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for

Physics, 5

th

Edition

by

Halliday, Resnick, and Krane

The Internet Short Edition

Paul Stanley

stanley@clunet.edu

The Internet Short Edition 1

This is the Internet Short Edition, made available to you because of a

slight delay in the release of the print version. The entire book should be

available for purchase at your bookstore by mid to late September.

Here are the solutions to approximately 25% of the exercises and problems. Enjoy

your reading, but remember that reading my solutions will make a poor substitute

for deriving your own.

I have tried to be very consistent in my units, showing them at all times. After

the ﬁrst few chapters, however, I begin to assume that you have mastered some of

the more common conversions, such as minutes to seconds or years to hours.

I have usually respected the rules for signiﬁcant ﬁgures in calculations throughout;

usually, but not always, this meant only two or three signiﬁcant ﬁgures are shown.

When intermediate calculations are done I used the signiﬁcant ﬁgures from those

calculations, so expect rounding to have occurred. The answers in the back of the

book are also written to the correct number of signiﬁcant digits, but sometimes the

results from intermediate calculations were left at whatever the calculator came up

with. Consequently, we don’t always agree, and neither will you.

Each question has been answered by at least two people, and our answers agree

within the errors expected from rounding of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. There are, however,

a few exceptions, because part of this text was written in Tabakea’s mwaneaba in

the hills of Delainavesi on Viti Levu (ti aki toki ni moi te nangkona n te tairiki), and

I wasn’t able to communicate discrepancies. I don’t think it was me that made the

mistake; however, if you do ﬁnd a mistake, and let me know, you might be entered in a

drawing which could have as a grand prize a monetary award in excess of 10,000,000

nano-dollars! At the very least, I’ll probably acknowledge the ﬁrst sender of each

signiﬁcant contribution which is incorporated into any revision.

At times I may have been too complete in my descriptions. Forgive my verbosity.

I want to give special thanks to Tebanimarawa Stanley for scanning in what must

have felt like thousands of pages of text and helping to convert this text to L

A

T

E

X;

Andrea Katz for checking my math; Jessica Helms, Alison Hill, and Nicole Imhof for

punching holes in the rough drafts and keeping track of the numerous handwritten

notes on the various edits.

Additionally I must thank Ken Krane and David Halliday for their positive com-

ments and good suggestions, and also Aliza Atik and Stuart Johnson from John Wiley

for relentlessly encouraging me to ﬁnish on time.

Paul Stanley

California Lutheran University

stanley@clunet.edu

Contents

1 Measurement 3

2 Motion in One Dimension 7

3 Force and Newton’s Laws 22

2

Chapter 1

Measurement

E1-3 Multiply out the factors which make up a century. Note that each expression

in parentheses is equal to one.

1 century = 100 years

_

365 days

1 year

__

24 hours

1 day

_

_

60 minutes

1 hour

_

This gives 5.256 × 10

7

minutes in a century. The preﬁx micro means multiply by

10

−6

, so a microcentury is 10

−6

×5.256 ×10

7

or 52.56 minutes.

The percentage diﬀerence of x from y is deﬁned as (x − y)/y × 100%. So the

percentage diﬀerence from Fermi’s approximation is (2.56 min)/(50 min) × 100% or

5.12%. Note that the percentage diﬀerence is dimensionless.

E1-7 The speed of a runner is given by the distance ran divided by the elapsed time.

We don’t know the actual distances, although they are probably very close to a mile.

We’ll assume, for convenience only, that the runner with the longer time ran exactly

one mile. Let the speed of the runner with the shorter time be given by v

1

, and call

the distance actually ran by this runner d

1

. Then v

1

= d

1

/t

1

. Remember, d

1

might

not be a mile, it is instead 1 mile plus some error in measurement δ

1

, which could be

positive or negative. Similarly, v

2

= d

2

/t

2

for the other runner, and d

2

= 1 mile.

We want to know when v

1

> v

2

. Substitute our expressions for speed, and

get d

1

/t

1

> d

2

/t

2

. Rearrange, and d

1

/d

2

> t

1

/t

2

or d

1

/d

2

> 0.99937. Remem-

ber to properly convert units when dividing the times! Then d

1

> 0.99937 mile ×

(5280 feet/1 mile) or d

1

> 5276.7 feet is the condition that the ﬁrst runner was indeed

faster. The ﬁrst track can be no more than 3.3 feet too short to guarantee that the

ﬁrst runner was faster.

We originally assumed that the second runner ran on a perfectly measured track.

You could solve the problem with the assumption that the ﬁrst runner ran on the

perfectly measured track, and ﬁnd the error for the second runner. The answer will

be slightly, but not signiﬁcantly, diﬀerent.

3

The Internet Short Edition 4

E1-9 First ﬁnd the “logarithmic average” by

log t

av

=

1

2

_

log(5 ×10

17

) + log(6 ×10

−15

)

_

,

=

1

2

log

_

5 ×10

17

×6 ×10

−15

_

,

=

1

2

log 3000 = log

_

√

3000

_

.

Solve, and t

av

= 54.8 seconds. This is about one minute. Note that we didn’t need

to specify which logarithm we were going to use, the answer would be the same with

a base ten or a natural log! Not only that, you never needed to press the log button

on your calculator to work out the answer.

E1-15 The volume of Antarctica is approximated by the area of the base time the

height; the area of the base is the area of a semicircle. Then

V = Ah =

_

1

2

πr

2

_

h,

where the factor of 1/2 comes from the semi in semicircle. The volume, keeping track

of units, is

V =

1

2

(3.14)(2000 ×1000 m)

2

(3000 m) = 1.88 ×10

16

m

3

= 1.88 ×10

16

m

3

×

_

100 cm

1 m

_

3

= 1.88 ×10

22

cm

3

.

Note that we needed to convert each factor of a meter in the answer, and not just

one of them. So we needed to cube the expression in the parenthesis in order to get

the correct answer.

E1-19 One light-year is the distance traveled by light in one year. Since distance

is speed times time, one light-year = (3 × 10

8

m/s) × (1 year). Now we convert the

units by multiplying through with appropriate factors of 1.

19, 200

mi

hr

_

light-year

(3 ×10

8

m/s) ×(1 year)

_

_

1609 m

1 mi

_

_

1 hr

3600 s

__

100 year

1 century

_

,

which is equal to 0.00286 light-year/century.

E1-23 1.0 kg of hydrogen atoms is equal to the number of atoms times the mass of

one atom. Table 1-6 shows that one hydrogen atom has a mass of 1.00783u, where u =

1.661×10

−27

kg. Then the number of atoms is given by (1 kg)/(1.00783×1.661×10

−27

kg), or 5.974 ×10

26

atoms.

The Internet Short Edition 5

E1-27 One sugar cube has a volume of 1.0 cm

3

, so a mole of sugar cubes would

have a volume of N

A

×1.0 cm

3

, where N

A

is the Avogadro constant. Since the volume

of a cube is equal to the length cubed, V = l

3

, then l =

3

√

N

A

cm = 8.4 × 10

7

cm.

With an edge length equal to 844 kilometers, the top of such a cube would be higher

than the orbit of the International Space Station.

E1-29 The deﬁnition of the meter was wavelengths per meter; the question asks for

meters per wavelength, so we want to take the reciprocal. The deﬁnition is accurate to

9 ﬁgures, so the reciprocal should be written as 1/1, 650, 763.73 = 6.05780211 ×10

−7

m. A nano is 10

−9

. Dividing our answer by 10

−9

will then give 605.780211 nm.

E1-31 The easiest approach is to ﬁrst solve Darcy’s Law for K, and then substitute

the known SI units for the other quantities. Then

K =

V L

AHt

has units of

(m

3

) (m)

(m

2

) (m) (s)

which can be simpliﬁed to m/s.

P1-1 There are 24 × 60 = 1440 traditional minutes in a day, which is equivalent

to the 1000 decimal minutes of metric clock. The conversion plan is then fairly

straightforward

822.8 dec. min

_

1440 trad. min

1000 dec. min

_

= 1184.8 trad. min.

This is traditional minutes since midnight, the time in traditional hours can be found

by dividing by 60 min/hr, the integer part of the quotient is the hours, while the

remainder is the minutes. So the time is 19 hours, 45 minutes, which would be 7:45

pm.

P1-7 Break the problem down into parts. Some of the questions that need to be

answered are (1) what is the surface area of a sand grain of radius 50 µm? (2) what

is volume of this sand grain? It might be tempting to calculate the numerical value

of each quantity, but it is more instructive to keep the expressions symbolic. Let the

radius of the grain be given by r

g

. Then the surface area of the grain is A

g

= 4πr

2

g

,

and the volume is given by V

g

= (4/3)πr

3

g

.

If N grains of sand have a total surface area equal to that of a cube 1 m on a

edge, then NA

g

= 6 m

2

, since the cube has six sides each with an area of 1 m

2

. The

total volume V

t

of this number of grains of sand is NV

g

. We can eliminate N from

these two expressions and get

V

t

= NV

g

=

(6 m

2

)

A

g

V

g

=

(6 m

2

)r

g

3

The Internet Short Edition 6

where the last step involved substituting the expressions for A

g

and V

g

. We haven’t

really started using numbers yet, and our expressions have simpliﬁed as a result.

Now is, however, a good time to put in the numbers. Then V

t

= (2 m

2

)(50 × 10

−6

m) = 1 ×10

−4

m

3

.

