First examinations 2009

Chemistry

Diploma Programme

Data booklet

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Diploma Programme

Chemistry Data booklet

First examinations 2009

International Baccalaureate Organization Buenos Aires Cardiff Geneva New York Singapore

Diploma Programme Chemistry—data booklet

Published March 2007 International Baccalaureate Organization Peterson House, Malthouse Avenue, Cardiff Gate Cardiff, Wales GB CF23 8GL United Kingdom Phone: +44 29 2054 7777 Fax: +44 29 2054 7778 Web site: http://www.ibo.org © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) was established in 1968 and is a non-profit, international educational foundation registered in Switzerland. The IBO is grateful for permission to reproduce and/or translate any copyright material used in this publication. Acknowledgments are included, where appropriate, and, if notified, the IBO will be pleased to rectify any errors or omissions at the earliest opportunity. IBO merchandise and publications in its official and working languages can be purchased through the IB store at http://store.ibo.org. General ordering queries should be directed to the sales and marketing department in Cardiff. Phone: +44 29 2054 7746 Fax: +44 29 2054 7779 E-mail: sales@ibo.org

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4019a

H NMR data 2-Amino acids . electron affinity and electronegativity of the elements Atomic and ionic radii of the elements Covalent bond lengths Average bond enthalpies at 298 K Organic compounds—thermodynamic data Enthalpies of combustion Lattice enthalpies at 298 K (experimental and theoretical values) Standard electrode potentials Strengths of organic acids and bases Acid–base indicators Infrared data 1 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 23 24 26 8. 19. 16. 11. 2.Contents 1. 10. 7. 5. 4. 6. 12. 13. 9. 17. 15. 18. 14. Some relevant equations Physical constants Fundamental particles Names of the first 103 elements The periodic table Melting points and boiling points of the elements First ionization energy. 3.

but the periodic table given on page 4 will be available as part of these examination papers. . SLP3.20. Clean copies of this booklet must be made available to candidates for papers 2 and 3 (SLP2. HLP2 and HLP3). 22. 21. Structural formulas of some important medicines and drugs Structural formulas of some important biological molecules Structural formulas of some important food chemistry molecules 29 32 35 Notes This booklet cannot be used for paper 1 of the examination (SLP1 and HLP1).

Chemistry data booklet 1. Some relevant equations t1 = 2 0.693 k − Ea log10 ln k = − I0 = ε lc I Ea + ln A RT k = Ae RT E = hf ∆G Ö = ∆H Ö − T ∆S Ö PV = nRT © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 1 .

63 × 10–34 J s Specific heat capacity of water = 4.18 kJ kg–1 K–1 (= 4.31 J K–1 mol–1 Molar volume of an ideal gas at 273 K and 1.4 dm3 mol–1) Planck’s constant (h) = 6.01 × 105 Pa = 2. Physical constants Avogadro’s constant (L) = 6.24 × 10–2 m3 mol–1 (= 22.18 J g–1 K–1) Ionic product constant for water (Kw) = 1.00 × 10–14 mol2 dm–6 at 298 K 1 atm = 1.01 × 105 Pa 1 dm3 = 1 litre = 1 × 10–3 m3 = 1 × 103 cm3 2 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .02 × 1023 mol–1 Gas constant (R) = 8.Chemistry data booklet 2.

602189 × 10–19 1.674954 × 10–27 0 9.Chemistry data booklet 3.602189 × 10–19 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 3 .672648 × 10–27 1.109534 × 10–31 1. Fundamental particles Proton Neutron Electron Mass (kg) Charge (C) 1.

Names of the first 103 elements Element Symbol Atomic number Element Symbol Atomic number actinium aluminium americium antimony argon arsenic astatine barium berkelium beryllium bismuth boron bromine cadmium caesium calcium californium carbon cerium chlorine chromium cobalt copper curium dysprosium einsteinium erbium europium fermium Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi B Br Cd Cs Ca Cf C Ce Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Dy Es Er Eu Fm 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 5 35 48 55 20 98 6 58 17 24 27 29 96 66 99 68 63 100 fluorine francium gadolinium gallium germanium gold hafnium helium holmium hydrogen indium iodine iridium iron krypton lanthanum lawrencium lead lithium lutetium magnesium manganese mendelevium mercury molybdenum neodymium neon neptunium nickel F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Md Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni 9 87 64 31 32 79 72 2 67 1 49 53 77 26 36 57 103 82 3 71 12 25 101 80 42 60 10 93 28 4 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .Chemistry data booklet 4.

