “static Scherbius” drive. respectively. below: FIGURE 32 SinglephasetoSinglephase Cycloconverter As illustrated in Section 4. Figure 32. Cycloconverters have been in operation since the 1930s (then based on mercury arc rectifiers) on applications such as railway transportation.. both of which have an intermediate stage (i. for example.e. In order to briefly describe the operation of cycloconverters.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics 3. the cycloconverter is a direct conversion drive which converts one frequency to another without the need for an intermediate stage. an output frequency of 25% of the input frequency (e. 2006 . are used for main propulsion drives. it is necessary to consider the operation of a singlephasetosinglephase device with full wave rectifiers and a resistive load. 15 Hz output for an input of 60 Hz) the positive bridge supplies current to the load for the first two cycles of Vs as it rectifies the incoming AC voltage Vs into four positive half cycles as illustrated. DC bus) to facilitate dual conversion [AC to DC and DC to AC].
.... Note that cycloconverters can be used for “step up” operation as well as “step down” operation.. α... although the latter is considerably more common.. with variable firing angle During the next two cycles of Vs [Section 4....... Output voltage... Vo.... the negative converter supplies current to the load in the reverse direction.. It will have the same waveshape as the voltage).Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 33 Waveforms for SinglephasetoSinglephase Conversion (a) (b) (c) (d) Input voltage Output voltage..1) input rms voltage DC output voltage The DC output voltage per half cycle is shown dotted in Section 4. Vo.. Vo.............. Figure 33(b) is 25% of the input voltage Vs (i... in Section 4. Figure 33(c)]........ can be varied by adjusting the number of cycles the positive and negative converters operate. The singlephasesinglephase cycloconverter can also supply a voltage based on firing angle. the output frequency can be varied (i..e. Vo....... ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .... fo/f1 = 1/4).......... The output frequency.. the frequency of the output voltage.. Figure 33 as being wholly resistive..... with firing angle π/3 rad. In the configuration above... The DC output of each bridge would be: Vd = where V Vd Note: 2 2 π = = V cos α . 2006 77 . Figure 33(d)... fo...... (Note that the current waveform is not depicted in Section 4.......... for 0 deg firing angle Output voltage. As can be seen above. (4............... when one bridge is operating.. up to a maximum of onethird the input frequency)..e.. As can be seen in the above example...... the other is disabled or “blocked”....
in addition. The characteristic that a synchronous motor can draw variable levels of power factor from a converter is ideally suited to the cycloconverters... Figure 33(d).g. the motor needs the magnitude of the fundamental rms voltage to be continuous at all times...Section 4 Sources of Harmonics The peak fundamental output voltage will be: v01 (t ) = where V V0 = = input rms voltage peak fundamental voltage 4 2 2 π π V cos α . 78 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . it follows that the fundamental output voltage v0 is dependent on firing angle. the respective bridge previously supplying the current is disabled and the other bridge is enabled in order to reverse the current (e.. the square waves shown in Section 4. For example..... each phase displaced by 2π/3 radians (120 degrees). There are certain advantages.. as illustrated in Section 4.... This would serve to reduce the output harmonics and supply a better waveshape to the motor. and that consequently... When the polarity of the load current changes..... It must be noted the positive bridge can only supply positive current and the negative bridge can only supply negative current. Figure 34 shows a typical threephase cycloconverter with three bridges........ as illustrated in Section 4.. In addition.. when operating with synchronous motors due to the machine’s output power factor characteristics.. For α = 0 degrees: V01 = Vdo × 1 = Vdo where v01 = 4 2 2 π π V cos α . whose input displacement power factor is always lagging........ so during current reversal.... The above is a simplistic explanation regarding the basic theory of cycloconverters... whereas induction motors can only draw lagging current. However.. if α is increased to π/3 radians... lagging or unity power factor loads.... however.. Figure 33(b) and (c) would be modified to approximate a sine wave by sinusoidally modulating the firing angle α..... Both positive and negative bridges can therefore supply voltages of either positive or negative polarity. results in a very crude output waveform with considerable harmonic content.. The output voltages produced by cycloconverters have a high harmonic content which can be reduced by careful systemization of the bridge(s) firing angle algorithms.... can supply leading.. Section 4...... 2006 . Please note that operation with a constant firing angle..... the average rms voltage supplied by both bridges are “forced” to be of the same magnitude in order to prevent voltage jumps and current “spikes” occurring. α..2) Therefore... the cycloconverter can operate in all four quadrants. In reality.... depending on the necessary duty at any instance in time. then output voltage V01 = Vdo 0.......... cycloconverters can be used with both synchronous and squirrel cage induction machines..5. Cycloconverters... Figure 33(d). (4..... attenuate a measure of lower order harmonics due to their inherent leakage reactance... However. absorb) the majority of higher order harmonics and.. Section 4...... α..... AC synchronous and squirrel cage induction motors normally filter (i.. Figure 34 shows a typical 6pulse cycloconverter connected to a starconnected induction motor.. from rectification to inversion). the polarity of the current determines which converter supplies the load at that instance... As mentioned previously.e.
to form a “circulating current mode” converter. Unlike the “blocking mode” converter. when the current decays to zero. During this delay time period. There advantages and disadvantages of both types. as shown by Section 4. standard cycloconverters are usually designed in two formats. “blocking mode” or “circulating current mode” converters. below. Figure 35. awaiting reversal. both bridges (per phase) are disabled. in the “circulating current mode” converter. To avoid this. an “intergroup reactor” can be connected between the two bridges (per phase). In the blocking mode type. If both bridges were operating simultaneously. Blocking mode converters do not need large intergroup reactors and are therefore physically smaller and less expensive that the circulating current type. one bridge is disabled or “blocked” while the other is operating. both bridges are enabled during current reversal.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 34 Threephase 6Pulse Cycloconverter Since current reversal is necessary. However. This circulating current is unidirectional due to the blocking action of the other SCR bridge. It is therefore necessary to program complex harmonic elimination patterns into the firing control software to minimize the level of distortion. as the name implies. a short circuit would occur across the supply. with both bridges enabled when running. thus allowing a circulating current to flow between the bridges and the load. The current reversal process also introduces added complexity into the firing and protection control systems. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Most circulating current cycloconverters operate in a circulating current mode. the current distorts the voltage and current waveforms. In the “blocking mode” cycloconverters. 2006 79 . the blocking mode converter is more efficient (as only one bridge operates at any one time).
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 35 Simplified Connection of Intergroup Reactor on One Phase of Circulating Current Cycloconverters The waveforms associated with blocking mode cycloconverters are shown below in Section 4. 2006 . Figure 36. FIGURE 36 Waveforms for Blocking Mode Cycloconverters (a) (b) (c) Positive bridge output voltage Negative bridge output voltage Load (motor) voltage 80 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
the other is inverting (DCAC). In reality. however. containing fewer harmonics. Note that if the output voltage from both bridges were sinusoidal. When operating unidirectionally. control is simplified. and the intergroup reactor is necessary to facilitate operation. When one bridge is converting (ACDC). Similarly. than the blocking mode type. both bridges operate simultaneously with fundamental rms output voltages of similar magnitudes. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the other bridge is disabled. but it has the advantage of reduced inherent distortion around zero current permitting less complex firing control compared to the standard blocking mode converter. weight and cost associated with the intergroup reactor. FIGURE 37 Waveforms for Circulating Current Mode Cycloconverters (a) (b) (c) (d) Positive bridge output voltage Negative bridge output voltage Load (motor) voltage Intergroup reactor voltage The circulating current cycloconverters normally have a smoother output voltage waveform. Due to the lack of current reversal complications associated with the blocking mode converter. Figure 37. are depicted in Section 4. when the reversed current increases above the predetermined level. this is not the case. The main disadvantage of the circulating current type is the additional size. only one bridge is enabled. The waveforms associated with a circulating current cycloconverter and also the voltage waveform across the intergroup reactor. however. both bridges are enabled and a smooth reversal of current occurs. 2006 81 . The efficiency is still less than the blocking mode type. hybrids have been developed which can provide the advantages of both types. which is the instantaneous potential difference between the two bridges.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics In the circulating current cycloconverters. One example has architecture similar to a circulating current mode converter but with a much reduced intergroup reactor. however. there would be zero circulating current as the instantaneous potential difference between the two bridges would be zero. When the motor current reverses and decreases below a predetermined level. However.
Section 4 Sources of Harmonics Cycloconverter input current characteristics and associated harmonic content are complex and dependent on a number of factors. Figure 38(b) the harmonic current frequency spectrum associated with a 20 MW (26. Figure 38(a) illustrates the input current waveform and Section 4. Multipulse drives. 6pulse drives are not common. Figure 39 shows a 12pulse cycloconverter operating with a threephase synchronous motor with the rotor field current controlled by a separate 6pulse. Section 4. 2006 . 12Pulse Cycloconverter 82 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . are the norm to minimize the input harmonic currents and associated disruption of the power supply system. 12Pulse Cycloconverter FIGURE 38b Harmonic Current Frequency Spectrum Associated with a 20 MW. including 12pulse. including: • • • • • The pulse number of the cycloconverters The relative magnitude of the output fundamental voltage The ratio of the input and output frequencies The displacement power factor of the load The firing control strategy In applications with large drives. Section 4. FIGURE 38a Input Current Associated with a 20 MW. fullycontrolled rectifier.810 HP) 12pulse cycloconverter.
........................... due to supply unbalance......... (4...... 2........ a number............. Figure 40 (and to an extent.......... (4................. 1............. it should be noted that each characteristic integer harmonic has a so called “side band” of interharmonics associated with it. 0.... 2006 83 ............... cycloconverters often produce.... Therefore............. uncharacteristic harmonics (including even order and triplen harmonics) in addition to significant magnitudes of interharmonics..... ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ......... 3.................. the attenuation of these interharmonics is often more difficult than the reduction of the integer harmonic currents.......4) where both n and k are integer numbers........ 2… With reference to Section 4... Indeed....... The characteristic harmonics generated by cycloconverters are: fh = (pm ± 1)f ± 6nfo .... This is a result of the modulation of the constant input current frequency with the varying output motor frequency. both the fundamental current and the characteristic harmonic currents are accompanied by additional harmonic components of frequencies based on: f = n ⋅ fL ± k ⋅ 6 ⋅ fM ..3) where fo fh m n = = = = output frequency harmonic current frequency a number..... Section 4.... 1.......Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 39 2Pulse Cycloconverter with Threephase Synchronous Motor In addition to the production of standard “pulse number ± 1” harmonic currents................ Figure 38)..........
4 AC Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) “Load commutated inverters”. it facilitates transfer of current from one phase to another). their use has diminished due to availability of the less expensive and physically smaller AC PWM drives. FIGURE 40 Harmonic Spectrum of 12Pulse Cycloconverters Including Interharmonic Sidebands 3. common in industrial applications where squirrel cage induction motors (rated 600HP/450 kW and above). as depicted in Section 4. below. It is characterized by a large inductor included in the DC bus. Figure 41. However. 84 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .e. including the interharmonics. also known as “current source inverters” (CSIs) were. so called due to the fact that the motor current commutates the inverter bridge (i. cycloconverter input harmonic currents..Section 4 Sources of Harmonics As mentioned previously. often employing high pass harmonic filters instead of conventional power factor correction capacitor banks. it has an “inductive DC bus”). so the harmonic spectrum constantly changes with output frequency. for many years. for example: centrifugal pumps and fan loads where high starting torque is not needed. tend to vary according to the operating point. Section 4. 2006 . Note: Cycloconverters generate significant amounts of reactive power which often have to be compensated for. whereas AC PWM drives have a “capacitive DC bus”. due to the presence of the large capacitor bank.e. The load commutated inverter (LCI).. These high pass filters act as a low impedance path for higher order harmonic currents in addition to providing compensation for the reactive power at fundamental frequencies. Figure 40 depicts a typical 12pulse cycloconverter harmonic (including interharmonics) current spectrum. Load commutated inverters are known as “constant current” drives due to the action of the large DC bus inductor (i.
so forced commutation is necessary to transfer current through the motor phases.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 41 Typical 6Pulse ASCI CSI Inverter with a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor As can be seen from Section 4. termed “commutation spikes”. was the “autosequentially commutated inverter” (ASCI). Another common inverter bridge configuration. FIGURE 42 Output Voltage Commutation Spikes – CSI with Squirrel Cage Induction Motor ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . as illustrated below. the use of this configuration has diminished due to the AC PWM drives. this commutation process results in transient overvoltages. The squirrel cage induction motor has a lagging power factor. The output or “inverter” bridge controls the output frequency to the motor. In recent years. being superimposed on the output voltage waveform. used mainly with squirrel cage induction motors. as shown in Section 4. Figure 41. the load current source inverter comprises a fully controlled SCR input bridge which varies the input DC voltage and a large inductor which converts the variable DC voltage into a current source. However. Figure 42. 2006 85 .
therefore a special output filter (which supplies a leading power factor to the inverter) is selected which supplies the commutating current up to around 50% of output frequency. compared to motors for AC PWM drives or for sinusoidal supplies. if squirrel cage motors are to be operated at higher voltages. has to operate with a leading power factor and also needs a special excitation circuit for the rotor. below. rate of rise of voltage associated with commutation spikes).e. then special measures are necessary so that commutation is provided by the load.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics Careful design of the squirrel cage motor and the ASCI circuit is necessary to minimize the commutation spikes. Above 50% output frequency. the majority of which are within the withstand capability of modern LV motors. which provide the commutation current for the converter (hence the term “load commutated inverter”) via the back EMF of the motor. to assist commutation. 86 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . FIGURE 43 12Pulse Load Commutated Inverter with Synchronous Motor As described above. load commutated inverters with ASCI inverter bridge configurations result in commutation spikes. 2006 . The motor insulation also has to be capable of withstanding the dv/dt (i. as shown in Section 4. as shown in Section 4. In this example. Figure 44. therefore. the commutation is achieved due to a combination of the output filter and the motor. 12pulse is needed due to the high power necessary. Figure 43. However. The synchronous motor. It is the synchronous motors. Squirrel cage induction motors for use with load commutated inverters need a higher level of magnetizing current. Load commutated inverters are mainly used with synchronous motors. therefore..
FIGURE 45 Output Voltage of LCI with Synchronous Motor or Squirrel Cage Motor with Output Filter ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Figure 45. as associated with ASCI CSIs. such as DC SCR and quasisquare wave drives. 2006 87 .Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 44 12Pulse Load Commutated Inverter with Squirrel Cage Motor and Output Filter As can be seen from Section 4. very similar to that associated with the input of phasecontrolled drives. but does contain notches. the output voltage waveform (for squirrel cage or synchronous motors) does not contain commutation spikes.
Figure 46. as shown below in Section 4.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics One drawback of the load commutated inverter is the difficulty in starting the drive system due to the fact that below around 10% speed there is insufficient back EMF to commutate the inverter bridge. as indicated above. in addition to providing sufficient commutation current for the inverter bridge. the poor dynamic performance. regenerating into the DC bus). In order to satisfy the needs of SCRs regarding turnoff.e. The output current of a LCI is a “six step” square wave. as mentioned above. as shown in Section 4.9. FIGURE 46 Six Step Square Wave Current – LCI with Synchronous Motor The input current wave shape of load commutated inverters. In high power applications. On larger installations. reactive power may be necessary due to the very low power factor at low output frequencies and low loading. The starting torque of load commutated inverterfed squirrel cage motors is poor. the synchronous motor must. which contains significant harmonics. as a method needed for starting. but due to the input SCR bridge. Similarly. Fourquadrant control is inherent in the design. Speed range is usually restricted to 10:1 due to commutation issues but is improved if vector control or a similar strategy is applied.88 – 0. Figure 47. “pulsed mode” operation is necessary. and is also necessary in order to minimize torque pulsations and associated vibration on the motor rotor and driven load. the result of which is additional motor heating and torque fluctuations at low speeds due to the 5th and 7th harmonic currents interacting with the fundamental flux to cause 6th harmonic torque oscillations. unless utilizing vector control or similar control strategies. This entails the reduction of the DC bus current to zero by temporarily operating the inverter bridge in the inversion mode (i. For continuous operation below 10%. Power factor at 100% load/speed is usually around 0. be operated with a leading power factor. thus permitting the SCRs to regain their blocking capability and thereby commutate the motor current and rotate the motor. reduces to zero at very low loads. is very similar to a DC SCR drive of similar pulse number due to the controlled SCR input bridge and DC bus inductance. 2006 . 88 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . results in the LCI being unable to be applied to the more demanding fourquadrant applications. A method known as “DC link pulsing” is necessary to initiate commutation. sixphase motors with one “star” and one “delta” (30degree phase displacement) supplied by two inverter bridges reduce torque fluctuations by 50%.. However. squirrel cage motors need an output filter with leading power factor.
30degree phase displaced. inverters of this type are used when the system voltage is above 1kVand would commonly use multipulse rectifiers at the input to reduce harmonic distortion (12pulse or higher depending on power and supply limitations) and possibly multipulse on the output to reduce the torque ripple on the machine and the load. (Typically. FIGURE 48 Harmonic Spectrum Associated with a 6Pulse Load Commutated Inverter 6 pulse load commutated inverter 25 Total percentage harmonic current distortion 20 15 10 5 0 5th 7th 19th 23th 25th 29th 49th 11th 31th 35th 13th 17th 37th 47th 43rd 41st Harmonic Load commutated inverters are available for large power systems. This permits operation on 6pulse should any converter or a motor winding fail. 2006 89 . Typically. For loads with 35 MW (40007000 HP). two separate converters could supply the motor with either the converters 12pulse or the motor 12pulse. Figure 48. the 6pulse operation is 50% of the rated motor loading). Alternatively. 12pulse via two discrete motor windings. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 47 Input Waveform of 6Pulse Load Commutated Inverter A typical harmonic spectrum associated with a 6pulse load commutated inverter is shown in Section 4.
Unbalance can also produces odd order harmonics. irrespective of type. threephase power transformers are designed with a delta winding or an ungrounded wye (i. the magnitude of harmonics are rarely problematic and are almost negligible compared to harmonics from electronic sources. albeit relatively small in comparison with electronic nonlinear loads such as adjustable speed drives. the generatorinduced harmonics are usually checked for compliance against the relevant standard. the magnitude of harmonic electromotive force (induced voltage) is dependent on the following factors: • • • • The magnitude of the harmonic fluxes The effective phase spread of the winding The coil span Method of interphase connection By careful choice of the above four factors the magnitude of the harmonic EMFs and associated harmonics can be minimized. especially in larger transformers. Transformers when in saturation (i. tend to produce odd order harmonics (5th.. This is especially true if there is a large DC component on the secondary of the transformer. absorbed) due to delta or ungrounded wye configuration.e. squirrel cage and wound rotor) can also result from voltage unbalance.. Triplens are also produced. In synchronous machines. This results in the transformer magnetizing current being nonsinusoidal and containing harmonics. careful design of winding/slot profile) is used to attenuate the 5th and 7th harmonics. but as the inrush time is only a few seconds. the magnetomotive force (MMF) is not evenly distributed. and therefore. The windings of the rotating machines.e.e. In larger machines. can also be considered a source of harmonics.. 90 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . compared to electronic nonlinear loads. if the magnetizing current were sinusoidal. However. such as generators and motors.e. However. distortion will occur which produces harmonics.) although more modern differential protection systems do attempt to compensate and reduce the likelihood of a shutdown. Y or star) connection which acts as a block for 3rd and other zero sequence triplen harmonics. are speed dependent and result from the harmonic content of the MMF distribution within the machine air gap. In order to maintain relatively sinusoidal output voltages. 13th …).Section 4 Sources of Harmonics 4 4. for example if subject to a large increase in voltage. Harmonics produced by induction motors. rotating machine harmonics are relatively small in magnitude and rarely troublesome. As a result. especially 3rd and other triplens. similar to rotating machines. 2006 . does contain relatively large odd order harmonics. it may initiate shutdown of differential protection systems and ultimately.1 Additional Threephase Sources of Harmonics Rotating Machines Linear loads. Harmonic production within induction motors (i. the effects are usually not significant with regard to the harmonic distortion.. overly excited). Conversely. “coil spanning” (i.. 7th. the current would be nonlinear and would contain harmonics. 11th. but are restricted (i. the output voltage would be nonlinear.e.2 Transformers Harmonics are produced by transformers as a result of the nonlinear relationship between voltage and current and the magnetic materials used in manufacture. During testing. 4. the generator(s. It should be noted that if the input voltage was perfectly sinusoidal. However. are embedded into slots within the stator pack. Inrush current.
FIGURE 49 Input Voltage and Current Waveforms of 6Pulse 37.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics 4. 60 Hz UPS FIGURE 50 Harmonic Input Current Spectrum for 6Pulse 37. Dedicated individual computer UPS systems are usually singlephase and have an input current waveshape and harmonic current spectrum similar to that produced by singlephase switched mode power supplies (SMPS). Figure 49.5 kVA. The majority of threephase UPS systems have a controlled.5 kVA.e. below. 60 Hz UPS rated 37. 460 V. Figure 50 depicts the harmonic current spectrum associated with this UPS. 480 V. 2006 91 .5 kVA. Active front ends (i. Section 4. sinusoidal input rectifiers) and 12pulse configurations are also now available which may have better harmonic performance. The Ithd at the input is 19. SCR input bridge rectifier with characteristic harmonics based on the “pulse number ± 1” format. 60 Hz UPS ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Section 4. shows the voltage and current waveforms from a typical threephase 480 V.3 UPS Systems Uninterruptible power supply systems are usually used to provide “secure power” in the event of generator shutdown or other similar power failure.1%.. Threephase UPS systems are also available.
