# ELEMENTARY

MECHANICS & THERMODYNAMICS
Professor John W. Norbury
Physics Department
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
P.O. Box 413
Milwaukee, WI 53201
November 20, 2000
2
Contents
1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 11
1.1 Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2 Position and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.5 Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.7 Another Look at Constant Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.8 Free-Fall Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2 VECTORS 31
2.1 Vectors and Scalars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2 Adding Vectors: Graphical Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3 Vectors and Their Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.1 Review of Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.2 Components of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.4 Unit Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.5 Adding Vectors by Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.6 Vectors and the Laws of Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.7 Multiplying Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.7.1 The Scalar Product (often called dot product) . . . . . 43
2.7.2 The Vector Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 47
3.1 Moving in Two or Three Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.2 Position and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.3 Velocity and Average Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3
4 CONTENTS
3.4 Acceleration and Average Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.5 Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.6 Projectile Motion Analyzed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.7 Uniform Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4 FORCE & MOTION - I 65
4.1 What Causes an Acceleration? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.2 Newton’s First Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.3 Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.4 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.5 Newton’s Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.6 Some Particular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.7 Newton’s Third Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.8 Applying Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5 FORCE & MOTION - II 79
5.1 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.2 Properties of Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.3 Drag Force and Terminal Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.4 Uniform Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6 POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 89
6.1 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.2 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.3 Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.4 Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.5 Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.6 Spring Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.7 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy . . 103
6.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
7 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 107
7.1 A Special Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.2 The Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles . . . . . . . . 114
7.4 Linear Momentum of a Point Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
7.5 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . . 115
CONTENTS 5
7.6 Conservation of Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
8 COLLISIONS 119
8.1 What is a Collision? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
8.2 Impulse and Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
8.3 Elastic Collisions in 1-dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
8.4 Inelastic Collisions in 1-dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
8.5 Collisions in 2-dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
8.6 Reactions and Decay Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
8.7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
9 ROTATION 131
9.1 Translation and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.2 The Rotational Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration . . . . . . . . . 134
9.5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
9.7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
9.8 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.9 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.10 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.11 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
10 ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 145
10.1 Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
10.2 Yo-Yo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
10.3 Torque Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
10.4 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
10.5 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
10.6 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . 149
10.7 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed
Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
10.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
10.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
11 GRAVITATION 153
11.1 The World and the Gravitational Force . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
11.2 Newton’s Law of Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
6 CONTENTS
11.3 Gravitation and Principle of Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . 158
11.4 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
11.5 Gravitation Inside Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
11.6 Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
11.7 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
11.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
12 OSCILLATIONS 175
12.1 Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
12.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
12.3 Force Law for SHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
12.4 Energy in SHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
12.5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
12.6 Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
12.7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
13 WAVES - I 191
13.1 Waves and Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
13.2 Types of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
13.3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
13.4 Wavelength and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
13.5 Speed of a Travelling Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
13.6 Wave Speed on a String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
13.7 Energy and Power of a Travelling String Wave . . . . . . . . 196
13.8 Principle of Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
13.9 Interference of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
13.10 Phasors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
13.11 Standing Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
13.12 Standing Waves and Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
13.13Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
14 WAVES - II 201
14.1 Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.2 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.3 Travelling Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.4 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.5 Intensity and Sound Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.6 Sources of Musical Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
14.7 Beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
14.8 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
CONTENTS 7
14.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
15 TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODY-
NAMICS 211
15.1 Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
15.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
15.3 Measuring Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
15.4 Celsius, Farenheit and Kelvin Temperature Scales . . . . . . . 212
15.5 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
15.6 Temperature and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
15.7 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids . . . . . . . . . 215
15.8 A Closer Look at Heat and Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
15.9 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
15.10 Special Cases of 1st Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . 221
15.11 Heat Transfer Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
15.12Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
16 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 225
16.1 A New Way to Look at Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
16.2 Avagadro’s Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
16.3 Ideal Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
16.4 Pressure, Temperature and RMS Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
16.5 Translational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
16.6 Mean Free Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
16.7 Distribution of Molecular Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
16.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
17 Review of Calculus 235
17.1 Derivative Equals Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
17.1.1 Slope of a Straight Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
17.1.2 Slope of a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
17.1.3 Some Common Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
17.1.4 Extremum Value of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
17.2 Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
17.2.1 Integral Equals Antiderivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
17.2.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve . . . . . . . . . . . 247
17.2.3 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
17.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
8 CONTENTS
PREFACE
The reason for writing this book was due to the fact that modern intro-
ductory textbooks (not only in physics, but also mathematics, psychology,
chemistry) are simply not useful to either students or instructors. The typ-
ical freshman textbook in physics, and other ﬁelds, is over 1000 pages long,
with maybe 40 chapters and over 100 problems per chapter. This is overkill!
A typical semester is 15 weeks long, giving 30 weeks at best for a year long
course. At the fastest possible rate, we can ”cover” only one chapter per
week. For a year long course that is 30 chapters at best. Thus ten chapters
of the typical book are left out! 1500 pages divided by 30 weeks is about 50
pages per week. The typical text is quite densed mathematics and physics
and it’s simply impossible for a student to read all of this in the detail re-
quired. Also with 100 problems per chapter, it’s not possible for a student to
do 100 problems each week. Thus it is impossible for a student to fully read
and do all the problems in the standard introductory books. Thus these
books are not useful to students or instructors teaching the typical course!
In defense of the typical introductory textbook, I will say that their
content is usually excellent and very well writtten. They are certainly very
ﬁne reference books, but I believe they are poor text books. Now I know
what publishers and authors say of these books. Students and instructors
are supposed to only cover a selection of the material. The books are written
so that an instructor can pick and choose the topics that are deemed best
for the course, and the same goes for the problems. However I object to
this. At the end of the typical course, students and instructors are left with
a feeling of incompleteness, having usually covered only about half of the
book and only about ten percent of the problems. I want a textbook that is
self contained. As an instructor, I want to be able to comfortably cover one
short chapter each week, and to have each student read the entire chapter
and do every problem. I want to say to the students at the beginning of
the course that they should read the entire book from cover to cover and do
every problem. If they have done that, they will have a good knowledge of
introductory physics.
This is why I have written this book. Actually it is based on the in-
troductory physics textbook by Halliday, Resnick and Walker [Fundamental
of Physics, 5th ed., by Halliday, Resnick and Walker, (Wiley, New York,
1997)], which is an outstanding introductory physics reference book. I had
been using that book in my course, but could not cover it all due to the
reasons listed above.
CONTENTS 9
Availability of this eBook
At the moment this book is freely available on the world wide web and
can be downloaded as a pdf ﬁle. The book is still in progress and will be
updated and improved from time to time.
10 CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION - What is Physics?
A good way to deﬁne physics is to use what philosophers call an ostensive
deﬁnition, i.e. a way of deﬁning something by pointing out examples.
Physics studies the following general topics, such as:
Motion (this semester)
Thermodynamics (this semester)
Electricity and Magnetism
Optics and Lasers
Relativity
Quantum mechanics
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Nuclear Physics
Condensed Matter Physics
Atoms and Molecules
Biophysics
Solids, Liquids, Gases
Electronics
Geophysics
Acoustics
Elementary particles
Materials science
Thus physics is a very fundamental science which explores nature from
the scale of the tiniest particles to the behaviour of the universe and many
things in between. Most of the other sciences such as biology, chemistry,
geology, medicine rely heavily on techniques and ideas from physics. For
example, many of the diagnostic instruments used in medicine (MRI, x-ray)
were developed by physicists. All ﬁelds of technology and engineering are
very strongly based on physics principles. Much of the electronics and com-
puter industry is based on physics principles. Much of the communication
today occurs via ﬁber optical cables which were developed from studies in
physics. Also the World Wide Web was invented at the famous physics
laboratory called the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Thus
anyone who plans to work in any sort of technical area needs to know the
basics of physics. This is what an introductory physics course is all about,
namely getting to know the basic principles upon which most of our modern
technological society is based.
Chapter 1
MOTION ALONG A
STRAIGHT LINE
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design a simple experiment which shows that objects of diﬀerent weight
fall at the same rate if the eﬀect of air resistance is eliminated.
THEMES:
2. DROPPING AN OBJECT.
11
12 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
INTRODUCTION:
There are two themes we will deal with in this chapter. They concern
DRIVING YOUR CAR and DROPPING AN OBJECT.
When you drive you car and go on a journey there are several things
you are interested in. Typically these are distance travelled and the speed
with which you travel. Often you want to know how long a journey will
take if you drive at a certain speed over a certain distance. Also you are
often interested in the acceleration of your car, especially for a very short
journey such as a little speed race with you and your friend. You want to
be able to accelerate quickly. In this chapter we will spend a lot of time
studying the concepts of distance, speed and acceleration.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION:
1) Drop a ball and hold at diﬀerent heights; it goes faster at bottom if
released from diﬀerent heights
2) Drop a ball and a pen (diﬀerent weights - weigh on balance and show
they are diﬀerent weight); both hit the ground at the same time
Another item of interest is what happens when an object is dropped
from a certain height. If you drop a ball you know it starts oﬀ with zero
speed and ends up hitting the ground with a large speed. Actually, if you
think about it, that’s a pretty amazing phenomenom. WHY did the speed
of the ball increase ? You might say gravity. But what’s that ? The speed
of the ball increased, and therefore gravity provided an acceleration. But
how ? Why ? When ?
We shall address all of these deep questions in this chapter.
1.1 Motion
1.2 Position and Displacement
In 1-dimension, positions are measured along the x-axis with respect to some
origin. It is up to us to deﬁne where to put the origin, because the x-axis is
just something we invented to put on top of, say a real landscape.
1.2. POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT 13
Example Chicago is 100 miles south of Milwaukee and Glendale
is 10 miles north of Milwaukee.
A. If we deﬁne the origin of the x-axis to be at Glendale what is
the position of someone in Chicago, Milwaukee and Glendale ?
B. If we deﬁne the origin of x-axis to be at Milwaukee, what is
the position of someone in Chicago, Milwaukee and Glendale ?
Solution A. For someone in Chicago, x = 110 miles.
For someone in Milwaukee, x = 10 miles.
For someone in Glendale, x = 0 miles.
B. For someone in Chicago, x = 100 miles.
For someone in Milwaukee, x = 0 miles.
For someone in Glendale, x = −10 miles.
Displacement is deﬁned as a change in position. Speciﬁcally,
∆x ≡ x
2
−x
1
(1.1)
Note: We always write ∆anything ≡ anthing
2
−anything
1
where anything
2
is the ﬁnal value and anything
1
is the initial value. Sometimes you will
instead see it written as ∆anything ≡ anthing
f
− anything
i
where sub-
scripts f and i are used for the ﬁnal and initial values instead of the 2 and
1 subscripts.
Example What is the displacement for someone driving from
Milwaukee to Chicago ? What is the distance ?
Solution With the origin at Milwaukee, then the initial position
is x
1
= 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is x
2
= 100 miles, so that
∆x = x
2
− x
1
= 100 miles. You get the same answer with the
origin deﬁned at Gendale. Try it.
The distance is also 100 miles.
14 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
Example What is the displacement for someone driving from
Milwaukee to Chicago and back ? What is the distance ?
Solution With the origin at Milwaukee, then the initial position
is x
1
= 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is also x
2
= 0 miles, so
that ∆x = x
2
− x
1
= 0 miles. Thus there is no displacement if
the beginning and end points are the same. You get the same
answer with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. Try it.
The distance is 200 miles.
Note that the distance is what the odometer on your car reads. The
odometer does not read displacement (except if displacment and distance
are the same, as is the case for a one way straight line journey).
Do Checkpoint 1 [from Halliday].
1.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed
Average velocity is deﬁned as the ratio of displacement divided by the corre-
sponding time interval.
¯ v ≡
∆x
∆t
=
x
2
−x
1
t
2
−t
1
(1.2)
whereas average speed is just the total distance divided by the time interval,
¯ s ≡
total distance
∆t
(1.3)
1.3. AVERAGE VELOCITY AND AVERAGE SPEED 15
Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for
someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago who takes 2 hours
for the journey ?
Solution ∆x = 100 miles and ∆t = 2 hours, giving ¯ v =
100 miles
2 hours
=
50
miles
hour
≡ 50 miles per hour ≡ 50 mph.
Note that the unit
miles
hour
has been re-written as miles per hour.
This is standard. We can always write any fraction
a
b
as a per b.
The word per just means divide.
The average speed is the same as average velocity in this case
because the total distance is the same as the displacement. Thus
¯ s = 50 mph.
Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for
someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back to Mil-
waukee who takes 4 hours for the journey ?
Solution ∆x = 0 miles and ∆t = 2 hours, giving ¯ v = 0 !
However the total distance is 200 miles completed in 4 hours
giving ¯ s =
200 miles
4 hours
= 50 mph again.
16 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
A very important thing to understand is how to read graphs of position
and time and graphs of velocity and time, and how to interpret such graphs.
It is very important to understand how the average velocity is
obtained from a position-time graph. See Fig. 2-4 in Halliday.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION:
1) Air track glider standing still
2) Air track glider moving at constant speed.
Let’s plot an x, t and v, t graph for
1) Object standing still,
2) Object at constant speed.
Note that the v, t graph is the slope of the x, t graph.
t
x
t
v
t
t
x
t
v
t
(A) (B)
FIGURE 2.1 Position - time and Velocity - time graphs for A) object
standing still and B) object moving at constant speed.
Careully study Sample Problems 2-1, 2-2, Checkpoint 2 and
Sample Problem 2-3. [from Halliday]
1.4. INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND SPEED 17
1.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
When you drive to Chicago with an average velocity of 50 mph you probably
don’t drive at this velocity the whole way. Sometimes you might pass a truck
and drive at 70 mph and when you get stuck in the traﬃc jams you might
only drive at 20 mph.
Now when the police use their radar gun and clock you at 70 mph, you
might legitimately protest to the oﬃcer that your average velocity for the
whole trip was only 50 mph and therefore you don’t deserve a speeding
ticket. However, as we all know police oﬃcers don’t care about average ve-
locity or average speed. They only care about your speed at the instant that
you pass them. Thus let’s introduce the concept of instantaneous velocity
and instantaneous speed.
What is an instant ? It is nothing more than an extremely short time
interval. The way to describe this mathematically is to say that an instant
is when the time interval ∆t approaches zero, or the limit of ∆t as ∆t →0
(approaches zero). We denote such a tiny time interval as dt instead of ∆t.
The corresponding distance that we travel over that tiny time interval will
also be tiny and we denote that as dx instead of ∆x.
Thus instantaneous velocity or just velocity is deﬁned as
v = lim
∆t→0
∆x
∆t
=
dx
dt
(1.4)
Now such a fraction of one tiny dx divided by a tiny dt has a special name.
It is called the derivative of x with respect to t.
The instantaneous speed or just speed is deﬁned as simply the
magnitude of the instantaneous veloctiy or magnitude of velocity.
Carefully study Sample Problem 2-4 [from Halliday].
18 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
1.5 Acceleration
We have seen that velocity tells us how quickly position changes. Accelera-
tion tells us how much velocity changes. The average acceleration is deﬁned
as
¯ a =
v
2
−v
1
t
2
−t
1
=
∆v
∆t
and the instantaneous acceleration or just acceleration is deﬁned as
a =
dv
dt
Now because v =
dx
dt
we can write a =
d
dt
v =
d
dt
_
dx
dt
_
which is often written
d
dt
_
dx
dt
_

d
2
x
dt
2
, that is the second derivative of position with
respect to time.
ation if you are able to reach 20 mph from rest in 5 seconds ?
Solution
v
2
= 20 mph v
1
= 0
t
2
= 5 seconds t
1
= 0
¯ a =
20 mph −0
5 sec −0
=
20 miles per hour
5 seconds
= 4
miles
hour seconds
= 4 mph per sec
= 4
miles
hour
1
3600
hour
= 14, 400 miles per hour
2
1.5. ACCELERATION 19
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION (previous demo continued):
1) Air track glider standing still
2) Air track glider moving at constant speed.
Now let’s also plot an a, t graph for
1) Object standing still,
2) Object at constant speed.
Note that the the a, t graph is the slope of the v, t graph.
t
a
t
(A)
t
a
t
(B)
FIGURE 2.2 Acceleration-time graphs for motion depicted in Fig. 2.1.
20 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
1.6 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case
Velocity describes changing position and acceleration describes changing ve-
locity. A quantity called jerk describes changing acceleration. However, very
often the acceleration is constant, and we don’t consider jerk. When driving
your car the acceleration is usually constant when you speed up or slow
down or put on the brakes. (When you slow down or put on the brakes the
acceleration is constant but negative and is called deceleration.) When you
drop an object and it falls to the ground it also has a constant acceleration.
When the acceleration is constant, then we can derive 5 very handy
equations that will tell us everything about the motion. Let’s derive them
and then study some examples.
We are going to use the following symbols:
t
1
≡ 0
t
2
≡ t
x
1
≡ x
0
x
2
≡ x
v
1
≡ v
0
v
2
≡ v
and acceleration a is a constant and so a
1
= a
2
= a. Thus now
∆t = t
2
−t
1
= t −0 = t
∆x = x
2
−x
1
= x −x
0
∆v = v
2
−v
1
= v −v
0
∆a = a
2
−a
1
= a −a = 0
(∆a must be zero because we are only considering constant a.)
Also, because acceleration is constant then average acceleration is always
the same as instantaneous acceleration
¯ a = a
Now use the deﬁnition of average acceleration
¯ a = a =
∆v
∆t
=
v −v
0
t −0
=
v −v
0
t
Thus
at = v −v
0
or
1.6. CONSTANT ACCELERATION: A SPECIAL CASE 21
v = v
0
+at
(1.5)
which is the ﬁrst of our constant acceleration equations. If you plot this on
a v, t graph, then it is a straight line for a = constant. In that case the
average velocity is
¯ v =
1
2
(v +v
0
)
From the deﬁnition of average velocity
¯ v =
∆x
∆t
=
x −x
0
t
we have
x −x
0
t
=
1
2
(v +v
0
)
=
1
2
(v
0
+at +v
0
)
giving
x −x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
(1.6)
which is the second of our constant acceleration equations. To get the other
three constant acceleration equations, we just combine the ﬁrst two.
22 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
Example Prove that v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
Solution Obviously t has been eliminated. From (1.5)
t =
v −v
0
a
Substituting into (1.6) gives
x −x
0
= v
0
_
v −v
0
a
_
+
1
2
a
_
v −v
0
a
_
2
a(x −x
0
) = v
0
v −v
2
0
+
1
2
(v
2
−2vv
0
+v
2
0
)
= v
2
−v
2
0
or
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
Example Prove that x −x
0
=
1
2
(v
0
+v)t
Solution Obviously a has been eliminated. From (1.5)
a =
v −v
0
t
Substituting into (1.6) gives
x −x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
_
v −v
0
t
_
t
2
= v
0
t +
1
2
(vt −v
0
t)
=
1
2
(v
0
+v)t
Exercise Prove that x −x
0
= vt −
1
2
at
2
carefully study Sample Problem 2.8 [from Halliday]
1.7. ANOTHER LOOK AT CONSTANT ACCELERATION 23
1.7 Another Look at Constant Acceleration
(This section is only for students who have studied integral calculus.)
The constant acceleration equations can be derived from integral calculus
as follows.
For constant acceleration a = a(x), a = a(t)
a =
dv
dt
_
t
2
t
1
a dt =
_
dv
dt
dt
a
_
t
2
t
1
dt =
_
v
2
v
1
dv
a(t
2
−t
1
) = v
2
−v
1
a(t −0) = v −v
0
v = v
0
+at
v =
dx
dt
_
v dt =
_
dx
dt
dt
v changes
.
.. cannot take outside integral
actually v(t) = v
0
+at
_
t
2
t
1
(v
0
+at)dt =
_
x
2
x
1
dx
_
v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
_
t
2
t
1
= x
2
−x
1
= v
0
(t
2
−t
1
) +
1
2
a(t
2
−t
1
)
2
= x −x
0
= v
0
(t −0) +
1
2
a(t −0)
2
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
.
.. x −x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
a =
dv
dt
=
dv
dx
dx
dt
= v
dv
dx
24 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
_
x
2
x
1
a dx =
_
v
dv
dx
dx
a
_
x
2
x
1
dx =
_
v
2
v
1
v dv
a(x
2
−x
1
) =
_
1
2
v
2
_
v
2
v
1
=
1
2
_
v
2
2
−v
2
1
_
a(x −x
0
) =
1
2
_
v
2
−v
2
0
_
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
One can now get the other equations using algebra.
1.8 Free-Fall Acceleration
If we neglect air resistance, then all falling objects have same acceleration
a = −g = −9.8 m/sec
2
(g = 9.8 m/sec
2
).
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION:
1) Feather and penny in vacuum tube
2) Drop a cup ﬁlled with water which has a hole in the bottom. Water
leaks out if the cup is held stationary. Water does not leak out if the cup is
dropped.
1.8. FREE-FALL ACCELERATION 25
Carefully study Sample Problems 2-9, 2-10, 2-11. [from Halliday]
Example I drop a ball from a height H, with what speed does
it hit the ground ? Check that the units are correct.
Solution
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
v
0
= 0
a = −g = −9.8 m/sec
2
x
0
= 0
x = H
v
2
= 0 −2 ×g (0 −−H)
v =
_
2gH
Check units:
The units of g are m sec
−2
and H is in m. Thus

2gH has units
of

m sec
−2
m =

m
2
sec
−2
= m sec
−1
. which is the correct
unit for speed.
26 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
HISTORICAL NOTE
The constant acceleration equations were ﬁrst discovered by Galileo
Galilei (1564 - 1642). Galileo is widely regarded as the “father of modern
science” because he was really the ﬁrst person who went out and actually
did expreiments to arrive at facts about nature, rather than relying solely on
philosophical argument. Galileo wrote two famous books entitled Dialogues
concerning Two New Sciences [Macmillan, New York, 1933; QC 123.G13]
and Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems [QB 41.G1356].
In Two New Sciences we ﬁnd the following [Pg. 173]:
“THEOREM I, PROPOSITION I : The time in which any space
is traversed by a body starting from rest and uniformly accel-
erated is equal to the time in which that same space would be
traversed by the same body moving at a unifrom speed whose
value is the mean of the highest speed and the speed just before
acceleration began.”
In other words this is Galileo’s statement of our equation
x −x
0
=
1
2
(v
0
+v)t (1.7)
We also ﬁnd [Pg. 174]:
“THEOREM II, PROPOSITION II : The spaces described by a
falling body from rest with a uniformly accelerated motion are
to each other as the squares of the time intervals employed in
traversing these distances.”
This is Galileo’s statement of
x −x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
= vt −
1
2
at
2
(1.8)
Galileo was able to test this equation with the simple device shown in
Figure 2.3. By the way, Galileo also invented the astronomical telescope !
1.8. FREE-FALL ACCELERATION 27
moveable fret wires
FIGURE 2.3 Galileo’s apparatus for verifying the constant acceleration
equations.
[from “From Quarks to the Cosmos” Leon M. Lederman and David N.
Schramm (Scientiﬁc American Library, New York, 1989) QB43.2.L43
28 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
1.9 Problems
1. The following functions give the position as a function of time:
i) x = A
ii) x = Bt
iii) x = Ct
2
iv) x = Dcos ωt
v) x = E sin ωt
where A, B, C, D, E, ω are constants.
A) What are the units for A, B, C, D, E, ω?
B) Write down the velocity and acceleration equations as a function of
time. Indicate for what functions the acceleration is constant.
C) Sketch graphs of x, v, a as a function of time.
2. The ﬁgures below show position-time graphs. Sketch the correspond-
ing velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs.
t
x
t
x
t
x
3. If you drop an object from a height H above the ground, work out a
formula for the speed with which the object hits the ground.
4. A car is travelling at constant speed v
1
and passes a second car moving
at speed v
2
. The instant it passes, the driver of the second car decides
to try to catch up to the ﬁrst car, by stepping on the gas pedal and
moving at acceleration a. Derive a formula for how long it takes to
1.9. PROBLEMS 29
catch up. (The ﬁrst car travels at constant speed v
1
and does not
accelerate.)
5. If you start your car from rest and accelerate to 30mph in 10 seconds,
what is your acceleration in mph per sec and in miles per hour
2
?
6. If you throw a ball up vertically at speed V , with what speed does it
ation equations, and neglect air resistance.
30 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
Chapter 2
VECTORS
31
32 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
2.1 Vectors and Scalars
When we considered 1-dimensional motion in the last chapter we only had
two directions to worry about, namely motion to the Right or motion to
the Left and we indicated direction with a + or − sign. We found that
the following quantities had a direction (i.e. could take a + or − sign):
displacement, velocity and acceleration. Quantities that don’t have a sign
were distance, speed and magnitude of acceleration.
Now in 2 and 3 dimensions we need more than a + or − sign. That’s
where vectors come in.
Vectors are quantities with both magnitude and direction.
Scalars are quantities with magnitude only.
Examples of Vectors are: displacement, velocity, acceleration,
force, momentum, electric ﬁeld
Examples of Scalars are: distance, speed, magnitude of acceler-
ation, time, temperature
Before delving into vectors consider the following problem.
Example Joe and Mary are rowing a boat across a river which
is 40 m wide. They row in a direction perpendicular to the bank.
However the river is ﬂowing downstream and by the time they
reach the other side, they end up 30 m downstream from their
starting point. Over what total distance did the boat travel?
Solution Obviously the way to do this is with the triangle in
Fig. 3.1, and we deduce that the distance is 50 m.
30 m
40 m
50 m
FIGURE 3.1 Graphical solution to river problem.
2.2. ADDING VECTORS: GRAPHICAL METHOD 33
Another way to think about the previous problem is with vectors, which are
little arrows whose orientation speciﬁes direction and whose length speciﬁes
magnitude. The displacement along the river is represented as
FIGURE 3.2 Displacement along the river.
with a length of 30 m, denoted as

A and the displacement across the river,
denoted B,
FIGURE 3.3 Displacement across the river.
with length of 40 m. To re-construct the previous triangle, the vectors are
FIGURE 3.4 Vector addition solution to the river problem.
34 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
The resultant vector, denoted

C, is obtained by ﬁlling in the triangle. Math-
ematically we write

C =

A+

B.
The graphical method of solving our original problem is to take out a
ruler and actually measure the length of the resultant vector

C. You would
ﬁnd it to be 50 m.
Summary: When adding any two vectors

A and

using the graphical method.
2.3 Vectors and Their Components
The graphical method requires the use of a ruler and protractor for measur-
ing the lengths of vectors and their angles. Thus there is always the problem
of inaccuracy in making these measurements. It’s better to use analytical
methods which rely on pure calculation. To learn this we must learn about
components. To do this we need trigonometry.
2.3.1 Review of Trigonometry
Lines are made by connecting two points. Triangles are made by connecting
three points. Of all the vast number of diﬀerent possible triangles, the
subject of trigonometry has to do with only a certain, special type of triangle
and that is a right-angled triangle, i.e. a triangle where one of the angles is
90

. Let’s draw one:
Hypotenuse
FIGURE 3.5 Right-angled triangle.
2.3. VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 35
The side opposite the right angle is always called the Hypotenuse. Consider
one of the other angles, say θ.
Hypotenuse
Opposite
θ
FIGURE 3.6 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent
to the angle θ.
The side adjacent to θ is called Adjacent and the side opposite θ is called
Opposite. Now consider the other angle α. The Opposite and Adjacent sides
are switched because the angle is diﬀerent.
Hypotenuse
Opposite
α
FIGURE 3.7 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent
to the angle α.
Let’s label Hypotenuse as H, Opposite as O and Adjacent as A. Pythago-
ras’ theorem states
H
2
= A
2
+O
2
36 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
This is true no matter how the Opposite and Adjacent sides are labelled, i.e.
if Opposite and Adjacent are interchanged, it doesn’t matter for Pythagoras’
theorem.
Often we are interested in dividing one side by another. Some possible
combinations are
O
H
,
A
H
,
O
A
. These special ratios are given special names.
O
H
is called Sine.
A
H
is called Cosine.
O
A
is called Tangent. Remember them by
writing SOH, CAH, TOA.
Example Using the previous triangle for the river problem,
write down Sine θ, Cosine θ, Tangent θ Sine α, Cosine α, Tan-
gent α
Solution
Sine θ =
O
H
=
40m
50m
=
4
5
= 0.8
Cosine θ =
A
H
=
30m
50m
=
3
5
= 0.6
Tangent θ =
O
A
=
40m
30m
=
4
3
= 1.33
Sine α =
O
H
=
30m
50m
=
3
5
= 0.6
Cosine α =
A
H
=
40m
50m
=
4
5
= 0.8
Tangent α =
O
A
=
30m
40m
=
3
4
= 0.75
30 m
40 m
50 m
α
θ
FIGURE 3.8 Triangle for river problem.
2.3. VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 37
Now whenever the Sine of an angle is 0.8 the angle is always 53.1

. Thus
θ = 53.1

. Again whenever Tangent of an angle is 0.75 the angle is always
36.9

. So if we have calculated any of the ratios, Sine, Cosine or Tangent
then we always know what the corresponding angle is.
2.3.2 Components of Vectors
An arbitrary vector has both x and y components. These are like shadows
on the x and y areas, as shown in Figure 3.9.
x
y
A
x
A
y
A
FIGURE 3.9 Components, A
x
and A
y
, of vector

A.
The components are denoted A
x
and A
y
and are obtained by dropping a
perpendicular line from the vector to the x and y axes. That’s why we
consider trigonometry and right-angled triangles!
A physical understanding of components can be obtained. Pull a cart
with a rope at some angle to the ground, as shown in Fig. 3.11. The cart will
move with a certain acceleration, determined not by the force

F, but by the
component F
x
in the x direction. If you change the angle, the acceleration
of the cart will change.
38 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of Fig. 3.10:
F
F
x
FIGURE 3.10 Pulling a cart with a force

F.
Let’s re-draw Figure 3.10, writing

F as follows:
A
A
x
A
y
θ
α
FIGURE 3.11 Components and angles for Fig. 3.10.
2.4. UNIT VECTORS 39
Let’s denote the magnitude or length of

A simply as A. Thus Pythagoras’
theorem gives
A
2
= A
2
x
+A
2
y
and also
tan θ =
A
y
A
x
and
tan α =
A
x
A
y
(Also sin θ =
Ay
A
, cos θ =
Ax
A
, sin α =
Ax
A
, cos α =
Ay
A
)
Thus if we have the components, A
x
and A
y
we can always get the mag-
nitude and direction of the vector, namely A and θ (or α). Similarly if we
start with A and θ (or α) we can always ﬁnd A
x
and A
y
.
do Sample Problem 3-3 in Lecture
2.4 Unit Vectors
A vector is completely speciﬁed by writing down magnitude and direction
(i.e. A and θ) x and y components (A
x
and A
y
).
There’s another very useful and compact way to write vectors and that is
by using unit vectors. The unit vector
ˆ
i is deﬁned to always have a length of
1 and to always lie in the positive x direction, as in Fig. 3.12. (The symbol
∧ is used to denote these unit vectors.)
x
y
i
FIGURE 3.12 Unit vector
ˆ
i.
40 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
Similarly the unit vector
ˆ
j is deﬁned to always have a length of 1 also but
to lie entirely in the positive y direction.
x
y
j
FIGURE 3.13 Unit vector
ˆ
j.
The unit vector
ˆ
k lies in the psoitive z direction.
x
y
k
z
FIGURE 3.14 Unit vector
ˆ
k.
Thus any arbitrary vector

A is now written as

A = A
x
ˆ
i +A
y
ˆ
j +A
z
ˆ
k
2.5. ADDING VECTORS BY COMPONENTS 41
Finally we will now see the use of components and unit vectors. Remember
how we discussed adding vectors graphically using a ruler and protractor. A
better method is with the use of components, because then we can get our
In Fig. 3.16 we have shown two vectors

A and

C, but
we have also indicated all the components.
A
x
C
x
A
y
B
x
B
y
C
y
B
C
A
x
y
FIGURE 3.15 Adding vectors by components.
By carefully looking at the ﬁgure you can see that
C
x
= A
x
+B
x
C
y
= A
y
+B
y
This is a very important result.
42 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
Now let’s back-track for a minute. When we write

C =

A+

B
you should say, “Wait a minute! What does the + sign mean?” We are used
to adding numbers such as 5 = 3 + 2, but in the above equation

A,

B and

C are not numbers. They are these strange arrow-like objects called vectors

C =

A⊕

B
where ⊕is a new type of “addition”, totally unlike adding numbers. However
A
x
, B
x
, A
y
, B
y
, C
x
, C
y
are ordinary numbers and the + sign we used
above does denote ordinary addition. Thus

C =

A ⊕

B actually means
C
x
= A
x
+ B
x
and C
y
= A
y
+ B
y
. The statement

C =

A ⊕

B is really
shorthand for two ordinary addition statements. Whenever anyone writes
something like

D =

F+

E it actually means two things, namely D
x
= F
x
+E
x
and D
y
= F
y
+E
y
.
All of this is much more obvious with the use of unit vectors. Write

A = A
x
ˆ
i +A
y
ˆ
j and

B = B
x
ˆ
i +B
y
ˆ
j and

C = C
x
ˆ
i +C
y
ˆ
j. Now

C =

A+

B
is simply
C
x
ˆ
i +C
y
ˆ
j = A
x
ˆ
i +A
y
ˆ
j +B
x
ˆ
i +B
y
ˆ
j
= (A
x
+B
x
)
ˆ
i + (A
y
+B
y
)
ˆ
j
and equating coeﬃcients of
ˆ
i and
ˆ
j gives
C
x
= A
x
+B
x
and
C
y
= A
y
+B
y
2.6. VECTORS AND THE LAWS OF PHYSICS 43
Example Do the original river problem using components.
Solution

A = 30
ˆ
i

B = 40
ˆ
j

C =

A+

B
C
x
ˆ
i + C
y
ˆ
j = A
x
ˆ
i +A
y
ˆ
j +B
x
ˆ
i +B
y
ˆ
j
A
y
= 0 B
x
= 0
C
x
ˆ
i + C
y
ˆ
j = 30
ˆ
i + 40
ˆ
j
C
x
= 30 C
y
= 40
or C
x
= A
x
+B
x
= 30 + 0 = 30
C
y
= A
y
+B
y
= 0 + 40 = 40
C
2
= C
2
x
+C
2
y
= 30
2
+ 40
2
= 900 + 1600 = 2500
.
.. C = 50
carefully study Sample Problems 3-4, 3-5
2.6 Vectors and the Laws of Physics
2.7 Multiplying Vectors
2.7.1 The Scalar Product (often called dot product)
We know how to add vectors. Now let’s learn how to multiply them.
When we add vectors we always get a new vector, namely c =a+

b. When
we multiply vectors we get either a scalar or vector. There are two types of
vector multiplication called scalar products or vector product. (Sometimes
also called dot product or cross product).
The scalar product is deﬁned as
a ·

b ≡ ab cos φ (2.1)
where a and b are the magnitude of a and

b respectively and φ is the angle
between a and

b. The whole quantity a ·

b = ab cos φ is a scalar, i.e. it has
magnitude only. As shown in Fig. 3-19 of Halliday the scalar product is the
44 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
product of the magnitude of one vector times the component of the other
vector along the ﬁrst vector.
Based on our deﬁnition (2.1) we can work out the scalar products of all
of the unit vectors.
Example Evaluate
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
i
Solution
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
i = ii cos φ
but i is the magnitude of
ˆ
i which is 1, and the angle φ is 0

.
Thus
ˆ
i · i = 1
Example Evaluate
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
j
Solution
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
j = ij cos 90

= 0
Thus we have
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j ·
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k ·
ˆ
k = 1 and
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
j =
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
k =
ˆ
j ·
ˆ
k =
ˆ
j ·
ˆ
i =
ˆ
k ·
ˆ
i =
ˆ
k ·
ˆ
j = 0. (see Problem 38)
Now any vector can be written in terms of unit vectors as a = a
x
ˆ
i+a
y
ˆ
j +
a
z
ˆ
k and

b = b
x
ˆ
i + b
y
ˆ
j + b
z
ˆ
k. Thus the scalar product of any two arbitrary
vectors is
a ·

b = ab cos φ
= (a
x
ˆ
i +a
y
ˆ
j +a
z
ˆ
k) · (b
x
ˆ
i +b
y
ˆ
j +b
z
ˆ
k)
= a
x
b
x
+a
y
b
y
+a
z
b
z
Thus we have a new formula for scalar product, namely
a ·

b = a
x
b
x
+a
y
b
y
+a
z
b
z
(2.2)
(see Problem 46) which has been derived from the original deﬁnition (2.1)
using unit vectors.
What’s the good of all this? Well for one thing it’s now easy to ﬁgure
out the angle between vectors, as the next example shows.
do Sample Problem 3-6 in Lecture
2.7. MULTIPLYING VECTORS 45
2.7.2 The Vector Product
In making up the deﬁnition of vector product we have to deﬁne its magnitude
and direction. The symbol for vector product is a×

b. Given that the result
is a vector let’s write c ≡a ×

b. The magnitude is deﬁned as
c = ab sin φ
and the direction is deﬁned to follow the right hand rule. (c = thumb, a =
foreﬁnger,

b = middle ﬁnger.)
(Do a few examples ﬁnding direction of cross product)
Example Evaluate
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
j
Solution |
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
j| = ij sin 90

= 1
direction same as
ˆ
k
Thus
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k
Example Evaluate
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
k
Solution |
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
k| = kk sin 0 = 0
Thus
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
k = 0
Thus we have
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k
ˆ
j ×
ˆ
k =
ˆ
i
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j
ˆ
j ×
ˆ
i = −
ˆ
k
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
j = −
ˆ
i
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
k = −
ˆ
j
and
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j ×
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
k = 0
(see Problem 39) Thus the vector product of any two arbitrary vectors is
a ×

b = (a
x
ˆ
i +a
y
ˆ
j +a
z
ˆ
k) ×(b
x
ˆ
i +b
y
ˆ
j +b
z
ˆ
k)
which gives a new formula for vector product, namely
a ×

b = (a
y
b
z
−a
z
b
y
)
ˆ
i + (a
z
b
x
−a
x
b
z
)
ˆ
j
+(a
x
b
y
−a
y
b
x
)
ˆ
k
(see Problem 49). Study Sample Problem 3-7 and 3-8.
46 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
2.8 Problems
1. Calculate the angle between the vectors r =
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j and

t =
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k.
2. Evaluate (r + 2

t ).

f where r =
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j and

t =
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k and

f =
ˆ
i −
ˆ
j.
3. Two vectors are deﬁned as u =
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k and v =
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j. Evaluate:
A) u +v
B) u −v
C) u.v
D) u ×v
Chapter 3
MOTION IN 2 & 3
DIMENSIONS
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design a simple experiment which shows that the range of a projectile
depends upon the angle at which it is launched. Have your experiment show
that the maximum range is achieved when the launch angle is 45
o
.
THEMES:
1. FOOTBALL.
47
48 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
3.1 Moving in Two or Three Dimensions
In this chapter we will go over everything we did in Chapter 2 concerning
motion, except that now the entire discussion will use the formation of
vectors.
3.2 Position and Displacement
In Chapter 2 we used the coordinate x alone to denote position. However
for 3-dimensions position is generally described with the position vector
r = x
ˆ
i +y
ˆ
j +z
ˆ
k.
Now in Chapter 2, displacement was deﬁned as a change in position, namely
displacement = ∆x = x
2
− x
1
. In 3-dimensions, displacement is deﬁned as
the change in position vector,
displacement = ∆r = r
2
−r
1
= ∆x
ˆ
i + ∆y
ˆ
j + ∆z
ˆ
k
= (x
2
−x
1
)
ˆ
i + (y
2
−y
1
)
ˆ
j + (z
2
−z
1
)
ˆ
k
Thus displacement is a vector.
Sample Problem 4-1
3.3 Velocity and Average Velocity
In 1-dimension, the average velocity was deﬁned as displacement divided by
time interval or ¯ v ≡
∆x
∆t
=
x
2
−x
1
t
2
−t
1
. Similarly, in 3-dimensions average velocity
is deﬁned as
¯
v ≡
∆r
∆t
=
r
2
−r
1
t
2
−t
1
=
∆x
ˆ
i + ∆y
ˆ
j + ∆z
ˆ
k
∆t
=
∆x
∆t
ˆ
i +
∆y
∆t
ˆ
j +
∆z
∆t
ˆ
k
= ¯ v
x
ˆ
i + ¯ v
y
ˆ
j + ¯ v
z
ˆ
k
3.4. ACCELERATION AND AVERAGE ACCELERATION 49
For 1-dimension, the instantaneous velocity, or just velocity, was deﬁned as
v ≡
dx
dt
. In 3-dimensions we deﬁne velocity as
v ≡
dr
dt
=
d
dt
(x
ˆ
i +y
ˆ
j +z
ˆ
k)
=
dx
dt
ˆ
i +
dy
dt
ˆ
j +
dz
dt
ˆ
k
= v
x
ˆ
i +v
y
ˆ
j +v
z
ˆ
k
Thus velocity is a vector.
Point to note: The instantaneous velocity of a particle is always tangent
3.4 Acceleration and Average Acceleration
average acceleration is deﬁned as
¯
a ≡
∆v
∆t
=
v
2
−v
1
t
2
−t
1
and acceleration (instantaneous acceleration) is deﬁned as
a =
dv
dt
Constant Acceleration Equations
In 1-dimension, our basic deﬁnitions were
¯ v =
∆x
∆t
v =
dx
dt
¯ a =
∆v
∆t
a =
dv
dt
50 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
We found that if the acceleration is constant, then from these equations we
can prove that
v = v
o
+at
v
2
= v
2
o
+ 2a(x −x
o
)
x −x
o
=
v
o
+v
2
t
x −x
o
= v
o
t +
1
2
at
2
= vt −
1
2
at
2
which are known as the 5 constant acceleration equations.
¯
v ≡
∆r
∆t
or
¯ v
x
ˆ
i + ¯ v
y
ˆ
j + ¯ v
z
ˆ
k =
∆x
∆t
ˆ
i +
∆y
∆t
ˆ
j +
∆z
∆t
ˆ
k
or
¯ v
x
=
∆x
∆t
, ¯ v
y
+
∆y
∆t
, ¯ v
z
=
∆z
∆t
These 3 equations are the meaning of the ﬁrst vector equation
¯
v ≡
∆r
∆t
.
Similarly
v ≡
dr
dt
or
v
x
=
dx
dt
, v
y
=
dy
dt
, v
z
=
dz
dt
Similarly
¯
a ≡
∆v
∆t
or
¯ a
x
=
∆x
∆t
, ¯ a
y
=
∆y
∆t
, ¯ a
z
=
∆z
∆t
and
a ≡
dv
dt
or
a
x
=
dv
x
dt
, a
y
=
dv
y
dt
, a
z
=
dv
z
dt
So we see that in 3-dimensions the equations are the same as in 1-
dimension except that we have 3 sets of them; one for each dimension. Thus
3.5. PROJECTILE MOTION 51
if the 3-dimensional acceleration vector a is now constant, then a
x
, a
y
and
a
z
must all be constant. Thus we will have 3 sets of constant acceleration
equations, namely
v
x
= v
ox
+a
x
t
v
2
x
= v
2
ox
+ 2a
x
(x −x
o
)
x −x
o
=
v
ox
+v
x
2
t
x −x
o
= v
ox
t +
1
2
a
x
t
2
= v
x
t −
1
2
a
x
t
2
and
v
y
= v
oy
+a
y
t
v
2
y
= v
2
oy
+ 2a
y
(y −y
o
)
y −y
o
=
v
oy
+v
y
2
t
y −y
o
= v
oy
t +
1
2
a
y
t
2
= v
y
t −
1
2
a
y
t
2
and
v
z
= v
oz
+a
z
t
v
2
z
= v
2
oz
+ 2a
z
(z −z
o
)
z −z
o
=
v
oz
+v
z
2
t
z −z
o
= v
oz
t +
1
2
a
z
t
2
= v
z
t −
1
2
a
z
t
2
These 3 sets of constant acceleration equations are easy to remember. They
are the same as the old ones in 1-dimension except now they have subscripts
for x, y, z.
3.5 Projectile Motion
52 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
3.6 Projectile Motion Analyzed
Most motion in 3-dimensions actually only occurs in 2-dimensions. The
classic example is kicking a football oﬀ the ground. It follows a 2-dimensional
curve, as shown in Fig. 4.1. Thus we can ignore all motion in the z direction
and just analyze the x and y directions. Also we shall ignore air resistance.
v
0
v
0 x
v
0 y
range, R
θ
FIGURE 4.1 Projectile Motion.
3.6. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 53
Example A football is kicked oﬀ the ground with an initial ve-
locity of v
o
at an angle θ to the ground. Write down the x
constant acceleration equation in simpliﬁed form. (Ignore air re-
sistance)
Solution The x direction is easiest to deal with, because there is
no acceleration in the x direction after the ball has been kicked,
i.e. a
x
= 0. Thus the constant acceleration equations in the x
direction become
v
x
= v
ox
v
2
x
= v
2
ox
x −x
o
=
v
ox
+v
x
2
t = v
ox
t = v
x
t
x −x
o
= v
ox
t
= v
x
t (3.1)
The ﬁrst equation (v
x
= v
ox
) makes perfect sense because if
a
x
= 0 then the speed in the x direction is constant, which
means v
x
= v
ox
. The second equation just says the same thing.
If v
x
= v
ox
then of course also v
2
x
= v
2
ox
. In the third equation
we also use v
x
= v
ox
to get
vox+vx
2
=
vox+vox
2
= v
ox
or
vox+vx
2
=
vx+vx
2
= v
x
. The fourth and ﬁfth equations are also consistent
with v
x
= v
ox
, and simply say that distance = speed × time
when the acceleration is 0.
Now, what is v
ox
in terms of v
o
≡ |v
o
| and θ? Well, from Fig. 4.1
we see that v
ox
= v
o
cos θ and v
oy
= v
o
sin θ. Thus (3.1) becomes
x −x
o
= v
o
cos θ t
54 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
Example What is the form of the y-direction constant acceler-
ation equations from the previous example ?
Solution Can we also simplify the constant acceleration equa-
tions for the y direction? No. In the y direction the acceleration
is constant a
y
= −g but not zero. Thus the y direction equations
don’t simplify at all, except that we know that the value of a
y
is
−g or −9.8 m/sec
2
.
Also we can write v
oy
= v
o
sin θ. Thus the equations for the y
direction are
v
y
= v
o
sin θ −gt
v
2
y
= (v
o
sin θ)
2
−2g(y −y
o
)
y −y
o
=
v
o
sin θ +v
y
2
t
y −y
o
= v
o
sin θ t −
1
2
gt
2
An important thing to notice is that t never gets an x, y or z subscript.
This is because t is the same for all 3 components, i.e. t = t
x
= t
y
= t
z
.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS
1) Drop an object: it accerates in y direction.
Air track: no acceleration in x direction.
2) Push 2 objects oﬀ table at same time. One falls in vertical path and
the other on parabolic trajectory but both hit ground at same time.
3) Monkey shoot.
3.6. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 55
Example The total horizontal distance (called the Range) that a
football will travel when kicked, depends upon the initial speed
and angle that it leaves the ground. Derive a formula for the
Range, and show that the maximum Range occurs for θ = 45

.
(Ignore air resistance and the spin of the football.)
Solution The Range, R is just
R = x −x
o
= v
ox
t
= v
o
cos θ t
Given v
o
and θ we could calculate the range if we had t. We
get this the y direction equation. From the previous example we
y −y
o
= v
o
sin θ t −
1
2
gt
2
But for this example, we have y −y
o
= 0. Thus
0 = v
o
sin θ t −
1
2
gt
2
0 = v
o
sin θ −
1
2
gt
⇒t =
2v
o
sin θ
g
Substituting into our Range formula above gives
R = v
o
cos θ t
=
2v
2
o
sin θ cos θ
g
=
v
2
o
sin 2θ
g
using the formula sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ. Now R will be largest
when sin 2θ is largest which occurs when 2θ = 90
o
. Thus θ = 45
o
.
56 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
COMPUTER SIMULATION (Interactive Physics): Air Drop.
H=200 m
R=400 m
origin
FIGURE 4.2 Air Drop.
Example A rescue plane wants to drop supplies to isolated
mountain climbers on a rocky ridge a distance H below. The
plane is travelling horizontally at a speed of v
ox
. The plane
releases supplies a horizontal distance of R in advance of the
mountain climbers. Derive a formula in terms of H, v
0x
,R and
g, for the vertical velocity (up or down) that the supplies should
be given so they land exactly at the climber’s position. If H =
200 m, v
0x
= 250 km/hr and R = 400m, calculate a numerical
value for this speed.(See Figure 4.2.)
3.6. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 57
Solution Let’s put the origin at the plane. See Fig. 4.2. The
initial speed of supplies when released is v
ox
= +250 km/hour
x −x
o
= R −0 = R
a
y
= −g
y −y
o
= 0 −H = −H (note the minus sign !)
We want to ﬁnd the initial vertical velocity of the supplies,
namely v
oy
. We can get this from
y −y
o
= v
oy
t +
1
2
a
y
t
2
= −H
= v
oy
t −
1
2
gt
2
or
v
oy
=
−H
t
+
1
2
gt
and we get t from the x direction, namely
x −x
o
= v
ox
t = R
⇒t =
R
v
ox
giving
v
oy
=
−H v
ox
R
+
1
2
g
R
v
ox
which is the formula we seek. Let’s now put in numbers:
= −
200 m×250 kmhour
−1
400 m
+
1
2
9.8
m
sec
2
×
400 km
250 km hour
−1
= −125
km
hour
+ 7.84
m
2
hour
sec
2
km
= −125
1000 m
60 ×60 sec
+ 7.85
m
2
×60 ×60 sec
sec
2
1000 m
= −34.722 m/sec + 28.22 m/sec
= −6.5 m/sec
Thus the supplies must be thrown in the down direction (not up)
at 6.5 m/sec.
58 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
3.7 Uniform Circular Motion
In today’s world of satellites and spacecraft circular motion is very important
to understand because many satellites have circular orbits. Also circular
motion is a classic example where we have a deﬁnite non-zero acceleration
even though the speed of a satellite is constant. This occurs because the
direction of velocity is constantly changing for the satellite even though the
magnitude of velocity (i.e. speed) is constant. This is shown in Fig. 4-19 of
Halliday. The word “uniform” means that speed is constant.
In circular motion, there is a well deﬁned radius which we will call r.
Also the time it takes for the satellite to complete 1 orbit is called the period
T. If the speed is constant then it is given by
v =
∆s
∆t
=
2πr
T
(3.2)
Here I have written
∆s
∆t
∆x
∆t
or
∆y
∆t
because ∆s is the total distance
around the circle which is a mixture of x and y.
2πr
T
is just the distance of
1 orbit (circumference) divided by the time of 1 orbit (period).
What about the acceleration? Well that’s just a =
∆v
∆t
but how do we
work it out? Look at Figure 4.3, where the displacement and velocity vectors
are drawn for a satellite at two diﬀerent positions P
1
and P
2
.
= r
2
- r
1
∆ v = v
2
- v
1