All that is left is to ﬁnd the mass. We were given that 2600 kg occupies a volume

of 1 m

3

, so the mass of the volume V

t

is given by

1 ×10

−4

m

3

_

2600 kg

1 m

3

_

= 0.26 kg,

about the mass of two quarter-pound hamburgers.

Chapter 2

Motion in One Dimension

E2-1 There are two ways of solving this particular problem.

Method I Add the vectors as is shown in Fig. 2-4. If a has length a = 4 m and

**b has length b = 3 m then the sum is given by s. The cosine law can be used to ﬁnd
**

the magnitude s of s,

s

2

= a

2

+ b

2

−2ab cos θ,

where θ is the angle between sides a and b in the ﬁgure. Put in the given numbers

for each instance and solve for the angle.

(a) (7 m)

2

= (4 m)

2

+(3 m)

2

−2(4 m)(3 m) cos θ, so cos θ = −1.0, and θ = 180

◦

.

This means that a and

b are pointing in the same direction.

(b) (1 m)

2

= (4 m)

2

+ (3 m)

2

− 2(4 m)(3 m) cos θ, so cos θ = 1.0, and θ = 0

◦

.

This means that a and

b are pointing in the opposite direction.

(c) (5 m)

2

= (4 m)

2

+ (3 m)

2

− 2(4 m)(3 m) cos θ, so cos θ = 0, and θ = 90

◦

.

This means that a and

b are pointing at right angles to each other.

Method II You might have been able to just look at the numbers and “guess”

the answers. This is a perfectly acceptable method, as long as you recognize the

limitations and still verify your initial assumptions with concrete calculations. The

veriﬁcation is simple enough: for the vectors pointing in the same direction, add

the magnitudes (4 + 3 = 7); for vectors pointing in opposite directions, subtract the

magnitudes (|4−3| = 1); for vectors which meet at right angles, apply the Pythagoras

relation (4

2

+3

2

= 5

2

). If none of these approaches works then you need to solve the

problem with the ﬁrst method.

7

The Internet Short Edition 8

E2-5 We’ll solve this problem in two steps. First, we ﬁnd the components of the

displacement vector along the north-south and east-west street system. Then we’ll

show that the sum of these components is actually the shortest distance.

The components are given by the trigonometry relations O = H sin θ = (3.42

km) sin 35.0

◦

= 1.96 km and A = H cos θ = (3.42 km) cos 35.0

◦

= 2.80 km. The

stated angle is measured from the east-west axis, counter clockwise from east. So O

is measured against the north-south axis, with north being positive; A is measured

against east-west with east being positive.

Now we ﬁnd the shortest distance by considering that the person can only walk

east-west or north-south. Since her individual steps are displacement vectors which

are only north-south or east-west, she must eventually take enough north-south steps

to equal 1.96 km, and enough east-west steps to equal 2.80 km. Any individual step

can only be along one or the other direction, so the minimum total will be 4.76 km.

E2-7 (a) In unit vector notation we need only add the components; a +

b = (5

ˆ

i +

3

ˆ

j) + (−3

ˆ

i + 2

ˆ

j) = (5 −3)

ˆ

i + (3 + 2)

ˆ

j = 2

ˆ

i + 5

ˆ

j.

(b) The magnitude of the sum is found from Pythagoras’ theorem, because these

components are at right angles. If we deﬁne c = a +

b and write the magnitude of

c as c, then c =

_

c

2

x

+ c

2

y

=

√

2

2

+ 5

2

= 5.39. The 2 and the 5 under the square

root sign were the components found in part (a). We use those same components to

ﬁnd the direction, according to tan θ = c

y

/c

x

which gives an angle of 68.2

◦

, measured

counterclockwise from the positive x-axis.

E2-13 Displacement vectors are given by the ﬁnal position minus the initial po-

sition. Eventually we need to represent the position in each of the three positions

where the minute hand is. Our axes will be chosen so that

ˆ

i points toward 3 O’clock

and

ˆ

j points toward 12 O’clock.

(a) The two relevant positions are r

i

= (11.3 cm)

ˆ

i and r

f

= (11.3 cm)

ˆ

j. The

displacement in the interval is ∆r =r

f

−r

i

; we can evaluate this expression by looking

at the components, then

∆r = r

f

−r

i

= (11.3 cm)

ˆ

j −(11.3 cm)

ˆ

i

= −(11.3 cm)

ˆ

i + (11.3 cm)

ˆ

j,

where in the last line we wrote the answer in the more traditional ordering of unit

vectors. But line 2 should be a perfectly adequate answer.

The Internet Short Edition 9

(b) The two relevant positions are now r

i

= (11.3 cm)

ˆ

j and r

f

= (−11.3 cm)

ˆ

j.

Note that the 6 O’clock position for the minute hand has a negative sign. As before

we can evaluate this expression by looking at the components, so

∆r = r

f

−r

i

= (11.3 cm)

ˆ

j −(−11.3 cm)

ˆ

j

= (22.6 cm)

ˆ

j.

There’s a double negative in the second line that is often missed by students of

introductory physics classes.

(c) The two relevant positions are now r

i

= (−11.3 cm)

ˆ

j and r

f

= (−11.3 cm)

ˆ

j.

As before we can evaluate this expression by looking at the components, so

∆r = r

f

−r

i

= (−11.3 cm)

ˆ

j −(−11.3 cm)

ˆ

j

= (0 cm)

ˆ

j.

The displacement is zero, since we have started and stopped in the same position!

E2-17 As always, remember to take the time derivatives before you substitute in

for the time!

(a) Evaluate r when t = 2 s.

r = [(2 m/s

3

)t

3

−(5 m/s)t]

ˆ

i + [(6 m) −(7 m/s

4

)t

4

]

ˆ

j

= [(2 m/s

3

)(2 s)

3

−(5 m/s)(2 s)]

ˆ

i + [(6 m) −(7 m/s

4

)(2 s)

4

]

ˆ

j

= [(16 m) −(10 m)]

ˆ

i + [(6 m) −(112 m)]

ˆ

j

= [(6 m)]

ˆ

i + [−(106 m)]

ˆ

j.

(b) Take the derivative of r with respect to time, using the full form of r from

the ﬁrst line of the equations above.

v =

dr

dt

= [(2 m/s

3

)3t

2

−(5 m/s)]

ˆ

i + [−(7 m/s

4

)4t

3

]

ˆ

j

= [(6 m/s

3

)t

2

−(5 m/s)]

ˆ

i + [−(28 m/s

4

)t

3

]

ˆ

j.

Into this last expression we now evaluate v(t = 2 s) and get

v = [(6 m/s

3

)(2 s)

2

−(5 m/s)]

ˆ

i + [−(28 m/s

4

)(2 s)

3

]

ˆ

j

= [(24 m/s) −(5 m/s)]

ˆ

i + [−(224 m/s)]

ˆ

j

= [(19 m/s)]

ˆ

i + [−(224 m/s)]

ˆ

j,

for the velocity v when t = 2 s.

The Internet Short Edition 10

(c) We’ll take the time derivative of v to ﬁnd a, making sure that we use the

expression for v before we substituted for t.

a =

dv

dt

= [(6 m/s

3

)2t]

ˆ

i + [−(28 m/s

4

)3t

2

]

ˆ

j

= [(12 m/s

3

)t]

ˆ

i + [−(84 m/s

4

)t

2

]

ˆ

j.

Into this last expression we now evaluate a(t = 2 s) and get

a = [(12 m/s

3

)(2 s)]

ˆ

i + [−(84 m/s

4

)(2 2)

2

]

ˆ

j

= [(24 m/s

2

)]

ˆ

i + [−(336 m/s

2

)]

ˆ

j.

However tempting it might be, it makes no physical sense to compare the acceleration

with either the velocity or position at t = 2 s, or any other time, except to maybe

note that one or more quantities might be zero.

E2-21 For the record, Namulevu and Vanuavinaka are perfectly good words in some

language. See if your instructor will give you extra credit for translating the meaning.

Of course, knowing the language would help, but au na sega ni tukuna vei kemuni!

Let the actual ﬂight time, as measured by the passengers, be T. There is some

time diﬀerence between the two cities, call it ∆T = Namulevu time - Los Angeles

time. The ∆T will be positive if Namulevu is east of Los Angeles. The time in Los

Angeles can then be found from the time in Namulevu by subtracting ∆T.

The actual time of ﬂight from Los Angeles to Namulevu is then the diﬀerence

between when the plane lands (LA times) and when the plane takes oﬀ (LA time):

T = (18:50 −∆T) −(12:50)

= 6:00 −∆T,

where we have written times in 24 hour format to avoid the AM/PM issue. The

return ﬂight time can be found from

T = (18:50) −(1:50 −∆T)

= 17:00 + ∆T,

where we have again changed to LA time for the purpose of the calculation.

Now we just need to solve the two equations and two unknowns. The way we have

written it makes it easier to solve for ∆T ﬁrst by setting the two expressions for T

equal to each other:

17:00 + ∆T = 6:00 −∆T

2∆T = 6:00 −17:00

∆T = −5:30,

and yes, there are a number of places in the world with time zones that diﬀer by half

an hour. Since this is a negative number, Namulevu is located west of Los Angeles.

The Internet Short Edition 11

(a) Choose either the outbound or the inbound ﬂight to ﬁnd T. If we choose

the outbound ﬂight, T = 6:00 − ∆T = 11 : 30, or eleven and a half hours. We’ve

already found the time diﬀerence, so we move straight to (c).