Names of the first 103 elements Element Symbol Atomic number Element Symbol Atomic number niobium nitrogen nobelium osmium oxygen palladium phosphorus platinum plutonium polonium potassium praseodymium promethium protactinium radium radon rhenium rhodium rubidium ruthenium samarium scandium selenium Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Sm Sc Se 41 7 102 76 8 46 15 78 94 84 19 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 21 34 silicon silver sodium strontium sulfur tantalum technetium tellurium terbium thallium thorium thulium tin titanium tungsten uranium vanadium xenon ytterbium yttrium zinc zirconium Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 5 .

22 Pt 195.69 82 Sb 121.96 Gd 157.21 Os 190.59 50 As 74.09 32 P 30.26 Tm 168.96 39 Ti 47.94 41 Cr 52.04 Pa 231.59 Tl 204.34 88 La 138.01 12 B 10.50 Ho 164.81 13 C 12.90 40 V 50.08 38 Sc 44.71 46 Cu 63.92 51 Se 78.00 5 6 7 8 9 10 Element Atomic mass Li 6.90 85 Xe 131.72 49 Ge 72.80 54 Rb 85.97 ‡ 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 Th 232.55 47 Zn 65.37 48 Ga 69.91 77 Pd 106.93 Yb 173.60 84 I 126.45 35 Ar 39.00 16 F 19.06 34 Cl 35.85 44 Co 58.01 3 He 4.00 42 Mn 54.82 81 Sn 118.98 Po (210) At (210) Rn (222) Fr (223) Ra (226) Ac (227) † 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Ce 140.01 15 O 16.Chemistry data booklet 6 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 5.90 53 Kr 83.96 52 Br 79.93 Er 167.03 Np (237) Pu (244) Am (243) Cm (247) Bk (247) Cf (251) Es (254) Fm (257) Md (258) No (259) Lr (260) .97 33 S 32.98 31 Si 28.19 Bi 208.07 76 Rh 102.85 Re 186.35 Eu 151.91 Nd 144.18 18 Na 22. The periodic table 1 1 2 Atomic number 4 3 4 5 6 7 0 2 H 1.93 45 Ni 58.91 87 Ba 137.37 Pb 207.99 19 Mg 24.94 43 Fe 55.25 Tb 158.95 36 K 39.01 14 N 14.94 11 Be 9.00 17 Ne 20.75 83 Te 127.22 72 Nb 92.92 Sm 150.09 Au 196.92 Dy 162.91 75 Ru 101.10 37 Ca 40.91 89 ‡ Hf 178.91 73 Mo 95.21 Ir 192.24 Pm 146.30 86 Cs 132.47 55 Sr 87.31 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Al 26.42 78 Ag 107.95 W 183.91 57 † Zr 91.12 Pr 140.40 80 In 114.04 U 238.87 79 Cd 112.62 56 Y 88.94 74 Tc 98.97 Hg 200.04 Lu 174.49 Ta 180.

Chemistry data booklet © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 6. Melting points and boiling points of the elements 14 Melting point (K) 1 H 20 454 1551 Element Boiling point (K) 2573 4100 63 55 54 He 4 25 Li 1600 371 Be 3243 922 B 3931 936 C 5100 1683 N 77 317 O 90 392 F 85 172 Ne 27 84 Na 1156 337 Mg 1363 1112 1814 1933 1973 2130 1517 1808 1768 1726 1357 693 Al 2740 303 Si 2628 1211 P 553 1090 S 718 490 Cl 239 266 Ar 87 117 K 1047 312 Ca 1757 1042 Sc 3104 1780 Ti 3560 2125 V 3650 2741 Cr 2755 2890 Mn 2235 2445 Fe 3023 2583 Co 3143 2239 Ni 3005 1825 Cu 2840 1235 Zn 1180 594 Ga 2676 429 Ge 3103 505 As 886 904 Se 958 723 Br 332 387 Kr 121 161 Rb 961 302 Sr 1657 983 Y 3611 1194 Zr 4650 2503 Nb 5015 3269 Mo 4885 3680 Tc 5150 3453 Ru 4173 3327 Rh 4000 2683 Pd 3413 2045 Ag 2485 1338 Cd 1038 234 In 2353 577 Sn 2543 601 Sb 2023 545 Te 1263 527 I 458 575 Xe 166 202 Cs 952 300 Ba 2023 973 La 3730 1320 Hf 5470 Ta 5698 W 5930 Re 5900 Os 5300 Ir 4403 Pt 4100 Au 3080 Hg 630 Tl 1730 Pb 2013 Bi 1833 Po 1235 At 610 Rn 211 Fr 950 Ra 1413 Ac 3470 7 .