AC line reactor and “synchronous compensator” (also known as a “rotary condenser”). the commutation notches in the output voltage waveform (Section 4. 92 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . a converter with SCR input rectifier. The inverter output voltage waveform consists of both harmonics and line notches and may not be of sufficient quality to supply the load and/or operate in parallel with diesel or other auxiliary generators.4 Shaft Generators Shaft driven generators are sometimes provided. DC bus inductor and SCR inverter bridge. shown in Section 4. 2006 . comprises a synchronous generator. Figure 51.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics 4. necessary to provide commutation current to the inverter. FIGURE 51 Traditional Shaft Generator System In the above example. increasing the notch area. The synchronous compensator’s duties are to start the system by providing the initial starting voltage for the SCR inverter and to provide reactive power and to facilitate commutation of the inverter bridge SCRs. A traditional shaft generator system. but the overlap angle of the output current is increased. The provision of the AC line reactor does serve to reduce the harmonic currents in the output waveform. Figure 52) of the inverter bridge are largely due to the subtransient inductance (Ls″) of the synchronous compensator. as they provide the vessel with electric power when underway while reducing fuel and decreasing operational costs.
However. the object is identical: to minimize the harmonics and notching and to address other power quality concerns. 2006 93 . The low harmonic reactance of the compensator attracts a relatively large degree of harmonic currents which would otherwise be injected into the load.Section 4 Sources of Harmonics FIGURE 52 Inverter Output Voltage Waveform The harmonics produced by the inverter bridge are based on the “pulse number ± 1” format. A 6pulse system would therefore produce characteristic harmonic currents of 5th. The example used was to advise the reader as to the fact that shaft generators. due to their electronic power conversion. therefore the output voltage will also be relatively sinusoidal. such that the output voltage is as sinusoidal as practicable. The induced voltages in the compensator are essentially sinusoidal. Some use doublewound induction motors. 13th…. 7th. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 11th. In addition to providing reactive power and commutation current. the synchronous compensator also provides a measure of harmonic filtering. are a source of harmonics. There are a number of other shaft generator systems in operation which utilize other techniques. others IGBT converters (very similar to AC PWM drives with “active front ends”) or “duplex reactors”.
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... S (kVA) = P 2 + Q 2 = kW 2 + kVAr 2 ..........e........... the vector relationship between voltage and current.......................... 2006 95 ........ (5..... in kW apparent power (kVA) reactive power... can be illustrated with reference to Section 5. (kVAr) 2 Power Factor in Power System with Harmonics In power systems which contain nonlinear loads... it produces useful work)............1) S kVA The apparent power..... cos φ = P kW = .. there are essentially two power factors..2) where P S Q = = = active power (i. the “power factor” (cos φ).. the “displacement power factor” (i. (5.... which is a measure of the power factor of both the fundamental and harmonic components in the power system.........e............SECTION 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor 1 Power Factor in Systems with Linear Loads Only In power systems containing only linear loads.............. the power factor of the fundamental component) and the “true power factor”............. below: FIGURE 1 Power Factor Components in System with Linear Load Where the power factor...... Figure 1. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ........ which produces no useful work.....
................ S kVA kVA 2 The apparent power...................................Section 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor FIGURE 2 Power Factor Components in System with Harmonics With reference to Section 5......................................... the power factor does not equal ≠ )...... cos φ = P kW kW (i... can also be defined as: Q= where ∞ ∞ ∑ h =1 V H rms I H rms sin ϕ h = Q1 + h=2 ∑ Qh ...9) where S1 is the apparent power at the fundamental frequency.....................e. (5.......5) ϕh P0 = = phase angle between voltage and current of individual harmonics DC component of active power fundamental component of active/reactive power respectively active/reactive component of individual harmonics P1/Q1 = Ph/Qh = The apparent power.......4) h=2 ∞ ∞ where φH is the phase of the nth harmonic.................................. P can be calculated using: P= h =0 ∑ Vh I h cos ϕ h = P0 + P1 + ∑ Ph ................3) The active power.......................... Figure 2 above: The power factor.................6) = 2 2 ∑ VH rms I H rms h =1 ∞ ......... 2006 . 96 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...................................... the reactive power......................... (5............................... can also be expressed using the following formulae: S = Vrms ⋅ Irms .................... (5......... S....7) 2 = V1rms I1rms 1 + THDV 1 + THD I2 .......................................................................................................... S(kVA) = P 2 + Q 2 + D 2 = kW 2 + kVAr 2 + kVArH ......... Q................................ (5...................... Similarly........8) 2 = S1 1 + THDV 1 + THD I2 .............................. (5....................... (5... (5.....
... UPS systems) the true power factor will also vary.. will increase the true power factor.... due to changing speed and/or load demands. Active filters are usually rated based on “harmonic cancellation current” [i..... Please note that the majority of utility power factor meters can only read displacement power factor... 2006 97 ........ to prevent a leading power factor from occurring... in power systems where harmonics are present. passive or active... not the true power factor........ the apparent power. However.... it can be beneficial....... such as switching out stages of the filter......... Figure 2. the true power factor will increase accordingly.... load commutated inverters. subject to a study of the effects on the power system........960. 3 How the Mitigation of Harmonics Improves True Power Factor As can be seen from Section 5....... Figure 2..... (5.. is reduced by mitigation.... This is injected into the power system and provides the nonlinear load with the harmonic currents it needs in order to function. tuned to a specific harmonic frequency (usually 5th and 7th harmonics).. DC drives.... if the distortion power... the power factor is the ratio of the active power in kW to the apparent power in kVA.... = .. the power system then supplies only the fundamental current.... (5.. and assuming the active filter is rated correctly..11) S S1 1 + THD 2 1 + THD 2 V I P ..... However........ S.... reactive power (Q) and H (distortion power) where the distortion power........ On this type of equipment............ this “high power factor” (typically 0..g.....98) refers only to the displacement power factor.. depending on the conduction angle of the bridge rectifier........... In theory.... For systems containing nonlinear loads............... Any form of harmonic mitigation..... Active filters (see Section 10) can also provide a measure of inherent power factor correction... (5............ On drives or other loads with fully controlled input bridge rectifiers (e.....e.....10) As detailed above. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .... measures may have to be taken at light loads. AC variable voltage drives......12) S1 Displacement power factor: cos φ disp = Distortion power factor: cos φ dist = where cos φdisp = cos φdist = Note: 1 2 1 + THDV 1 + THD I2 = V1rms I 1rms S1 .....Section 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor As can be seen from Section 5. (5.. comprises active power (P).. These filters can provide harmonic mitigation and a degree of power factor correction via the filter capacitors... the power factor can therefore be expressed as: Power factor: cos φ = 1 P P = = cos φ disp ⋅ cos φ dist . D. D......... based on the magnitude of the harmonic currents being produced by the load(s)]....13) Vrms I rms S displacement power factor (fundamental components) distortion power factor (harmonic components) Many AC PWM drive manufacturers cite “high power factor at all loads” as an advantage when selling this type of drive. can be defined as: D2 = S2 – (P2 + Q2) .. to use passive inductorcapacitor (LC) filters (see Section 10).....
4 kVAr.Section 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor In addition to the harmonic cancellation current. reactive current compensation is also provided which can correct for a leading or lagging power factor at any load (i. this may not cause problems. On utility supplies.e. the reader has to be aware of one type of analogcontrolled active filter which has a tendency to supply uncontrolled reactive current into the power system. 98 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .. but it will be problematic when the supplies are generator derived. However. For example. for a 300 A. this statement is based on an active filter with digital control system). the available reactive power would be 249. 480 V active filter. 2006 . producing a leading power factor when the harmonic load is light or the nonlinear equipment is switched off.
the amount of linear load (such as induction motors). this type of drive architecture is characterized by the presence of an input bridge rectifier. and to a degree. which tends to act as a “harmonic sink” (i. including AC PWM (variable frequency) drives.. AC load commutated inverters (LCIs). all of which are summed and compared with the fundamental voltage to obtain. At rated load. in percentage terms. the Vthd. The higher the magnitude of harmonic current. It is usually the highest nearer to the harmonic load and progressively reduces the nearer to the source it is measured. in power systems containing nonlinear loads. 2 Total Harmonic Current Distortion (Ithd) and Reduced Loading In nonlinear loads. the magnitude of the characteristic harmonic currents is normally proportional to the load demand. a DC bus with capacitor bank and an inverter output bridge. Recent designs have increased power ratings and higher voltage levels. unless resonance is present in the system. will affect percentage total harmonic current distortion (Ithd). transformers and other impedances. due to the effect of cables. 2006 99 . DC SCR drives and AC cycloconverters. the higher the voltage distortion for a given impedance.e.1 AC PWM Drives AC PWM drives are the common type used in the marine sector. Since the majority of large nonlinear loads installed on marine vessels and offshore installations are variable speed drives.SECTION 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion 1 Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion (Vthd) As illustrated in Section 2. The resultant voltage distortion. it may be worthwhile to briefly consider the effect of loading on the more common types of variable speed drives used in the marine sector. it absorbs harmonic current) in the circuit. the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) is dependent on the magnitude of each harmonic current at its specific harmonic frequency acting upon the source impedance and other individual circuit impedances to produce individual harmonic voltage drops. 2. As described in Section 4. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . except under resonant conditions where specific harmonic currents at the resonant frequency can have significantly higher values. therefore. the harmonic current levels tend to be at the highest levels. tends to decrease the further it is measured from the harmonicproducing load. The effect of loading.
2006 .5% 100 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . True power factor was 0. respectively.94 lag. the Ithd and harmonic currents would be significantly higher. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the current time domain waveform and harmonic spectrum. of a typical 6pulse AC PWM drive at rated load.5% FIGURE 2 Typical Harmonic Spectrum of AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 100% Load – Ithd Measured at 37. FIGURE 1 Typical 6Pulse PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 100% Load Ithd Measured at 37. The AC PWM drive illustrated has a total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) of 37. Note that the drive contains a 3% AC line reactor which reduces the Ithd and improves the true power factor.5% at 100% loading. Without the AC line (or DC bus) reactor.Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion Section 6.
True power factor was 0. illustrates the harmonic current spectrum associated with the AC PWM drive waveform based on 30% loading. Figure 4. 83 lag. As described in Section 4. hence the pulsed nature of the current. the Ithd will increase as the loading is reduced due to the more “discontinuous” nature of the pulsed current drawn from the capacitive DC bus. Section 6. 2006 101 . below. current is only drawn from the mains supply when the instantaneous AC line voltage exceeds the DC bus voltage. FIGURE 3 Typical AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 30% Load Ithd Measured at 65. FIGURE 4 Typical Harmonic Spectrum of AC PWM Drive (with 3% AC Line Reactor) at 30% Load – Ithd Measured at 65. the current pulse will become “sharper”. Figure 3 illustrates this effect on the AC PWM used in this example.7%.Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion With AC PWM drives. Note the increased 5th and 7th harmonic components. Section 6.7% ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . As the drive load is reduced.
the magnitude of harmonic current is usually highest at rated load.. However. at low speeds. In common with AC PWM and other drive types. motor armature voltage) by variation of the firing angle of the SCRs. above. The harmonic current distortion (Ithd) is largely determined by the SCR firing angles. the magnitude of the harmonic currents is usually relatively small and nonproblematic.2 DC SCR Drives Unlike variable frequency drives. The input rectifier directly controls the output voltage (i. However. 2006 . illustrates the typical current waveform of a 6pulse DC drive at 70% loading (35. FIGURE 5 6Pulse DC Drive at 70% Loading Ithd is 35.e.e. it should be noted that if AC PWM drives are “oversized” for any reason. As DC drives have.1% Ithd). with the worse case at reduced load being at 90 degrees firing angle (i. A comparable 6pulse AC PWM drive with 3% AC line reactor at similar loading would present an Ithd of around 4244%. This may have to be taken into account when calculating harmonic mitigation. Section 6. the percentage Ithd will rise with reducing load but be less than with comparable AC PWM drives which have capacitive buses. Figure 5. below. due to the presence of the DC armature.Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion Although it has been shown that the total harmonic current distortion will increase with reducing load it is the magnitude of the harmonic currents and the resultant effect on circuit impedances (which produce voltage distortion) which are more important. depicts the harmonic current spectrum of the DC drive at 70% loading.1% Section 6. 2. 102 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the Ithd will be higher than expected at any load as the drive is not “matched” to the load as far as the kW/HP rating is concerned. Figures 5 and 6) down to around 1015% load after which the Ithd will rise more significantly.. DC drives do not have an intermediate circuit between the input rectifier and the output to the DC motor. DC drives tend to operate in continuous current mode (see Section 6. Figure 6. primarily “inductive buses”. low voltage and speed) and rated load.
As the output frequency. blocking mode or circulating mode). the magnitude of the interharmonic side bands can often exceed those of the characteristic harmonics. As stated previously. Any deviation from the ideal can introduce noncharacteristic harmonic currents. 2006 103 .. the characteristic harmonic currents tend to decrease while the interharmonic current sidebands increase. At low frequency operation (i. the characteristic harmonics are related to the pulse number and system characteristics. As per DC drives.. the motor loading and the motor ripple current. the magnitudes of the characteristic harmonic currents produced are typically similar to DC drives under the same load conditions. 5th and 7th harmonics should not be significant.e. but above those harmonic frequencies. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the maximum value of Ithd should occur at very low speed (or zero speed) and high loading. As also mentioned in Section 4. This is due to the large inductance inserted in the DC bus to provide a constant current source. the interharmonics are generally of low value. are increased up to rated speed and load.3 Load Commutated Inverters The input harmonic currents and input current waveforms produced by load commutated inverters (also called current source or currentfed inverters) are similar to those produced by DC SCR drives.Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion FIGURE 6 Harmonic Current Spectrum of 6Pulse DC Drive at 70% Loading Ithd is 35. For 6pulse cycloconverters.e. but the interharmonics are usually significantly higher. cycloconverters are very complex drives from both the input and output harmonic perspectives. the mode of operation (i. the characteristic harmonics are generally less than other drive types of the same pulse number. At low speed operation. the harmonic current distortion (Ithd) produced by load commutated inverters is also a function of the input SCR rectifier firing angles. such as the 2nd and 3rd. whereas the input interharmonic currents are related to the output frequency. the interharmonics associated with the fundamental. so as with DC drives.1% 2.4 Cycloconverters As described in Section 4. The variation in Ithd with load for load commutated converters will be similar to that described for DC SCR drives. hence motor speed and load. 2. low motor speed and load).
2006 . FIGURE 7 Multiple 6Pulse Cycloconverters Input Current and Voltage Harmonic Spectrums at Low Output Frequency/Low Load FIGURE 8 Multiple 6Pulse Cycloconverters Input Current and Voltage Harmonic Spectrums at High Output Frequency/High Load 104 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Figures 7 and 8 illustrate the effect of output frequency on both the input current and input voltage harmonic spectrums. a measure of both reactive power compensation (i. 6pulse cycloconverters on a common bus. Section 6. This application involved six. power factor correction) and harmonic filtering may be installed to minimize any adverse effects on the power system of such large drives.Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion It has to be stated that cycloconverters applied in the marine sector tend to be in the MW range with 12pulse or higher configurations.. Therefore. all operating at identical output frequency and loading.e.
as it is the magnitudes of these harmonic currents which interact with the system impedances to produce the individual harmonic voltage drops at the harmonic frequencies which result in the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd).Section 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion 2. it should be the purpose of any harmonic mitigation measure employed to reduce the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) to within the necessary limits under all operating conditions. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .5 Conclusion: Harmonic Current Magnitude and its Effect on Voltage Distortion It should be reemphasized that it is not the percentage of total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) which is of main concern. 2006 105 . Therefore. It is the magnitude of the harmonic currents associated with the Ithd which is of more importance. It is therefore the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) which is to be the main concern in order to minimize any adverse effects on the installed system and equipment.
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However. Xd″.SECTION 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics 1 “Stiff” and “Soft” Sources Power sources in relation to harmonics are often characterized by the terms “stiff source” and “soft source”. “Stiff sources” are often associated with transformers. should be relatively low to maintain the voltage distortion within the necessary limits. the magnitude of the harmonic currents produced and the subsequent voltage distortion permissible in the power system. are considered as “soft sources” whose “source impedance” is actually the “substransient reactance (Xd″). the higher the harmonic current distortion. The higher the kVA (or MVA). The solution will depend on the type of nonlinear load. The higher harmonic current does not usually significantly distort the voltage. and both have a significant effect on both the nonlinear currents drawn by the load and the resultant voltage distortion. The damper winding is to be designed such that the sinusoidal voltage waveform is maintained. Their source impedance is often on the order of 56% (Z). 2006 107 . such as that achieved by “oversizing” the kVA rating.1 – 0.”often in the range of approximately 0. the higher the harmonic current that will be drawn by the nonlinear load(s) and the less the subsequent voltage distortion for a given load. tend to have reduced short circuit capability and limit the magnitude of the harmonic currents drawn by the given nonlinear load(s). and the lower the resultant harmonic voltage distortion. Generators for low harmonic distortion would need a low value of subtransient reactance. permit a given nonlinear load(s) to draw higher magnitudes of harmonic current for a given kW value of nonlinear load. such as generators. Xd″. “Soft sources”. The kVA rating also has an impact on the magnitude of harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion for a given load as the short circuit capability and associated ISC/IL (load current to short circuit current ratio) varies. as it is not as limited by the leakage reactance of the source. which results in an increase in short circuit current. The machine subtransient reactance. that lower value of harmonic current will produce significantly higher levels of voltage distortion. assuming the source impedance is unchanged. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Ithd. whether utilityowned or customerowned within their system. however. Generators. is subject to higher levels of current when nonlinear loads are present.18 per unit. The generator rotor damper cage. designed for linear loads. Vthd. “Stiff sources”. having higher short circuit capability. The stiffer the source.
5. 2006 . but the subsequent calculations are unaffected (i. Vthd = 4.2%. 60 Hz.2% Impedance – ISC/IL = 33.2% and secondary voltage of 480 V.7% 108 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . one of 600 HP with 3% AC line reactor and one of 350 HP with 3% DC bus reactor..2% Impedance This is based on a transformer rated at 2000 kVA with impedance of 5. The voltage and current waveforms at the PCC#1 (point of common coupling are also included). Note that the illustrations of the power source do not differentiate between transformer and/or generator derived supplies (the illustrations are “transformers”). Example 1 – 2000 kVA. The loads are two AC PWM drives.Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics 2 Illustrations of the Effect of kVA and Source Impedance on Harmonics In order to illustrate the effect of varying kVA and source impedance (or substransient reactance) of the power source. FIGURE 1a 2000 kVA and 5. a harmonic estimated program (SOLV) has been utilized.e. the effects of varying the values of impedance (or Xd″) and kVA are similar for both transformers and generators). Ithd = 24.85 lag power factor. Linear load is 180 kW at 0.3:1.
2% Impedance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 109 .Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics FIGURE 1b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2000 kVA/5.
Ithd = 19.Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics Example 2 – 2000 kVA. Linear load is 180 kW at 0. Vthd = 9.85 lag power factor. 60 Hz. FIGURE 2a 2000 kVA and14% Subtransient Reactance ISC/IL = 29.8% 110 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . one of 600 HP with 3% AC line reactor and one of 350 HP with 3% DC bus reactor. 2006 .1%.1:1. 14% Subtransient Reactance This is based on a generator similarly rated at 2000 kVA. The loads are as per Example 1. with two AC PWM drives. with substransient reactance (Xd″) of 14% and secondary voltage of 480 V.
Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics FIGURE 2b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2000 kVA/14% Subtransient Reactance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 111 .
5.7% 112 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . but the impedance of 5. The loads are two AC PWM drives. 60 Hz remain the same.1%. FIGURE 3a 4000 kVA and 5.Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics Example 3 – 4000 kVA.2% Impedance – ISC/IL = 67.85 lag power factor are identical to that illustrated in Example 1. one of 600 HP with 3% AC line reactor and one of 350 HP with 3% DC bus reactor and linear load is 180 kW at 0. Ithd = 27.2% and secondary voltage of 480 V.1:1. Vthd = 2. 2006 .2% Impedance The transformer rating is now increased to 4000 kVA.
2006 113 .Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics FIGURE 3b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 4000 kVA/5.2% Impedance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
Vthd = 5.9%. 2006 .6:1. FIGURE 4a 4000 kVA and14% Subtransient Reactance ISC/IL = 26.85 lag power factor retained.8% 114 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics Example 4 – 4000 kVA. 60 Hz maintained. with two AC PWM drives. 14% Subtransient Reactance The generator is also now increased to 4000 kVA with substransient reactance (Xd″) of 14% and secondary voltage of 480 V. Ithd = 22. The loads are as per Example 2. one of 600 HP with 3% AC line reactor and one of 350 HP with 3% DC bus reactor and linear load is 180 kW at 0.
It can be seen that the resultant voltage distortion for a given nonlinear load varies in proportion to the source impedance (i.1% 22.1 24. for generators.6 Ithd 24.. 2006 115 . the lower the Xd″. the less the resultant voltage distortion) and installed kVA.2% Z 4000 kVA – 14% Xd″ ISC/IL 33. The value of Xd″ varies from generator to generator and is inversely proportional to the square of the generator working voltage. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .8% The kVA rating and transformer impedance (Z) or [substransient reactance (Xd″) for generators] have an important effect on the magnitude of the harmonic currents drawn and the resultant voltage distortion.e.).1% 27.2% Z 2000 kVA – 14% Xd″ 4000 kVA – 5.7% 9.2% 19.7% 5. of a larger kVA rating than one based on the kW load. Achieving a low level of Xd″ usually involves a special winding design with a high level of excitation and therefore high magnetic flux or the use of “derated” generators (i.9% Vthd 4. Table 1 below: TABLE 1 Variation of Ithd and Vthd with Variation of kVA and Impedance (or Xd″) kVA – Z or Xd″ 2000 kVA – 5.e.3 12..1 67.Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics FIGURE 4b Current and Voltage Waveforms for 4000 kVA/14% Subtransient Reactance Source with 950 HP AC PWM Drive Load and 180 kW Linear Load A summary of all four examples above is given in Section 7.8% 2.