(c) The distance traveled by the plane is given by d = vt = (520 mi/hr)(11.5

hr) = 5980 mi. We’ll draw a circle around Los Angeles with a radius of 5980 mi, and

then we look for where it intersects with longitudes that would belong to a time zone

∆T away from Los Angeles. Since the Earth rotates once every 24 hours and there

are 360 longitude degrees, then each hour corresponds to 15 longitude degrees, and

then Namulevu must be located approximately 15

◦

×5.5 = 83

◦

west of Los Angeles,

or at about longitude 160 east. The location on the globe is then latitude 5

◦

, in the

vicinity of Vanuatu.

When this exercise was originally typeset the times for the outbound and the inbound

ﬂights were inadvertently switched. I suppose that we could blame this on the airlines;

nonetheless, when the answers were prepared for the back of the book the reversed numbers

put Namulevu east of Los Angeles. That would put it in either the North Atlantic or Brazil.

E2-25 Speed is distance traveled divided by time taken; this is equivalent to the

inverse of the slope of the line in Fig. 2-32. The line appears to pass through the origin

and through the point (1600 km, 80 ×10

6

y), so the speed is v = 1600 km/80 ×10

6

y= 2 ×10

−5

km/y. The answer requests units of centimeters per year, so we convert

units by

v = 2 ×10

−5

km/y

_

1000 m

1 km

__

100 cm

1 m

_

= 2 cm/y

E2-29 Don’t fall into the trap of assuming that the average speed is the average of

the speeds. We instead need to go back to the deﬁnition: speed is distance traveled

divided by time taken. It might look as if there isn’t enough information to solve this

problem, since we weren’t given the distance or the time. We can solve the problem,

however, with some algebra. Let v

1

= 40 km/hr be the speed up the hill, t

1

be the

time taken, and d

1

be the distance traveled in that time. We similarly deﬁne v

2

= 60

km/hr for the down hill trip, as well as t

2

and d

2

. Note that d

2

= d

1

, because the car

drove down the same hill it drove up.

Now for the algebra. v

1

= d

1

/t

1

or t

1

= d

1

/v

1

; v

2

= d

2

/t

2

or t

2

= d

2

/v

2

. The

average speed will be v

av

= d/t, where d total distance and t is the total time. But the

total distance is d

1

+d

2

= 2d

1

because the up distance is same as the down distance.

The total time t is just the sum of t

1

and t

2

, so

v

av

=

d

t

=

2d

1

t

1

+ t

2

The Internet Short Edition 12

=

2d

1

d

1

/v

1

+ d

2

/v

2

=

2

1/v

1

+ 1/v

2

,

where in the last line we used d

2

= d

1

and then factored out d

1

. So, as expected, we

never needed to know the height of the hill, or the time. The last expression looks

a little nasty; but we can take the reciprocal of both sides to get a simpler looking

expression

2

v

av

=

1

v

1

+

1

v

2

.

In either case, the average speed is 48 km/hr.

E2-33 The initial velocity is v

i

= (18 m/s)

ˆ

i, the ﬁnal velocity is v

f

= (−30 m/s)

ˆ

i.

Negative signs can’t be ignored in this problem; acceleration and velocity are both

vectors and require some indication of direction. The average acceleration is then

a

av

=

∆v

∆t

=

v

f

−v

i

∆t

=

(−30 m/s)

ˆ

i −(18 m/s)

ˆ

i

2.4 s

,

which gives a

av

= (−20.0 m/s

2

)

ˆ

i.

E2-37 When the displacement-time graph is at a maximum or minimum the ve-

locity should be zero, meaning the velocity-time graph will pass through the time

axis. There are no straight line segments in the distance-time graph, so there are no

constant velocity segments for the velocity-time graph.

v

v

a

x

E2-41 This one dimensional, constant acceleration problem states the acceleration,

a

x

= 9.8 m/s

2

, the initial velocity, v

0x

= 0, and the ﬁnal velocity v

x

= 0.1c = 3.0×10

7

m/s.

The Internet Short Edition 13

(a) We are then asked for the time it will take for the space ship to acquire the

ﬁnal velocity. Applying Eq. 2-26,

v

x

= v

0x

+ a

x

t,

(3.0 ×10

7

m/s) = (0) + (9.8 m/s

2

)t,

3.1 ×10

6

s = t.

This is about one month. Although accelerations of this magnitude are well within

the capability of modern technology, we are unable to sustain such accelerations for

even several hours, much less a month.

(b) If, however, the acceleration could be sustained, how far would the rocket

ship travel? We apply Eq. 2-28 using an initial position of x

0

= 0,

x = x

0

+ v

0x

+

1

2

a

x

t

2

,

x = (0) + (0) +

1

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)(3.1 ×10

6

s)

2

,

x = 4.7 ×10

13

m.

This distance is 8000 times farther than Pluto, and considerably farther than any

spacecraft has ever traveled; it is also about the same distance that light travels in a

day and a half, and only a small fraction of the distance to the nearest star to the

sun.

E2-45 Given in this problem are the initial velocity, v

0x

= 1020 km/hr; the ﬁnal

velocity, v

x

= 0, and the time taken to stop the sled, t = 1.4 s. It will be easier to

solve the problem if we change the units for the initial velocity,

v

0x

= 1020

km

hr

_

1000 m

km

_

_

hr

3600 s

_

= 283

m

s

,

and then applying Eq. 2-26,

v

x

= v

0x

+ a

x

t,

(0) = (283 m/s) + a

x

(1.4 s),

−202 m/s

2

= a

x

.

The negative sign reﬂects the fact that the rocket sled is slowing down. The problem

asks for this in terms of g, so

−202 m/s

2

_

g

9.8 m/s

2

_

= 21g.

The Internet Short Edition 14

E2-49 The problem will be somewhat easier if the units are consistent, so we’ll

write the maximum speed as

1000

ft

min

_

min

60 s

_

= 16.7

ft

s

.

(a) The distance traveled during acceleration can’t be found directly from the

information given (although some textbooks do introduce a third kinematic relation-

ship in addition to Eq. 2-26 and Eq. 2-28 that would make this possible.) We can,

however, easily ﬁnd the time required for the acceleration from Eq. 2-26,

v

x

= v

0x

+ a

x

t,

(16.7 ft/s) = (0) + (4.00 ft/s

2

)t,

4.18 s = t.

And from this and Eq 2-28 we can ﬁnd the distance

x = x

0

+ v

0x

+

1

2

a

x

t

2

,

x = (0) + (0) +

1

2

(4.00 ft/s

2

)(4.18 s)

2

,

x = 34.9 ft.

This is considerably less than 624 ft; this means that through most of the journey

the elevator is traveling at the maximum speed.

(b) The motion of the elevator is divided into three parts: acceleration from

rest, constant speed motion, and deceleration to a stop. The total distance is given

at 624 ft and in part (a) we found the distance covered during acceleration was 34.9

ft. By symmetry, the distance traveled during deceleration should also be 34.9 ft,

but it would be good practice to verify this last assumption with calculations. The

distance traveled at constant speed is then (624 −34.9 −34.9) ft = 554 ft. The time

required for the constant speed portion of the trip is found from Eq. 2-22, rewritten

as

∆t =

∆x

v

=

554 ft

16.7 ft/s

= 33.2 s.

The total time for the trip is the sum of times for the three parts: accelerating (4.18

s), constant speed (33.2 s), and decelerating (4.18 s). The total is 41.6 seconds.

E2-53 The initial velocity of the “dropped” wrench would be zero. The acceleration

would be 9.8 m/s

2

. Although we can orient our coordinate system any way we want,

I choose vertical to be along the y axis with up as positive, which is the convention

of Eq. 2-29 and Eq. 2-30. Note that Eq. 2-29 is equivalent to Eq. 2-26, we could

have used either. The same is true for Eq. 2-30 and Eq. 2-28.

The Internet Short Edition 15

It turns out that it is much easier to solve part (b) before solving part (a). So

that’s what we’ll do.

(b) We solve Eq. 2-29 for the time of the fall.

v

y

= v

0y

−gt,

(−24.0 m/s) = (0) −(9.8 m/s

2

)t,

2.45 s = t.

We manually insert the minus sign for the ﬁnal velocity because the object is moving

down. We don’t insert an extra minus sign in front of the 9.8 because it is explicit in

Eq. 2-29; we would have, however, needed to insert it if we had used Eq. 2-26.

(a) Now we can easily use Eq. 2-30 to ﬁnd the height from which the wrench

fell.

y = y

0

+ v

0y

t −

1

2

gt

2

,

(0) = y

0

+ (0)(2.45 s) −

1

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)(2.45 s)

2

,

0 = y

0

−29.4 m

We have set y = 0 to correspond to the ﬁnal position of the wrench: on the ground.

This results in an initial position of y

0

= 29.4 m; it is positive because the wrench

was dropped from a point above where it landed.

We could instead have chosen the initial point to correspond to y

0

= 0, where we

make our measurements from the point where the wrench was dropped. If we do this,

we ﬁnd y = −29.4 m. The negative sign indicates that the wrench landed below the

point from which it was dropped.

E2-57 Don’t assume that 36.8 m corresponds to the highest point.

(a) Solve Eq. 2-30 for the initial velocity. Let the distances be measured from

the ground so that y

0

= 0.

y = y

0

+ v

0y

t −

1

2

gt

2

,

(36.8 m) = (0) + v

0y

(2.25 s) −

1

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)(2.25 s)

2

,

36.8 m = v

0y

(2.25 s) −24.8 m,

27.4 m/s = v

0y

.