2 590 632 661 648 653 716 762 757 736 745 908 577 Al 1.4 760 Nb 1.2 Au 2.0 870 Se 2.3 Ta 1.8 376 502 Sr 1.5 762 Si 1.4 Br 2.1 920 I 2.2 531 Zr 1.7 1010 590 In 1.2 866 Pd 2.5 Cl 3.8 745 Co 1.4 Hg 1.5 F 4.8 770 762 Tc 1.2 891 Ag 1.Chemistry data booklet 7.8 966 P 2.1 Hf 1.0 577 –47 C 2.6 Mn 1.5 W 1.9 669 La 1.9 Po 2.0 540 Y 1.2 Rn Fr 0.8 803 Ni 1.9 Tl 1.5 653 V 1.8 703 Sb 1.8 Bi 1.2 887 Rh 2. electron affinity and electronegativity of the elements 1310 –72 8 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 H 2.8 Pb 1.8 Kr 1010 –314 1170 Rb 0.7 Ra 0.5 786 –180 N 3.9 Os 2.8 833 As 2.8 402 548 Ca 1.0 1060 –70 O 3.3 669 Ti 1.6 694 Cr 1.1 941 S 2.5 Li 1.1 519 –52 900 First ionization energy (kJ mol –1) Electron affinity (kJ mol –1) 2370 He 799 –29 1090 –120 1400 –3 1310 –142 1680 –348 2080 (O– +844) Element Be 1.6 707 Ge 1.7 716 Sn 1.0 494 –71 736 Electronegativity B 2.1 .9 812 Te 2.6 556 Ga 1.2 Ir 2.5 Xe 1040 Cs 0.0 636 Sc 1. First ionization energy.9 866 Zn 1.9 Cd 1.9 418 Mg 1.7 Re 1.2 Pt 2.0 Ar 1140 –342 1350 K 0.9 Ac 1.0 Ne 1000 –200 1260 –364 1520 (S– +532) Na 0.9 841 Ru 2.0 At 2.7 381 510 Ba 0.6 Mo 1.8 732 Cu 1.5 699 724 Fe 1.

Atomic and ionic radii of the elements 30 H 154 (1–) Atomic radius (10–12 m) Element He 152 112 88 77 70 66 58 Li 68 (1+) 186 Be 30 (2+) 160 Ionic radius (10–12 m) B 16 (3+) 143 C 260 (4–) 117 N 171 (3–) 110 O 146 (2–) 104 F 133 (1–) 99 Ne Na 98 (1+) 231 Mg 65 (2+) 197 160 146 131 125 129 126 125 124 128 133 Al 45 (3+) 141 Si 42 (4+) 271 (4–) 122 P 212 (3–) 121 S 190 (2–) 117 Cl 181 (1–) 114 Ar K 133 (1+) 244 Ca 94 (2+) 215 Sc 81 (3+) 180 Ti 90 (2+) 68 (4+) 157 V 88 (2+) 59 (5+) 141 Cr 63 (3+) 136 Mn 80 (2+) 60 (4+) 135 Fe 76 (2+) 64 (3+) 133 Co 74 (2+) 63 (3+) 134 Ni 72 (2+) 138 Cu 96 (1+) 69 (2+) 144 Zn 74 (2+) 149 Ga 62 (3+) 166 Ge 53 (4+) 272 (4–) 162 As 222 (3–) 141 Se 202 (2–) 137 Br 196 (1–) 133 Kr Rb 148 (1+) 262 Sr 110 (2+) 217 Y 93 (3+) 188 Zr 80 (4+) 157 Nb 70 (5+) 143 Mo 68 (4+) 137 Tc Ru 65 (4+) Rh 86 (2+) 135 Pd Ag 126 (1+) Cd 97 (2+) 152 In 81 (3+) 171 Sn 112 (2+) 71 (4+) 175 Sb 245 (3–) 170 Te 222 (2–) 140 I 219 (1–) 140 Xe 137 134 138 144 Cs 167 (1+) 270 Ba 34 (2+) 220 La 115 (3+) 200 Hf 81 (4+) Ta 73 (5+) W 68 (4+) Re Os 67 (4+) Ir 66 (4+) Pt Au 137 (1+) 85 (3+) Hg 127 (1+) 110 (2+) Tl 95 (3+) Pb 120 (2+) 84 (4+) Bi 120 (3+) Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac 9 .Chemistry data booklet © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 8.