∆ r
r
2

r
1
v
2

v
1

v
1

v
2

∆θ
∆θ
∆s
P
1
P
1
FIGURE 4.3 Circular Motion.
3.7. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION 59
Now angle ∆θ is deﬁned as (with |r
1
| = |r
2
| ≡ r)
∆θ ≡
∆s
r
=
v∆t
r
(3.3)
The velocity vectors can be re-drawn as in the bottom part of the ﬁgure.
The triangle is similar to the top triangle in that the angle ∆θ is the same.
Also the speed v is constant, meaning that
|v
2
| = |v
1
| ≡ v. (3.4)
Writing ∆v ≡ |∆v| the bottom ﬁgure also gives
∆θ =
∆v
v
(3.5)
Now the magnitude of acceleration is
a =
∆v
∆t
(3.6)
Combining the above two equations for ∆θ gives
∆v
∆t
=
v
2
r
, i.e.
a ≡
∆v
∆t
=
v
2
r
(3.7)
This is a very important equation. Whenever we have uniform circular
motion we always know the actual value of acceleration if we know v and
r. We have worked out the magnitude of the acceleration. What about its
direction? I will show you a VIDEO in class (Mechanical Universe video
#9 showing vectors for circular motion) which will clearly show that the
direction of acceleration is always towards the center of the circle. For this
reason it is called centripetal acceleration.
One ﬁnal thing. When you drive your car around in a circle then you, as
the driver, feel as though you are getting pushed against the door. In reality
it is the car that is being accelerated around in the circle, and because of
your inertia, the car pushes on you. This “acceleration” that you feel is
the same as the car’s acceleration. The “acceleration” you feel is called the
centrifugal acceleration. The same idea occurs when you spin-dry clothes in
a washing machine.
60 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
Example Future spacecraft will be made to spin in order to pro-
vide artiﬁcial gravity for the astronauts. Suppose the spacecraft
is a cylinder of L in length. Derive a formula for the rotation
period would it need to spin in order to simulate the gravity on
Earth. If L = 1 km what is the numerical value foe the period ?
Solution The centifugal acceleration is a and we want it to equal
g. Thus
g =
v
2
r
=
(2πr/T)
2
r
=

2
r
T
2
Thus
T
2
=

2
r
g
giving
T = 2π
¸
L
g
which is the formula we seek. Putting in numbers:
T = 2π
_
1000 m
9.8 m sec
−2
= 2π

102.04 sec
−2
= 2π ×10.1 sec
= 63.5 sec
Example The Moon is 1/4 million miles from Earth. How fast
does the Moon travel in its orbit ?
Solution The period of the Moon is 1 month. Thus
v =
2πr
T
=
2π ×250, 000 miles
30 ×24 hours
= 2, 182 mph
3.8. PROBLEMS 61
3.8 Problems
1. A) A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed v
o
at an angle θ with
respect to the horizontal. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula
for the horizontal range R, of the projectile. (Your formula should
make no explicit reference to time, t). At what angle is the range a
maximum ?
B) If v
0
= 30 km/hour and θ = 15
o
calculate the numerical value of
R.
2. A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed v
o
at an angle θ with respect
to the horizontal. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the
maximum height H, that the projectile reaches. (Your formula should
make no explicit reference to time, t).
3. A) If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance R away, derive an
expression for the height L, which is the vertical distance above the
bulls-eye that one needs to aim a riﬂe in order to hit the bulls-eye.
Assume the bullet leaves the riﬂe with speed v
0
.
B) How much bigger is L compared to the projectile height H ?
Note: In this problem use previous results found for the range R and
height H, namely R =
v
2
0
sin 2θ
g
=
2v
2
0
sin θ cos θ
g
and H =
v
2
0
sin
2
θ
2g
.
4. Normally if you wish to hit a bulls-eye some distance away you need to
aim a certain distance above it, in order to account for the downward
motion of the projectile. If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance
D away and if you instead aim an arrow directly at the bulls-eye (i.e.
directly horiziontally), by what (downward) vertical distance would
you miss the bulls-eye ?
5. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola (neglect air
resistance). Hint: the general form of a parabola is given by y =
ax
2
+bx +c.
6. Even though the Earth is spinning and we all experience a centrifugal
acceleration, we are not ﬂung oﬀ the Earth due to the gravitational
force. In order for us to be ﬂung oﬀ, the Earth would have to be
spinning a lot faster.
A) Derive a formula for the new rotational time of the Earth, such
that a person on the equator would be ﬂung oﬀ into space. (Take the
radius of Earth to be R).
62 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
B) Using R = 6.4 million km, calculate a numerical anser to part A)
and compare it to the actual rotation time of the Earth today.
7. A staellite is in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M and radius
R at an altitude of H. Derive a formula for the additional speed that
the satellite must acquire to completely escape from the planet. Check
8. A mass m is attached to the end of a spring with spring constant k on
a frictionless horizontal surface. The mass moves in circular motion
of radius R and period T. Due to the centrifugal force, the spring
stretches by a certain amount x from its equilibrium position. Derive
a formula for x in terms of k, R and T. Check that x has the correct
units.
9. A cannon ball is ﬁred horizontally at a speed v
0
from the edge of the
top of a cliﬀ of height H. Derive a formula for the horizontal distance
(i.e. the range) that the cannon ball travels. Check that your answer
has the correct units.
10. A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless ski slope of height
H and inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal. At the bottom of
the slope the surface changes to horizontal and has a coeﬃcient of
kinetic friction µ
k
between the horizontal surface and the skis. Derive
a formula for the distance d that the skier travels on the horizontal
surface before coming to a stop. (Assume that there is a constant
the correct units.
11. A stone is thrown from the top of a building upward at an angle θ to
the horizontal and with an initial speed of v
0
as shown in the ﬁgure. If
the height of the building is H, derive a formula for the time it takes
the stone to hit the ground below.
3.8. PROBLEMS 63
θ
v
o
H
64 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
Chapter 4
FORCE & MOTION - I
THEMES:
1. HOW STRONG A ROPE DO I NEED ?
65
66 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
4.1 What Causes an Acceleration?
So far we have studied some things about acceleration but we never consid-
ered what causes things to accelerate. The answer is force. The gravitational
force causes objects to fall (i.e. accelerate downwards). Friction force causes
cars to slow down (decelerate), etc.
Fundamental classical physics is all about ﬁnding the force. Once you
know that you can get acceleration as we shall see. Once you have the
acceleration, you can ﬁnd velocity, displacement and time as we have studied
previously.
4.2 Newton’s First Law
A body remains in a state of rest, or uniform motion in a straight line,
unless acted upon by a force.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Tablecloth
4.3 Force
4.4 Mass
4.5 Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s second law of motion is not something we can derive from other
equations. Rather it is a fundamental postulate of physics. It was introduced
by Isaac Newton to describe the cause of acceleration. The law is
Σ

F = ma
Σ

F represents the sum (Σ) of all forces (

F) acting on a single body of mass
m. The body then undergoes an acceleration given by a. One of the key
activities in classical physics is to ﬁnd all the forces Σ

F. Once you have
them then you have the acceleration via a =
Σ

F
m
and once you have that
you can get velocity, displacement and time.
4.6. SOME PARTICULAR FORCES 67
Now Newton’s second law is a vector equation. Thus its actual meaning
is given by 3 equations, namely
ΣF
x
= ma
x
ΣF
y
= ma
y
ΣF
z
= ma
z
Once we have ΣF
x
, ΣF
y
, ΣF
z
we just divide by m to give the accelerations
a
x
, a
y
, a
z
. If they are constant, just plug them into the constant acceleration
equations and solve for the other quantities you are interested in.
One extra point is the units. The units of a are m/sec
2
. The units of m
are kg and thus the units of F are kg m/sec
2
. This is given a special name
called Newton (N). Thus
N ≡ kg m/sec
2
In the English system of units a Pound (lb) is a unit of force. The mass unit
is called slug. The units of acceleration are foot/sec
2
. thus
Pound (lb) ≡ slug foot/sec
2
4.6 Some Particular Forces
Weight
If you stand on a set of scales you measure your weight. If you stand
on the same scales on the moon your weight will be less because the moon’s
gravity is small, even though your mass is the same.
Weight is deﬁned as
W ≡ mg
where g is the acceleration due to gravity. (It’s 9.8 m/sec
2
on Earth, but
only 1.7 m/sec
2
on the Moon.) Weight is a force which pulls you down.
Normal Force
You are sitting still in your chair. The sum of all forces in the x and z
direction are zero (ΣF
x
= 0, ΣF
z
= 0) which means that a
x
= a
z
= 0. Now
you also know that a
y
= 0. (You are not moving.) Yet there is a weight
force W pulling down.
y
= 0 then there must be another force pushing up to balance
the weight force. We call this up force the Normal force N. Thus
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W = 0
68 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
The N has a + sign (up) and W has a − sign (down) and they both balance
out to give zero acceleration. That’s how we know that the chair must push
up on the person sitting on it. The heavier the person, the bigger N must
be.
The Normal force is called “Normal” because it always acts perpendicu-
lar (normal means perpendicular) to the surface (of the chair).
Friction
Friction is another force that we will study shortly.
Tension
Finally another important type of force is tension, which is the force in
a rope or cable when under a stress.
Carefully study Sample Problem 5-4
4.7 Newton’s Third Law
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Fire extinguisher rocket
4.8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 69
4.8 Applying Newton’s Laws
Carefully study Sample Problems 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, 5-8, 5-9, 5-10, 5-11.
Example A chandelier of mass m is hanging from a single cord
in the ceiling. Derive a formula for the tension in the cord. If
m = 50 kg evaluate a numerical answer for the tension.
Solution Carefully draw a diagram showing all forces, as seen
in Fig. 5.1. Then solve

ΣF = ma. Thus
ΣF
x
= ma
x
ΣF
y
= ma
y
ΣF
z
= ma
z
but all forces and acceleration in the x and z directions are zero
and so the only interesting equation is
ΣF
y
= ma
y
.
Now the forces are tension (+T) in the up direction and weight
(−W) in the down direction. You don’t want the chandelier to
move, so a
y
= 0. Thus
T −W = 0
⇒ T = W
= mg
which is the formula we seek. Putting in numbers:
T = 50 kg × 9.8 m/sec
2
= 490 kg m/sec
2
= 490 N
T
W
FIGURE 5.1 Chandelier hanging from ceiling.
70 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
Example A chandelier of mass mis now suspended by two cords,
one at an angle of α to the ceiling and the other at θ. Derive a
formula for is the tension in each cord. If m = 50kg and α = 60
o
and θ = 30
o
evaluate a numerical answer for each tension.
Solution Again carefully draw a ﬁgure showing all forces. See
Fig. 5.2.
T
1 T
2
W
θ
α
FIGURE 5.2 Chandelier suspended by 2 cables.
In the z direction all forces and acceleration are zero. We need
to consider the x and y directions (both with a
x
= a
y
= 0),
namely,
ΣF
x
= ma
x
and ΣF
y
= ma
y
T
2x
−T
1x
= 0 and T
2y
+T
1y
−W = 0
Now
T
2x
= T
2
cos θ, T
1x
= T
1
cos α
T
2y
= T
2
sin θ, T
1y
= T
1
sin α
4.8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 71
giving
T
2
cos θ −T
1
cos α = 0 and T
2
sin θ +T
1
sin α = W
The x equation gives T
2
=
T
1
cos α
cos θ
which is substituted into the
y equation giving
T
1
cos α
cos θ
sin θ +T
1
sin α = W
or
T
1
=
W
cos αtan θ + sin α
=
mg
cos αtan θ + sin α
and upon substitution
T
2
=
T
1
cos α
cos θ
=
mg
sin θ + tan αcos θ
which are the formulas we seek. Putting in numbers gives:
W = mg
= 50 kg × 9.8 m/sec
2
= 490 N
Thus
T
1
=
490N
cos 60 tan 30 + sin 60
= 426 N.
Now put back into
T
2
=
T
1
cos 60
cos 30
=
426N cos 60
cos 30
= 246 N
72 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
Example If you normally have a weight of W, how much will a
weight scale read if you are standing on it in an elevator moving
up at an acceleration of a ?
Solution The reading on the scale will just be the Normal force.
Thus
ΣF = ma
N − W = ma
N = W +ma
The answer makes sense. You would expect the scale to read a
higher value.
4.8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 73
Example A block of mass m slides down a frictionless incline of
angle θ.
A) What is the normal force?
B) What is the acceleration of the block?
Solution In Fig. 5.3 the forces are drawn. Notice that I have
chosen the orientation of the y axis to lie along the normal force.
You could make other choices, but this will make things easier
to work out.
N
W
W

c
o
s
θ
W

s
i
n
θ
θ
θ
9
0

θ
y
x
FIGURE 5.3 Block sliding down frictionless incline.
74 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
A) Analyzing the y direction,
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W cos θ = 0
because the block has zero acceleration in the y direction.
Thus
N = W cos θ = mg cos θ
B) Analyzing the x direction,
ΣF
x
= ma
x
W sin θ = ma
x
a
x
=
W sin θ
m
=
mg sin θ
m
= g sin θ
4.8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 75
Example Derive a formula for the acceleration of the block sys-
tem shown in Fig. 5.4 (Atwood machine). Assume the pulley is
frictionless and the tension T is the same throughout the rope.
T
T
m
1
m
2 W
1
W
2
FIGURE 5.4 Atwood machine.
Solution The tension is the same throughout the rope; thus
T
1
= T
2
= T. Analyze forces in y direction on m
1
;
ΣF
y
= m
1
a
1
T −W
1
= m
1
a (4.1)
with a
1
≡ a. Analyze forces in y direction on m
2
;
ΣF
y
= m
2
a
2
T −W
2
= m
2
a
2
but if a
1
= a then a
2
= −a giving
T −W
2
= −m
2
a (4.2)
Subtracting eqn. (4.2) from eqn. (4.1) gives
T − W
1
−(T −W
2
) = m
1
a −(−m
2
a)
− W
1
+W
2
= m
1
a +m
2
a
a =
W
2
−W
1
m
1
+m
2
=
m
2
−m
1
m
1
+m
2
g
Thus a is positive if m
2
> m
1
and negative if m
2
< m
1
.
76 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
HISTORICAL NOTE
Isaac Newton is widely regarded as the greatest physicist of all time.
One of his major works was Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
(Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.) [University of California
Press, Berkeley, California, ed. by F. Cajori; 1934; QA 803 .A45 1934]. Very
early on in the book we ﬁnd the section entitled Axioms, or Laws of Motion.
The laws are stated as follows:
“LAW I: Every body continues in a state of rest, or of uniform
motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state
by forces impressed upon it.
LAW II: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force
impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which
that force is impressed.
LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal re-
action; or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are
always equal, and directed to contrary parts.”
After the axioms are stated, the Principia is then divided into two major
books, namely Book I: The Motion of Bodies and Book II: The Motion of
Bodies (in resisting mediums). In these books we ﬁnd discussion of such
toipics as centripetal forces, conic sections, orbits, rectilinear motion, oscil-
lating pendulum, attractive force of spherical bodies, motion of bodies in
ﬂuids, ﬂuid dynamics, hydrostatics, etc. This makes for wonderful reading
and is highly recommended.
By the way Newton also invented calculus and the reﬂecting telescope !
4.9. PROBLEMS 77
4.9 Problems
78 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
Chapter 5
FORCE & MOTION - II
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Measure the coeﬃcient of static friction between 2 surfaces.
THEMES:
FRICTION.
79
80 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
5.1 Friction
There are two types of friction — static and kinetic. When two surfaces are
in relative motion then the friction is kinetic, such as when you slam the
brakes on in your car and the car skids along the road. Eventually, kinetic
friction will cause the car to stop.
If you put a coin on top of a book and tilt the book at a small angle, the
coin will remain stationary. Static friction prevents the coin from sliding.
Tilt the book a bit more and still the coin does not slide. The static friction
has increased to keep the coin in place. Eventually however, static friction
will be overcome and the coin will slide down the book (with kinetic friction
operating). Notice that the maximum amount of static friction occurred
just before the coin started to slide.
(LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of above.)
5.2 Properties of Friction
If you press down hard on the coin, then the friction force will increase.
When you press down you are causing the normal force N to get bigger.
Thus friction is proportional to N. The proportionality constant is called
the coeﬃcient of friction µ.
The kinetic friction force f
k
is given by
f
k
≡ µ
k
N
where µ
k
is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction. We saw that static friction
varies. However the maximum value of the static friction force f
s,max
is
f
s,max
≡ µ
s
N
Both of these equations can be regarded as deﬁnitions for µ
k
and µ
s
.
(Carefully study Samples Problems 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, 6-4).
5.2. PROPERTIES OF FRICTION 81
Example The coeﬃcient of static friction is just the tangent of
the angle where two objects start to slide relative to each other.
Show that µ
s
= tan θ.
Solution A force diagram is shown in Fig. 6.1.
N
W
W

c
o
s
θ
W

s
i
n
θ
θ
θ
9
0

θ
y
x
f
s
FIGURE 6.1 Block sliding down incline with friction.
82 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
Analyze forces in y direction
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W cos θ = 0
In x direction
ΣF
x
= ma
x
f
s
−W sin θ = 0
µ
s
N −W sin θ = 0
µ
s
=
W sin θ
N
where a
x
= 0 just before object starts to slide. Now we get N
from y equation above (N = cos θ). Thus
µ
s
=
W sin θ
W cos θ
or
µ
s
= tan θ
5.3 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
5.4 Uniform Circular Motion
In the case of circular motion we always know that the acceleration is a =
v
2
r
.
Thus we always know the right hand side of Newton’s second law, namely
ΣF = ma
=
mv
2
r
The forces that produce circular motion get put into the left hand side.
5.4. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION 83
Example In designing a curved road, engineers consider the
speed v of a car and the coeﬃcient of friction between the car
chosen to be large enough so that the car will be able to derive
around smoothly in a part-circle. Work out a formula for the
radius of curvature in terms of the speed of the car and the co-
eﬃcient of friction.
Solution Force diagrams are shown in Fig. 6.2. The top part of
the ﬁgure shows that static friction alone keeps the car in circular
motion. (The forward motion of the car involves moving kinetic
friction, but the sideways motion involves static friction.)
N
f
s
x
x
y
side view
view from above
FIGURE 6.2 Car rounding a curve.
84 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
In the x direction
ΣF
x
= ma
x
f
s
= m
v
2
r
µ
s
N =
mv
2
r
We get N from the y direction,
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W = 0
N = W
= mg
Substituting into the x equation gives
µ
s
mg =
mv
2
r
or
r =
v
2
µ
s
g
This formula tells an engineer how large to make the radius of
curvature of the road for a given car speed v (say 5 times the
speed limit) and a coeﬃcient of friction µ
s
.
5.5. PROBLEMS 85
5.5 Problems
1. A mass m
1
hangs vertically from a string connected to a ceiling. A
second mass m
2
hangs below m
1
with m
1
and m
2
also connected by
another string. Calculate the tension in each string.
2. What is the acceleration of a snow skier sliding down a frictionless ski
slope of angle θ ?
o
and for θ = 90
o
.
3. A ferris wheel rotates at constant speed in a vertical circle of radius
R and it takes time T to complete each circle. Derive a formula, in
terms of m, g, R, T, for the weight that a passenger of mass m feels at
the top and bottom of the circle. Comment on whether your answers
make sense. (Hint: the weight that a passenger feels is just the normal
force.)
4. A block of mass m
1
on a rough, horizontal surface is connected to a
second mass m
2
by a light cord over a light frictionless pulley as shown
in the ﬁgure. (‘Light’ means that we can neglect the mass of the cord
and the mass of the pulley.) A force of magnitude F is applied to the
mass m
1
as shown, such that m
1
moves to the right. The coeﬃcient
of kinetic friction between m
1
and the surface is µ. Derive a formula
for the acceleration of the masses. [Serway 5th ed., pg.135, Fig 5.14]
86 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
m
m
1
2
θ
F
5. If you whirl an object of mass m at the end of a string in a vertical
circle of radius R at constant speed v, derive a formula for the tension
in the string at the top and bottom of the circle.
5.5. PROBLEMS 87
6. Two masses m
1
and m
2
are connected by a string passing through a
hollow pipe with m
1
being swung around in a circle of radius R and
m
2
hanging vertically as shown in the ﬁgure.
m
2
R
m
1
Obviously if m
1
moves quickly in the circle then m
2
will start to move
upwards, but if m
1
moves slowly m
2
will start to fall.
A) Derive an expression for the tension T in the string.
B) Derive an expression for the acceleration of m
2
in terms of the period
t of the circular motion.
C) For what period t, will the mass m
2
be at rest?
D) If the masses are equal, what is the answer to Part C)?
E) For a radius of 9.81 m, what is the numerical value of this period?
88 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
7. A) What friction force is required to stop a block of mass m moving
at speed v
0
, assuming that we want the block to stop over a distance
d ?
B) Work out a formula for the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction that will
achieve this.
C) Evaluate numerical answers to the above two questions assuming
the mass of the block is 1000kg, the initial speed is 60 kmper hour and
the braking distance is 200m.
Chapter 6
POTENTIAL ENERGY &
CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design any experiment which illustrates that energy is conserved.
THEMES:
MACHINES.
89
90CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
In this chapterI am going to include the discussion of Chapter 7 and 8
[from Halliday] all together and try to present a single uniﬁed approach to
the whole topic of work and energy. The textbook by Halliday should be
read very carefully for speciﬁc illustrations of my uniﬁed approach.
In our study of mechanics so far our approach has been to identify all
the forces, divide by mass to get acceleration and then solve for velocity,
displacement, time, etc. There is an alternative formulation of mechanics
which does not rely heavily on force, but rather is based on the concepts of
work and energy. The work-energy formulation of mechanics is worthwhile
since sometimes it is easier to work with and involves only scalar quantities.
Also it leads to a better physical understanding of mechanics. However the
key reason for introducing work-energy is because energy is conserved. This
great discovery simpliﬁed a great deal of physics and we shall study it in
detail.
6.1 Work
The basic concept of work is that it is force times distance. You do work
on an object by applying a force over a certain distance. When you lift an
object you apply a lifting force over the height that you lift the object.
Machines are objects that allow us to do work more eﬃciently. For
example, a ramp is what is called a simple machine. If you load objects into
a truck, then a large ramp (large distance) allows you to apply less force to
achieve the same work.
All students should read my handout on simple machines. There it is
clearly explained why work is deﬁned as force × distance.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: SIMPLE MACHINES
Actually the proper physical deﬁnition of work is more complicated. The
proper deﬁnition is
W ≡
_
r
f
r
i

F · dr
Writing

F = F
x
ˆ
i +F
y
ˆ
j +F
z
ˆ
k
and
dr = dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k
6.1. WORK 91
gives
W =
_
(F
x
ˆ
i +F
y
ˆ
j +F
z
ˆ
k) · (dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k)
=
_
F
x
dx +F
y
dy +F
z
dz
Let’s ﬁrst look at the 1-dimensional case
W =
_
x
f
x
i
F
x
dx
If the force F
x
is constant then it can be taken outside the integral to give
W = F
x
_
x
f
x
i
dx = F
x
[x]
x
f
x
i
= F
x
(x
f
−x
i
) = F
x
∆x
= force × distance
giving us back our original idea. The reason why we have an integral is in
case the force depends on distance. The reason we have the scalar product

F · dr is if the force and distance are at some angle, such as a tall person
pulling a toy wagon along with a rope inclined at some angle.
By the way, the units of work must be Newton × meter which is given
a special name, Joule. Thus
Joule ≡ Newton meter
Example If I push a sled with a constant force of 100 N along
a 5 m path, how much work do I do ?
Solution The force is constant and in only 1-dimension, so
W = F
x
∆x
= 100 N×5 m
= 500 Nm
= 500 Joule
92CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
6.2 Kinetic Energy
Now we know that

F = ma and so work can be written
W =
_
r
f
r
i

F · dr = m
_
r
f
r
i
a · dr
where m is taken outside the integral because it’s a constant. Let’s just
consider 1-dimension to make things easier. Thus
W =
_
x
f
x
i
F dx = m
_
x
f
x
i
a dx
Now use an old trick.
a =
dv
dt
=
dv
dx
dx
dt
using the chain rule for derivatives. But v =
dx
dt
, giving
a =
dv
dx
v
= v
dv
dx
Thus
W = m
_
x
f
x
i
a dx = m
_
x
f
x
i
v
dv
dx
dx
= m
_
v
f
v
i
v dv
= m
_
1
2
v
2
_
v
f
v
i
=
1
2
mv
2
f

1
2
mv
2
i
Notice that we have found that the work is equal to the change in the
quantity
1
2
mv
2
. We give this a special name and call it Kinetic Energy
K ≡
1
2
mv
2
Thus we have found that W = K
f
−K
i
or
W = ∆K
The total work is always equal to the change in kinetic energy. Kinetic
energy is the energy of motion. If m is large and v small, or m is small and
6.2. KINETIC ENERGY 93
v large the kinetic energy in both cases will be comparable. Note also that
K must have the same units as W, namely Joule.
What happens when we do work on an object? Well if you lift up an
object, you increase its Potential energy (more about that in a moment). If
you work on an object you can also increase its kinetic energy. If you push a
marble on a table its speed will increase and so you have changed its kinetic
energy.
Example A sled of mass m is stationary on some frictionless
ice. If I push the sled with a force of F over a distance ∆x, what
will be the speed of the sled ?
Solution The force is constant and is 1-dimension, so
W = F ∆x = ∆K = K
f
−K
i
=
1
2
mv
2
f

1
2
mv
2
i
Now v
i
= 0, giving
F ∆x =
1
2
mv
2
f
or
v
f
=
¸
2F ∆x
m
The neat thing is that we can get exactly the same answer with our old
methods, as the next example shows.
94CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Example Work out the previous example using the constant ac-
celeration equations.
Solution The acceleration is just
a =
F
m
The constant acceleration equation that helps us is
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
Now x −x
0
= ∆x m and v
0
= 0 giving
v =
_
2a(x −x
0
)
=
¸
2F ∆x
m
which is the same answer as the previous example.
6.2. KINETIC ENERGY 95
In the previous two examples notice how the equation
W = F∆x =
1
2
mv
2
f

1
2
mv
2
i
is equivalent to
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
Modify this to
1
2
v
2
=
1
2
v
2
0
+a(x −x
0
)
1
2
v
2
=
1
2
v
2
0
+a∆x
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
mv
2
0
+ma∆x
=
1
2
mv
2
0
+F∆x
or
F∆x =
1
2
mv
2

1
2
mv
2
0
= ∆K
as we have above !
Thus the work-energy formulation provides an alternative approach to
mechanics.
96CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
6.3 Work-Energy Theorem
Let’s review what we have done. Work was deﬁned as W ≡
_

F · dr and by
putting in F = ma we found that the total work is always ∆K where the
kinetic energy is deﬁned as K ≡
1
2
mv
2
. Thus
W ≡
_
r
2
r
1

F · dr = ∆K.
So far so good. Note carefully what we did to get this result. We put in the
right hand side of F = ma to prove W = ∆K. What we actually did was
W =
_
r
2
r
1
ma · dr ≡ ∆K
Now let’s not put

F = ma but just study the integral
r
2
_
r
1

F · dr by itself.
Before we do that, we must recognize that there are two types of forces
called conservative and non-conservative. You should carefully read Section
Anyway, to put it brieﬂy, conservative forces “bounce back” and non-
conservative forces don’t. Gravity is a conservative force. If you lift an
object against gravity and let it go then the object falls back to where it
was. Spring forces are conservative. If you pull a spring and then let it go, it
bounces back to where it was. However friction is non-conservative. If you
slide an object along the table against friction and let go, then the object
just stays there.
With conservative forces we always associate a potential energy.
Thus any force

F can be broken up into the conservative piece

F
C
and
the non-conservative piece

F
NC
, as in
W ≡
_
r
f
r
i

F · dr
=
_
r
f
r
i

F
C
· dr +
_
r
f
r
i

F
NC
· dr
≡ W
C
+W
NC
and each piece corresponds therefore to conservative work W
C
and non-
conservative work W
NC
. Let’s deﬁne the conservative piece as the negative
of the change in a new quantity called potential energy U. The deﬁnition is
W
C
≡ −∆U
6.3. WORK-ENERGY THEOREM 97
where −∆U = −(U
f
−U
i
) = −U
f
+ U
i
. Now we found that the total work
W was always ∆K. Combining all of this we have
W = W
C
+W
NC
= ∆K
= −∆U +W
NC
or
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
which is the famous Work-Energy theorem.
98CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
6.4 Gravitational Potential Energy
We have been doing a lot of formal analysis. Let’s backtrack a little and
try to understand better what we have done. Let’s look at the conservative
piece a little more closely and examine potential energy in more detail.
Let’s consider the simplest conservative force, namely the weight force
where W = mg which is a constant. Let’s work out W
C
and ∆U in 1-
dimension.
The gravitational force due to weight is

F
C
= −mg
ˆ
j
giving
W
C
≡ −∆U =
_

F
C
· dr
= −(U
f
−U
i
) = −mg
_
ˆ
j · (dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k) = −mg
_
y
f
y
i
dy
= −U
f
+U
i
= −mg [y]
y
f
y
i
= −mg(y
f
−y
i
) = −mgy
f
+mgy
i
which gives −U
f
= −mgy
f
, i.e. U
f
= mgy
f
and U
i
= mgy
i
. Thus we can
simply write
U = mgy
which is our expression for gravitational potential energy. If an object is
raised to a large height y then it has a large potential energy.
If we do work in lifting an object, then we give that object potential en-
ergy, just as we can give an object kinetic energy by doing work. Similarly
if an object has potential energy or kinetic energy then the object can do
work by releasing that energy. This is the principle of hydro-electric power
generators. A large amount of water is stored in a dam at a large height y
with a large potential energy. When the water falls and reduces it poten-
tial energy (smaller y) the energy is converted into work to drive electric
generators.
6.5 Conservation of Energy
Let’s summarize again. The work-energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = W
NC
where K ≡
1
2
mv
2
and for gravity U = mgy. W
NC
is the non-conservative
work, such as friction, heat, sound, etc. It is often zero as in the next
example.
6.5. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 99
Example If you drop an object from a height H, with what
speed does it hit the ground? Deduce the answer using the work-
energy theorem. Assume W
NC
= 0.
Solution W
NC
= 0 because things such as heat and friction are
negligible. Thus the work energy theorem is
∆U + ∆K = 0
or
U
f
−U
i
+K
f
−K
i
= 0
or
U
f
+K
f
= U
i
+K
i
That is the total energy
E ≡ U +K
is constant. This is the famous conservation of mechanical en-
ergy, i.e. E
f
= E
i
.
We have K =
1
2
mv
2
and U = mgy giving
mgy
f
+
1
2
mv
2
f
= mgy
i
+
1
2
mv
2
i
but y
f
= 0 and y
i
= H and v
i
= 0. Thus
1
2
mv
2
f
= mgH
or
v
f
=
_
2gH
100CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Example Complete the previous example using the constant ac-
celeration equations.
Solution The most convenient equation is
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(y −y
0
)
but v
0
= 0 and y −y
0
= 0 −H = −H and a = −g, giving
v =
_
2g(y −y
0
) =
_
2g(0 −−H)
=
_
2gH
which is the same answer as before.
Example Prove that a swinging pendulum always rises to the
same height. (Neglect friction.)
Solution With friction ignored we have W
NC
= 0 and
1
2
mv
2
f
+mgy
f
=
1
2
mv
2
i
+mgy
i
I let go of the pendulum with speed v
i
= 0 and it returns with
speed v
f
= 0. Thus
mgy
f
= mgy
i
or
y
f
= y
i
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Bowling Ball Pendulum
6.6. SPRING POTENTIAL ENERGY 101
6.6 Spring Potential Energy
When you pull a spring you feel a force in the opposite direction from which
you pull. Also the force increases with distance. This can be expressed as

F
C
= −kx
ˆ
i
in the x direction. Thus
W
C
≡ −∆U =
_

F
C
· dr
= −(U
f
−U
i
) = −k
_
x
ˆ
i · (dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k)
= −U
f
+U
i
= −k
_
x
f
x
i
xdx = −k
_
1
2
x
2
_
x
f
x
i
= −k
_
1
2
x
2
f

1
2
x
2
i
_
= −
1
2
kx
2
f
+
1
2
kx
2
i
which gives −U
f
= −
1
2
kx
2
f
, i.e. U
f
=
1
2
kx
2
f
and U
i
=
1
2
kx
2
i
. Thus we can
simplify and write
U =
1
2
kx
2
which is our expression for spring potential energy
102CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Example A spring with spring constant k has a mass of m on
one end. The spring is stretched by a distance d. When released,
how fast will the mass be moving when it returns to its original
position? (Assume the motion occurs on a horizontal frictionless
surface.)
Solution W
NC
= 0 giving
U
f
+K
f
= U
i
+K
i
1
2
kx
2
f
+
1
2
mv
2
f
=
1
2
kx
i
+
1
2
mv
2
i
Now x
f
= 0, x
i
= d m and v
i
= 0. Thus
mv
2
f
= kd
2
or
v
f
= d
¸
k
m
IMPORTANT NOTE:
The spring is an example of a variable force F = −kx which varies as
distance. Thus the acceleration a = −
kx
m
is not constant and the constant
acceleration equations cannot be used to solve the previous example. Also
the variable force requires the integral deﬁnition of work as W =
_

F · dr.
HALLIDAY SIMULATION: “A Spring”
6.7. APPENDIX: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO OBTAIN POTENTIAL ENERGY103
6.7 Appendix: alternative method to obtain po-
tential energy
Potential energy is deﬁned through
W
c
=
_

F
c
· dr ≡ −∆U
Let’s just ignore the vectors for the moment and write
_
F
c
dr = −∆U
Thus we must have
F
c
= −
dU
dr
To see this write
_
f
i
F
c
dr = −
_
f
i
dU
dr
dr = −
_
U
f
U
i
dU = −[U]
U
f
U
i
= −(U
f
−U
i
) = −∆U.
(cf. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus).
For gravity we have

F = −mg
ˆ
j or F = −mg and for a spring we have

F = −kx
ˆ
i or F = −kx. Thus instead of working out the integral
_

F · dr to
get U, just ask what U will give F according to F = −
dU
dr
.
Example For gravity F = −mg, derive U without doing an in-
tegral.
Solution For gravity dr ≡ dy. The question is what U will give
F = −mg = −
dU
dy
The answer is U = mgy. Let’s check:

dU
dy
= −mg
dy
dy
= −mg
which is the F we started with !
104CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Example For a spring F = −kx, derive U without doing an
integral.
Solution For a spring d ≡ dx. The question is what U will give
F = −kx = −
dU
dx
1
2
kx
2
. Let’s check

dU
dx
= −
1
2
k
dx
2
dx
= −
1
2
k 2x = −kx
which is the F we started with!
6.8. PROBLEMS 105
6.8 Problems
1. A block of mass m slides down a rough incline of height H and angle
θ to the horizontal. Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches
the bottom of the incline, assuming the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction
is µ
k
.
106CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Chapter 7
SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Locate the center of mass of an object.
THEMES:
FROM ONE TO MANY.
107
108 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
Almost everything we have done so far has referred to the motion of a
single body of mass m, and we have always been able to treat that single
body as though it were a point. But suppose we wich to study the motion
of a complex object such as a spinning baseball bat (Fig. 9-1 Halliday) or
a dancing ballerina (Fig. 9-8 Halliday) ? A bat and a ballerina can be
considered as a collection of a huge number of single particles. We now
want to study the motion of such systems of particles.
7.1 A Special Point
When we studied say a block sliding down an incline, and replaced it with
just a single point and studied the motion of that point, we made a very
convenient simpliﬁcation. This special point is called the center of mass of an
object and by studying its motion alone we avoid all the extra complications
of a body of ﬁnite size.
“The center of mass of a body or a system of bodies is the points that
moves as though all of the mass were aconcentrated there and all exter-
nal forces were applied there.” [Halliday, 1997]. Notice we have included
a system of bodies. For instance the motion of the Earth-Moon system
around the Sun is actually governed by the center of mass of the two-body
Earth-Moon system.
An easy way to ﬁnd the center of mass is to just regard it as a balance
point. For example the center of mass of a ruler is located as the point
where you can balance the ruler on your ﬁnger without it falling oﬀ. Thus
we already know the answer for a ruler ! The center of mass is located at
the center. We will prove this mathematically in a moment.
7.2 The Center of Mass
Systems of Particles
Now let’s come up with a mathematical deﬁnition for center of mass
which is more precise than just saying it’s the balance point (although the
balance point always gives the correct answer). The location of the center
of mass is deﬁned as
r
cm

1
M

n
i
m
i
r
i
(7.1)
7.2. THE CENTER OF MASS 109
where the sum over i running from 1 to n means sum over all of the point
particles within the body, assuming there are a total of n point particles.
M is the total mass of all the individual bodies and can be written
M ≡
n

i
m
i
(7.2)
We have deﬁned the center of mass. Now let’s see if our deﬁnition makes
sense. First of all it’s a vector equation and so what it really means is the
usual 3-dimensional decomposition as
x
cm

1
M
n

i
m
i
x
i
(7.3)
y
cm

1
M
n

i
m
i
y
i
(7.4)
z
cm

1
M
n

i
m
i
z
i
(7.5)
Let’s just consider the 1-dimensional version for the case of 2 bodies only.
Then the total mass M becomes
M = m
1
+m
2
(7.6)
and (7.2) becomes
x
cm
=
m
1
x
1
+m
2
x
2
m
1
+m
2
. (7.7)
Does this make sense ? Let’s see.
110 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
Example Where is the position of the center of mass for a sys-
tem consisting of two dumbells, each with the same mass m each
at the end of a 4ft massless rod ?
Solution Now you know that the answer to this must be at the
center of the rod. After all that is the balancing point. That is
our guess is that x
cm
= 2ft. Let’s use our deﬁnition of center of
mass, equation (7.1) and see if it gives this answer.
Now we have a 1-dimensional problem and therefore (7.1) re-
duces to only (7.3). Furthermore we only have two bodies and
this reduces further to (7.7). Choosing the origin of the x-
coordinate system to be at the left dumbell gives x
1
= 0ft and
x
2
= 4ft. Substituting gives
x
cm
=
m×0ft +m×4ft
m+m
= 2ft (7.8)
which is exactly what we expected. Therefore we can believe that
our deﬁnition for center of mass (7.1) makes perfect sense.
Let’s look at what happens if we use a diﬀerent coordinate system.
Example Repeat the previous problem, but with the x-origin
located at the center between the two dumbells instead of on the
left dumbell.
Solution Well now we would guess that the center of mass would
be given by x
cm
= 0. Let’s see if our formula works here. With
the origin of the x-axis chosen to be at the center of the dumbells
we have the position of each dumbell given by x
1
= −2ft and
x
2
= +2ft respectively. Subsituting we get
x
cm
=
m×(−2ft) +m×(+2ft)
m+m
= 0 (7.9)
which is exactly what we expected. Therefore again we can be-
lieve that our deﬁnition for center of mass (7.1) makes perfect
sense.
7.2. THE CENTER OF MASS 111
Being able to ﬁnd the center of mass is actually useful, as the following
example shows.
Example A baby of mass m
B
sits on a see-saw. Mary’s mass is
m
M
. Where should Mary sit in order to balance the see-saw ?
Work out a formula and also a numerical answer if m
B
= 10 kg
and m
M
= 80 kg.
Solution Again our intuition tells us that we can guess that the
ratio of the distances should be 1/8. That is the baby should be
8 times as far away from the center of the see-saw as Mary. Let’s
see if our center of mass deﬁnition (7.1) tells us this.
Again this is a 1-dimensional, 2-body problem and so the formula
for the center of mass is again
x
cm
=
m
B
x
B
+m
M
x
M
m
B
+m
M
.
Now we want the center of mass located at the center of the
see-saw and we will put the origin of our x-axis there as well.
Thus
x
cm
=
m
B
x
B
+m
M
x
M
m
B
+m
M
= 0
giving
m
B
x
B
+m
M
x
M
= 0
which means that
m
B
x
B
= −m
M
x
M
or
x
B
x
M
= −
m
B
m
M
= −
m
M
or
x
M
= −
M
m
x
B
Putting in numbers we get
x
M
= −
80 kg
10 kg
x
B
= −8 x
B
just as we suspected.
112 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
Rigid Bodies
Above we considered ﬁnding the center of mass of two bodies. This can
easily be extended to 3 or more bodies and some of this will be explored in
the homework. That’s all well and good, but how do we ﬁnd the center of
mass of systems made up of millions of particles such as a baseball bat. In
other words how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of rigid bodies ? That’s what
we will look at now.
In physics whenever we want to change our study from a collection of
discrete particles (desribed by a sum

i
) to a continuous collection of parti-
cles, the sum just changes to an integral. Hopefully this makes perfect sense
from what you have studied in calculus. You all now know that an integral
is just the limit of a sequence of sums.
Now each of the millions of particles in a rigid body has a tiny little mass
denoted by dm. For a discrete collection of particles we had (7.1) as
x
cm

1
M
n

i
x
i
m
i
(7.10)
but for a continuous distribution of particles we now deﬁne
x
cm

1
M
_
xdm (7.11)
This is easier to work with if we introduce density ρ as mass / volume or
ρ ≡
mass
volume

dm
dV

M
V
. (7.12)
where dV is the volume occupied by the mass dm. Thus our deﬁnition can
be written
x
cm

1
M
_
xdm ≡
1
M
_
xρdV
and the same for y and z. If the density is constant, then it can be taken
outside the integral to give
x
cm
=
1
V
_
xdV
and the same for y and z.
There’s one additional catch. Above we deﬁned a 3-dimensional density
as mass / volume. But what if we have a dense 1-dimensional object such
as a very long and thin pencil. Well then we will want a linear mass density.
7.2. THE CENTER OF MASS 113
Instead of ρ, we use the symbol λ for linear mass density and deﬁne it
as
λ ≡
mass
length

dm
dL

M
L
so that now we have
x
cm

1
M
_
xdm =
1
M
_
xλdL
and for a constant λ,
x
cm
=
1
L
_
xdL
Because this is linear mass density we do not have any equations for x or
y. Similarly we may have mass distributed only in 2 dimensions such as the
surface of a table. We use area mass density deﬁned as
σ ≡
mass
area

dm
dA

M
A
giving
x
cm

1
M
_
xdm =
1
M
_
xσ dA
and for constant σ,
x
cm
=
1
A
_
xdA
and similarly for y; but there is no equation for z. (why?)
Example Locate the center of mass of a very thin pencil of
length L balanced sideways.
Solution Again using intuition we know the answer must be at
the center of the pencil. Now the element of length dL ≡ dx,
and the linear mass density λ of the pencil is constant, so that
x
cm
=
1
L
_
L
0
xdx
We have taken the origin (x = 0) to be at one end of the pencil.
Thus
x
cm
=
1
L
_
1
2
x
2
_
L
0
=
1
L
_
1
2
L
2
−0
_
=
1
2
L
which is just the answer we expected! Thus we can believe that
the formulas given previously really do work.
114 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
7.3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles
For a single particle of mass m we already have encountered Newton’s second
law, namely

F = ma, and

F are all the forces acting on the mass m and
a is the resulting acceleration of the mass m. What happens for a system
of particles?
The end result is

F
ext
= Ma
cm
(7.13)
where

F
ext
is the sum of all external forces acting on the body (all the
internal forces cancel out to zero), M is the total mass of the body and a
cm
is the acceleration of the center of mass of the body.
Example Prove equation (7.13).
Solution Recall our deﬁnition of center of mass, namely
r
cm

1
M

i
m
i
r
i
or
Mr
cm
=

i
m
i
r
i
Taking the time derivative gives
Mv
cm
=

i
m
i
v
i
and taking the time derivative again gives
Ma
cm
=

i
m
i
a
i
=

i

F
i
which is just the sum of all the forces acting on each mass m
i
.
These forces will be both external and internal. However for a
rigid body all the internal forces must cancel because in a rigid
body the particles don’t move relative to each other. Thus

i

F
i
just becomes

F
ext
in agreement with (7.13).
7.4. LINEAR MOMENTUM OF A POINT PARTICLE 115
7.4 Linear Momentum of a Point Particle
A more fundamental way of discussing Newton’s second law is in terms of a
new quantity called momentum. It is deﬁned as
p ≡ mv
and it is important because it is a conserved quantity just like energy. The
proper way to write Newton’s second law is

F =
d p
dt
Now
d p
dt
=
d
dt
(mv) = m
dv
dt
= ma if the mass is constant. Thus
d p
dt
= ma
if the mass is constant. (If the mass is not constant then
d p
dt
=
d
dt
(mv) =
m
dv
dt
+
dm
dt
v = ma +
dm
dt
v so that Newton’s second law actually reads

F =
ma +
dm
dt
v).
7.5 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
The total momentum

P of a system of particles is just the sum of the
momenta of each individual particle, namely

P =

i
p
i
Now from the previous example we had Mv
cm
=

i
m
i
v
i
=

i
p
i
, giving the
total momentum of a system of particles as

P = Mv
cm
which is a very nice handy formula for the total momentum equals total mass
multiplied by the velocity of the center of mass. Taking the time derivative
gives
d

P
dt
= M
dvcm
dt
= Ma
cm
assuming that M is constant. Thus Newton’s
second law for a system of particles can be written

F
ext
=
d

P
dt
116 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
7.6 Conservation of Linear Momentum
If all the external forces are zero (

F
ext
= 0) then
d

P
dt
= 0 which implies
that the total momentum

P = constant (7.14)
Note that this is only true if all the external forces are zero. Halliday calls
this a closed, isolated system.
Another way of stating (7.14) is

P
i
=

P
f
Remembering that

P is the total momentum of a system of particles (

P =
p
1
+ p
2
+ p
3
+· · ·), the conservation equation is
p
1
i
+ p
2
i
+ p
3
i
+· · · = p
1
f
+ p
2
f
+ p
3
f
+· · ·
This is a vector equation, so we must always write it out in x, y, or z com-
ponents.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Explosion: spring release on air track.
7.6. CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM 117
Example A riﬂe of mass m
R
ﬁres a bullet of mass m
B
which
emerges at a speed of v
B
f
. With what speed does the riﬂe recoil ?
Solution The bullet-riﬂe system is a closed, isolated system.
When the riﬂe is held at rest the sum of all external forces is
zero. Thus momentum is conserved for the bullet (B)–riﬂe (R)
two body system. The total momentum is

P = p
R
+ p
B
, so that
conservation of momentum is
p
R
i
+ p
B
i
= p
R
f
+ p
B
f
Now this is a vector equation, so it must be written in terms of
components, namely
p
Rx
i
+p
Bx
i
= p
Rx
f
+p
Bx
f
p
Ry
i
+p
By
i
= p
Ry
f
+p
By
f
but there is only motion in the x direction and nothing is hap-
pening in the y direction, so let’s re-write the x-equation, leaving
oﬀ the x’s as
p
R
i
+p
B
i
= p
R
f
+p
B
f
or
m
R
v
R
i
+m
B
v
B
i
= m
R
v
R
f
+m
B
v
B
f
But v
R
i
+ v
B
i
= 0 because before the gun is ﬁred (initial situ-
ation) the bullet and gun do not move. After the gun is ﬁred
(ﬁnal situation) they both move. Thus
O = m
R
v
R
f
+m
B
v
B
f
⇒ v
R
f
= −
m
B
m
R
v
B
f
where the minus sign indicates that the riﬂe moves in a direction
opposite to the bullet.
118 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
7.7 Problems
1. A particle of mass m is located on the x axis at the position x = 1 and
a particle of mass 2m is located on the y axis at position y = 1 and
a third particle of mass m is located oﬀ-axis at the position (x, y) =
(1, 1). What is the location of the center of mass?
2. Consider a square ﬂat table-top. Prove that the center of mass lies at
the center of the table-top, assuming a constant mass density.
3. A child of mass m
c
is riding a sled of mass m
s
moving freely along an
icy frictionless surface at speed v
0
. If the child falls oﬀ the sled, derive
a formula for the change in speed of the sled. (Note: energy is not
conserved !) WRONG WRONG WRONG ??????????????
speed of sled remains same - person keeps moving when fall oﬀ ???????
Chapter 8
COLLISIONS
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design a simple experiment illustrating momentum conservation.
THEMES:
COLLISIONS.
119
120 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
8.1 What is a Collision?
8.2 Impulse and Linear Momentum
Leave out
8.3 Elastic Collisions in 1-dimension
Recall our work energy theorem for a single particle,
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
or
U
f
−U
i
+K
f
−K
i
= W
NC
or
U
f
+K
f
= U
i
+K
i
+W
NC
If W
NC
= 0 then energy will not be conserved. For a two-body collision
process, then an inelastic collision is one in which energy is not conserved
(i.e. W
NC
= 0), but an elastic collision is one in which energy is conserved
(W
NC
= 0).
Now if you think of a collision of two billiard balls on a horizontal pool
table then U
f
= mgy
f
and U
i
= mgy
i
, but y
f
= y
i
and thus U
f
= U
i
or
∆U = 0. Thus the above work-energy theorem would be
K
f
= K
i
+W
NC
Thus for collisions where U
i
= U
f
, we often say more simply that an elas-
tic collision is when the kinetic energy alone is conserved and an inelastic
collision is when it is not conserved.
In this section we ﬁrst will deal only with elastic collisions in 1-dimension.
8.3. ELASTIC COLLISIONS IN 1-DIMENSION 121
Example A billiard ball of mass m
1
and initial speed v
1i
hits a
stationary ball of mass m
2
. All the motion occurs in a straight
line. Calculate the ﬁnal speeds of both balls in terms of m
1
, m
2
,
v
1i
, assuming the collison is elastic (Is this a good assumption?).
Solution All the motion is in 1-dimension and so conservation
of momentum (with v
2i
= 0) is just
m
1
v
1i
+ 0 = m
1
v
1f
+m
2
v
2f
and conservation of kinetic energy is
1
2
m
1
v
2
1i
+ 0 =
1
2
m
1
v
2
1f
+
1
2
m
2
v
2
2f
Here we have two equations with the two unknowns v
1f
and v
2f
.
Thus the rest of the problem is simply doing some algebra. Let’s
solve for v
1f
in the ﬁrst equation and then substitute into the
second equation to get v
2f
. Thus
v
1f
= v
1i

m
2
m
1
v
2f
or
v
2
1f
= v
2
1i
−2
m
2
m
1
v
2f
v
1i
+
_
m
2
m
1
_
2
v
2
2f
Substituting this into the conservation of kinetic energy equation
gives
1
2
m
1
v
2
1i
=
1
2
m
1
v
2
1i
−m
2
v
2f
v
1i
+
1
2
m
2
2
m
1
v
2
2f
+
1
2
m
2
v
2
2f
which simpliﬁes to
0 = −2m
2
v
1i
+v
2f
_
m
2
2
m
1
+m
2
_
giving
v
2f
=
2m
2
m
2
2
m
1
+m
2
v
1i
122 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
which is ﬁnally
v
2
f
=
2m
1
m
1
+m
2
v
1i
Substituting this back into the conservation of momentum equa-
tion gives
m
1
v
1i
= m
1
v
1f
+
2m
1
m
2
m
1
+m
2
v
1i
which gives
v
1f
= v
1i
_
1 −
2m
2
m
1
+m
2
_
= v
1i
m
1
+m
2
−2m
2
m
1
+m
2
or
v
1f
=
m
1
−m
2
m
1
+m
2
v
1i
There are some interesting special situations to consider.
1) Equal masses (m
1
= m
2
). This implies that v
1f
= 0 and
v
2f
= v
1i
. That is the projectile billiard ball stops and
transfers all of its speed to the target ball. (This is also
true if the target is moving.)
2) Massive target (m
2
m
1
). In this case we get v
1f
≈ −v
1i
and v
2f