The Internet Short Edition 16

(b) Solve Eq. 2-29 for the velocity, using the result from part (a).

v

y

= v

0y

−gt,

v

y

= (27.4 m/s) −(9.8 m/s

2

)(2.25 s),

v

y

= 5.4 m/s.

(c) We need to solve Eq. 2-30 to ﬁnd the height to which the ball rises, but we

don’t know how long it takes to get there. So we ﬁrst solve Eq. 2-29, because we do

know the velocity at the highest point (v

y

= 0).

v

y

= v

0y

−gt,

(0) = (27.4 m/s) −(9.8 m/s

2

)t,

2.8 s = t.

And then we ﬁnd the height to which the object rises,

y = y

0

+ v

0y

t −

1

2

gt

2

,

y = (0) + (27.4 m/s)(2.8 s) −

1

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)(2.8 s)

2

,

y = 38.3m.

This is the height as measured from the ground; so the ball rises 38.3 −36.8 = 1.5 m

above the point speciﬁed in the problem.

E2-61 The total time the pot is visible is 0.54 s; the pot is visible for 0.27 s on

the way down. We’ll deﬁne the initial position as the highest point and make our

measurements from there. Then y

0

= 0 and v

0y

= 0. Deﬁne t

1

to be the time at

which the falling pot passes the top of the window y

1

, then t

2

= t

1

+0.27 s is the time

the pot passes the bottom of the window y

2

= y

1

−1.1 m. We have two equations we

can write, both based on Eq. 2-30,

y

1

= y

0

+ v

0y

t

1

−

1

2

gt

2

1

,

y

1

= (0) + (0)t

1

−

1

2

gt

2

1

,

and

y

2

= y

0

+ v

0y

t

2

−

1

2

gt

2

2

,

y

1

−1.1 m = (0) + (0)t

2

−

1

2

g(t

1

+ 0.27 s)

2

,

The Internet Short Edition 17

Isolate y

1

in this last equation and then set the two expressions equal to each other

so that we can solve for t

1

,

−

1

2

gt

2

1

= 1.1 m−

1

2

g(t

1

+ 0.27 s)

2

,

−

1

2

gt

2

1

= 1.1 m−

1

2

g(t

2

1

+ [0.54 s]t

1

+ 0.073 s

2

),

0 = 1.1 m−

1

2

g([0.54 s]t

1

+ 0.073 s

2

).

This last line can be directly solved to yield t

1

= 0.28 s as the time when the falling

pot passes the top of the window. Use this value in the ﬁrst equation above and we

can ﬁnd y

1

= −

1

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)(0.28 s)

2

= −0.38 m. The negative sign is because the

top of the window is beneath the highest point, so the pot must have risen to 0.38 m

above the top of the window.

P2-3 We align the coordinate system so that the origin corresponds to the start-

ing position of the ﬂy and that all positions inside the room are given by positive

coordinates.

(a) The displacement vector can just be written,

∆r = (10 ft)

ˆ

i + (12 ft)

ˆ

j + (14 ft)

ˆ

k.

(b) The magnitude of the displacement vector is the square root of the sum of

the squares of the components, a generalization of Pythagoras’ Theorem. |∆r| =

√

10

2

+ 12

2

+ 14

2

ft= 21 ft.

(c) The straight line distance between two points is the shortest possible dis-

tance, so the length of the path taken by the ﬂy must be greater than or equal to 21

ft.

(d) If the ﬂy walks it will need to cross two faces. The shortest path will be the

diagonal across these two faces. If the lengths of sides of the room are l

1

, l

2

, and l

3

,

then the diagonal length across two faces will be given by

_

(l

1

+ l

2

)

2

+ l

2

3

,

where we want to choose the l

i

from the set of 10 ft, 12 ft, and 14 ft that will minimize

the length. Trial and error works (there are only three possibilities), or we can reason

out that we want the squares to be minimal, in particular we want the largest square

to be the smallest possible. This will happen if l

1

= 10 ft, l

2

= 12 ft, and l

3

= 14.

Then the minimal distance the ﬂy would walk is 26 ft.

The Internet Short Edition 18

P2-7 (a) Don’t try to calculate this by brute force, unless you are a glutton for

punishment. Assume the bird has no size, the trains have some separation, and the

bird is just leaving one of the trains. The bird will be able to ﬂy from one train to

the other before the two trains collide, regardless of how close together the trains are.

After doing so, the bird is now on the other train, the trains are still separated, so

once again the bird can ﬂy between the trains before they collide. This process can

be repeated every time the bird touches one of the trains, so the bird will make an

inﬁnite number of trips between the trains. But it makes this inﬁnite number of trips

in a ﬁnite time, because eventually the trains do collide.

(b) The trains collide in the middle; using a simple application of distance equals

speed times time we ﬁnd that the trains collide after (51 km)/(34 km/hr) = 1.5 hr.

The bird was ﬂying with constant speed this entire time, so the distance ﬂown by the

bird is (58 km/hr)(1.5 hr) = 87 km. This apparent paradox of an inﬁnite number of

trips summing to a ﬁnite length was investigated by Zeno quite a number of years

ago.

P2-11 (a) The average velocity is displacement divided by change in time,

v

av

=

(2.0 m/s

3

)(2.0 s)

3

−(2.0 m/s

3

)(1.0 s)

3

(2.0 s) −(1.0 s)

=

14.0 m

1.0 s

= 14.0 m/s.

The average acceleration is the change in velocity. So we need an expression for the

velocity, which is the time derivative of the position,

v =

dx

dt

=

d

dt

(2.0 m/s

3

)t

3

= (6.0 m/s

3

)t

2

.

From this we ﬁnd average acceleration

a

av

=

(6.0 m/s

3

)(2.0 s)

2

−(6.0 m/s

3

)(1.0 s)

2

(2.0 s) −(1.0 s)

=

18.0 m/s

1.0 s

= 18.0 m/s

2

.

(b) The instantaneous velocities can be found directly from v = (6.0 m/s

2

)t

2

,

so v(2.0 s) = 24.0 m/s and v(1.0 s) = 6.0 m/s. We can get an expression for the

instantaneous acceleration by taking the time derivative of the velocity

a =

dv

dt

=

d

dt

(6.0 m/s

3

)t

2

= (12.0 m/s

3

)t.

Then the instantaneous accelerations are a(2.0 s) = 24.0 m/s

2

and a(1.0 s) = 12.0

m/s

2

(c) Since the motion is monotonic we expect the average quantities to be some-

where between the instantaneous values at the endpoints of the time interval. Indeed,

that is the case.

The Internet Short Edition 19

P2-17 The runner covered a distance d

1

in a time interval t

1

during the acceleration

phase and a distance d

2

in a time interval t

2

during the constant speed phase. Since

the runner started from rest we know that the constant speed is given by v = at

1

,

where a is the runner’s acceleration.

The distance covered during the acceleration phase is given by Eq. 2-28 with

v

0x

= 0,

d

1

=

1

2

at

2

1

.

The distance covered during the constant speed phase can also be found from Eq.

2-28 except now with a = 0,

d

2

= vt

2

= at

1

t

2

.

We want to use these two expressions, along with d

1

+d

2

= 100 m and t

2

= (12.2 s)−t

1

,

to get

100 m = d

1

+ d

2

=

1

2

at

2

1

+ at

1

(12.2 s −t

1

),

= −

1

2

at

2

1

+ a(12.2 s)t

1

,

= −(1.40 m/s

2

)t

2

1

+ (34.2 m/s)t

1

.

This last expression is quadratic in t

1

, and is solved to give t

1

= 3.40 s or t

1

= 21.0 s.

Since the race only lasted 12.2 s we can ignore the second answer.

(b) The distance traveled during the acceleration phase is then

d

1

=

1

2

at

2

1

= (1.40 m/s

2

)(3.40 s)

2

= 16.2 m.

P2-21 The rocket travels a distance d

1

=

1

2

at

2

1

=

1

2

(20 m/s

2

)(60 s)

2

= 36, 000 m

during the acceleration phase; the rocket velocity at the end of the acceleration phase

is v = at = (20 m/s

2

)(60 s) = 1200 m/s. The second half of the trajectory can be

found from Eqs. 2-29 and 2-30, with y

0

= 36, 000 m and v

0y

= 1200 m/s.

(a) The highest point of the trajectory occurs when v

y

= 0, so we solve Eq. 2-29

for time.

v

y

= v

0y

−gt,

(0) = (1200 m/s) −(9.8 m/s

2

)t,

122 s = t.

This time is used in Eq. 2-30 to ﬁnd the height to which the rocket rises,

y = y

0

+ v

0y

t −

1

2

gt

2

,

= (36000 m) + (1200 m/s)(122s) −

1

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)(122 s)

2

= 110000 m.

The Internet Short Edition 20

(b) The easiest way to ﬁnd the total time of ﬂight is to solve Eq. 2-30 for the

time when the rocket has returned to the ground. Then

y = y

0

+ v

0y

t −

1

2

gt

2

,

(0) = (36000 m) + (1200 m/s)t −

1

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)t

2

.

This quadratic expression has two solutions for t; one is negative so we don’t need

to worry about it, the other is t = 270 s. This is the free-fall part of the problem, to

ﬁnd the total time we need to add on the 60 seconds of accelerated motion. The total

time is then 330 seconds.