207 0.235 0.193 0.136 0.092 0.101 0.120 0.134 0.214 0.128 0.127 0.169 0.Chemistry data booklet 9.147 0.074 0.122 0.135 0.135 0.142 0.228 0.110 0. Covalent bond lengths Bond Bond length (nm) Bond Bond length (nm) H–H C–C C=C C≡C C–C (in benzene) Si–Si N–N N=N N≡N P–P (P4) O–O O=O S–S (S8) S=S F–F Cl–Cl Br–Br I–I 0.148 0.160 0.116 0.138 0.146 0.199 0.096 0.150 10 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .146 0.267 C–H Si–H N–H P–H O–H S–H F–H Cl–H Br–H I–H C–O C=O C–O (in phenol) C–N C=N C≡N C–N (in phenylamine) C–F C–Cl C–Cl (in chlorobenzene) C–Br C–I Si–O 0.120 0.188 0.141 0.143 0.177 0.142 0.221 0.154 0.109 0.139 0.121 0.

Average bond enthalpies at 298 K Bond ∆H (kJ mol–1) Bond ∆H (kJ mol–1) H–H D–D C–C C=C C≡C C–C (benzene) Si–Si Ge–Ge Sn–Sn N–N N=N N≡N P–P O–O O=O S–S F–F Cl–Cl Br–Br I–I 436 442 348 612 837 518 226 188 151 163 409 944 172 146 496 264 158 242 193 151 C–H Si–H N–H P–H O–H S–H F–H Cl–H Br–H I–H C–O C=O C–N C=N C≡N C–F C–Cl C–Br C–I Si–O 412 318 388 322 463 338 562 431 366 299 360 743 305 613 890 484 338 276 238 374 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 11 .Chemistry data booklet 10.

Chemistry data booklet 11. Organic compounds—thermodynamic data Substance Formula State ∆H Ö f (kJ mol–1) ∆G Ö f (kJ mol–1) SÖ (J K–1 mol–1) methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane ethene propene but-1-ene CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C6H12 C6H6 C6H6 C6H5CH3 C6H5CH2CH3 C6H5CHCH2 CH3Cl CH2Cl2 CHCl3 CH3Br CHBr3 CH3I CHI3 C2H5Cl C2H5Br g g g g l l g g g g g g g g l g l l l l g l l g l l s g l –75 –85 –104 –125 –173 –199 52 20 1 –6 –10 227 185 112 –156 83 49 12 13 104 –82 –117 –132 –36 –20 –8 141 –105 –85 –51 –33 –24 –16 –9 –4 68 63 72 67 64 209 194 152 27 130 125 111 120 202 –59 –63 –72 –26 3 20 –53 186 230 270 310 261 296 219 267 307 301 296 201 248 279 204 269 173 320 255 345 234 179 203 246 222 163 276 cis-but-2-ene trans-but-2-ene ethyne propyne buta-1.3-diene cyclohexane benzene benzene methylbenzene ethylbenzene phenylethene chloromethane dichloromethane trichloromethane bromomethane tribromomethane iodomethane triiodomethane chloroethane bromoethane 12 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .

2-dichloroethane chlorobenzene methanol methanol ethanol ethanol phenol methanal ethanal propanone methanoic acid ethanoic acid benzoic acid ethyl ethanoate ethanamide methylamine ethylamine urea C2H5I C2H3Cl CH2ClCH2Cl C6H5Cl CH3OH CH3OH C2H5OH C2H5OH C6H5OH HCHO CH3CHO (CH3)2CO HCOOH CH3COOH C6H5COOH CH3COOC2H5 CH3CONH2 CH3NH2 C2H5NH2 CO(NH2)2 l g l l g l g l s g g l l l s l s g g s –31 31 –166 11 –201 –239 –235 –278 –163 –116 –166 –216 –409 –487 –385 –481 –320 –28 –49 –333 28 37 –47 242 285 105 52 –80 94 –162 –166 –169 –175 –51 –110 –134 –152 –346 –392 –245 264 208 314 238 127 282 161 146 219 266 295 129 160 167 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 13 .Organic compounds—thermodynamic data Substance Formula State ∆H Ö f (kJ mol–1) ∆G Ö f (kJ mol–1) SÖ (J K–1 mol–1) iodoethane chloroethene 1.