2m
1
m
2
v
1i
≈ 0 which means the projectile bounces
oﬀ at the same speed and the target remains stationary.
3) Massive projectile (m
1
m
2
). Now we get v
2f
≈ 2v
1i
and
v
1f
≈ v
1i
meaning that the projectile keeps charging ahead
at about the same speed and the target moves oﬀ at double
the speed of the projectile.
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: colliding pendula (Sample Problem 10-3)
All students should carefully study the Moving Target discussion on Pg. 220
of Halliday.
8.4. INELASTIC COLLISIONS IN 1-DIMENSION 123
8.4 Inelastic Collisions in 1-dimension
A completely inelastic collision is deﬁned as one in which the two particles
stick together after the collision.
Example Repeat the previous example for a completely inelas-
tic collision.
Solution If the particles stick to each other after the collision
then their ﬁnal speeds are the same; let’s call it V ,
v
1f
= v
2f
≡ V
And writing v
1i
≡ v we have from conservation of momentum
m
1
v + 0 = m
1
V +m
2
V
or
V =
m
1
m
1
+m
2
v
Let’s look again at the special situations.
1) Equal masses (m
1
= m
2
). This gives
V =
1
2
v
2) Massive target (m
2
m
1
). This gives
V ≈
m
1
m
2
v ≈ 0
3) Massive projectile (m
1
m
2
). This gives
V ≈ v
124 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
8.5 Collisions in 2-dimensions
Glancing collisions (i.e. not head-on) are more complicated to analyze. Fig-
ure 10.1 shows a typical conﬁguration.
1i
v
2f
v
1f
v
x
y
m
1
m
2 1
θ
2
θ
FIGURE 10.1 Glancing collision.
8.5. COLLISIONS IN 2-DIMENSIONS 125
Example Write down the conservation of energy and momen-
tum equations for the glancing collision depicted in Fig. 10.1
where the target ball is initially at rest.
Solution Conservation of momentum is
p
1i
+ p
2i
= p
1f
+ p
2f
but p
2i
= 0. In x and y components these are
m
1
v
1ix
= m
1
v
1fx
+m
2
v
2fx
m
1
v
1iy
= m
1
v
1fy
+m
2
v
2fy
or
m
1
v
1i
= m
1
v
1f
cos θ
1
+m
2
v
2f
cos θ
2
0 = −m
1
v
1f
sin θ
1
+m
2
v
2f
sin θ
2
If the collision is elastic we also have conservation of kinetic
energy,
1
2
m
1
v
2
1i
=
1
2
m
1
v
2
1f
+
1
2
m
2
v
2
2f
These three equations must then be solved for the quantities of
interest.
Students should carefully study sample Problems 10-7, 10-8 [Halliday].
126 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
Example A ball of mass m
1
and speed v
1i
collides with a sta-
tionary target ball of mass m
2
, as shown in Fig. 10.1. If the
target is scattered at an angle of θ
2
what is the scattering angle
θ
1
of the projectile in terms of m
1
, m
2
, v
1i
, θ
2
and v
2f
where v
2f
is the ﬁnal speed of the target ?
Solution Conservation of momentum gives
Σ p
i
= Σ p
f
or
Σp
ix
= Σp
fx
and Σp
iy
= Σp
fy
The x direction gives
m
1
v
1i
+ 0 = m
1
v
1f
cos θ
1
+m
2
v
2f
cos θ
2
0 = −m
1
v
1f
sin θ
1
+m
2
v
2f
sin θ
2
We want to ﬁnd θ
1
. Solve the ﬁrst and second equations for θ
1
giving
cos θ
1
=
m
1
v
1i
−m
2
v
2f
cos θ
2
m
1
v
1f
and
sin θ
1
=
m
2
v
2f
sin θ
2
m
1
v
1f
giving
tan θ
1
=
m
2
v
2f
sin θ
2
m
1
v
1i
−m
2
v
2f
cos θ
2
(Notice that this result is valid for both elastic and inelastic
collisions. We did not use conservation of energy.)
8.6 Reactions and Decay Processes
Leave out.
Center of Mass Reference Frame
8.6. REACTIONS AND DECAY PROCESSES 127
Remember that the total momentum

P of a system of particles was given
by

P = Mv
cm
or

P = Mv
cm
=

i
p
i
=

i
m
i
v
i
Up to now we have been measuring velocities with respect to the “Lab”
reference frame, which is the name for the reference frame associated with
a stationary target. The Lab does not move, or in other words v
Lab
= 0.
We can also measure velocities with respect to the center of mass frame
where v
cm
= 0. This is also often called the center of momentum frame
because if v
cm
= 0 then

i
p
i
= 0. If v = velocity in Lab frame and u =
velocity in cm frame then
u = v −v
cm
128 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
Example A red billiard ball of mass m
R
moving at a speed v
R
collides head on with a black billiard ball of mass m
B
at rest. A)
What is the speed of the center of mass ? B) What is the speed
of both balls in the cm frame ?
Solution
v
B
= 0
v
cm
=
m
R
v
R
+m
B
v
B
m
R
+m
B
=
m
R
×v
R
+ 0
m
R
+m
B
=
m
R
m
R
+m
B
v
R
which is the speed of the center of mass. Now get the speed of
the red ball via
u
R
= v
R
−v
cm
= v
R

m
R
m
R
+m
B
v
R
= v
R
(1 −
m
R
m
R
+m
B
) = v
R
(
m
R
+m
B
−m
R
m
R
+m
B
)
=
m
B
m
R
+m
B
v
R
and the speed of the black ball is
u
B
= v
B
−v
cm
= 0 −
m
R
m
R
+m
B
v
R
= −
m
R
m
R
+m
B
v
R
8.7. PROBLEMS 129
8.7 Problems
1. In a game of billiards, the player wishes to hit a stationary target ball
with the moving projectile ball. After the collision, show that the sum
of the scattering angles is 90
o
. Ignore friction and rolling motion and
assume the collision is elastic. Also both balls have the same mass.
130 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
Chapter 9
ROTATION
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Calculate the speed of an ant at the edge of the minute hand on your kitchen
clock.
THEMES:
SPIN.
131
132 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.1 Translation and Rotation
We have studied how point particles and systems of particles (rigid bodies)
move as a whole. The next thing to consider is rotational motion, as opposed
to the translational motion studied previously.
When studying rotational motion it is very convenient and instructive to
develop the whole theory in analogy to translational motion. I have therefore
written the Master Table that we shall refer to often.
9.2 The Rotational Variables
Previously we denoted translational position in 1-dimension with the symbol
x. If a particle is located on the rim of a circle we often use s instead of x
to locate its position around the circumference of the circle. Thus s and x
are equivalent translational variables
s ≡ x
Now the angular position is described by angle which is deﬁned as
θ ≡
s
r
where s (or x) is the translation position and r is the radius of the circle.
Notice that angle has no units because s and r both have units of m. The
angle deﬁned above is measured in radian, but of course this is not a unit.
One complete revolution is 2π radian often also called 360

. (All students
should carefully read Pg. 240 of Halliday for a clear distinction between
Translational position is given by x (or s) and translation displacement
was ∆x ≡ x
2
−x
1
(or ∆s ≡ s
2
−s
1
). Similarly angular displacement is
∆θ ≡ θ
2
−θ
1
and because θ ≡
s
r
then it is related to translation displacement by
∆θ =
∆s
r
=
∆x
r
This is the ﬁrst entry in the Master Table.
9.2. THE ROTATIONAL VARIABLES 133
Secondly we deﬁned translational average velocity as ¯ v ≡
∆x
∆t

∆s
∆t
and
instantaneous velocity as v ≡
dx
dt
=
ds
dt
. Similarly we deﬁne average angular
velocity as
¯ ω ≡
∆θ
∆t
and instantaneous velocity as
ω ≡

dt
Now because we have ∆θ =
∆x
r
we must also have
∆θ
∆t
=
∆x
r∆t
or ¯ ω =
¯ v
r
as
relating average velocity and average angular velocity. Similarly
ω =
v
r
This is the second entry in the Master Table.
Finally the angular acceleration α is deﬁned as
α ≡

dt
and
α =
a
r
relating angular acceleration α to translational acceleration a
t
. (Notice that
a is not the centripetal acceleration. For uniform circular motion α = 0 and
a
t
= 0 because the particle moves in a circle at constant speed v and the
centripetal acceleration is a
r
=
v
2
r
. For non-uniform circular motion, where
the speed keeps increasing (or decreasing) then α = 0 and a = 0.) See the
third entry in the Master Table.
134 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors?
9.4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
The equations for constant angular acceleration are obtained in identical
fashion to the translational constant acceleration equations. They are listed
in the Master Table.
Example A ﬂywheel is spinning at 100 revolutions per second
and is stopped by a brake in 10 seconds. What is the angular
acceleration of the ﬂywheel ?
Solution The initial angular velocity is
ω
0
= 100 ×2π sec
−1
and the ﬁnal angular velocity is ω = 0. Using ω = ω
0
+αt gives
α =
ω −ω
0
t
=
0 −100 ×2π sec
−1
10 sec
= −62.8 sec
−2
Study Sample Problems 11-3, 11-4, 11-5.
9.5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables
t
and a
r
on Pg. 246 Halliday.
9.6. KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION 135
9.6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation
To calculate the kinetic energy of a rotating object we add up all of the
kinetic energies of the individual particles making up the object, namely
K =

i
1
2
m
i
v
2
i
The speeds are v
i
= ωr
i
. Note we do not write v
i
= ω
i
r
i
because the
rotational velocity of all particles is the same value ω. That is ω
1
= ω
2
=
ω
3
= · · · ≡ ω. Substituting gives
K =

i
1
2
m
i
ω
2
r
2
i
=
1
2
_

i
m
i
r
2
i
_
ω
2
Deﬁne rotational inertia or rotational mass as
I ≡

i
m
i
r
2
i
and we get
K =
1
2

2
which looks exactly like K =
1
2
mv
2
where instead of velocity v we have ω
and instead of mass (or inertia) m we have rotational mass (or rotational
inertia) I. Recall that mass, or inertia, tells us how diﬃcult it is to move
an object. Similarly the rotational mass, or rotational inertia, tells us how
diﬃcult it is to rotate an object. (Carefully read Pg. 248, Halliday.) See
Master Table.
136 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia
For a continuous distribution of mass the rotational inertia has the sum
replaced by an integral, namely
I ≡

i
r
2
i
m
i
=
_
r
2
dm
=
_
r
2
ρdV =
_
r
2
σdA =
_
r
2
λdL
where dm has been replaced by ρdV or σdA or λdL depending on whether
the rigid body is 3-dimensional, 2-dimensional or 1-dimensional.
Now when you spin an object, you always spin it about some axis. Take
your physics book for example. It is easy to spin about an axis through the
center (i.e. center of mass) but more diﬃcult to spin about an axis through
the edge of the book.
Remember that the rotational inertia I tells us how diﬃcult it is to
get something rotating, or spinning, just as ordinary inertia m tells us how
diﬃcult it is to get something moving. Thus I is small for the spin axis
through the center of the book, but large for an axis through the edge of
the book. In the formula for I =

i
r
2
i
m
i
=
_
r
2
dm then r will always be
measured from the rotation axis.
A very handy formula which helps a lot in calculating I is the famous
parallel axis theorem,
I = I
cm
+Mh
2
where I is the rotational inertia about an axis located a distance h from the
center of mass and parallel to a line through the center of mass. M is the
total mass of the whole rigid body. This theorem is proved on Pg. 250 of
Halliday.
Let’s now look at some examples of how to calculate I. Many results are
listed on Pg. 249 of Halliday.
9.7. CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 137
Example A rod of length L and negligible mass has a dumbbell
of mass m located at each end. Calculate the rotational inertia
about an axis through the center of mass (and perpendicular to
the rod).
Solution See Fig. 11-13(a) in Halliday, Pg. 250. Each dumbbell
is a discrete mass and so we use
I =

i
r
2
i
m
i
= r
2
1
m+r
2
2
m
where there are only two terms because there are only two dumb-
bells, and also m
1
= m
2
≡ m. Now r
1
=
1
2
L and r
2
= −
1
2
L
giving
I =
_
1
2
L
_
2
m+
_

1
2
L
_
2
m
=
1
2
mL
2
Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one
of the dumbbells (but still perpendicular to the rod).
Solution See Fig. 11-13(b) in Halliday, Pg. 250. Now we have
r
1
= 0 and r
2
= L giving
I = r
2
1
m+r
2
2
m
= 0 +L
2
m
= mL
2
138 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis
theorem.
Solution The parallel axis theorem is I = I
cm
+Mh
2
where the
total mass if M = 2m and h is the distance from the center of
mass to the rotation axis. Thus h = L/2 giving
I =
1
2
mL
2
+ (2m)
_
L
2
_
2
= mL
2
This is the same as before and so we have good reason to believe
that the parallel axis theorem is true.
Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a thin uniform rod
of mass M and length L about an axis through the center of the
rod (and perpendicular to its length).
Solution See the ﬁgure in Table 11-2 of Halliday, Pg. 249. Let
the linear mass density of the rod be λ ≡
M
L
. Then (with dr =
dL)
I =
_
r
2
dm =
_
L/2
−L/2
r
2
λdr
where the integration limits are −L/2 to L/2 because the axis is
through the center of the rod. The rod is uniform which means
λ is constant and can be taken outside the integral to give
I = λ
_
L/2
−L/2
r
2
dr = λ
_
1
3
r
3
_
L/2
−L/2
= λ
_
1
3
_
L
2
_
3

1
3
_

L
2
_
3
_
= λ
L
3
12
=
M
L
L
3
12
=
1
12
ML
2
9.7. CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 139
Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one
end of the rod.
Solution Now we have
I = λ
_
L
0
r
2
dr = λ
_
1
3
r
2
_
2
0
= λ
_
1
3
L
3
−0
_
= λ
1
3
L
3
=
M
L
1
3
L
3
=
1
3
ML
2
Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis
theorem.
Solution
I = I
cm
+Mh
2
=
1
12
ML
2
+M
_
L
2
_
2
=
1
3
ML
2
140 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.8 Torque
We now want to determine the rotational equivalent of force. Rotational
force is called torque. It is a vector deﬁned as the cross product of r and

F,
τ ≡ r ×

F
Its magnitude is
τ = rF sin φ
where φ is the angle between r and

F. Now r sin φ is just a perpendicular
distance r

= r sin φ, so that
τ = r

F
Carefully read Halliday Pg. 252-253 for a detailed discussion of the meaning
of torque. See the Master Table.
9.9 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
Now just as we have

F = ma for translational dynamics we would guess
that

τ = I α
would be Newton’s second law for rotation. This is exactly right!
Example Do Sample Problem 11-11 in class (Pg. 253 Halliday).
9.10 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy
We have seen that in 1-dimension, work is W =
_
F dx. Similarly for rota-
tions we have
W ≡
_
τ dθ
See Master Table.
9.10. WORK AND ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY 141
MASTER TABLE
Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation
Displacement ∆x ≡ ∆s
Velocity v ≡
dx
dt
Acceleration a
t

dv
dt
Angular Displ. ∆θ
Angular Vel. ω ≡

dt
Angular Accel. α ≡

dt
∆x = ∆s = r∆θ
v = rω
a
t
= rα
Constant Accel. Eqns:
v = v
0
+at
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
x −x
0
=
v+v
0
2
t
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
= vt −
1
2
at
2
Constant Angular Accel:
ω = ω
0
+αt
ω
2
= ω
2
0
+ 2α(θ −θ
0
)
θ −θ
0
=
ω+ω
0
2
t
= ω
0
t +
1
2
αt
2
= ωt −
1
2
αt
2
K =
1
2
mv
2

F = ma
W =
_
F dx
K =
1
2

2

τ = I α
W =
_
τdθ
I ≡

i
r
2
i
m
i
=
_
r
2
dm
τ ≡ r ×

F
142 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.11 Problems
1. Show that the ratio of the angular speeds of a pair of coupled gear
wheels is in the inverse ratio of their respective radii. [WS 13-9]
2. Show that the magnitude of the total linear acceleration of a point
moving in a circle of radius r with angular velocity ω and angular
acceleration α is given by a = r

ω
4

2
[WS 13-8]
3. The turntable of a record player rotates initially at a rate of 33 revo-
lutions per minute and takes 20 seconds to come to rest. How many
rotations does the turntable make before coming to rest, assuming
constant angular deceleration ?
4. A cylindrical shell of mass M and radius R rolls down an incline of
height H. With what speed does the cylinder reach the bottom of the
incline ? How does this answer compare to just dropping an object
from a height H ?
5. Four point masses are fastened to the corners of a frame of negligible
mass lying in the xy plane. Two of the masses lie along the x axis at
positions x = +a and x = −a and are both of the same mass M. The
other two masses lie along the y axis at positions y = +b and y = −b
and are both of the same mass m.
A) If the rotation of the system occurs about the y axis with an angu-
lar velocity ω, ﬁnd the moment of inertia about the y axis and the
B) Now suppose the system rotates in the xy plane about an axis through
the origin (the z axis) with angular velocity ω. Calculate the moment
axis. [Serway, 3rd ed., pg. 151]
6. A uniform object with rotational inertia I = αmR
2
rolls without
slipping down an incline of height H and inclination angle θ. With
what speed does the object reach the bottom of the incline? What
is the speed for a hollow cylinder (I = mR
2
) and a solid cylinder
(I =
1
2
MR
2
)? Compare to the result obtained when an object is
simply dropped from a height H.
9.11. PROBLEMS 143
7. A pencil of length L, with the pencil point at one end and an eraser
at the other end, is initially standing vertically on a table with the
pencil point on the table. The pencil is let go and falls over. Derive a
formula for the speed with which the eraser strikes the table, assuming
that the pencil point does not move. [WS 324]
144 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
Chapter 10
ROLLING, TORQUE &
ANGULAR MOMENTUM
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design a simple experiment showing conservation of angular momentum.
THEMES:
SPIN.
145
146 CHAPTER 10. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
10.1 Rolling
All students should read this whole section in Halliday carefully. Note that
when a wheel rolls without slipping, then static friction is involved. When
the wheel slips then kinetic friction is involved. This is discussed in Halliday.
I shall now discuss an important example. (See also Sample Problems 12-1,
12-2, 12-3.)
Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder
and a solid cylinder, about the long axis through the center of
the cylinder as shown in Fig. 12.1.
dA = 2 π r dr
L
FIGURE 12.1 Solid Cylinder.
Solution The rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder is simply
I = MR
2
To calculate the rotational inertia of the solid cylinder, refer to
Fig. 12.1. The small element of area indicated is dA = 2πrdr
corresponding to a small element of volume dV = dA L =
2πrdrL. Thus the rotational indertia (with ρ =
M
LπR
2
being
the density of the cylinder) is
I =
_
r
2
dm
10.2. YO-YO 147
=
_
r
2
ρdV
= ρ2πL
_
R
0
r
3
dr
= ρ2πL
1
4
R
4
=
M
LπR
2
2πL
1
4
R
4
=
1
2
MR
2
Example If a solid cylinder and a hollow cylinder with the same
mass and radius roll down an incline, which reaches the bottom
ﬁrst?
Solution The kinetic energy of a rolling object now consists of
two terms; one rotational and one translational, i.e.
K =
1
2
I
cm
ω
2
+
1
2
Mv
2
cm
≡ K
rotation
+K
translation
where I
cm
is the rotational inertia about the center of mass and
v
cm
is the translational speed of the center of mass. The rota-
tional inertias of Hoop, Disk and Sphere are
I
Hollow cylinder
= MR
2
I
Solid cylinder
=
1
2
MR
2
The hollow cylinder has the larger moment of inertia and there-
fore more kinetic energy will go into rotation, and thus less into
translation. Therefore the solid cylinder reaches the bottom ﬁrst.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: show the above example.
10.2 Yo-Yo
148 CHAPTER 10. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
10.3 Torque Revisited
Read carefully; Review of Cross Product
10.4 Angular Momentum
10.5 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form
We have previously deﬁned torque (or angular force) as τ ≡ r ×

F. Now
Newton’s Second Law is

F =
d p
dt
where p ≡ mv is the momentum. We
therefore expect an angular version of Newton’s Second Law involving an-
gular force or torque and angular momentum

l. Thus we expect

τ =
d

l
dt
But we haven’t said what

l is. We can ﬁgure it out.
Consider the following quantity,
d
dt
(r × p) =
dr
dt
× p +r ×
d p
dt
= v ×mv +r ×m
dv
dt
= m(v ×v +r ×a)
but v ×v = 0 giving
d
dt
(r × p) = mr ×a
= r ×

F
= τ
Thus the unknown

l must be

l ≡ r × p
10.6. ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 149
10.6 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles
Let’s call the angular momentum of a system of particles

L. In terms of the
angular momentum

l
i
of each particle, it is

L =

i

l
i
and Newton’s Second Law for a system of particles becomes

τ
ext
=
d

L
dt
as we would expect, based on analogy with

F
ext
=
d p
dt
where p was the
total momentum.
10.7 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotat-
In a rigid body, all particles rotate at the same speed. Halliday (Pg. 281)
shows that

L = I ω
which is exactly analogous to p = mv.
10.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum

F
ext
=
d

P
dt
and for

F
ext

P =
constant, i.e. conservation of momentum. Similarly from

τ
ext
=
d

L
dt
, then
if there are no external torques

τ
ext
= 0 then the total angular momentum
is conserved, namely

L = constant
150 CHAPTER 10. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: example below
Example A student is spinning on a stool and holding two
heavy weights with outstretched hands. If the student brings
the weights closer inward, show that the spin rate increases.
Solution For a rigid body spinning about a ﬁxed axis we had

L = I ω. Angular momentum is conserved, thus

L
i
=

L
f
or
I
i
ω
i
= I
f
ω
f
The moment of inertia of the two weights is I = 2Mr
2
where r
is the length of the student’s arm. The rotational inertia of the
student remains the same. Thus
2Mr
2
i
ω
i
= 2Mr
2
f
ω
f
giving
ω
f
=
_
r
i
r
f
_
2
ω
i
And r
i
> r
f
giving ω
f
> ω
i
.
10.8. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 151
MASTER TABLE 2
Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation

F = ma =
d p
dt

τ = I α =
d

l
dt

l = r × p
p = mv

L = I ω
152 CHAPTER 10. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
10.9 Problems
1. A bullet of mass m travelling with a speed v is shot into the rim of a
solid circular cylinder of radius R and mass M as shown in the ﬁgure.
The cylinder has a ﬁxed horizontal axis of rotation, and is originally
at rest. Derive a formula for the angular speed of the cylinder after
the bullet has become imbedded in it. (Hint: The rotational inertia of
a solid cylinder about the center axis is I =
1
2
MR
2
). [WS354-355]
Chapter 11
GRAVITATION
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design some observations so that you can detect the retrograde motion of a
planet. (Obviously you won’t be able to actually carry out these observations
this week. Why ?)
THEMES:
The Solar System.
153
154 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
The study of gravitation has been one of the core areas of physics research
for the last 500 years. Indeed it was the study of gravity that revolutionized
much of our thinking of our place in the universe, for one of the key results
in the last 500 years was the realization that Earth is NOT the center of
the universe. This has had profound and dramatic consequences for all of
humankind. (I personally believe that an equally profound eﬀect will take
place if extraterrestrial intelligent life is found.)
We shall approach our study of gravitation a little diﬀerent from the
way Halliday discusses it. I wish to emphasize the historical approach to
the subject because it is interesting and helps us understand the physics
much better. A wonderful book that tells the whole story in nice detail is
by R. Kolb, ”Blind Watchers of the Sky” (Helix Books, Addison-Wesley,
New York, 1996). This would be great reading between semesters! Some of
the key historical ﬁgure are the following:
Claudius Ptolemy (l40 A.D.)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
I would now like to just brieﬂy describe the contributions of each of these
ﬁgures. We shall elaborate on the mathematical details afterwards.
In the system of Ptolemy (l40 A.D.), the Earth was believed to be at
the center of the universe and the Sun, Moon, stars and planets all revolved
around the Earth, as seems to be indicated by simple observation. However,
upon closer inspection it can be seen that the planets (Greek word meaning
wanderer) actually do not move in smooth circles about the Earth but rather
do a kind of wandering motion. Actually they undergo a retrograde motion
with respect to an observer on Earth. This retrograde motion was very
puzzling to the ancients, and ran afoul of the idea that all heavenly bodies
moved in pure circles. In order to save the theoretical notion of pure circles
and yet to explain the observational fact of retrograde motion for the planets,
Ptolemy introduced the idea of epicycles. Figure 14.1 shows that instead
of a planet moving in a great circle about the Earth, as do the Sun and
Stars, Ptolemy’s idea was that another circle called an epicycle moves ina
great circle around the Earth and the planets move around on the epicycles.
This ’explains’ the observations of retrograde motion. But Ptolemy’s system
leaves unanswered the question of where the epicycle comes from. However
this system of epicylces enjoyed great success for over a thousand years.
155
Earth
epicycle
FIGURE 14.1 Ptolemaic epicycle.
However later on came Copernicus (1473-1543), a Polish monk, who
suggested that the Earth is not at the center of the universe. From a psy-
chological point of view, this is probably the most important scientiﬁc idea
in history. Copernicus thought instead that the Sun was at the center of
the universe and that all the planets, including Earth, revolved around it.
This provided an alternative explanation for the retrograde motion of the
planets, for if the planets move at diﬀerent speeds around the Sun, then
from the point of view of an observer on Earth, the planets will appear to
move forward and then backward depending upon the relative orientation.
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was one of the greates observational astronomers
in history. Of course the telescope had not yet been invented and all of Ty-
cho’s observations were with some geometric instruments and the naked eye.
He mounted an intensive campaign to accurately record the motion of all the
Tycho’s precision data and was able to use it to ﬁgure out the exact motion
of the planets to a high degree of precision. In particular Kepler discovered
156 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
that the motion of the planets was not the perfect circle after all, but rather
the motions were elliptical. From analyzing Tycho’s data Kepler discovered
3 important facts about the planets. These are usually called Kepler’s laws
of planetary motion. They are
1) All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus.
2) The line joining any planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal
times.
3) The period squared is proportional to the mean distance cubed, i.e.
T
2
∝ R
3
. (The period T is the time it takes for a planet to complete one
orbit of the Sun. For Earth this is 365 days. The mean distance R is the
average distance from the Sun to the planet in question.)
Meanwhile, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) used the newly invented telescope
to view the heavens for the ﬁrst time. Among his many great discoveries,
were observations of the moons of Jupiter clearly showing orbits around the
planet itself. This was the ﬁrst direct observation of bodies which did not
orbit Earth.
One important point to note about Kepler’s laws is that they were ’mere’
empirical facts. No one understood why they were true. In fact Kepler
spent the rest of his life trying to explain then. It was not until Isaac
Newton (1642-1727) invented a theory of gravity that Kepler’s laws were
ﬁnally understood on a theoretical basis. Newton had been thinking deeply
about what holds the moon in orbit around Earth and what holds the planets
in orbit around the Sun. The story goes that Newton was sitting under
an apple tree watching the apples fall oﬀ the tree onto the ground. It
suddenly occured to Newton that the force causing the apples to fall to the
ground is the same force that keeps the moon in orbit about Earth and the
planets in orbit about the Sun. What a great leap of imagination ! Newton
hypothesized that the gravitational force between any two objects was given
by an inverse square law of the form
F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
(11.1)
where m
1
and m
2
are the masses of the bodies and r is the distance between
their centers. G is a constant. Note that this says that if the distance
between two bodies is doubled the force drops by a factor of 4. The great
triumph of Newton’s gravitational theory was that he could derive Kepler’s
laws. We shall go through this derivation in a moment.
The story of gravity is not complete without mentioning Einstein’s Gen-
eral Theory of Relativity which was another theory of gravity completely at
odds with Newton’s theory. In Einstein’s theory there is no mention of any
157
forces at all. Rather, gravity is seen to be due to a curvature of space and
time. The concept of force is more of an illusion. Einstein’s theory was also
able to explain Kepler’s laws, but its advantage over Newton’e theory was
that it explained additional facts about the planets such as the precession
of the orbit of mercury and the deﬂection of starlight by the Sun.
Actually even today the story of gravity is not complete. In fact of the
4 forces that we have identiﬁed in nature (gravity, electromagnetism, strong
force, weak force), it is gravity that still remains poorly understood. The
theory of quantum mechanics was invented early this century to describe the
motion of tiny particles such as atoms. The great problem with gravity is
that no one has succeeded in making it consistent with quantum mechanics.
A recent theory, called Superstring theory, may be the answer but we will
have to wait and see. By the way, the physics department at the University
of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is one of the leading centers in the nation for the
modern study of gravity.
158 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
11.1 The World and the Gravitational Force
11.2 Newton’s Law of Gravitation
We already know about Newton’s three laws of motion, the second of which
is

F = ma. These three laws describe motion in general. They never
refer to a speciﬁc force. Newton however did also study in detail a speciﬁc
force, namely gravity. He conjectured that the gravitational force between
two bodies of mass m
1
and m
2
whose centers are separated by a distance of
r has a magnitude of
F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
The minus sign tells us that the force points inwards. The value of G was
determined later in 1798 by Cavendish. It’s value measured today is
G = 6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
However, it is interesting that today the gravitational constant is the least
accurately known of all the fundamental constants. For instance, its most
accurately known value is actually G = (6.67259±0.00085)×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
[see Particle Properties Data Booklet, 1996] whereas for example the charge
of the electron is (1.60217733 ±0.00000049) ×10
−19
Coulomb or the speed
of light is 299 792 458 m sec
−1
which are known much more accurately than
G. Another example is the strength of the electrical force, called the ﬁne
structure constant, α
−1
= 137.0359895 ±0.0000061.
Note: Halliday (Pg. 323) writes F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
(i.e. with a plus sign) but then
writes F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
on Pages 329 and 331. The equation should always be
written with a minus sign to indicate an atractive inwards force.
Now the vector form of Newton’s Law is

F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
ˆ r
where ˆ r is a unit vector point from one mass out to the other. The gravita-
tional force is an inward force and that’s why the minus sign appears.
11.3 Gravitation and Principle of Superposition
11.4. GRAVITATION NEAR EARTH’S SURFACE 159
11.4 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface
Newton’s formula F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
is often called the law of Universal Gravita-
tion because it applies to all bodies in the universe. How does it ﬁt in with
our concept of Weight which we deﬁned to be the gravitational force at the
surface of the Earth, namely
W ≡ mg
where g = 9.8 m sec
−1
is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the
Earth? Well, if F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
is universal then it should predict the Weight
force. Let’s see how this comes about.
Example Show that F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
gives the same result as
W = mg near the surface of Earth.
Solution Let m
1
≡ M be the mass of Earth, which is m
1
=
M = 5.98 × 10
24
kg. Let m
2
≡ m be the mass of a person of
weight W = mg. The distance between the centers of the masses
is just the radius of Earth, i.e. r = 6370 km (which is about 4000
miles, only slightly larger than the width of the United States or
Australia). Thus the gravitational force between the two masses
is
F = G
mM
r
2
= 6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×
m×5.98 ×10
24
kg
(6.37 ×10
6
m)
2
= m×9.8 m sec
−2
which is the same as W = mg. In other words we have predicted
the value of g from the mass and radius of Earth. You could now
do the same for the other planets.
160 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Example Explain how to measure the mass of Earth.
Solution In the previous example, we found
g = G
M
r
2
where M is the mass of Earth and r is the radius of Earth. Thus
by measuring g (which you do in the lab) and by measuring r
(which the ancient Greeks knew how to do by comparing the
depth of a shadow in a well at two diﬀerent locations at the
same time) then M is given by
M =
gr
2
G
and G was measured in the famous Cavendish experiment (look
this up).
11.5. GRAVITATION INSIDE EARTH 161
11.5 Gravitation Inside Earth
If you go down a deep mine shaft then there will be Earth below you and
Earth above you. It is interesting to ﬁgure out that the Earth above you
won’t have any overall gravitational eﬀect. The easiest way to see this
is to suppose you were located exactly at the center of Earth. Then the
gravitational pull of all the Earth surrounding you above will all cancel out
and you will fee zero net force. Now consider Figure 14.2 where a person
is located at point P inside the Earth, at a distance r from the center of
Earth.
r
B
A
P
FIGURE 14.2 A person is located as point P inside the Earth, as a
distance r from the center of Earth.
I have drawn a dotted circle of radius r intersecting point P. We all
agree that the total mass located inside the dotted circle produces a net
gravitational force on the person. However the mass outside the dotted
circle produces no net gravitational force. This can be seen by considering
the shaded regions A and B. Region A contains a small amount of mass
162 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
which will pull the person at P outwards. However the mass contained in
B will pull in the opposite direction. Now there is more mass in B, but it
is further away and so the gravitational eﬀects of the mass in A and in B
cancel out. Thus we can ignore all of the mass located outside of the dotted
circle.
the United States to China through the center of Earth. Ignoring
the rotation of Earth, show that a particle dropped into the hole
experiences a gravitational force like Hooke’s law, and therefore
will undergo oscillation in the hole.
Solution Newton’s law is

F = −G
Mm
r
2
ˆ r where M is the mass
contained within the dotted circle (Figure 14.2) and r is the
radius of the dotted circle. Now when the particle falls through
the hole, M keeps getting smaller because r gets smaller as the
particle falls towards the center of Earth. The density of material
in Earth is
ρ =
Mass
Volume
=
M
4
3
πr
3
giving
M =
4
3
πr
3
ρ
where ρ is constant. Thus

F = −G
4
3
πr
3
ρm
r
2
ˆ r
= −
4πG
3
ρmrˆ r
= −Kr
where K ≡
4πG
3
ρm and r = rˆ r. This is exactly Hooke’s law, i.e.
the same as for a spring. Thus the particle will oscillate.
11.6. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 163
Example When you go down a mine shaft, do you weigh more
or less than you did at the surface of the Earth ?
Solution We found in the previous example that

F = −
4πG
3
ρmrˆ r
Now ρ is constant and thus

F is bigger when r is big. Thus when
r gets small,

F gets small and your weight therefore decreases.
In fact F = W = mg =
4πG
3
ρmr giving g =
4πG
3
ρr indicating
that g gets smaller as r gets smaller.
11.6 Gravitational Potential Energy
Let’s brieﬂy recall our ideas about work and energy. The total work was
deﬁned as W ≡
_

F · dr. By substituting

F = ma we found the work was
always equal to the change in kinetic energy, i.e.
W ≡
_

F · dr = ∆K
The total work consisted of two parts namely, conservative W
C
and non-
conservative W
NC
. We deﬁned potential energy U via
W
C
=
_

F
C
· dr ≡ −∆U
giving
W = W
C
+W
NC
= −∆U +W
NC
= ∆K
or
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
which we called the work-energy theorem. Now K is always given by K =
1
2
mv
2
(which came from
_
ma · dr = ∆K) but U is diﬀerent for diﬀerent
forces (because −∆U =
_

F · dr).
For a spring force

F = −kx
ˆ
i we found U =
1
2
kx
2
. For gravity near the
surface of Earth,

F = −mg
ˆ
j we found U = mgy. For universal gravitation

F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
ˆ r we will ﬁnd that the gravitational potential energy is
U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
164 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Example For gravity near the surface of Earth, prove that
U = mgy.
Solution This was already done in Chapter 8 (these notes).
Let’s do it again.
W
C

_

F
C
· dr ≡ −∆U
Now

F = −mg
ˆ
j and dr = dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k. Thus

F · dr = −mg dy
giving
W
C
= −mg
_
y
f
y
i
dy ≡ −∆U
= −mg(y
f
−y
i
) = −(U
f
−U
i
)
= −mgy
f
+mgy
i
= −U
f
+U
i
giving
U
f
= mgy
f
U
i
= mgy
i
or just
U = mgy
11.6. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 165
Example For universal gravitation, prove that U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
.
Solution
W
C
=
_

F
C
· dr ≡ −∆U

F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
ˆ r and ds ≡ dr = ˆ r dr

F · dr = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
dr ˆ r · ˆ r = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
dr
giving
W
C
= −Gm
1
m
2
_
r
f
r
i
1
r
2
dr = −∆U
= −Gm
1
m
2
_

1
r
_
r
f
r
i
= −(U
f
−U
i
)
= −Gm
1
m
2
_

1
r
f
−−
1
r
i
_
= −Gm
1
m
2
_

1
r
f
+
1
r
i
_
= +G
m
1
m
2
r
f
−G
m
1
m
2
r
i
= −U
f
+U
i
giving
U
f
= −G
m
1
m
2
r
f
U
i
= −G
m
1
m
2
r
i
or just
U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
166 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Recall that we also had an alternative way of ﬁnding U without having
to work out the integral
_

F
C
C
=
_

F
C
· dr ≡ −∆U. Ignoring
the vectors we write _
F
C
dr = −∆U
meaning that we must have
F
C
= −
dU
dr
This occurs because
_
f
i
F
C
dr = −
_
f
i
dU
dr
dr = −
_
U
f
U
i
dU = −[U]
U
f
U
i
= −(U
f
−U
i
) = −∆U
Example For universal gravitation F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
, derive U
without doing an integral.
Solution For universal gravitation, the question is what U will
give
F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
= −
dU
dr
The answer is U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
. Let’s check:

dU
dr
= +Gm
1
m
2
d
dr
_
1
r
2
_
= −
Gm
1
m
2
r
which is the F we started with!
11.6. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 167
Escape Speed
If you throw a ball up in the air it always comes back down. If you throw
it faster it goes higher before returning. There is a speed, called the escape
speed, such that the ball will not return at all. Let’s ﬁnd out what this is.
Example Calculate the speed with which a ball must be thrown,
so that it never returns to the ground.
Solution The ball usually returns to the ground because of its
gravitational potential energy U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
. However if we can
throw the ball to an inﬁnite distance, r = ∞, then U will be zero
and the ball will not return. We want to throw the ball so that
it just barely escapes to inﬁnity, that is its speed, when it gets
to inﬁnity, has dropped oﬀ to zero. Using conservation of energy
we have
K
i
+U
i
= K
f
+U
f
or
1
2
mv
2
i
−G
Mm
R
= O +O
where M is the mass of Earth, m is the mass of the ball and R is
the radius of Earth, because we throw the ball from the surface
of Earth. v
i
is the escape speed that we are looking for. Thus
1
2
mv
2
i
= G
Mm
R
and m cancels out giving
v
i
=
¸
2GM
R
for the escape speed. Now the mass and radius of Earth are
M = 6 ×10
24
kg and R = 6370 km, giving
v
i
=
¸
2 ×6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×6 ×10
24
kg
6.37 ×10
6
m
= 40, 353 km hour
−1
≈ 25, 000 miles per hour
168 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Now you can see that if M is very large or R is very small then the
escape speed gets very big. The speed of light is c = 3 × 10
8
m/sec. You
can imagine an object so massive or so small that the escape speed is bigger
than the speed of light. Then light itself cannot escape. Such an object is
called a Black Hole.
Example To what size would we need to squeeze Earth to turn
it into a Black Hole ?
Solution Let’s set the escape speed equal to the speed of light
c = 3 ×10
8
m/sec. Thus
c =
¸
2GM
R
c
2
=
2GM
R
giving
R =
2GM
c
2
=
2 ×6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×6 ×10
24
kg
(3 ×10
8
msec
−1
)
2
= 4.4 mm
(where M = mass of Earth = 6 × 10
24
kg). Thus if we could
squeeze the Earth to only 4 mm it would be a black hole!
11.6. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 169
Example The size of the universe is about 10 billion light years
and its total mass is about 10
53
kg. Calculate the escape speed
for the universe.
Solution A light year is the distance that light travels in one
year. Thus
light year = c ×1 year
= 3 ×10
8
m
sec
×365 ×24 ×60 ×60 sec
= 10
16
m
Thus
v =
¸
2GM
r
=
¸
2 ×6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×10kg
10 ×10
9
×10
16
m
= 3.7 ×10
8
m/sec
= 1.2c
which is 1.2 times the speed of light. Thus is our universe really
a black hole? Do we actually live inside a black hole?
170 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
11.7 Kepler’s Laws
Let’s now use Newton’s law of gravitation to prove some of Kepler’s laws of
planetary motion.
Kepler’s ﬁrst law is that the planets move in elliptical orbits with the
Sun at one focus. This is somewhat diﬃcult to prove and we will leave it to
a more advanced physics course. A picture is shown in Figure 14.3 with the
Sun at the focus of an ellipse.
Sun
Planet
∆ t
∆ t
FIGURE 14.3 Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times.
Kepler’s second law states that the line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps
out equal areas in equal times. This is shown in Fig. 14.3. In the upper
part of the ﬁgure there are two shaded regions with the same area. The
planet takes the same time ∆t to sweep out this area. Thus the planets
move quickly when close to the Sun and move slowly when farther away.
11.7. KEPLER’S LAWS 171
Example Prove that Kepler’s second law can be derived from
Newton’s law of universal gravitation.
Solution Figure 14.4 shows the radius vector r and the displace-
ment v dt for the planet of mass m.
Sun
m
r
v dt
FIGURE 14.4 Area swept out by planet.
The shaded portion is the area swept out and has the shape of
a triangle of area
dA =
1
2
r v dt
The rate of change of area is
dA
dt
=
1
2
r v =
1
2m
mr v =
l
2m
where l is the angular momentum of the planet. But angular
momentum is constant, therefore
dA
dt
= constant
meaning that equal areas are swept out in equal times!
172 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Kepler’s third law is that the period squared is proportional to the aver-
age distance cubed (T
2
∝ r
3
) for a planetary orbit. This is diﬃcult to prove
for elliptical orbits, which is done in a more advanced physics course. We
will prove it for a circular orbit only.
Actually the essenticity of the elliptical orbits are typically very small.
In other words the elliptical orbits are very close to circular orbits with
the Sun at the center. We shall prove Kepler’s other two laws with the
assumption that the orbits are circles. Thus we immediately know that the
right hand side of F = ma is
mv
2
r
because all uniform circular motion has
the centripetal acceleration given by a =
v
2
r
.
Example Prove that Kepler’s third law can be derived from
Newton’s law of universal gravitation. (Assume circular orbits
only)
Solution F = ma
gives
G
Mm
r
2
= m
v
2
r
Now the period T is the time to complete one orbit. Thus
v =
2πr
T
or
G
M
r
2
=
1
r

2
r
2
T
2
=

2
r
T
2
giving
T
2
=

2
GM
r
3
or
T
2
∝ r
3
11.7. KEPLER’S LAWS 173
Example The distance between Earth and the Sun is about 93
million miles and can easily be determined using parallax and
trigonometry. How can the mass of the Sun be subsequently de-
termined ?
Solution Kepler’s law is T
2
=

2
GM
r
3
giving
M =

2
G
r
3
T
2
Now r = 93,000,000 miles = 150,000,000 km and the period of
Earth is 1 year or
T = 365 ×24 ×60 ×60 sec
Thus the mass of the Sun is
M =

2
6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×
(150, 000, 000 ×10
3
m)
3
365 ×24 ×60 ×60 sec)
2
= 2 ×10
30
kg
Notice that the mass of Earth did not enter. Thus if we observe
two bodies in orbit and know the distance between them we
can get the mass of the other body. this is how astronomers
determine the mass of double star systems. (More than half of
the stars in the sky are actually double stars.)
174 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
11.8 Problems
Chapter 12
OSCILLATIONS
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Measure g from the period of a pendulum.
THEMES:
Clocks.
175
176 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
12.1 Oscillations
Much of the motion that we have considered, such as motion of a car in
a straight line or projectile motion, has started and then ﬁnished, i.e. it
does not repeat. However a great deal of motion in nature is repetitive
or oscillatory, such as a satellite undergoing circular motion, or an object
suspended on a spring or a buoy bobbing up and down in the water. We
would now like to study oscillations in detail. This will later lead to the
study of wave motion which is also oscillatory in nature.
Oscillations are of great technological importance, especially in regard
to time keeping.
(Note: Mechanical Universe tapes very good – especially discussion of clocks
12.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
An important property of oscillatory motion is the frequency f which is the
number of oscillations completed each second. The units are sec
−1
or Hertz,
often abbreviated as Hz. Thus
1 Hertz = 1 Hz = 1 oscillation per second
= 1 sec
−1
.
Another related quantity is the period T which is the time taken to
complete 1 full oscillation. Now
f =
number of oscillations
time
and if the time is simply T then 1 oscillation is completed. Thus
f =
1
T
In circular motion, which is a type of oscillatory motion, we introduced the
angular speed ω deﬁned as
ω =
∆θ
∆t
Clearly if ∆θ = 2π then ∆t = T giving ω =

T
. Thus angular velocity and
frequency are related by
ω = 2πf
12.2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 177
In oscillations ω is often called angular frequency.
Any motion that repeats itself at regular intevals is called oscillatory
motion or harmonic motion. Now of all the mathematical functions that you
have ever come across, there is one famous function that displays oscillations
and that is cos θ, which is plotted in Figure 16.1.
0 5 10 15 20
x
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
C
o
s
x
FIGURE 16.1 Plot of cos θ.
Thus the displacement x for oscillatory motion can be written
x = x
m
cos θ
but ω =
θ
t
, giving
x = x
m
cos ωt
We can also introduce a phase angle φ if we want and instead write
x = x
m
cos(ωt +φ)
This is discussed on Pg. 374 of Halliday. Here x
m
refers to the maximum
value of the displacement x. And x
m
is often called the amplitude of the
motion.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Spring and Pendulum
Any motion that obeys the above equation x = x
m
cos ωt is called Simple
Harmonic Motion (SHM).
The velocity of SHM is easy to ﬁgure out. First recall that if y = cos kx
then
dy
dx
= −k sin kx. Now the velocity is
v =
dx
dt
= −ωx
m
sin ωt
178 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Also recall if y = sin kx when
dy
dx
= k cos kx. Now the acceleration is
a =
dv
dt
= −ω
2
x
m
cos ωt
from which it follows that
a = −ω
2
x
In Figure 16-4 of Haliday, there is a plot of x, v, a. Notice that when x and
a are at a maximum, then v is a minimum and vice-versa.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring
12.3 Force Law for SHM
Now consider Newton’s law for a Spring where the force is given by F = −kx
(Hooke’s law), where k is called the spring constant. Substituting into
F = ma
−kx = ma
but we found that a = −ω
2
x giving
−kx = −mω
2
x
or
ω =
_
k
m
which is the angular frequency for an oscillating spring. The period is ob-
tained from ω = 2πf =

T
or
T = 2π
_
m
k
Notice an amazing thing. The period does not depend on the amplitude of
oscillation x
m
! When a spring is oscillating, the oscillations tend to die
down in amplitude x
m
but the period of oscillation remains the same! This
is crucial to the operation of clocks. I can “wind” my spring clock by just
pulling on it a bit and still the period is the same.
12.3. FORCE LAW FOR SHM 179
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring and Pendulum. Also
show T ∝

m and T ∝
1

k
.
NNN - FIX For a pendulum, this independence of the period on the
amplitude was ﬁrst noticed by Galileo and led to the development of clocks
which was very important for navigation. The reason was that it enabled one
to determine longitude on Earth. (Latitude was easy to determine just by
measuring the height of the Sun in the sky at noon.) By dragging knotted
ropes behind a ship it was easy to measure the speed of a ship. If one
knew how long one had been travelling (i.e. measure the time of travel, say
with a pendulum or spring clock) then one knew the distance from the port
from which one had set sail. Knowing longitude and latitude gives one’s
position on the Earth. Thus the invention of accurate clocks (based on
the independence of period and amplitude) enabled accurate estimates of
180 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example F = ma is really a diﬀerential equation, that is an
equation involving derivatives. For the spring, it becomes −kx =
ma = m¨ x where ¨ x =
d
2
x
dt
2
. Thus the diﬀerential equation is
m¨ x +kx = 0
In mathematics there are special techniques for solving diﬀer-
ential equations, which you will learn about in a special diﬀer-
ential equations course. Using these special techniques one can
prove that x = x
m
cos ωt is a solution to the above diﬀeren-
tial equation. (Just like the solution to the algebraic equation
x
2
− 5 = 4 is x = ±3. We verify this solution by sustituting,
(±3)
2
−5 = 9 −5 = 4). Many students will not have yet learned
how to solve diﬀerential equations, but we can verify that the
solution given is correct.
Verify that x = x
m
cos ωt is a solution to the diﬀerential equa-
tion m¨ x +kx = 0.
Solution
x = x
m
cos ωt
˙ x =
dx
dt
= −ωx
m
sin ωt
¨ x =
d ˙ x
dt
=
d
2
x
dt
2
= −ω
2
x
m
cos ωt
Substitute into
m¨ x +kx = 0
giving
−mω
2
x
m
cos ωt +kx
m
cos ωt = 0
or
−mω
2
+k = 0
Thus if
ω =
¸
k
m
then x = x
m
cos ωt is a solution.
12.4. ENERGY IN SHM 181
Example When a mass is suspended from the end of a massless
spring, the spring stretches by a distance x. If the spring and
mass are then put into oscillation, what is the period ?
Solution We saw that the period is given by T = 2π
_
m
k
. We
don’t know m or k ! We can get k from Hooke’s law F = −kx.
The weight W = mg stretches the spring, thus mg = kx or
k =
mg
x
. Thus
T = 2π
_
mx
mg
and fortunately m cancels out giving
T = 2π
_
x
g
12.4 Energy in SHM
We found before that the potential energy stored in a spring is U =
1
2
kx
2
and the kinetic energy is K =
1
2
mv
2
. The conservation of mechanical energy
says that
E
i
= E
f
where the total energy is
E ≡ K +U
That is
K
i
+U
i
= K
f
+U
f
Thus E is constant. However for a spring x and v are always changing. Can
we be sure that E is always constant ?
182 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example For SHM, show that the total energy is always con-
stant even though K and U always change.
Solution Recall that for SHM we have x = x
m
cos ωt and
v = −ωx
m
sin ωt. Thus
U =
1
2
kx
2
=
1
2
kx
2
m
cos
2
ωt
and
K =
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2