P2-25 This is a problem that is best solved backwards, then forwards. We want

to ﬁnd the deceleration of the woman. We know the distance through which she

decelerated (18 in) and her ﬁnal velocity (0), but not the time taken nor the initial

velocity at the start of the deceleration phase. So neither Eq. 2-26 nor Eq. 2-28 is of

much use. However, since her deceleration is assumed uniform, we could apply Eq.

2-27 to ﬁnd her average velocity (if we knew her initial velocity), and then use Eq.

2-22 to ﬁnd the time elapsed during deceleration since we know the distance, and

then use Eq. 2-26 to ﬁnd the acceleration. So all that we need to ﬁnd is the initial

velocity at the start of the deceleration phase.

But this initial velocity is the same as the ﬁnal velocity at the end of the freely

falling part of the motion. We would need to use Eq. 2-29 to ﬁnd this ﬁnal velocity,

but we don’t know the time to fall. However, we could get that time from Eq. 2-30,

since we know the initial velocity at the start of the fall (0) and the distance through

which she fell (144 ft). So now we are prepared to solve the problem. Since inches

and feet are used throughout, I’m going to use g = 32 ft/s

2

for the acceleration of

free-fall.

Now we reverse our approach and work forwards through the problem and ﬁnd

the time she fell from Eq. 2-30. I’ve written this equation a number of times in the

past few pages, so I’ll just substitute the variables in directly.

(0 ft) = (144 ft) + (0)t −

1

2

(32 ft/s

2

)t

2

,

which is a simple quadratic with solutions t = ±3.0 s. Only the positive solution is of

interest, since we assume she was falling forward in time. Use this time in Eq. 2-29

to ﬁnd her speed when she hit the ventilator box,

v

y

= (0) −(32 ft/s

2

)(3.0 s) = −96 ft/s.

This becomes the initial velocity for the deceleration motion, so her average speed

during deceleration is given by Eq. 2-27,

v

av

, y =

1

2

(v

y

+ v

0y

) =

1

2

((0) + (−96 ft/s)) = −48 ft/s.

The Internet Short Edition 21

This average speed, used with the distance of 18 in (1.5 ft), can be used to ﬁnd the

time of deceleration

v

av

, y = ∆y/∆t,

and putting numbers into the expression gives ∆t = 0.031 s. We actually used

∆y = −1.5 ft, where the negative sign indicated that she was still moving downward.

Finally, we use this in Eq. 2-26 to ﬁnd the acceleration,

(0) = (−96 ft/s) + a(0.031 s),

which gives a = +3100 ft/s

2

. The important positive sign is because she is accelerating

upward when she stops. In terms of g this is a = 97g, which can be found by

multiplying through by 1 = g/(32 ft/s

2

).

P2-31 Assume each hand can toss n objects per second. Let τ be the amount of

time that any one object is in the air. Then 2nτ is the number of objects that are

in the air at any time, where the “2” comes from the fact that (most?) jugglers have

two hands. We’ll estimate n, but τ can be found from Eq. 2-30 for an object which

falls a distance h from rest:

0 = h + (0)t −

1

2

gt

2

,

solving, t =

_

2h/g. But τ is twice this, because the object had to go up before it

could come down. So the number of objects that can be juggled is

4n

_

2h/g

We need to estimate n. Do this by standing in front of a bathroom mirror and ﬂapping

a hand up and down as fast as you can. I can manage to simulate 10 tosses in 5 seconds

while frantic, which means n = 2 tosses/second. So the maximum number of objects

I could juggle to a height h would be

3.6

_

h/meters.

I doubt I could toss objects higher than 4 meters, so my absolute maximum would

be about 7 objects. In reality I almost juggled one object once.

Chapter 3

Force and Newton’s Laws

E3-3 We want to ﬁnd the force on the electron; we do this by ﬁrst ﬁnding the

acceleration; that’s actually the most involved part of the problem. We are given

the distance through which the electron accelerates and the ﬁnal speed. Assuming

constant acceleration we can ﬁnd the average speed during the interval from Eq. 2-27

v

av,x

=

1

2

(v

x

+ v

0x

) =

1

2

_

(5.8×10

6

m/s) + (0)

_

= 2.9×10

6

m/s.

From this we can ﬁnd the time spent accelerating from Eq. 2-22, since ∆x = v

av,x

∆t.

Putting in the numbers, we ﬁnd that the time is ∆t = 5.17×10

−9

s. This can be used

in component form of Eq. 2-14 to ﬁnd the acceleration,

a

x

=

∆v

x

∆t

=

(5.8×10

6

m/s) −(0)

(5.17×10

−9

s)

= 1.1×10

15

m/s

2

.

We are not done yet. The net force on the electron is from Eq. 3-5,

F

x

= ma

x

= (9.11×10

−31

kg)(1.1×10

15

m/s

2

) = 1.0×10

−15

N.

E3-5 The net force on the sled is 92 N−90 N= 2 N; we subtract because the forces

are in opposite directions. This net force is used with Newton’s Second law to ﬁnd

the acceleration;

F

x

= ma

x

, so

a

x

=

F

x

m

=

(2 N)

(25 kg)

= 8.0×10

−2

m/s

2

.

E3-9 There are too many unknowns to ﬁnd a numerical value for the force or for

either mass. So don’t try. Write the expression for the motions of the ﬁrst object as

F

x

= m

1

a

1x

and that of the second object as

F

x

= m

2

a

2x

. In both cases there is

only one force, F, on the object, so

F

x

= F. We will solve these for the mass as

m

1

= F/a

1

and m

2

= F/a

2

. Since a

1

> a

2

we can conclude that m

2

> m

1

22

The Internet Short Edition 23

(a) The acceleration of and object with mass m

2

−m

1

under the inﬂuence of a

single force of magnitude F would be

a =

F

m

2

−m

1

=

F

F/a

2

−F/a

1

=

1

1/(3.30 m/s

2

) −1/(12.0 m/s

2

)

,

which has a numerical value of a = 4.55 m/s

2

.

(b) Similarly, the acceleration of an object of mass m

2

+m

1

under the inﬂuence

of a force of magnitude F would be

a =

1

1/a

2

+ 1/a

1

=

1

1/(3.30 m/s

2

) + 1/(12.0 m/s

2

)

,

which is the same as part (a) except for the sign change. Then a = 2.59 m/s

2

.

E3-11 The existence of the spring has little to do with the problem except to

“connect” the two blocks; the consequence of this connection is that the force of

block 1 on block 2 is equal in magnitude to the force of block 2 on block 1.

(a) The net force on the second block is given by

F

x

= m

2

a

2x

= (3.8 kg)(2.6 m/s

2

) = 9.9 N.

There is only one (relevant) force on the block, the force of block 1 on block 2.

(b) There is only one (relevant) force on block 1, the force of block 2 on block

1. By Newton’s third law this force has a magnitude of 9.9 N. Then Newton’s second

law gives

F

x

= −9.9 N= m

1

a

1x

= (4.6 kg)a

1x

. So a

1x

= −2.2 m/s

2

at the instant

that a

2x

= 2.6 m/s

2

. Note the minus sign, it isn’t frivolous; it reﬂects the fact the

two block are necessarily accelerating in opposite directions. We could have instead

deﬁned the direction of acceleration of block 2 to be negative, then the acceleration

of block 1 would be positive.

E3-15 The numerical weight of an object is given by Eq. 3-7, W = mg. If g = 9.81

m/s

2

, then m = W/g = (26.0 N)/(9.81 m/s

2

) = 2.65 kg.

(a) Apply W = mg again, but now g = 4.60 m/s

2

, so at this point W = (2.65

kg)(4.60 m/s

2

) = 12.2 N. Just a reminder; the mass didn’t change between these two

points, only the weight did.

(b) If there is no gravitational force, there is no weight, because g = 0. There

is still mass, however, and that mass is still 2.65 kg.

The Internet Short Edition 24

E3-19 We’ll assume the net force in the x direction on the plane as it accelerates

down the runway is from the two engines, so

F

x

= 2(1.4×10

5

N) = ma

x

. Then

m = 1.22×10

5

kg. We want the weight of the plane, so

W = mg = (1.22×10

5

kg)(9.81 m/s

2

) = 1.20×10

6

N.

E3-23 Look back at Problem 2-25 for a detailed description of solving the ﬁrst part

of this exercise. We won’t go through all of the reasoning here.

(a) Find the time during the “jump down” phase from Eq. 2-30. I’ll substitute

the variables in directly.

(0 m) = (0.48 m) + (0)t −

1

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)t

2

,

which is a simple quadratic with solutions t = ±0.31 s. Only the positive solution is

of interest. Use this time in Eq. 2-29 to ﬁnd his speed when he hit ground,

v

y

= (0) −(9.8 m/s

2

)(0.31 s) = −3.1 m/s.

This becomes the initial velocity for the deceleration motion, so his average speed

during deceleration is given by Eq. 2-27,

v

av,y

=

1

2

(v

y

+ v

0y

) =

1

2

((0) + (−3.1 m/s)) = −1.6 m/s.

This average speed, used with the distance of -2.2 cm (-0.022 m), can be used to ﬁnd

the time of deceleration

v

av,y

= ∆y/∆t,

and putting numbers into the expression gives ∆t = 0.014 s. Finally, we use this in

Eq. 2-26 to ﬁnd the acceleration,

(0) = (−3.1 m/s) + a(0.014 s),

which gives a = 220 m/s

2

.