Chemistry data booklet 14 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 12. c Substance Formula State ∆H Ö (kJ mol–1) c Substance Formula State ∆H Ö c (kJ mol–1) hydrogen sulfur carbon (graphite) carbon (diamond) carbon monoxide methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane octane cyclohexane ethene buta-1.3-diene ethyne benzene methylbenzene H2 S C C CO CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C8H18 C6H12 C2H4 C4H6 C2H2 C6H6 C6H5CH3 g s s s g g g g g g l l l l g g l l –286 –297 –394 –395 –283 –890 –1560 –2220 –2877 –3509 –4194 –5512 –3924 –1409 –2542 –1299 –3267 –3909 propan-1-ol butan-1-ol phenylmethanol cyclohexanol phenol ethoxyethane methanal ethanal benzaldehyde propanone pentan-3-one phenylethanone diphenylmethanone methanoic acid ethanoic acid benzoic acid ethanedioic acid ethyl ethanoate C3H7OH C4H9OH C6H5CH2OH C6H11OH C6H5OH (C2H5)2O HCHO CH3CHO C6H5CHO (CH3)2CO (C2H5)2CO CH3COC6H5 (C6H5)2CO HCOOH CH3COOH C6H5COOH (COOH)2 CH3COOC2H5 1 1 l s s l g l l l l s s l l s s l –2010 –2673 –4056 –3727 –3064 –2727 –561 –1167 –3520 –1786 –3078 –4138 –6512 –263 –876 –3227 –246 –2246 .01 × 105 Pa (1 atm). Enthalpies of combustion The values of the molar enthalpy of combustion (∆H Ö ) in the following table refer to a temperature of 298 K and a pressure of 1.

Substance Formula State ∆H Ö (kJ mol–1) c Substance Formula State ∆H Ö c (kJ mol–1) © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 naphthalene anthracene chloroethane bromoethane iodoethane (chloromethyl)benzene trichloromethane methanol ethanol C10H8 C14H10 C2H5Cl C2H5Br C2H5I C6H5CH2Cl CHCl3 CH3OH C2H5OH l s g l l l l l l –5157 –7114 –1413 –1425 –1466 –3709 –373 –715 –1371 ethanamide benzamide methylamine ethylamine phenylamine nitrobenzene urea glucose sucrose CH3CONH2 C6H5CONH2 CH3NH2 C2H5NH2 C6H5NH2 C6H5NO2 CO(NH2)2 C6H12O6 C12H22O11 s s g g l l s s s –1182 –3546 –1072 –1709 –3397 –3094 –634 –2816 –5644 15 .

Experimental values The data in these two tables are experimental values obtained by means of a suitable Born–Haber cycle.Chemistry data booklet 13. Alkali metal halides Ö ∆H lattice (kJ mol–1) F Cl Br I Li Na K Rb Cs Other substances 1022 902 801 767 716 Ö ∆H lattice 846 771 701 675 645 (kJ mol–1) Other substances 800 733 670 647 619 Ö ∆H lattice 744 684 629 609 585 (kJ mol–1) CaF2 BeCl2 MgCl2 CaCl2 SrCl2 BaCl2 MgO CaO SrO BaO 2602 3006 2493 2237 2112 2018 3889 3513 3310 3152 MgS CaS SrS BaS CuCl AgF AgCl AgBr AgI NH4Cl 3238 2966 2779 2643 976 955 905 890 876 640 16 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 . Lattice enthalpies at 298 K (experimental and theoretical values) Ö The lattice enthalpy values (∆H lattice ) given relate to the endothermic process MX(s) → M+(g) + X–(g) in which the gaseous ions of a crystal are separated to an infinite distance from each other.