2
x
2
m
sin
2
ωt.
Thus U and K always change. Let’s add them.
E = K +U
=
1
2

2
x
2
m
sin
2
ωt +
1
2
kx
2
m
cos
2
ωt
but we previously found that ω =
_
k
m
giving
E =
1
2
m
k
m
x
2
m
sin
2
ωt +
1
2
kx
2
m
cos
2
ωt
=
1
2
kx
2
m
(sin
2
ωt + cos
2
ωt)
E =
1
2
kx
2
m
which is always constant because the amplitude x
m
is constant!
12.5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator
leave out
12.6. PENDULUM 183
12.6 Pendulum
The Simple Pendulum
A pendulum is a very important type of oscillating motion and a very
important clock (e.g. “Grandfather Clock”). The forces on a pendulum are
shown in Fig. 16-10 of Halliday. Let’s analyze the forces and show that the
period is independent of amplitude.
Example Prove that the period of a pendulum undergoing small
oscillations is given by T = 2π
_
L
g
where L is the length of the
pendulum.
Solution From Figure 16-10 (Halliday) we have

F
k
= ma
x
where we take the x direction to be perpendicular to the string.
Thus
−mg sin θ = mαL
where α is the angular acceleration α =
d
2
θ
dt
2
. Now for small
oscillations, sin θ ≈ θ, so that
−gθ = m
d
2
θ
dt
2
L
Now compare this to our spring equation which was
−kx = ma
−kx = m
d
2
x
dt
2
which had period T = 2π
_
m
k
. Thus for the pendulum we must
have
T = 2π
¸
L
g
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show T ∝

L
184 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example A Physical Pendulum consists of a solid piece of mat-
ter undergoing oscillations as shown in Fig. 16.11 (Halliday).
Prove that the period of oscillation is T = 2π
_
I
mg h
, where I is
the rotational inertia, m is the total mass and h is the distance
from the rotation axis to the center of mass. (See Haliday, Pg.
382) Assume small oscillations.
Solution The torque is
τ = −(mg sin θ)h
acts in the opposite direction. For small oscillations sin θ ≈ θ
giving
τ ≈ −mgθh
Substitute into Newton’s second law

τ = Iα
gives
−mgθh = I
¨
θ
= I
d
2
θ
dt
2
Now compare this to our spring equation which was
−kx = ma
−kx = m
d
2
x
dt
2
which had period T = 2π
_
m
k
. Thus for the physical pendulum
we must have
T = 2π
¸
I
mgh
12.6. PENDULUM 185
m
m
m
k
1
1
k
k
1
k
2
k
2
k
2
(a)
(b)
(c)
FIGURE 16.2 Block sliding on frictionless surface with various spring
combinations.
186 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example Two springs, with spring constants k
1
and k
2
, are con-
nected in parallel to a mass m sliding on a frictionless surface,
as shown in Fig. 16.2a. What is the eﬀective spring constant
K? (i.e. If the two springs were replaced by a single spring with
constant K, what is K in terms of k
1
and k
2
?) Assume both
springs have zero mass.
Solution If m moves by an amount x then it feels two forces
−k
1
x and −k
2
x, giving

F = ma
−k
1
x −k
2
x = m¨ x
−(k
1
+k
2
)x = m¨ x
giving
K = k
1
+k
2
12.6. PENDULUM 187
Example The two springs of the previous example are connected
in series, as shown in Fig. 16.2b. What is the eﬀective spring
constant K ?
Solution If spring 1 moves a distance x
1
and spring 2 moves a
distance x
2
then the mass moves a distance x
1
+ x
2
. The force
the mass feels is
F = −K(x
1
+x
2
)
Now consider the motion of the mass plus spring 2 system. The
force it feels is
f = −k
1
x
1
but we must have F = f because ma is same for mass m and
mass plus spring 2 system because spring 2 has zero mass. Thus
K =
k
1
x
1
x
1
+x
2
but
k
1
x
1
= k
2
x
2
(the ratio of stretching
x
1
x
2
=
k
2
k
1
is inversely proportional to spring
strength.) Thus K =
k
1
x
1
x
1
+
k
1
k
2
x
1
giving
K =
k
1
k
2
k
1
+k
2
or
1
K
=
1
k
1
+
1
k
2
188 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example The two springs of the previous example are connected
as shown in Fig.16.2c. What is the eﬀective spring constant K ?
Solution If spring 1 is compressed by x then spring 2 is stretched
by −x. Thus

F = ma
−k
1
x +k
2
(−x) = m¨ x
−(k
1
+k
2
)x = m¨ x
giving
K = k
1
+k
2
12.7. PROBLEMS 189
12.7 Problems
1. An object of mass m oscillates on the end of a spring with spring con-
stant k. Derive a formula for the time it takes the spring to stretch from
its equilibrium position to the point of maximum extension. Check
2. An object of mass m oscillates at the end of a spring with spring
constant k and amplitude A. Derive a formula for the speed of the
object when it is at a distance d from the equilibrium position. Check
3. A block of mass m is connected to a spring with spring constant k,
and oscillates on a horizontal, frictionless surface. The other end of the
spring is ﬁxed to a wall. If the amplitude of oscillation is A, derive a
formula for the speed of the block as a function of x, the displacement
from equilibrium. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible.)
4. A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular fre-
quency ω. The spring-particle system is suspended from the ceiling of
an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car), as
the car descends at a constant speed v. The car then stops suddenly.
Derive a formula for the amplitude with which the particle oscillates.
(Assume the mass of the spring is negligible.) [Serway, 5th ed., pg.
415, Problem 14]
5. A large block, with a second block sitting on top, is connected to a
spring and executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides
across a frictionless surface with an angular frequency ω. The coeﬃ-
cient of static friction between the two blocks is µ
s
. Derive a formula
for the maximum amplitude of oscillation that the system can have if
the upper block is not to slip. (Assume that the mass of the spring is
negligible.) [Serway, 5th ed., pg. 418, Problem 54]
6. A simple pendulum consists of a ball of mass M hanging from a uni-
form string of mass m, with m M (m is much smaller than M). If
the period of oscillation for the pendulum is T, derive a formula for
the speed of a transverse wave in the string when the pendulum hangs
at rest. [Serway, 5th ed., pg. 513, Problem 16]
190 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Chapter 13
WAVES - I
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Pluck some strings and verify the frequency equation for strings.
THEMES:
Violin and Guitar.
191
192 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
So far we have studied the motion of single particles and systems of
particles. However the motion of waves requires a diﬀerent type of approach,
although we will use extensively some of our results from harmonic motion.
Waves are an important phenomenon in nature. There are water waves,
sound waves by which we hear, light waves by which we see, and radio waves
by which we communicate. Thus in today’s modern society it is important
to understand wave motion.
13.1 Waves and Particles
13.2 Types of Waves
13.3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
There are two diﬀerent types of waves. Transverse waves are the ones you
are most familiar with, such as water waves or waves on a string. Transverse
waves have the property that the wave displacement is perpendicular to the
velocity of the wave, as shown in Fig. 17-1 (Halliday). Sound waves are an
example of longitudinal waves in which the wave displacement is parallel to
the wave velocity, as shown in Fig. 17-2 (Halliday). When you hear a sound
wave, the wave travels to your ear and vibrates your ear drum in the same
direction as travel.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Slinky showing tranverse and longitudinal
waves.
13.4. WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY 193
13.4 Wavelength and Frequency
There are 3 important variables for a wave, namely, i) the height y of the
wave, ii) the distance x that the wave travels and iii) the time t that the
wave travels. When visualizing a wave we usually think of a y −x plot or a
y −t plot as shown in Fig. 17-4 (Halliday).
The y − x plot represents an instant of time t and is similar to a pho-
tograph or snapshot of a water wave that we would take at the beach. The
distance between wave crests (that we could measure from our snapshot) is
called the wavelength λ.
The y −t plot represents a single location x and is similar to a movie of
a buoy bobbing up and down in the water as a wave passes through. The
buoy is anchored to the ocean ﬂoor at a ﬁxed distance x. The time it takes
the buoy to bob up and down once is called the period T of the wave.
Thus, to summarize, λ is determined from the y − x graph (instant of
time t) whereas T is determined from the y − t graph (ﬁxed distance x).
Carefully study Fig. 17-4 (Halliday). Thus y is a function of both x and t,
written as y(x, t). Now the y −x graph can be written
y(x, 0) = y
m
sin kx
where we have taken the instant of time to be t = 0. The reason we have
written sin kx and not just sinx is because the domain of the sine function
is an angle. We can only ever have sin θ where θ is an angle. Thus we cannot
write sin x because x is not an angle. Actually x is a distance with units of
m. However we want to use x as a plotting variable. To do this we have to
multiply it by something called k, so that the quantity kx is an angle, i.e.
θ ≡ kx. Now what is k? Well if kx is an angle then after one complete wave
cycle, the angle kx must be 2π. Now after one complete cycle the distance
the wave moves is x = λ. Thus we must have
θ = kx
or
2π = kλ
giving
k =
λ

which is called the wave number. Similarly, the y −t graph can be written
y(0, t) = y
m
sin ωt
194 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
where we have taken the ﬁxed distance to be x = 0. We did not write sint
because t is not an angle, whereas ωt is an angle. ω is the angular speed
that we have discussed before. Again after one complete wave cycle ωt must
be 2π and after one cycle the time t will just be one period T. Thus we
must have
θ = ωt
or
2π = ωT
giving
ω =

T
= 2πf
which is often called the angular frequency ω. We previously deﬁned f ≡
1
T
in Chapter 16. A general wave can be written
y(x, t) = y
m
sin(kx +ωt)
Does this agree with what we had before? Yes. We can see that
y(x, 0) = y
m
sin kx and y(0, t) = y
m
sin ωt.
13.5 Speed of a Travelling Wave
A handy formula for wave speed is easy to get! In one complete cycle the
wave travels a distance x = λ and takes a time t = T to do it. Thus the
wave speed must be
v =
distance
time
=
x
t
=
λ
T
Simple algebra also gives
v =
λ
T
= fλ =
ω
k
13.5. SPEED OF A TRAVELLING WAVE 195
Example What is the amplitude, wavelength, frequency and
speed of the wave described by
y(x, t) = 5 sin(3x + 2t)
with all quantities in SI units (i.e. 5 m, 3 m
−1
and 2 sec
−1
).
Solution The general wave is
y(x, t) = y
m
sin(kx +ωt)
Thus the amplitude is
y
m
= 5 m
the wave number is
k = 3 m
−1
and angular frequency is
ω = 2 sec
−1
Now k =

k
= 3 m
−1
giving
λ =

k
=

3 m
−1
= 2.1 m
and ω = 2πf = 2 sec
−1
giving
f =
ω

=
2 sec
−1

= 0.32 sec
−1
and the speed is
v = fλ = 0.32 sec
−1
×2.1 m = 0.67 m/sec
196 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
13.6 Wave Speed on a String
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Wave speed depends on tension.
When a wave travels on a string, the wave speed depends on both the
string tension τ and the mass per unit length µ, or linear mass density.
What must the exact formula be? (τ is now tension, not torque) Well the
units of v are m sec
−1
and units of τ are N ≡ kg m sec
−1
and units of µ are
kg m
−1
. To get m sec
−1
from kg m sec
−2
and kg m
−1
can only be obtained
with
m sec
−1
=
¸
kg m sec
−2
kg m
−1
=

m
2
sec
−2
= m sec
−1
Thus we must have
v =
_
τ
µ
And we can combine with our previous formula, so that the wave speed on
a string is v = fλ =
_
τ
µ
.
13.7 Energy and Power of a Travelling String Wave
Leave out.
13.8 Principle of Superposition
13.9 Interference of Waves
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show wave interference using slinky.
13.10 Phasors
Leave out.
13.11. STANDING WAVES 197
13.11 Standing Waves
13.12 Standing Waves and Resonance
When waves travel down a string they can reﬂect back from the other end
and interfere with the other waves.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing waves on slinky.
In this way standing waves of diﬀerent wavelength can be produced. The
wave of lowest frequency (longest wavelength) is called the fundamental
harmonic. Higher frequencies are called higher harmonics. The various
allowed harmonics are shown in Fig. 17-18 (Haliday). The relations between
the wavelength λ and the length of the string L for the various harmonics
are
L =
λ
2
L = λ =

2
L =

2
etc. These can be written in general as
L = n
λ
2
with n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·
Now the wave speed is v = fλ =
_
τ
µ
and writing λ =
2L
n
gives f
2L
n
=
_
τ
µ
or
f =
n
2L
_
τ
µ
This is an extremely important formula for the design of muscial instru-
ments.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show how frequency of Sound from Violin
depends on length L, tension τ and mass density µ, thus verifying the above
formula.
198 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
Example Middle C has a frequency of 262 Hz. What tension
do we need to apply to a violin string to get this frequency for
the fundamental harmonic? (Assume the string has a mass of
about 10 gram and a length of 1/4 m.)
Solution The mass per unit length µ is
µ =
10 gram
1/4 m
=
0.01 kg
.25 m
= 0.04 kg m
−1
The frequency is given by f =
n
2L
_
τ
µ
. The fundamental har-
monic corresponds to n = 1, giving
τ = µ(2Lf)
2
= 0.04 kg m
−1
(2 ×0.25 m ×262 sec
−1
)
2
= 686 kg m
−1
m
2
sec
−2
= 686 kg m sec
−2
= 686 N
13.13. PROBLEMS 199
13.13 Problems
200 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
Chapter 14
WAVES - II
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Blow in some pipes and verify the frequency equation for pipes.
THEMES:
Flute and Recorder.
201
202 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
14.1 Sound Waves
This chapter is mostly devoted to the study of sound waves, although much
of what we have to say can also be applied to light waves. By the way, sound
waves are longitudinal whereas light waves are transverse.
14.2 Speed of Sound
The speed of sound in any medium is given by
v =
¸
B
ρ
where ρ is the density of the medium and B is the Bulk Modulus deﬁned as
B ≡ −
∆p
∆V/V
where a change in pressure ∆p causes a change in the volume ∆V of a
medium. Students should read Halliday (Pg. 426-427) for a careful discus-
sion of these concepts.
In air the speed of sound is
343 m/sec = 1125 ft/sec = 767 mph
The speed of sound was exceeded in an airplane many years ago. However
the sound barrier was broken by an automobile only for the ﬁrst time in
October 1997!
14.3 Travelling Sound Waves
Leave out.
14.4 Interference
14.5 Intensity and Sound Level
Read Halliday carefully. Understand the formula for sound level
β ≡ 10dBlog
I
I
o
14.6. SOURCES OF MUSICAL SOUND 203
14.6 Sources of Musical Sound
All students should carefully read Pg. 435-436 Halliday. There it is ex-
plained how standing sound waves occur in pipes ﬁlled with air. See Fig.
18-14 (Halliday). The various maxima and minima locations of the standing
waves correspond to maximum and minimum pressures in the pipe as shown
in Fig. 18-13 (Halliday).
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing Sound Waves & Water Column
Example For a pipe open at both ends, determine the relation-
ship between the length of the pipe L and the frequencies of the
various harmonics.
Solution The pipe open at both ends is shown in Figs. 18-13,
18-14a (Halliday). There is a pressure node at the closed end
and an anitnode at the open end. The relations between the
wavelength λ and the pipe length L for the various harmonics
is Note the ﬁrst harmonic is actually Fig. 18-13 (Halliday) and
the higher harmonics are in Fig. 18-14a
L =
λ
2
=
1
2
λ
L = λ =
2
2
λ
L =
3
2
λ
L = 2λ =
4
2
λ
etc. These can be written in general as
L =

2
with n = 1, 2, 3 · · ·
204 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
Example Repeat the previous example for a pipe open at only
one end.
Solution This is shown in Fig. 18-14b (Halliday). Obviously
L =
λ
4
=

4
L =

4
L =

4
etc. These can be written in general as
L =

4
with n = 1, 3, 5 · · ·
Now recall that v = fλ =
_
B
ρ
. Thus for the pipe open at both ends
f =
n
2L
¸
B
ρ
with n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·
and for the pipe open at one end,
f =
n
4L
¸
B
ρ
with n = 1, 3, 5, · · ·
These are very important formulas for the design of wind musical instru-
ments, such as a ﬂute or recorder.
Note that a longer instrument (larger L) will give a lower frequency.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Two recorders.
Also note that the frequency depends on the density of air.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Talking with Helium gas.
14.7 Beats
14.8. DOPPLER EFFECT 205
14.8 Doppler Eﬀect
Everyone has noticed the pitch of the sound of a train varies when the
train passes. You can also easily hear this just listening to cars drive down
the road. This change in frequency of a moving sound source is called the
Doppler eﬀect.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Moving Microphone (twirl on a string)
The same Doppler eﬀect is also observed when the listener is moving and
the source is stationary.
We have previously seen that for a stationary observer and source, then
f =
v
λ
where v is the wave speed and λ is the wavelength.
Example An observer moves toward a stationary source of sound
waves at a speed v
D
(detector speed). Derive a formula for the
observed frequency f

in terms of the stationary frequency f.
Solution This situation is shown in Fig. 18-18 (Halliday). The
detector will sense a higher frequency as in
f

=
v +v
D
λ
Now
f

f
=
v+v
D
λ
v
λ
=
v +v
D
v
or
f

= f
v +v
D
v
Note: if the observer was moving away, the result would be
f

= f
v −v
D
v
206 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
Example A sound wave moves toward a stationary observer at
a speed v
s
. Derive a formula for the observed frequency f

in
terms of the stationary frequency f.
Solution This situation is shown in Fig. 18-21 (Halliday). This
time it is the wavelength which changes and it will be smaller as
in
λ

= λ −
v
s
f
f

is now (due to change in λ

)
f

=
v
λ

=
v
λ −
vs
f
=
vf
λf −v
s
=
vf
v −v
s
or
f

= f
v
v −v
s
Note: if the source was smoving away, the result would be
f

= f
v
v +v
s
All of the previous results can be combined into a single formula,
f

= f
v ±v
D
v ∓v
s
If v
s
= 0 we get f

= f
v±v
D
v
as before and if v
D
= 0 we get f

= f
v
v∓vs
as
before. An easy way to remember the signs is that if detector and source
are moving toward each other the frequency increases. If they are moving
away from each other the frequencydecreases.
14.8. DOPPLER EFFECT 207
The Austrian physicist, Johann Christian Doppler proposed the eﬀect in
1842. In 1845 it was tested experimentally by Buys Ballot using a locomotive
drawing an open train car with trumpeters playing.
Example Middle C has a frequency of 264 Hz. The D note has
a fequency of 300 Hz. If a trumpeter is playing the C note on
a train, how fast would the train need to travel for a stationary
person (with perfect pitch) on the ground to hear a D note ?
Solution Here v
D
= 0 and we want to ﬁnd v
s
. The frequency
increases and we have
f

= f
v
v −v
s

1
f

=
v −v
s
fv
⇒ v −v
s
=
fv
f

⇒ v
s
= v(1 −
f
f

)
= 767 mph (1 −
264Hz
300Hz
)
= 92 mph
208 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
14.9 Problems
1. A uniform rope of mass m and length L is suspended vertically. Derive
a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave pulse to travel the
length of the rope.
(Hint: First ﬁnd an expression for the wave speed at any point a
distance x from the lower end by considering the tension in the rope
as resulting from the weight of the segment below that point.) [Serway,
5th ed., p. 517, Problem 59]
2. A uniform cord has a mass m and a length L. The cord passes over
a pulley and supports an object of mass M as shown in the ﬁgure.
Derive a formula for the speed of a wave pulse travelling along the
cord. [Serway, 5 ed., p. 501]
M
x
L - x
3. A block of mass M, supported by a string, rests on an incline making
an angle θ with the horizontal. The string’s length is L and its mass
is m M (i.e. m is negligible compared to M). Derive a formula for
the time it takes a transverse wave to travel from one end of the string
to the other. [Serway, 5th ed., p. 516, Problem 53]
14.9. PROBLEMS 209

L
θ
M
4. A stationary train emits a whistle at a frequency f. The whistle
sounds higher or lower in pitch depending on whether the moving
train is approaching or receding. Derive a formula for the diﬀerence in
frequency ∆f, between the approaching and receding train whistle in
terms of u, the speed of the train, and v, the speed of sound. [Serway,
5th ed., p. 541, Problem 54]
210 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
Chapter 15
TEMPERATURE, HEAT &
1ST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Put a block of ice into an insulated container of water and measure the
temperature change. Is it what you expect ?
THEMES:
Heating and Cooling.
211
212CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
15.1 Thermodynamics
We now leave our study of mechanics and begin our study of thermody-
namics. The most important system that we will study is an ideal gas and
how the temperature, pressure and volume are related. (Actually, however,
thermodynamic quantities are related to our study of mechanics. This is
the study of the kinetic theory of gases, i.e. a microscopic approach to ther-
modynamics.)
One of the most important properties of a macroscopic system, such as
a liquid or gas is the temperature, or thermal energy.
15.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
If two bodies have the same temperature then they are said to be in thermal
equilibrium. Thus the zeroth law of thermodynamics simply states that:
“If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, then they are
in thermal equilibrium with each other.”
15.3 Measuring Temperature
15.4 Celsius, Farenheit and Kelvin Temperature
Scales
The antiquated Farenheit temperature scale is only still used in a few coun-
tries (including the United States). Water freezes at 32

F and boils at 212

F.
A much more natural temperature scale, called Celsius or Centigrade, rates
the freezing and boiling point of water at 0

C and 100

C respectively. To
convert between the two scales use
F =
9
5
C + 32
where F is the temperature in Farenheit and C is the temperature in Centi-
15.4. CELSIUS, FARENHEIT AND KELVIN TEMPERATURE SCALES213
Example If you set your house thermostate to 70

F what is the
Solution
F =
9
5
C + 32
F −32 =
9
5
C
C =
5
9
(F −32)
=
5
9
(70 −32)
= 23

C
Example At what temperature are the Farenheit and Centi-
Solution When they are equal the F = C = x giving
x =
9
5
x + 32
x
_
1 −
9
5
_
= 32

4
5
x = 32
x = −40

i.e.
−40

F = −40

C
214CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
From a microscopic point of view (see Chapter 20), the temperature of a
substance is related to the speed of the individual molecules which also give
rise to pressure. Thus a gas which has fast moving molecules will have a
high temperature and pressure. What happens if we slow all the molecules
to zero speed? Well then the gas pressure will be zero. The temperature at
which this happens is −273.15

C.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this.
This leads to a third type of tmperature scale called Absolute temperature
or Kelvin temperature. The Kelvin temperature at which a gas has zero
pressure is deﬁned to be 0

K. Thus
C = K −273.15
where C is the temperature in Centigrade and K is the temperature in
Kelvin.
Example What is the relationship between Farenheit and Kelvin
?
Solution
C = K −273
and
C =
5
9
(F −32)
giving
5
9
(F −32) = K −273
or
F =
9
5
(K −273) + 32
=
9
5
K −459.4
15.5 Thermal Expansion
15.6. TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 215
15.6 Temperature and Heat
15.7 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liq-
uids
Heat Capacity
If you put a certain amount of energy or heat into a block of wood then
the temperature will increase by a certain amount. If you do the same thing
to a lump of steel (of the same mass) its temperature increase will be larger
than for the wood. Heat capacity tells us how much the temperature of an
object will increase for a given amount of energy or heat input. It is deﬁned
as
C ≡
Q
∆T
where C is the heat capacity, Q is the heat and ∆T is the temperature
change, or
Q = C(T
f
−T
i
)
Example Which has the largest heat capacity; wood or steel ?
Solution For a given Q then ∆T will be larger for steel. From
C =
Q
∆T
it means that C is small for steel and large for wood.
216CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Speciﬁc Heat
If we put a certain amount of heat into a small block of steel compared to
a large block then the small block will change its temperature the most. Thus
we also need to include the mass of the block in determining temperature
change. Thus we deﬁne speciﬁc heat (with a lower case c) as
c ≡
Q
m∆T
or
Q = cm(T
f
−T
i
)
In other words the speciﬁc heat is just the heat capacity per unit mass or
c =
C
m
Molar Speciﬁc Heat
Instead of deﬁning speciﬁc heat with the mass of the object, we could
deﬁne it according to the total number of molecules in the object. But if
we write down the total number of molecules we will be writing down huge
numbers. Now we always use other words for huge numbers. Instead of
saying “one hundred tens” we say “thousand”, i.e.
thousand ≡ 1000
or instead of saying “one thousand thousands” we say “million”, i.e.
million ≡ 1, 000, 000
Now even million, billion and trillion are too small for the number of
molecules in an object. Thus deﬁne
mole ≡ 6.02 ×10
23
(This number arose because in 12 grams of
12
C there is 1 mole of atoms.)
Thus molar speciﬁc heat is deﬁned as
c
m

Q
N∆T
where N is the number of moles of molecules in the substance.
Table 19-3 in Halliday has a list of speciﬁc heats and molar speciﬁc heats
for various substances.
15.7. THE ABSORPTION OF HEAT BY SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 217
Example How much heat is required to increase the tempera-
ture of 2 kg of water from 20

C to 30

C ?
Solution From Table 19-3 of Halliday, the speciﬁc heat of water
is 1.00 cal g
−1
K
−1
. Thus the temperature should be in

K. Now
∆T = 30

C −20

C = 20

C or
∆T = −243

K −−253

K = 10

K
giving
Q = mc∆T
= 2kg × 1 cal g
−1
K
−1
×10 K
= 2000 g × 1 cal g
−1
K
−1
×10 K
= 20,000 cal = 83,720 J
= 20 kcal
where we have used 1 cal ≡ 4.186 J.
218CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Heats of Transformation
When you put heat or energy into an object the temperature does not
always change! For example, if you put heat into a block of ice at 0

C it
may just melt to a pool of water still at 0

C. Thus heat can cause a change
of phase. Putting heat into water at 100

C may just vaporize the water to
steam at 100

C. The heat of transformation L is deﬁned via
Q ≡ Lm
where Q is the heat and m is the mass. If melting is involved L is called a
heat of fusion L
f
or for vaporizing L is called a heat of vaporization L
v
.
Exercise The latent heat of fusion for water is L
f
= 333 kJ/kg
and the latent heat of vaporization is L
v
= 2256 kJ/kg. Does it
take more heat to melt ice or vaporize water (of the same mass)?
Example How much heat is required to melt 2 kg of ice at 0

C
to water at 0

C ?
Solution The latent heat of fusion is L
f
= 79.5 cal g
−1
giving
Q = Lm
= 79.5 cal g
−1
× 2000 g
= 159,000 cal
= 159 kcal
Example Sample Problem 19-6 (Halliday). (done in class)
Example Sample Problem 19-7 (Halliday). (done in class)
15.8. A CLOSER LOOK AT HEAT AND WORK 219
15.8 A Closer Look at Heat and Work
When discussing work and energy for thermodynamic systems it is useful to
think about compressing the gas in a piston, as shown in Fig. 19.1.
dx
F
FIGURE 19.1 Piston.
By pushing on the piston the gas is compressed, or if the gas is heated
the piston expands. Such pistons are crucial to the operation of automobile
engines. The gas consists of a mixture of gasoline which is compressed by the
piston. Sitting inside the chamber is a spark plug which ignites the gas and
pushes the piston out. The piston is connected to a crankshaft connecting
the auto engine to the wheels of the automobile.
Another such piston system is the simple bicycle pump. Recall our
deﬁnition of Work as
W ≡
_

F · ds
For the piston, all the motion occurs in 1-dimension so that
W =
_
F dx
(or equivalently

F ·ds = F dxcos 0

= F dx). The pressure of a gas is deﬁned
as force divided by area (of the piston compressing the gas) or
p ≡
F
A
giving dW = pAdx = pdV where the volume is just area times distance or
dV = Adx. That is when we compress the piston by a distance dx, the
220CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
volume of the gas changes by dV = Adx where A is the cross-sectional area
of the piston. Writing W =
_
dW gives
W =
_
V
f
V
i
p dV
which is the work done by a gas of pressure p changing its volume from V
i
to V
f
(or the work done on the gas).
15.9 The First Law of Thermodynamics
We have already studied this! The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics is nothing
more than a re-statement of the work energy theorem, which was
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
Recall that the total work W was always W = ∆K. Identify heat Q as
Q ≡ W
NC
and internal energy (such as energy stored in a gas, which is just
potential energy) is E
int
≡ U and we have
∆E
int
+W = Q
or
∆E
int
= Q−W
which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. The meaning of this law is that
the internal energy of a system can be changed by adding heat or doing
work. Often the ﬁrst law is written for tiny changes as
dE
int
= dQ−dW
15.10. SPECIAL CASES OF 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 221
15.10 Special Cases of 1st Law of Thermodynam-
ics
Adiabatic processes are those that occur so rapidly that there is no
transfer of heat between the system and its environment. Thus Q = 0 and
∆E
int
= −W
For example if we push in the piston very quickly then our work will increase
the internal energy of the gas. It will store potential energy (∆U = ∆E
int
)
like a spring and make the piston bounce back when we let it go.
2. Constant-volume Processes
If we glue the piston so that it won’t move then obviously the volume is
constant, and W =
_
pdV = 0, because the piston can’t move. Thus
∆E
int
= Q
which means the only way to increase the internal energy of the gas is by
3. Cyclical Processes
Recall the motion of a spring. It is a cyclical process in which the spring
oscillates back and forth. After one complete cycle the potential energy U
of the spring has not changed, thus ∆U = 0. Similarly we can push in the
piston, then let it go and it will push back to where it started, similar to
the spring. Thus ∆E
int
= 0 and
Q = W
meaning that work done equals heat gained.
4. Free Expansion
Another way to get ∆E
int
= 0 is for
Q = W = 0
Free expansion is illustrated in Fig. 19-15 [Halliday].
222CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Example Sample Problem 19-8 (Halliday). (done in class)
15.11 Heat Transfer Mechanisms
There are three basic processes by which heat is always transferred from one
body to another. These are
1) Convection
2) Conduction
Students should carefully read Section 19.11 of Halliday.
15.12. PROBLEMS 223
15.12 Problems
1. The coldest that any object can ever get is 0 K (or -273 C). It is rare for
physical quantities to have an upper or lower possible limit. Explain
why temperature has this lower limit.
2. Suppose it takes an amount of heat Q to make a cup of coﬀee. If you
make 3 cups of coﬀee how much heat is required?
3. How much heat is required to make a cup of coﬀee? Assume the mass
of water is 0.1 kg and the water is initially at 0

C. We want the water
to reach boiling point.
(1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.
For water: c = 1
cal
gC
= 4186
J
kg C
; L
v
= 2.26×10
6 J
kg
; L
f
= 3.33×10
5 J
kg
)
4. How much heat is required to change a 1 kg block of ice at −10

C to
steam at 110

C ?
(1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.
c
water
= 4186
J
kg C
; c
ice
= 2090
J
kg C
; c
steam
= 2010
J
kg C
For water, L
v
= 2.26 ×10
6 J
kg
; L
f
= 3.33 ×10
5 J
kg
)
224CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Chapter 16
KINETIC THEORY OF
GASES
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Put a block of ice into an insulated container of water and measure the
temperature change. Is it what you expect ?
THEMES:
Behavior of a Gas.
225
226 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
16.1 A New Way to Look at Gases
The subject of classical thermodynamics, studied in the last chapter, was
developed in the 18th and 19th centuries before we knew about molecules and
atoms. The kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain all of the concepts of
classical thermodynamics, such as temperature and pressure, in terms of an
underlying microscopic theory based on atoms and molecules. For example,
we shall see that the temperature of a gas is related to the average kinetic
energy of all molecules in the gas.
One mole is the number of atoms in a 12 gram sample of
12
C, and this
number is determine from experiment to be 6.02 ×10
23
. This is often called
Avagadro’s number. The number of molecules must be the number of moles
times the number of molecules per mole. Thus we write Avagadro’s number
as
N
A
= 6.02 ×10
23
mole
−1
and
N = nN
A
where N is the number of molecules and n is the number of moles.
16.3 Ideal Gases
One of the most fundamental properties of any macroscopic system is the
so-called equation of state. This is the equation that speciﬁes the exact
relation between pressure p, volume V , and temperature T for a substance.
The equation of state for a gas is very diﬀerent to the equation of state of
a liquid. Actually there is a giant accelerator, called the Relativistic Heavy
Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National
Laboratory on Long Island. This accelerator will collide heavy nuclei into
each other at extremely high energies. One of the main aims is to determine
the nuclear matter equation of state at very high temperatures and densities,
simulating the early universe.
Now it turns out that most gases obey a simple equation of state called
the ideal gas law
pV = nRT
16.3. IDEAL GASES 227
where p is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the temperature (in

K), n is
the number of moles of the gas and R is the so called gas constant with the
value
R = 8.31 J mol
−1
K
−1
Recall that the number of molecules is given by N = nN
A
where n is the
number of moles. Thus pV = nRT =
N
N
A
RT and deﬁne Boltzmann’s con-
stant
k ≡
R
N
A
=
8.31J mole
−1
K
−1
6.02 ×10
23
mole
−1
= 1.38 ×10
−23
JK
−1
= 8.62 ×10
−5
eV K
−1
where an electron volt is deﬁned as
eV ≡ 1.6 ×10
−19
J
Thus the ideal gas law is also often written as
pV = NkT
where N is the total number of molecules.
The ideal gas law embodies exactly the properties we expect of a gas:
1) If the volume V is held constant, then the pressure p increases as
temperature T increases.
2) If the pressure p is held constant, then as T increases, p increases.
3) If the temperature T is held constant, then as p increases, V decreases.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS: Show this
Work Done by an Ideal Gas
The equation of state can be represented on a graph of pressure vs.
volume, often called a pV diagram. Remember an equation of state is an
equation relating the three variables p, V , T. A pV diagram takes care of two
variables. The third variable T represents diﬀerent lines on the pV diagram.
These diﬀerence lines are called isotherms (meaning same temperature). An
example is given in Fig.20-1 [Halliday]. For ﬁxed T (say 310 K) the pressure
is inversely proportional to volume as speciﬁed in the ideal gas law. Fig.
20-1 [Halliday] would look diﬀerent for an equation of state diﬀerent from
the ideal gas law.
228 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
Example What is the work done by any gas (ideal or not) at
constant volume (isometric) ?
Solution If V
i
= V
f
then
W =
_
V
f
V
i
pdV = 0
which is obvious when we think of the piston in the previous
chapter. If the volume does not change then the piston doesn’t
move and the work is zero.
Example Derive a formula for the work done by any gas (ideal
or not) which expands isobarically (i.e. at constant pressure).
Solution If p is a constant it can be taken outside the integral,
giving
W =
_
V
f
V
i
pdV
= p
_
V
f
V
i
dV
= p [V ]
V
f
V
i
= p(V
f
−V
i
)
= p∆V
16.3. IDEAL GASES 229
Example Derive a formula for the work done by a gas when it
expands isothermally (i.e. at constant temperature).
Solution The work done by an expanding gas is given by
W =
_
V
f
V
i
pdV
But this time the pressure changes. For an ideal gas we have
p =
nRT
V
giving
W = nRT
_
V
f
V
i
1
V
dV
= nRT [ln V ]
V
f
V
i
= nRT(ln V
f
−ln V
i
)
= nRT ln
_
V
f
V
i
_
Carefully study Sample Problems 20-1, 20-2 in Halliday.
230 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
16.4 Pressure, Temperature and RMS Speed
Carefully study Section 20.4 in Halliday.
Now consider our ﬁrst kinetic theory problem. Imagine a gas, consisting
of n moles being conﬁned to a cubical box of volume V . “What is the
connection between the pressure p exerted by the gas on the walls and the
speeds of the molecules?” (Halliday Pg. 487) Pressure is deﬁned as Force
divided by Area or p ≡
F
A
where F =
dp
dt
. Using Newtonian Mechanics,
Halliday (Pg. 488) shows that
p =
nMv
2
RMS
3V
where n is the number of moles, M is the mass of 1 mole of the gas (so
that nM is the total mass of the gas), v
RMS
is the average speed of the
molecules and V is the volume of the gas. The above equation is derived
purely from applying Newtonian mechanics to the individual molecules. All
students should study the derivation in Halliday (Pg. 488) carefully.
Now by comparing to the ideal gas law pV = nRT or p =
nRT
V
we must
have
nMv
2
RMS
3
= nRT or
v
RMS
=
¸
3RT
M
which shows that the temperature T is related to the speed of molecules!
As shown in Table 20-1 (Halliday) the speed of molecules at room tem-
perature is very large; about 500 m/sec for air (about 1000 mph).
16.5. TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY 231
16.5 Translational Kinetic Energy
For a single molecule its average kinetic energy is
¯
K =
1
2
mv
2
RMS
and using v
RMS
=
_
3RT
M
gives
¯
K =
1
2
m
3RT
M
.
Remember that M is the molar mass, which is the mass of 1 mole of gas
and m is the mass of the molecule. Thus
M
m
= 1 mole = 6.02 ×10
23
= N
A
,
¯
K =
3RT
2N
A
or
¯
K =
3
2
kT
This is a very interesting result. For a given temperature T, all gas molecules,
no matter what their mass, have the same average translational kinetic en-
ergy.
Example In the center of the Sun the particles are bare hydro-
gen nuclei (protons). Calculate their average kinetic energy.
Solution The center of the Sun is at a temperature of about
20,000,000

K. Thus
¯
K =
3
2
kT
=
3
2
×8.62 ×10
−8
eV
K
×20 ×10
6
K
= 2586 eV
≈ 3 MeV
232 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
16.6 Mean Free Path
Even though room temperature air molecules have a large RMS speed
v
RMS
≈ 500 m/sec, that does not mean that they move across a room
in a fraction of a second. If you open a bottle of perfume at one end of
a room, it takes a while for you to notice the smell at the other end of
the room. This is because the molecules undergo an enormous number of
collisions on their way across the room, as shown very nicely in Fig. 20-4
(Halliday).
The mean free path λ is the average distance that a molecule travels in
between collisions. It is given by
λ =
1

2πd
2
N/V
where d is the average diameter of a molecule, and N/V is the average
number of molecules per unit volume. This formula is discussed on Pages
490-491 (Halliday).
16.7 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
Not all molecules travel at the speed v
RMS
. this is just the average molecular
speed. We would like to know how many molecules travel above or below
this speed. This was worked out by Maxwell. The probbility of a given speed
is
P(v) = 4π
_
M
2πRT
_
3/2
v
2
e

Mv
2
2RT
where M is the molar mass of the gas. This probability distribution is
plotted in Fig. 20-7 (Halliday).
16.8. PROBLEMS 233
16.8 Problems
1.
A) If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled, by how much does
the pressure change if the volume and temperature are held constant?
B) If the volume of an ideal gas is halved, by how much does the pressure
change if the temperature and number of molecules is constant?
C) If the temperature of an ideal gas changes from 200 K to 400 K, by how
much does the volume change if the pressure and number of molecules
is constant.
D) Repeat part C) if the temperature changes from 200 C to 400 C.
2. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled and the volume
is doubled, by how much does the pressure change if the temperature
is held constant ?
3. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled, and the absolute
temperature is doubled and the pressure is halved, by how much does
the volume change ?
(Absolute temperature is simply the temperature measured in Kelvin.)
234 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
Chapter 17
Review of Calculus
17.1 Derivative Equals Slope
17.1.1 Slope of a Straight Line
All students will be familiar with the equation for a straight line
y(x) = mx +c (17.1)
where c is the intercept on the y axis and m is the slope of the line. To
prove to ourselves that m really is the slope, we need a good deﬁnition of
slope. Let’s deﬁne
Slope ≡
∆y
∆x

y
f
−y
i
x
f
−x
i
(17.2)
where ∆y is the diﬀerence between ﬁnal and initial values y
f
and y
i
. In Fig.
22.1 the graph of y(x) = 2x+1 is plotted and the slope has been determined
by measuring ∆y and ∆x.
Rather than always having to verify the slope graphically, let’s do it
analytically for all lines. Take x
i
= x as the initial x value and x
f
= x+∆x
as the ﬁnal value. Obviously x
f
−x
i
= ∆x. The initial value of y is
y
i
≡ y(x
i
) = mx
i
+c
= mx +c (17.3)
and the ﬁnal value is
y
f
≡ y(x
f
) = mx
f
+c
= y(x + ∆x) = m(x + ∆x) +c (17.4)
235
236 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Thus ∆y = y
f
−y
i
= m(x +∆x) +c −mx −c = m∆x. Therefore the slope
becomes
∆y
∆x
=
m∆x
∆x
= m (17.5)
which is a proof that y = mx +c has a slope of m.
From above we can re-write our formula (17.2) using y
f
= y(x + ∆x)
and y
i
= y(x), so that
Slope ≡
∆y
∆x
=
y
f
−y
i
x
f
−x
i
=
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
(17.6)
17.1.2 Slope of a Curve
A straight line always has constant slope m. That’s why it’s called straight.
The parabola y(x) = x
2
+ 1 is plotted in Fig. 22.2 and obviously the slope
changes. In fact the concept of the slope of a parabola doesn’t make any
sense because the parabola continuously curves. However we might think
about little pieces of the parabola. If you look at any tiny little piece it looks
straight. These tiny little pieces are all tiny little line segments, each with
their own slope. Notice that the slope of the tiny little line segments keeps
changing. At x = 0 the slope is 0 (the tiny little line is ﬂat) whereas around
x = 1 the slope is larger.
One of the most important ideas in calculus is the concept of the deriva-
tive, which is nothing more than
Derivative = Slope of tiny little line segment.
In Fig. 22.1 we got the slope from ∆y and ∆x on the large triangle in the
top right hand corner. But we would get the same answer if we had used the
tiny triangles in the bottom left hand corner. What characterizes these tiny
triangles is that ∆x and ∆y are both tiny (but their ratio,
∆y
∆x
= 2 always).
Another way of saying that ∆x is tiny is to say
Tiny = lim
∆x→0
That is the limit as ∆x goes to zero is another way of saying ∆x is tiny.
Examples
1) lim
∆x→0
[∆x + 3] = 3
2) lim
∆x→0
∆x = 0
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 237
3) lim
∆x→0
[(∆x)
2
+ 4] = 4
4) lim
∆x→0
(∆x)
2
+ 4∆x
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
(∆x + 4) = 4
5) lim
∆x→0
3 = 3
For a curve like the parabola we can’t draw a big triangle, as in Fig.
22.1, because the hypotenuse would be curved. But we can get the slope at
a point by drawing a tiny triangle at that point. Thus let’s deﬁne the
Slope of
curve at
a point
≡ lim
∆x→0
∆y
∆x
=
Slope of tiny
little line
segment
≡ Derivative
So it’s the same deﬁnition as before in (17.6) except lim
∆x→0
is an instruction
to use a tiny triangle. Now
∆y
∆x
=
y(x+∆x)−y(x)
∆x
from (17.6) and the derivative
is given a fancy new symbol
dy
dx
so that
dy
dx
≡ lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
(17.7)
The symbol dy simply means
dy ≡ tiny ∆y
That is, usually ∆y can be big or small. If we are talking about a tiny ∆y
we write dy instead. Similarly for ∆x.
Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 3x
Solution y(x) = 3x
y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x)
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
3(x + ∆x) −3x
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3x + 3∆x −3x
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3∆x
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3 = 3
Thus the derivative is the slope.
238 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 4
Solution y(x) = 4
y(x + ∆x) = 4
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
4 −4
∆x
= 0
The line y(x) = 4 has 0 slope and therefore 0 derivative.
(do Problem 1)
The derivative was deﬁned to give us the slope of a curve at a point. The
two examples above show that it also works for a straight line (A straight
line is a special case of a curve). Now do some examples for real curves.
Example Calculate the derivative of the parabola y(x) = x
2
Solution y(x) = x
2
y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)
2
= x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
−x
2
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
(2x + ∆x)
= 2x
Example Calculate the slope of the parabola y(x) = x
2
at the points x =
−2, x = 0, x = 3.
dy
dx
= 2x. Thus
dy
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=−2
= −4
dy
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=0
= 0
dy
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=3
= 6
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 239
which shows how the slope of a tiny little line segment varies as we move
along the parabola.
Example Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = x
2
+ 1 (see Fig. 22.2) at
the points x = −2, x = 0, x = 3
Solution y(x) = x
2
+ 1
y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)
2
+ 1
= x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
+ 1
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
+ 1 −(x
2
+ 1)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
2x + ∆x
= 2x
Thus the slopes are the same as in the previous example.
(do Problem 2)
17.1.3 Some Common Derivatives
In a previous example we saw that the derivative of y(x) = 4 was
dy
dx
= 0,
which make sense because a graph of y(x) = 4 reveals that the slope is
always 0. This is true for any constant c. Thus
dc
dx
= 0 (17.8)
We also saw in a previous example that
d
dx
x
2
= 2x. In general we have
dx
n
dx
= nx
n−1
(17.9)
This is a very important result. We have already veriﬁed it for n = 2. Let’s
verify it for n = 3.
Example Check that (17.9) is correct for n = 3.
Solution Formula (17.9) gives
dx
3
dx
= 3x
3−1
= 3x
2
240 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
We wish to verify this. Take y(x) = x
3
.
y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)
3
= x
3
+ 3x
2
∆x + 3x(∆x)
2
+ (∆x)
3
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
x
3
+ 3x
2
∆x + 3x(∆x)
2
+ (∆x)
3
−x
3
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3x
2
+ 3x∆x + (∆x)
2
= 3x
2
in agreement with our result above.
(do Problem 3)
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 241
A list of very useful results for derivatives is given below. You will prove
most of these results in your calculus course. I will just make some comments
Table A-4 Properties of Derivatives and Derivatives of Particular
Functions [Tipler, pg. AP-16, 1991].
Multiplicative constant rule
1. The derivative of a constant times a function equals the constant times
the derivative of the function:
d
dx
[Cy(x)] = C
dy(x)
dx
2. The derivative of a sum of functions equals the sum of the derivatives of
the functions:
d
dx
[y(x) +z(x)] =
dy(x)
dx
+
dz(x)
dx
Chain rule
3. If y is a function of x and x is in turn a function of t, the derivative of y
with respect to t equals the product of the derivative of y with respect to z
and the derivative of z with respect to x:
d
dx
y(x) =
dy
dz
dz
dx
Derivative of a product
4. The derivative of a product of functions y(x)z(x) equals the ﬁrst func-
tion times the derivative of the second plus the second function times the
derivative of the ﬁrst:
d
dx
[y(x)z(x)] = y(x)
dz(x)
dx
+
dy(x)
dx
z(x)
242 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Reciprocal derivative
5. The derivative of y with respect to x is the reciprocal of the derivative of
x with respect to y, assuming that neither derivative is zero:
dy
dx
=
_
dx
dy
_
−1
if
dx
dy
= 0
Derivatives of particular functions
6.
dC
dx
= 0 where C is a constant 10.
d
dx
tan ωx = ω sec
2
ωx
7.
d(x
n
)
dx
= nx
n−1
11.
d
dx
e
bx
= be
bx
8.
d
dx
sin ωx = ω cos ωx 12.
d
dx
ln bx =
1
x
9.
d
dx
cos ωx = −ω sin ωx
Multiplicative constant rule Example
d
dx
[Cy(x)] = C
dy(x)
dx
.
This just means, for example, that
d
dx
(3x
2
) = 3
dx
2
dx
= 3 ×2x = 6x
(do Problem 4).
d
dx
[y(x) +z(x)] =
dy(x)
dx
+
dz(x)
dx
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 243
Take for example y(x) = x and z(x) = x
2
. This rule just means
d
dx
(x +x
2
) =
dx
dx
+
dx
2
dx
= 1 + 2x
(do Problem 5)
Chain Rule
dy
dx
=
dy
dz
dz
dx
(A rough “proof” of this is to just note that the dz cancels in the numerator
and denominator.) The use of the chain rule is best seen in the following
example, where y is not given as a function of x.
Example Verify the chain rule for y = z
3
and z = x
2
.
Solution We have y(z) = z
3
and z(x) = x
2
. Thus y(x) = x
6
.
.
. .
dy
dx
= 6x
5
dy
dz
= 3z
2
dz
dx
= 2x
Now
dy
dz
dz
dx
= (3z
2
)(2x) = (3x
4
)(2x) = 6x
5
. Thus we see that
dy
dx
=
dy
dz
dz
dx
.
Product Rule
d
dx
[y(x)z(x)] = y(x)
dz(x)
dx
+
dy(x)
dx
z(x)
The use of this arises when multiplying two functions together as illus-
trated in the next example.
Example If y(x) = x
3
and z(x) = x
2
, verify the product rule.
Solution y(x)z(x) = x
5

d
dx
[y(x)z(x)] =
dx
5
dx
= 5x
4
Now let’s show that the product rule gives the same answer.
y(x)
dz(x)
dx
= x
3
dx
2
dx
= x
3
2x = 2x
4
244 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
dy(x)
dx
z(x) =
dx
3
dx
x
2
= 3x
2
x
2
= 3x
4
y(x)
dz(x)
dx
+
dy(x)
dx
z(x) = 2x
4
+ 3x
4
= 5x
4
in agreement with our answer above.
(do Problem 6)
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 245
17.1.4 Extremum Value of a Function
A ﬁnal important use of the derivative is that it can be used to tell us when
a function attains a maximum or minimum value. This occurs when the
derivative or slope of the function is zero.
Example What are the (x, y) coordinates of the place where the parabola
y(x) = x
2
+ 3 has its minimum value?
Solution The minimum value occurs where the slope is 0. Thus
0 =
dy
dx
=
d
dx
(x
2
+ 3) = 2x
.
. . x = 0
y = x
2
+ 3
.
. . y = 3
Thus the minimum is at (x, y) = (0, 3). You can verify this by plotting a
graph.
(do Problem 7)
246 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
17.2 Integral
17.2.1 Integral Equals Antiderivative
The derivative of y(x) = 3x is
dy
dx
= 3. The derivative of y(x) = x
2
is
dy
dx
= 2x. The derivative of y(x) = 5x
3
is
dy
dx
= 15x
2
.
Let’s play a game. I tell you the answer and you tell me the question.
Or I tell you the derivative
dy
dx
and you tell me the original function y(x)
If
dy
dx
= 3 then y(x) = 3x
If
dy
dx
= 2x then y(x) = x
2
If
dy
dx
= 15x
2
then y(x) = 5x
3
We can generalize this to a rule.
If
dy
dx
= x
n
then y(x) =
1
n + 1
x
n+1
Actually I have cheated. Let’s look at the following functions
y(x) = 3x + 2
y(x) = 3x + 7
y(x) = 3x + 12
y(x) = 3x +C (C is an arbitrary constant)
y(x) = 3x
All of them have the same derivative
dy
dx
= 3. Thus in our little game of
re-constructing the original function y(x) from the derivative
dy
dx
there is
always an ambiguity in that y(x) could always have some constant added to
it.
Thus the correct answers in our game are
If
dy
dx
= 3 then y(x) = 3x + constant
(Actually instead of always writing constant, let me just write C)
17.2. INTEGRAL 247
If
dy
dx
= 2x then y(x) = x
2
+C
If
dy
dx
= 15x
2
then y(x) = 5x
3
+C
If
dy
dx
= x
n
then y(x) =
1
n + 1
x
n+1
+C.
This original function y(x) that we are trying to get is given a special
name called the antiderivative or integral, but it’s nothing more than the
original function.
17.2.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve
Let’s see how to extract the integral from our original deﬁnition of derivative.
The slope of a curve is
∆y
∆x
or
dy
dx
when the ∆ increments are tiny. Notice
that y(x) is a function of x but so also is
dy
dx
. Let’s call it
f(x) ≡
dy
dx
=
∆y
∆x
(17.10)
Thus if f(x) =
dy
dx
= 2x then y(x) = x
2
+ C, and similarly for the other
examples.
In equation (17.10) I have written
∆y
∆x
also because
dy
dx
is just a tiny
version of
∆y
∆x
.
Obviously then
∆y = f ∆x (17.11)
or
dy = f dx (17.12)
What happens if I add up many ∆y’s. For instance suppose you are aged
18. Then if I add up many age increments in your life, such as
Age = ∆Age
1
+ ∆Age
2
+ ∆Age
3
+ ∆Age
4
· · ·
1 year + 3 years + 0.5 year + 5 years + 0.5 year + 5 years + 3 years
= 18 years
I get your complete age. Thus if I add up all possible increments of ∆y I
get back y. That is
y = ∆y
1
+ ∆y
2
+ ∆y
3
+ ∆y
4
+· · ·
or symbolically
y =

i
∆y
i
(17.13)
248 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
where
∆y
i
= f
i
∆x
i
(17.14)
Now looking at Fig. 22.3 we can see that the area of the shaded section is
just f
i
∆x
i
. Thus ∆y
i
is an area of a little shaded region. Add them all up
and we have the total area under the curve. Thus
Area under
curve f(x)
=

i
f
i
∆x
i
=

i
∆y
i
∆x
i
∆x
i
=

i
∆y
i
= y (17.15)
Let’s now make the little intervals ∆y
i
and ∆x
i
very tiny. Call them dy
and dx. If I am using tiny intervals in my sum