2006 . FIGURE 5 Paralleling of Generators One of the generators must be selected as the “base unit”. (Similar data is necessary for transformers with impedance. 116 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics In Example 2 above. are running in parallel to share the loading. perhaps of differing values of kVA and Xd″. instead of Xd″. thus decreasing the voltage distortion for given nonlinear load. At 1000 kVA loading. 480 V. is necessary. 60 Hz generator used in the illustrations and calculations above had an Xd″ of 14% or 0. Xd″. the effective subtransient reactance (Xd″) will be: " Xd = 1000 kVA × 14% = 7% 2000 kVA Therefore. the 2000 kVA. 3 Parallel Generator Operation and Calculation of Equivalent Short Circuit Ratings When calculating harmonic voltage and current distortion. Modern generators have excitation systems which can cope with voltage and current distortion provided that they are correctly designed for the nonlinear load(s) in terms of thermal rating and have an appropriate level of winding insulation.14 per unit. Z. a method of calculating the parallel system kVA and equivalent Xd″ (illustrated below) is necessary and is similar to that used for short circuit calculations. In this case S1 will be designated “base unit” in terms of kVA and Xd″. it is significantly more complicated. Therefore. when more than one generator. However. at reduced generator loading. either the short circuit rating or the generator kVA (or MVA) and the subtransient reactance. the effective Xd″ will be reduced.) The calculation based on one generator running is straightforward with the generator kVA and Xd″ inserted into program (or used for manual calculations).
............................... we must determine X d 2base and X d 3base ............... 2base = ′′ ′′ X d 1 ⋅ X d 2base .......... (7...................................................... (7....................4) The total system short circuit capacity therefore can be calculated: S SC = S base .........3base = .............. (7........... 2base ⋅ X d′ 3base ′′ ′′ X d 1.......................... as follows: ′ X d′1.base Example 5 Calculate the equivalent subtransient reactance and short circuit capacity of three paralleled generators rated at 2 × 2000 kVA/16% Xd″ and 1 × 1500 kVA/18% Xd″ depicted in Section 7................................................... (7...... Figure 6................................................................. below: FIGURE 6 Example of Paralleled Generators ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...............Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics ′′ ′′ ′′ If X d 1 (S1) is the base unit.... 2..... the total system equivalent subtransient reactance can be calculated........................................................ 2base + X d 3base ′′ X d1...........3................................. (7. 2..1) S2 ′ ′′ X d′ 3base = X d 3 S1 ........... 2006 117 ... as follows: ′′ ′′ X d 2base = X d 2 S1 ....................................2) S3 Once all generators are on the same base....................................3) ′′ ′′ X d 1 + X d 2base ′ ′′ X d 1...5) ′ X d′1.........
4 X d 1 + X d 2base ′′ X d1.16 + 0. Note: The short circuit MVA of parallel transformers can also be calculated using a similar method to that above. designated the “base unit” Sbase.16 (16%) 2000 S3 ′ ′′ X d′1 ⋅ X d 2base 0.256 S base 2000 = = 33.16 0. 118 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . therefore: ′ ′′ X d′ 2base = X d 2 S1 2000 = 0. 2006 .24 0.0384 = = = 0. = 0.3base = S SC = ′′ ′ X d 1. = 0. 2. 0.096 (9.3. 2base = S1 2000 = 0. Consequently. 0. 2base ⋅ X d′ 3base ′′ ′′ X d 1.16 0.16 .096 .base 0.24 ( 24%) 1500 S2 ′ ′′ X d′ 3base = X d 3 ′ X d′1.096 + 0. 2base + X d 3base = 0. in this example.16 .06 (6%) 0.24 0.6%) ′′ ′′ 0.01536 = = 0.Section 7 Influence of Source Impedance and kVA on Harmonics Generator S1 is.06 Xd The results calculated above are based on one set of generator running conditions and will vary according to the number.18 . kVA and Xd″ of the generators on line at any one time.333 MVA ′′1. both the magnitude and percentage of total harmonic current and harmonic total voltage will vary also. 2.
as shown in Section 8. below: FIGURE 1 Balanced System Va Vc Vb 2 Unbalanced Systems An unbalanced power system is so called when the magnitudes of the phase voltages are not equal and/or where the phase shift deviates from the normal phase separation value of 120 degrees. below: FIGURE 2 Unbalanced System Va Vc Vb ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .SECTION 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion 1 Balanced Systems In a power system with balanced sinusoidal voltages. as depicted in Section 8. the three linetoneutral voltages are all of equal magnitude and displaced by 120 electrical degrees from each other. 2006 119 . Figure 1. Figure 2.
. FIGURE 3 Symmetrical Components of an Unbalanced System Va1 Vb2 Vc1 Vb1 Vc2 Negative Sequence Va2 Va0 Vb0 Vc0 Zero Sequence Positive Sequence As described in Section 3..1) V1 V0 ..2) V1 120 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ....... For a perfectly balanced system........1 Definition of Voltage Unbalance Power system voltage unbalance can be defined using two methods. when negative sequence components are applied to an induction motor..... the resultant torque opposes the normal direction of rotation....... Figure 3 below.......... The first method is based on the theory of symmetrical components.......Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion Deviations from a balanced supply system can be attributed to the following: • • • • • • Unequal impedances within the power distribution system Asymmetries in AC and DC drive commutation reactances Large or unequal distribution of singlephase loads Negative sequence fundamental frequency components in commutating voltages Harmonic distortion of positive and negative sequence components Unbalanced threephase loads 2........... which mathematically defines an unbalanced system into three separate balanced systems termed “positive sequence”........ both the negative sequence and zero sequence components would be absent........ (8..... There are generally two definitions using symmetrical components which can be used to determine unbalance: i) ii) where V1 V2 V0 = = = positive sequence voltages negative sequence voltages zero sequence voltages Negative Sequence Voltage Unbalance Factor = Zero Sequence Unbalance Factor = V2 ...... 2006 ..................................... Zero sequence components cannot produce a rotating magnetic field................ “negative sequence” and “zero sequence” systems as depicted in Section 8..... (8....
. Vbc .. on a 20°C rise the motor insulation life is reduced by 75%) as illustrated in Section 8.... linetoneutral voltages should not be used..... the currents then drawn from the supply will also be unbalanced.3) = V1 1 + 3 − 6β where β = (V 4 4 4 Vab + Vbc + Vca 2 ab 2 2 + Vbc + Vca ) 2 ... in the USA) has a much simpler definition: Voltage unbalance = Maximum deviation from mean of (Vab . ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ............. it is normal to stipulate the amount permissible on a power system in order that equipment..... (8.. the NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association..... Also note that the IEC definition (Equations 8..........5.... As it is impossible to guarantee completely balanced supplies......... which often form a substantial part of the electric load...4)......... Vca ) .Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion Zero sequence currents cannot flow in threewire systems.... 2%2....... is not adversely affected (see 8/2....... Figure 4.. (8... especially rotating machines... being more mathematical.....5% is usually the maximum unbalance specified.. The negative sequence voltage unbalance factor.... It is worth reemphasizing that for every 10°C rise above rated temperature.........4) However.2)... Vbc ....... tends to be the more accurate........... the life of motor winding insulation reduces by 50% (i...3/8. 2..... Therefore it is the negative sequence components which must be used as a measure of unbalance.......4 and 8..... 2006 121 ...2 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Rotating Machines A significant effect of unbalance is that associated with induction motors. also known as the “Voltage Unbalance Factor” (VUF). Vca ) Note that in Equations 8.. causing torque pulsations and increasing the temperature rise of the motor as it tries to maintain its output torque and speed....... As mentioned above on unbalanced voltages. as the associated zero sequence components will introduce errors... or the “IEC definition” can be expressed as: Negative sequence voltage unbalance = 1 − 3 − 6β V2 ....5) Mean of (Vab .e... the negative sequence components in the machine air gap oppose the direction of rotation. (8.. Induction motors on unbalanced supplies will also exhibit additional audible noise..3/8. When a balanced threephase load is connected to an unbalanced supply............
(8. as follows: S2 = S1 = Ns + Nr Ns − Nr N N = + 2 r = S1 + 2 r Ns Ns Ns Ns Ns − Nr N N = 1 − r . 2006 ........ would be: S1 = where N s− Nr ... r = 1 − S1 Ns Ns Ns S2 = S1 + 2(1 – S1) = 2 – S1 ............ At conditions of high slip (for example. therefore......Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion FIGURE 4 Reduction of Insulation Life with Temperature In addition....... the resultant line currents can be several times that of percentage voltage unbalance as shown below................................................................ Si..................... the impedance will be large at conditions of low slip......... at startup or locked rotor).............. the impedance is small........ S2.......... the motor slip.. For positive sequence voltages the motor slip. 122 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..... such as that associated with normal running conditions.......7) The impedance of an induction motor is largely dependent on the motor slip......6) Ns = = synchronous speed rotor speed Ns Nr For negative sequence voltages. S1...................... (8.... when a balanced induction motor is connected to an unbalanced supply..... can be expressed in terms of slip..... Consequently...............
. Z1 V2 Z2 It can be seen therefore that I 2 V2 I starting = × .. Figure 6 shows a typical input current waveform from a threephase 6pulse AC PWM drive with additional reactance (AC line reactor or DC bus) on a system with balanced supplies............. (8.... In order to minimize the effect on motors due to unbalanced voltages... (8....... 2006 123 ... the positive sequence slip. Section 8.... S1...... Figure 5).. whereas the negative sequence slip.................. Therefore......... would be large..... the ratio of positive sequence to negative sequence impedance could be expressed by: Z1 I starting ≈ ...Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion Similarly.......e.....9.... NEMA has produced graphically the necessary motor derating factor according to the degree of voltage unbalance (Section 8...............8) Z 2 I running If the positive sequence current is expressed as and the negative sequence current by I1 = I2 = V1 ...... Please note that NEMA also do not advise any motor to be operated if the voltage unbalance is more than 5%........... S2............... it can be determined that the connection of an induction motor with a locked rotor current of 600% full load current would result a 30% unbalance in motor currents if connected to a supply system with 5% unbalance.......3 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Harmonics The wave shape and characteristic harmonics of rectifier bridges are significantly affected by voltage unbalance...... is usually negligible (i.............. whatever the actual motor loading.. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ....9) I 1 V1 I running Using the above Equation 8..... FIGURE 5 Derating on Induction Motors of Unbalanced Supplies 2............................ almost zero)..............
below: FIGURE 7 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform on 5% Voltage Unbalance FIGURE 8 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform on 15% Voltage Unbalance 124 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 .Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion FIGURE 6 Typical 6Pulse AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform on Balanced Voltages The effect when 5% and 15% voltage unbalance is introduced is illustrated in Section 8. Figures 7 and 8.
Section 8.. In addition. due to tolerances in the transformer windings. The problem with the nature of uncharacteristic harmonics is that they are difficult to predict and. rectifier bridges. Figure 9. which further increases the production of uncharacteristic harmonics and the total harmonic current distortion. quasimultipulse). including 2nd. “Harmonic Mitigation. 18pulse and other configurations are discussed. 4th and 6th) and DC. it is often assumed that there is total harmonic cancellation of specified harmonics due to the respective phase shift. and possibly DC in the power system.” for full information). For example. etc. 2006 125 . illustrates the effect of unbalance on the harmonic spectrum of a 6pulse AC PWM drive. It is often easier to address the causes of the uncharacteristic harmonics. Figures 10 and 11 illustrate the effect of 1%. consequently. More significantly. 21st…) and even order harmonics (e. than attempt to “designout” their effect with harmonic filters. 3rd. interbridge reactors. such as unbalance. Unbalance also contributes to the misfiring of SCRs and other power devices. Note the large 3rd harmonic and other triplens (6th. When 12pulse.. 2% and 3% voltage unbalance on 12pulse and 18pulse drive system. The magnitude of the drive DC bus voltage on AC PWM drives would also be reduced.g. the unbalanced currents can lead to increased thermal stress on the drive components. Section 8. However.Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion The affect of voltage unbalance is to introduce uncharacteristic harmonics. 15th. below. FIGURE 9 Harmonic Spectrum of 6Pulse AC PWM Drive on Unbalanced Voltages (Fundamental Component Removed) 2.. the effect of supply unbalance can erode the performance of multipulse drives and other phaseshifted systems.4 Voltage Unbalance and Multipulse Drives and Systems Voltage unbalance (and voltage distortion) significantly degrades the performance of phase shift and other multipulse harmonic mitigation systems (e. etc. there will be residual 5th and 7th harmonic currents present after mitigation. 9th. 9th.. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .g. resulting in subsequent tripping on “undervoltage – DC bus”. respectively. rarely are accounted for in the design of equipment. a 30degree shift in theory cancels the 5th and 7th harmonics (see Section 10.
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion FIGURE 10 Unbalance and the Effect on 12Pulse Drives FIGURE 11 Unbalance and the Effect on 18Pulse Drives 126 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 .
Note: To estimate the effect on 12pulse drives using doublewound phase shift transformers. and so on)...e. FIGURE 12 Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on 18Pulse AC PWM Drive ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 127 . and can cause damage to those types utilizing “front end” capacitors [i. EMI and carrier frequency filters within active filters)]. add around 5% to the Ithd figures below. Section 8. it is not known to what degree background voltage distortion will further degrade the performance of drive systems which depend on phase shift for harmonic mitigation. directly subject to high levels of distortion (e. With a Vthd of 5% on a marine power systems. therefore approximately 10% for 12pulse. (For example.g. the Ithd would be 5% for 18pulse. at 100% load and 1% background Vthd.5 Background Voltage Distortion and Multipulse Drives and Systems Background voltage distortion adversely affects the performance of most forms of harmonic mitigation.Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion 2. especially multipulse drive systems. Figure 12 illustrates the effect of background distortion on an 18pulse drive at 50% and 100% loading.
6 The Effect of Voltage Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion Using Software Modeling Using harmonic estimation software. 128 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the resultant total voltage distortion in each supply condition would have been increased. 2006 . The total harmonic current distortion would be reduced due to being limited by the leakage reactance of the “softer” source. a generator rated at 5000 kVA. The 12pulse drives were chosen as being the most common multipulse configuration in the marine sector. 12pulse AC PWM drives (e.Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion 2. Four sets of supply conditions were modeled: • • • • 0% voltage unbalance and 0% preexisting voltage distortion 2% voltage unbalance and 0% preexisting voltage distortion 0% voltage unbalance and 5% preexisting voltage distortion 2% voltage unbalance and 5% preexisting voltage distortion The examples below illustrate the differing total harmonic current distortion and associated total voltage distortion and voltage and current waveforms at the PCC#1 for each of the above supply conditions.g. the subsequent production of total harmonic current distortion and the resultant total harmonic voltage distortion. it is possible to further illustrate the relationship between voltage unbalance and/or preexisting voltage distortion on multipulse drives (and other types of mitigation). In the examples cited below. Note: If a smaller generator kVA and/or a higher value of Xd″ been chosen for the given load. 480 V.. thruster drives) and 180 kW of linear load. 60 Hz and Xd″ of 14% was loaded with two off 900 HP.
Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion FIGURE 13a No Voltage Unbalance.9% FIGURE 13b Voltage and Current Waveforms No Voltage Unbalance. No Preexisting Vthd ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .2%. Vthd = 4. No Preexisting Vthd – Ithd = 5. 2006 129 .
Section
8
The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
FIGURE 14a 2% Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting Vthd – Ithd = 14.5%, Vthd = 5.2%
FIGURE 14b Voltage and Current Waveforms 2% Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting Vthd
130
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
Section
8
The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
FIGURE 14c Threephase Current Waveforms 2% Voltage Unbalance, No Preexisting Vthd
FIGURE 15a No Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting Vthd – Ithd = 10.9%, Vthd = 6.2%
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
131
Section
8
The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
FIGURE 15b Voltage and Current Waveforms No Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting Vthd
FIGURE 16a 2% Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting Vthd – Ithd = 18.5%, Vthd = 6.0%
132
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
Section
8
The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion
FIGURE 16b Voltage and Current Waveforms 2% Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting Vthd
FIGURE 16c Threephase Current Waveforms 2% Voltage Unbalance, 5% Preexisting Vthd
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
133
2006 . can offer increased performance on both voltage unbalance and background distortion.0% 2.9% 5.5% 10. usually designed based on IEEE 519 (1992) (i. 134 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . available up to significantly higher powers.2% 6.) Active filters.2% 14.2% 6. especially those using phase shifting techniques.5% Vthd 4. Other designs.Section 8 The Effect of Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion The summary of results for the resultant total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) and total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) for the above examples is tabled below: TABLE 1 Variation in Ithd and Vthd with Voltage Unbalance and Preexisting Voltage Distortion % Unbalance 0% 2% 0% 2% % Vthd 0% 0% 5% 5% Ithd 5. (For example..e. there is a documented case of one patented design of “broadband filter” which is operating successfully on a cableship in excess of 22% background voltage distortion (Vthd) due to the vessel having full electric propulsion.7 Drive Mitigation – Unbalance and Background Voltage Distortion Voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion both have a significant effect on drive harmonic mitigation. a maximum of <5% Vthd) may be unable to function reliably on higher levels of background Vthd unless specifically designed for the given application. well above 2%. A complete approach may be therefore necessary in order to maximize the performance of multipulse drives.9% 18. A number of socalled “broadband filters” for smaller drives offer good mitigation performance up to 2% unbalance and up to 2% background voltage distortion.
SECTION
9
Resonance
1
What is Resonance?
The presence of capacitance in the power system can have a significant effect on the system impedance as it varies due to harmonic frequencies. In marine and offshore power supplies, conventional capacitorbased power factor correction banks may not be common, however directly connected capacitors are used in fluorescent lighting fittings for power factor correction and in other equipment. In addition, cable capacitance can also be problematic. Resonance results in high voltages and/or currents being present in the power system, causing damage to equipment and endangerment of personnel.
2
The Conditions under which Resonance Occurs
The system inductive reactance (XL) is proportional to the frequency, whereas the capacitive reactance (XC) is inversely proportional to frequency. “Resonance” is said to be achieved when the values of XL and XC are of the same value. There are two forms of resonance which need to be considered: “series resonance” and “parallel resonance”, as shown below in Section 9, Figure 1.
FIGURE 1a Series Resonance
FIGURE 1b Parallel Resonance
2.1
Series Resonance
For the series resistanceinductancecapacitance (RLC) circuit (see Section 9, Figure 1a), the total impedance at the resonant frequency reduces to the resistance component only. Where this value is low, high values of current at the resonant frequency will flow in the circuit at relatively low levels of exciting voltage. Under these conditions, series resonant will exist when:
St S2 fs = f − l2 ...................................................................................................... (9.1) SC Z t S C
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
135
Section
9
Resonance
where
fs f S Z SC St
= = = = = =
series resonant frequency fundamental frequency transformer (or generator) rating transformer per unit impedance (or generator Xd″) capacitor rating load resistive rating
The main area of concern applicable to series resonance is that high capacitor currents can flow at relatively low levels of harmonic voltages. The actual current magnitudes are determined by the “quality factor”, Q, of the resonant circuit:
Q=
where
Xr ............................................................................................................................... (9.2) R
= = = quality factor reactance at resonance resistance
Q Xr R
2.2
Parallel Resonance
In a parallel resonant circuit (Section 9, Figure 1b), the parallel impedance is significantly different. At the resonant frequency, the impedance is significantly high, resulting in high voltages being present in the circuit for relatively low source current values, although significantly larger magnitudes of circulating current also flow in the inductivecapacitance loop. If the power system impedance is assumed to be entirely inductive, the resonant frequency, fp, can be calculated as:
S f p = f s ..................................................................................................................... (9.3) S c
where
fp f Ss Sc
= = = =
resonant frequency fundamental frequency short circuit rating load resistive rating
The above formula can also be written as:
MVAsc fp = f kVArcap
Note:
............................................................................................................ (9.4)
Due to circuit topography, in the majority of systems with series resonance, parallel resonance will also occur, albeit at a lower frequency, as shown in Section 9, Figure 2, due to the contribution of the source inductance.
136
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
Section
9
Resonance
FIGURE 2 Series Resonance Frequency Response
Parallel resonance is, however, generally more common than series resonance as the majority of equipment is connected in parallel with switchboards. The example illustrated in Section 9, Figure 3 will therefore be based on parallel resonance. Common problems associated with resonance include capacitor fuse failure and damaged capacitors (industrial power systems), spurious protective relay tripping, overheating on equipment and telephone interference.
3
Prevention of Resonance
In order to illustrate a common potential parallel resonance condition and how it can be prevented, it is necessary to use, as an application (see Section 9, Figure 3), a typical industrial system where AC variable speed drives are to be connected to a switchboard which also has capacitorbased power factor correction equipment attached. The above application has two areas of concern:
i) ii)
The possibility of parallel resonance due to the presence of the drive harmonic currents and the installed capacitance and The effect of the harmonics produced by the 2 × 110 kW and 2 × 132 kW AC drives on the capacitors.
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
137
Section
9
Resonance
FIGURE 3 Typical Industrial Drive Application where Resonance is Possible
The resonance frequency based on the short circuit capacity of 30 MVA and capacitor bank rating of 600 kVAr can be calculated using the formula below:
MVAsc fp = f kVArcap
30 MVA f p = 60 600 kVAr fp = 353 Hz
It will be noted at that the fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, the parallel resonant frequency occurs in the power system illustrated in Section 9, Figure 2 at around the 3rd harmonic (150 Hz). In order to prevent resonance, a “detuning reactor” has to be connected to “adjust” the parallel resonance point such that it does not coincide with any major characteristic harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc.). The usual practice is to reduce the resonance point to below the 5th harmonic. The detuning reactor can be used to tune the circuit to around 225 Hz235 Hz (4.5th4.7th, being typical frequencies). The tuned resonant frequency may be reduced to below the 3rd harmonic if significant triplen harmonics are also present (more common on fourwire systems). On 60 Hz supplies, the tuned frequencies would be 20% higher.