Lattice enthalpies at 298 K (experimental and theoretical values) Theoretical values These two tables contain lattice enthalpies calculated from electrostatic principles on the basis of a purely ionic model for the crystal. Alkali metal halides Ö ∆H lattice (kJ mol–1) F Cl Br I Li Na K Rb Cs Other substances 1004 891 795 761 728 Ö ∆H lattice 833 766 690 674 636 (kJ mol–1) Other substances 787 732 665 644 611 Ö ∆H lattice 728 686 632 607 582 (kJ mol–1) CaF2 MgO CaO SrO BaO 2611 3929 3477 3205 3042 AgF AgCl AgBr AgI 870 770 758 736 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 17 .

Chemistry data booklet 14.87 –2.76 –0.71 –2.00 +0.03 –2.83 –0.17 +0.40 +0.34 +0. Standard electrode potentials Oxidized species Reduced species E Ö (V) –3.92 –2.44 –0.23 –0.13 0.14 –0.66 –1.15 +0.36 –1.52 Li+(aq) + e– K+(aq) + e– Ca2+(aq) + 2e– Na+(aq) + e– Mg2+(aq) + 2e– Al3+(aq) + 3e– Mn2+(aq) + 2e– H2O(l) + e– Zn2+(aq) + 2e– Fe2+(aq) + 2e– Ni2+(aq) + 2e– Sn2+(aq) + 2e– Pb2+(aq) + 2e– H+(aq) + e– Cu2+(aq) + e– SO42–(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e– Cu2+(aq) + 2e– ½O2(g) + H2O(l) + 2e– Cu+(aq) + e– Li(s) K(s) Ca(s) Na(s) Mg(s) Al(s) Mn(s) ½H2(g) + OH–(aq) Zn(s) Fe(s) Ni(s) Sn(s) Pb(s) ½H2(g) Cu+(aq) H2SO3(aq) + H2O(l) Cu(s) 2OH–(aq) Cu(s) 18 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .18 –0.

33 +1.77 +0.36 +1.Standard electrode potentials Oxidized species Reduced species E Ö (V) +0.87 ½I2(s) + e– Fe3+(aq) + e– Ag+(aq) + e– ½Br2(l) + e– ½O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e– Cr2O72–(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e– ½Cl2(g) + e– MnO4–(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e– ½F2(g) + e– I–(aq) Fe2+(aq) Ag(s) Br–(aq) H2O(l) 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l) Cl–(aq) Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) F–(aq) © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 19 .09 +1.51 +2.80 +1.54 +0.23 +1.

Carboxylic acids Name Formula pKa methanoic ethanoic propanoic butanoic 2-methylpropanoic pentanoic 2.17 20 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 . Strengths of organic acids and bases The acid strengths in the following tables are given in terms of pKa values.85 4.66 2.20 4. Base strengths are given in terms of pKb values. where pKa = −log10 Ka.86 5.Chemistry data booklet 15.29 0. Ka. The dissociation constant.86 1.90 3.65 2.87 4.82 4.2-dimethylpropanoic benzoic phenylethanoic HCOOH CH3COOH CH3CH2COOH CH3(CH2)2COOH (CH3)2CHCOOH CH3(CH2)3COOH (CH3)3CCOOH C6H5COOH C6H5CH2COOH 3.05 4.31 Halogenated carboxylic acids Name Formula pKa chloroethanoic dichloroethanoic trichloroethanoic fluoroethanoic bromoethanoic iodoethanoic CH2ClCOOH CHCl2COOH CCl3COOH CH2FCOOH CH2BrCOOH CH2ICOOH 2.76 4. values are for aqueous solutions at 298 K.75 4.

Strengths of organic acids and bases Phenols Name Formula pKa phenol 2-nitrophenol 3-nitrophenol 4-nitrophenol 2.15 4.4-dinitrophenol 2.01 0.6-trinitrophenol C6H5OH O2NC6H4OH O2NC6H4OH O2NC6H4OH (O2N)2C6H3OH (O2N)3C6H2OH 10.00 7.27 3.36 3.36 9.28 4.35 7.4.5 16.07 3.0 Amines Name Formula pKb ammonia methylamine ethylamine dimethylamine trimethylamine diethylamine triethylamine phenylamine NH3 CH3NH2 CH3CH2NH2 (CH3)2NH (CH3)3N (C2H5)2NH (C2H5)3N C6H5NH2 4.38 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 21 .42 Alcohols Name Formula pKa methanol ethanol CH3OH C2H5OH 15.20 3.75 3.21 8.