(b) The average net force on the man is

F

y

= ma

y

= (83 kg)(220 m/s

2

) = 1.8×10

4

N.

This isn’t the force of the ground on the man, and it isn’t the force of gravity on the

man; it is the vector sum of these two forces. That the net force is positive means

that it is directed up; a direct consequence is that the upward force from the ground

must have a larger magnitude than the downward force of gravity.

The Internet Short Edition 25

E3-25 Remember that pounds are a measure of force, not a measure of mass. From

appendix G we ﬁnd 1 lb = 4.448 N; so the weight is (100 lb)(4.448 N/1 lb) = 445 N;

similarly the cord will break if it pulls upward on the object with a force greater than

387 N. It will be necessary to know the mass of the object sooner or later, using Eq.

3-7, m = W/g = (445 N)/(9.8 m/s

2

) = 45 kg.

There are two vertical forces on the 45 kg object, an upward force from the cord

F

OC

(which has a maximum value of 387 N) and a downward force from gravity F

OG

.

Since the objective is to gently lower the object we will assume the upward force is

as large as it can be. Then

F

y

= F

OC

−F

OG

= (387 N) −(445 N) = −58 N. Since

the net force is negative, the object must be accelerating downward according to

a

y

=

F

y

/m = (−58 N)/(45 kg) = −1.3 m/s

2

.

So long as you lower the cord with this acceleration (or greater), the upward force

on the object from the cable will be less than the breaking strength. But don’t stop!

The instant that you feed the cord out with an acceleration of less than −1.3 m/s

2

the cord will snap, and the object will fall with an acceleration equal to g.

E3-31 (a) The vertical (upward) force from the air on the blades, F

BA

, can be

considered to act on a system consisting of the helicopter alone, or the helicopter +

car (or is it a Hummer?). We choose the latter; the total mass of this system is 19,500

kg; and the only other force acting on the system is the force of gravity, which is

W = mg = (19, 500 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) = 1.91×10

5

N.

The force of gravity is directed down, so the net force on the system is

F

y

= F

BA

−

(1.91×10

5

N). The net force can also be found from Newton’s second law:

F

y

=

ma

y

= (19, 500 kg)(1.4 m/s

2

) = 2.7×10

4

N. The positive sign for the acceleration

was important; the object was accelerating up. Equate the two expression for the net

force, F

BA

−(1.91×10

5

N) = 2.7×10

4

N, and solve; F

BA

= 2.2×10

5

N.

(b) We basically repeat the above steps except: (1) the system will consist only

of the car, and (2) the upward force on the car comes from the supporting cable only

F

CC

. Then the weight of the car is W = mg = (4500 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) = 4.4×10

4

N. The

net force is

F

y

= F

CC

−(4.4×10

4

N), it can also be written as

F

y

= ma

y

= (4500

kg)(1.4 m/s

2

) = 6300 N. Equating, F

CC

= 50, 000 N.

P3-3 (a) Start with block one. It starts from rest, accelerating through a distance

of 16 m in a time of 4.2 s. Applying Eq. 2-28,

x = x

0

+ v

0x

t +

1

2

a

x

t

2

,

−16 m = (0) + (0)(4.2 s) +

1

2

a

x

(4.2 s)

2

The Internet Short Edition 26

we ﬁnd the acceleration to be a

x

= −1.8 m/s

2

. The negative sign is because I choose

the convention that lower down the ramp is negative.

Now for the second block. The acceleration of the second block is identical to

the ﬁrst for much the same reason that all objects fall with approximately the same

acceleration. See the statement at the end of the problem.

(b) The second block is projected up the plane with some initial velocity, rises

to some highest point, and then slides back down. Since the acceleration while the

block moves up the plane is the same as the acceleration while the block moves down

the plane, it is reasonable to assume that the motion is symmetric: the magnitude of

the initial velocity at the bottom of the incline is the same as the magnitude of the

ﬁnal velocity on the way down; the time it takes to go up the ramp is the same as

the time it takes to come back down.

If the initial and ﬁnal velocities are related by a sign, then v

x

= −v

0x

and Eq.

2-26 would become

v

x

= v

0x

+ a

x

t,

−v

0x

= v

0x

+ a

x

t,

−2v

0x

= (−1.8 m/s

2

)(4.2 s).

which gives an initial velocity of v

0x

= 3.8 m/s.

(c) The time it takes the second block to go up the ramp is the same as the time

it takes to come back down. This means that half of the time is spent coming down

from the highest point, so the time to “fall” is 2.1 s. The distance traveled is found

from Eq. 2-28,

x = (0) + (0)(2.1 s) +

1

2

(−1.8 m/s

2

)(2.1 s)

2

= −4.0 m.

The negative sign is because it ended up beneath the starting point.

P3-7 This problem requires repeated, but careful, application of Newton’s second

law.

(a) Consider all three carts as one system. There is one (relevant) force P = 6.5

N on this system. Then

F

x

= P = 6.5 N. It is the total mass of the system that

matters, so Newton’s second law will be applied as

F

x

= m

total

a

x

,

6.5 N = (3.1 kg + 2.4 kg + 1.2 kg)a

x

,

0.97 m/s

2

= a

x

.

The Internet Short Edition 27

(b) Now choose your system so that it only contains the third car. There is one

force on the third car, the pull from car two F

23

directed to the right, so

F

x

= F

23

if we choose the convention that right is positive. We know the acceleration of the

car from part (a), so our application of Newton’s second law will be

F

x

= F

23

= m

3

a

x

= (1.2 kg)(0.97 m/s

2

).

The unknown can be solved to give F

23

= 1.2 N directed to the right.

(c) We can either repeat part (b) except apply it to the second and third cart

combined, or we can just look at the second cart. Since looking at the second and

third cart combined involves fewer forces, we’ll do it that way. There is one (relevant)

force on our system, F

12

, the force of the ﬁrst cart on the second. The

F

x

= F

12

,

so Newton’s law applied to the system gives

F

12

= (m

2

+ m

3

)a

x

= (2.4 kg + 1.2 kg)(0.97 m/s

2

) = 3.5 N.

The system contained two masses, so we need to add them in the above expression.

P3-11 This problem is really no diﬀerent than Problem 3-7, except that there are no

numbers here. The horizontal force

P is a vector of magnitude P, and since the only

relevant quantities in this problem are directed along what I’ll conveniently choose to

call the x-axis, we’ll restrict ourselves to a scalar presentation.

(a) Treat the system as including both the block and the rope, so that the mass

of the system is M + m. There is one (relevant) force which acts on the system, so

F

x

= P. Then Newton’s second law would be written as P = (M + m)a

x

. Solve

this for a

x

and get a

x

= P/(M + m).

(b) Now consider only the block. The horizontal force doesn’t act on the block;

instead, there is the force of the rope on the block. We’ll assume that force has a

magnitude R, and this is the only (relevant) force on the block, so

F

x

= R for the

net force on the block.. In this case Newton’s second law would be written R = Ma

x

.

Yes, a

x

is the same in part (a) and (b); the acceleration of the block is the same as

the acceleration of the block + rope. Substituting in the results from part (a) we ﬁnd

R =

M

M + m

P.

The Internet Short Edition

1

This is the Internet Short Edition, made available to you because of a slight delay in the release of the print version. The entire book should be available for purchase at your bookstore by mid to late September.

Here are the solutions to approximately 25% of the exercises and problems. Enjoy your reading, but remember that reading my solutions will make a poor substitute for deriving your own. I have tried to be very consistent in my units, showing them at all times. After the ﬁrst few chapters, however, I begin to assume that you have mastered some of the more common conversions, such as minutes to seconds or years to hours. I have usually respected the rules for signiﬁcant ﬁgures in calculations throughout; usually, but not always, this meant only two or three signiﬁcant ﬁgures are shown. When intermediate calculations are done I used the signiﬁcant ﬁgures from those calculations, so expect rounding to have occurred. The answers in the back of the book are also written to the correct number of signiﬁcant digits, but sometimes the results from intermediate calculations were left at whatever the calculator came up with. Consequently, we don’t always agree, and neither will you. Each question has been answered by at least two people, and our answers agree within the errors expected from rounding of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. There are, however, a few exceptions, because part of this text was written in Tabakea’s mwaneaba in the hills of Delainavesi on Viti Levu (ti aki toki ni moi te nangkona n te tairiki), and I wasn’t able to communicate discrepancies. I don’t think it was me that made the mistake; however, if you do ﬁnd a mistake, and let me know, you might be entered in a drawing which could have as a grand prize a monetary award in excess of 10,000,000 nano-dollars! At the very least, I’ll probably acknowledge the ﬁrst sender of each signiﬁcant contribution which is incorporated into any revision. At times I may have been too complete in my descriptions. Forgive my verbosity. I want to give special thanks to Tebanimarawa Stanley for scanning in what must A have felt like thousands of pages of text and helping to convert this text to L TEX; Andrea Katz for checking my math; Jessica Helms, Alison Hill, and Nicole Imhof for punching holes in the rough drafts and keeping track of the numerous handwritten notes on the various edits. Additionally I must thank Ken Krane and David Halliday for their positive comments and good suggestions, and also Aliza Atik and Stuart Johnson from John Wiley for relentlessly encouraging me to ﬁnish on time. Paul Stanley California Lutheran University stanley@clunet.edu

Contents 1 Measurement 2 Motion in One Dimension 3 Force and Newton’s Laws 3 7 22 2 .