138
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
........................ the total reactance at fundamental frequency (50 Hz....................... That problem will still exist..... FIGURE 4 Simplified Connection of Detuning Reactor to Capacitor Bank With reference to Section 9........................................... The higher value of fundamental current significantly increases the capacitor voltage.................5) VC = V sup ⋅ XC .......................... The detuning reactor only prevents resonance with major characteristic harmonics occurring.......... (9...1 The Effect of Adding a Detuning Reactor The addition of the detuning reactor does not protect the capacitors from the effect of harmonic currents............ in this case) : X = XC – XL . Figure 4 above...........Section 9 Resonance 3.................. the connection of the reactor to the capacitor bank does increase the voltage at fundamental frequency........... This is due to the fact that the inductive reactance subtracts from the capacitive reactance....... thus decreasing the circuit reactance overall and increasing the capacitor bank fundamental current..................... However.......6) X where VC = capacitor voltage supply voltage resultant reactance capacitive reactance inductive reactance Vsup = X XC XL = = = ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .. as illustrated in Section 9..... (9... Figure 4... 2006 139 ...
.......... using the above formula.... (9. ignoring any supply variations and tolerances.. no resonance was apparent on the larger platform.Section 9 Resonance For example..... which significantly reduces the peak impedances (10% resistive loading has a significant impact on peak impedances). resonance can be seen where there are abnormally high voltages or current harmonics at particular frequencies which are not characteristic of the type of equipment connected to the power system (i.. a number of reactor manufacturers do produce designs of detuning reactors which do not increase the capacitor voltage levels significantly. Loads such as induction motors are mainly inductive and provide limited damping..... Resonance is observable when the high voltages and/or currents cause damage to equipment. However. which had both a power generation plant and a high level of power system harmonics.. When using a harmonic analyzer. when another platform with no onboard power generation has been supplied from a “mother” platform.. 2006 . damping is usually provided by supply and load resistances. localized voltage or current readings are measured.. Long cable lengths.1 = 0........... However.......... a value of reactor 10% the value of the capacitive reactance is connected to the capacitor bank. do tend to suppress resonance. There have been instances of resonance on offshore production installationss with large variable drive installed load.. significant parallel resonance problems were encountered due to the capacitance of the connecting cable between both platforms.. if the supply voltage is less than the capacitor rated voltage (capacitor voltage ratings are usually in steps).. therefore: X = 1 – 0... Until then.... However.......e.. up to 85% of total loading..... 600 kVAr capacitor bank nominally used on 380 V would have to be derated based on a 10% detuning reactor being connected: kVAractual 432 = 600 kVAr = 530 kVAr 460 2 4 Possibilities of Resonance on Vessels and Offshore Installations The most likely potential for resonance lies with fluorescent lighting fitting power factor correction capacitors and/or cable capacitance. 140 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . then it may be possible to retain the original capacitor bank subject to it being derated (i..... 1 = 423 V (11% voltage increase) 0 . however...9 As capacitor banks are usually rated for a maximum of 10% overvoltage. the capacitors may have to be replaced.... the magnitude of harmonic voltage or current should decrease in inverse proportion to the harmonic number).e. There have been other instances.. a 460 V rated..9 so VC = 380. or where unusually high. Fluorescent lights have burned out due to internal capacitor resonance.... The harmonic frequency at which the high levels of voltage or current occur is the resonant frequency. having its kVAr capability reduced) from nameplate value using the following formula: kVAractual VC = kVArnameplate Vnameplate ..7) 2 For example. especially directly connected capacitors.
some harmonic cancellation may occur due to “phase angle diversification” between the multiple harmonic sources. The result of multiple harmonic sources is a degree of harmonic cancellation which is determined by the respective individual harmonic voltages (or currents) and the associated phase angles.. mitigation measures may have also to be considered in order that voltage distortion. threephase and threephase + neutral) systems only “global mitigation” has been addressed. Depending on the type of solution desired. particularly electronic converters for AC and DC motors. depending on the application and desired level of attenuation. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . The options available. each harmonic voltage (or current) has a phase angle associated with it.g. are: • • • • • • • • • Neutral current eliminators and phase shift systems (for fourwire systems) Standard AC line and DC bus reactors Wide spectrum (reactor/capacitor) filters Duplex reactors Passive LC (inductance/capacitance) filters Multipulse (phase shifting) Quasimultipulse (phase staggering) Active filters Active front ends (sinusoidal input rectifiers) 1 Effect of Phase Diversity on Harmonic Currents On power systems with multiple nonlinear loads.SECTION 10 Mitigation of Harmonics The majority of electrical nonlinear equipment.g. UPS systems.. per drive basis) and for “global mitigation” (i. Mitigation for both individual applications (e. is maintained within permissible limits.e. As can be seen in the example given in Section 10. the second column is the percentage harmonic current distortion and the third column is the respective phase angle (note that the “–” denotes a negative phase angle. especially threephase types. While a minor amount of “natural mitigation” may occur as described below in Subsections 10/1 and 10/2.g. an AC line reactor for AC PWM drive) or as a discrete item of mitigation equipment (e.e. an active filter connected to a switchboard). Figure 1. as a result of the nonlinear load(s). normally associated with larger powers will often cause the need for the addition of mitigation equipment in order to attenuate the harmonic currents and associated voltage distortion to within the necessary limits. For singlephase threewire and fourwire (i. battery chargers. Note that the first column is the harmonic (H00 is the DC component).. which often share similar input rectifier architecture. The majority of this Section relates to the mitigation options available for threephase nonlinear equipment. the mitigation may be supplied as an integral part of nonlinear equipment (e... a common harmonic mitigation solution for a group of nonlinear equipment) are described. 2006 141 .
Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 1 Harmonic Voltage Data to 50th Harmonic with Respective Phase Angle Information 2 Effect of Linear Load on Harmonic Currents As detailed in Section 3. linear and nonlinear). whereas purely resistive loads generally dampen possible resonance. per unit of load current. a 30% total current distortion measured against a 50% load would result in a TDD of 15%.. (The TDD is expressed as the measure of total harmonic current distortion. the harmonic voltages and currents are dissipated as heat losses within the equipment. the “total demand distortion of current” (“TDD”).e. as defined in IEEE 519 (1992). Note that the TDD is not the same as the Ithd.) On systems with mixed load (i.) Induction motors are naturally inductive and are often citied as increasing the level of distortion by shifting the natural power system resonant frequency nearer to a significant characteristic harmonic. based on the same magnitude of harmonic currents. the supply cabling and the nonlinear loads. Calculations suggested a reduction in the resultant harmonics voltage of some 0. 2006 142 . Therefore it could be argued that the distortion would be higher on systems without linear loads compared to those with linear loads. (This “opinion” appears to be confirmed by recent industrial research which suggested that harmonic currents travel to ground through directly connected induction motors in parallel with the path through the utility supply transformer. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . linear loads such as induction motors and transformers are adversely affected by harmonic currents and voltages. While these linear loads do not “absorb” harmonics as such. will be lower the greater the proportion of linear load to nonlinear load.06 per unit on a system with induction motors compared to without induction motors. For example.
e. two common methods of local mitigation can usually be applied: i) ii) Phase shifting Active filters 3. the 30degree phase shift at the input (i..e. One panel has no phase shift and the other has 30 degrees displacement (i. can be seen to “absorb” a portion of the high frequency harmonic currents. for example. The result is that the majority of the 5th and 7th harmonic currents on the busduct are “cancelled” in theory (some residual will remain due to. this does not usually have a significant effect on the overall harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion within the power system. the resultant Ithd and the subsequent Vthd will normally be significantly reduced.e. (Note: Subsection 10/7. Depending on the nature and magnitude of the necessary mitigation and power system configuration. primary side) of the phase shift transformer causes the 5th and 7th harmonic currents to be in “antiphase” (i.) Essentially. 3 Mitigation of Harmonics on Threewire Singlephase Systems If large singlephase nonlinear loads (or large numbers of small singlephase nonlinear loads) are present in the threewire singlephase distribution system.. therefore. The type of rotor (i.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics Induction motors do have higher impedances at higher frequencies and. 2006 143 . Figure 2 shows a typical lighting (or distribution) transformer supplying two fluorescent lighting distribution panels. “Phase shifting” describes the theory behind this technique. squirrel cage or wound type) and the air gap has an influence on the absorption of the higher frequency harmonic currents.1 Phase Shifting Section 10. phase shift). 180 degrees out of phase) with the 5th and 7th harmonic currents produced by the other lighting panel (and any other connected nonlinear loads). unbalance)...e. FIGURE 2 Phase Shifting of Threewire Nonlinear Loads ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Since the 5th and 7th are the largest two characteristic harmonics. local harmonic mitigation may be necessary to minimize the contribution of the singlephase nonlinear load(s) to the overall voltage distortion in the power system. However.
e..e. 4. 9th. triplen currents (3rd. Two common methods of addressing the problem of excessive neutral currents due to triplens are available. FIGURE 3 Fourwire System with Nonlinear Loads 144 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . These are specially designed “zero sequence” transformers and active filters. in a fourwire singlephase power system (i. can be mitigated. often with a large number of nonlinear singlephase loads. have fourwire systems for “hotel loads”. 2006 . It is necessary to consider how the harmonic currents in these fourwire systems.2 and 10/11.1 for further information regarding the theory and operation of this type of equipment). Section 10.. particularly 3rd harmonic) which add cumulatively in the neutral. such as passenger ships. On some passenger vessels. with either grounded or insulated neutrals.2 Active Filtering Active filters can be used on threewire lighting and other “domestic” distribution (see 10/4. this load can be in the range of 58 MW. It is therefore important that any excessive neutral currents (and the associated problems thereof due to nonlinear loads) are attenuated as far as practicable. Figure 3 reemphasizes why that on fourwire systems with nonlinear load the neutral current can often exceed the phase currents. even when perfectly balanced.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics The above scheme is similar to a “quasi12pulse system” for threephase drives and other large nonlinear loads (see Subsection 10/8. 15th…) add cumulatively in the neutral conductor. “Phase Staggering”). As described in Section 4. Similar schemes are configurable using larger pulse numbers (and therefore great harmonic cancellation). the latter specifically configured to inject into all three phases and the neutral conductor. threephase + N) the three individual phase currents contain triplens (i. depending on the number and ratings of nonlinear loads. resulting in neutral currents being well in excess of phase currents. 4 Mitigation of Harmonics on Fourwire Singlephase Systems Some vessels.1 Zero Sequence Mitigation of Triplens on Fourwire Singlephase Systems As discussed in Section 4. 3. often overloading the neutral conductors and distribution transformers and causing other problems. odd multiples of three.
a zero sequence transformer comprises multiple windings on a common core. Figure 4. 13th harmonics. FIGURE 5 Zero Sequence Transformer on Fourwire System ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 145 . below.g. the zero sequence transformer removes the majority of the triplen harmonics from the neutral current and returns them to the threephases. Note that the positive and negative sequence fluxes (e. due to 5th. providing an alternative low impedance path when connecting in parallel on a fourwire system. 7th.. etc. also balances the phase currents. also called “zigzag transformers”. As illustrated in Section 10. FIGURE 4 Operation of a Zero Sequence Transformer A B C N Zero Sequence Currents A0 A0 B0 C0 C0 Section 10.) remain 120 degrees out of phase and are not cancelled out. and in doing so. Figure 5 shows the connection of a zero sequence transformer to the fourwire systems depicted in Section 10. In practical terms. The windings of at least two phases are wound in opposition around each core leg in order that the magnetic fluxes created by the zero sequence currents will oppose.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics An effective method of reducing the neutral currents in a fourwire system is to use “zero sequence transformers”. Figure 2. 11th. and therefore cancel out.
Note: The active filter should be dimensioned in terms of “harmonic cancellation current” based on the actual currents drawn with the filter in circuit. which removes the fundamental component (i. therefore. Figure 6. illustrates the use of ZST and a combined phase shift and zero sequence transformer with 30 degrees phase shift to treat the 3rd harmonic current and other triplens and to provide “cancellation” of the 5th and 7th harmonics within the system. if rated correctly in terms of “harmonic cancellation current”. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Figure 7. In theory. 50 Hz or 60 Hz component). provides the load with the harmonic current it needs to function and the source is only supplies the fundamental current which is sinusoidal.1. 2006 146 . FIGURE 6 Zero Sequence Transformer and Combined Phase Shift Transformer with ZST to Cancel Triplen and 5th and 7th Harmonic Currents 4. depending on the numbers and rating of discrete loads.2 Active Filters for Fourwire Systems An alternative method to reduce the triplen harmonics is an active filter. The remainder of the signal is termed a voltage signal which is an “image” of the harmonic distortion current. the active filter monitors the current in the three phases (and also the neutral. The voltage signal is fed into.e. for example. a “notch filter”. below.1 Combined Zero Sequence Mitigation and Phase Shifting for Neutral Current Reduction and Harmonic Mitigation “Zero sequence transformers” (ZST) can also be used in conjunction with phase shift transformers to provide effective harmonic attenuation from 3rd to up to 19th harmonics. amplified and injected into the load as “harmonic cancellation current” which matches the needs of the nonlinear load.. below. Section 10. The theory of operation of active filters in covered in Subsection 10/7. the active filter.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics 4. depending on manufacturer) via the current transformers (CTs) installed on the load side of the connection (note that source side monitoring is also used on occasion). That voltage signal is then converted into a current signal. With reference to Section 10.
.... the result is an induced voltage (in opposition to the applied voltage) across its terminals according to the formula: E=L di ............ When the current through a reactor changes.... the rate of rise of voltage will also be limited.......................... Similarly..... The laminated steel core is usually impregnated to reduce audible noise due to eddy currents........ In addition. if the circuit current or supply conditions are such that they create a voltage step change...Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 7 Block Diagram of Active Filter on Fourwire Application 5 Standard Reactors for Threephase AC and DC Drives Reactors. then the reactor tends to limit the rate of raise of voltage.... similar in construction to power transformers........ one must consider the impact it has on the power circuit......... In order to understand the benefit of a reactor..... in Henrys rate of rise of voltage It can therefore be seen that if the voltage available is limited..... (10...... ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .. 2006 147 ......1) dt where E L di dt = = = induced voltage inductance...... Reactors are a simple but effective method to reduce the harmonics produced by nonlinear loads and are usually applied to individual loads such as variable speed drives. also known as “inductors”. the AC line reactor does reduce the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) at the input to the reactor compared to that at the terminals of the drive or other nonlinear load....... It is the latter characteristic which is useful in limiting the harmonic currents produced by electrical variable speed drives and other nonlinear loads.. consequently.... are coils of wire wound around a laminated steel core..... thus slowing the rate of rise of current............
depending on the type of drive design and/or necessary performance of the supply. 19…. FIGURE 8 Circuit Diagram of Standard 6Pulse AC PWM Drive In Section 10. The harmonics are therefore 5.. 2006 . 5. below. the total DC bus reactance is 2 × the value of L1). 7. the following are represented: • • • • R1 represents the resistance of the DC bus reactor L1 (if fitted). R1 and R2 have negligible effects on the harmonic currents. Figure 8 (i. 17.1 Reactors for AC PWM Drives A simple block diagram illustrating a standard 6pulse AC PWM variable frequency drive is shown in Section 10.e. L2 represents the AC line inductance of various values plus that of the supply. the harmonic currents drawn by a 6pulse AC PWM drive will consist of the fundamental and the characteristic harmonics as represented by: h=n⋅p±1 where h p n = = = harmonic number pulse number integer For 6pulse drives: h = 6n ± 1. 13.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics In electrical variable speed drives. Figure 8. Figure 8. L1 represents the inductance of a DC bus reactor of various values (where fitted). reactors are used in both AC and DC types. above. 11. Depending on the drive rating. as shown in Section 10. most manufacturers offer reactors either standard or as options. reactors are used on the AC line side (called AC line reactors). so will not be considered further. In order to simplify comparisons regarding the performance of the various inductances of AC line and DC bus reactors. in the DC bus (called DC bus reactors) or both. the DC bus reactor is divided into two discrete elements. They are often used in addition to other harmonic mitigation methods. Please note that in a perfectlybalanced system. On AC drives. 148 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
.. Percentage reactance can be defined as follows: %X = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ L ⋅ I AC ⋅ 100 .2 25258405 = 47. the phase voltage)]........ (10............ in % VAC = = = The formula can be transformed to calculate the necessary reactance in Henrys for any given percentage impedance as follows: %X ⋅ L= V AC 3 ............................ 60 Hz.... 2006 149 .......... the voltage will be “x%” of the LL voltage/1............ all the values of reactors will be referred to as “percentage reactances” referred to the current flowing in the AC supply............ The supply to the drive is threephase. (10. This means that the voltage at the fundamental frequency across the AC line reactor will be “x” percent of input voltage of the drive [i.............3) 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ I AC ⋅ 100 Example 1 Calculate the value of reactance in henrys necessary for a 3% reactor for a 630 kW (845 HP)..3 × 106 = 47..................e. 690 V..........Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics To maintain the results independent of current rating.................................. %X ⋅ Necessary reactance L = V AC 3 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ I AC ⋅ 100 3⋅ 690 = = 3 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 60 ⋅ 670 ⋅ 100 1195...3 µH (microHenrys) ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .......................... AC PWM drive having a full load input current of 670 A... in Henrys reactance..........2) V AC 3 where f IAC L X = = AC line frequency AC line current AC line voltage inductance..e..732 (i...
60 Hz supply.14% It should be noted that the attenuation of the drive harmonic currents is dependent on the value of percentage reactance inserted into the drive. DC bus or both. whether in the AC line.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics Example 2 Calculate the percentage reactance of threephase line reactor having of value of 77 µH for use with a 315 kW (400 HP) PWM drive on a 480 V. 2006 .1 AC Line Reactors Only The use of AC line reactors are more common than DC bus reactors.1. is that there is a voltage drop at the terminals of the drive. as mentioned in 10/4. also provide a measure of surge suppression for the drive input rectifier. The effects of varying percentage reactance for both AC line and DC bus reactors and their resultant effect on both the magnitude and harmonic number can be observed by reference to the following illustrations: 5. The disadvantage. and in addition to reducing harmonic currents. Drive rated input current is 395 A. FIGURE 9 Variation of Harmonic Currents with AC Line Reactance Only 150 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .1. approximately in proportion to the percentage reactance at the terminals of the drive. %X = % X = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ L ⋅ I AC ⋅ 100 V AC 3 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 60 ⋅ 77 × 10 −6 ⋅ 395 ⋅ 100 = 480 3 = 1147 277 = 4.
2 DC Bus Reactors A relatively small number of AC PWM drive manufacturers do insert reactance in the DC bus. we can also estimate the harmonic currents and Ithd for a 5 % AC line reactor. although the rate of decrease diminishes somewhat as percentage reactance increases. Figure 9.1. the total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) as a percentage of the fundamental current based on harmonics 5. the input harmonics produced by PWM drives with no reactance is relatively high when the AC line reactor is less than 1%. the harmonic currents decrease. 19 would again be as follows: Ithd = 32 2 + 9 2 + 4 2 + 3 2 + 3 2 + 2 2 Ithd = 33. As the percentage AC line reactance increases. Figure 9. A similar exercise can be carried out to estimate the respective harmonic currents when a DC bus reactance is installed (Section 10. 13. 17. 11. 13. These drives normally need discrete surge suppression to protect the input bridge rectifier devices and to limit any surges which could affect the DC bus voltage levels. Figure 10). AC line reactors of values 23% are common which 5% being the usual maximum. • • • • • • 5th harmonic – 32% 7th harmonic – 9% 11th harmonic – 4% 13th harmonic – 3% 17th harmonic – 3% 19th harmonic – 2% The total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) as a percentage of the fundamental current based on harmonics 5. 17.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics As illustrated above (Section 10. the harmonic currents for a 3% AC line reactor can be estimated: • • • • • • 5th harmonic – 40% 7th harmonic – 15% 11th harmonic – 5% 13th harmonic – 4% 17th harmonic – 4% 19th harmonic – 3% Based on the above estimation. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 7. thus avoiding any voltage drops associated with AC line reactors. Example 3 Using the information in Section 10.49% Example 4 Using similar information from Section 10. however. 2006 151 . Figure 9). 11.8% 5. 19 would be: Ithd = 40 2 + 15 2 + 5 2 + 5 2 + 4 2 + 3 2 Ithd = 43. 7.
11.5% 17th harmonic – 5% 19th harmonic – 5% Based on the above estimation.3 Reactance on Both Sides of the Input Rectifier On larger drives. Both are used when the short circuit capacity of a dedicated supply is relatively low compared to the drive kVA or if the supply susceptible to disturbances.1. 13.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics Note that below rated load. 7. Figure 10. the inductance increases. Therefore. the percentage harmonic currents will be higher than anticipated. at reduced load. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . at less than rated load. 19 would be: Ithd = 30 2 + 20 2 + 8 2 + 7.5 2 + 5 2 + 5 2 Ithd = 38. the DC bus reactor percentage reactance is lower than at rated load. the total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) as a percentage of the fundamental current based on harmonics 5. both AC line and DC bus reactors may be used.35% 5. FIGURE 10 DC Bus Reactance Only in AC PWM Drive Example 5 Using the information in Section 10. the harmonic currents for a 3% DC bus reactor can be estimated: • • • • • • 5th harmonic – 30% 7th harmonic – 20% 11th harmonic – 8% 13th harmonic – 7. 2006 152 . This is due to the reactors being designed (usually for economic reasons) to partially saturate at rated load. Therefore. 17.