I am going to use a new
symbol
_
. Thus
Area =
_
fdx =
_
dy
dx
dx =
_
dy = y (17.16)
which is just the tiny version of (17.15). Notice that the dx “cancels”.
In formula (17.16) recall the following. The derivative is f(x) ≡
dy
dx
and y is my original function which we called the integral or antiderivative.
We now see that the integral or antiderivative or original function can be
interpreted as the area under the derivative curve f(x) ≡
dy
dx
.
By the way
_
f dx reads “integral of f with respect to x.”
Summary: if f =
dy
dx
⇒y =
_
f dx
Summary of 1.2.1 and 1.2.2
y(x) = x
2
dy
dx
= 2x ≡ f(x)
y(x) = x
2
+ 4
dy
dx
= 2x ≡ f(x)
⇒ if f(x) ≡
dy
dx
= 2x ⇒y(x) = x
2
+c
f(x) =
dy
dx
=
∆y
∆x
∆y = f∆x dy = f dx
y =

i
∆y
i
=
_
dy
17.2. INTEGRAL 249
=

i
f
i
∆x
i
=
_
f dx
= Area under curve f(x)
= Antiderivative
y =
_
f dx
E.g.
_
2xdx = x
2
+c
do a few more examples.
Example What is
_
xdx?
Solution The derivative function is f(x) =
dy
dx
= x. Therefore the original
function must be
1
2
x
2
+c. Thus
_
xdx =
1
2
x
2
+c
(do Problem 8)
17.2.3 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals
The integral
_
xdx is supposed to give us the area under the curve x, but
our answer in the above example (
1
2
x
2
+ c) doesn’t look much like an area.
We would expect the area to be a number.
Example What is the area under the curve f(x) = 4 between x
1
= 1 and
x
2
= 6?
Solution This is easy because f(x) = 4 is just a horizontal straight line as
shown in Fig. 22.4. The area is obviously 4 ×5 = 20.
Consider
_
4dx = 4x + c. This is called an indeﬁnite integral or an-
tiderivative. The integral which gives us the area is actually the deﬁnite
250 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
integral written
_
x
2
x
1
4dx ≡ [4x +c]
x
2
x
1
≡ (4x
2
+c) −(4x
1
+c)
= [4x]
x
2
x
1
= 4x
2
−4x
1
(17.17)
Let’s explain this. The formula 4x+c by itself does not give the area directly.
For an area we must always specify x
1
and x
2
(see Fig. 22.4) so that we know
what area we are talking about. In the previous example we got 4 ×5 = 20
from 4x
2
− 4x
1
= (4 × 6) − (4 × 1) = 24 − 4 = 20, which is the same as
(17.17). Thus (17.17) must be the correct formula for area. Notice here that
it doesn’t matter whether we include the c because it cancels out.
Thus
_
4dx = 4x + c is the antiderivative or indeﬁnite integral and it
gives a general formula for the area but not the value of the area itself. To
evaluate the value of the area we need to specify the edges x
1
and x
2
of the
area under consideration as we did in (17.17). Using (17.17) to work out
the previous example we would write
_
6
1
4dx = [4x +c]
6
1
= [(4 ×6) +c] −[(4 ×1) +c]
= 24 +c −4 −c
= 24 −4 = 20 (17.18)
Example Evaluate the area under the curve f(x) = 3x
2
between x
1
= 3
and x
2
= 5.
Solution
_
5
3
3x
2
dx = [x
3
+c]
5
3
= (125 +c) −(27 +c) = 98
(do Problem 9)
17.2. INTEGRAL 251
Figure 22.1 Plot of the graph y(x) = 2x + 1. The slope
∆y
∆x
= 2.
252 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Figure 22.2 Plot of y(x) = x
2
+ 1. Some tiny little pieces are indicated,
which look straight.
17.2. INTEGRAL 253
Figure 22.3 A general function f(x). The area under the shaded rectangle
is approximately f
i
∆x
i
. The total area under the curve is therefore

i
f
i
∆x
i
.
If the ∆x
i
are tiny then write ∆x
i
= dx and write

i
=
_
. The area is then
_
f(x)dx.
254 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Figure 22.4 Plot of f(x) = 4. The area under the curve between x
1
= 1
and x
2
= 6 is obviously 4 ×5 = 20.
17.3. PROBLEMS 255
17.3 Problems
1. Calculate the derivative of y(x) = 5x + 2.
2. Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = 3x
2
+ 1 at the points x = −1,
x = 0 and x = 2.
3. Calculate the derivative of x
4
using the formula
dx
n
dx
= nx
n−1
. Verify
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x+∆x)−y(x)
∆x
.
4. Prove that
d
dx
(3x
2
) = 3
dx
2
dx
.
5. Prove that
d
dx
(x +x
2
) =
dx
dx
+
dx
2
dx
.
6. Verify the chain rule and product rule using some examples of your
own.
7. Where do the extremum values of y(x) = x
2
− 4 occur? Verify your
8. Evaluate
_
x
2
dx and
_
3x
3
dx.
9. What is the area under the curve f(x) = x between x
1
= 0 and x
2
= 3?
256 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Bibliography
[1] D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics (Wiley,
New York, 1997).
257

2

Contents
1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1.1 Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Position and Displacement . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed . . . 1.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed . . . . . 1.5 Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case . . 1.7 Another Look at Constant Acceleration . 1.8 Free-Fall Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 VECTORS 2.1 Vectors and Scalars . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Adding Vectors: Graphical Method . . 2.3 Vectors and Their Components . . . . 2.3.1 Review of Trigonometry . . . . 2.3.2 Components of Vectors . . . . 2.4 Unit Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Adding Vectors by Components . . . . 2.6 Vectors and the Laws of Physics . . . 2.7 Multiplying Vectors . . . . . . . . . . 2.7.1 The Scalar Product (often called 2.7.2 The Vector Product . . . . . . 2.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 12 12 14 17 18 20 23 24 28 31 32 33 34 34 37 39 41 43 43 43 45 46

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3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 47 3.1 Moving in Two or Three Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.2 Position and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.3 Velocity and Average Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3

4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Acceleration and Average Acceleration Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . Projectile Motion Analyzed . . . . . . Uniform Circular Motion . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 51 52 58 61 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 68 69 77 79 80 80 82 82 85

4 FORCE & MOTION - I 4.1 What Causes an Acceleration? 4.2 Newton’s First Law . . . . . . . 4.3 Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Newton’s Second Law . . . . . 4.6 Some Particular Forces . . . . . 4.7 Newton’s Third Law . . . . . . 4.8 Applying Newton’s Laws . . . . 4.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 FORCE & MOTION - II 5.1 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Properties of Friction . . . . . . 5.3 Drag Force and Terminal Speed 5.4 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 5.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 89 6.1 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 6.2 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 6.3 Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 6.4 Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6.5 Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6.6 Spring Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 6.7 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy . . 103 6.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 7 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 7.1 A Special Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 The Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles 7.4 Linear Momentum of a Point Particle . . . . . 7.5 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles . . 107 108 108 114 115 115

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CONTENTS 7.6 7.7

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Conservation of Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 119 120 120 120 123 124 126 129

8 COLLISIONS 8.1 What is a Collision? . . . . . . . . 8.2 Impulse and Linear Momentum . . 8.3 Elastic Collisions in 1-dimension . 8.4 Inelastic Collisions in 1-dimension 8.5 Collisions in 2-dimensions . . . . . 8.6 Reactions and Decay Processes . . 8.7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9 ROTATION 9.1 Translation and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 The Rotational Variables . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors? . . . . . . . 9.4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration 9.5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables . . 9.6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation . . . . . . . . . . 9.7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia . . . . . . 9.8 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation . . . . . . 9.10 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy . . . . 9.11 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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131 . 132 . 132 . 134 . 134 . 134 . 135 . 136 . 140 . 140 . 140 . 142

10 ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 145 10.1 Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 10.2 Yo-Yo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 10.3 Torque Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 10.4 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 10.5 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 10.6 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . 149 10.7 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 10.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 10.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 11 GRAVITATION 153 11.1 The World and the Gravitational Force . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 11.2 Newton’s Law of Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

4 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . .7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . .3 Force Law for SHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Interference . .II 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sound Waves . . . . . . . 13. . . . . 12. . . . 13 WAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Standing Waves .7 Energy and Power of a Travelling String Wave 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . .10 Phasors . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Energy in SHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 11. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Interference of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Wavelength and Frequency . . . . . . . 14. . . .8 Principle of Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . .6 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gravitational Potential Energy . . . .6 Wave Speed on a String . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . .3 11. . . . . . . . . .I 13. .6 Sources of Musical Sound 14. . . . . 14 WAVES . . . . 13. . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . .2 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface . . . .1 Waves and Particles . . . . . . . 158 159 161 163 170 174 175 176 176 178 181 182 183 189 191 192 192 192 193 194 196 196 196 196 196 197 197 199 201 202 202 202 202 202 203 204 205 12 OSCILLATIONS 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . .5 11. . . . . .5 Intensity and Sound Level 14. . . . . . . . . .5 Speed of a Travelling Wave . . . . .5 An Angular Simple Harmonic 12. . . . . . . 13.2 Types of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Gravitation and Principle of Superposition . . . . . .7 Beats . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Oscillations . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . 14. . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gravitation Inside Earth . .7 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Travelling Sound Waves . . . .8 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . .12 Standing Waves and Resonance . . . .3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves . 12. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 211 15. . . . . .5 Thermal Expansion . . . . .4 Celsius. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1 Thermodynamics . .4 Pressure. . . . . . .2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . 214 15. 212 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . .10 Special Cases of 1st Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . .1 A New Way to Look at Gases . . . . .1 Slope of a Straight Line . . . . . . . . .11 Heat Transfer Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Problems . . . . . . . . . .1 Integral Equals Antiderivative . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve 17. . . . . . .3 Ideal Gases . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Distribution of Molecular Speeds . . . . . . Temperature and RMS Speed 16. . . . . . . . . . . Farenheit and Kelvin Temperature Scales . 16.12Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids . . . . . . . . . .2 Slope of a Curve . . . . . . . . . . 16. 230 . .6 Mean Free Path . . . . . . .1. . 208 15 TEMPERATURE. . . . . . . 219 15. .9 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . .8 Problems . . . .3 Problems . . .1. . . 222 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Temperature and Heat . . 212 15. 225 . . . .3 Some Common Derivatives . .3 Measuring Temperature . . . 215 15. . . .5 Translational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . .4 Extremum Value of a Function . . . . 215 15. . . . . . . . 221 15. . . . . .1 Derivative Equals Slope . . . . . . . . . . 226 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . 212 15.2 Integral . 232 . . . . . . . . 233 235 235 235 236 239 245 246 246 247 249 255 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2 Avagadro’s Number . 212 15. . . . . . . . . . . 226 . . . . . 232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . .2. . 220 15. . . . . . . 226 . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Review of Calculus 17. . . . . .CONTENTS 7 14. . . . . . 17. . 17. . . . . . . 231 . . . . . 223 16 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 16. . . . . . . .8 A Closer Look at Heat and Work . . . . . . .

(Wiley. If they have done that. giving 30 weeks at best for a year long course. The typical freshman textbook in physics. I want to say to the students at the beginning of the course that they should read the entire book from cover to cover and do every problem. 1997)]. Actually it is based on the introductory physics textbook by Halliday. and other ﬁelds. Thus these books are not useful to students or instructors teaching the typical course! In defense of the typical introductory textbook. The books are written so that an instructor can pick and choose the topics that are deemed best for the course. is over 1000 pages long. and the same goes for the problems. I had been using that book in my course. but I believe they are poor text books. I want a textbook that is self contained. which is an outstanding introductory physics reference book. chemistry) are simply not useful to either students or instructors. This is why I have written this book. As an instructor. with maybe 40 chapters and over 100 problems per chapter. psychology. by Halliday. Students and instructors are supposed to only cover a selection of the material. students and instructors are left with a feeling of incompleteness. New York.8 CONTENTS PREFACE The reason for writing this book was due to the fact that modern introductory textbooks (not only in physics. but could not cover it all due to the reasons listed above. At the fastest possible rate. The typical text is quite densed mathematics and physics and it’s simply impossible for a student to read all of this in the detail required. For a year long course that is 30 chapters at best. Resnick and Walker [Fundamental of Physics. At the end of the typical course. Thus it is impossible for a student to fully read and do all the problems in the standard introductory books. This is overkill! A typical semester is 15 weeks long. we can ”cover” only one chapter per week. and to have each student read the entire chapter and do every problem. but also mathematics. it’s not possible for a student to do 100 problems each week. However I object to this. Now I know what publishers and authors say of these books. I will say that their content is usually excellent and very well writtten.. I want to be able to comfortably cover one short chapter each week. 5th ed. Thus ten chapters of the typical book are left out! 1500 pages divided by 30 weeks is about 50 pages per week. they will have a good knowledge of introductory physics. Resnick and Walker. Also with 100 problems per chapter. having usually covered only about half of the book and only about ten percent of the problems. They are certainly very ﬁne reference books. .

. The book is still in progress and will be updated and improved from time to time.CONTENTS 9 Availability of this eBook At the moment this book is freely available on the world wide web and can be downloaded as a pdf ﬁle.

a way of deﬁning something by pointing out examples. i. Much of the electronics and computer industry is based on physics principles.10 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . many of the diagnostic instruments used in medicine (MRI. Most of the other sciences such as biology. namely getting to know the basic principles upon which most of our modern technological society is based. . such as: Motion (this semester) Thermodynamics (this semester) Electricity and Magnetism Optics and Lasers Relativity Quantum mechanics Astronomy. medicine rely heavily on techniques and ideas from physics. geology.What is Physics? A good way to deﬁne physics is to use what philosophers call an ostensive deﬁnition. For example. All ﬁelds of technology and engineering are very strongly based on physics principles. chemistry. Gases Electronics Geophysics Acoustics Elementary particles Materials science Thus physics is a very fundamental science which explores nature from the scale of the tiniest particles to the behaviour of the universe and many things in between. Liquids. x-ray) were developed by physicists. Much of the communication today occurs via ﬁber optical cables which were developed from studies in physics.e. Astrophysics and Cosmology Nuclear Physics Condensed Matter Physics Atoms and Molecules Biophysics Solids. Also the World Wide Web was invented at the famous physics laboratory called the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Physics studies the following general topics. This is what an introductory physics course is all about. Thus anyone who plans to work in any sort of technical area needs to know the basics of physics.

THEMES: 1. 11 . DRIVING YOUR CAR.Chapter 1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design a simple experiment which shows that objects of diﬀerent weight fall at the same rate if the eﬀect of air resistance is eliminated. DROPPING AN OBJECT. 2.

Often you want to know how long a journey will take if you drive at a certain speed over a certain distance. if you think about it. Motion 1. both hit the ground at the same time Another item of interest is what happens when an object is dropped from a certain height.1 Read. that’s a pretty amazing phenomenom.weigh on balance and show they are diﬀerent weight). MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE INTRODUCTION: There are two themes we will deal with in this chapter. it goes faster at bottom if released from diﬀerent heights 2) Drop a ball and a pen (diﬀerent weights . Typically these are distance travelled and the speed with which you travel. because the x-axis is just something we invented to put on top of. speed and acceleration. But what’s that ? The speed of the ball increased. 1. Also you are often interested in the acceleration of your car. They concern DRIVING YOUR CAR and DROPPING AN OBJECT. In this chapter we will spend a lot of time studying the concepts of distance.12 CHAPTER 1. When you drive you car and go on a journey there are several things you are interested in. WHY did the speed of the ball increase ? You might say gravity. If you drop a ball you know it starts oﬀ with zero speed and ends up hitting the ground with a large speed.2 Position and Displacement In 1-dimension. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: 1) Drop a ball and hold at diﬀerent heights. especially for a very short journey such as a little speed race with you and your friend. positions are measured along the x-axis with respect to some origin. Actually. say a real landscape. and therefore gravity provided an acceleration. But how ? Why ? When ? We shall address all of these deep questions in this chapter. It is up to us to deﬁne where to put the origin. . You want to be able to accelerate quickly.

2. The distance is also 100 miles. x = 100 miles. Milwaukee and Glendale ? Solution A. If we deﬁne the origin of x-axis to be at Milwaukee. what is the position of someone in Chicago. Sometimes you will instead see it written as ∆anything ≡ anthingf − anythingi where subscripts f and i are used for the ﬁnal and initial values instead of the 2 and 1 subscripts. For someone in Chicago.1. You get the same answer with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. Speciﬁcally. Try it. Example What is the displacement for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago ? What is the distance ? Solution With the origin at Milwaukee. For someone in Milwaukee. For someone in Glendale.1) Note: We always write ∆anything ≡ anthing2 −anything1 where anything2 is the ﬁnal value and anything1 is the initial value. For someone in Milwaukee. then the initial position is x1 = 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is x2 = 100 miles. For someone in Glendale. POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT 13 Example Chicago is 100 miles south of Milwaukee and Glendale is 10 miles north of Milwaukee. B. If we deﬁne the origin of the x-axis to be at Glendale what is the position of someone in Chicago. x = 0 miles. x = 110 miles. so that ∆x = x2 − x1 = 100 miles. ∆x ≡ x2 − x1 (1. . x = 10 miles. x = 0 miles. For someone in Chicago. x = −10 miles. Displacement is deﬁned as a change in position. Milwaukee and Glendale ? B. A.

The odometer does not read displacement (except if displacment and distance are the same. then the initial position is x1 = 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is also x2 = 0 miles. so that ∆x = x2 − x1 = 0 miles.2) whereas average speed is just the total distance divided by the time interval. Do Checkpoint 1 [from Halliday]. You get the same answer with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. 1. Thus there is no displacement if the beginning and end points are the same. Try it. The distance is 200 miles. s≡ ¯ (1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE Example What is the displacement for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back ? What is the distance ? Solution With the origin at Milwaukee.3) . v≡ ¯ ∆x x2 − x1 = ∆t t2 − t 1 total distance ∆t (1.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed Average velocity is deﬁned as the ratio of displacement divided by the corresponding time interval. Note that the distance is what the odometer on your car reads. as is the case for a one way straight line journey).14 CHAPTER 1.

giving v = ¯ miles 50 hour ≡ 50 miles per hour ≡ 50 mph. ¯ 4 . AVERAGE VELOCITY AND AVERAGE SPEED 15 Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago who takes 2 hours for the journey ? Solution ∆x = 100 miles and ∆t = 2 hours. Thus s = 50 mph. b The word per just means divide. The average speed is the same as average velocity in this case because the total distance is the same as the displacement.1. We can always write any fraction a as a per b.3. hour This is standard. 100 miles 2 hours = Note that the unit miles has been re-written as miles per hour. ¯ Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back to Milwaukee who takes 4 hours for the journey ? Solution ∆x = 0 miles and ∆t = 2 hours. giving v = 0 ! ¯ However the total distance is 200 miles completed in 4 hours miles giving s = 200hours = 50 mph again.

t graph is the slope of the x. See Fig.time graphs for A) object standing still and B) object moving at constant speed. 2-4 in Halliday.16 CHAPTER 1. Let’s plot an x. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE A very important thing to understand is how to read graphs of position and time and graphs of velocity and time. Careully study Sample Problems 2-1. and how to interpret such graphs. It is very important to understand how the average velocity is obtained from a position-time graph.time and Velocity . Checkpoint 2 and Sample Problem 2-3. x x t v v t t (A) (B) t FIGURE 2. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: 1) Air track glider standing still 2) Air track glider moving at constant speed. t graph for 1) Object standing still. t graph. 2-2.1 Position . 2) Object at constant speed. Note that the v. [from Halliday] . t and v.

4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed When you drive to Chicago with an average velocity of 50 mph you probably don’t drive at this velocity the whole way. The way to describe this mathematically is to say that an instant is when the time interval ∆t approaches zero. v = lim Carefully study Sample Problem 2-4 [from Halliday]. Thus instantaneous velocity or just velocity is deﬁned as ∆x dx = (1. .4) ∆t→0 ∆t dt Now such a fraction of one tiny dx divided by a tiny dt has a special name. or the limit of ∆t as ∆t → 0 (approaches zero). INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND SPEED 17 1. Sometimes you might pass a truck and drive at 70 mph and when you get stuck in the traﬃc jams you might only drive at 20 mph. Now when the police use their radar gun and clock you at 70 mph. What is an instant ? It is nothing more than an extremely short time interval. The instantaneous speed or just speed is deﬁned as simply the magnitude of the instantaneous veloctiy or magnitude of velocity. as we all know police oﬃcers don’t care about average velocity or average speed. Thus let’s introduce the concept of instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed. It is called the derivative of x with respect to t. However. you might legitimately protest to the oﬃcer that your average velocity for the whole trip was only 50 mph and therefore you don’t deserve a speeding ticket.4.1. They only care about your speed at the instant that you pass them. The corresponding distance that we travel over that tiny time interval will also be tiny and we denote that as dx instead of ∆x. We denote such a tiny time interval as dt instead of ∆t.

MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1. what is your average acceleration if you are able to reach 20 mph from rest in 5 seconds ? Solution v2 = 20 mph t2 = 5 seconds v1 = 0 t1 = 0 a = ¯ 20 mph − 0 20 miles per hour = 5 sec − 0 5 seconds miles = 4 = 4 mph per sec hour seconds miles = 14. Acceleration tells us how much velocity changes. The average acceleration is deﬁned as v2 − v1 ∆v a= ¯ = t 2 − t1 ∆t and the instantaneous acceleration or just acceleration is deﬁned as a= Now because v = d instead as dt dx dt respect to time. 400 miles per hour2 = 4 1 hour 3600 hour . dx dt dv dt d dt v we can write a = d2 x dt2 = d dt dx dt which is often written ≡ . that is the second derivative of position with Example When driving your car.5 Acceleration We have seen that velocity tells us how quickly position changes.18 CHAPTER 1.

1. t graph.5. Now let’s also plot an a. 2) Object at constant speed. Note that the the a.1. . t graph is the slope of the v. 2. ACCELERATION LECTURE DEMONSTRATION (previous demo continued): 1) Air track glider standing still 2) Air track glider moving at constant speed. t graph for 1) Object standing still.2 Acceleration-time graphs for motion depicted in Fig. 19 a a t (A) (B) t FIGURE 2.

MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1. and we don’t consider jerk. However. (When you slow down or put on the brakes the acceleration is constant but negative and is called deceleration. We are going to use the following symbols: t1 ≡ 0 t2 ≡ t x1 ≡ x0 x2 ≡ x v1 ≡ v0 v2 ≡ v and acceleration a is a constant and so a1 = a2 = a.) Also.) When you drop an object and it falls to the ground it also has a constant acceleration.20 CHAPTER 1. A quantity called jerk describes changing acceleration. then we can derive 5 very handy equations that will tell us everything about the motion. very often the acceleration is constant. Thus now ∆t = t2 − t1 = t − 0 = t ∆x = x2 − x1 = x − x0 ∆v = v2 − v1 = v − v0 ∆a = a2 − a1 = a − a = 0 (∆a must be zero because we are only considering constant a. because acceleration is constant then average acceleration is always the same as instantaneous acceleration a=a ¯ Now use the deﬁnition of average acceleration a=a= ¯ Thus at = v − v0 or ∆v v − v0 v − v0 = = ∆t t−0 t .6 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case Velocity describes changing position and acceleration describes changing velocity. When the acceleration is constant. When driving your car the acceleration is usually constant when you speed up or slow down or put on the brakes. Let’s derive them and then study some examples.

then it is a straight line for a = constant. we just combine the ﬁrst two.6.1. 1 (v + v0 ) 2 1 (v0 + at + v0 ) 2 ∆x x − x0 = ∆t t .6) which is the second of our constant acceleration equations. In that case the average velocity is 1 v = (v + v0 ) ¯ 2 From the deﬁnition of average velocity v= ¯ we have x − x0 t = = giving 1 x − x0 = v0 t + at2 2 (1. If you plot this on a v. CONSTANT ACCELERATION: A SPECIAL CASE v = v0 + at 21 (1. To get the other three constant acceleration equations. t graph.5) which is the ﬁrst of our constant acceleration equations.

8 [from Halliday] . MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE Example Prove that 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) Solution Obviously t has been eliminated.6) gives x − x0 = v0 v − v0 a v − v0 1 + a 2 a 2 v − v0 a 1 2 2 a(x − x0 ) = v0 v − v0 + (v 2 − 2vv0 + v0 ) 2 2 = v 2 − v0 or 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) Example Prove that x − x0 = 1 (v0 + v)t 2 Solution Obviously a has been eliminated. From (1.22 CHAPTER 1. From (1.6) gives x − x0 = v0 t + 1 v − v0 2 t 2 t 1 = v0 t + (vt − v0 t) 2 1 = (v0 + v)t 2 v − v0 t Exercise Prove that x − x0 = vt − 1 at2 2 carefully study Sample Problem 2.5) a= Substituting into (1.5) t= Substituting into (1.

v changes . a = a(t) a= t2 dv dt dv dt dt v2 a dt = t1 t2 a t1 dt = v1 dv a(t2 − t1 ) = v2 − v1 a(t − 0) = v − v0 v = v0 + at v= v dt = dx dt dx dt dt .1. x − x0 = v0 t + 1 at2 = v0 t + at 2 2 a= dv dv dx dv = =v dt dx dt dx . cannot take outside integral actually v(t) = v0 + at t2 x2 (v0 + at)dt = t1 x1 t2 t1 dx 1 v0 t + at2 2 = x2 − x1 1 = v0 (t2 − t1 ) + a(t2 − t1 )2 = x − x0 2 1 = v0 (t − 0) + a(t − 0)2 2 1 2 ..7 Another Look at Constant Acceleration (This section is only for students who have studied integral calculus. For constant acceleration a = a(x). ANOTHER LOOK AT CONSTANT ACCELERATION 23 1.) The constant acceleration equations can be derived from integral calculus as follows. .7..

24 CHAPTER 1.8 Free-Fall Acceleration a = −g = −9. Water does not leak out if the cup is dropped. 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE x2 a dx = x1 x2 v dv dx dx v dv v2 a x1 dx = v1 a(x2 − x1 ) = = a(x − x0 ) = 1 2 v2 v 2 v1 1 2 2 v − v1 2 2 1 2 2 v − v0 2 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) One can now get the other equations using algebra.8 m/sec2 ).8 m/sec2 If we neglect air resistance. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: 1) Feather and penny in vacuum tube 2) Drop a cup ﬁlled with water which has a hole in the bottom. Water leaks out if the cup is held stationary. then all falling objects have same acceleration (g = 9. .

[from Halliday] Example I drop a ball from a height H. which is the correct unit for speed. FREE-FALL ACCELERATION Carefully study Sample Problems 2-9. Solution 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) 25 v0 = 0 a = −g = −9. 2-11.8.8 m/sec2 x0 = 0 x = H v 2 = 0 − 2 × g (0 − −H) v= Check units: 2gH √ The units of g are m sec−2 and H is in m. 2-10. with what speed does it hit the ground ? Check that the units are correct. Thus 2gH has units √ √ of m sec−2 m = m2 sec−2 = m sec−1 .1. .

174]: “THEOREM II.26 CHAPTER 1. PROPOSITION II : The spaces described by a falling body from rest with a uniformly accelerated motion are to each other as the squares of the time intervals employed in traversing these distances. rather than relying solely on philosophical argument.1642). 173]: “THEOREM I. By the way. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE HISTORICAL NOTE The constant acceleration equations were ﬁrst discovered by Galileo Galilei (1564 .8) (1. Galileo also invented the astronomical telescope ! .” In other words this is Galileo’s statement of our equation 1 x − x0 = (v0 + v)t 2 We also ﬁnd [Pg. 1933.G13] and Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems [QB 41. New York.” This is Galileo’s statement of 1 1 x − x0 = v0 t + at2 = vt − at2 2 2 (1. Galileo is widely regarded as the “father of modern science” because he was really the ﬁrst person who went out and actually did expreiments to arrive at facts about nature.3.7) Galileo was able to test this equation with the simple device shown in Figure 2. Galileo wrote two famous books entitled Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences [Macmillan. In Two New Sciences we ﬁnd the following [Pg.G1356]. PROPOSITION I : The time in which any space is traversed by a body starting from rest and uniformly accelerated is equal to the time in which that same space would be traversed by the same body moving at a unifrom speed whose value is the mean of the highest speed and the speed just before acceleration began. QC 123.

8.1. FREE-FALL ACCELERATION 27 moveable fret wires FIGURE 2. Lederman and David N.3 Galileo’s apparatus for verifying the constant acceleration equations. Schramm (Scientiﬁc American Library. New York.L43 . 1989) QB43.2. [from “From Quarks to the Cosmos” Leon M.

4. Sketch the corresponding velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs. Indicate for what functions the acceleration is constant. E. The ﬁgures below show position-time graphs. the driver of the second car decides to try to catch up to the ﬁrst car. C. A car is travelling at constant speed v1 and passes a second car moving at speed v2 . A) What are the units for A. If you drop an object from a height H above the ground. C.9 Problems 1. by stepping on the gas pedal and moving at acceleration a. The following functions give the position as a function of time: i) x = A ii) x = Bt iii) x = Ct2 iv) x = D cos ωt v) x = E sin ωt where A. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1.28 CHAPTER 1. work out a formula for the speed with which the object hits the ground. ω? B) Write down the velocity and acceleration equations as a function of time. B. D. ω are constants. a as a function of time. C) Sketch graphs of x. 2. E. Derive a formula for how long it takes to . The instant it passes. D. v. x x x t t t 3. B.

and neglect air resistance. If you throw a ball up vertically at speed V . If you start your car from rest and accelerate to 30mph in 10 seconds.) 5. . with what speed does it return to the ground ? Prove your answer using the constant acceleration equations.9. what is your acceleration in mph per sec and in miles per hour2 ? 6. PROBLEMS 29 catch up.1. (The ﬁrst car travels at constant speed v1 and does not accelerate.

MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE .30 CHAPTER 1.

Chapter 2 VECTORS 31 .

velocity. However the river is ﬂowing downstream and by the time they reach the other side. and we deduce that the distance is 50 m. Quantities that don’t have a sign were distance. 3. temperature Before delving into vectors consider the following problem. velocity and acceleration. speed and magnitude of acceleration.e. electric ﬁeld Examples of Scalars are: distance. acceleration. 50 m 40 m 30 m FIGURE 3. VECTORS 2. We found that the following quantities had a direction (i. they end up 30 m downstream from their starting point. Scalars are quantities with magnitude only.1.1 Vectors and Scalars When we considered 1-dimensional motion in the last chapter we only had two directions to worry about. Example Joe and Mary are rowing a boat across a river which is 40 m wide. They row in a direction perpendicular to the bank. namely motion to the Right or motion to the Left and we indicated direction with a + or − sign.32 CHAPTER 2. time. momentum. Now in 2 and 3 dimensions we need more than a + or − sign. Vectors are quantities with both magnitude and direction. Over what total distance did the boat travel? Solution Obviously the way to do this is with the triangle in Fig. That’s where vectors come in.1 Graphical solution to river problem. could take a + or − sign): displacement. . speed. force. magnitude of acceleration. Examples of Vectors are: displacement.

FIGURE 3.2.4 Vector addition solution to the river problem. . 3. with a length of 30 m. denoted as A and the displacement across the river.4. which are little arrows whose orientation speciﬁes direction and whose length speciﬁes magnitude. with length of 40 m. FIGURE 3. The displacement along the river is represented as FIGURE 3.2.2 Displacement along the river. To re-construct the previous triangle. the vectors are added head-to-tail as in Fig. denoted B.3 Displacement across the river.2 Adding Vectors: Graphical Method Another way to think about the previous problem is with vectors. ADDING VECTORS: GRAPHICAL METHOD 33 2.

Let’s draw one: Hypotenuse FIGURE 3. 2.1 Review of Trigonometry Lines are made by connecting two points. Triangles are made by connecting three points. . Thus there is always the problem of inaccuracy in making these measurements. You would ﬁnd it to be 50 m. Summary: When adding any two vectors A and B. To learn this we must learn about components.3 Vectors and Their Components The graphical method requires the use of a ruler and protractor for measuring the lengths of vectors and their angles. the subject of trigonometry has to do with only a certain. denoted C. It’s better to use analytical methods which rely on pure calculation. i. 2. Mathematically we write C = A + B. To do this we need trigonometry. The graphical method of solving our original problem is to take out a ruler and actually measure the length of the resultant vector C. we add them head-to-tail.e. Of all the vast number of diﬀerent possible triangles. a triangle where one of the angles is 90◦ . is obtained by ﬁlling in the triangle. Students should read the textbook to obtain more details about using the graphical method. special type of triangle and that is a right-angled triangle.3.5 Right-angled triangle. VECTORS The resultant vector.34 CHAPTER 2.

2. Pythagoras’ theorem states H 2 = A2 + O2 . The Opposite and Adjacent sides are switched because the angle is diﬀerent. Let’s label Hypotenuse as H. Consider one of the other angles.3. Opposite Hypotenuse θ Adjacent FIGURE 3. Opposite as O and Adjacent as A. Now consider the other angle α. The side adjacent to θ is called Adjacent and the side opposite θ is called Opposite.6 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent to the angle θ.7 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent to the angle α. say θ. α Adjacent Hypotenuse Opposite FIGURE 3. VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 35 The side opposite the right angle is always called the Hypotenuse.

i.8 50m 5 30m 3 = = = 0. Cosine θ. These special ratios are given special names. Cosine α. Tangent θ Sine α.e. H . Some possible O A O combinations are H . VECTORS This is true no matter how the Opposite and Adjacent sides are labelled. Often we are interested in dividing one side by another.75 40m 4 = α 50 m 40 m θ 30 m FIGURE 3. H A A O is called Sine. TOA.6 50m 5 40m 4 = = = 0. Tangent α Solution Sine θ = Cosine θ = Tangent θ = Sine α = Cosine α = Tangent α = O H A H O A O H A H O A 40m 4 = = 0. it doesn’t matter for Pythagoras’ theorem.36 CHAPTER 2. Example Using the previous triangle for the river problem. H is called Cosine.33 30m 3 30m 3 = = = 0.8 Triangle for river problem. write down Sine θ. A is called Tangent.8 50m 5 30m 3 = = = 0.6 50m 5 40m 4 = = = 1. Remember them by writing SOH. CAH. . O . if Opposite and Adjacent are interchanged.

Cosine or Tangent then we always know what the corresponding angle is.3. So if we have calculated any of the ratios. Thus θ = 53. The components are denoted Ax and Ay and are obtained by dropping a perpendicular line from the vector to the x and y axes.1◦ .2 Components of Vectors An arbitrary vector has both x and y components.3. y Ay A Ax x FIGURE 3. These are like shadows on the x and y areas. Pull a cart with a rope at some angle to the ground. Ax and Ay .1◦ . The cart will move with a certain acceleration. If you change the angle.9. but by the component Fx in the x direction. as shown in Figure 3.8 the angle is always 53. 3.75 the angle is always 36.2.11. Again whenever Tangent of an angle is 0. That’s why we consider trigonometry and right-angled triangles! A physical understanding of components can be obtained. as shown in Fig. 2. . VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 37 Now whenever the Sine of an angle is 0. Sine. determined not by the force F .9◦ . the acceleration of the cart will change. of vector A.9 Components.

Let’s re-draw Figure 3. VECTORS F Fx FIGURE 3.10. 3. writing A instead of F as follows: A θ α Ay Ax FIGURE 3.11 Components and angles for Fig.38 LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of Fig.10 Pulling a cart with a force F . .10: CHAPTER 2.10. 3.

cos θ = Ax . as in Fig. . A and θ) x and y components (Ax and Ay ).4 Unit Vectors A vector is completely speciﬁed by writing down magnitude and direction (i.12. cos α = A ) A A Thus if we have the components. The unit vector ˆ is deﬁned to always have a length of i 1 and to always lie in the positive x direction. Thus Pythagoras’ theorem gives A 2 = A 2 + A2 x y and also tan θ = and tan α = A Ay Ax Ax Ay A y y (Also sin θ = A . UNIT VECTORS 39 Let’s denote the magnitude or length of A simply as A. (The symbol ∧ is used to denote these unit vectors. Ax and Ay we can always get the magnitude and direction of the vector. do Sample Problem 3-3 in Lecture 2.) y i x FIGURE 3. 3.e. sin α = Ax .12 Unit vector ˆ i. Similarly if we start with A and θ (or α) we can always ﬁnd Ax and Ay .2. namely A and θ (or α). There’s another very useful and compact way to write vectors and that is by using unit vectors.4.

14 Unit vector k.40 CHAPTER 2. y j x FIGURE 3. ˆ The unit vector k lies in the psoitive z direction.) x . VECTORS Similarly the unit vector ˆ is deﬁned to always have a length of 1 also but j to lie entirely in the positive y direction. y k z ˆ FIGURE 3.13 Unit vector ˆ j. Thus any arbitrary vector A is now written as ˆ i j A = Axˆ + Ay ˆ + Az k (Think about this and make sure you understand.

y C B Bx Ay By Cy A Ax Cx x FIGURE 3. but we have also indicated all the components. 3. .5 Adding Vectors by Components Finally we will now see the use of components and unit vectors.15 Adding vectors by components. Remember how we discussed adding vectors graphically using a ruler and protractor. In Fig.16 we have shown two vectors A and B added to form C. ADDING VECTORS BY COMPONENTS 41 2.5. because then we can get our answers by pure calculation. By carefully looking at the ﬁgure you can see that Cx = Ax + Bx Cy = Ay + By This is a very important result. A better method is with the use of components.2.

Cy are ordinary numbers and the + sign we used above does denote ordinary addition. Write A = Axˆ + Ay ˆ and B = Bxˆ + By ˆ and C = Cxˆ + Cy ˆ Now i j i j i j. namely Dx = Fx +Ex and Dy = Fy + Ey . totally unlike adding numbers. “Wait a minute! What does the + sign mean?” We are used to adding numbers such as 5 = 3 + 2. Whenever anyone writes something like D = F +E it actually means two things. We should really write C =A⊕B where ⊕ is a new type of “addition”. VECTORS Now let’s back-track for a minute. They are these strange arrow-like objects called vectors which are “add” by putting head-to-tail. All of this is much more obvious with the use of unit vectors. However Ax . but in the above equation A. Ay . C =A+B is simply i j i j i j Cxˆ + Cy ˆ = Axˆ + Ay ˆ + Bxˆ + By ˆ ˆ + (Ay + By )ˆ = (Ax + Bx )i j and equating coeﬃcients of ˆ and ˆ gives i j Cx = Ax + Bx and Cy = Ay + By . Bx . When we write C =A+B you should say. Cx . B and C are not numbers. Thus C = A ⊕ B actually means Cx = Ax + Bx and Cy = Ay + By .42 CHAPTER 2. By . The statement C = A ⊕ B is really shorthand for two ordinary addition statements.

2. Solution A = 30ˆ i B = 40ˆ j C = A+B i j i j i j Cxˆ + Cy ˆ = Axˆ + Ay ˆ + Bxˆ + By ˆ Ay = 0 Bx = 0 Cxˆ + Cy ˆ = 30ˆ + 40ˆ i j i j Cx = 30 Cy = 40 or Cx = Ax + Bx = 30 + 0 = 30 Cy = Ay + By = 0 + 40 = 40 2 2 C 2 = Cx + Cy = 302 + 402 = 900 + 1600 = 2500 .. VECTORS AND THE LAWS OF PHYSICS 43 Example Do the original river problem using components. (Sometimes also called dot product or cross product).1 Vectors and the Laws of Physics Multiplying Vectors The Scalar Product (often called dot product) We know how to add vectors. The whole quantity a · b = ab cos φ is a scalar.7. C = 50 carefully study Sample Problems 3-4. 3-5 2. Now let’s learn how to multiply them.e. The scalar product is deﬁned as a · b ≡ ab cos φ (2.7 2. 3-19 of Halliday the scalar product is the .6 2.6. As shown in Fig. i. namely c = a+b. When we multiply vectors we get either a scalar or vector. When we add vectors we always get a new vector. There are two types of vector multiplication called scalar products or vector product.1) where a and b are the magnitude of a and b respectively and φ is the angle between a and b. . it has magnitude only.

Example Evaluate ˆ · ˆ i i Solution ˆ · ˆ = ii cos φ i i but i is the magnitude of ˆ which is 1. as the next example shows.2) (see Problem 46) which has been derived from the original deﬁnition (2.1) we can work out the scalar products of all of the unit vectors. and the angle φ is 0◦ . do Sample Problem 3-6 in Lecture . i Thus ˆ· i = 1 i Example Evaluate ˆ · ˆ i j Solution ˆ · ˆ = ij cos 90◦ = 0 i j Thus we have ˆ · ˆ = ˆ · ˆ = k · k = 1 and ˆ · ˆ = ˆ · k = ˆ · k = ˆ · ˆ = k · ˆ = i i j j ˆ ˆ i j i ˆ j ˆ j i ˆ i ˆ · ˆ = 0.44 CHAPTER 2. namely a · b = ax bx + ay by + az bz (2. Based on our deﬁnition (2. (see Problem 38) k j Now any vector can be written in terms of unit vectors as a = axˆ y ˆ + i+a j ˆ and b = bxˆ + by ˆ + bz k. VECTORS product of the magnitude of one vector times the component of the other vector along the ﬁrst vector.1) using unit vectors. What’s the good of all this? Well for one thing it’s now easy to ﬁgure out the angle between vectors. Thus the scalar product of any two arbitrary ˆ az k i j vectors is a · b = ab cos φ ˆ ˆ = (axˆ + ay ˆ + az k) · (bxˆ + by ˆ + bz k) i j i j = ax bx + ay by + az bz Thus we have a new formula for scalar product.

2 The Vector Product In making up the deﬁnition of vector product we have to deﬁne its magnitude and direction. . The symbol for vector product is a × b.2. The magnitude is deﬁned as c = ab sin φ and the direction is deﬁned to follow the right hand rule. b = middle ﬁnger. Given that the result is a vector let’s write c ≡ a × b.7. a = foreﬁnger.) (Do a few examples ﬁnding direction of cross product) Example Evaluate ˆ × ˆ i j Solution |ˆ × ˆ = ij sin 90◦ = 1 i j| ˆ direction same as k ˆ ˆ× ˆ = k Thus i j ˆ ˆ Example Evaluate k × k ˆ ˆ Solution |k × k| = kk sin 0 = 0 ˆ ˆ Thus k × k = 0 Thus we have ˆ i j ˆ× ˆ = k ˆ×k =ˆ i j ˆ j ˆ i k ×ˆ = ˆ ˆ ˆ j ˆ × ˆ = −k k × ˆ = −ˆ ˆ × k = −ˆ j i i i ˆ j and ˆ×ˆ = ˆ × ˆ = k × k = 0 i i j j ˆ ˆ (see Problem 39) Thus the vector product of any two arbitrary vectors is ˆ ˆ a × b = (axˆ + ay ˆ + az k) × (bxˆ + by ˆ + bz k) i j i j which gives a new formula for vector product. Study Sample Problem 3-7 and 3-8. MULTIPLYING VECTORS 45 2. (c = thumb.7. namely a × b = (ay bz − az by )ˆ + (az bx − ax bz )ˆ i j ˆ +(ax by − ay bx )k (see Problem 49).

VECTORS 2. 3. A) u + v B) u − v C) u. Calculate the angle between the vectors r = ˆ + 2ˆ and t = ˆ − k. i j j ˆ 2.8 Problems 1. Evaluate (r + 2t ). Two vectors are deﬁned as u = ˆ + k and v = ˆ + ˆ Evaluate: j ˆ i j.46 CHAPTER 2.v D) u × v .f where r = ˆ + 2ˆ and t = ˆ − k and f = ˆ − ˆ i j j ˆ i j.

THEMES: 1. FOOTBALL. Have your experiment show that the maximum range is achieved when the launch angle is 45o .Chapter 3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design a simple experiment which shows that the range of a projectile depends upon the angle at which it is launched. 47 .

Sample Problem 4-1 3.3 Velocity and Average Velocity In 1-dimension. namely displacement = ∆x = x2 − x1 .2 Position and Displacement In Chapter 2 we used the coordinate x alone to denote position. However for 3-dimensions position is generally described with the position vector ˆ r = xˆ + yˆ + z k. displacement = ∆r = r2 − r1 ˆ = ∆xˆ + ∆yˆ + ∆z k i j ˆ i j = (x2 − x1 )ˆ + (y2 − y1 )ˆ + (z2 − z1 )k Thus displacement is a vector. the average velocity was deﬁned as displacement divided by time interval or v ≡ ∆x = x2 −x11 .1 Moving in Two or Three Dimensions In this chapter we will go over everything we did in Chapter 2 concerning motion. displacement was deﬁned as a change in position. except that now the entire discussion will use the formation of vectors.48 CHAPTER 3. 3. i j Now in Chapter 2. In 3-dimensions. displacement is deﬁned as the change in position vector. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 3. in 3-dimensions average velocity ¯ ∆t t2 −t is deﬁned as ¯ v ≡ ∆r r 2 − r1 = ∆t t 2 − t1 ˆ ∆xˆ + ∆yˆ + ∆z k i j = ∆t ∆x ˆ ∆y ˆ ∆z ˆ = k i+ j+ ∆t ∆t ∆t = vxˆ + vy ˆ + vz k ¯ i ¯ j ¯ ˆ . Similarly.

the average acceleration is deﬁned as ¯ ∆v = v2 − v1 a≡ ∆t t2 − t 1 and acceleration (instantaneous acceleration) is deﬁned as a= Constant Acceleration Equations In 1-dimension.4 Acceleration and Average Acceleration Again we follow the deﬁnitions made for 1-dimension. ACCELERATION AND AVERAGE ACCELERATION 49 For 1-dimension. was deﬁned as v ≡ dx . (carefully read about this in Halliday.3. the instantaneous velocity. In 3-dimensions. Point to note: The instantaneous velocity of a particle is always tangent to the path of the particle.4. or just velocity. In 3-dimensions we deﬁne velocity as dt v ≡ dr dt d ˆ ˆ = (xi + yˆ + z k) j dt dx ˆ dy ˆ dz ˆ i+ j+ k = dt dt dt ˆ = vxˆ + vy ˆ + vz k i j Thus velocity is a vector. 55) 3. our basic deﬁnitions were v = ¯ v = a = ¯ a = ∆x ∆t dx dt ∆v ∆t dv dt dv dt . pg.

az = ¯ ∆t ∆t ∆t and dv a≡ dt or dvx dvy dvz ax = . Thus . ay = .50 CHAPTER 3. vy + ¯ . vy = . In 3-dimensions we had ¯ ∆r v≡ ∆t or ∆x ˆ ∆y ˆ ∆z ˆ vxˆ + vy ˆ + vz k = ¯ i ¯ j ¯ ˆ k i+ j+ ∆t ∆t ∆t or ∆x ∆y ∆z vx = ¯ . vz = dt dt dt Similarly ¯ ∆v a≡ ∆t or ∆x ∆y ∆z ax = ¯ . one for each dimension. ∆t Similarly dr v≡ dt or dx dy dz vx = . vz = ¯ ∆t ∆t ∆t ¯ These 3 equations are the meaning of the ﬁrst vector equation v ≡ ∆r . az = dt dt dt So we see that in 3-dimensions the equations are the same as in 1dimension except that we have 3 sets of them. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS We found that if the acceleration is constant. ay = ¯ . then from these equations we can prove that v = vo + at 2 v 2 = vo + 2a(x − xo ) vo + v t x − xo = 2 1 x − xo = vo t + at2 2 1 2 = vt − at 2 which are known as the 5 constant acceleration equations.

5 Read. Thus we will have 3 sets of constant acceleration equations. then ax . namely vx = vox + ax t 2 2 vx = vox + 2ax (x − xo ) vox + vx t x − xo = 2 1 x − xo = vox t + ax t2 2 1 2 = vx t − ax t 2 and vy = voy + ay t 2 2 vy = voy + 2ay (y − yo ) voy + vy y − yo = t 2 1 y − yo = voy t + ay t2 2 1 2 = vy t − ay t 2 and vz = voz + az t 2 2 vz = voz + 2az (z − zo ) voz + vz t z − zo = 2 1 z − zo = voz t + az t2 2 1 2 = vz t − az t 2 These 3 sets of constant acceleration equations are easy to remember.3. They are the same as the old ones in 1-dimension except now they have subscripts for x. Projectile Motion . PROJECTILE MOTION 51 if the 3-dimensional acceleration vector a is now constant. ay and az must all be constant.5. z. 3. y.