56 min)/(50 min) × 100% or 5. Let the speed of the runner with the shorter time be given by v1 . Note that the percentage diﬀerence is dimensionless.Chapter 1 Measurement E1-3 Multiply out the factors which make up a century. 1 century = 100 years 365 days 1 year 24 hours 1 day 60 minutes 1 hour This gives 5. Then v1 = d1 /t1 .12%. We originally assumed that the second runner ran on a perfectly measured track. You could solve the problem with the assumption that the ﬁrst runner ran on the perfectly measured track. 3 .7 feet is the condition that the ﬁrst runner was indeed faster. Remember. which could be positive or negative. So the percentage diﬀerence from Fermi’s approximation is (2.3 feet too short to guarantee that the ﬁrst runner was faster. v2 = d2 /t2 for the other runner. Remember to properly convert units when dividing the times! Then d1 > 0. The ﬁrst track can be no more than 3. although they are probably very close to a mile. The answer will be slightly. Note that each expression in parentheses is equal to one. that the runner with the longer time ran exactly one mile. and get d1 /t1 > d2 /t2 . for convenience only. The percentage diﬀerence of x from y is deﬁned as (x − y)/y × 100%. E1-7 The speed of a runner is given by the distance ran divided by the elapsed time. Similarly. We’ll assume. but not signiﬁcantly. and d1 /d2 > t1 /t2 or d1 /d2 > 0. Substitute our expressions for speed. diﬀerent. We want to know when v1 > v2 . Rearrange. it is instead 1 mile plus some error in measurement δ1 . d1 might not be a mile.99937 mile × (5280 feet/1 mile) or d1 > 5276.56 minutes. The preﬁx micro means multiply by 10−6 . so a microcentury is 10−6 × 5. and call the distance actually ran by this runner d1 .99937.256 × 107 minutes in a century. We don’t know the actual distances. and ﬁnd the error for the second runner.256 × 107 or 52. and d2 = 1 mile.

2 where the factor of 1/2 comes from the semi in semicircle. So we needed to cube the expression in the parenthesis in order to get the correct answer. keeping track of units.661×10−27 kg. the area of the base is the area of a semicircle.00783u. and tav = 54. Now we convert the units by multiplying through with appropriate factors of 1.8 seconds. Since distance is speed times time. where u = 1. is V = 1 (3. . 1m Note that we needed to convert each factor of a meter in the answer.0 kg of hydrogen atoms is equal to the number of atoms times the mass of one atom. one light-year = (3 × 108 m/s) × (1 year). 1 century which is equal to 0. This is about one minute. or 5. Table 1-6 shows that one hydrogen atom has a mass of 1. E1-19 One light-year is the distance traveled by light in one year. Note that we didn’t need to specify which logarithm we were going to use.661×10−27 kg). Then V = Ah = 1 2 πr h.88 × 1022 cm3 . 200 mi hr (3 × 108 light-year m/s) × (1 year) 1609 m 1 mi 1 hr 3600 s 100 year .88 × 1016 m3 2 100 cm 3 = 1. E1-23 1. and not just one of them.00783×1. Then the number of atoms is given by (1 kg)/(1.The Internet Short Edition E1-9 First ﬁnd the “logarithmic average” by log tav = 1 log(5 × 1017 ) + log(6 × 10−15 ) . E1-15 The volume of Antarctica is approximated by the area of the base time the height.88 × 1016 m3 × = 1.00286 light-year/century. The volume. 2 √ 1 = log 3000 = log 3000 . 19.974 × 1026 atoms. the answer would be the same with a base ten or a natural log! Not only that. 2 1 = log 5 × 1017 × 6 × 10−15 .14)(2000 × 1000 m)2 (3000 m) = 1. you never needed to press the log button on your calculator to work out the answer. 2 4 Solve.

Some of the questions that need to be answered are (1) what is the surface area of a sand grain of radius 50 µm? (2) what is volume of this sand grain? It might be tempting to calculate the numerical value of each quantity. P1-7 Break the problem down into parts. min 1440 trad. Since the volume √ of a cube is equal to the length cubed.0 cm3 . 650. If N grains of sand have a total surface area equal to that of a cube 1 m on a edge. then l = 3 NA cm = 8. 3 and the volume is given by Vg = (4/3)πrg . E1-31 The easiest approach is to ﬁrst solve Darcy’s Law for K. where NA is the Avogadro constant. Dividing our answer by 10−9 will then give 605.8 trad. P1-1 There are 24 × 60 = 1440 traditional minutes in a day. A nano is 10−9 . So the time is 19 hours. while the remainder is the minutes. so a mole of sugar cubes would have a volume of NA ×1. the question asks for meters per wavelength. V = l3 . which would be 7:45 pm.The Internet Short Edition 5 E1-27 One sugar cube has a volume of 1. which is equivalent to the 1000 decimal minutes of metric clock. E1-29 The deﬁnition of the meter was wavelengths per meter.0 cm3 . min. so we want to take the reciprocal. This is traditional minutes since midnight. The total volume Vt of this number of grains of sand is N Vg . then N Ag = 6 m2 . the integer part of the quotient is the hours. The conversion plan is then fairly straightforward 822.73 = 6. min 1000 dec. since the cube has six sides each with an area of 1 m2 . 763. the time in traditional hours can be found by dividing by 60 min/hr.8 dec.4 × 107 cm. the top of such a cube would be higher than the orbit of the International Space Station. The deﬁnition is accurate to 9 ﬁgures. min = 1184. Let the 2 radius of the grain be given by rg . and then substitute the known SI units for the other quantities.780211 nm. but it is more instructive to keep the expressions symbolic. We can eliminate N from these two expressions and get Vt = N Vg = (6 m2 )rg (6 m2 ) Vg = Ag 3 . With an edge length equal to 844 kilometers.05780211 × 10−7 m. Then K= VL (m3 ) (m) has units of AHt (m2 ) (m) (s) which can be simpliﬁed to m/s. so the reciprocal should be written as 1/1. 45 minutes. Then the surface area of the grain is Ag = 4πrg .

. We were given that 2600 kg occupies a volume of 1 m3 . a good time to put in the numbers. so the mass of the volume Vt is given by 1 × 10−4 m3 2600 kg 1 m3 = 0.26 kg. about the mass of two quarter-pound hamburgers.The Internet Short Edition 6 where the last step involved substituting the expressions for Ag and Vg . Then Vt = (2 m2 )(50 × 10−6 m) = 1 × 10−4 m3 . We haven’t really started using numbers yet. however. and our expressions have simpliﬁed as a result. All that is left is to ﬁnd the mass. Now is.

This means that a and b are pointing at right angles to each other. The cosine law can be used to ﬁnd the magnitude s of s.Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension E2-1 There are two ways of solving this particular problem. Put in the given numbers for each instance and solve for the angle. This means that a and b are pointing in the same direction. (a) (7 m)2 = (4 m)2 + (3 m)2 − 2(4 m)(3 m) cos θ. so cos θ = 1. s2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos θ. This means that a and b are pointing in the opposite direction. apply the Pythagoras relation (42 + 32 = 52 ).0. and θ = 90◦ . (b) (1 m)2 = (4 m)2 + (3 m)2 − 2(4 m)(3 m) cos θ.0. If none of these approaches works then you need to solve the problem with the ﬁrst method. so cos θ = 0. The veriﬁcation is simple enough: for the vectors pointing in the same direction. and θ = 0◦ . so cos θ = −1. If a has length a = 4 m and b has length b = 3 m then the sum is given by s. subtract the magnitudes (|4−3| = 1). as long as you recognize the limitations and still verify your initial assumptions with concrete calculations. (c) (5 m)2 = (4 m)2 + (3 m)2 − 2(4 m)(3 m) cos θ. and θ = 180◦ . for vectors pointing in opposite directions. 2-4. add the magnitudes (4 + 3 = 7). where θ is the angle between sides a and b in the ﬁgure. for vectors which meet at right angles. This is a perfectly acceptable method. 7 . Method I Add the vectors as is shown in Fig. Method II You might have been able to just look at the numbers and “guess” the answers.

The components are given by the trigonometry relations O = H sin θ = (3. we ﬁnd the components of the displacement vector along the north-south and east-west street system. A is measured against east-west with east being positive.42 km) cos 35. counter clockwise from east.3 cm)ˆ − (11. But line 2 should be a perfectly adequate answer. and enough east-west steps to equal 2.42 km) sin 35.80 km. measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis.0◦ = 1.3 cm)ˆ and rf = (11. Any individual step can only be along one or the other direction. If we deﬁne c = a + b and write the magnitude of √ c as c. E2-7 (a) In unit vector notation we need only add the components. (b) The magnitude of the sum is found from Pythagoras’ theorem. The 2 and the 5 under the square x y root sign were the components found in part (a). E2-13 Displacement vectors are given by the ﬁnal position minus the initial position. so the minimum total will be 4.96 km and A = H cos θ = (3. Then we’ll show that the sum of these components is actually the shortest distance. with north being positive. We use those same components to ﬁnd the direction.96 km. because these components are at right angles. Now we ﬁnd the shortest distance by considering that the person can only walk east-west or north-south.2◦ . .3 cm)i j. displacement in the interval is ∆r = rf −ri .0◦ = 2. according to tan θ = cy /cx which gives an angle of 68. where in the last line we wrote the answer in the more traditional ordering of unit vectors. and j (a) The two relevant positions are ri = (11.3 cm)ˆ j i ˆ + (11.3 cm)ˆ The i j. then ∆r = rf − ri = (11. First. then c = c2 + c2 = 22 + 52 = 5.39. we can evaluate this expression by looking at the components.The Internet Short Edition 8 E2-5 We’ll solve this problem in two steps. a + b = (5ˆ + i 3ˆ + (−3ˆ + 2ˆ = (5 − 3)ˆ + (3 + 2)ˆ = 2ˆ + 5ˆ j) i j) i j i j.80 km. The stated angle is measured from the east-west axis. she must eventually take enough north-south steps to equal 1. Since her individual steps are displacement vectors which are only north-south or east-west. Eventually we need to represent the position in each of the three positions where the minute hand is. So O is measured against the north-south axis.3 cm)ˆ = −(11. Our axes will be chosen so that ˆ points toward 3 O’clock i ˆ points toward 12 O’clock.76 km.