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . but this harmonic current may significantly distort the supply voltage. similar percentage attenuation.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics Section 10. 2006 153 . 5% transformer) will permit more harmonic current to be drawn by the nonlinear load without unduly distorting the voltage. illustrates the effect on the 5th harmonic of varying values of AC line and DC bus reactance. More importantly. increasing the percentage reactance in the AC line results in a smaller reduction in the harmonic currents. They also improve the true power factor and provide surge suppression. it is the short circuit capacity of the source which largely determines the harmonic current magnitudes.1.. Xd″ of 17%) will restrict the magnitude of harmonic current due to its leakage reactance. as depicted above.g.e. increasing the AC line reactance does result in a significant reduction in the 5th harmonic. 6 AC Line Reactors for DC SCR Drives and AC Drives with SCR Input Rectifiers AC line reactors for use with AC and DC drives having full controlled SCR input bridges reduce harmonic currents in a similar manner to that illustrated in 10/4. the reduction diminishing as the harmonic number diminishes. As described previously.1 on a pro rata basis (i. A similar effect is apparent for higher order harmonics. It should be stated that harmonic current magnitudes are also dependent to a lesser extent on the value of the DC bus capacitance per amp of load current. whereas a “soft” source (e. FIGURE 11 Variation in 5 Harmonic Current for Differing Values of AC Line Reactance and DC Bus Reactance th Note that when the percentage reactance in the DC bus is low. below.g.. However. a “stiff” source (e. when the percentage reactance in the DC bus is high (4% or more). Figure 11.. but perhaps based on differing individual harmonic current magnitudes depending on the type of drive and inductance on the DC side of the bridge rectifier).
Section
10
Mitigation of Harmonics
However, another important function of the AC line reactors in these applications is the reduction of line notching (see Subsection 2/6, “Line Notching”). In DC drives, AC line reactors are therefore often termed “commutation reactors”. With reference to Section 10, Figure 12, below; it should be reemphasized that the line notching occurs 6 times per cycle on a 6pulse bridge and is the result of the commutation of the load current from one pair of SCRs to another. During this process, the line voltage is short circuited, producing two primary notches per cycle. In addition, there are four secondary notches of lower amplitude which are “notch reflections” due to the commutation of the other two legs of the threephase bridge rectifier. The short circuit current duration, or “notch width”, is a function of the DC output current of the rectifier and the total inductance in the power system.
FIGURE 12 Primary and Secondary Notching
The notch depth is a function of where the notch is viewed on the power system. The further away it is seen from the terminals of the bridge rectifier, the less significant it will seem. This can be explained with reference to Section 10, Figure 13, below.
FIGURE 13 Line Impedance Distribution and the Effect of Notching
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ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006
Section
10
Mitigation of Harmonics
At Point “A” (the rectifier terminals), the notching will be at its most severe, similar to that illustrated in Section 10, Figure 13, if it is assumed that all the inductances L1, L2 and L3 are all equal. Due to the voltage divider type circuit over the three identical inductances, the notch depth at Point “B” (the input to the AC line reactor), will be 66% of the maximum depth seen at Point “A”. At Point “C”, it will be 33% of the depth seen at Point “A”. Therefore, it can be seen that the more the inductance between the source of the notch the less the depth. However, as explained in Section 2, the insertion of additional inductance will reduce the notch depth but will increase the notch width.
Note: It is the notch depth which is usually the more important due to interference with equipment which relies of zero crossing for operation.
The notch size can be calculated using the line side inductance and the bridge rectifier load current during the commutation period.
Notch Depth =
L1 + L2 ............................................................................................ (10.4) L1 + L2 + L3
If all inductance are equal, as per the example (Note: Actual L values of inductances will have to be inserted for practical calculations):
Notch Depth =
2 L1 = 66% 3L1
Notch Area = L ⋅ I ⋅ (Volts – µSecs)................................................................................... (10.5)
where
L I
= =
inductance of distribution transformer and supply inductance (cables, etc.) in microHenrys. DC load current at time of commutation, Amps.
Note that the inductance, L, is frequencydependent and is expressed in Henrys. For generators, the substransient reactance, Xd″, is the impedance of the fundamental harmonic frequency and is expressed in Ohms. In order to compare transformers with generators, one needs to compare the inductance L and reactance X for both. Xd″ mainly comprises reactance X and can be expressed in Ohms [this value, divided by 2πf (frequency)] will result in inductance L.
Notch Depth =
Notch Area .............................................................................. (10.6) Commutation Voltage
where the commutation voltage =
2 E LL rms sin α and
α
E
= =
delay angle of SCR in degrees line to line voltage at time of commutation.
It should also be noted that only additional reactance at the rectifier terminals will have a desired effect in attenuating the notching. Placing additional reactance elsewhere usually results in little improvement. Note that standard AC line reactances are usually available on a per drive size basis and that calculations as illustrated above are not normally necessary. The industry standard is a 3% AC line reactor. This can reduce the notch depth by up to 50% of the depth seen at the rectifier terminals. Larger reactors, up to 5%, are not common, as the larger reduction in notch depth is accompanied by a large increase in the notch width, which may interfere with the rectifier operation.
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The effectiveness of any additional inductance is dependent on the impedance of the system. The lower the impedance, the less effective any additional inductance will be in reducing the notch depth. Notch limits are specified in North American Harmonic Recommendation IEEE 519 (1992) and are currently as follows:
Special Applications (2) Notch Depth Vthd Notch Area (AN) Notes The value of AN for other than 480 V systems should be multiplied by V/480. 1 2 3 In voltmicroseconds at rated voltage and current. Special applications include airports and hospitals. A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to a converter load.
(1)
General Systems 20% 5% 22,800
Dedicated Systems (3) 50% 10% 36.500
10% 3% 16,400
7
Special Reactors for Threephase AC and DC Drives
As can be seen above, “standard” reactors provide only a limited measure of harmonic attenuation which is normally not sufficient to maintain compliance with harmonic standards, harmonic recommendations or to allow problemfree installations. For higher performance, more sophisticated reactor designs (for example, wide spectrum filter and the “Duplex” reactor) may be considered.
7.1
Wide Spectrum Filters
Wide spectrum filters are multilimbed reactors fitted with a small capacitor bank, as shown in Section 10, Figure 14, below. The three reactor windings are wound on a common core. L1 on the source side is the “high impedance winding”, whose design is such that it is “tuned” to prevent the importation of upstream harmonics. On the load side, the “compensating winding”, L2, decreases the through impedance, reducing the voltage drop. The output of L2 is tuned to remove a wide spectrum of loadside harmonics. A unique design of reactor, L3, permits a smaller capacitor bank to be used to reduce voltage boost and reactive power at no load.
Note: The capacitor bank KVAr is around 30% of installed filter KVA and should operate with any generator.
The wide spectrum filter tend to be largely unaffected by voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion (e.g., there is a documented case of a marine wide spectrum filter successfully operating with 22.1% background distortion on a cableship with full electric propulsion) and can be used on both 6pulse single drive and multiple drive applications. As it is a serial device (see Section 10, Figure 14), it effectively isolates the loads from the effects of any upstream (i.e., background) harmonics.
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FIGURE 14 Wide Spectrum Filter Schematic
A1 B1 C1
L1
L2
A2 B2 C2
L3
A3 B3 C3
C
Section 10, Figure 15 illustrates the current and voltage waveform from a standard 6pulse 200 HP/150 kW AC PWM drive with 3% DC link inductance. The Ithd is 39.9%.
FIGURE 15 200 HP/150 kW AC PWM Drive with 3% DC Bus Reactor – Ithd = 39.9%
The wide spectrum filter is connected to the drive(s) as per a standard AC line reactor (i.e., between the mains supply and the drive, as shown in Section 10, Figure 16). The output voltage of the wide spectrum filter is trapezoidal (Section 10, Figure 17), which forces the drive input bridge rectifier devices (e.g., diodes or SCRs) to conduct over a longer time period at a lower peak value, thus reducing the harmonics produced at the input. The performance on 6pulse AC PWM drives reduces the Ithd to around 58%, irrespective of whether the drive has AC line or DC bus reactors.
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FIGURE 16 Typical Wide Spectrum Filter Connection Diagram – AC PWM Drive
FIGURE 17 Trapezoidal Output Voltage from Wide Spectrum Filter
Filter output voltage
The effect of the wide spectrum filter on the 200 HP/150 kW AC PWM drive (Section 10, Figure 15) is to reduce the Ithd from 39.9% to 4.6%, as illustrated below in Section 10, Figure 18. The wide spectrum filter can be applied to AC drives, DC drives with fully controlled SCR input bridges and UPS systems.
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FIGURE 18 Mains Waveform with Wide Spectrum Filter – Ithd = 4.6%
A typical example of a the performance of a wide spectrum filter and a 350 HP, 480 V, 60 Hz AC PWM drive is shown in Section 10, Figure 19, below. The drive has a standard 3% AC line reactor and has an Ithd of 33.81%. With a wide spectrum filter connected in series, the Ithd reduces to 3.48%.
FIGURE 19 Typical Wide Spectrum Filter Performance 350 HP AC PWM Drive with 3% AC Line Reactance
Without Filter Ithd is 33.28%. With Filter Ithd is 3.48%. 350HP VFDVFD without/with filterfilter 350HP without/with Lineator
35 30 25 20 Ithd (%) 15 10 5 0
Lineator Without filter Lineator With filter
5
11
41
17
29
23
35
Harmonic
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Wide spectrum filters are available in a range up to around 3000 HP/2250 kW and can be applied to multiple drives on the basis that the rating (in HP/kW) is a sum of all the connected drives. However, no fixed speed induction motors or other nondrive load should be connected to a wide spectrum filter, due to trapezoidal nature of output voltage. Typical applications in the marine and offshore sectors are drives with power ratings of less than 2.5 MW, for main propulsion, thrusters, cableship winches, compressors, fan and pump drives, etc. Wide spectrum filters can be retrofitted to existing drives without the need for drive modifications, whether for single drive or for multiple drive applications. Wide spectrum filters may be developed for systems with voltages above 1 KV and with higher power ratings (above 2.5 MW) for those applications with 6pulse AC drives in systems with voltages above 1 KV.
Note: For 12pulse drives and other loads, a variant of the wide spectrum filter is available. As can be seen from Section 10, Figure 20, below, a wide spectrum filter is inserted in the primary of the phase shift transformer and results in an Ithd of around 34%, similar to that expected from a 24pulse drive, but without the susceptibility to performance degradation due to voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion normally associated with phase shift drives. The unit is around 3035% the physical size of a standard 6pulse wide spectrum filter.
FIGURE 20 Wide Spectrum Filter with 12Pulse AC Drive
FILTER
The 12pulse variants may be useful, perhaps as retrofits, in applications where the use of single or multiple 12pulse drives and/or other equipment are insufficient to guarantee compliance with harmonic recommendations, rules or standards or where levels of voltage distortion are proving troublesome.
7.2
Duplex Reactors
Duplex reactors originated in Europe in the 1930s and have been used on a number of vessels since the mid 1980s, mainly for mitigation of the harmonics produced by main propulsion drives and also with shaft generators to minimize the distortion of the voltage supplied to the ship’s busbar system. Duplex reactors have two galvanically separated but tightly magnetically coupled coils (Section 10, Figure 21). The primary coil is connected similarly to that when using standard reactors (i.e., in series with the load). The secondary coil is connected to the primary coil using an antiparallel connection so that a corrective voltage is induced which, when “added” to the primary distorted voltage, produces a clean compensated voltage, as illustrated in Section 10, Figures 22a, 22b and 22c.
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The addition of the duplex reactor into the system results in the short circuit capacity in “Subsystem 1”. and therefore.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 21 Duplex Reactor Schematic The generator XG should be determined from short circuit calculations. Figure 21. as shown in Section 10. being 50% of that if it were connected directly to the generator(s). The inductance of the duplex reactor is designed to be equal to the subtransient reactance (Xd″) of the generator(s). 2006 161 . FIGURE 22a System Voltage Waveform ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the voltage distortion on this side of reactor will increase accordingly (if XG″ = XD1 = XD2). This results in the system impedance being doubled in value.
162 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 22b Duplex Reactor Correction Voltage FIGURE 22c “Corrected” System Voltage Section 10. applied instead of standard AC line or “commutating” reactors for the mitigation of inrush voltage during the commutation of SCR based drive current (in this instance. the optimum condition was with two generators running. As the reactance at the generators is dependent on the rating and number of generators on line. it is necessary to either have some means of switching the ratio of turns on the duplex reactor or to base optimization on one operational condition with a given number of generators on line. on a research vessel with two DC SCR main propulsion drives). Figure 23 illustrates a typical application of duplex reactors. The accuracy and quality of the correction voltage is dependent on a number of factors. as can be seen from Section 10. Figure 24. 2006 . The optimum ratio of the winding turns on the duplex reactor results from the ratio of the subtransient reactance (Xd″) of the generator(s) to the primary reactance of duplex reactor. For the system illustrated in Section 10 Figure 23.
fed via the secondary windings of the duplex reactors.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics In Section 10. and the “clean bus” (which may contain “distortion” due to the reduced fault rating). Figure 23. fed via the primary windings of the reactors which are connected to the DC converters. FIGURE 23 Application of Duplex Reactors on Main Propulsion Drives FIGURE 24 Variation of System Vthd with Number of Generators on Line (Figure 23) ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 163 . note the differentiation of the “distorted bus”.
However. However. Figure 25 are: i) According to actual measurements performed on one of these passenger vessels (with 2 × 20 MVA cycloconverter drives) on differing numbers of generators operating. the voltage distortion (Vthd) in the general service bus will not unduly affected by the propulsion load. Figure 25.) The prospective short circuit current in the general service bus will be reduced to 33% of that without the duplex reactors in the circuit. as the branch for supply of the propulsion bus carries higher load current than the general service bus. a configuration is needed such that the reactors are closely coupled to the generators. the generator voltage regulators both maintain general service bus voltages constant and the variation in voltage between both the propulsion and general service buses within tolerable limits. any voltage distortion due to the nonlinear load connected to the general service bus will be slightly higher than without the diplex reactors. FIGURE 25 Duplex Reactors on Passenger Ships with 2 × 20 MW Cycloconverters The important points of the configuration in Section 10. Figure 25. Some recent passenger ships with full electric propulsion based on cycloconverter drives have this configuration of duplex reactors. for the duplex reactor performance to be as independent as possible from the number of generators in service. as illustrated in Section 10. 2006 . ii) 164 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . (The 2. and hence the number of generators on line at any one time. there is a small variation in the voltages on the two systems.7% Vthd measured on the general service bus was largely attributed to the nonlinear loads connected to the service bus. Therefore. the number of turns on the propulsion branch of the duplex reactor is 50% of that on the general service branch.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics The performance of duplex reactors depends upon the system subtransient reactance. not a reflection the propulsion load voltage distortion. With reference to Section 10. As a consequence.
Vthd on the propulsion bus will therefore be around 33% higher than without duplex reactors installed. on power systems with duplex reactors. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Figure 26). In addition. The general bus and propulsion bus are effectively isolated. below. Figure 27. as mentioned above. and therefore. and performance. FIGURE 26 Application of Duplex Reactors on Shaft Generators Diode Input Rectifier GTO Short Circuit Protection SCR Inverter Bridge Fuse Duplex Reactor Protection Synchronous Compensator Syn Comp Shaft Generator SG Ship's Busbars Power systems with multiple converter loads can utilize duplex reactors as illustrated in Section 10. Therefore any disturbances. duplex reactors are now applied to shaft generators where they can reduce the Vthd of the voltage supplied to the ship’s busbars to <8% (Section 10. It should be noted that the generators supplying systems with duplex reactors are subjected to higher levels of distortion due to reduction in fault rating.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics iii) The prospective short current in the propulsion bus will be reduced to 66% of that apparent without duplex reactors. iv) As mentioned previously. However. large fixed speed AC squirrel cage motors may have an increased voltage dip and reduced torque at startup. transient or continuous. Duplex reactors have to be encompassed in the design of the vessel at an early stage and retrofitting may be difficult. it has to be stated that for other than twogenerator operation. their use may not be as straightforward or as wellunderstood as other technologies. only partial performance would be achieved. will not be reflected on the general service bus. This will have to be taken into account in generator design(s). The development and application of duplex reactors may not yet have reached their full potential. Special design and/or precautions will be necessary to minimize these effects. including any short circuit effects emanating from the propulsion bus. This example needed two duplex reactors and optimization would have to be designed for the parallel operation of two generators. The voltage distortion. The application of duplex reactors is often a compromise between economics. 2006 165 .
.. which is generally low......................e.............. comprising inductors............ 2006 ....................Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 27 Application of Duplex Reactors Vessel with Multiple AC SCR Based Drives 8 Passive LC Filters Passive LC filters.......... the resistance................... which determines the “sharpness” of the “tuning” of the passive filter..............9) capacitance The impedance of a capacitor decreases with frequency.......... (10................ At series resonance..8) where Z f L = = = impedance supply frequency inductance Therefore the impedance of an inductor increases with frequency.................. is the only impedance in the circuit.................... The circuit “Q” (i........................................... capacitors and occasionally resistors have been utilized for harmonic mitigation for many years... (see Section 9 for further information) which is: Z = 2πfL for an inductor... Z= where C 1 2πfC = for a capacitor . and therefore.......................... quality factor)..... the impedance of an inductor (XL) and capacitive reactance (XC) of the capacitor are equal........................ Their operation relies on the “resonance phenomenon” which occurs due to variations in frequency in inductors and capacitors...........10) R = = = quality factor (usually in the range of 20 to 100) reactance at resonance resistance in circuit ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ......... (10. is calculated thus: Q= where Q Xr R 166 Xr ........................... (10........
....... (10.... can be given as: f0 = where f0 L C = = = resonant frequency........... Figure 28 shows the tuned characteristics of 7th harmonic filter).. for example). Section 10........ Hz filter inductance............... usually connected in parallel with nonlinear load(s).... However........... below.. the formula above can be modified as follows for parallel resonance: f0 = where LF CF = filter inductance inductance on busbars filter capacitance LSource = = 1 (2π (L F + LSource ) ⋅ C F ) ....................... filter capacitance......... illustrates absolute impedance for a 7th harmonic tuned filter over a range of frequencies.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics The resonant frequency for a series resonant circuit...11) The series passive filters... Therefore.................. 2006 167 ... (10...................... for a parallel resonant circuit. such as SCRs.............. Farads (2π 1 L⋅C ) .......... the inductance of the source has to be taken into account due to the production of parallel resonance at a frequency lower than that for series resonance (perhaps causing power system positive feedback and also resulting in the misfire of power devices. and in theory.... Figure 28........12) FIGURE 28 Absolute Impedance Characteristics for Tuned 7th Harmonic Series Filter ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ................... Henrys............. are “tuned” to offer very low impedance to the harmonic frequency to be mitigated (Section 10....
Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics There are a number of common passive filter configurations which are depicted in Section 10. 11th (660 Hz) and 13th (780 Hz) harmonics depicted in Section 10. above the 13th harmonic. including possible 11th and 13th can also be applied. 7th (420 Hz). with the “single tuned” filter being one of the most common. passive filter performance is poor. and they are rarely applied on higherorder harmonics. are the most common configuration. Other multilimbed filters. Figure 29. In practical use. FIGURE 30 Simplified Connection of Multilimbed Passive Filter 168 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Figure 31). 2006 . below. 5th tuned filters. shows the impedance characteristic for a multilimbed filter with four discrete limbs tuned to the 5th (300 Hz). Note the respective parallel resonance for each filter below the series resonant points (these have been highlighted for the 11th harmonic in the example given). FIGURE 29 Common Configuration of Passive Filters Section 10. often with additional 7th tuned filters. However. Figure 30.
as the capacitor ages and/or if subject to higher temperatures. Dampening reduces the “sharpness” at the tuned frequency and increases the bandwidth of the filter. A reduction in the Q factor has only a minor effect. be modified (i. the capacitance decreases. 2006 169 .. and this must be taken into account in their design. increasing the reactance and thereby increasing the tuned filter’s resonant frequency). Typical values for each limb would be 4. 6. as the high impedances could result in additional voltage distortion of the respective harmonic currents at those frequencies. above).Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 31 Impedance Characteristics of Multilimbed Passive Filter In the example (Section 10. as illustrated in Section 10. below. the filtertuned limbs would normally be tuned below the respective characteristic frequencies to prevent possible overloading and to compensate for the variation in capacitance over time due to the degradation of the capacitor dielectric (i..6th (for 7th harmonic). Figure 31 could be problematic. Passive filters are susceptible to changes in source and load impedances. They do attract harmonics from other sources (i. Figure 30.7th (for 5th harmonic). however. as it can achieve the necessary damping with relatively low fundamental losses compared to Q factor control. from downstream of the PCC). “drive applied” (or “trap”) filters are available. the addition of resistance in parallel with the reactor is often preferred. This practice is called “dampening”. Figure 32. but at increased cost and reduced filter harmonic reduction performance..5th (for 11th harmonic) and 12. 10. and therefore.e.e. The parallel resonance frequencies can.4th (for 13th harmonic). ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . The passive resonance shown in Section 10. shifted) by careful design of the Q factor (via the sharpness of the tuning) or by connecting resistance in parallel with the filter reactors. Harmonic and power system studies are usually undertaken to calculate their effectiveness and to explore possibility of resonance in a power system due to their proposed use. In order to address the problems above for specific applications.e. such as not to coincide with a major characteristic harmonic frequency.