7 5.0–7.0 4.8–8.8–5. Acid–base indicators Colour change Indicator pKa pH range Acid Alkali methyl orange bromophenol blue bromocresol green methyl red bromothymol blue phenol red phenolphthalein 3.4 4.4 3.2–6.3 6.7 4.3 3.6 3.1 7.1–4.0 red yellow yellow red yellow yellow colourless yellow blue blue yellow blue red red 22 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .6 6.Chemistry data booklet 16.0 7.3–10.0–4.9 9.4 8.

Bond Organic molecules Wavenumber (cm–1) C–I C–Br C–Cl C–F C–O C=C C=O C≡C O–H C–H O–H N–H iodoalkanes bromoalkanes chloroalkanes fluoroalkanes alcohols. alkenes. acids. esters. Infrared data Characteristic ranges for infrared absorption due to stretching vibrations in organic molecules. arenes “hydrogen bonded” in alcohols.Chemistry data booklet 17. phenols primary amines 490–620 500–600 600–800 1000–1400 1050–1410 1610–1680 1700–1750 2100–2260 2500–3300 2850–3100 3200–3600 3300–3500 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 23 . esters alkynes “hydrogen bonded” in acids alkanes. ketones. ethers alkenes aldehydes.

0 1.4 R R O R C O R C CH2 O Hal CH3 3.3–3. Type of proton Chemical shift (ppm) R R CH3 CH2 R 0.5–4.0–13.0–12. and Hal represents F.5 H 3C C R O 2.Chemistry data booklet 18.5 R C C H 1. Cl.0 24 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .8–4.7 CH3 2.3–1.4–1. 1H NMR data Typical proton chemical shift values (δ) relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) = 0.4 1.2–2. or I.8–3.1 3.0–2.5–3. R represents an alkyl group. Br. These values may vary in different solvents and conditions.1 O CH2R 9.6 R3CH 2.9–1.0 O H R O H 4.7 3.

0 O R C H 9.9–9.0 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 25 .0 H 6.0 OH 4.1 H NMR data Type of proton Chemical shift (ppm) RHC CH2 4.5–6.4–10.0–12.

2 glycine Gly H2N CH2 COOH 6.0 26 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .1 H2N CH CH2 COOH CH2 C O NH2 glutamine Gln 5.4 H2N CH CH2 COOH aspartic acid Asp COOH 2.Chemistry data booklet 19.8 H2N CH CH2 COOH cysteine Cys SH 5.0 H2N CH CH2 COOH CH2 CH2 NH C NH NH2 arginine Arg 10.7 H2N CH CH2 COOH glutamic acid Glu CH2 COOH 3.8 H2N CH CH2 COOH C O NH2 asparagine Asn 5. 2-Amino acids Common name Symbol Structural formula H2N CH CH3 COOH pH of isoelectric point alanine Ala 6.

7 H2N CH CH2 COOH phenylalanine Phe 5.3 H2N CH CH2 COOH serine Ser OH 5.7 H2N CH CH2 COOH methionine Met CH2 S CH3 5.6 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 27 .5 proline Pro H N COOH 6.0 H2N CH CH2 COOH leucine Leu CH3 6.6 H 2N CH CH COOH isoleucine Ile CH3 CH2 CH3 6.0 CH3 CH H2N CH CH2 COOH lysine Lys CH2 CH2 CH2 NH2 9.2-Amino acids Common name Symbol Structural formula H2N CH CH2 N COOH H N pH of isoelectric point histidine His 7.7 H2N CH CH COOH threonine Thr CH3 OH 5.

2-Amino acids Common name Symbol Structural formula H2N CH CH2 N H pH of isoelectric point COOH tryptophan Trp 5.9 H2N CH CH2 COOH OH tyrosine Tyr 5.7 H2N CH CH COOH valine Val CH3 CH3 6.0 28 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .

Chemistry data booklet 20. Structural formulas of some important medicines and drugs CH3 O C OH O C CH3 O OH CH2 C H CH3 NHCOCH 3 CH3 C H COOH aspirin paracetamol (acetaminophen) ibuprofen O CH2 CH2 CH3 N O OH CH3 N CH2 CH2 OH CH2 CH2 CH3 N OCCH3 O O O OH OCH3 OCCH3 morphine codeine heroin O OH CH3 N H3C CH2 NH CH3 CH2 CH CH3 NH2 HO CH N O N CH3 HO N amphetamine epinephrine (adrenaline) caffeine © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 29 .