4.52 CHAPTER 3. v0 θ v0 y v0 x range. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 3.1 Projectile Motion. Also we shall ignore air resistance.1. The classic example is kicking a football oﬀ the ground. as shown in Fig.6 Projectile Motion Analyzed Most motion in 3-dimensions actually only occurs in 2-dimensions. R FIGURE 4. . Thus we can ignore all motion in the z direction and just analyze the x and y directions. It follows a 2-dimensional curve.

2 2 If vx = vox then of course also vx = vox .e. Thus (3. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 53 Example A football is kicked oﬀ the ground with an initial velocity of vo at an angle θ to the ground. The fourth and ﬁfth equations are also consistent 2 with vx = vox . what is vox in terms of vo ≡ |vo | and θ? Well. Write down the x constant acceleration equation in simpliﬁed form. Now. because there is no acceleration in the x direction after the ball has been kicked. which means vx = vox .1 we see that vox = vo cos θ and voy = vo sin θ. (Ignore air resistance) Solution The x direction is easiest to deal with. Thus the constant acceleration equations in the x direction become vx = vox 2 2 vx = vox vox + vx x − xo = t = vox t = vx t 2 x − xo = vox t = vx t (3. ax = 0. i.6. 4.1) becomes x − xo = vo cos θ t . and simply say that distance = speed × time when the acceleration is 0. from Fig. The second equation just says the same thing.3.1) The ﬁrst equation (vx = vox ) makes perfect sense because if ax = 0 then the speed in the x direction is constant. In the third equation +v +v we also use vx = vox to get vox2 x = vox +vox = vox or vox2 x = 2 vx +vx = vx .

One falls in vertical path and the other on parabolic trajectory but both hit ground at same time. (You should do some thinking about this. This is because t is the same for all 3 components. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS Example What is the form of the y-direction constant acceleration equations from the previous example ? Solution Can we also simplify the constant acceleration equations for the y direction? No. Also we can write voy = vo sin θ. 3) Monkey shoot. y or z subscript. 2) Push 2 objects oﬀ table at same time. In the y direction the acceleration is constant ay = −g but not zero. Thus the y direction equations don’t simplify at all. . t = tx = ty = tz . Air track: no acceleration in x direction.8 m/sec2 .) LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS 1) Drop an object: it accerates in y direction. i. Thus the equations for the y direction are vy = vo sin θ − gt 2 vy = (vo sin θ)2 − 2g(y − yo ) vo sin θ + vy y − yo = t 2 1 y − yo = vo sin θ t − gt2 2 An important thing to notice is that t never gets an x.54 CHAPTER 3.e. except that we know that the value of ay is −g or −9.

From the previous example we had 1 y − yo = vo sin θ t − gt2 2 But for this example. (Ignore air resistance and the spin of the football.3. Thus θ = 45o . We get this the y direction equation. depends upon the initial speed and angle that it leaves the ground. R is just R = x − xo = vox t = vo cos θ t Given vo and θ we could calculate the range if we had t. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 55 Example The total horizontal distance (called the Range) that a football will travel when kicked. we have y − yo = 0. Thus 1 0 = vo sin θ t − gt2 2 1 0 = vo sin θ − gt 2 2vo sin θ ⇒t = g Substituting into our Range formula above gives R = vo cos θ t 2 2vo sin θ cos θ = g 2 sin 2θ vo = g using the formula sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ.6. Derive a formula for the Range. and show that the maximum Range occurs for θ = 45◦ .) Solution The Range. . Now R will be largest when sin 2θ is largest which occurs when 2θ = 90o .

MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS COMPUTER SIMULATION (Interactive Physics): Air Drop. The plane is travelling horizontally at a speed of vox . The plane releases supplies a horizontal distance of R in advance of the mountain climbers. for the vertical velocity (up or down) that the supplies should be given so they land exactly at the climber’s position.R and g. Example A rescue plane wants to drop supplies to isolated mountain climbers on a rocky ridge a distance H below. Derive a formula in terms of H. If H = 200 m. calculate a numerical value for this speed.(See Figure 4.2.2 Air Drop. v0x = 250 km/hr and R = 400m. v0x . origin H=200 m R=400 m FIGURE 4.56 CHAPTER 3.) .

722 m/sec + 28. namely voy .8 2 × 2 sec 250 km hour−1 km m2 hour = −125 + 7.2.85 60 × 60 sec sec2 1000 m = −34. Let’s now put in numbers: = − 200 m × 250 km hour−1 400 m 400 km 1 m + 9.5 m/sec Thus the supplies must be thrown in the down direction (not up) at 6. .84 2 hour sec km 1000 m m2 × 60 × 60 sec = −125 + 7.5 m/sec.22 m/sec = −6.6. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED Solution Let’s put the origin at the plane.3. See Fig. We can get this from 1 y − yo = voy t + ay t2 = −H 2 1 2 = voy t − gt 2 or −H 1 + gt t 2 and we get t from the x direction. 4. The initial speed of supplies when released is vox = +250 km/hour x − xo = R − 0 = R ay = −g y − yo = 0 − H = −H (note the minus sign !) We want to ﬁnd the initial vertical velocity of the supplies. namely voy = x − xo = vox t = R ⇒t= giving voy = −H vox 1 R + g R 2 vox R vox 57 which is the formula we seek.

The word “uniform” means that speed is constant.3.58 CHAPTER 3.r 1 v2 r2 v2 v1 ∆θ ∆ v = v2 .v1 r1 ∆θ FIGURE 4.2) Here I have written ∆s instead of ∆x or ∆y because ∆s is the total distance ∆t ∆t ∆t around the circle which is a mixture of x and y.e. where the displacement and velocity vectors are drawn for a satellite at two diﬀerent positions P1 and P2 . This is shown in Fig.3 Circular Motion. If the speed is constant then it is given by v= ∆s 2πr = ∆t T (3. Also circular motion is a classic example where we have a deﬁnite non-zero acceleration even though the speed of a satellite is constant. 4-19 of Halliday. speed) is constant. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 3. there is a well deﬁned radius which we will call r. .7 Uniform Circular Motion In today’s world of satellites and spacecraft circular motion is very important to understand because many satellites have circular orbits. Also the time it takes for the satellite to complete 1 orbit is called the period T . In circular motion. P1 v1 ∆s ∆r P1 = r2 . What about the acceleration? Well that’s just a = ∆v but how do we ∆t work it out? Look at Figure 4. 2πr is just the distance of T 1 orbit (circumference) divided by the time of 1 orbit (period). This occurs because the direction of velocity is constantly changing for the satellite even though the magnitude of velocity (i.

For this reason it is called centripetal acceleration. meaning that |v2 | = |v1 | ≡ v.e. We have worked out the magnitude of the acceleration. The “acceleration” you feel is called the centrifugal acceleration. Combining the above two equations for ∆θ gives a≡ ∆v v2 = ∆t r i. One ﬁnal thing.7. Whenever we have uniform circular motion we always know the actual value of acceleration if we know v and r. The triangle is similar to the top triangle in that the angle ∆θ is the same. This “acceleration” that you feel is the same as the car’s acceleration. The same idea occurs when you spin-dry clothes in a washing machine. In reality it is the car that is being accelerated around in the circle. Writing ∆v ≡ |∆v| the bottom ﬁgure also gives ∆θ = Now the magnitude of acceleration is a= ∆v ∆t ∆v ∆t (3. the car pushes on you. as the driver.3) The velocity vectors can be re-drawn as in the bottom part of the ﬁgure. When you drive your car around in a circle then you. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION Now angle ∆θ is deﬁned as (with |r1 | = |r2 | ≡ r) ∆θ ≡ v∆t ∆s = r r 59 (3. and because of your inertia.3. (3. Also the speed v is constant. . feel as though you are getting pushed against the door.7) This is a very important equation.5) (3. What about its direction? I will show you a VIDEO in class (Mechanical Universe video #9 showing vectors for circular motion) which will clearly show that the direction of acceleration is always towards the center of the circle.6) = v2 r .4) ∆v v (3.

8 m sec = 2π 102. Suppose the spacecraft is a cylinder of L in length.e.1 sec = 63.5 sec i. If L = 1 km what is the numerical value foe the period ? Solution The centifugal acceleration is a and we want it to equal g. Derive a formula for the rotation period would it need to spin in order to simulate the gravity on Earth. 000 miles v = = T 30 × 24 hours = 2.60 CHAPTER 3. Thus v2 (2πr/T )2 4π 2 r g= = = r r T2 Thus 4π 2 r T2 = g giving T = 2π L g which is the formula we seek. 182 mph i. about 2000 mph! T = 2π .04 sec−2 = 2π × 10. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS Example Future spacecraft will be made to spin in order to provide artiﬁcial gravity for the astronauts. Putting in numbers: 1000 m −2 √ 9. Thus 2πr 2π × 250. How fast does the Moon travel in its orbit ? Solution The period of the Moon is 1 month. about once every minute! Example The Moon is 1/4 million miles from Earth.e.

that the projectile reaches. t). Even though the Earth is spinning and we all experience a centrifugal acceleration. A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed vo at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal.8. (Your formula should make no explicit reference to time.e. derive an expression for the height L. 6. namely R = 2 v0 sin 2θ g = 2 2v0 sin θ cos θ v 2 sin2 θ and H = 0 2g . 3. If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance D away and if you instead aim an arrow directly at the bulls-eye (i. 2. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola (neglect air resistance). Hint: the general form of a parabola is given by y = ax2 + bx + c. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the horizontal range R. (Your formula should make no explicit reference to time. At what angle is the range a maximum ? B) If v0 = 30 km/hour and θ = 15o calculate the numerical value of R. which is the vertical distance above the bulls-eye that one needs to aim a riﬂe in order to hit the bulls-eye.3. of the projectile. In order for us to be ﬂung oﬀ.8 Problems 1. B) How much bigger is L compared to the projectile height H ? Note: In this problem use previous results found for the range R and height H. directly horiziontally). t). A) A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed vo at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal. g 4. the Earth would have to be spinning a lot faster. such that a person on the equator would be ﬂung oﬀ into space. (Take the radius of Earth to be R). PROBLEMS 61 3. in order to account for the downward motion of the projectile. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the maximum height H. Normally if you wish to hit a bulls-eye some distance away you need to aim a certain distance above it. we are not ﬂung oﬀ the Earth due to the gravitational force. A) Derive a formula for the new rotational time of the Earth. Assume the bullet leaves the riﬂe with speed v0 . by what (downward) vertical distance would you miss the bulls-eye ? 5. A) If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance R away. .

Derive a formula for the horizontal distance (i. Derive a formula for the distance d that the skier travels on the horizontal surface before coming to a stop. If the height of the building is H. derive a formula for the time it takes the stone to hit the ground below. 7. 9. A cannon ball is ﬁred horizontally at a speed v0 from the edge of the top of a cliﬀ of height H.e. Check that your answer has the correct units. 8. 10. . A stone is thrown from the top of a building upward at an angle θ to the horizontal and with an initial speed of v0 as shown in the ﬁgure. the range) that the cannon ball travels. calculate a numerical anser to part A) and compare it to the actual rotation time of the Earth today. Derive a formula for x in terms of k. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS B) Using R = 6. (Assume that there is a constant deceleration on the horizontal surface). Due to the centrifugal force. Check that your answer has the correct units. A staellite is in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M and radius R at an altitude of H. Check that your answer has the correct units. the spring stretches by a certain amount x from its equilibrium position. At the bottom of the slope the surface changes to horizontal and has a coeﬃcient of kinetic friction µk between the horizontal surface and the skis. 11. The mass moves in circular motion of radius R and period T .62 CHAPTER 3. Derive a formula for the additional speed that the satellite must acquire to completely escape from the planet. R and T . A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless ski slope of height H and inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal.4 million km. A mass m is attached to the end of a spring with spring constant k on a frictionless horizontal surface. Check that x has the correct units.

PROBLEMS 63 vo θ H .8.3.

MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS .64 CHAPTER 3.

I THEMES: 1. HOW STRONG A ROPE DO I NEED ? 65 .Chapter 4 FORCE & MOTION .

I 4. Friction force causes cars to slow down (decelerate). accelerate downwards).2 Newton’s First Law A body remains in a state of rest.1 What Causes an Acceleration? So far we have studied some things about acceleration but we never considered what causes things to accelerate. The gravitational force causes objects to fall (i. One of the key activities in classical physics is to ﬁnd all the forces ΣF .e. Once you know that you can get acceleration as we shall see.5 Newton’s Second Law Newton’s second law of motion is not something we can derive from other equations.3 Read Force 4.66 CHAPTER 4. displacement and time.4 Read Mass 4. displacement and time as we have studied previously. unless acted upon by a force. 4. Rather it is a fundamental postulate of physics. It was introduced by Isaac Newton to describe the cause of acceleration. you can ﬁnd velocity. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Tablecloth 4. FORCE & MOTION . The body then undergoes an acceleration given by a. Once you have them then you have the acceleration via a = ΣF and once you have that m you can get velocity. . etc. or uniform motion in a straight line. The law is ΣF = ma ΣF represents the sum (Σ) of all forces (F ) acting on a single body of mass m. Fundamental classical physics is all about ﬁnding the force. Once you have the acceleration. The answer is force.

Thus its actual meaning is given by 3 equations. Normal Force You are sitting still in your chair. namely ΣFx = max ΣFy = may ΣFz = maz Once we have ΣFx . just plug them into the constant acceleration equations and solve for the other quantities you are interested in. az .8 m/sec2 on Earth. The mass unit is called slug. If they are constant. ay . One extra point is the units.) Yet there is a weight force W pulling down.7 m/sec2 on the Moon. The units of m are kg and thus the units of F are kg m/sec2 . thus Pound (lb) ≡ slug foot/sec2 4. (You are not moving.) Weight is a force which pulls you down. ΣFz = 0) which means that ax = az = 0. Now you also know that ay = 0. (It’s 9. Weight is deﬁned as W ≡ mg where g is the acceleration due to gravity. If you stand on the same scales on the moon your weight will be less because the moon’s gravity is small.4. SOME PARTICULAR FORCES 67 Now Newton’s second law is a vector equation. The units of acceleration are foot/sec2 . We call this up force the Normal force N . This is given a special name called Newton (N ). but only 1.6 Some Particular Forces Weight If you stand on a set of scales you measure your weight. The sum of all forces in the x and z direction are zero (ΣFx = 0. Thus N ≡ kg m/sec2 In the English system of units a Pound (lb) is a unit of force. even though your mass is the same. ΣFz we just divide by m to give the accelerations ax .6. ΣFy . If your ay = 0 then there must be another force pushing up to balance the weight force. The units of a are m/sec2 . Thus ΣFy = may N −W = 0 .

The Normal force is called “Normal” because it always acts perpendicular (normal means perpendicular) to the surface (of the chair). which is the force in a rope or cable when under a stress. FORCE & MOTION .I The N has a + sign (up) and W has a − sign (down) and they both balance out to give zero acceleration.7 Newton’s Third Law Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Friction Friction is another force that we will study shortly.68 CHAPTER 4. That’s how we know that the chair must push up on the person sitting on it. the bigger N must be. Carefully study Sample Problem 5-4 4. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Fire extinguisher rocket . The heavier the person. Tension Finally another important type of force is tension.

Thus T −W =0 ⇒ T = W = mg which is the formula we seek. Now the forces are tension (+T ) in the up direction and weight (−W ) in the down direction.4. Then solve ΣF = ma. 5.1 Chandelier hanging from ceiling. as seen in Fig.8. 5-11.8 Applying Newton’s Laws Carefully study Sample Problems 5-5. If m = 50 kg evaluate a numerical answer for the tension. Solution Carefully draw a diagram showing all forces. 5-8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 69 4.1.8 m/sec2 = 490 kg m/sec2 = 490 N T W FIGURE 5. 5-9. Putting in numbers: T = 50 kg × 9. 5-10. Example A chandelier of mass m is hanging from a single cord in the ceiling. Thus ΣFx = max ΣFy = may ΣFz = maz but all forces and acceleration in the x and z directions are zero and so the only interesting equation is ΣFy = may . . Derive a formula for the tension in the cord. 5-7. so ay = 0. 5-6. You don’t want the chandelier to move.

namely. 5. If m = 50kg and α = 60o and θ = 30o evaluate a numerical answer for each tension. one at an angle of α to the ceiling and the other at θ. Derive a formula for is the tension in each cord. See Fig. T1x = T1 cos α T1y = T1 sin α . α T1 θ T2 W FIGURE 5.2 Chandelier suspended by 2 cables. In the z direction all forces and acceleration are zero. ΣFx = max and ΣFy = may T2x − T1x = 0 and T2y + T1y − W = 0 Now T2x = T2 cos θ. Solution Again carefully draw a ﬁgure showing all forces. We need to consider the x and y directions (both with ax = ay = 0). FORCE & MOTION . T2y = T2 sin θ.2.I Example A chandelier of mass m is now suspended by two cords.70 CHAPTER 4.

8 m/sec2 = 490 N Thus T1 = Now put back into T2 = 490N = 426 N. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS giving T2 cos θ − T1 cos α = 0 and T2 sin θ + T1 sin α = W The x equation gives T2 = y equation giving T1 cos α cos θ 71 which is substituted into the T1 cos α sin θ + T1 sin α = W cos θ or T1 = = and upon substitution T2 = = T1 cos α cos θ mg sin θ + tan α cos θ W cos α tan θ + sin α mg cos α tan θ + sin α which are the formulas we seek. cos 60 tan 30 + sin 60 T1 cos 60 426N cos 60 = = 246 N cos 30 cos 30 . Putting in numbers gives: W = mg = 50 kg × 9.4.8.

I Example If you normally have a weight of W . Thus ΣF = ma N N − W = ma = W + ma The answer makes sense. how much will a weight scale read if you are standing on it in an elevator moving up at an acceleration of a ? Solution The reading on the scale will just be the Normal force. FORCE & MOTION . . You would expect the scale to read a higher value.72 CHAPTER 4.

y N W co θ 90 − θ x sθ θ W sin θ W FIGURE 5. .3 Block sliding down frictionless incline. A) What is the normal force? B) What is the acceleration of the block? Solution In Fig.8.3 the forces are drawn. 5. Notice that I have chosen the orientation of the y axis to lie along the normal force. but this will make things easier to work out. You could make other choices. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 73 Example A block of mass m slides down a frictionless incline of angle θ.4.

74 CHAPTER 4. ΣFy = may N − W cos θ = 0 because the block has zero acceleration in the y direction.I A) Analyzing the y direction. Thus N = W cos θ = mg cos θ B) Analyzing the x direction. FORCE & MOTION . ΣFx = max W sin θ = max ax = W sin θ mg sin θ = = g sin θ m m .

4.2) (4. Assume the pulley is frictionless and the tension T is the same throughout the rope. (4. T m1 W1 T m2 W2 FIGURE 5.1) gives T − W1 − (T − W2 ) = m1 a − (−m2 a) − W1 + W2 = m1 a + m2 a W2 − W1 m2 − m1 a= = g m1 + m2 m1 + m2 Thus a is positive if m2 > m1 and negative if m2 < m1 . Solution The tension is the same throughout the rope. Analyze forces in y direction on m1 .4 Atwood machine. 5. (4. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 75 Example Derive a formula for the acceleration of the block system shown in Fig. ΣFy = m2 a2 T − W2 = m2 a2 but if a1 = a then a2 = −a giving T − W2 = −m2 a Subtracting eqn.2) from eqn.8. Analyze forces in y direction on m2 .1) . (4.4 (Atwood machine). thus T1 = T2 = T . ΣFy = m1 a1 T − W1 = m1 a with a1 ≡ a.

conic sections. and directed to contrary parts. Berkeley. rectilinear motion. attractive force of spherical bodies.” After the axioms are stated. hydrostatics. One of his major works was Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Cajori. the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. Very early on in the book we ﬁnd the section entitled Axioms. ed. California. LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. or Laws of Motion. etc. motion of bodies in ﬂuids. orbits. 1934. In these books we ﬁnd discussion of such toipics as centripetal forces. the Principia is then divided into two major books. QA 803 . The laws are stated as follows: “LAW I: Every body continues in a state of rest. or of uniform motion in a right line. namely Book I: The Motion of Bodies and Book II: The Motion of Bodies (in resisting mediums).A45 1934]. LAW II: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed. This makes for wonderful reading and is highly recommended. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed.) [University of California Press. or. by F. oscillating pendulum.76 CHAPTER 4.I HISTORICAL NOTE Isaac Newton is widely regarded as the greatest physicist of all time. By the way Newton also invented calculus and the reﬂecting telescope ! . ﬂuid dynamics. FORCE & MOTION .

PROBLEMS 77 4.4.9 Problems .9.

FORCE & MOTION .I .78 CHAPTER 4.

79 . THEMES: FRICTION.Chapter 5 FORCE & MOTION .II SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Measure the coeﬃcient of static friction between 2 surfaces.

the coin will remain stationary. Eventually however.) 5. The static friction has increased to keep the coin in place. The proportionality constant is called the coeﬃcient of friction µ. FORCE & MOTION . When you press down you are causing the normal force N to get bigger. However the maximum value of the static friction force fs. 6-3. 6-4).max is fs. then the friction force will increase.max ≡ µs N Both of these equations can be regarded as deﬁnitions for µk and µs . . We saw that static friction varies.80 CHAPTER 5. The kinetic friction force fk is given by fk ≡ µk N where µk is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction. such as when you slam the brakes on in your car and the car skids along the road. 6-2. (LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of above. Notice that the maximum amount of static friction occurred just before the coin started to slide.2 Properties of Friction If you press down hard on the coin. static friction will be overcome and the coin will slide down the book (with kinetic friction operating). Static friction prevents the coin from sliding. If you put a coin on top of a book and tilt the book at a small angle. kinetic friction will cause the car to stop. (Carefully study Samples Problems 6-1. Thus friction is proportional to N . Tilt the book a bit more and still the coin does not slide. Eventually. When two surfaces are in relative motion then the friction is kinetic.II 5.1 Friction There are two types of friction — static and kinetic.

6. .1 Block sliding down incline with friction.5. Show that µs = tan θ. PROPERTIES OF FRICTION 81 Example The coeﬃcient of static friction is just the tangent of the angle where two objects start to slide relative to each other. y fs N W co θ 90 − θ x sθ θ W sin θ W FIGURE 6. Solution A force diagram is shown in Fig.2.1.

3 Read Drag Force and Terminal Speed 5.82 CHAPTER 5. . namely ΣF = ma mv 2 = r The forces that produce circular motion get put into the left hand side. Thus we always know the right hand side of Newton’s second law.II Analyze forces in y direction ΣFy = may N − W cos θ = 0 In x direction ΣFx = max fs − W sin θ = 0 µs N − W sin θ = 0 W sin θ N where ax = 0 just before object starts to slide. FORCE & MOTION . Now we get N from y equation above (N = cos θ). Thus µs = µs = or µs = tan θ W sin θ W cos θ 5.4 Uniform Circular Motion 2 In the case of circular motion we always know that the acceleration is a = vr .

. The top part of the ﬁgure shows that static friction alone keeps the car in circular motion.) fs x view from above y N side view x FIGURE 6. Work out a formula for the radius of curvature in terms of the speed of the car and the coeﬃcient of friction. (The forward motion of the car involves moving kinetic friction. but the sideways motion involves static friction. 6. The radius of curvature of the road bend is chosen to be large enough so that the car will be able to derive around smoothly in a part-circle. Solution Force diagrams are shown in Fig. engineers consider the speed v of a car and the coeﬃcient of friction between the car tires and the road.5.2. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION 83 Example In designing a curved road.2 Car rounding a curve.4.

. ΣFy = may N −W =0 N = W = mg Substituting into the x equation gives µs mg = or r= mv 2 r v2 µs g This formula tells an engineer how large to make the radius of curvature of the road for a given car speed v (say 5 times the speed limit) and a coeﬃcient of friction µs .84 In the x direction CHAPTER 5.II ΣFx = max v2 fs = m r mv 2 µs N = r We get N from the y direction. FORCE & MOTION .

in terms of m. such that m1 moves to the right. Fig 5. (Hint: the weight that a passenger feels is just the normal force. A second mass m2 hangs below m1 with m1 and m2 also connected by another string. T . Comment on whether your answers make sense. for the weight that a passenger of mass m feels at the top and bottom of the circle. g. pg.5. (‘Light’ means that we can neglect the mass of the cord and the mass of the pulley.) 4. [Serway 5th ed. What is the acceleration of a snow skier sliding down a frictionless ski slope of angle θ ? Check that your answer makes sense for θ = 0o and for θ = 90o .5. horizontal surface is connected to a second mass m2 by a light cord over a light frictionless pulley as shown in the ﬁgure. Derive a formula..14] .135. Calculate the tension in each string. A mass m1 hangs vertically from a string connected to a ceiling. PROBLEMS 85 5. The coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between m1 and the surface is µ. Derive a formula for the acceleration of the masses. R. A block of mass m1 on a rough.5 Problems 1.) A force of magnitude F is applied to the mass m1 as shown. A ferris wheel rotates at constant speed in a vertical circle of radius R and it takes time T to complete each circle. 3. 2.

If you whirl an object of mass m at the end of a string in a vertical circle of radius R at constant speed v. FORCE & MOTION . derive a formula for the tension in the string at the top and bottom of the circle. .II F θ m1 m 2 5.86 CHAPTER 5.

81 m. will the mass m2 be at rest? D) If the masses are equal. what is the numerical value of this period? . what is the answer to Part C)? E) For a radius of 9. PROBLEMS 87 6. B) Derive an expression for the acceleration of m2 in terms of the period t of the circular motion. A) Derive an expression for the tension T in the string.5. R m1 m2 Obviously if m1 moves quickly in the circle then m2 will start to move upwards. Two masses m1 and m2 are connected by a string passing through a hollow pipe with m1 being swung around in a circle of radius R and m2 hanging vertically as shown in the ﬁgure. but if m1 moves slowly m2 will start to fall.5. C) For what period t.

C) Evaluate numerical answers to the above two questions assuming the mass of the block is 1000kg.II 7. A) What friction force is required to stop a block of mass m moving at speed v0 . assuming that we want the block to stop over a distance d? B) Work out a formula for the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction that will achieve this. FORCE & MOTION . the initial speed is 60 km per hour and the braking distance is 200m. .88 CHAPTER 5.

89 .Chapter 6 POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design any experiment which illustrates that energy is conserved. THEMES: MACHINES.

6. Machines are objects that allow us to do work more eﬃciently. If you load objects into a truck. but rather is based on the concepts of work and energy. There it is clearly explained why work is deﬁned as force × distance. For example. All students should read my handout on simple machines. There is an alternative formulation of mechanics which does not rely heavily on force. In our study of mechanics so far our approach has been to identify all the forces. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY In this chapterI am going to include the discussion of Chapter 7 and 8 [from Halliday] all together and try to present a single uniﬁed approach to the whole topic of work and energy. time. When you lift an object you apply a lifting force over the height that you lift the object. then a large ramp (large distance) allows you to apply less force to achieve the same work. You do work on an object by applying a force over a certain distance. This great discovery simpliﬁed a great deal of physics and we shall study it in detail. a ramp is what is called a simple machine.90CHAPTER 6. The proper deﬁnition is W ≡ Writing ˆ F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ + Fz k i j and ˆ dr = dx ˆ + dy ˆ + dz k i j rf ri F · dr . The textbook by Halliday should be read very carefully for speciﬁc illustrations of my uniﬁed approach. etc. Also it leads to a better physical understanding of mechanics. However the key reason for introducing work-energy is because energy is conserved. The work-energy formulation of mechanics is worthwhile since sometimes it is easier to work with and involves only scalar quantities. displacement. divide by mass to get acceleration and then solve for velocity. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: SIMPLE MACHINES Actually the proper physical deﬁnition of work is more complicated.1 Work The basic concept of work is that it is force times distance.

6.1. WORK gives W = = ˆ ˆ i j (Fxˆ + Fy ˆ + Fz k) · (dx ˆ + dy ˆ + dz k) i j Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

91

Let’s ﬁrst look at the 1-dimensional case
xf

W =
xi

Fx dx

If the force Fx is constant then it can be taken outside the integral to give
xf

W

= Fx
xi

dx = Fx [x]xf xi

= Fx (xf − xi ) = Fx ∆x = force × distance giving us back our original idea. The reason why we have an integral is in case the force depends on distance. The reason we have the scalar product F · dr is if the force and distance are at some angle, such as a tall person pulling a toy wagon along with a rope inclined at some angle. By the way, the units of work must be Newton × meter which is given a special name, Joule. Thus Joule ≡ Newton meter

Example If I push a sled with a constant force of 100 N along a 5 m path, how much work do I do ? Solution The force is constant and in only 1-dimension, so W = Fx ∆x = 100 N × 5 m = 500 Nm = 500 Joule

92CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

6.2

Kinetic Energy
rf rf ri

Now we know that F = ma and so work can be written W =
ri

F · dr = m

a · dr

where m is taken outside the integral because it’s a constant. Let’s just consider 1-dimension to make things easier. Thus
xf xf

W =
xi

F dx = m
xi

a dx

Now use an old trick. a=

dv dv dx = dt dx dt
dx dt ,

using the chain rule for derivatives. But v = a = dv v dx dv = v dx

giving

Thus
xf xf

W

= m
xi vf

a dx = m
xi

v

dv dx dx

= m
vi

v dv 1 2 v 2
vf vi

= m

1 1 2 2 = mvf − mvi 2 2

Notice that we have found that the work is equal to the change in the quantity 1 mv 2 . We give this a special name and call it Kinetic Energy 2 1 K ≡ mv 2 2 Thus we have found that W = Kf − Ki or W = ∆K The total work is always equal to the change in kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. If m is large and v small, or m is small and

6.2. KINETIC ENERGY

93

v large the kinetic energy in both cases will be comparable. Note also that K must have the same units as W , namely Joule. What happens when we do work on an object? Well if you lift up an object, you increase its Potential energy (more about that in a moment). If you work on an object you can also increase its kinetic energy. If you push a marble on a table its speed will increase and so you have changed its kinetic energy. Example A sled of mass m is stationary on some frictionless ice. If I push the sled with a force of F over a distance ∆x, what will be the speed of the sled ? Solution The force is constant and is 1-dimension, so W = F ∆x = ∆K = Kf − Ki 1 1 2 2 = mvf − mvi 2 2 Now vi = 0, giving or vf = 2F ∆x m 1 2 F ∆x = mvf 2

The neat thing is that we can get exactly the same answer with our old methods, as the next example shows.

94CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Example Work out the previous example using the constant acceleration equations. Solution The acceleration is just a= F m

The constant acceleration equation that helps us is
2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 )

Now x − x0 = ∆x m and v0 = 0 giving v = = 2a(x − x0 ) 2F ∆x m

which is the same answer as the previous example.

6.2. KINETIC ENERGY In the previous two examples notice how the equation 1 1 2 2 W = F ∆x = mvf − mvi 2 2 is equivalent to
2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 )

95

Modify this to 1 2 v = 2 1 2 v = 2 1 mv 2 = 2 = or F ∆x = 1 1 2 mv 2 − mv0 2 2 = ∆K 1 2 v + a(x − x0 ) 2 0 1 2 v + a∆x 2 0 1 mv 2 + ma∆x 2 0 1 mv 2 + F ∆x 2 0

as we have above ! Thus the work-energy formulation provides an alternative approach to mechanics.

to put it brieﬂy. So far so good. If you lift an object against gravity and let it go then the object falls back to where it was. Before we do that. What we actually did was r2 W = r1 ma · dr ≡ ∆K r2 Now let’s not put F = ma but just study the integral r1 F · dr by itself. Spring forces are conservative. Note carefully what we did to get this result. Work was deﬁned as W ≡ F · dr and by putting in F = ma we found that the total work is always ∆K where the kinetic energy is deﬁned as K ≡ 1 mv 2 . POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 6. Gravity is a conservative force.96CHAPTER 6. as in W ≡ = ri rf ri rf F · dr FC · dr + rf ri FN C · dr ≡ WC + W N C and each piece corresponds therefore to conservative work WC and nonconservative work WN C . With conservative forces we always associate a potential energy. Anyway. If you pull a spring and then let it go. The deﬁnition is WC ≡ −∆U . We put in the right hand side of F = ma to prove W = ∆K. we must recognize that there are two types of forces called conservative and non-conservative. conservative forces “bounce back” and nonconservative forces don’t. Thus 2 W ≡ r2 r1 F · dr = ∆K. Let’s deﬁne the conservative piece as the negative of the change in a new quantity called potential energy U . However friction is non-conservative. Thus any force F can be broken up into the conservative piece FC and the non-conservative piece FN C . If you slide an object along the table against friction and let go. it bounces back to where it was. then the object just stays there. You should carefully read Section 8-2 of Halliday to learn about this.3 Work-Energy Theorem Let’s review what we have done.

. Combining all of this we have W = WC + WN C = ∆K = −∆U + WN C or ∆U + ∆K = WN C which is the famous Work-Energy theorem. Now we found that the total work W was always ∆K.3.6. WORK-ENERGY THEOREM 97 where −∆U = −(Uf − Ui ) = −Uf + Ui .

just as we can give an object kinetic energy by doing work.e. Let’s consider the simplest conservative force. i. The work-energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = WN C where K ≡ 1 mv 2 and for gravity U = mgy. Let’s backtrack a little and try to understand better what we have done. .98CHAPTER 6. It is often zero as in the next example. Uf = mgyf and Ui = mgyi . etc. such as friction. Let’s look at the conservative piece a little more closely and examine potential energy in more detail. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 6. Let’s work out WC and ∆U in 1dimension. WN C is the non-conservative 2 work. Similarly if an object has potential energy or kinetic energy then the object can do work by releasing that energy. If we do work in lifting an object. heat. then we give that object potential energy. Thus we can simply write U = mgy which is our expression for gravitational potential energy. When the water falls and reduces it potential energy (smaller y) the energy is converted into work to drive electric generators.4 Gravitational Potential Energy We have been doing a lot of formal analysis. A large amount of water is stored in a dam at a large height y with a large potential energy.5 Conservation of Energy Let’s summarize again. This is the principle of hydro-electric power generators. 6. If an object is raised to a large height y then it has a large potential energy. The gravitational force due to weight is j FC = −mg ˆ giving WC ≡ −∆U = FC · dr ˆ ˆ · (dx ˆ + dy ˆ + dz k) = −mg j i j yf = −(Uf − Ui ) = −mg dy yi = −Uf + Ui = −mg [y]yf = −mg(yf − yi ) = −mgyf + mgyi yi which gives −Uf = −mgyf . sound. namely the weight force where W = mg which is a constant.

with what speed does it hit the ground? Deduce the answer using the workenergy theorem.5. i. Ef = Ei . Thus 1 mv 2 = mgH 2 f or vf = 2gH .6. This is the famous conservation of mechanical energy.e. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 99 Example If you drop an object from a height H. We have K = 1 mv 2 and U = mgy giving 2 1 1 2 2 mgyf + mvf = mgyi + mvi 2 2 but yf = 0 and yi = H and vi = 0. Assume WN C = 0. Solution WN C = 0 because things such as heat and friction are negligible. Thus the work energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = 0 or Uf − Ui + Kf − Ki = 0 or Uf + Kf = Ui + Ki That is the total energy E ≡U +K is constant.

giving v = = 2g(y − y0 ) = 2gH 2g(0 − −H) which is the same answer as before. Example Prove that a swinging pendulum always rises to the same height.) Solution With friction ignored we have WN C = 0 and 1 1 2 2 mvf + mgyf = mvi + mgyi 2 2 I let go of the pendulum with speed vi = 0 and it returns with speed vf = 0. Thus mgyf = mgyi or y f = yi LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Bowling Ball Pendulum . POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Example Complete the previous example using the constant acceleration equations. (Neglect friction. Solution The most convenient equation is 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(y − y0 ) but v0 = 0 and y − y0 = 0 − H = −H and a = −g.100CHAPTER 6.

e. i. Thus WC ≡ −∆U = FC · dr ˆ x ˆ · (dx ˆ + dy ˆ + dz k) i i j xf xi = −(Uf − Ui ) = −k = −Uf + Ui = −k x dx = −k 1 2 x 2 xf xi 1 2 1 2 = −k x − x 2 f 2 i 1 1 = − kx2 + kx2 f 2 2 i which gives −Uf = − 1 kx2 . Also the force increases with distance.6. This can be expressed as i FC = −kx ˆ in the x direction. Uf = 1 kx2 and Ui = 1 kx2 .6 Spring Potential Energy When you pull a spring you feel a force in the opposite direction from which you pull. SPRING POTENTIAL ENERGY 101 6.6. Thus we can i f f 2 2 2 simplify and write 1 U = kx2 2 which is our expression for spring potential energy .

102CHAPTER 6. HALLIDAY SIMULATION: “A Spring” .) Solution WN C = 0 giving Uf + Kf = Ui + Ki 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 kxf + mvf = kxi + mvi 2 2 2 2 Now xf = 0. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Example A spring with spring constant k has a mass of m on one end. Thus the acceleration a = − kx is not constant and the constant m acceleration equations cannot be used to solve the previous example. how fast will the mass be moving when it returns to its original position? (Assume the motion occurs on a horizontal frictionless surface. xi = d m and vi = 0. When released. Also the variable force requires the integral deﬁnition of work as W = F · dr. Thus 2 mvf = kd2 or vf = d k m IMPORTANT NOTE: The spring is an example of a variable force F = −kx which varies as distance. The spring is stretched by a distance d.

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus). APPENDIX: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO OBTAIN POTENTIAL ENERGY103 6. Solution For gravity dr ≡ dy.7 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy Potential energy is deﬁned through Wc = Fc · dr ≡ −∆U Let’s just ignore the vectors for the moment and write Fc dr = −∆U Thus we must have Fc = − To see this write f i dU dr Fc dr = − Uf dU U dU = − [U ]Uf dr = − i Ui i dr = −(Uf − Ui ) = −∆U. For gravity we have F = −mgˆ or F = −mg and for a spring we have j ˆ or F = −kx. The question is what U will give F = −mg = − The answer is U = mgy.7. dr Example For gravity F = −mg. derive U without doing an integral. Let’s check: − dU dy = −mg = −mg dy dy dU dy which is the F we started with ! . f (cf. Thus instead of working out the integral F · dr to F = −kxi get U .6. just ask what U will give F according to F = − dU .

derive U without doing an integral. The question is what U will give F = −kx = − The answer is U = 1 kx2 .104CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Example For a spring F = −kx. Let’s check 2 − dU 1 dx2 1 =− k = − k 2x = −kx dx 2 dx 2 dU dx which is the F we started with! . Solution For a spring d ≡ dx.

6. PROBLEMS 105 6.8 Problems 1. . assuming the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction is µk .8. Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches the bottom of the incline. A block of mass m slides down a rough incline of height H and angle θ to the horizontal.

106CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY .

THEMES: FROM ONE TO MANY. 107 .Chapter 7 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Locate the center of mass of an object.

The location of the center of mass is deﬁned as rcm ≡ 1 M n i mi ri (7. For instance the motion of the Earth-Moon system around the Sun is actually governed by the center of mass of the two-body Earth-Moon system. we made a very convenient simpliﬁcation.1) . “The center of mass of a body or a system of bodies is the points that moves as though all of the mass were aconcentrated there and all external forces were applied there. We now want to study the motion of such systems of particles. 9-8 Halliday) ? A bat and a ballerina can be considered as a collection of a huge number of single particles. 9-1 Halliday) or a dancing ballerina (Fig.108 CHAPTER 7. 7. An easy way to ﬁnd the center of mass is to just regard it as a balance point. Notice we have included a system of bodies. But suppose we wich to study the motion of a complex object such as a spinning baseball bat (Fig.2 The Center of Mass Systems of Particles Now let’s come up with a mathematical deﬁnition for center of mass which is more precise than just saying it’s the balance point (although the balance point always gives the correct answer). and we have always been able to treat that single body as though it were a point. We will prove this mathematically in a moment.” [Halliday. For example the center of mass of a ruler is located as the point where you can balance the ruler on your ﬁnger without it falling oﬀ. and replaced it with just a single point and studied the motion of that point. 7. Thus we already know the answer for a ruler ! The center of mass is located at the center.1 A Special Point When we studied say a block sliding down an incline. This special point is called the center of mass of an object and by studying its motion alone we avoid all the extra complications of a body of ﬁnite size. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES Almost everything we have done so far has referred to the motion of a single body of mass m. 1997].

4) zcm ≡ mi zi i (7. Then the total mass M becomes M = m1 + m2 and (7. Now let’s see if our deﬁnition makes sense.7.3) ycm 1 ≡ M 1 M mi yi i n (7.2) becomes xcm = Does this make sense ? Let’s see.5) Let’s just consider the 1-dimensional version for the case of 2 bodies only. THE CENTER OF MASS 109 where the sum over i running from 1 to n means sum over all of the point particles within the body. m1 + m2 (7. M is the total mass of all the individual bodies and can be written n M≡ i mi (7.2) We have deﬁned the center of mass.2. assuming there are a total of n point particles. m1 x1 + m2 x2 .7) (7. First of all it’s a vector equation and so what it really means is the usual 3-dimensional decomposition as xcm ≡ 1 M n mi xi i n (7.6) .

Let’s see if our formula works here. but with the x-origin located at the center between the two dumbells instead of on the left dumbell. With the origin of the x-axis chosen to be at the center of the dumbells we have the position of each dumbell given by x1 = −2f t and x2 = +2f t respectively.9) which is exactly what we expected.1) makes perfect sense. Choosing the origin of the xcoordinate system to be at the left dumbell gives x1 = 0f t and x2 = 4f t.7). . Example Repeat the previous problem. That is our guess is that xcm = 2f t.1) and see if it gives this answer. Therefore we can believe that our deﬁnition for center of mass (7. each with the same mass m each at the end of a 4f t massless rod ? Solution Now you know that the answer to this must be at the center of the rod.1) reduces to only (7.3). Furthermore we only have two bodies and this reduces further to (7.1) makes perfect sense. Now we have a 1-dimensional problem and therefore (7. equation (7. Let’s look at what happens if we use a diﬀerent coordinate system. Subsituting we get xcm = m × (−2f t) + m × (+2f t) =0 m+m (7. Solution Well now we would guess that the center of mass would be given by xcm = 0. Let’s use our deﬁnition of center of mass. Therefore again we can believe that our deﬁnition for center of mass (7. Substituting gives xcm = m × 0f t + m × 4f t = 2f t m+m (7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES Example Where is the position of the center of mass for a system consisting of two dumbells.110 CHAPTER 7.8) which is exactly what we expected. After all that is the balancing point.

Again this is a 1-dimensional. Mary’s mass is mM . as the following example shows. THE CENTER OF MASS 111 Being able to ﬁnd the center of mass is actually useful. Solution Again our intuition tells us that we can guess that the ratio of the distances should be 1/8. Let’s see if our center of mass deﬁnition (7.2. Example A baby of mass mB sits on a see-saw. 2-body problem and so the formula for the center of mass is again mB xB + mM xM xcm = . Where should Mary sit in order to balance the see-saw ? Work out a formula and also a numerical answer if mB = 10 kg and mM = 80 kg. That is the baby should be 8 times as far away from the center of the see-saw as Mary. Thus mB xB + mM xM xcm = =0 mB + mM giving mB xB + mM xM = 0 which means that mB xB = −mM xM or mB m xB =− =− xM mM M or xM = − M xB m Putting in numbers we get 80 kg xM = − xB = −8 xB 10 kg just as we suspected. . mB + mM Now we want the center of mass located at the center of the see-saw and we will put the origin of our x-axis there as well.1) tells us this.7.

10) but for a continuous distribution of particles we now deﬁne xcm ≡ 1 M xdm (7. Thus our deﬁnition can be written xcm ≡ 1 M xdm ≡ 1 M xρdV and the same for y and z.1) as xcm ≡ 1 M n xi mi i (7. But what if we have a dense 1-dimensional object such as a very long and thin pencil.11) This is easier to work with if we introduce density ρ as mass / volume or ρ≡ dm M mass ≡ ≡ . but how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of systems made up of millions of particles such as a baseball bat. In other words how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of rigid bodies ? That’s what we will look at now.12) where dV is the volume occupied by the mass dm. Well then we will want a linear mass density. volume dV V (7. In physics whenever we want to change our study from a collection of discrete particles (desribed by a sum i ) to a continuous collection of particles. This can easily be extended to 3 or more bodies and some of this will be explored in the homework. Above we deﬁned a 3-dimensional density as mass / volume. Hopefully this makes perfect sense from what you have studied in calculus. For a discrete collection of particles we had (7. then it can be taken outside the integral to give xcm = 1 V xdV and the same for y and z.112 Rigid Bodies CHAPTER 7. the sum just changes to an integral. That’s all well and good. There’s one additional catch. You all now know that an integral is just the limit of a sequence of sums. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES Above we considered ﬁnding the center of mass of two bodies. . If the density is constant. Now each of the millions of particles in a rigid body has a tiny little mass denoted by dm.

1 x dA A and similarly for y. . we use the symbol λ for linear mass density and deﬁne it as λ≡ so that now we have xcm ≡ and for a constant λ. and the linear mass density λ of the pencil is constant.2. Thus 1 1 2 L 1 1 2 1 xcm = x L −0 = L = L 2 L 2 2 0 which is just the answer we expected! Thus we can believe that the formulas given previously really do work. 1 x dL L Because this is linear mass density we do not have any equations for x or y. but there is no equation for z. Solution Again using intuition we know the answer must be at the center of the pencil. Similarly we may have mass distributed only in 2 dimensions such as the surface of a table. (why?) xcm = Example Locate the center of mass of a very thin pencil of length L balanced sideways. THE CENTER OF MASS 113 Instead of ρ. so that xcm = 1 L L mass dm M ≡ ≡ length dL L x dm = 1 M x λ dL 1 M mass dm M ≡ ≡ area dA A x dm = 1 M x σ dA 1 M x dx 0 We have taken the origin (x = 0) to be at one end of the pencil.7. Now the element of length dL ≡ dx. We use area mass density deﬁned as xcm = σ≡ giving xcm ≡ and for constant σ.

However for a rigid body all the internal forces must cancel because in a rigid body the particles don’t move relative to each other.13). Solution Recall our deﬁnition of center of mass. Thus Fi i just becomes Fext in agreement with (7.3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles For a single particle of mass m we already have encountered Newton’s second law.13) Fext is the sum of all external forces acting on the body (all the where internal forces cancel out to zero). namely rcm ≡ or M rcm = i 1 M mi r i i mi ri Taking the time derivative gives M vcm = i mi vi and taking the time derivative again gives M acm = i mi ai Fi i = which is just the sum of all the forces acting on each mass mi . Example Prove equation (7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 7. . and F are all the forces acting on the mass m and a is the resulting acceleration of the mass m.13). M is the total mass of the body and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the body.114 CHAPTER 7. These forces will be both external and internal. namely F = ma. What happens for a system of particles? The end result is Fext = M acm (7.

(If the mass is not constant then dp = dt (mv) = dt m dv + dm v = ma + dm v so that Newton’s second law actually reads F = dt dt dt ma + dm v). giving the which is a very nice handy formula for the total momentum equals total mass multiplied by the velocity of the center of mass. dt 7.7. Thus Newton’s dt dt second law for a system of particles can be written dP dt Fext = .4.4 Linear Momentum of a Point Particle A more fundamental way of discussing Newton’s second law is in terms of a new quantity called momentum. It is deﬁned as p ≡ mv and it is important because it is a conserved quantity just like energy. namely P = i pi mi vi = i i Now from the previous example we had M vcm = total momentum of a system of particles as P = M vcm pi . LINEAR MOMENTUM OF A POINT PARTICLE 115 7.5 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles The total momentum P of a system of particles is just the sum of the momenta of each individual particle. Thus dp = ma dt dt dt d if the mass is constant. Taking the time derivative gives dP = M dvcm = M acm assuming that M is constant. The proper way to write Newton’s second law is F = dp dt d Now dp = dt (mv) = m dv = ma if the mass is constant.

116 CHAPTER 7.14) is Pi = Pf Remembering that P is the total momentum of a system of particles (P = p1 + p2 + p3 + · · ·). or z components. so we must always write it out in x. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Explosion: spring release on air track.14) Note that this is only true if all the external forces are zero. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 7. the conservation equation is p 1 i + p 2 i + p 3 i + · · · = p1 f + p 2 f + p 3 f + · · · This is a vector equation.6 Conservation of Linear Momentum dP dt If all the external forces are zero ( Fext = 0) then that the total momentum P = constant = 0 which implies (7. Halliday calls this a closed. . Another way of stating (7. isolated system. y.

7. leaving oﬀ the x’s as p R i + pB i = p R f + pB f or mR vRi + mB vBi = mR vRf + mB vBf But vRi + vBi = 0 because before the gun is ﬁred (initial situation) the bullet and gun do not move. .6. With what speed does the riﬂe recoil ? Solution The bullet-riﬂe system is a closed. Thus momentum is conserved for the bullet (B)–riﬂe (R) two body system. so it must be written in terms of components. CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM 117 Example A riﬂe of mass mR ﬁres a bullet of mass mB which emerges at a speed of vBf . After the gun is ﬁred (ﬁnal situation) they both move. The total momentum is P = pR + pB . isolated system. namely pRxi + pBxi pRyi + pByi = pRxf + pBxf = p Ry f + pB y f but there is only motion in the x direction and nothing is happening in the y direction. Thus O = mR vRf + mB vBf ⇒ vRf = − mB vB mR f where the minus sign indicates that the riﬂe moves in a direction opposite to the bullet. When the riﬂe is held at rest the sum of all external forces is zero. so let’s re-write the x-equation. so that conservation of momentum is pRi + pBi = pRf + pBf Now this is a vector equation.

3. y) = (1. If the child falls oﬀ the sled. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 7. derive a formula for the change in speed of the sled. (Note: energy is not conserved !) WRONG WRONG WRONG ?????????????? speed of sled remains same . 1). What is the location of the center of mass? 2. assuming a constant mass density.7 Problems 1. Consider a square ﬂat table-top.person keeps moving when fall oﬀ ??????? .118 CHAPTER 7. A particle of mass m is located on the x axis at the position x = 1 and a particle of mass 2m is located on the y axis at position y = 1 and a third particle of mass m is located oﬀ-axis at the position (x. A child of mass mc is riding a sled of mass ms moving freely along an icy frictionless surface at speed v0 . Prove that the center of mass lies at the center of the table-top.