It further reduces the harmonic current spectrum on the source side. the passive filter “leading” kVAr is impressed on the source. if the source impedance were to change. as alluded to above. the source impedances will most probably differ. On industrial applications and utility supplies. a reactor (typically 5% reactance) is connected between the tuned passive filter and the source (reducing the supply voltage accordingly). but if connected to marine generators. frequency variations of ±5% are common and would have an adverse impact on the performance of tuned passive filters. They are often more suited to “dedicated systems” where the usually large. It may be possible for “trap filters” to be applied to drive applications irrespective of source impedance and possibility of system resonance. such as main electric propulsion drives and their associated power generation. An example may be a passive filter for a bank of winch drives on a cableship. are discrete from other loads. Similarly. The design of the filter is based on that one vessel – if the drives and filter (often containerized) were moved to another vessel. passive filters normally need indepth studies to assess their suitability. Also. 170 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . usually achievable from a wellengineered 5th and 7th limbed filter. design of passive filters is more complicated on generators due to increased frequency variations.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 32 Simplified “Drive Applied” or “Trap” Filter for Variable Speed Drives As can be seen above. In marine and offshore applications. On marine power systems. and especially at light load. Tuned passive filters perform best a rated load with around 1418% Ithd. this may not be problematic. as most generators cannot support any more than around 20% leading kVAr due to the potential of “armature reaction” and resultant overexcitation and AVR (automatic voltage regulator) instability. this can be a significant issue. filter performance would suffer. At lesser loads. The 5% reactor serves two functions: i) ii) It effectively isolates the passive filter from the source (and any preexisting voltage distortion) and reduces the possibility of overloading due to downstream harmonics. 2006 . nonlinear loads.
.... Figure 31 (which has two 6pulse converters) the necessary phase shift is: Phase Shift = 60 = 30° 2 Similarly. etc.. connected such that the harmonics produced by one bridge(s) cancels certain harmonics produced by other(s).e..........13) If a drive. Similarly... It will be noted that the 5th.. The amount of phase shift. are eliminated at the input (i... in the 12pulse drive system illustrated in Section 10...Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics 9 Transformer Phase Shifting (Multipulsing) For drives supplying 400 HP/300 kW motors (or larger) and other large nonlinear equipment.... as depicted in Section 10. it is known as a “12pulse drive”.. a standard threephase drive with one input converter is known as a “6pulse” drive (the number of pulses relates to the number of pulses on the DC side of the rectifier): No.. Figure 33.. multiple input converter bridges are necessary. of 6pulse input rectifiers in converter ... 17th and 19th harmonic are not listed. 35..... 37. the characteristic harmonics will be 17.... as known: Pulse Number ± 1 Therefore... however.... 23.... Similarly..14) Number of converters For example...... The technique of “phase shifting” the harmonic currents produced by one converter against those produced by another is also termed “multipulsing”.. In addition to reducing the line side harmonics... there are two main types of phase shift transformer used for drive harmonic mitigation: i) ii) Doublewound isolating transformer Polygonal nonisolating autotransformer ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .. with three input rectifiers it becomes an “18pulse drive”. phase shifting also reduces the voltage ripple on the DC side of the rectifier(s). 19. 37.. 18pulse systems have become common in North America due to the requirements of IEEE 519 (1992)...... of Pulses = 6 × No. in degrees. As can therefore be seen. 2006 171 .. an 18pulse system having three converters would need a 20 degrees phase shift. certain harmonics... In the marine and offshore environment.. primary side) of the phase shift transformer. “phase shifting” techniques have been commonly employed to reduce the input harmonic currents..... (10. as determined by the number of converter bridges in the system. Historically... (10.. The theoretical cancellation of certain harmonic current is dependent on the “pulse number” based on the format.. the characteristic harmonic currents will be 11...... In general terms..... below.. In theory.. in an 18pulse system.. for example has two input rectifiers. 49. but in recent years. 12pulse systems were still relatively common.. These are theoretically cancelled in a 12pulse system where the lowest harmonic is now the 11th... but they are becoming less common due to the introduction of harmonic recommendations in an increasing number of countries.... especially on larger or multiple loads... 25.. 35. 13. etc... 47. the more the lower order harmonics will be theoretically cancelled........ Pulse configurations up to 48pulse are possible for very large systems. The number of discrete converters in a system determines the “pulse number”.. 7th... 12pulse systems are still used in other parts of the world.. the higher the pulse number. Therefore.. necessary is also a function of the number of converters employed: Phase Shift° = 60 ... in a 12pulse system.... 12pulse systems were the most common configuration. but it is now recognized that they have increasing difficulty complying with current harmonic recommendations.. hence the term “multipulse drives”. For example.
and is based on the following conditions: • • • • • Transformer leakage impedance of ~ 5% Supply impedance is 1. This configuration provides for optimum cancellation of the 5th and 7th harmonic.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics 9. that the circuit is carefully balanced and 120degree conduction is forced in each of the rectifier bridges through the use of the DC interbridge reactor.4% Completely balanced phase group impedances Rectified voltage drops are completely balanced The interbridge reactor was dimensioned to limit the pp current between bridges to 15% rated DC current There will always be some impedance unbalance. 2006 .5%) on performance of the doublewoundbased 12pulse system shown in Section 10. a small increase in unbalance can result in significant increases in the 5th and 7th harmonics at the primary side of the phase shift transformer. an “interbridge reactor”. Figure 33.1 Doublewound Isolating Transformer Phase Shift Systems The drive system depicted below (Section 10. however. Figure 34. In order to provide as near to specified performance. are susceptible to degradation in performance due to unbalance. two 6pulse input bridges. the transformer leakage impedance should be relatively high. below. providing. Section 10. DC reactors tend to be more common. whether in the voltage supply or through inaccuracies or tolerances during manufacturing of the transformer and/or the rectifiers.. a DC bus and an inverter bridge. from rectifiers). with 5% being typical. Note: As can be seen from Section 10.3%) to allow for other practical unbalances (e. Figure 34 illustrates the effect of minor unbalance (<1. but due to the voltage drop across them. the transformer should be designed with a relatively low value for secondary voltage unbalance (for example. irrespective of pulse number. 172 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . around 0. which will lead to an increase in the theoretical level of harmonics. FIGURE 33 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Doublewound Phase Shift Transformer All phase shift systems. AC interbridge reactors can also be used. In order to reduce the effects of unbalance in the secondary windings and rectifiers. Figure 33) comprises a doublewound isolating transformer with 30 degrees phase shift between the star and delta secondary windings.g.
e. but effective. therefore. 2006 173 . diodes or SCRs).2 Polygonal Nonisolating Autotransformer Phase Shift Systems For some marine and offshore applications an alternative to the doublewound transformerbased phase shift system is that based on the polygonal. between conductors and ground) via the use of copper shielding between windings. A polygonal autotransformer is essentially a delta winding structure which permits the unbalancing 3rd harmonics to circulate. the doublewound isolating transformer provides galvanic isolation between input and output. as one side of the filter capacitors needs a connection to ground. On vessels with IT power systems (i. Doublewound transformers tend to be common on marine applications. below.e. if a ground fault appeared on the system. insulated neutrals). EMI filter for the drive. The capacitors would be damaged. the results are higher than expected harmonic levels. A typical 12pulse drive system based on a polygonal autotransformer is shown in Section 10. nonisolating autotransformer. poor bridge rectifier and transformer utilization and possible problems in rating the bridge electronic devices (i. The performance may not be as effective. thus attenuating the common mode and other conducted emissions. based on a doublewound phase shift transformer can give a practical performance of around 1012% Ithd based on ideal supply conditions in terms of background voltage distortion and voltage unbalance. A welldesigned 12pulse drive system.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 34 Doublewound 12Pulse Phase Shift Transformer Unbalance Between Secondary Voltages Doublewound transformers need an accurately design system and increased leakage reactance. the interbridge reactor may not be necessary. Figure 35.. with around 1517% Ithd being typical for a 12pulse system. This can serve the purpose of a crude. standard drive EMC or EMI filters cannot be used.. as they can provide common mode noise attenuation (i. Note that on carefully designed systems. In these applications. if balance is not achieved. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . However. 9.e..
Figure 36 and is based on the following conditions: • • • • • • Transformer impedance of ~ 1%. The drive is operating at rated load. which would otherwise flow between bridge rectifiers Force the bridge rectifiers to appear as balanced loads to each of the two threephase groups of the polygonal autotransformer Maintain a relativelybalanced utilization of the rectifier The performance of a typical polygonal autotransformerbased 12pulse drive system is shown in Section 10. 174 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Two large interbridge reactors are necessary in this configuration in order to: i) ii) iii) Attenuate the significant amounts of 3rd harmonics. Additional AC line reactance of up to 2% is present.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 35 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Polygonal Autotransformer The 12pulse polygonal autotransformer above provides ±15° phase shift relative to the input and thereby 30° between the two bridge rectifiers. The impedances per phase group are completely balanced. Both interbridge reactors are approximately six (6) times the value for a similar rating of drive with doublewound transformer. 2006 . The rectifier voltage drops are completely balanced.
6%. Section 10. but may be sufficient for many applications. 9. 2006 175 . This unbalance may be due to manufacturing tolerances in the transformers and/or the rectifiers. on a balanced system. This level of performance is maintained down to below 15% load. AC Reactance for a 12Pulse AC PWM Drive with Polygonal Autotransformer As can be seen from above.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 36 Variation on Harmonic Currents vs. with distortion significantly increased. unbalance does have a detrimental effect of the performance of phase shift transformers. the Ithd at rated load is around 5. However. At reduced load. as shown in Section 10. no supply is completely balanced. the performance at 100% load is reduced to around 21% Ithd. Figure 38 illustrates the effect on the performance of a typical 18pulse (20degree phase shift) system. the performance is markedly poorer.3 The Effect of Voltage Unbalance on Phase Shift Performance As mentioned earlier. irrespective of pulse number. Figure 37. However. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . the performance of polygonal autotransformers is not as effective as that offered by doublewound transformers. impacting on the performance of the phase shifting scheme. In North America. unbalanced voltages between 13% readily exist in many power systems. when 2% unbalance is introduced. As can be seen with the example.
Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 37 Typical 18Pulse Drive System FIGURE 38 Effect of 2% Unbalance on 18Pulse Drive 176 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 .
has to be carefully considered. therefore. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . respectively. the performance diminishes to around 15% Ithd at rated load and 23% Ithd at 50% load.). However. In such applications. It should be noted that background voltage distortion on some classes of existing ships and offshore installations may be excess on 10%. beyond these levels. with 5% background distortion. Figure 39 shows the degradation of performance of a similar 18pulse to that described above. FIGURE 39 Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on an 18Pulse Drive As illustrated above. etc.. on drilling rigs. dynamically positioned drillships.g. 2006 177 . The performance of phase shiftbased drive systems.4 The Effect of Background Voltage Distortion on Phase Shift Performance The presence of “preexisting” or “background” voltage distortion also significantly affects the performance of phase shifting systems. if the necessary level of mitigation is to be achieved under high levels of background distortion. with a number of instances recorded where the background Vthd was in excess of 20%. using background voltage distortion values up to 5%.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics 9. Section 10. the performance is largely unaffected on background distortion up to 2% Vthd at rated load and up to 1% Vthd at 50% load. separate mitigation may have to be considered for retrofitting to other nonlinear equipment in order to reduce the overall voltage distortion such that any installed phase shift systems can operate more effectively. This may be the case where full electric propulsion has been installed on a common bus system or where the majority of the electrical load is nonlinear (e.
To facilitate the “quasi24pulse system”.or 24pulse system”) necessary. depicts a system comprising 4 × 132 kW AC PWM drives fed from an 1800 kVA transformer with 6% impedance. it can still be feasible to construct a quasi24pulse system (or any other pulse number based on a phase staggering based scheme). FIGURE 40 Quasi24Pulse System Using Phase Staggering Techniques 178 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Section 10. which can be fed from different phase shift transformers. all the loads should be of identical ratings. below. This technique can be used when there are multiple loads. there may not be an ideal load profile. as illustrated in this example.g. a “quasi18. Figure 40.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics 10 Transformer Phase Staggering (Quasi Multipulse) Systems A derivation of “phase shifting” is “phase staggering”. albeit with slightly less performance than it would have had if all the loads were balanced. In this case. For optimum performance. as in many practical applications. a minimum of four drives are necessary. The degree of phase shift per transformer is dependent on the number of discrete loads and the desired overall pulse number (e. 2006 .. However. ideally of similar or identical ratings.
2 is fed directly from the busbars of the switchboard.9% 9.7% 27.1% 1 drive 36.2% 1. 4. 1) has a 1:1 (i.5% 1. as shown in Section 10. and also importantly.6% 0.5% 1.e. It is. Table 1.7% 1% 1. phase shifted inputs of similar pulse number. Nevertheless.6% 13% 8% 3% 4% 1. however. one 132 kW drive (No. but offer better mitigation performance.7% 8. phase staggering is an effective method of reducing the harmonic currents from a number of drives and other nonlinear loads to within the necessary limits.6% 2. nonisolating autotransformers were used in this example.6% 13% 8% 3% 4% 1. and therefore will not be as common on marine and offshore installations. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .4% 2. Figure 40. TABLE 1 Estimated Harmonic Current Distortion Using Quasi24Pulse Phase Staggering System Harmonic 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 Ithd Note: 6pulse 36. Also. Both doublewound and polygonal autotransformers can be used to construct phase staggering schemes..8% 1. Phase staggering can offer good harmonic mitigation performance.5% 4 drives 7.5% 1.5% 1.5% when all four drives are operating at rated load.3% 2. no voltage transformation) transformer connected with 30 degrees phase shift between primary and secondary windings. electronic power factor correction). active filters do not present potential resonance to the network and are unaffected to changes in source impedance.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics As can be seen from Section 10. and therefore balanced.3% 0. but offer lower levels of performance with no galvanic isolation.2% 4.63% 2.9% 3 drives 12.3% 2. as has Drive No. hence the slightly lower performance than may have been expected with regard to the use of doublewound transformers. please note that in the table above. the calculations were based on ALL drives having similar loading.5% Polygonal. Polygonal autotransformers are smaller. galvanic isolation (normally a stipulation when EMI/EMC attenuation is necessary for the drives or other loads in a marine or offshore environment).8% 2. 11 11. Drive No. Doublewound tend to be larger.5% 1. prone to performance degradation due to voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion as are conventional drive dedicated phase shift transformers.6% 0.6% 0.1% 2 drives 25. and 20% residual for phase angle diversity.1 Electronic Filters Active Filters Active filters have been available since the late 1990s and are now relatively common in industrial applications for both harmonic mitigation and reactive power compensation (i.3% 2.6% 1.e. Unlike passive LC filters. This combination of phase shifting results in the Ithd reducing to 8..7% 40. 3 has a 15degree phase shift transformer connected. Drive No.8% 2. Phase staggering is not as effective in reducing harmonic currents as individual drives with multipulse.8% 0. 2006 179 .7% 40.7% 13.
.e.... 180° displayed) to compensate for the harmonic current...... parallel with the nonlinear load......15) where IS IL IF = = = source current (fundamental) nonlinear load current active filter current (harmonic) FIGURE 41 Block Diagram of Shunt Connection Active Filter with Associated Current Waveforms With reference to Section 10.............Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics Shuntconnected active filters (i.. the active filter measures the wave shape of the nonlinear load current waveform via current transformers (CTs) in the line........ the actual number of which varies according to the manufacturer.... 2006 180 .. 1015% higher current is typical for threephase loads].. Note: The active filter should be dimensioned in terms of “harmonic cancellation current” based on the actual nonlinear currents drawn with the filter in circuit [i. there are three currents in the circuit: IS = IL – LF ....... Figure 41. as shown in Section 10. Figure 41... As can be seen in Section 10.e.......... (10... below) are the common configuration of active filter..... The reference voltage derived from the CTs is fed into a notch filter or similar circuit.... Figure 41........ due to the filter’s low impedance (<1% Z)........... The remaining signal is a measure of the “distortion current” (i.. the load current less the fundamental current)... the nonlinear loads will draw more harmonic current than without the filter in the circuit... ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Less common seriesconnected types are available..............e.......e.. where the fundamental component is removed...... This signal is then fed into the control system which generates the respective IGBT firing patterns necessary in order to replicate and amplify the “distortion current” (now termed the “compensation current”)....... which is injected into the load in antiphase (i.....
after carrier frequency filtering. The precharge contactor and precharge resistor are used to “soft start” the DC bus (i... between all phases and ground (earth) and a measure of differential mode filtering (i. The EMI filter provides common mode filtering [i. FIGURE 42 Simplified Power Circuit of Active Filter The “carrier filter” attenuates the IGBT bridge carrier frequency (i..e. thereby maximizing the life of the capacitors. below. half controlled diode/SCR precharge input bridges (i. between phases)].e.e. The IGBT bridge and DC bus architecture are similar to that seen in AC PWM drives. reduce the inrush current to the DC bus capacitors during initial powerup). 2006 181 . this is to provide voltage control from powerup to full conduction when DC bus is charged).e. The IGBT bridge generates a current wave shape for the harmonic compensation based on the “distortion current” signal derived from the CTs and notch filter or similar circuit.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics When rated correctly in terms of “harmonic compensation current”. Section 10. Section 10. 50 Hz or 60 Hz component).. [This is a technique also used in AC variable frequency drives via either precharge (or ‘soft start’) resistors. illustrates a typical power circuit schematic of a shuntconnected active filter.e. However. as shown in Section 10. an uprated EMI filter or additional electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) filter is usually necessary in order to comply with the EU EMC Directive regarding limits of EMI emissions in the range 150 kHz to 30 MHz. mainly used in smaller HP/kW drives. or via 6pulse.e. Figure 42.. In these applications. Figure 42. the active filter provides the nonlinear load with the harmonic current it needs to function while the source provides only the fundamental current (i. some leakage may be apparent which can adversely affect snubber components on SCR front end based drives and other equipment. a 3% AC line reactor between the point of connection of the active filter and the nonlinear load is normally sufficient to prevent any adverse interaction and to reduce the harmonic current magnitude. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) and carrier filters are passive LC networks.. The DC bus is used as an energy storage unit. Figure 43 illustrates a typical current waveform for a 6pulse AC PWM drive: ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . The input bridge rectifier acts as diode bridge rectifier during normal operation]. On European Union (EU) applications. The DC bus is continually recharged via the IGBT package diodes. ~5 kHz to 20 MHz depending on the rating of the active filter – on higher ratings (>300 A) the switching frequency is usually reduced to minimize device power losses). The precharge resistors and associated contactor attenuate the DC bus inrush current during initial powerup.
2006 .Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 43 Typical AC PWM Drive Input Current Waveform (LL) as per Figure 41 The active filter “compensation current” is illustrated in Section 10. Figure 45: FIGURE 45 Source Current Waveform (LS) as per Figure 41 182 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . below: FIGURE 44 Active Filter “Compensation Current” Waveform (Lf) as per Figure 41 The corrected source current is shown below in Section 10. Figure 44.
FIGURE 46 Typical Active Filter Performance with 150 HP AC PWM with 3% AC Line Reactor Without Active Filter. due to damage to capacitive elements in the filter input.. On digitally controlled filters. it is possible that uncontrolled reactive current up to almost the maximum capacity of the active filter can be imposed on the source. illustrates typical performance of a correctly rated active filter.28%. the Ithd is reduced to 3. Failing to do so may result in the active filter being “saturated” prematurely (i. Figure 46. the amount of each can be selected via the user interface keypad. This may not be of concern on “stiff” shoreside utility supplies. However. electronic power factor correction). However.67%. This may be problematic. Without the active filter in the circuit.87%. 2006 183 . Active Filter Performance 35% 30% 25% Ithd 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 11 35 3 7 15 19 23 27 31 39 43 Harmonic 47 AF OFF AF ON Active filters compensate for harmonic currents and provide reactive power compensation (i. AC line reactors of least 3% should be connected between the filter and load(s).. but may well be problematic on “soft” marine and offshore generatorderived voltage supplies. The nonlinear load is an AC PWM drive with 3% AC line reactor. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . it is not usually possible to control the reactive current.e. The active filters should be rated in terms of “harmonic cancellation current”.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics Section 10. based on the currents actual drawn with the filter in circuit. with any additional harmonic current spilling over into the mains as “distortion current” and raising the source side voltage distortion. on power systems where the nonlinear load has been switched off or the load is at low levels. many active filters regularly operate intermittently at maximum output current levels without any known problems. the Ithd is 35. as detailed above. below. Ithd is 3. For example. current limited at its maximum rating). With the active filter operating. The AC line reactor also serves to provide protection to SCR front endbased drives from the active filter carrier frequency. Ithd is 35. To assist in the reduction of the magnitude of the harmonic current. With Active Filter. Most active filters cannot operate on high levels of voltage background distortion (>810%). The rating of an active filter should be based on the load current drawn with the active filter connected.e.28%. on older analog control system designs.