Structural formulas of some important medicines and drugs O R C NH S CH3 O CH3 CH3 N N O N Cl C OH O N N CH3 nicotine penicillin diazepam (Valium®) CH3 O N O HN N N H O2N N H2 N HO N CH2 CH2 O N CH2 nitrazepam (Mogadon®) acyclovir indole CH3 O O CH3 H3 C CH2 N CH3 O N N NH H3 C CH2 O cocaine lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) 30 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .

Structural formulas of some important medicines and drugs O NH2 C O CH2CH2 N CH2CH3 F 3C CH 2 O CH 2 CH2CH3 NH 2 + Cl CH 2 procaine fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac®) CH3 OH CH3 O NH C CH2 N H3C H3 C O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 H 2C CH3 CH2 CH3 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) lidocaine H O O P O CH 2 CH 2 H N H O CH 3 N+ CH 3 CH 3O CH 2 CH 2 NH 2 Cl Pt NH3 CH 3O OCH 3 Cl NH3 psilocybine mescaline cisplatin © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 31 .

Structural formulas of some important biological molecules CH2OH HO H OH O H H 4 OH 3 H 1 H O CH2OH O H H H CH2OH O H HOCH2 1 O 1 2 H 3 OH O H CH2OH 4 H O H H 2 H 2 1 OH HO OH H H 2 H H OH OH OH lactose sucrose O C HO HO H HO C O C C C H CH2OH retinol (vitamin A) ascorbic acid (vitamin C) H3C CH CH3 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH3 CH3 H3 C CH CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH3 CH3 CH2 HO HO cholesterol vitamin D 32 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .Chemistry data booklet 21.

Structural formulas of some important biological molecules CH3 OH CH3 H3C CH3 C O CH3 CH3 OH HO O O estradiol progesterone testosterone OH HO CH CH2 NH CH3 HO I I O CH2 CH NH2 COOH HO I I epinephrine (adrenaline) thyroxine NH2 C N HC N C C N CH N H O C HN H2N C N C C N CH N H O NH2 C N C N H CH CH adenine guanine cytosine O C HN O C N H CH CH O O C HN C N H C CH CH3 uracil thymine © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 33 .

Structural formulas of some important biological molecules CH3 CH2 CH2 HO CH2 CH CH3 C CH2 CH2 CH CH3 C CH2 CH2 CH CH3 C CH3 H3C N Fe N O C H CH2 HOOC CH2 CH2 CH2 N N CH CH2 CH3 COOH the heme group from cytochrome oxidase NH2 N N O O P O O O P O O O P O O CH2 O N N OH OH adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 34 International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .

Chemistry data booklet 22. Structural formulas of some important food chemistry molecules Some anthocyanins quinoidal base (blue) flavylium cation (red) chalcone (colourless) carbinol pseudo-base (colourless) N Fe N N NH N N N HN myoglobin porphyrin © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 35 .

5-di-tert-butyl-4hydroxytoluene (BHT) 36 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .Structural formulas of some important food chemistry molecules chlorophyll Some preservatives OH C(CH3)3 OH C(CH3)3 O CH3 O CH3 2-tert-butyl-4hydroxyanisole (2-BHA) 3-tert-butyl-4hydroxyanisole (3-BHA) 3.

4.Structural formulas of some important food chemistry molecules OH HO OH C O C3H7 OH HO OH COOC3H7 tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) 2.5trihydroxybutyrophenone (THBP) propyl gallate (PG) Some of the carotenes alpha-carotene beta-carotene HO lutein © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 37 .

Structural formulas of some important food chemistry molecules HO O astaxanthin Some fatty acids Fatty acid Formula Octanoic acid Lauric acid Stearic acid Palmitic acid Oleic acid Linoleic acid Linolenic acid CH3(CH2)6COOH CH3(CH2)10COOH CH3(CH2)14COOH CH3(CH2)14COOH CH3(CH2)7CH═CH(CH2)7COOH CH3(CH2)4(CH═CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOH CH3CH2(CH═CHCH2)3(CH2)6COOH 38 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 .

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