THEMES: COLLISIONS. 119 .Chapter 8 COLLISIONS SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design a simple experiment illustrating momentum conservation.

but yf = yi and thus Uf = Ui or ∆U = 0. COLLISIONS 8. Now if you think of a collision of two billiard balls on a horizontal pool table then Uf = mgyf and Ui = mgyi . then an inelastic collision is one in which energy is not conserved (i. ∆U + ∆K = WN C or Uf − Ui + Kf − Ki = WN C or Uf + Kf = Ui + Ki + WN C If WN C = 0 then energy will not be conserved.e. Thus the above work-energy theorem would be Kf = K i + W N C Thus for collisions where Ui = Uf .1 Read What is a Collision? 8. we often say more simply that an elastic collision is when the kinetic energy alone is conserved and an inelastic collision is when it is not conserved. For a two-body collision process.2 Impulse and Linear Momentum Leave out 8. WN C = 0).3 Elastic Collisions in 1-dimension Recall our work energy theorem for a single particle. but an elastic collision is one in which energy is conserved (WN C = 0). .120 CHAPTER 8. In this section we ﬁrst will deal only with elastic collisions in 1-dimension.

Solution All the motion is in 1-dimension and so conservation of momentum (with v2i = 0) is just m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f + m2 v2f and conservation of kinetic energy is 1 1 1 2 2 2 m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f + m2 v2f 2 2 2 Here we have two equations with the two unknowns v1f and v2f . Let’s solve for v1f in the ﬁrst equation and then substitute into the second equation to get v2f . v1i . Thus the rest of the problem is simply doing some algebra. Calculate the ﬁnal speeds of both balls in terms of m1 . ELASTIC COLLISIONS IN 1-DIMENSION 121 Example A billiard ball of mass m1 and initial speed v1i hits a stationary ball of mass m2 .8. All the motion occurs in a straight line. Thus v1f = v1i − or 2 2 v1f = v1i − 2 m2 v2f m1 m2 m1 2 2 v2f m2 v2f v1i + m1 Substituting this into the conservation of kinetic energy equation gives 1 1 m2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 v2f + m2 v2f m1 v1i = m1 v1i − m2 v2f v1i + 2 2 2 m1 2 which simpliﬁes to 0 = −2m2 v1i + v2f giving v2f = 2m2 m2 2 m1 m2 2 + m2 m1 v1i + m2 . m2 . assuming the collison is elastic (Is this a good assumption?).3.

1) Equal masses (m1 = m2 ). In this case we get v1f ≈ −v1i 2m1 and v2f ≈ m2 v1i ≈ 0 which means the projectile bounces oﬀ at the same speed and the target remains stationary. . m2 ).) 2) Massive target (m2 m1 ).122 which is ﬁnally v2f = CHAPTER 8. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: colliding pendula (Sample Problem 10-3) All students should carefully study the Moving Target discussion on Pg. 220 of Halliday. (This is also true if the target is moving. This implies that v1f = 0 and v2f = v1i . That is the projectile billiard ball stops and transfers all of its speed to the target ball. COLLISIONS 2m1 v1i m1 + m2 Substituting this back into the conservation of momentum equation gives 2m1 m2 m1 v1i = m1 v1f + v1i m1 + m2 which gives v1f = v1i 1 − or v1f = 2m2 m1 + m2 = v1i m1 + m2 − 2m2 m1 + m2 m1 − m2 v1i m1 + m2 There are some interesting special situations to consider. Now we get v2f ≈ 2v1i and 3) Massive projectile (m1 v1f ≈ v1i meaning that the projectile keeps charging ahead at about the same speed and the target moves oﬀ at double the speed of the projectile.

Example Repeat the previous example for a completely inelastic collision.4 Inelastic Collisions in 1-dimension A completely inelastic collision is deﬁned as one in which the two particles stick together after the collision. v1f = v2f ≡ V And writing v1i ≡ v we have from conservation of momentum m1 v + 0 = m1 V + m2 V or V = m1 v m1 + m2 Let’s look again at the special situations.4. INELASTIC COLLISIONS IN 1-DIMENSION 123 8. Solution If the particles stick to each other after the collision then their ﬁnal speeds are the same.8. This gives V ≈ 3) Massive projectile (m1 m1 v≈0 m2 m2 ). This gives 1 V = v 2 2) Massive target (m2 m1 ). 1) Equal masses (m1 = m2 ). let’s call it V . This gives V ≈v .

COLLISIONS 8. y v2f v1i m1 θ2 x m2 θ 1 v1f FIGURE 10.1 Glancing collision.124 CHAPTER 8.e. . Figure 10.1 shows a typical conﬁguration. not head-on) are more complicated to analyze.5 Collisions in 2-dimensions Glancing collisions (i.

8.5. In x and y components these are m1 v1ix = m1 v1f x + m2 v2f x m1 v1iy = m1 v1f y + m2 v2f y or m1 v1i = m1 v1f cos θ1 + m2 v2f cos θ2 0 = −m1 v1f sin θ1 + m2 v2f sin θ2 If the collision is elastic we also have conservation of kinetic energy. Solution Conservation of momentum is p1i + p2i = p1f + p2f but p2i = 0. . 1 1 1 2 2 2 m1 v1i = m1 v1f + m2 v2f 2 2 2 These three equations must then be solved for the quantities of interest. 10-8 [Halliday]. Students should carefully study sample Problems 10-7. 10.1 where the target ball is initially at rest. COLLISIONS IN 2-DIMENSIONS 125 Example Write down the conservation of energy and momentum equations for the glancing collision depicted in Fig.

θ2 and v2f where v2f is the ﬁnal speed of the target ? Solution Conservation of momentum gives Σpi = Σpf or Σpix = Σpf x and Σpiy = Σpf y The x direction gives m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f cos θ1 + m2 v2f cos θ2 0 = −m1 v1f sin θ1 + m2 v2f sin θ2 We want to ﬁnd θ1 . Center of Mass Reference Frame .) 8. Solve the ﬁrst and second equations for θ1 giving m1 v1i − m2 v2f cos θ2 cos θ1 = m1 v1f and sin θ1 = giving tan θ1 = m2 v2f sin θ2 m1 v1i − m2 v2f cos θ2 m2 v2f sin θ2 m1 v1f (Notice that this result is valid for both elastic and inelastic collisions. as shown in Fig. v1i . We did not use conservation of energy.6 Reactions and Decay Processes Leave out. 10. COLLISIONS Example A ball of mass m1 and speed v1i collides with a stationary target ball of mass m2 .1.126 CHAPTER 8. m2 . If the target is scattered at an angle of θ2 what is the scattering angle θ1 of the projectile in terms of m1 .

6. REACTIONS AND DECAY PROCESSES 127 Remember that the total momentum P of a system of particles was given by P = M vcm or P = M vcm = pi = mi vi i i Up to now we have been measuring velocities with respect to the “Lab” reference frame. The Lab does not move. We can also measure velocities with respect to the center of mass frame where vcm = 0. This is also often called the center of momentum frame because if vcm = 0 then pi = 0. which is the name for the reference frame associated with a stationary target.8. If v = velocity in Lab frame and u = i velocity in cm frame then u = v − vcm . or in other words vLab = 0.

A) What is the speed of the center of mass ? B) What is the speed of both balls in the cm frame ? Solution vB = 0 vcm = = = mR vR + mB vB mR + mB mR × vR + 0 mR + mB mR vR mR + mB which is the speed of the center of mass. Now get the speed of the red ball via uR = vR − vcm = vR − mR vR mR + mB mR mR + mB − mR = vR (1 − ) = vR ( ) mR + mB mR + mB mB = vR mR + mB and the speed of the black ball is uB = vB − vcm mR = 0− vR mR + mB mR = − vR mR + mB .128 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS Example A red billiard ball of mass mR moving at a speed vR collides head on with a black billiard ball of mass mB at rest.

show that the sum of the scattering angles is 90o . Also both balls have the same mass. the player wishes to hit a stationary target ball with the moving projectile ball. After the collision. PROBLEMS 129 8. Ignore friction and rolling motion and assume the collision is elastic.7 Problems 1.8. In a game of billiards. .7.

130 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS .

THEMES: SPIN. 131 .Chapter 9 ROTATION SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Calculate the speed of an ant at the edge of the minute hand on your kitchen clock.

132 CHAPTER 9. The next thing to consider is rotational motion. ROTATION 9. but of course this is not a unit. Thus s and x are equivalent translational variables s≡x Now the angular position is described by angle which is deﬁned as θ≡ s r where s (or x) is the translation position and r is the radius of the circle.1 Translation and Rotation We have studied how point particles and systems of particles (rigid bodies) move as a whole. Notice that angle has no units because s and r both have units of m. . 9. (All students should carefully read Pg. as opposed to the translational motion studied previously.2 The Rotational Variables Previously we denoted translational position in 1-dimension with the symbol x. When studying rotational motion it is very convenient and instructive to develop the whole theory in analogy to translational motion. I have therefore written the Master Table that we shall refer to often. Similarly angular displacement is ∆θ ≡ θ2 − θ1 and because θ ≡ s r then it is related to translation displacement by ∆θ = ∆s ∆x = r r This is the ﬁrst entry in the Master Table. If a particle is located on the rim of a circle we often use s instead of x to locate its position around the circumference of the circle. 240 of Halliday for a clear distinction between radian and degrees. One complete revolution is 2π radian often also called 360◦ .) Translational position is given by x (or s) and translation displacement was ∆x ≡ x2 − x1 (or ∆s ≡ s2 − s1 ). The angle deﬁned above is measured in radian.

Similarly we deﬁne average angular velocity as ∆θ ω≡ ¯ ∆t and instantaneous velocity as ω≡ dω dt v ¯ r ∆x Now because we have ∆θ = ∆x we must also have ∆θ = r∆t or ω = ¯ r ∆t relating average velocity and average angular velocity. (Notice that a is not the centripetal acceleration. For non-uniform circular motion. α= . where the speed keeps increasing (or decreasing) then α = 0 and a = 0. Similarly as ω= v r This is the second entry in the Master Table.2. Finally the angular acceleration α is deﬁned as α≡ and dω dt a r relating angular acceleration α to translational acceleration at .) See the third entry in the Master Table. THE ROTATIONAL VARIABLES 133 Secondly we deﬁned translational average velocity as v ≡ ∆x ≡ ∆s and ¯ ∆t ∆t dx ds instantaneous velocity as v ≡ dt = dt .9. For uniform circular motion α = 0 and at = 0 because the particle moves in a circle at constant speed v and the 2 centripetal acceleration is ar = vr .

8 sec Study Sample Problems 11-3. They are listed in the Master Table. What is the angular acceleration of the ﬂywheel ? Solution The initial angular velocity is ω0 = 100 × 2π sec−1 and the ﬁnal angular velocity is ω = 0. Using ω = ω0 + αt gives α = ω − ω0 0 − 100 × 2π sec−1 = t 10 sec −2 = −62.4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration The equations for constant angular acceleration are obtained in identical fashion to the translational constant acceleration equations. 246 Halliday. 11-5. 9. Read Halliday.5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables We have already discussed this.134 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION 9.3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors? Yes. Read Halliday. Example A ﬂywheel is spinning at 100 revolutions per second and is stopped by a brake in 10 seconds. . 9. Especially read about at and ar on Pg. 11-4.

tells us how diﬃcult it is to move an object.9. or rotational inertia. KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION 135 9.6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation To calculate the kinetic energy of a rotating object we add up all of the kinetic energies of the individual particles making up the object.) See Master Table. Note we do not write vi = ωi ri because the rotational velocity of all particles is the same value ω. . 248. Similarly the rotational mass. Recall that mass. Substituting gives K= i 1 1 2 mi ω 2 ri = 2 2 2 mi ri ω 2 i Deﬁne rotational inertia or rotational mass as I≡ i 2 mi ri and we get 1 K = Iω 2 2 which looks exactly like K = 1 mv 2 where instead of velocity v we have ω 2 and instead of mass (or inertia) m we have rotational mass (or rotational inertia) I. Halliday. (Carefully read Pg. That is ω1 = ω2 = ω3 = · · · ≡ ω. namely K= i 1 2 mi vi 2 The speeds are vi = ωri . tells us how diﬃcult it is to rotate an object. or inertia.6.

center of mass) but more diﬃcult to spin about an axis through the edge of the book. 249 of Halliday. This theorem is proved on Pg. 2-dimensional or 1-dimensional. A very handy formula which helps a lot in calculating I is the famous parallel axis theorem. Let’s now look at some examples of how to calculate I.e. Thus I is small for the spin axis through the center of the book. In the formula for I = ri mi = r2 dm then r will always be i measured from the rotation axis. just as ordinary inertia m tells us how diﬃcult it is to get something moving. I = Icm + M h2 where I is the rotational inertia about an axis located a distance h from the center of mass and parallel to a line through the center of mass. M is the total mass of the whole rigid body. ROTATION 9. Remember that the rotational inertia I tells us how diﬃcult it is to get something rotating. It is easy to spin about an axis through the center (i. namely I≡ = 2 ri mi = r2 dm r2 λdL r2 ρdV = i r2 σdA = where dm has been replaced by ρdV or σdA or λdL depending on whether the rigid body is 3-dimensional. you always spin it about some axis.7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia For a continuous distribution of mass the rotational inertia has the sum replaced by an integral. but large for an axis through the edge of 2 the book. Now when you spin an object. Many results are listed on Pg. Take your physics book for example. . or spinning. 250 of Halliday.136 CHAPTER 9.

7. and also m1 = m2 ≡ m. 11-13(b) in Halliday. Pg. Solution See Fig.9. CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 137 Example A rod of length L and negligible mass has a dumbbell of mass m located at each end. Solution See Fig. 250. Each dumbbell is a discrete mass and so we use I = = 2 ri m i i 2 r1 m 2 + r2 m where there are only two terms because there are only two dumbbells. 11-13(a) in Halliday. Calculate the rotational inertia about an axis through the center of mass (and perpendicular to the rod). Now we have r1 = 0 and r2 = L giving 2 2 I = r1 m + r2 m = 0 + L2 m = mL2 . 250. Pg. Now r1 = 1 L and r2 = − 1 L 2 2 giving I = = 1 L 2 1 mL2 2 2 1 m+ − L 2 2 m Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one of the dumbbells (but still perpendicular to the rod).

Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a thin uniform rod of mass M and length L about an axis through the center of the rod (and perpendicular to its length). Let the linear mass density of the rod be λ ≡ M .138 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis theorem. Pg. The rod is uniform which means λ is constant and can be taken outside the integral to give L/2 I = λ = λ = −L/2 r2 dr = λ 3 1 3 r 3 L/2 −L/2 3 1 3 L 2 − 1 L − 3 2 =λ L3 12 M L3 1 = M L2 L 12 12 . Solution See the ﬁgure in Table 11-2 of Halliday. 249. Solution The parallel axis theorem is I = Icm + M h2 where the total mass if M = 2m and h is the distance from the center of mass to the rotation axis. Then (with dr = L dL) I= r2 dm = L/2 −L/2 r2 λ dr where the integration limits are −L/2 to L/2 because the axis is through the center of the rod. Thus h = L/2 giving I = L 1 mL2 + (2m) 2 2 = mL2 2 This is the same as before and so we have good reason to believe that the parallel axis theorem is true.

Solution Now we have I = λ 1 2 2 r 3 0 0 1 3 1 3 = λ L −0 =λ L 3 3 M1 3 1 = L = M L2 L 3 3 L r2 dr = λ Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis theorem. CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 139 Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one end of the rod.9.7. Solution I = Icm + M h2 1 = M L2 + M 12 1 = M L2 3 L 2 2 .

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CHAPTER 9. ROTATION

9.8

Torque

We now want to determine the rotational equivalent of force. Rotational force is called torque. It is a vector deﬁned as the cross product of r and F , τ ≡r×F Its magnitude is τ = rF sin φ where φ is the angle between r and F . Now r sin φ is just a perpendicular distance r⊥ = r sin φ, so that τ = r⊥ F Carefully read Halliday Pg. 252-253 for a detailed discussion of the meaning of torque. See the Master Table.

9.9

Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
F = ma for translational dynamics we would guess τ =I α

Now just as we have that

would be Newton’s second law for rotation. This is exactly right! Example Do Sample Problem 11-11 in class (Pg. 253 Halliday).

9.10

Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy
F dx. Similarly for rota-

We have seen that in 1-dimension, work is W = tions we have W ≡ τ dθ See Master Table.

9.10.

WORK AND ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY MASTER TABLE

141

Translational Motion Displacement ∆x ≡ ∆s Velocity v ≡
dx dt dv dt

Rotational Motion Angular Displ. ∆θ Angular Vel. ω ≡
dθ dt dω dt

Relation ∆x = ∆s = r∆θ v = rω at = rα

Acceleration at ≡

Angular Accel. α ≡

Constant Accel. Eqns: v = v0 + at
2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 )

Constant Angular Accel: ω = ω0 + αt
2 ω 2 = ω0 + 2α(θ − θ0 )

x − x0 =

v+v0 2 t

θ − θ0 =

ω+ω0 2 t

= v0 t + 1 at2 2 = vt − 1 at2 2 K = 1 mv 2 2 F = ma W = F dx

= ω0 t + 1 αt2 2 = ωt − 1 αt2 2 K = 1 Iω 2 2 τ = Iα W = τ dθ I≡
2 r i mi =

r2 dm

i

τ ≡r×F

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CHAPTER 9. ROTATION

9.11

Problems

9.11. PROBLEMS

143

7. A pencil of length L, with the pencil point at one end and an eraser at the other end, is initially standing vertically on a table with the pencil point on the table. The pencil is let go and falls over. Derive a formula for the speed with which the eraser strikes the table, assuming that the pencil point does not move. [WS 324]

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CHAPTER 9. ROTATION

Chapter 10 ROLLING. THEMES: SPIN. 145 . TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design a simple experiment showing conservation of angular momentum.

refer to Fig. ROLLING. 12-2. Thus the rotational indertia (with ρ = LπR2 being the density of the cylinder) is I = r2 dm . When the wheel slips then kinetic friction is involved. 12.1. The small element of area indicated is dA = 2πrdr corresponding to a small element of volume dV = dA L = M 2πrdrL. Solution The rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder is simply I = M R2 To calculate the rotational inertia of the solid cylinder. This is discussed in Halliday.1. 12. 12-3.1 Solid Cylinder. then static friction is involved. (See also Sample Problems 12-1.) Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder and a solid cylinder. dA = 2 π r dr L FIGURE 12. about the long axis through the center of the cylinder as shown in Fig.1 Rolling All students should read this whole section in Halliday carefully. Note that when a wheel rolls without slipping. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 10. I shall now discuss an important example.146 CHAPTER 10.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: show the above example. 1 1 2 K = Icm ω 2 + M vcm ≡ Krotation + Ktranslation 2 2 where Icm is the rotational inertia about the center of mass and vcm is the translational speed of the center of mass. and thus less into translation. The rotational inertias of Hoop. which reaches the bottom ﬁrst? Solution The kinetic energy of a rolling object now consists of two terms. 10.2 Read Yo-Yo . one rotational and one translational.e.10. i. Disk and Sphere are IHollow cylinder = M R2 1 ISolid cylinder = M R2 2 The hollow cylinder has the larger moment of inertia and therefore more kinetic energy will go into rotation. YO-YO = r2 ρdV R 147 = ρ2πL 0 r3 dr 1 = ρ2πL R4 4 M 1 = 2πL R4 LπR2 4 1 = M R2 2 Example If a solid cylinder and a hollow cylinder with the same mass and radius roll down an incline. Therefore the solid cylinder reaches the bottom ﬁrst.2.

148 CHAPTER 10. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 10. d (r × p) = dt dr dp ×p+r× dt dt = v × mv + r × m dv dt = m(v × v + r × a) but v × v = 0 giving d (r × p) = mr × a dt = r×F = τ Thus the unknown l must be l ≡r×p . Consider the following quantity. ROLLING. Thus we expect τ= dl dt But we haven’t said what l is.3 Torque Revisited Read carefully. Now F = dp where p ≡ mv is the momentum. Review of Cross Product 10.5 Angular Momentum Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form We have previously deﬁned torque (or angular force) as τ ≡ r × F . We can ﬁgure it out.4 10. We Newton’s Second Law is dt therefore expect an angular version of Newton’s Second Law involving angular force or torque and angular momentum l.

6. based on analogy with total momentum. Halliday (Pg. i. 281) shows that L = Iω which is exactly analogous to p = mv. where p was the 10.e.10. all particles rotate at the same speed. 10. it is L= i li and Newton’s Second Law for a system of particles becomes τext = dL dt Fext = dp dt as we would expect.7 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis In a rigid body. ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 149 10. In terms of the angular momentum li of each particle. then dt if there are no external torques τext = 0 then the total angular momentum is conserved. conservation of momentum. namely L = constant .8 Conservation of Angular Momentum Fext = dP dt For translational motion we had and for Fext = 0 we had P = constant. Similarly from τext = dL .6 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles Let’s call the angular momentum of a system of particles L.

thus Li = Lf or Ii ωi = If ωf The moment of inertia of the two weights is I = 2M r2 where r is the length of the student’s arm. Solution For a rigid body spinning about a ﬁxed axis we had L = Iω. Angular momentum is conserved. Thus 2 2 2M ri ωi = 2M rf ωf giving ωf = And ri > rf giving ωf > ωi . If the student brings the weights closer inward. ri rf 2 ωi . ROLLING.150 CHAPTER 10. The rotational inertia of the student remains the same. show that the spin rate increases. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: example below Example A student is spinning on a stool and holding two heavy weights with outstretched hands.

8. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM MASTER TABLE 2 Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation dp dl l =r×p F = ma = τ = Iα = dt dt p = mv L = Iω 151 .10.

9 Problems 1. (Hint: The rotational inertia of a solid cylinder about the center axis is I = 1 M R2 ).152 CHAPTER 10. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 10. and is originally at rest. Derive a formula for the angular speed of the cylinder after the bullet has become imbedded in it. [WS354-355] 2 . The cylinder has a ﬁxed horizontal axis of rotation. ROLLING. A bullet of mass m travelling with a speed v is shot into the rim of a solid circular cylinder of radius R and mass M as shown in the ﬁgure.

153 . (Obviously you won’t be able to actually carry out these observations this week. Why ?) THEMES: The Solar System.Chapter 11 GRAVITATION SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design some observations so that you can detect the retrograde motion of a planet.

then from the point of view of an observer on Earth. including Earth.1 Ptolemaic epicycle. He mounted an intensive campaign to accurately record the motion of all the planets. From a psychological point of view. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) obtained access to Tycho’s precision data and was able to use it to ﬁgure out the exact motion of the planets to a high degree of precision. Of course the telescope had not yet been invented and all of Tycho’s observations were with some geometric instruments and the naked eye. revolved around it. This provided an alternative explanation for the retrograde motion of the planets. Copernicus thought instead that the Sun was at the center of the universe and that all the planets. for if the planets move at diﬀerent speeds around the Sun. this is probably the most important scientiﬁc idea in history. the planets will appear to move forward and then backward depending upon the relative orientation. who suggested that the Earth is not at the center of the universe. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was one of the greates observational astronomers in history.155 epicycle Earth FIGURE 14. a Polish monk. In particular Kepler discovered . After Tycho died. However later on came Copernicus (1473-1543).

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CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION

that the motion of the planets was not the perfect circle after all, but rather the motions were elliptical. From analyzing Tycho’s data Kepler discovered 3 important facts about the planets. These are usually called Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. They are 1) All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus. 2) The line joining any planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. 3) The period squared is proportional to the mean distance cubed, i.e. T 2 ∝ R3 . (The period T is the time it takes for a planet to complete one orbit of the Sun. For Earth this is 365 days. The mean distance R is the average distance from the Sun to the planet in question.) Meanwhile, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) used the newly invented telescope to view the heavens for the ﬁrst time. Among his many great discoveries, were observations of the moons of Jupiter clearly showing orbits around the planet itself. This was the ﬁrst direct observation of bodies which did not orbit Earth. One important point to note about Kepler’s laws is that they were ’mere’ empirical facts. No one understood why they were true. In fact Kepler spent the rest of his life trying to explain then. It was not until Isaac Newton (1642-1727) invented a theory of gravity that Kepler’s laws were ﬁnally understood on a theoretical basis. Newton had been thinking deeply about what holds the moon in orbit around Earth and what holds the planets in orbit around the Sun. The story goes that Newton was sitting under an apple tree watching the apples fall oﬀ the tree onto the ground. It suddenly occured to Newton that the force causing the apples to fall to the ground is the same force that keeps the moon in orbit about Earth and the planets in orbit about the Sun. What a great leap of imagination ! Newton hypothesized that the gravitational force between any two objects was given by an inverse square law of the form F =G m1 m2 r2 (11.1)

where m1 and m2 are the masses of the bodies and r is the distance between their centers. G is a constant. Note that this says that if the distance between two bodies is doubled the force drops by a factor of 4. The great triumph of Newton’s gravitational theory was that he could derive Kepler’s laws. We shall go through this derivation in a moment. The story of gravity is not complete without mentioning Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity which was another theory of gravity completely at odds with Newton’s theory. In Einstein’s theory there is no mention of any

157 forces at all. Rather, gravity is seen to be due to a curvature of space and time. The concept of force is more of an illusion. Einstein’s theory was also able to explain Kepler’s laws, but its advantage over Newton’e theory was that it explained additional facts about the planets such as the precession of the orbit of mercury and the deﬂection of starlight by the Sun. Actually even today the story of gravity is not complete. In fact of the 4 forces that we have identiﬁed in nature (gravity, electromagnetism, strong force, weak force), it is gravity that still remains poorly understood. The theory of quantum mechanics was invented early this century to describe the motion of tiny particles such as atoms. The great problem with gravity is that no one has succeeded in making it consistent with quantum mechanics. A recent theory, called Superstring theory, may be the answer but we will have to wait and see. By the way, the physics department at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is one of the leading centers in the nation for the modern study of gravity.

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CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION

11.1

The World and the Gravitational Force

11.2

Newton’s Law of Gravitation

We already know about Newton’s three laws of motion, the second of which is F = ma. These three laws describe motion in general. They never refer to a speciﬁc force. Newton however did also study in detail a speciﬁc force, namely gravity. He conjectured that the gravitational force between two bodies of mass m1 and m2 whose centers are separated by a distance of r has a magnitude of m1 m2 F = −G 2 r The minus sign tells us that the force points inwards. The value of G was determined later in 1798 by Cavendish. It’s value measured today is G = 6.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 However, it is interesting that today the gravitational constant is the least accurately known of all the fundamental constants. For instance, its most accurately known value is actually G = (6.67259±0.00085)×10−11 Nm2 kg−2 [see Particle Properties Data Booklet, 1996] whereas for example the charge of the electron is (1.60217733 ± 0.00000049) × 10−19 Coulomb or the speed of light is 299 792 458 m sec−1 which are known much more accurately than G. Another example is the strength of the electrical force, called the ﬁne structure constant, α−1 = 137.0359895 ± 0.0000061.
m Note: Halliday (Pg. 323) writes F = G m1 2 2 (i.e. with a plus sign) but then r m writes F = −G m1 2 2 on Pages 329 and 331. The equation should always be r written with a minus sign to indicate an atractive inwards force. Now the vector form of Newton’s Law is

F = −G

m1 m2 r ˆ r2

where r is a unit vector point from one mass out to the other. The gravitaˆ tional force is an inward force and that’s why the minus sign appears.

11.3

Gravitation and Principle of Superposition

11.4. GRAVITATION NEAR EARTH’S SURFACE

159

11.4

Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface

m Newton’s formula F = G m1 2 2 is often called the law of Universal Gravitar tion because it applies to all bodies in the universe. How does it ﬁt in with our concept of Weight which we deﬁned to be the gravitational force at the surface of the Earth, namely W ≡ mg

where g = 9.8 m sec−1 is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the m Earth? Well, if F = G m1 2 2 is universal then it should predict the Weight r force. Let’s see how this comes about.
m Example Show that F = G m1 2 2 gives the same result as r W = mg near the surface of Earth.

Solution Let m1 ≡ M be the mass of Earth, which is m1 = M = 5.98 × 1024 kg. Let m2 ≡ m be the mass of a person of weight W = mg. The distance between the centers of the masses is just the radius of Earth, i.e. r = 6370 km (which is about 4000 miles, only slightly larger than the width of the United States or Australia). Thus the gravitational force between the two masses is F = G mM r2 m × 5.98 × 1024 kg (6.37 × 106 m)2

= 6.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × = m × 9.8 m sec−2

which is the same as W = mg. In other words we have predicted the value of g from the mass and radius of Earth. You could now do the same for the other planets.

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CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION

Example Explain how to measure the mass of Earth. Solution In the previous example, we found g=G M r2

where M is the mass of Earth and r is the radius of Earth. Thus by measuring g (which you do in the lab) and by measuring r (which the ancient Greeks knew how to do by comparing the depth of a shadow in a well at two diﬀerent locations at the same time) then M is given by M= gr2 G

and G was measured in the famous Cavendish experiment (look this up).

11. I have drawn a dotted circle of radius r intersecting point P .5 Gravitation Inside Earth If you go down a deep mine shaft then there will be Earth below you and Earth above you.2 A person is located as point P inside the Earth. GRAVITATION INSIDE EARTH 161 11. However the mass outside the dotted circle produces no net gravitational force. Region A contains a small amount of mass . We all agree that the total mass located inside the dotted circle produces a net gravitational force on the person. The easiest way to see this is to suppose you were located exactly at the center of Earth.5.2 where a person is located at point P inside the Earth. as a distance r from the center of Earth. Then the gravitational pull of all the Earth surrounding you above will all cancel out and you will fee zero net force. It is interesting to ﬁgure out that the Earth above you won’t have any overall gravitational eﬀect. at a distance r from the center of Earth. Now consider Figure 14. B P A r FIGURE 14. This can be seen by considering the shaded regions A and B.

and therefore will undergo oscillation in the hole. but it is further away and so the gravitational eﬀects of the mass in A and in B cancel out. m Solution Newton’s law is F = −G M2 r where M is the mass ˆ r contained within the dotted circle (Figure 14. GRAVITATION which will pull the person at P outwards. Ignoring the rotation of Earth. Now there is more mass in B. 3 the same as for a spring. However the mass contained in B will pull in the opposite direction. This is exactly Hooke’s law.2) and r is the radius of the dotted circle. show that a particle dropped into the hole experiences a gravitational force like Hooke’s law. . Thus we can ignore all of the mass located outside of the dotted circle. Thus the particle will oscillate.162 CHAPTER 11. The density of material in Earth is Mass M ρ= = 4 3 Volume 3 πr giving 4 M = πr3 ρ 3 where ρ is constant. M keeps getting smaller because r gets smaller as the particle falls towards the center of Earth. Example (See also Sample Problem 14-5): A hole is drilled from the United States to China through the center of Earth. Now when the particle falls through the hole. Thus F πr3 ρm r ˆ r2 4πG = − ρm rˆ r 3 = −Kr = −G 3 4 r where K ≡ 4πG ρm and r = rˆ.e. i.

For gravity near the i 2 ˆ we found U = mgy.11. Now K is always given by K = 1 2 ma · dr = ∆K) but U is diﬀerent for diﬀerent 2 mv (which came from forces (because −∆U = F · dr). W ≡ F · dr = ∆K The total work consisted of two parts namely.e. conservative WC and nonconservative WN C . The total work was deﬁned as W ≡ F · dr. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 163 Example When you go down a mine shaft. 11. do you weigh more or less than you did at the surface of the Earth ? Solution We found in the previous example that F = − 4πG ρm rˆ r 3 Now ρ is constant and thus F is bigger when r is big. F gets small and your weight therefore decreases. For universal gravitation surface of Earth. Thus when r gets small. In fact F = W = mg = 4πG ρmr giving g = 4πG ρr indicating 3 3 that g gets smaller as r gets smaller. We deﬁned potential energy U via WC = giving W = WC + WN C = −∆U + WN C = ∆K or ∆U + ∆K = WN C which we called the work-energy theorem. For a spring force F = −kxˆ we found U = 1 kx2 .6 Gravitational Potential Energy Let’s brieﬂy recall our ideas about work and energy. By substituting F = ma we found the work was always equal to the change in kinetic energy. F = −mg j m F = −G m1 2 2 r we will ﬁnd that the gravitational potential energy is ˆ r U = −G m1 m2 r FC · dr ≡ −∆U . i.6.

GRAVITATION Example For gravity near the surface of Earth. Let’s do it again. prove that U = mgy. Solution This was already done in Chapter 8 (these notes). Thus j i j F · dr = −mg dy giving WC = −mg yf yi dy ≡ −∆U = −mg(yf − yi ) = −(Uf − Ui ) = −mgyf + mgyi = −Uf + Ui giving Uf = mgyf Ui = mgyi or just U = mgy .164 CHAPTER 11. WC ≡ FC · dr ≡ −∆U ˆ Now F = −mgˆ and dr = dxˆ + dyˆ + dz k.

GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 165 Example For universal gravitation.6. Solution WC = F = −G FC · dr ≡ −∆U m1 m2 r and ds ≡ dr = r dr ˆ ˆ r2 m 1 m2 m1 m2 ˆ ˆ F · dr = −G 2 dr r · r = −G 2 dr r r giving WC = −Gm1 m2 rf ri 1 dr = −∆U r2 rf ri = −Gm1 m2 − 1 r = −(Uf − Ui ) = −Gm1 m2 − = −Gm1 m2 − 1 1 −− rf ri 1 1 + rf ri m1 m 2 m1 m2 = +G −G = −Uf + Ui rf ri giving Uf Ui or just U = −G m1 m 2 rf m1 m 2 = −G ri = −G m1 m2 r . prove that U = −G m1rm2 .11.

GRAVITATION Recall that we also had an alternative way of ﬁnding U without having to work out the integral FC · dr. Solution For universal gravitation. Ignoring the vectors we write FC dr = −∆U meaning that we must have FC = − This occurs because f i dU dr FC dr = − Uf dU U dU = −[U ]Uf dr = − i dr i Ui = −(Uf − Ui ) = −∆U f m Example For universal gravitation F = −G m1 2 2 . derive U r without doing an integral. We had WC = FC · dr ≡ −∆U . Let’s check: − d dU = +Gm1 m2 dr dr 1 r2 =− Gm1 m2 r which is the F we started with! . the question is what U will give m1 m2 dU F = −G 2 = − r dr m1 m2 The answer is U = −G r2 .166 CHAPTER 11.

vi is the escape speed that we are looking for. when it gets to inﬁnity. then U will be zero and the ball will not return. Now the mass and radius of Earth are M = 6 × 1024 kg and R = 6370 km. Using conservation of energy we have Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf or Mm 1 2 mvi − G =O+O 2 R where M is the mass of Earth. Solution The ball usually returns to the ground because of its gravitational potential energy U = −G m1rm2 .6. that is its speed. because we throw the ball from the surface of Earth.37 × 106 m = 40. However if we can throw the ball to an inﬁnite distance. m is the mass of the ball and R is the radius of Earth. such that the ball will not return at all. Thus 1 Mm mv 2 = G 2 i R and m cancels out giving vi = 2GM R for the escape speed. Let’s ﬁnd out what this is. giving vi = 2 × 6. If you throw it faster it goes higher before returning. We want to throw the ball so that it just barely escapes to inﬁnity. There is a speed. 353 km hour−1 ≈ 25. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY Escape Speed 167 If you throw a ball up in the air it always comes back down.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 6 × 1024 kg 6. so that it never returns to the ground. 000 miles per hour . has dropped oﬀ to zero. called the escape speed. Example Calculate the speed with which a ball must be thrown.11. r = ∞.

Such an object is called a Black Hole. You can imagine an object so massive or so small that the escape speed is bigger than the speed of light.4 mm 2GM R 2GM R (where M = mass of Earth = 6 × 1024 kg). Thus if we could squeeze the Earth to only 4 mm it would be a black hole! .67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 6 × 1024 kg = (3 × 108 m sec−1 )2 = 4.168 CHAPTER 11. Then light itself cannot escape. Example To what size would we need to squeeze Earth to turn it into a Black Hole ? Solution Let’s set the escape speed equal to the speed of light c = 3 × 108 m/sec. GRAVITATION Now you can see that if M is very large or R is very small then the escape speed gets very big. Thus c= c2 = giving R = 2GM c2 2 × 6. The speed of light is c = 3 × 108 m/sec.

11. Thus is our universe really a black hole? Do we actually live inside a black hole? . GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 169 Example The size of the universe is about 10 billion light years and its total mass is about 1053 kg.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 10kg 10 × 109 × 1016 m 8 = 3. Calculate the escape speed for the universe.7 × 10 m/sec = 1.2 times the speed of light. Solution A light year is the distance that light travels in one year. Thus light year = c × 1 year m = 3 × 108 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 sec sec = 1016 m Thus v = = 2GM r 2 × 6.2c which is 1.6.

This is somewhat diﬃcult to prove and we will leave it to a more advanced physics course. ∆t Sun Planet ∆t FIGURE 14.3 Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times. The planet takes the same time ∆t to sweep out this area.7 Kepler’s Laws Let’s now use Newton’s law of gravitation to prove some of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. A picture is shown in Figure 14. In the upper part of the ﬁgure there are two shaded regions with the same area. GRAVITATION 11. Thus the planets move quickly when close to the Sun and move slowly when farther away.170 CHAPTER 11. Kepler’s second law states that the line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. This is shown in Fig.3 with the Sun at the focus of an ellipse. 14. Kepler’s ﬁrst law is that the planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus. .3.

4 Area swept out by planet.7. v dt r Sun m FIGURE 14. Solution Figure 14. therefore dA = constant dt meaning that equal areas are swept out in equal times! . The shaded portion is the area swept out and has the shape of a triangle of area 1 dA = r v dt 2 The rate of change of area is dA 1 1 l = rv = mr v = dt 2 2m 2m where l is the angular momentum of the planet.11.4 shows the radius vector r and the displacement v dt for the planet of mass m. But angular momentum is constant. KEPLER’S LAWS 171 Example Prove that Kepler’s second law can be derived from Newton’s law of universal gravitation.

Thus v= or G giving T2 = or T 2 ∝ r3 4π 2 3 r GM 2πr T M 1 4π 2 r2 4π 2 r = = 2 2 r r T T2 . Example Prove that Kepler’s third law can be derived from Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Thus we immediately know that the 2 right hand side of F = ma is mv because all uniform circular motion has r 2 the centripetal acceleration given by a = vr . We will prove it for a circular orbit only. which is done in a more advanced physics course. We shall prove Kepler’s other two laws with the assumption that the orbits are circles. GRAVITATION Kepler’s third law is that the period squared is proportional to the average distance cubed (T 2 ∝ r3 ) for a planetary orbit.172 CHAPTER 11. This is diﬃcult to prove for elliptical orbits. (Assume circular orbits only) Solution gives F = ma G Mm v2 =m r2 r Now the period T is the time to complete one orbit. In other words the elliptical orbits are very close to circular orbits with the Sun at the center. Actually the essenticity of the elliptical orbits are typically very small.

KEPLER’S LAWS 173 Example The distance between Earth and the Sun is about 93 million miles and can easily be determined using parallax and trigonometry. How can the mass of the Sun be subsequently determined ? Solution Kepler’s law is T 2 = M= 4π 2 3 GM r giving 4π 2 r3 G T2 Now r = 93. 000 × 103 m)3 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 sec)2 Notice that the mass of Earth did not enter.67 × = 2 × 1030 kg × (150.11.000. this is how astronomers determine the mass of double star systems.) .000 km and the period of Earth is 1 year or T = 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 sec Thus the mass of the Sun is M = 4π 2 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 6.000.000 miles = 150. (More than half of the stars in the sky are actually double stars. 000.7. Thus if we observe two bodies in orbit and know the distance between them we can get the mass of the other body.

GRAVITATION 11.8 Problems .174 CHAPTER 11.

THEMES: Clocks. 175 .Chapter 12 OSCILLATIONS SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Measure g from the period of a pendulum.

Thus angular velocity and T frequency are related by ω = 2πf . which is a type of oscillatory motion. or an object suspended on a spring or a buoy bobbing up and down in the water.e. Thus 1 Hertz = 1 Hz = 1 oscillation per second = 1 sec−1 . such as a satellite undergoing circular motion. However a great deal of motion in nature is repetitive or oscillatory. Now f= number of oscillations time and if the time is simply T then 1 oscillation is completed.176 CHAPTER 12. especially in regard to time keeping. often abbreviated as Hz. (Note: Mechanical Universe tapes very good – especially discussion of clocks and navigation. We would now like to study oscillations in detail. it does not repeat. we introduced the angular speed ω deﬁned as ∆θ ω= ∆t Clearly if ∆θ = 2π then ∆t = T giving ω = 2π . Thus f= 1 T In circular motion. i. The units are sec−1 or Hertz. Another related quantity is the period T which is the time taken to complete 1 full oscillation. This will later lead to the study of wave motion which is also oscillatory in nature.2 Simple Harmonic Motion An important property of oscillatory motion is the frequency f which is the number of oscillations completed each second. has started and then ﬁnished. OSCILLATIONS 12. such as motion of a car in a straight line or projectile motion. Oscillations are of great technological importance.1 Oscillations Much of the motion that we have considered.) 12.

which is plotted in Figure 16.12. 374 of Halliday. The velocity of SHM is easy to ﬁgure out.1.5 Cos x 0 -0. there is one famous function that displays oscillations and that is cos θ.2. Now of all the mathematical functions that you have ever come across. giving t x = xm cos ωt We can also introduce a phase angle φ if we want and instead write x = xm cos(ωt + φ) This is discussed on Pg. And xm is often called the amplitude of the motion. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Spring and Pendulum Any motion that obeys the above equation x = xm cos ωt is called Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). Now the velocity is v= dx = −ωxm sin ωt dt . Here xm refers to the maximum value of the displacement x.1 Plot of cos θ. First recall that if y = cos kx dy then dx = −k sin kx. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 177 In oscillations ω is often called angular frequency. Any motion that repeats itself at regular intevals is called oscillatory motion or harmonic motion. 1 0.5 -1 0 5 10 x 15 20 FIGURE 16. Thus the displacement x for oscillatory motion can be written x = xm cos θ but ω = θ .

The period is obtained from ω = 2πf = 2π or T T = 2π m k Notice an amazing thing. v. then v is a minimum and vice-versa. . OSCILLATIONS = k cos kx.3 Force Law for SHM Now consider Newton’s law for a Spring where the force is given by F = −kx (Hooke’s law). I can “wind” my spring clock by just pulling on it a bit and still the period is the same. Substituting into F = ma −kx = ma but we found that a = −ω 2 x giving −kx = −mω 2 x or ω= k m which is the angular frequency for an oscillating spring. where k is called the spring constant. the oscillations tend to die down in amplitude xm but the period of oscillation remains the same! This is crucial to the operation of clocks. Now the acceleration is dv = −ω 2 xm cos ωt dt a = −ω 2 x In Figure 16-4 of Haliday. The period does not depend on the amplitude of oscillation xm ! When a spring is oscillating.178 Also recall if y = sin kx when a= from which it follows that dy dx CHAPTER 12. Notice that when x and a are at a maximum. a. there is a plot of x. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring 12.

12. Thus the invention of accurate clocks (based on the independence of period and amplitude) enabled accurate estimates of longitude and thus revolutionized navigation.) By dragging knotted ropes behind a ship it was easy to measure the speed of a ship.e. say with a pendulum or spring clock) then one knew the distance from the port from which one had set sail. measure the time of travel. Also √ 1 show T ∝ m and T ∝ √k . Navigation and Clocks NNN . (Latitude was easy to determine just by measuring the height of the Sun in the sky at noon. The reason was that it enabled one to determine longitude on Earth.FIX For a pendulum. . If one knew how long one had been travelling (i. Knowing longitude and latitude gives one’s position on the Earth. this independence of the period on the amplitude was ﬁrst noticed by Galileo and led to the development of clocks which was very important for navigation.3. FORCE LAW FOR SHM 179 LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring and Pendulum.

For the spring. k m . x Solution x = xm cos ωt dx x = ˙ = −ωxm sin ωt dt dx ˙ d2 x x = ¨ = 2 = −ω 2 xm cos ωt dt dt Substitute into m¨ + kx = 0 x giving −mω 2 xm cos ωt + kxm cos ωt = 0 or −mω 2 + k = 0 Thus if ω= then x = xm cos ωt is a solution. Verify that x = xm cos ωt is a solution to the diﬀerential equation m¨ + kx = 0. Thus the diﬀerential equation is x ¨ dt m¨ + kx = 0 x In mathematics there are special techniques for solving diﬀerential equations. Using these special techniques one can prove that x = xm cos ωt is a solution to the above diﬀerential equation. that is an equation involving derivatives. but we can verify that the solution given is correct. (±3)2 − 5 = 9 − 5 = 4). (Just like the solution to the algebraic equation x2 − 5 = 4 is x = ±3. OSCILLATIONS Example F = ma is really a diﬀerential equation. it becomes −kx = 2x ma = m¨ where x = d 2 . which you will learn about in a special diﬀerential equations course. Many students will not have yet learned how to solve diﬀerential equations.180 CHAPTER 12. We verify this solution by sustituting.

4. the spring stretches by a distance x.4 Energy in SHM We found before that the potential energy stored in a spring is U = 1 kx2 2 and the kinetic energy is K = 1 mv 2 . Can we be sure that E is always constant ? . Thus x mx T = 2π mg and fortunately m cancels out giving T = 2π x g 12. The weight W = mg stretches the spring. ENERGY IN SHM 181 Example When a mass is suspended from the end of a massless spring. what is the period ? Solution We saw that the period is given by T = 2π m .12. The conservation of mechanical energy 2 says that Ei = E f where the total energy is E ≡K +U That is Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf Thus E is constant. We k don’t know m or k ! We can get k from Hooke’s law F = −kx. However for a spring x and v are always changing. thus mg = kx or k = mg . If the spring and mass are then put into oscillation.

Let’s add them. Thus 1 1 U = kx2 = kx2 cos2 ωt 2 2 m and 1 1 K = mv 2 = mω 2 x2 sin2 ωt. m 2 2 Thus U and K always change.5 leave out An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator . OSCILLATIONS Example For SHM. Solution Recall that for SHM we have x = xm cos ωt and v = −ωxm sin ωt.182 CHAPTER 12. show that the total energy is always constant even though K and U always change. E = K +U 1 1 = mω 2 x2 sin2 ωt + kx2 cos2 ωt m 2 2 m but we previously found that ω = E = = k m giving 1 k 2 1 m xm sin2 ωt + kx2 cos2 ωt 2 m 2 m 1 2 kx (sin2 ωt + cos2 ωt) 2 m 1 2 kx 2 m E = which is always constant because the amplitude xm is constant! 12.

so that −gθ = m d2 θ L dt2 d2 θ . PENDULUM 183 12. “Grandfather Clock”). 16-10 of Halliday. Thus for the pendulum we must L g √ L T = 2π LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show T ∝ . The forces on a pendulum are shown in Fig. Example Prove that the period of a pendulum undergoing small oscillations is given by T = 2π pendulum. Thus −mg sin θ = mαL where α is the angular acceleration α = oscillations. Let’s analyze the forces and show that the period is independent of amplitude. sin θ ≈ θ. L g where L is the length of the Solution From Figure 16-10 (Halliday) we have Fk = max where we take the x direction to be perpendicular to the string.12. dt2 Now for small Now compare this to our spring equation which was −kx = ma d2 x −kx = m 2 dt which had period T = 2π have m k.6.g.6 Pendulum The Simple Pendulum A pendulum is a very important type of oscillating motion and a very important clock (e.

Solution The torque is τ = −(mg sin θ)h where the minus sign indicates that when θ increases the torque acts in the opposite direction.11 (Halliday). m is the total mass and h is the distance from the rotation axis to the center of mass. Pg. OSCILLATIONS Example A Physical Pendulum consists of a solid piece of matter undergoing oscillations as shown in Fig. For small oscillations sin θ ≈ θ giving τ ≈ −mgθh Substitute into Newton’s second law τ = Iα gives ¨ −mgθh = I θ d2 θ = I 2 dt Now compare this to our spring equation which was −kx = ma d2 x −kx = m 2 dt which had period T = 2π we must have m k. where I is the rotational inertia. I Prove that the period of oscillation is T = 2π mg h . (See Haliday. 382) Assume small oscillations. 16.184 CHAPTER 12. Thus for the physical pendulum I mgh T = 2π .

12. PENDULUM 185 (a) k1 k2 m (b) k1 k2 m (c) k1 m k2 FIGURE 16. Block sliding on frictionless surface with various spring .2 combinations.6.

If the two springs were replaced by a single spring with constant K. as shown in Fig. Solution If m moves by an amount x then it feels two forces −k1 x and −k2 x. What is the eﬀective spring constant K? (i. what is K in terms of k1 and k2 ?) Assume both springs have zero mass. with spring constants k1 and k2 . giving F = ma x −k1 x − k2 x = m¨ −(k1 + k2 )x = m¨ x giving K = k1 + k2 . 16. are connected in parallel to a mass m sliding on a frictionless surface.186 CHAPTER 12.2a. OSCILLATIONS Example Two springs.e.

Thus K= but k1 x1 = k2 x2 (the ratio of stretching x1 = k2 is inversely x2 k1 x1 strength. PENDULUM 187 Example The two springs of the previous example are connected in series.12.2b. What is the eﬀective spring constant K ? Solution If spring 1 moves a distance x1 and spring 2 moves a distance x2 then the mass moves a distance x1 + x2 . as shown in Fig.6.) Thus K = k1k1 giving x1 + k x1 2 k1 x1 x1 + x2 proportional to spring K= or k1 k2 k1 + k2 1 1 1 + = K k1 k2 . The force the mass feels is F = −K(x1 + x2 ) Now consider the motion of the mass plus spring 2 system. 16. The force it feels is f = −k1 x1 but we must have F = f because ma is same for mass m and mass plus spring 2 system because spring 2 has zero mass.

What is the eﬀective spring constant K ? Solution If spring 1 is compressed by x then spring 2 is stretched by −x. Thus F = ma −k1 x + k2 (−x) = m¨ x −(k1 + k2 )x = m¨ x giving K = k1 + k2 . OSCILLATIONS Example The two springs of the previous example are connected as shown in Fig.2c.188 CHAPTER 12.16.

513. Derive a formula for the maximum amplitude of oscillation that the system can have if the upper block is not to slip. Derive a formula for the amplitude with which the particle oscillates. Problem 54] 6.) [Serway. A simple pendulum consists of a ball of mass M hanging from a uniform string of mass m. 5th ed. 2. The car then stops suddenly. derive a formula for the speed of the block as a function of x.7 Problems 1.. A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular frequency ω. 5th ed. 418. The spring-particle system is suspended from the ceiling of an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car). The coeﬃcient of static friction between the two blocks is µs . pg. pg. as the car descends at a constant speed v. frictionless surface. Problem 14] 5. The other end of the spring is ﬁxed to a wall.12. An object of mass m oscillates on the end of a spring with spring constant k.7. An object of mass m oscillates at the end of a spring with spring constant k and amplitude A. derive a formula for the speed of a transverse wave in the string when the pendulum hangs at rest. and oscillates on a horizontal. Problem 16] .. the displacement from equilibrium. A block of mass m is connected to a spring with spring constant k.) 4. [Serway. with a second block sitting on top. If the amplitude of oscillation is A. 3. Check that your answer has the correct units. Derive a formula for the speed of the object when it is at a distance d from the equilibrium position. pg.. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible. with m M (m is much smaller than M ). PROBLEMS 189 12. 5th ed. is connected to a spring and executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides across a frictionless surface with an angular frequency ω. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible. If the period of oscillation for the pendulum is T . A large block. Check that your answer has the correct units.) [Serway. (Assume that the mass of the spring is negligible. 415. Derive a formula for the time it takes the spring to stretch from its equilibrium position to the point of maximum extension.