...... but published research work suggests the unbalanced voltages can generate a 2nd harmonic voltage in the DC bus....e.16) Example An active filter is rated at 300 A........... >810% Vthd) may....... Unlike the filter described in this Section...... 184 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..... also interfere with the generation of reference and other signals. whose amplitude is dependent on the DC bus capacitance.g.. These transformers have to be specifically designed based on the injection of harmonic currents at frequencies up to 2... and thereby a 2nd harmonic current. in the presence of high levels of background voltage distortion. those necessary for control and protection purposed) should be filtered... Calculate the available reactive current if the injected harmonic current is 220 A.. which varies according to the manufacturer and/or the amount of commutating reactance in the line..... LV active filters can inject into the supply via interposing transformers with a small loss in performance at higher frequencies. but have been known to be susceptible to voltage unbalance on the source side of the connection... 2006 .... For operation above 1 KV. Please note that little research has been undertaken with regards to the performance of active filter under unbalance conditions. IAF = Thus.. the “supply voltage signals” (i. reducing its harmonic compensation effectiveness.... (10... Excessive background voltage distortion (i....5 kHz or 3 kHz (50th harmonic based on 50 Hz and 60 Hz fundamentals). This 2nd harmonic can be reflected on the AC side of the filter as a 3rd harmonic.. Some impose limits on the maximum number treated up to the 50th (e..... the majority of active filters do not treat interharmonics...... in addition to damaging the capacitive elements in the active filter input......Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics The control of the amount of harmonic compensation current to reactive current on digital active filters is based on its rated capacity and is based on the following formula: IAF = where IAF Ih Ir = = = total output current of the active filter injected harmonic current of the filter injected reactive current 2 ( I h + I r2 ) . but cannot eliminate it completely...... They can be connected to any nonlinear load or point of common coupling (PCC).............. Active filters are relatively simple to apply. Active filters can usually reduce the notching.......... up to ten).. Note: Some active filters treat only up to the 25th harmonic...e.. Therefore.... Their effectiveness in reducing “line notching” due to fully controlled SCR drives and other similar equipment is dependent on the operating speed of the filter. Ir = Ir = 2 ( I h + I r2 ) 2 2 ( I AF − I h ) (300 2 − 220 2 ) Ir = 204 A Active filters have the ability to compensate for any loadside current unbalances... Performance depends on the control strategy adopted [“FFT” (selected characteristic harmonics)based or “broadband” (all nonlinear current)based]...
removes the majority of those harmonics and. the possibility of resonance in a power system and the effects on the performance of a passive filter should the load characteristic or source impedance change). FIGURE 47 Theoretical Shunt PassiveActive Hybrid Filter There is a misconception regarding the operation of hybrid shunt passiveactive filters using “standard” industrial active filters as depicted in the example shown in Section 10. 2006 185 . and comprises an active filter and a passive LC filter with 5th and 7th tuned harmonic limbs.e. It is assumed that the passive filter. For example: on installations needing large amounts of harmonic cancellation. The schematic diagram for a shuntconnected hybrid passiveactive filter is depicted in Section 10. illustrates the maximum output currents per harmonic available from a typical “standard” shunt active filter. below. based on the filter’s rated current. depending on the application criteria. it is usually not possible using “standard” shunt active filters due to thermal considerations. Figure 48. above. the active filter only has to be rated.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics Active filters are complex products. tuned to the 5th and 7th harmonic. The use of passive filter elements is often seen as a means to reduce the current rating of the active filter while still retaining the benefits. 11. although “self tuning” models are now becoming available. full commissioning by manufacturers is necessary to obtain optimum performance. Figure 47.2 Hybrid ActivePassive Filters The application of hybrid passiveactive filters may be considered as an alternative to the use of shunt active filters. below. In return. Also.. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . therefore. Figure 47. to provide harmonic cancellation for the 11th harmonic and above. Section 10. and it may not be possible for them to be repaired by any party other than the manufacturer’s service engineers. the connection of an active filter to a passive filter can eliminate the disadvantages of conventional passive filters (i. However. Active filters do offer good performance in the reduction of harmonics and the control of power factor. Their use should be examined on a projectbyproject basis.
. as depicted in Section 10. are affected by these thermal constraints. For similar rms current levels. 186 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . only 180 A will be available from the active filter for remainder of the harmonic currents from the 11th upward. Figure 48) per harmonic is “prohibited”. Figure 48 and the circuit in Section 10. which consists mainly of low order harmonics (e. For example. usually IGBTs. The larger rating of active filter will also have the same thermal constraints per harmonic current compensation. 11th and 13th tuned limbs. a larger rating of active filter may be necessary. there are lower values of currents to mitigate. Figure 47. 11th.e. the available active filter current to mitigate from 15th harmonic upwards would be 33% rated capacity. 2006 51 15 19 23 27 35 39 43 47 . 7th. the power that devices have to be derated thermally as per Section 10. Therefore. Therefore. Based on the graph in Section 10. This is accomplished automatically with the active filter. If the total harmonic current above the 11th is above 180 A. the losses in the output devices. most notably that associated with 6pulse drives and other nonlinear equipment. 13th. and sometimes exponentially. whether they are based on ‘broadband’ performance (i. the active filter would current limit) to protect the IGBTs from damage due to overtemperature. from the same graph.). as illustrated above. it is not always possible to reduce the rating of a standard shunt active filter when operated with a passive filter. increase significantly.g. At higher order characteristic harmonic frequencies. Note: Most active filters are designed to mitigate typical harmonic spectrums. only 45% of the active filter current rating would be available to compensate from the 11th harmonic upwards without temperature limits being exceeded (which would be prevented by saturation). they have the option of individual harmonic attenuation selection’). as the active filter thermal protection circuitry would initiate “saturation” (i.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 48 Thermal Limits of Shunt Active per Harmonic Current Active Filter Thermal Limits 120 Percentage max output current 100 80 60 40 20 0 Thermal limits per harmonic 3 7 11 31 Harmonic Operation above the limits illustrated (Section 10. 7th.e. The active filter will of course also mitigate any residual 5th and 7th harmonics not attenuated by the passive filter.. with increases in frequency. Figure 48. if the passive filter contained 5th. The majority of standard active filters. Figure 47.e. Based on the 5th and 7th harmonic currents being attenuated by the passive filter. 5th. a 400 A active filter will have 400 A maximum current available for all harmonic currents from 2nd to the 50th harmonic. Similarly. 17th and 19th etc. inject all the non linear current components into the load) and/or ‘selective FFT’ (i.
ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . which forces the harmonic currents to circulate through the passive filter. 2006 187 . connected in series to the passive filter via the coupling transformer imposes a voltage at the terminals at connection with the nonlinear load. Figure 49. therefore. The operation of the hybrid scheme is such that the active filter. above. according to Section 10. attenuating the 5th and 7th harmonic. if a nonlinear load needed 280 A of mitigation after the 5th and 7th harmonics were attenuated by a passive filter. Figure 49. that the rating of the “standard” active filter cannot be reduced when used in conjunction with passive filter and that the larger active filter rating necessary for operation with the passive filter could in fact mitigate all the harmonics of the nonlinear load without the need for passive filtration. Therefore. 750 A or 800 A. hybrid passiveactive filter comprises an active filter connected in series with a passive filter having two tuned limbs for the 5th and 7th harmonic. The active filter and passive filter are connected via coupling transformers. it is important that manufacturers be consulted closely when considering the use of “standard” shunt active filters with a hybrid passiveactive configuration. respectively. some shuntconnected (an example of which is illustrated in Section 10. Figure 48: IAF = 280 A = 623 A 0. the configuration of the example of custom designed.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics Similarly. below) and some seriesconnected. then the necessary rating of active filter would be. Hybrid passiveactive filters for installations with large nonlinear loads are often custom designed. for example. The residual 5th and 7th harmonic and the harmonic currents above the 7th would be compensated for by the active filter.45 Therefore an active filter of rated current of at least 623 A would be necessary. FIGURE 49 Practical Example of Hybrid Shunt PassiveActive Filter As can be seen in Section 10. It could be argued. Likely ratings may be 650 A. depending on the application.
FIGURE 50 Application of an IGBT “Active Front End” to an AC PWM Drive Employing PWM (pulse width modulation) waveform control techniques. the normal 6pulse diode input bridge has been replaced by a fully controlled IGBT bridge. As can be seen below. depending on the configuration. due to aging of components which would normally adversely affect operation). the passive filter compensation characteristics while also maintaining that the passive filter operates independently of any variations in natural resonant frequencies or filter characteristics (e. 2006 . also known as “sinusoidal input rectifiers”. are offered by a number of AC drive and UPS system companies in order to offer a low input harmonic footprint. below. 188 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics The active filter may improve.g. Figure 51. 12 “Active Front Ends” for AC PWM Drives “Active front ends”. The DC bus and the IGBT output bridge architecture are similar to that in standard 6pulse AC PWM drives with diode input bridges. However. By their nature hybrid passiveactive filters are not as simple to apply as standard active filters. an identical configuration to the output inverter bridge. the input IGBT bridge synthesizes a sinusoidal input current waveform as shown in Section 10. similar to that utilized in the construction of the output voltage waveform. An example of the application of an “active front end” (AFE) to an AC PWM drive is shown in Section 10. the passive filter kVAr at harmonic light load may be problematic on generatorderived supplies injecting leading reactive current into the source. Figure 50..
special precautions and installation techniques may be necessary when applying them. AFE drive have significantly higher conducted and radiated EMI emissions. Compared to similarlyrated conventional 6pulse AC PWM drives. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . as illustrated in the schematic (Section 10. below. 2006 189 . the operation of the input IGBT input bridge rectifier does significantly reduce low order harmonics compared to conventional AC PWM drives with 6pulse diode bridges with a typical Ithd of 23% (<50th harmonic). In order to minimize the effect of the residual voltage ripple. above 20:1. Figure 50). possibly exciting parallel resonance. as also illustrated below.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 51 ”Active Front End” Input Current and Voltage Waveforms As can be seen in Section 10. above the 50th. The Ithd of the harmonics above the 50th. However. (It should be noted that only harmonics up to 50th are usually considered in harmonics calculations. Although a significant amount of the AC voltage ripple is attenuated. the ratio of short circuit power to drive power should be as high as possible. some residual may still appear on the system network. are well in excess of the Ithd for those harmonics below the 50th. depending of the magnitude and nature of this residual ripple. standard harmonic measurements and harmonic rules and recommendations. and therefore. Harmonics above the 50th may have an adverse effect on plant and equipment unless suitably mitigated). for example. although this may not always be practicable in many marine installations. the action of IGBT switching introduces a pronounced “ripple” at carrier frequencies (~23 kHz) into the voltage waveform which must be attenuated by a combination of AC line reactors (which also serve as an energy store that allows the input IGBT rectifier to act as a boost regulator for the DC bus) and capacitors to form a passive inductancecapacitanceinductance filter (LCL filter). Figure 52. they can also introduce significant high order harmonics. further filtering may be necessary. In addition. Therefore. according to the information below.
AFE AC drives offer high dynamic response and are relatively immune to voltage dips.Section 10 Mitigation of Harmonics FIGURE 52 Typical Harmonic Current Input Spectrum for AC PWM Drive with an “Active Front End”. will not result in fuse rupture. 190 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 . Note the Harmonic Currents Above the 50th AFE drives are inherently “four quadrant” (i.981. for example.0). and unlike SCR based drives. may have to be investigated. on main propulsion drives during emergency reversal. However. they can drive and brake in both directions of rotation with any excess kinetic energy during braking regenerated to the supply).e. The true power factor of AFE drive is high (approximately 0. the effect of severe regenerative braking on the generators. The reactive current is usually controllable via the drive interface keypad.. in the event of a power failure during regenerative braking commutation.
Further. then the system should be operated within this 10% limit. the transformers to the 480V system may only be rated for 8% and the equipment supplied from the branch circuits off the 480V system may only be rated for 5%. provided the equipment is designed to operate at the higher limits. such that the faultless operation. as measured at any point of common coupling (PCC). For example: Most of the large drives on a main 4160V switchboard may be rated for 12%.g. The range of harmonics to be taken into account should be up to the 50th harmonic. the voltage distortions from each of the individual harmonics are to be within the ratings of all of the equipment and consumers connected to the dedicated system. Further when the system is operated at the 10% limit. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .SECTION 11 Harmonic Limit Recommendations 1 General Systems In general systems. then it may not be necessary to provide any further harmonic mitigation provided that immediate adverse effects of harmonics (e. However. but the equipment supplied by one branch circuit off the 4160V switchboard may be rated for only 5%. for all of the equipment connected to the system to be designed for an increased level of harmonic voltage distortion. in lieu of the general 5% limit. 3 Operating Modes All operating modes of the vessel and associated electrical power demands should be considered. This increased limit of harmonic voltage distortion should be based on formal guarantees or formal declarations from equipment manufacturers. higher levels of total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) may be permissible. Generally. ship service loads and/or industrial loads are all supplied from a common power system. For example: when all of the equipment and consumers connected to the dedicated system are designed and rated for a total harmonic voltage distortion of 10%. safety and long term reliability of all connected equipment can be demonstrated. This method is generally not practical on power systems where propulsion loads. where other ships service loads are supplied by a separate switchboard. 2 Dedicated Systems On dedicated systems. the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) should not exceed 5%. there are too many different manufacturers and too many different branch circuits. if the harmonic limit recommendations are exceeded during those operating modes that do not occur frequently or those operating modes that will not last for an extended period. 2006 191 . instrumentation errors) will not result. with any individual harmonic voltage distortion not exceeding 3% of the fundamental voltage value. The harmonic limit recommendations would be applicable during all operating modes. such as a dedicated propulsion switchboard. The range of harmonics to be taken into account should be up to the 50th harmonic.
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However.g.) and include the effects of phase angle diversity. the effect of cables or other system inductance on the resultant harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion.82% 25th – 1.37% 13th – 3. the calculations are exactly the same). examples of “simple” manual harmonic calculations are given. connected linear loads. 1 Manual Calculation of Voltage Distortion Simple voltage distortion calculations can be undertaken based on specific information being available regarding the nonlinear load(s) percentage harmonic currents and source data [e. The drive manufacturer has advised the characteristic harmonic currents to the 25th based on a 2% DC bus reactor on this transformer source to be as below. etc. 12pulse drives. 18pulse drives.45% 19th – 2. In this instance. 2006 193 . For higher order harmonics.35% 23rd – 1.51% ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . only up to the 25th harmonic is used for simplicity in order to demonstrate the principles. impedance (or Xd″) or short circuit capacity]. Example 1 An 850 HP/630 kW 6pulse AC PWM drive with full load input current of 962 A is to be supplied from a 2000 kVA 6000 V/480 V transformer with 6% impedance.91% 17th – 3.21% 11th – 7.g. the connection of linear loads and the effects of cables and other system inductances on the resultant harmonics at a point of common connection (PCC). Harmonic spectrum to 25th is: 5th – 32. 6pulse drives with varying values of AC line and/or DC bus reactance. Note: For simplicity.27% 7th – 11. course kVA. these examples do not consider any harmonics above the 25th (the exact procedure can be used up to the 50th) nor the effects of phase angle diversification. These calculations are usually undertaken using dedicated harmonic estimation software which often have models of various types of nonlinear loads (e.SECTION 12 Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion The operation of both large individual and/or large cumulative nonlinear loads needs to be considered with regard to their impact on the power system voltage distortion and subsequent effect on other loads. Note: The harmonics up to the 50th should be used in all practical applications. in order to appreciate the methodology of harmonic estimation software...
........5) where Irms Ih% = = total rms input current percentage harmonic current at harmonic order (e.e........100 A (40.............4) Short Circuit MVA 480 2 33.. the individual voltage per harmonic order can be calculated using the following method: Harmonic current per order = Irms × Ih% ......00692 Ω Once the above information has been established.......g........................................ (12...27% at 5th) 3 × h × Xsupply × Ih.. (12..1) = Transformer full load current (A) = 2406 A ii) Short circuit current = = Transformer full load current ............... 11th = 11…) supply reactance................1 kA) iii) Short circuit MVA = = 1...34 × 10 6 = Supply reactance = 0. 5th = 5. h system LL rms voltage Vrms = 194 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .............3) Short circuit current = 40.............6) Voltage (LL) per harmonic order = where h Ih = = harmonic order (i....... (12................ in ohms harmonic current (A) at harmonic order............ (12... 32........Section 12 Direct Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion Calculate the source short circuit capacity and supply reactance on secondary of transformer: i) Transformer full load current (A) = Transformer kVA Secondary V × 3 2000 ×10 3 480 × 1........... (12........................732 .............06 3 × V × Short Circuit Current ..........732 × 480 × 40100 Short circuit MVA = 33.......2) Transformer impedance 2406 0......... h Vh × 100% ............... 2006 ..................... (12.....7) Vrms Xsupply = Harmonic voltage as a percentage of LL rms voltage = where Vh = harmonic voltage at order..34 MVA iv) Supply reactance = V2 .. (12...
83 4.35 1.35 5.91 3.60 9.6 V 5th harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = = Vh × 100% Vrms 108.41 1.35 Vh% 3.51 14.76 5.2 22.1121 = 107.84 70.61 33.45 2.52 Vh (V) 18.04 9.3227 = 310.88 1.82 1.88% Similarly for 7th harmonic: 7th harmonic current = Irms × Ih% = 962 × 0.44 A 5th harmonic voltage (LL) = 3 × h × Xsupply × Ih = 1.84 A 7th harmonic voltage (LL) = 3 × h × Xsupply × Ih = 1.27 11.37 3.Section 12 Direct Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion For 5th harmonic: 5th harmonic current = Irms × Ih% = 962 × 0.6 × 100% 480 5th harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = 3.88 1.14 4.71 1.04 V 7th harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = = Vh × 100% Vrms 9.22 1.95 1. 2006 195 .61 17.44 107.00692 × 310.84 = 9.00692 × 107.51 Ih (A) 310.88% Using the above method for all harmonics up to 25th.732 × 5 × 0.91 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .04 × 100% 480 7th harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = 1.85 6. the following summary table can be constructed: TABLE 1 Summary of Harmonics to 25th Harmonic 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 Ih% 32.732 × 7 × 0.44 = 18.01 0.21 7.9 37.
.... (12..43% 17th – 1..... (12...55% Example 2 The same 850 HP/630 kW. 962 A..93% 25th – 0..95 2 + 1.. Note that compared to Example 1......63% 7th – 7. This is normal.. 2006 ..73% 19th – 1.. 6pulse AC PWM is to be supplied by a generator of rating 2000 kVA and subtransient reactance (Xd″) of 16%..... as the harmonic currents drawn from this “soft source” are limited by the leakage reactance of the source.....732 Generator full load current (A) = 2406 A 196 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ...412 + 1.6 in Section 2): Vthd = Vthd = ∑ Vh% 2 h =5 25 = % % V5% 2 + V7% 2 + V11 2 .912 Vthd = 5. the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) can be calculated (based on Equation 2........ as can be seen below...... (12. 480 V....64 × 100% 480 = 2 2 2 2 v5 + v 7 + v11 .........8) 3.55% 23rd – 0...9) Vthd = 5....... Calculate the voltage distortion on the generator attributed to drive.. this reduced harmonic current can result in significantly higher voltage distortion.712 + 1.... The percentage harmonic current spectrum based on the generator connection is given below.... + V25 2 ...10) = 2000 ×10 3 480 × 1.8% 11th – 5...88 2 + 1.. the values are lower.... However...22 2 + 1..........10 2 + 0......Section 12 Direct Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion Once the above table has been constructed..78% Calculate the source short circuit capacity and reactance of the generator: i) Generator full load current (A) = Generator kVA V× 3 ....... Harmonic spectrum to 25th is: 5th – 25........55% Alternatively..................v 25 Vrms ..... the sum of individual harmonic voltages can be used to also obtain the Vthd: ∑ vh × 100% Vthd = Vthd = h =5 25 Vrms 26..........88 2 + 1.27% 13th – 3.
6 A 5th harmonic voltage (LL) = 3 × h × Xsupply × Ih = 1........2563 = 246.0 = 16.038 kA) iii) Short circuit MVA = 3 × V × Generator Short Circuit Current ...... (12..............Section 12 Direct Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion ii) Short circuit current (A) = = Generator full load current ....... (12.5 × 10 6 = Generator reactance = 0..16 Short circuit current (A) = 15...0184 × 75.....13) Short Circuit MVA 480 2 12......... 2006 197 ......038 A (15...........732 × 480 × 15038 Short circuit MVA = 12..0184 × 246...732 × 7 × 0......18% Again..0184 Ω Once the above information has been established....078 = 75....11) ′′ Generator X d 2406 0.29 × 100% 480 5th harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = 8..73 V ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS ..5 MVA iv) Generator reactance = V2 ...............732 × 5 × 0..29 V 5th harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = = Vh × 100% Vrms 39..12) = 1.... similarly for 7th harmonic: 7th harmonic current = Irms × Ih% = 962 × 0.6 = 39.. (12..0 A 7th harmonic voltage (LL) = 3 × h × Xsupply × Ih = 1..... the individual voltage per harmonic order can be calculated using exactly the same method as per Example 1: For 5th harmonic: 5th harmonic current = Irms × Ih% = 962 × 0...
88 2 + 1....73 17.49% As per Example 1.63 7.93 0.. 2006 . the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) can be calculated (based on Equation 2.9) Vthd = 10....8 5...19 2 + 3. the sum of individual harmonic voltages can be used to also obtain the Vthd: ∑ vh × 100% Vthd = Vthd = h =5 25 Vrms 50....37 2 + 1.73 × 100% 480 = 2 2 2 2 v5 + v 7 + v11 ..49 2 + 3.78 Ih (A) 246....70 2..27 3.65 14..88 1..25 Also.. data regarding all the harmonics to 25th can be calculated.6 75.57% Note: From the above examples.29 16...55 0. once the above values have been established.91 8.. (12.. A summary table can be constructed as follows: TABLE 2 Summary of Harmonics to 25th Harmonic 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 Ih% 25...19 3.. as per Example 1.43 1..85 1.....6 in Section 2): Vthd = Vthd = ∑ Vh% 2 h =5 25 = % % V5% 2 + V7% 2 + V11 2 ..... please refer to Subsection 7/3).70 2 + 2.Section 12 Direct Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion 7th harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = = Vh × 100% Vrms 16. 198 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .. + V25 2 8.85 2 + 1.37 1.v 25 Vrms ..0 16..02 9.68 9.0 50. For information on the calculation of source short circuit MVA for harmonic distortion estimation purposes on parallel power sources (generators or transformers)...5 Vh (V) 39..49 3.95 7..56 5.. the source impedance has a significant effect on the harmonic currents drawn and their resultant impact on the subsequent voltage distortion.98 Vh% 8..04 6...88 2 + 1..25 2 Vthd = 10.73 1.57% Alternatively.88 1..7 33..77 13....73 × 100% 480 7th harmonic voltage (LL) as percentage of rms voltage = 3....
A comprehensive harmonics software package should have the following capabilities: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Have a large number of nodes available for full power system simulations. Comprehensive power system analysis software packages are also available from dedicated engineering software engineering companies. especially induction motors. these simulations should be seen as “estimates” only. In addition. there may be multiple harmonic current sources. However. Be able to perform frequency scans based on small increments of frequency and to develop frequency response curves and other data to establish possible resonance points within the power system. In addition. Be able to simultaneously model individual harmonic current data and subsequent voltage distortion based on a range of multiple nonlinear loads types. There are a number of harmonic estimation software packages available which are relatively easy to use. fourwire distribution systems. Have in a library. 2006 199 . etc. Many of the harmonics modeling and dedicated electrical design and simulation software packages can be tailored to individual customer needs. it may prove valuable to undertake manual calculations to provide an indication of harmonic voltage distortion. they form part of a comprehensive electrical design and analysis suite where a harmonics estimation program is only a small part of the overall package. on a very simple system.]. 24pulse versions of AC PWM and DC drives. A number of drive and harmonic mitigation equipment manufacturers do have their own harmonic estimation software available. the effect of any connected linear loads should be able to be modeled. etc. load commutated inverters. a full range of nonlinear load models [including AC PWM 6pulse drives with varying values of AC and/or DC reactance. vi) ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . phase staggering. and therefore. However. AC cycloconverters. AFE drives. The package should be able to model the more common types of harmonic mitigation. Be capable of handling all harmonic sequences: positive. some cancellation via phase angle diversification. 18pulse. including passive LC filter. either for customers to use via CD or download or indirectly via company application engineers. These software packages are not provided by the equipment manufacturers and are therefore should give impartial results. the effect of cable and other system inductances will have an impact on the harmonic currents and subsequent voltage distortion. DC drives (including notching simulations) with values of AC side commutation reactance together with 12pulse. may attenuate higher order harmonics. wide spectrum filters. Be able to introduce varying values of voltage unbalance and background voltage distortion into the model. In some cases. negative and zero. The effect of any connected linear load. There is also a significant chance of human error being introduced. Often.Section 12 Direct Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion 2 Software Estimation of Harmonic Distortion As indicated in Subsection 12/1. the manual calculation for a simple system with one nonlinear load can be rather repetitive and tiresome. active filters. Written guarantees of drive(s) and/or any harmonic mitigation performance should be requested from the vendor.
Be able to adjust automatically for harmonic phase angles based on variations in the fundamental frequency phase angles. 2006 . 200 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . Be able to model any range or number of transformer and/or generator data (including equivalent data for paralleled units). full FFT harmonic voltage and current spectra to at least 50th harmonic at each node.Section 12 Direct Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion vii) viii) ix) x) Calculate and display a full range of time domain voltage and current waveforms. Should be easy to understand and have report facilities such as comprehensive report writing.
including estimated attenuation in total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) and total harmonic current per unit. per circuit and per installation at rated load. per circuit or per installation up to 50th harmonic (or up to 100th for equipment with “active front ends”). as applicable. 201 v) ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . type and kW rating of nonlinear loads proposed to be installed in vessel or offshore installation. per circuit or per installation up to 50th harmonic (or up to 100th for equipment with “active front ends”). calculations of the estimated neutral currents shall be provided on a per distribution panel at rated load basis]. consultants. Full details of any proposed mitigation. Total harmonic current distortion (Ithd). voltage supply specifications. voltage supply specifications and kW rating. shipowners and shipoperators et al (as applicable) in order to calculate harmonic voltage distortion: i) ii) iii) Description of equipment.SECTION 13 Provision of Information on Harmonics 1 Information to be requested from Vendors The following should be the minimum information provided to shipbuilders. including type. If fourwire systems (threephase and neutral. including duty. as applicable. pulse number and kW rating. iv) Full details of any proposed harmonic mitigation per unit. [The actual source impedance (if transformer) or subtransient reactance (Xd″) (if generator) used shall be stated for each calculation. designers. Details of the total number of units proposed to be installed on vessel or offshore installation. as applicable. 2 Information to be included with a Harmonic Analysis The following information should be included with a harmonic analysis: i) ii) iii) iv) Single line electrical diagram of vessel showing connection of any significant (singular or cumulative) nonlinear load(s) on the system. Description of significant nonlinear load(s).] [If fourwire systems (threephase and neutral. including estimated attenuation in total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) and total harmonic current per unit. harmonic current spectrum up to 50th harmonic (or up to 100th for equipment with “active front ends”) and total magnitude of total harmonic current per unit. either grounded or insulated) are utilized for domestic or lighting supplies. pulse number. calculations of the estimated neutral currents should be provided on a per distribution panel at rated load basis. 2006 . either grounded or insulated) are utilized for domestic or lighting supplies. Total number.
The total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) should be measured in additional to all individual voltage harmonics up to 50th (or up to 100th if equipment with “active front ends”) that are being proposed. including any emergency switchboards and on the generator terminals. including any emergency switchboards. The calculations should be on a perswitchboard basis. 2006 . based on the worst case scenario basis as per vi) above. including estimated attenuation in total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) and total harmonic voltage up to 50th harmonic (or up to 100th harmonics for equipment with “active front ends”).Section 13 Provision of Information on Harmonics vi) Calculations of total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) on the system based on all significant nonlinear loads operating as designed and on a worse case scenario with regards to the number and rating of generators running. vii) Full details of any proposed mitigation. The source impedance or subtransient reactance (Xd″) used in the calculations should be stated for each case. 202 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . and at the terminals of the generators. as applicable on each switchboard.
etc. platform staff or shipyard electrical engineers should they wish to carry out their own measurements. safety is the main concern. specialist company with appropriate equipment to safely undertake measurements above these levels. methodology and typical harmonic measurement/power quality meters and analyzers available to vessel. up to or over 11 kV on some vessels) are undertaken unless by experienced staff with suitable equipment or by a dedicated. the maximum voltage rating of the harmonic analyzer has to be checked against the power system voltage before undertaking the survey. Some of the following recommendations are common sense. one a qualified electrical engineer conversant with the measurement equipment and a second individual to assist. There are also a number of specialist independent companies available to carry out harmonic and power quality surveys in most countries should this be needed. Others are rated up to 830 or 1000 V AC. The latter is necessary when connecting and disconnecting the harmonic analyzer voltage leads and current probes on to live equipment.. They should be moved to each site as necessary.SECTION 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment This Section outlines the safety precautions. planning. terminals.g. This should include: • • • • Fire resistant clothing Safety glasses or full face shields Safety helmets Rubber electrical gloves with full length sleeves ii) iii) In addition. iv) For safety reasons. The harmonic measurements should be undertaken by two individuals.. Therefore. A number of harmonic analyzers (and accompanying test leads and current probes) are only suitable for use up to 600 V AC. It is standard procedure for a comprehensive report to be written following the survey. 2006 203 . 1 Safety Precautions during Harmonic Surveys As with all electrical tasks. rig. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . who is also fully trained in CPR and other first aid. rubber mats should be placed on the deck where the harmonic analyzer is being used. on high voltage. Proper protective clothing and other safety equipment should be worn when undertaking measurements. rig or platform and of the individuals concerned: i) Measurements should not be undertaken in heavy or rolling seas due to the possible exposure of live equipment and the risk of injury or death due to individuals coming in contact with live busbars. due to the vessel’s movement. but are necessary for the safety of the vessel. it is not recommended that directly connected harmonic measurements above 690 V/750 V AC (e.
the equipment has been disconnected). rubber mats and other protective clothing are therefore recommended as mentioned above. From this. However. this type of current probe may be problematic.g. fourwire systems on cruise liners). 2 Planning the Harmonic Survey or Measurements In order to minimize the time necessary to undertake the harmonic survey and/or measurements. therefore. This process entails the individual placing his/her hands adjacent to and often behind the busbars.. All measurements should be undertaken based on a “worstcase scenario” (i. However. if this has to be undertaken. which have to be passed around the busbar and clipped into place.) Note: The type of current probe necessary should be established prior to surveys or a range of suitable probes should be available.Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment v) All electrical equipment should be deenergized and locked off before connecting the harmonic measuring equipment. and if possible. However. It is often worthwhile to undertake some simple measurements. maximum harmonic distortion. Without thick rubber gloves with full rubber sleeves this can be extremely dangerous and should not be undertaken unless these are worn with other appropriate protective equipment and a CPRtrained assistant is available. Similarly.e. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . a true rms voltage meter should be used to confirm the voltage levels OR that the voltage is zero (i. maximum nonlinear loading. in order to gain this initial experience. In addition to measurements at the terminals of every major nonlinear load. the main sources of harmonics (i. vii) viii) Before undertaking the harmonic measurements. AmpFlex type probes are necessary.e. which usually have round or rectangular jaws. are simply for use on cables. There are a number of safety and operational issues. Once the nonlinear loads have been identified.. It is important that the information gathered reflects the expected operational conditions. 2006 204 .. the most appropriate voltage test points should be established. large variable speed drives). it is advised that the individuals become fully conversant with the harmonic/power quality analyzer. A single line diagram is often the most significant source of information. (These are flexible current probes. on some power systems (for example. a list or schedule should be compiled of every major nonlinear load to be measured and recorded. for some types of busbars. great care must be taken in order that the metal covers do not touch parts. the large numbers of nonlinear singlephase loads and their impact may not be apparent from a single line diagram. even in a workshop environment. including emergency switchboards. Prior to connection. Current probes of the “clamp on” type (available to around 1200 A). measurements must be recorded at full operational loads.. larger nonlinear loads) can be identified (e. it may be necessary to stop the equipment in order to gain the necessary access. available up to at least 6500 A. and therefore. Failing that. with minimum generators on line based on real operational conditions). vi) Before connecting any harmonic measurement equipment. Rubber gloves. on the generators in operation. Care should be taken when connecting the harmonic analyzer voltage leads (these can be of the crocodile type and if not fixed to a suitable point may spring off. removing covers from equipment while the equipment is operating is not recommended. If the equipment is provided with door locking mechanism when the equipment is operating. recordings should also be taken on all switchboards. some simple planning is necessary.e.
The gathered harmonics data can then be compared against the appropriate harmonic limit recommendations and/or used to aid the consideration of harmonic mitigation for specific items of equipment of nonlinear (e. It should be remembered that the higher the magnitude of harmonic current in the system. 3 Information to be recorded from Harmonic Measurements Prior to measurements being undertaken. In addition to the information downloadable to a laptop or stored in the harmonic analyzer. should be compiled. a paper list of nonlinear equipment to be measured is recommended. As stated earlier. it often helps in identifying the correct load based on that data). This may help to identify any misnamed loads. the nonlinear loads furthest away physically from the main switchboard should be measured first. as recommended in the previous Subsection. Once a complete set of measurements have been taken. either internally and/or via download to a laptop computer. or failing that. In addition. the data in i) to iii) should also be recorded on paper. The majority of harmonic analyzers can capture the data detailed in i) to vi) simultaneously. (and neutral. complete with waveforms. progressively towards the main switchboard(s) and generator(s). Information such as total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd). a full report. the following data should be measured and recorded on all three phases. Time domain waveforms of both voltage and current Voltage unbalance between phases Background total voltage distortion (Vthd) without the specific nonlinear load currently under test operating would be desirable but may not be practical due to operational reasons. electric variable speed drives) and/or for other specific items of equipment such as switchboards.. harmonic spectra and other data as above. the higher the voltage distortion. (This may be via an enlarged single line diagram). For each nonlinear load selected. a simple diagram detailing the total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) at the various points in the power system is recommended. if appropriate. FFT data of harmonic spectrum in text) for voltage and current harmonics giving magnitudes and phase angles. Some can also capture voltage unbalance [vii)]. Information to be recorded: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) rms voltage and rms current Total harmonic voltage distortion (Vthd) Total harmonic current distortion (Ithd) Full harmonic spectrum up to 50th harmonic (up to 100th harmonic for active front end drives). Then measurements should be recorded for other nonlinear equipment. current and kW of each nonlinear load is useful in the event of misnaming a given load on the harmonic analyzer or laptop computer (i. Harmonic text (i.Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment With the electrical loading constant. it is essential that the measurements are taken based on a worstcase scenario. Note: Always connect the ground lead (if applicable). on fourwire distribution systems). the equipment should be confirmed to be within calibration time limits and that the necessary voltage and current probes and full protective equipment are to hand. followed by the voltage leads and finally the current probes with the correct polarity..e.e. total harmonic current distortion (Ithd). at maximum operational loading and maximum harmonic distortion with regard to the various nonlinear loads. Finally. although most harmonic analyzers have sufficient onboard memory and/or can download to a laptop computer. similar data should be recorded on the main switchboard(s) and generators. Only then should the actual harmonic survey and/or harmonic measurements proceed. starting with those further away from the generators. 2006 205 .. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .g. In addition. Removal of the equipment leads and probes should be in the reverse order.
measurements up to 2000 A (up to 600 V rms) are possible.g.. check that it can read up to at least the 50th harmonic. power usage and power factor measurements. transients. When selecting a suitable harmonic/power quality analyzer. this may be sufficient). (For this. together with some sample screen displays.1 The Fluke 43B The Fluke 43B is a harmonic/power quality analyzer.] Most “harmonic analyzers” are “power quality analyzers”. [Some equipment is rated to only measure safely up to 600 V rms.e. FIGURE 1 Fluke 43B Harmonic/Power Quality Analyzer 206 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . it does not measure all three phases simultaneously) – it measures one phase at a time (assuming all phases are balanced and data from each is similar.. The Fluke 43B measures up to the 50th harmonic and is supplied with appropriate software for downloading and to assist in report compilation. in addition to harmonic data. so that the voltage range is suitable for use on all envisaged applications and that a suitable range of current probes are available for that particular analyzer. 2006 . However. some of which are illustrated in the following Paragraphs. It is compact. another type of analyzer may be necessary. rated up to 600 V rms. 690 V or 750 V). special digital multimeters with shielding and low pass filters are necessary. It is not a full threephase unit (i. voltage sags and swells.Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment 4 Examples of Harmonic Analyzers There are a number of high quality harmonic and power quality analyzers currently on the market. Using suitable proprietary current probes.) Typical harmonic/power quality analyzers include: 4. lightweight and can store a number of readings (up to 20 screen or data readings based on a maximum of two selectable parameters) onboard without the need for downloading to computer. for example. most are not normally suitable for measuring the output data from AC PWM variable speed drives. and perform a range of other measurements and record. If above that (e.
2006 207 .] FIGURE 3 Fluke 43B Can Measure Sags and Swells up to 16 Days on a Per Cycle Basis ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment A few samples of screen/computer download data from the Fluke 43B include: FIGURE 2 Fluke 43B Harmonics Screen Data Available (In This Case Current) [Voltage and power harmonic data are also available.
2006 .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 4 Up to 40 Transients (Voltage or Current) Can Be Captured with the Fluke 41B FIGURE 5 True rms Voltage and Current Waveform Display(s) from Fluke 43B 208 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
2006 209 . Fluke. FIGURE 6 AEMC 3945 Threephase Harmonic/Power Quality Analyzer with Real Time Color Display ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment The Fluke 43B is a good example of a relatively low cost harmonic/power quality analyzer for applications needing measurements to 600 V rms and up to 2000 A. This meter may be more suited to fault finding and/or “snapshot sampling”. A full threephase analyzer may be used for full harmonic surveys and/or for other power quality tasks.2 AEMC 3945 This is a good example of a threephase harmonic/power quality analyzer which can measure and record harmonics to the 50th on voltages up to 830 V rms and current per phase up to 6500 A. recognizing the limitation of the 43B for “real” threephase applications has recently launched the Fluke 433/434 series of threephase harmonic/power quality analyzers which have an excellent range of features. 4. to prevent data being “missed” (which may occur with the type of analyzer above if the event occurred on the phase not being monitored). whereby all three phases are measured and/or monitored simultaneously. including voltage to 1000 V rms and current to 2000 A.
the AEMC 3945 can measure and record shortterm flicker. trend recordings and monitoring of a number of parameters based on min/max limits and “photograph” up to twelve data displays. Samples of analyzer real time displays on the instrument include: 210 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . In addition to the full range of harmonic measurements. capture up to 50 transients or other disturbances to 1/256th of a cycle. Comprehensive software is provided to assist in report compilation. 2006 . AmpFlex 6500 A Current Probes A range of clampon current probes (to 1200 A) and a scalable adaptor box for use with up to three existing CTs are also available. record voltage and current unbalance.Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 7 AEMC 3945 Connected Onsite Illustrating “Wraparound” Rogowskitype.
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 8 Sample Displays of Voltage and Current Waveforms FIGURE 9 Threephase Voltage Waveforms ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 211 .
2006 .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 10 Transient Current Waveforms FIGURE 11 Threephase Voltage Harmonics 212 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
2006 213 .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 12 Harmonic Direction FIGURE 13 Harmonic Sequences ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 14 Phasor Diagram Examples of realtime data via a computer from the AEMC 3945 include: FIGURE 15 AEMC 3945 Configuration via Computer 214 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . 2006 .
2006 215 .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 16 Real Time Current Waveforms via Computer FIGURE 17 Real Time Computer Display of Harmonic Currents ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 18 Unbalance in Real Time via Computer Up to 830 V rms voltage measurement and 6500 A. operate at these higher voltage levels). 2006 . however. which means. 216 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . The Hioki 3196 can measure currents up to 5000 A and voltages up to 600 V rms.3 Hioki 3196 This harmonic/power quality analyzers can offer some advantages. as per the Fluke 43B. it is unsuitable for 690 V or 750 V systems (the new Fluke 433/434 series can. capability of the AEMC 3945 should favor its use on a wide range of marine power quality applications. for example in the area of longer term monitoring plus data recorded and displayed. 4.
2006 217 .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 19 Hioki 3196 Power Analyzer with Voltage and Current Probes Examples of actual survey measurements from a Hioki 3196 follow: FIGURE 20 AC VFD Threephase Voltage and Current Measurements from Hioki 3196 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
2006 .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 21 Harmonic FFT Measurements from Hioki 3196 with 5th Harmonic Selected FIGURE 22 Power System Vthd Trend Recording via Hioki 3196 as a Number of AC VFDs Are Switched On 218 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
2006 219 .Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 23 Vthd of all Three Phases Recorded by Hioki 3196 when Active Filter Switched in on Oil Production Platform FIGURE 24 Summary of Data Sampled from Hioki 3196 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS .
frequency response) of the transformers (may relatively accurately measure up to the 50th harmonic). due to danger of death. can safely carry out such measurements. for the Rogowski type) already installed. standard harmonic analyzers. Above these levels. a specialist company should be subcontracted. the secondaries of the PTs and CTs may be suitable for direct connection to standard harmonic measurement equipment. 2006 .e. Depending on bandwidth (i.g. limited by the maximum voltage rating of 600 V rms. vessel. such as the AEMC 3945. 220 ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . rig or platform staff undertake directlyconnected harmonic measurements/surveys... that shore. etc. However. In these instances. Note: Some vessels and offshore installations have main power systems based on voltages up to or over 11 kV. special techniques and equipment have to be used in order to directly measure the harmonic currents and voltages. subject to suitable scaling being taken into account on the measurements (i. it is not recommended due to safety reasons. voltage transformers) and current transformers (e. including those illustrated. scaleable CT adaptor boxes are available as options with some harmonic analyzers. should be able to be used with reasonable accuracy. the actual harmonic voltages and currents will have to be scaled up to match ratios of the transformers) and voltage limits. In these instances.. 5 Measurements on Voltages above 690/750 V AC Some harmonic analyzers do have the capability to measure harmonics on power systems with voltages up to 690/750/1000 V AC. At these voltage levels.e. subject to the above limitations re PT and CT bandwidth and scaling accuracy. To this end. these high voltage systems may have on the main switchboards.e. who with fully experienced personnel. potential transformers (i.Section 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment FIGURE 25 Recorded Harmonic Currents by Hioki 3196 on 12Pulse AC Drive The Hioki 3196 is a good harmonic/power quality analyzer. specialist safety and measurement equipment rated for higher voltage..
ISBN 0780353943. ABS GUIDANCE NOTES ON CONTROL OF HARMONICS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS . ISBN 0852969759. (2004). Electricity + Control (November 2004). (2004).APPENDIX 1 Recommended Reading Power System Harmonics. Harmonic Solutions Co. (2003). 2nd Edition. ISBN 1559372397. Mark Mc Granaghan et al. (1989). J Schlabbach. D Blume et al. Derek Paice. ISBN 0071362983. 2nd Edition. Edward Szmit and Tomasz Tarasiuk. H Wayne Beatty. 2006 Ian C Evans. ABB AS. Ian C Evans & Des Horne. Ian C Evans. Maritime Electrical Installation and Diesel Electric Propulsion. Marine Propulsion International (October 2002). (2001). Motor Ship (October 2003). Polish Academy of Sciences. Ian C Evans. Harmonic Mitigation for Offshore AC Variable Frequency Drives. Janusz Mindykowski.Uk. Handbook of Electrical Calculations. AlfKare Adnanes.Uk. Assessment of Electric Power Quality in Ships fitted with Converter Subsystems. (2002). Hazardous Areas – A User’s Guide to AC Drive Systems. David Finney. Norway. From Oars to Reactors – Electric Drive: The Future of Naval Propulsion. Voltage Quality in Electrical Power Systems. (1988). (1992). Offshore Visie (October 2002). 3rd Edition. Ian C Evans. Harmonic Solutions Co. IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Power Systems. Harmonic Mitigation for AC Thruster and Small Propulsion Drives. The Future is Electric – The Progress of Electric Propulsion. (2004). (2001). ISBN 0863411142. Elekotrotek Drives Ltd.Uk. Janusz Mindykowski. Power Electronic Converter Harmonics. Roget Dugan. ISBN 0470851295. Solutions Co. Electrical Power Quality and Ships Safety. ISBN 0071386220X. Harmonic 221 . (1996). IEEE. Jos Arrillaga and Neville Watson. Motor Ship (September 2003). AC Drives : Mitigation – A look at the options. Variable Frequency AC Motor Drive Systems. Ian C Evans. ISBN 8388621076 Electrical Power Systems Quality.
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