OSCILLATIONS .190 CHAPTER 12.

I SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Pluck some strings and verify the frequency equation for strings. 191 . THEMES: Violin and Guitar.Chapter 13 WAVES .

sound waves by which we hear. such as water waves or waves on a string. WAVES . When you hear a sound wave. Waves are an important phenomenon in nature. Waves and Particles 13. There are water waves.2 Read.192 CHAPTER 13. although we will use extensively some of our results from harmonic motion. Transverse waves have the property that the wave displacement is perpendicular to the velocity of the wave. as shown in Fig. light waves by which we see.3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves There are two diﬀerent types of waves. 13. Sound waves are an example of longitudinal waves in which the wave displacement is parallel to the wave velocity. .I So far we have studied the motion of single particles and systems of particles. However the motion of waves requires a diﬀerent type of approach. 17-1 (Halliday). Thus in today’s modern society it is important to understand wave motion. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Slinky showing tranverse and longitudinal waves. Types of Waves 13. the wave travels to your ear and vibrates your ear drum in the same direction as travel. Transverse waves are the ones you are most familiar with. 17-2 (Halliday). and radio waves by which we communicate.1 Read. as shown in Fig.

to summarize.4 Wavelength and Frequency There are 3 important variables for a wave.e. The reason we have written sin kx and not just sin x is because the domain of the sine function is an angle. Carefully study Fig. 17-4 (Halliday). so that the quantity kx is an angle. the y − t graph can be written y(0. Thus we must have θ = kx or 2π = kλ giving k= λ 2π which is called the wave number.13. To do this we have to multiply it by something called k. Now what is k? Well if kx is an angle then after one complete wave cycle. When visualizing a wave we usually think of a y − x plot or a y − t plot as shown in Fig. λ is determined from the y − x graph (instant of time t) whereas T is determined from the y − t graph (ﬁxed distance x). 0) = ym sin kx where we have taken the instant of time to be t = 0. Similarly. Thus we cannot write sin x because x is not an angle. the angle kx must be 2π. The y − t plot represents a single location x and is similar to a movie of a buoy bobbing up and down in the water as a wave passes through. t) = ym sin ωt . Thus y is a function of both x and t.4. ii) the distance x that the wave travels and iii) the time t that the wave travels. Now after one complete cycle the distance the wave moves is x = λ. i) the height y of the wave. WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY 193 13. 17-4 (Halliday). namely. The buoy is anchored to the ocean ﬂoor at a ﬁxed distance x. θ ≡ kx. Actually x is a distance with units of m. Thus. The distance between wave crests (that we could measure from our snapshot) is called the wavelength λ. The time it takes the buoy to bob up and down once is called the period T of the wave. t). We can only ever have sin θ where θ is an angle. The y − x plot represents an instant of time t and is similar to a photograph or snapshot of a water wave that we would take at the beach. written as y(x. However we want to use x as a plotting variable. i. Now the y − x graph can be written y(x.

Yes. We did not write sin t because t is not an angle. ω is the angular speed that we have discussed before.I where we have taken the ﬁxed distance to be x = 0. t) = ym sin(kx + ωt) Does this agree with what we had before? y(x. t) = ym sin ωt. We previously deﬁned f ≡ in Chapter 16. whereas ωt is an angle. Thus the wave speed must be distance x λ v= = = time t T Simple algebra also gives v= λ ω = fλ = T k . 0) = ym sin kx and y(0. WAVES . We can see that 13.194 CHAPTER 13. A general wave can be written y(x.5 Speed of a Travelling Wave A handy formula for wave speed is easy to get! In one complete cycle the wave travels a distance x = λ and takes a time t = T to do it. Again after one complete wave cycle ωt must be 2π and after one cycle the time t will just be one period T . Thus we must have θ = ωt or 2π = ωT giving ω= 2π = 2πf T 1 T which is often called the angular frequency ω.

3 m−1 and 2 sec−1 ).5.1 m = 0. SPEED OF A TRAVELLING WAVE 195 Example What is the amplitude. wavelength.67 m/sec ω 2 sec−1 = = 0.e. frequency and speed of the wave described by y(x. t) = 5 sin(3x + 2t) with all quantities in SI units (i. 5 m.32 sec−1 × 2.13. Solution The general wave is y(x. t) = ym sin(kx + ωt) Thus the amplitude is ym = 5 m the wave number is k = 3 m−1 and angular frequency is ω = 2 sec−1 Now k = 2π k = 3 m−1 giving λ= 2π 2π = 2.32 sec−1 2π 2π .1 m = k 3 m−1 and ω = 2πf = 2 sec−1 giving f= and the speed is v = f λ = 0.

WAVES . What must the exact formula be? (τ is now tension. 13.I 13. 13. 13.8 Principle of Superposition Read carefully.7 Energy and Power of a Travelling String Wave Leave out. so that the wave speed on τ a string is v = f λ = µ . or linear mass density. the wave speed depends on both the string tension τ and the mass per unit length µ. Phasors . 13.9 Interference of Waves Read carefully. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show wave interference using slinky.196 CHAPTER 13. To get m sec−1 from kg m sec−2 and kg m−1 can only be obtained with m sec−1 = = Thus we must have v= τ µ √ kg m sec−2 kg m−1 m2 sec−2 = m sec−1 And we can combine with our previous formula.6 Wave Speed on a String LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Wave speed depends on tension. When a wave travels on a string. not torque) Well the units of v are m sec−1 and units of τ are N ≡ kg m sec−1 and units of µ are kg m−1 .10 Leave out.

tension τ and mass density µ. 2. The wave of lowest frequency (longest wavelength) is called the fundamental harmonic.11 Standing Waves Read carefully. · · · 2 2L n τ Now the wave speed is v = f λ = µ and writing λ = or n τ f = 2L µ gives f 2L = n τ µ This is an extremely important formula for the design of muscial instruments. thus verifying the above formula. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show how frequency of Sound from Violin depends on length L. 13. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing waves on slinky. The various allowed harmonics are shown in Fig. These can be written in general as L=n λ with n = 1. In this way standing waves of diﬀerent wavelength can be produced.11. 17-18 (Haliday). 3. The relations between the wavelength λ and the length of the string L for the various harmonics are L = λ 2 2λ 2 L = λ= L = 3λ 2 etc.13.12 Standing Waves and Resonance When waves travel down a string they can reﬂect back from the other end and interfere with the other waves. . Higher frequencies are called higher harmonics. STANDING WAVES 197 13.

I Example Middle C has a frequency of 262 Hz. WAVES . giving The fundamental har- τ = µ(2Lf )2 = 0.25 m ×262 sec−1 )2 = 686 kg m−1 m2 sec−2 = 686 kg m sec−2 = 686 N .) Solution The mass per unit length µ is µ= 10 gram 0.198 CHAPTER 13. What tension do we need to apply to a violin string to get this frequency for the fundamental harmonic? (Assume the string has a mass of about 10 gram and a length of 1/4 m.01 kg = = 0. n The frequency is given by f = 2L monic corresponds to n = 1.25 m τ µ.04 kg m−1 1/4 m .04 kg m−1 (2 × 0.

13 Problems .13.13. PROBLEMS 199 13.

I .200 CHAPTER 13. WAVES .

II SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Blow in some pipes and verify the frequency equation for pipes. THEMES: Flute and Recorder.Chapter 14 WAVES . 201 .

By the way. Students should read Halliday (Pg.1 Sound Waves This chapter is mostly devoted to the study of sound waves. Understand the formula for sound level .3 Travelling Sound Waves Leave out. In air the speed of sound is 343 m/sec = 1125 ft/sec = 767 mph The speed of sound was exceeded in an airplane many years ago.202 CHAPTER 14.II 14. 14.5 Intensity and Sound Level β ≡ 10dB log I Io Read Halliday carefully. 14.2 Speed of Sound B ρ ∆p ∆V /V The speed of sound in any medium is given by v= where ρ is the density of the medium and B is the Bulk Modulus deﬁned as B≡− where a change in pressure ∆p causes a change in the volume ∆V of a medium. sound waves are longitudinal whereas light waves are transverse. WAVES . 14. 426-427) for a careful discussion of these concepts.4 Interference Read carefully. although much of what we have to say can also be applied to light waves. However the sound barrier was broken by an automobile only for the ﬁrst time in October 1997! 14.

The various maxima and minima locations of the standing waves correspond to maximum and minimum pressures in the pipe as shown in Fig. 435-436 Halliday.6 Sources of Musical Sound All students should carefully read Pg.14. See Fig. These can be written in general as L= nλ with n = 1. The relations between the wavelength λ and the pipe length L for the various harmonics is Note the ﬁrst harmonic is actually Fig. 18-14a L = λ 1 = λ 2 2 2 L = λ= λ 2 3 L = λ 2 4 L = 2λ = λ 2 etc. 18-14a (Halliday). LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing Sound Waves & Water Column Example For a pipe open at both ends. 18-13 (Halliday) and the higher harmonics are in Fig. Solution The pipe open at both ends is shown in Figs. 2. There it is explained how standing sound waves occur in pipes ﬁlled with air. There is a pressure node at the closed end and an anitnode at the open end. SOURCES OF MUSICAL SOUND 203 14. 18-13. determine the relationship between the length of the pipe L and the frequencies of the various harmonics.6. 3 · · · 2 . 18-13 (Halliday). 18-14 (Halliday).

7 Beats Read carefully. These can be written in general as L= nλ with n = 1. 5. 3. f= n 4L B with n = 1. Note that a longer instrument (larger L) will give a lower frequency. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Two recorders. 2. · · · ρ and for the pipe open at one end. . Also note that the frequency depends on the density of air. 3. such as a ﬂute or recorder. · · · ρ These are very important formulas for the design of wind musical instruments.II Example Repeat the previous example for a pipe open at only one end.204 CHAPTER 14. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Talking with Helium gas. Solution This is shown in Fig. 5 · · · 4 B ρ. Obviously L = L = L = λ 1λ = 4 4 3λ 4 5λ 4 etc. 14. Now recall that v = f λ = f= n 2L Thus for the pipe open at both ends B with n = 1. WAVES . 3. 18-14b (Halliday).

Example An observer moves toward a stationary source of sound waves at a speed vD (detector speed). the result would be f =f f =f v − vD v . This change in frequency of a moving sound source is called the Doppler eﬀect. then f= v λ where v is the wave speed and λ is the wavelength. We have previously seen that for a stationary observer and source. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Moving Microphone (twirl on a string) The same Doppler eﬀect is also observed when the listener is moving and the source is stationary. DOPPLER EFFECT 205 14.8 Doppler Eﬀect Everyone has noticed the pitch of the sound of a train varies when the train passes. You can also easily hear this just listening to cars drive down the road. 18-18 (Halliday). Derive a formula for the observed frequency f in terms of the stationary frequency f . Solution This situation is shown in Fig.14.8. The detector will sense a higher frequency as in f = Now f = f or v + vD λ v + vD v v+vD λ v λ = v + vD v Note: if the observer was moving away.

. WAVES . If they are moving away from each other the frequencydecreases. Solution This situation is shown in Fig. Derive a formula for the observed frequency f in terms of the stationary frequency f . the result would be f =f All of the previous results can be combined into a single formula.206 CHAPTER 14. This time it is the wavelength which changes and it will be smaller as in vs λ =λ− f f is now (due to change in λ ) f = = = or f =f v λ v λ− vs f = vf λf − vs vf v − vs v v − vs v v + vs Note: if the source was smoving away. An easy way to remember the signs is that if detector and source are moving toward each other the frequency increases.II Example A sound wave moves toward a stationary observer at a speed vs . 18-21 (Halliday). f =f v ± vD v vs If vs = 0 we get f = f v±vD as before and if vD = 0 we get f = f v vvs as v before.

14. In 1845 it was tested experimentally by Buys Ballot using a locomotive drawing an open train car with trumpeters playing. DOPPLER EFFECT 207 The Austrian physicist.8. how fast would the train need to travel for a stationary person (with perfect pitch) on the ground to hear a D note ? Solution Here vD = 0 and we want to ﬁnd vs . Example Middle C has a frequency of 264 Hz. Johann Christian Doppler proposed the eﬀect in 1842. If a trumpeter is playing the C note on a train. The frequency increases and we have f ⇒ 1 f v v − vs v − vs = fv fv = f f = v(1 − ) f = f = 767 mph (1 − = 92 mph 264Hz ) 300Hz ⇒ v − vs ⇒ vs . The D note has a fequency of 300 Hz.

5th ed.9 Problems 1.. Derive a formula for the speed of a wave pulse travelling along the cord. p.e. The cord passes over a pulley and supports an object of mass M as shown in the ﬁgure. The string’s length is L and its mass is m M (i.x x M 3. A block of mass M .) [Serway. supported by a string. [Serway. Derive a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave pulse to travel the length of the rope. p. 517. 5th ed.II 14. Derive a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave to travel from one end of the string to the other. 501] L . Problem 53] . 5 ed. m is negligible compared to M ). WAVES . [Serway.. (Hint: First ﬁnd an expression for the wave speed at any point a distance x from the lower end by considering the tension in the rope as resulting from the weight of the segment below that point. rests on an incline making an angle θ with the horizontal. A uniform cord has a mass m and a length L. p. Problem 59] 2. A uniform rope of mass m and length L is suspended vertically.. 516.208 CHAPTER 14.

Problem 54] . [Serway. p.9. between the approaching and receding train whistle in terms of u. the speed of sound. The whistle sounds higher or lower in pitch depending on whether the moving train is approaching or receding. and v.14.. PROBLEMS 209 L M θ 4. 5th ed. the speed of the train. Derive a formula for the diﬀerence in frequency ∆f . 541. A stationary train emits a whistle at a frequency f .

210 CHAPTER 14. WAVES .II .

211 . HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Put a block of ice into an insulated container of water and measure the temperature change.Chapter 15 TEMPERATURE. Is it what you expect ? THEMES: Heating and Cooling.

such as a liquid or gas is the temperature. 15. A much more natural temperature scale. Thus the zeroth law of thermodynamics simply states that: “If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body.3 Read.4 Celsius. Water freezes at 32◦ F and boils at 212◦ F. called Celsius or Centigrade.” 15. pressure and volume are related.1 Thermodynamics We now leave our study of mechanics and begin our study of thermodynamics. Measuring Temperature 15.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics If two bodies have the same temperature then they are said to be in thermal equilibrium. TEMPERATURE.) One of the most important properties of a macroscopic system. . or thermal energy. The most important system that we will study is an ideal gas and how the temperature. however. This is the study of the kinetic theory of gases. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 15. i. Farenheit and Kelvin Temperature Scales The antiquated Farenheit temperature scale is only still used in a few countries (including the United States). To convert between the two scales use 9 F = C + 32 5 where F is the temperature in Farenheit and C is the temperature in Centigrade. rates the freezing and boiling point of water at 0◦ C and 100◦ C respectively. (Actually. then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. a microscopic approach to thermodynamics.e. thermodynamic quantities are related to our study of mechanics.212CHAPTER 15.

CELSIUS.e.4. −40◦ F = −40◦ C .15. FARENHEIT AND KELVIN TEMPERATURE SCALES213 Example If you set your house thermostate to 70◦ F what is the temperature in Centigrade ? Solution 9 F = C + 32 5 9 F − 32 = C 5 C = 5 (F − 32) 9 5 = (70 − 32) 9 = 23◦ C Example At what temperature are the Farenheit and Centigrade scales equal ? Solution When they are equal the F = C = x giving 9 x = x + 32 5 x 1− 9 5 = 32 4 − x = 32 5 x = −40◦ i.

214CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE.15 where C is the temperature in Centigrade and K is the temperature in Kelvin.15◦ C. Thus C = K − 273. The temperature at which this happens is −273. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this. Thus a gas which has fast moving molecules will have a high temperature and pressure. The Kelvin temperature at which a gas has zero pressure is deﬁned to be 0◦ K.4 5 5 C = (F − 32) 9 15. Thermal Expansion . Example What is the relationship between Farenheit and Kelvin ? Solution C = K − 273 and giving 5 (F − 32) = K − 273 9 or F = = 9 (K − 273) + 32 5 9 K − 459. the temperature of a substance is related to the speed of the individual molecules which also give rise to pressure. What happens if we slow all the molecules to zero speed? Well then the gas pressure will be zero. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS From a microscopic point of view (see Chapter 20).5 Read. This leads to a third type of tmperature scale called Absolute temperature or Kelvin temperature.

6 Temperature and Heat Read very carefully.15. Heat capacity tells us how much the temperature of an object will increase for a given amount of energy or heat input. Q is the heat and ∆T is the temperature change.7 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids Heat Capacity If you put a certain amount of energy or heat into a block of wood then the temperature will increase by a certain amount.6. From Q C = ∆T it means that C is small for steel and large for wood. wood or steel ? Solution For a given Q then ∆T will be larger for steel. TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 215 15. or Q = C(Tf − Ti ) Example Which has the largest heat capacity. It is deﬁned as Q C≡ ∆T where C is the heat capacity. 15. . If you do the same thing to a lump of steel (of the same mass) its temperature increase will be larger than for the wood.

we could deﬁne it according to the total number of molecules in the object.e. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Speciﬁc Heat If we put a certain amount of heat into a small block of steel compared to a large block then the small block will change its temperature the most. thousand ≡ 1000 or instead of saying “one thousand thousands” we say “million”. Now we always use other words for huge numbers. . 000. Thus we also need to include the mass of the block in determining temperature change. i.) where N is the number of moles of molecules in the substance. TEMPERATURE. Thus deﬁne mole ≡ 6. million ≡ 1. Instead of saying “one hundred tens” we say “thousand”. billion and trillion are too small for the number of molecules in an object.e. Table 19-3 in Halliday has a list of speciﬁc heats and molar speciﬁc heats for various substances. But if we write down the total number of molecules we will be writing down huge numbers. Thus we deﬁne speciﬁc heat (with a lower case c) as c≡ or Q = cm(Tf − Ti ) In other words the speciﬁc heat is just the heat capacity per unit mass or c= Molar Speciﬁc Heat Instead of deﬁning speciﬁc heat with the mass of the object.216CHAPTER 15. 000 Now even million.02 × 1023 (This number arose because in 12 grams of Thus molar speciﬁc heat is deﬁned as cm ≡ Q N ∆T 12 C Q m∆T C m there is 1 mole of atoms. i.

720 J = 20 kcal where we have used 1 cal ≡ 4.15.7. . THE ABSORPTION OF HEAT BY SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 217 Example How much heat is required to increase the temperature of 2 kg of water from 20◦ C to 30◦ C ? Solution From Table 19-3 of Halliday.000 cal = 83.00 cal g−1 K −1 . the speciﬁc heat of water is 1. Thus the temperature should be in ◦ K.186 J. Now ∆T = 30◦ C − 20◦ C = 20◦ C or ∆T = −243◦ K − −253◦ K = 10◦ K giving Q = mc∆T = 2kg × 1 cal g−1 K −1 × 10 K = 2000 g × 1 cal g−1 K −1 × 10 K = 20.

218CHAPTER 15. if you put heat into a block of ice at 0◦ C it may just melt to a pool of water still at 0◦ C. Putting heat into water at 100◦ C may just vaporize the water to steam at 100◦ C. TEMPERATURE.000 cal = 159 kcal Example Sample Problem 19-6 (Halliday).5 cal g−1 × 2000 g = 159. The heat of transformation L is deﬁned via Q ≡ Lm where Q is the heat and m is the mass. (done in class) . Does it take more heat to melt ice or vaporize water (of the same mass)? Example How much heat is required to melt 2 kg of ice at 0◦ C to water at 0◦ C ? Solution The latent heat of fusion is Lf = 79. Thus heat can cause a change of phase. If melting is involved L is called a heat of fusion Lf or for vaporizing L is called a heat of vaporization Lv . HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Heats of Transformation When you put heat or energy into an object the temperature does not always change! For example. (done in class) Example Sample Problem 19-7 (Halliday).5 cal g−1 giving Q = Lm = 79. Exercise The latent heat of fusion for water is Lf = 333 kJ/kg and the latent heat of vaporization is Lv = 2256 kJ/kg.

A CLOSER LOOK AT HEAT AND WORK 219 15. Such pistons are crucial to the operation of automobile engines. 19. the .1 Piston. Recall our deﬁnition of Work as W ≡ F · ds For the piston. The pressure of a gas is deﬁned as force divided by area (of the piston compressing the gas) or p≡ F A giving dW = pAdx = pdV where the volume is just area times distance or dV = Adx. all the motion occurs in 1-dimension so that W = F dx (or equivalently F ·ds = F dx cos 0◦ = F dx).1. as shown in Fig. That is when we compress the piston by a distance dx. By pushing on the piston the gas is compressed.15. or if the gas is heated the piston expands. The gas consists of a mixture of gasoline which is compressed by the piston. Sitting inside the chamber is a spark plug which ignites the gas and pushes the piston out.8. The piston is connected to a crankshaft connecting the auto engine to the wheels of the automobile. dx F FIGURE 19.8 A Closer Look at Heat and Work When discussing work and energy for thermodynamic systems it is useful to think about compressing the gas in a piston. Another such piston system is the simple bicycle pump.

The meaning of this law is that the internal energy of a system can be changed by adding heat or doing work. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS volume of the gas changes by dV = Adx where A is the cross-sectional area of the piston. which was ∆U + ∆K = WN C Recall that the total work W was always W = ∆K. TEMPERATURE. Often the ﬁrst law is written for tiny changes as dEint = dQ − dW . 15. which is just potential energy) is Eint ≡ U and we have ∆Eint + W = Q or ∆Eint = Q − W which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. Identify heat Q as Q ≡ WN C and internal energy (such as energy stored in a gas.9 The First Law of Thermodynamics We have already studied this! The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics is nothing more than a re-statement of the work energy theorem. Writing W = dW gives Vf W = Vi p dV which is the work done by a gas of pressure p changing its volume from Vi to Vf (or the work done on the gas).220CHAPTER 15.

15.10.

SPECIAL CASES OF 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 221

15.10

Special Cases of 1st Law of Thermodynamics

1. Adiabatic Processes Adiabatic processes are those that occur so rapidly that there is no transfer of heat between the system and its environment. Thus Q = 0 and ∆Eint = −W For example if we push in the piston very quickly then our work will increase the internal energy of the gas. It will store potential energy (∆U = ∆Eint ) like a spring and make the piston bounce back when we let it go. 2. Constant-volume Processes If we glue the piston so that it won’t move then obviously the volume is constant, and W = pdV = 0, because the piston can’t move. Thus ∆Eint = Q which means the only way to increase the internal energy of the gas is by adding heat Q. 3. Cyclical Processes Recall the motion of a spring. It is a cyclical process in which the spring oscillates back and forth. After one complete cycle the potential energy U of the spring has not changed, thus ∆U = 0. Similarly we can push in the piston, then let it go and it will push back to where it started, similar to the spring. Thus ∆Eint = 0 and Q=W meaning that work done equals heat gained. 4. Free Expansion Another way to get ∆Eint = 0 is for Q=W =0 Free expansion is illustrated in Fig. 19-15 [Halliday].

222CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Example Sample Problem 19-8 (Halliday). (done in class)

15.11

Heat Transfer Mechanisms

There are three basic processes by which heat is always transferred from one body to another. These are 1) Convection 2) Conduction 3) Radiation Students should carefully read Section 19.11 of Halliday.

15.12. PROBLEMS

223

15.12

Problems

1. The coldest that any object can ever get is 0 K (or -273 C). It is rare for physical quantities to have an upper or lower possible limit. Explain why temperature has this lower limit. 2. Suppose it takes an amount of heat Q to make a cup of coﬀee. If you make 3 cups of coﬀee how much heat is required? 3. How much heat is required to make a cup of coﬀee? Assume the mass of water is 0.1 kg and the water is initially at 0◦ C. We want the water to reach boiling point. Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie. (1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.
J J J For water: c = 1 cal = 4186 kg C ; Lv = 2.26 × 106 kg ; Lf = 3.33 × 105 kg ) gC

4. How much heat is required to change a 1 kg block of ice at −10◦ C to steam at 110◦ C ? Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie. (1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie. J J J cwater = 4186 kg C ; cice = 2090 kg C ; csteam = 2010 kg C J J For water, Lv = 2.26 × 106 kg ; Lf = 3.33 × 105 kg )

224CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Chapter 16

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Put a block of ice into an insulated container of water and measure the temperature change. Is it what you expect ? THEMES: Behavior of a Gas.

225

This accelerator will collide heavy nuclei into each other at extremely high energies. This is the equation that speciﬁes the exact relation between pressure p. For example. called the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island. 16. One of the main aims is to determine the nuclear matter equation of state at very high temperatures and densities.3 Ideal Gases One of the most fundamental properties of any macroscopic system is the so-called equation of state. Actually there is a giant accelerator. in terms of an underlying microscopic theory based on atoms and molecules. was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries before we knew about molecules and atoms. Now it turns out that most gases obey a simple equation of state called the ideal gas law pV = nRT .02 × 1023 . we shall see that the temperature of a gas is related to the average kinetic energy of all molecules in the gas. Thus we write Avagadro’s number as NA = 6.226 CHAPTER 16. and temperature T for a substance. 16. such as temperature and pressure.02 × 1023 mole−1 and N = nNA where N is the number of molecules and n is the number of moles.1 A New Way to Look at Gases The subject of classical thermodynamics. volume V . The number of molecules must be the number of moles times the number of molecules per mole. The equation of state for a gas is very diﬀerent to the equation of state of a liquid. studied in the last chapter.2 Avagadro’s Number One mole is the number of atoms in a 12 gram sample of 12 C. The kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain all of the concepts of classical thermodynamics. simulating the early universe. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 16. and this number is determine from experiment to be 6. This is often called Avagadro’s number.

Thus pV = nRT = NA RT and deﬁne Boltzmann’s constant k ≡ 8. n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the so called gas constant with the value R = 8. then the pressure p increases as temperature T increases. 3) If the temperature T is held constant. 2) If the pressure p is held constant. V .16. Remember an equation of state is an equation relating the three variables p. IDEAL GASES 227 where p is the pressure. V decreases.38 × 10−23 JK−1 = 8.31 J mol−1 K−1 Recall that the number of molecules is given by N = nNA where n is the N number of moles.3. volume. A pV diagram takes care of two variables. then as T increases. T . T is the temperature (in ◦ K).6 × 10−19 J Thus the ideal gas law is also often written as pV = N kT where N is the total number of molecules. For ﬁxed T (say 310 K) the pressure is inversely proportional to volume as speciﬁed in the ideal gas law. p increases. The third variable T represents diﬀerent lines on the pV diagram. LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS: Show this Work Done by an Ideal Gas The equation of state can be represented on a graph of pressure vs. V is the volume. An example is given in Fig. 20-1 [Halliday] would look diﬀerent for an equation of state diﬀerent from the ideal gas law. These diﬀerence lines are called isotherms (meaning same temperature). often called a pV diagram. then as p increases. Fig.62 × 10−5 eV K−1 where an electron volt is deﬁned as eV ≡ 1.02 × 1023 mole−1 = 1.20-1 [Halliday]. The ideal gas law embodies exactly the properties we expect of a gas: 1) If the volume V is held constant.31J mole−1 K−1 R = NA 6. .

If the volume does not change then the piston doesn’t move and the work is zero. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Example What is the work done by any gas (ideal or not) at constant volume (isometric) ? Solution If Vi = Vf then Vf W = Vi pdV = 0 which is obvious when we think of the piston in the previous chapter. Solution If p is a constant it can be taken outside the integral. at constant pressure).228 CHAPTER 16.e. Example Derive a formula for the work done by any gas (ideal or not) which expands isobarically (i. giving Vf W = Vi pdV Vf = p Vi V dV = p [V ]Vf i = p(Vf − Vi ) = p∆V .

3. For an ideal gas we have p = nRT giving V Vf W = nRT Vi 1 dV V V = nRT [ln V ]Vf i = nRT (ln Vf − ln Vi ) Vf = nRT ln Vi Carefully study Sample Problems 20-1. Solution The work done by an expanding gas is given by Vf W = Vi pdV But this time the pressure changes. . 20-2 in Halliday.16.e. at constant temperature). IDEAL GASES 229 Example Derive a formula for the work done by a gas when it expands isothermally (i.

Imagine a gas.230 CHAPTER 16. about 500 m/sec for air (about 1000 mph). Using Newtonian Mechanics.4 in Halliday. vRM S is the average speed of the molecules and V is the volume of the gas. 488) carefully. A dt Halliday (Pg. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 16. 487) Pressure is deﬁned as Force divided by Area or p ≡ F where F = dp .4 Pressure. “What is the connection between the pressure p exerted by the gas on the walls and the speeds of the molecules?” (Halliday Pg. The above equation is derived purely from applying Newtonian mechanics to the individual molecules. All students should study the derivation in Halliday (Pg. 488) shows that p= 2 nM vRM S 3V where n is the number of moles. Now by comparing to the ideal gas law pV = nRT or p = nRT we must V have 2 nM vRM S 3 = nRT or vRM S = 3RT M which shows that the temperature T is related to the speed of molecules! As shown in Table 20-1 (Halliday) the speed of molecules at room temperature is very large. Now consider our ﬁrst kinetic theory problem. Temperature and RMS Speed Carefully study Section 20. consisting of n moles being conﬁned to a cubical box of volume V . . M is the mass of 1 mole of the gas (so that nM is the total mass of the gas).

no matter what their mass. M 2 M Remember that M is the molar mass.02 ×1023 = NA . have the same average translational kinetic energy. Thus K = 2NA or 3 ¯ K = kT 2 This is a very interesting result.000. For a given temperature T .62 × 10−8 × 20 × 106 K 2 K = 2586 eV ≈ 3 MeV .16. Example In the center of the Sun the particles are bare hydrogen nuclei (protons). Thus M = 1 mole = 6. Thus ¯ K = 3 kT 2 eV 3 = × 8.000◦ K. Calculate their average kinetic energy.5. Solution The center of the Sun is at a temperature of about 20. which is the mass of 1 mole of gas and m is the mass of the molecule. all gas molecules. m 3RT ¯ Avagadro’s number. TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY 231 16.5 Translational Kinetic Energy 1 2 ¯ K = mvRM S 2 For a single molecule its average kinetic energy is ¯ and using vRM S = 3RT gives K = 1 m 3RT .

The probbility of a given speed is 3/2 M v2 M P (v) = 4π v 2 e− 2RT 2πRT where M is the molar mass of the gas. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 16. This was worked out by Maxwell. it takes a while for you to notice the smell at the other end of the room. This probability distribution is plotted in Fig.6 Mean Free Path Even though room temperature air molecules have a large RM S speed vRM S ≈ 500 m/sec. as shown very nicely in Fig. this is just the average molecular speed. 20-7 (Halliday). If you open a bottle of perfume at one end of a room. This is because the molecules undergo an enormous number of collisions on their way across the room. that does not mean that they move across a room in a fraction of a second. . This formula is discussed on Pages 490-491 (Halliday). The mean free path λ is the average distance that a molecule travels in between collisions.232 CHAPTER 16. 20-4 (Halliday). We would like to know how many molecules travel above or below this speed. It is given by λ= √ 1 2πd2 N/V where d is the average diameter of a molecule. 16. and N/V is the average number of molecules per unit volume.7 Distribution of Molecular Speeds Not all molecules travel at the speed vRM S .

D) Repeat part C) if the temperature changes from 200 C to 400 C.16. by how much does the pressure change if the temperature is held constant ? 3.) .8.8 1. and the absolute temperature is doubled and the pressure is halved. 2. PROBLEMS 233 16. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled and the volume is doubled. by how much does the volume change if the pressure and number of molecules is constant. by how much does the pressure change if the volume and temperature are held constant? B) If the volume of an ideal gas is halved. by how much does the volume change ? (Absolute temperature is simply the temperature measured in Kelvin. by how much does the pressure change if the temperature and number of molecules is constant? C) If the temperature of an ideal gas changes from 200 K to 400 K. Problems A) If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled.

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES .234 CHAPTER 16.

Rather than always having to verify the slope graphically.1 17. The initial value of y is yi ≡ y(xi ) = mxi + c = mx + c and the ﬁnal value is yf ≡ y(xf ) = mxf + c = y(x + ∆x) = m(x + ∆x) + c 235 (17. Let’s deﬁne yf − yi ∆y Slope ≡ ≡ (17. 22.3) . Obviously xf − xi = ∆x.1 the graph of y(x) = 2x + 1 is plotted and the slope has been determined by measuring ∆y and ∆x.2) ∆x xf − xi where ∆y is the diﬀerence between ﬁnal and initial values yf and yi .1) where c is the intercept on the y axis and m is the slope of the line. we need a good deﬁnition of slope.1 Derivative Equals Slope Slope of a Straight Line All students will be familiar with the equation for a straight line y(x) = mx + c (17.Chapter 17 Review of Calculus 17.1.4) (17. In Fig. To prove to ourselves that m really is the slope. Take xi = x as the initial x value and xf = x + ∆x as the ﬁnal value. let’s do it analytically for all lines.

Therefore the slope becomes ∆y m∆x = =m (17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS Thus ∆y = yf − yi = m(x + ∆x) + c − mx − c = m∆x. From above we can re-write our formula (17.2) using yf = y(x + ∆x) and yi = y(x). But we would get the same answer if we had used the tiny triangles in the bottom left hand corner. The parabola y(x) = x2 + 1 is plotted in Fig. At x = 0 the slope is 0 (the tiny little line is ﬂat) whereas around x = 1 the slope is larger. That’s why it’s called straight.5) ∆x ∆x which is a proof that y = mx + c has a slope of m.2 Slope of a Curve A straight line always has constant slope m. One of the most important ideas in calculus is the concept of the derivative. In Fig. Another way of saying that ∆x is tiny is to say Tiny = lim ∆x→0 That is the limit as ∆x goes to zero is another way of saying ∆x is tiny.1 we got the slope from ∆y and ∆x on the large triangle in the top right hand corner. which is nothing more than Derivative = Slope of tiny little line segment. ∆x = 2 always). If you look at any tiny little piece it looks straight. In fact the concept of the slope of a parabola doesn’t make any sense because the parabola continuously curves. so that Slope ≡ yf − yi ∆y y(x + ∆x) − y(x) = = ∆x xf − xi ∆x (17.6) 17.2 and obviously the slope changes. What characterizes these tiny ∆y triangles is that ∆x and ∆y are both tiny (but their ratio.236 CHAPTER 17. However we might think about little pieces of the parabola. Notice that the slope of the tiny little line segments keeps changing. Examples 1) lim [∆x + 3] = 3 ∆x→0 ∆x→0 2) lim ∆x = 0 . 22.1. These tiny little pieces are all tiny little line segments. 22. each with their own slope.

because the hypotenuse would be curved.1.1. Thus let’s deﬁne the Slope of Slope of tiny ∆y curve at ≡ lim ≡ Derivative = little line ∆x→0 ∆x a point segment So it’s the same deﬁnition as before in (17. 22.7) That is. Similarly for ∆x.17. Now ∆x = y(x+∆x)−y(x) from (17. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 3) lim [(∆x)2 + 4] = 4 ∆x→0 237 4) lim (∆x)2 + 4∆x = lim (∆x + 4) = 4 ∆x→0 ∆x→0 ∆x ∆x→0 5) lim 3 = 3 For a curve like the parabola we can’t draw a big triangle. . But we can get the slope at a point by drawing a tiny triangle at that point. If we are talking about a tiny ∆y we write dy instead. as in Fig. Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 3x Solution y(x) = 3x y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x) dy dx = 3(x + ∆x) − 3x ∆x→0 ∆x 3x + 3∆x − 3x = lim ∆x→0 ∆x 3∆x = lim = lim 3 = 3 ∆x→0 ∆x ∆x→0 lim Thus the derivative is the slope.6) and the derivative ∆x dy is given a fancy new symbol dx so that dy y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ≡ lim dx ∆x→0 ∆x The symbol dy simply means dy ≡ tiny ∆y (17. usually ∆y can be big or small.6) except lim is an instruction ∆x→0 ∆y to use a tiny triangle.

Example Calculate the derivative of the parabola y(x) = x2 Solution y(x) = x2 y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)2 = x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 dy dx = y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x 2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 − x2 x = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim (2x + ∆x) lim ∆x→0 = 2x Example Calculate the slope of the parabola y(x) = x2 at the points x = −2.238 CHAPTER 17. x = 3. The two examples above show that it also works for a straight line (A straight line is a special case of a curve). x = 0. Thus dy dx dy dx dy dx = −4 x=−2 =0 x=0 =6 x=3 . REVIEW OF CALCULUS Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 4 Solution y(x) = 4 y(x + ∆x) = 4 dy 4−4 = lim =0 dx ∆x→0 ∆x The line y(x) = 4 has 0 slope and therefore 0 derivative. (do Problem 1) The derivative was deﬁned to give us the slope of a curve at a point. Now do some examples for real curves. dy Solution We already have dx = 2x.

In general we have (17. Example Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = x2 + 1 (see Fig.1. 22. Thus dc =0 dx We also saw in a previous example that d 2 dx x (17.8) = 2x. Let’s verify it for n = 3. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 239 which shows how the slope of a tiny little line segment varies as we move along the parabola. (do Problem 2) 17.17. which make sense because a graph of y(x) = 4 reveals that the slope is always 0.1.9) gives dx3 = 3x3−1 = 3x2 dx .9) dxn = nxn−1 dx This is a very important result. x = 0. We have already veriﬁed it for n = 2. Solution Formula (17. This is true for any constant c. x = 3 Solution y(x) = x2 + 1 y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)2 + 1 = x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 + 1 dy dx = y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 + 1 − (x2 + 1) = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim 2x + ∆x lim ∆x→0 = 2x Thus the slopes are the same as in the previous example.3 Some Common Derivatives dy In a previous example we saw that the derivative of y(x) = 4 was dx = 0.2) at the points x = −2. Example Check that (17.9) is correct for n = 3.

y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)3 = x3 + 3x2 ∆x + 3x(∆x)2 + (∆x)3 dy dx y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x x3 + 3x2 ∆x + 3x(∆x)2 + (∆x)3 − x3 = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim 3x2 + 3x∆x + (∆x)2 = ∆x→0 lim = 3x in agreement with our result above.240 CHAPTER 17. Take y(x) = x3 . REVIEW OF CALCULUS We wish to verify this. ∆x→0 2 (do Problem 3) .

The derivative of a sum of functions equals the sum of the derivatives of the functions: d dy(x) dz(x) [y(x) + z(x)] = + dx dx dx Chain rule 3. I will just make some comments about them. The derivative of a product of functions y(x)z(x) equals the ﬁrst function times the derivative of the second plus the second function times the derivative of the ﬁrst: d dz(x) dy(x) [y(x)z(x)] = y(x) + z(x) dx dx dx .1. Table A-4 Properties of Derivatives and Derivatives of Particular Functions [Tipler. pg. If y is a function of x and x is in turn a function of t. 1991].17. You will prove most of these results in your calculus course. AP-16. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 241 A list of very useful results for derivatives is given below. Multiplicative constant rule 1. the derivative of y with respect to t equals the product of the derivative of y with respect to z and the derivative of z with respect to x: d dy dz y(x) = dx dz dx Derivative of a product 4. The derivative of a constant times a function equals the constant times the derivative of the function: d dy(x) [Cy(x)] = C dx dx Addition rule 2.

= nxn−1 dx d 8.242 Reciprocal derivative CHAPTER 17. Addition rule Example d dy(x) dz(x) [y(x) + z(x)] = + dx dx dx . ln bx = dx x Multiplicative constant rule Example This just means. dx dx d dx2 (3x2 ) = 3 = 3 × 2x = 6x dx dx (do Problem 4). d tan ωx = ω sec2 ωx dx d bx 11. that d dy(x) [Cy(x)] = C . for example. REVIEW OF CALCULUS 5. sin ωx = ω cos ωx dx d 9. The derivative of y with respect to x is the reciprocal of the derivative of x with respect to y. cos ωx = −ω sin ωx dx 6. 10. assuming that neither derivative is zero: dy = dx dx dy −1 if dx =0 dy Derivatives of particular functions dC = 0 where C is a constant dx d(xn ) 7. e = bebx dx d 1 12.

17. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE Take for example y(x) = x and z(x) = x2 . Example Verify the chain rule for y = z 3 and z = x2 . This rule just means d dx dx2 (x + x2 ) = + = 1 + 2x dx dx dx (do Problem 5) Chain Rule dy dy dz = dx dz dx 243 (A rough “proof” of this is to just note that the dz cancels in the numerator and denominator. dx dy dz dz dx Now dy dz dz dx = 6x5 = 3z 2 = 2x dy dx = (3z 2 )(2x) = (3x4 )(2x) = 6x5 . where y is not given as a function of x. Solution y(x)z(x) = x5 ⇒ d dx5 [y(x)z(x)] = = 5x4 dx dx Now let’s show that the product rule gives the same answer.1. Product Rule The use of this arises when multiplying two functions together as illustrated in the next example. verify the product rule..) The use of the chain rule is best seen in the following example. y(x) dz(x) dx2 = x3 = x3 2x = 2x4 dx dx . Thus we see that d dz(x) dy(x) [y(x)z(x)] = y(x) + z(x) dx dx dx = dy dz dz dx .. Example If y(x) = x3 and z(x) = x2 . Thus y(x) = x6 . dy . Solution We have y(z) = z 3 and z(x) = x2 .

REVIEW OF CALCULUS dy(x) dx3 2 z(x) = x = 3x2 x2 = 3x4 dx dx dz(x) dy(x) y(x) + z(x) = 2x4 + 3x4 = 5x4 dx dx in agreement with our answer above. (do Problem 6) .244 CHAPTER 17.

. x = 0 y = x2 + 3 Thus the minimum is at (x. y) = (0. 3).. Thus 0= dy d 2 = (x + 3) = 2x dx dx .1..4 Extremum Value of a Function A ﬁnal important use of the derivative is that it can be used to tell us when a function attains a maximum or minimum value. You can verify this by plotting a graph. This occurs when the derivative or slope of the function is zero.1. y = 3 . (do Problem 7) .17. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 245 17. y) coordinates of the place where the parabola y(x) = x2 + 3 has its minimum value? Solution The minimum value occurs where the slope is 0.. Example What are the (x.

I tell you the answer and you tell me the question.246 CHAPTER 17. Let’s play a game. dy 1 = xn then y(x) = xn+1 dx n+1 Actually I have cheated.2 17. dy Or I tell you the derivative dx and you tell me the original function y(x) that it came from.2. let me just write C) . Thus in our little game of dy re-constructing the original function y(x) from the derivative dx there is always an ambiguity in that y(x) could always have some constant added to it. REVIEW OF CALCULUS 17.1 Integral Integral Equals Antiderivative dy The derivative of y(x) = 3x is dx = 3. Thus the correct answers in our game are If dy = 3 then y(x) = 3x + constant dx (Actually instead of always writing constant. The derivative of y(x) = x2 is dy dy 3 2 dx = 2x. Let’s look at the following functions y(x) = 3x + 2 y(x) = 3x + 7 y(x) = 3x + 12 y(x) = 3x + C (C is an arbitrary constant) y(x) = 3x dy All of them have the same derivative dx = 3. Ready? dy dx dy If dx dy If dx We can If If =3 = 2x then y(x) = 3x then y(x) = x2 = 15x2 then y(x) = 5x3 generalize this to a rule. The derivative of y(x) = 5x is dx = 15x .

Then if I add up many age increments in your life.5 year + 5 years + 0. ∆y dy The slope of a curve is ∆x or dx when the ∆ increments are tiny.10) dy Thus if f (x) = dx = 2x then y(x) = x2 + C.13) . Thus if I add up all possible increments of ∆y I get back y.11) or dy = f dx (17.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve Let’s see how to extract the integral from our original deﬁnition of derivative. but it’s nothing more than the original function. INTEGRAL If 247 dy = 2x then y(x) = x2 + C dx dy If = 15x2 then y(x) = 5x3 + C dx 1 dy then y(x) = If = xn xn+1 + C. That is y = ∆y1 + ∆y2 + ∆y3 + ∆y4 + · · · or symbolically y= i ∆yi (17.17. Let’s call it f (x) ≡ ∆y dy = dx ∆x (17.10) I have written ∆x also because dx is just a tiny ∆y version of ∆x .2. Notice dy that y(x) is a function of x but so also is dx . ∆y dy In equation (17. dx n+1 This original function y(x) that we are trying to get is given a special name called the antiderivative or integral. Obviously then ∆y = f ∆x (17. such as Age = ∆Age1 + ∆Age2 + ∆Age3 + ∆Age4 · · · 1 year + 3 years + 0.5 year + 5 years + 3 years = 18 years I get your complete age.2.12) What happens if I add up many ∆y’s. For instance suppose you are aged 18. and similarly for the other examples. 17.

14) Now looking at Fig. Notice that the dx “cancels”.248 where CHAPTER 17. Thus Area = f dx = dy dx = dx dy = y (17.3 we can see that the area of the shaded section is just fi ∆xi . The derivative is f (x) ≡ dx and y is my original function which we called the integral or antiderivative.16) which is just the tiny version of (17.2 y(x) = x2 y(x) = x2 + 4 ⇒ if f (x) ≡ dy = 2x ≡ f (x) dx dy = 2x ≡ f (x) dx dy ⇒y= dx f dx dy = 2x ⇒ y(x) = x2 + c dx f (x) = ∆y dy = dx ∆x ∆y = f ∆x dy = f dx y = i ∆yi = dy . Thus ∆yi is an area of a little shaded region. Add them all up and we have the total area under the curve.1 and 1. REVIEW OF CALCULUS ∆yi = fi ∆xi (17.” Summary: if f = Summary of 1.15) Let’s now make the little intervals ∆yi and ∆xi very tiny. Call them dy and dx. We now see that the integral or antiderivative or original function can be dy interpreted as the area under the derivative curve f (x) ≡ dx .2.2. Thus Area under = curve f (x) fi ∆xi = i i ∆yi ∆xi = ∆xi ∆yi = y i (17. By the way f dx reads “integral of f with respect to x.15). dy In formula (17. If I am using tiny intervals in my sum I am going to use a new symbol . 22.16) recall the following.

2x dx = x2 + c do a few more examples. Therefore the original 1 x dx = x2 + c 2 (do Problem 8) 17. Example What is the area under the curve f (x) = 4 between x1 = 1 and x2 = 6? Solution This is easy because f (x) = 4 is just a horizontal straight line as shown in Fig.2. 22. Thus 2 = x. 2 We would expect the area to be a number. This is called an indeﬁnite integral or antiderivative. The integral which gives us the area is actually the deﬁnite .g.17.3 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals The integral x dx is supposed to give us the area under the curve x.2.4. The area is obviously 4 × 5 = 20. INTEGRAL = i 249 fi ∆xi = f dx = Area under curve f (x) = Antiderivative y= E. but our answer in the above example ( 1 x2 + c) doesn’t look much like an area. Example What is x dx? dy dx f dx Solution The derivative function is f (x) = function must be 1 x2 + c. Consider 4dx = 4x + c.

To evaluate the value of the area we need to specify the edges x1 and x2 of the area under consideration as we did in (17. Thus 4dx = 4x + c is the antiderivative or indeﬁnite integral and it gives a general formula for the area but not the value of the area itself. REVIEW OF CALCULUS 4dx ≡ [4x + c]x2 ≡ (4x2 + c) − (4x1 + c) x1 = [4x]x2 = 4x2 − 4x1 x1 (17. For an area we must always specify x1 and x2 (see Fig.17) must be the correct formula for area. 22.4) so that we know what area we are talking about.250 integral written x2 x1 CHAPTER 17. Notice here that it doesn’t matter whether we include the c because it cancels out. Using (17. Solution 5 3 3x2 dx = [x3 + c]5 3 = (125 + c) − (27 + c) = 98 (do Problem 9) . Thus (17.17) to work out the previous example we would write 6 1 4dx = [4x + c]6 = [(4 × 6) + c] − [(4 × 1) + c] 1 = 24 + c − 4 − c = 24 − 4 = 20 (17.18) Example Evaluate the area under the curve f (x) = 3x2 between x1 = 3 and x2 = 5.17). which is the same as (17.17).17) Let’s explain this. The formula 4x+c by itself does not give the area directly. In the previous example we got 4 × 5 = 20 from 4x2 − 4x1 = (4 × 6) − (4 × 1) = 24 − 4 = 20.

17. . The slope ∆y ∆x = 2.1 Plot of the graph y(x) = 2x + 1.2. INTEGRAL 251 Figure 22.

.252 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS Figure 22. Some tiny little pieces are indicated.2 Plot of y(x) = x2 + 1. which look straight.

17.2. . The area is then f (x)dx.3 A general function f (x). The total area under the curve is therefore fi ∆xi . The area under the shaded rectangle is approximately fi ∆xi . INTEGRAL 253 Figure 22. i If the ∆xi are tiny then write ∆xi = dx and write i = .

254 CHAPTER 17. The area under the curve between x1 = 1 and x2 = 6 is obviously 4 × 5 = 20. .4 Plot of f (x) = 4. REVIEW OF CALCULUS Figure 22.

8. dx dx dx 2 d dx (x + x2 ) = + dx2 dx . Verify dx dy your answer by calculating the derivative from dx = lim y(x+∆x)−y(x) .17.3 Problems 1. Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = 3x2 + 1 at the points x = −1. Calculate the derivative of y(x) = 5x + 2. x = 0 and x = 2. 3. 6. ∆x ∆x→0 n 4. Where do the extremum values of y(x) = x2 − 4 occur? Verify your answer by plotting a graph.3. PROBLEMS 255 17. 7. Calculate the derivative of x4 using the formula dx = nxn−1 . Evaluate x2 dx and 3x3 dx. . Verify the chain rule and product rule using some examples of your own. 2. Prove that d 2 dx (3x ) = 3 dx . Prove that 5. 9. What is the area under the curve f (x) = x between x1 = 0 and x2 = 3? Work out your answer i) graphically and ii) with the integral.

256 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS .

1997). R. Halliday. Fundamentals of Physics (Wiley. Resnick and J. Walker. New York.Bibliography [1] D. 257 .