6 cm)j. As before we can evaluate this expression by looking at the components. (c) The two relevant positions are now ri = (−11.3 cm)ˆ j j. r = = = = [(2 m/s3 )t3 − (5 m/s)t]ˆ + [(6 m) − (7 m/s4 )t4 ]ˆ i j 3 3 [(2 m/s )(2 s) − (5 m/s)(2 s)]ˆ + [(6 m) − (7 m/s4 )(2 s)4 ]ˆ i j [(16 m) − (10 m)]ˆ + [(6 m) − (112 m)]ˆ i j ˆ + [−(106 m)]ˆ [(6 m)]i j.The Internet Short Edition 9 (b) The two relevant positions are now ri = (11. remember to take the time derivatives before you substitute in for the time! (a) Evaluate r when t = 2 s.3 cm)ˆ j j. (b) Take the derivative of r with respect to time. As before we can evaluate this expression by looking at the components. There’s a double negative in the second line that is often missed by students of introductory physics classes. using the full form of r from the ﬁrst line of the equations above. so ∆r = rf − ri = (11.3 cm)ˆ − (−11.3 cm)ˆ j j ˆ = (0 cm)j. Note that the 6 O’clock position for the minute hand has a negative sign.3 cm)ˆ − (−11. The displacement is zero.3 cm)ˆ and rf = (−11. Into this last expression we now evaluate v(t = 2 s) and get v = [(6 m/s3 )(2 s)2 − (5 m/s)]ˆ + [−(28 m/s4 )(2 s)3 ]ˆ i j ˆ + [−(224 m/s)]ˆ = [(24 m/s) − (5 m/s)]i j = [(19 m/s)]ˆ + [−(224 m/s)]ˆ i j. v= dr = [(2 m/s3 )3t2 − (5 m/s)]ˆ + [−(7 m/s4 )4t3 ]ˆ i j dt = [(6 m/s3 )t2 − (5 m/s)]ˆ + [−(28 m/s4 )t3 ]ˆ i j.3 cm)ˆ and rf = (−11. for the velocity v when t = 2 s. so ∆r = rf − ri = (−11.3 cm)ˆ j j ˆ = (22. since we have started and stopped in the same position! E2-17 As always. .

as measured by the passengers. Namulevu and Vanuavinaka are perfectly good words in some language.Los Angeles time. The time in Los Angeles can then be found from the time in Namulevu by subtracting ∆T . it makes no physical sense to compare the acceleration with either the velocity or position at t = 2 s. . The actual time of ﬂight from Los Angeles to Namulevu is then the diﬀerence between when the plane lands (LA times) and when the plane takes oﬀ (LA time): T = (18:50 − ∆T ) − (12:50) = 6:00 − ∆T. where we have again changed to LA time for the purpose of the calculation. but au na sega ni tukuna vei kemuni! Let the actual ﬂight time. Into this last expression we now evaluate a(t = 2 s) and get a = [(12 m/s3 )(2 s)]ˆ + [−(84 m/s4 )(2 2)2 ]ˆ i j 2 ˆ 2 ˆ = [(24 m/s )]i + [−(336 m/s )]j. or any other time. The return ﬂight time can be found from T = (18:50) − (1:50 − ∆T ) = 17:00 + ∆T. making sure that we use the expression for v before we substituted for t. Of course. call it ∆T = Namulevu time . However tempting it might be. Now we just need to solve the two equations and two unknowns. Since this is a negative number. See if your instructor will give you extra credit for translating the meaning.The Internet Short Edition 10 (c) We’ll take the time derivative of v to ﬁnd a. and yes. The ∆T will be positive if Namulevu is east of Los Angeles. Namulevu is located west of Los Angeles. there are a number of places in the world with time zones that diﬀer by half an hour. be T . except to maybe note that one or more quantities might be zero. knowing the language would help. a= dv = [(6 m/s3 )2t]ˆ + [−(28 m/s4 )3t2 ]ˆ i j dt = [(12 m/s3 )t]ˆ + [−(84 m/s4 )t2 ]ˆ i j. The way we have written it makes it easier to solve for ∆T ﬁrst by setting the two expressions for T equal to each other: 17:00 + ∆T = 6:00 − ∆T 2∆T = 6:00 − 17:00 ∆T = −5:30. where we have written times in 24 hour format to avoid the AM/PM issue. E2-21 For the record. There is some time diﬀerence between the two cities.

or at about longitude 160 east. The answer requests units of centimeters per year. The total time t is just the sum of t1 and t2 . with some algebra. and d1 be the distance traveled in that time. But the total distance is d1 + d2 = 2d1 because the up distance is same as the down distance. v1 = d1 /t1 or t1 = d1 /v1 . because the car drove down the same hill it drove up. so the speed is v = 1600 km/80 × 106 y= 2 × 10−5 km/y. When this exercise was originally typeset the times for the outbound and the inbound ﬂights were inadvertently switched. Note that d2 = d1 . It might look as if there isn’t enough information to solve this problem.5 = 83◦ west of Los Angeles. so we move straight to (c). or eleven and a half hours. We similarly deﬁne v2 = 60 km/hr for the down hill trip. We’ll draw a circle around Los Angeles with a radius of 5980 mi. If we choose the outbound ﬂight. and then Namulevu must be located approximately 15◦ × 5. as well as t2 and d2 . Now for the algebra. Let v1 = 40 km/hr be the speed up the hill. then each hour corresponds to 15 longitude degrees. since we weren’t given the distance or the time. when the answers were prepared for the back of the book the reversed numbers put Namulevu east of Los Angeles. in the vicinity of Vanuatu. I suppose that we could blame this on the airlines.5 hr) = 5980 mi. 80 × 106 y). and then we look for where it intersects with longitudes that would belong to a time zone ∆T away from Los Angeles. We instead need to go back to the deﬁnition: speed is distance traveled divided by time taken. The line appears to pass through the origin and through the point (1600 km. t1 be the time taken. v2 = d2 /t2 or t2 = d2 /v2 .The Internet Short Edition 11 (a) Choose either the outbound or the inbound ﬂight to ﬁnd T . 2-32. nonetheless. (c) The distance traveled by the plane is given by d = vt = (520 mi/hr)(11. That would put it in either the North Atlantic or Brazil. this is equivalent to the inverse of the slope of the line in Fig. so v av = = d t 2d1 t1 + t2 . We can solve the problem. E2-25 Speed is distance traveled divided by time taken. Since the Earth rotates once every 24 hours and there are 360 longitude degrees. The average speed will be v av = d/t. however. so we convert units by 100 cm 1000 m v = 2 × 10−5 km/y = 2 cm/y 1 km 1m E2-29 Don’t fall into the trap of assuming that the average speed is the average of the speeds. where d total distance and t is the total time. We’ve already found the time diﬀerence. T = 6:00 − ∆T = 11 : 30. The location on the globe is then latitude 5◦ .

i. constant acceleration problem states the acceleration. or the time. The average acceleration is then ∆v vf − vi (−30 m/s)ˆ − (18 m/s)ˆ i i = = .4 s = (−20. we never needed to know the height of the hill. v av v1 v2 In either case. ∆t ∆t 2.1c = 3. E2-33 The initial velocity is vi = (18 m/s)ˆ the ﬁnal velocity is vf = (−30 m/s)ˆ i. but we can take the reciprocal of both sides to get a simpler looking expression 2 1 1 = + . The last expression looks a little nasty. the average speed is 48 km/hr. acceleration and velocity are both vectors and require some indication of direction.The Internet Short Edition 2d1 d1 /v1 + d2 /v2 2 = . meaning the velocity-time graph will pass through the time axis. v0x = 0. There are no straight line segments in the distance-time graph.0 m/s2 )ˆ i. . ax = 9. and the ﬁnal velocity vx = 0. as expected. Negative signs can’t be ignored in this problem.0×107 m/s. so there are no constant velocity segments for the velocity-time graph. So. v x a v E2-41 This one dimensional.8 m/s2 . the initial velocity. 1/v1 + 1/v2 = 12 where in the last line we used d2 = d1 and then factored out d1 . aav = which gives aav E2-37 When the displacement-time graph is at a maximum or minimum the velocity should be zero.

8 m/s2 = 21g. The negative sign reﬂects the fact that the rocket sled is slowing down. 2-26. 7 This is about one month.8 m/s2 )(3. 2 x = 4. 2-26. t = 1. the acceleration could be sustained.1 × 106 s)2 .4 s.8 m/s2 )t. (b) If. vx = 0. s . vx = v0x + ax t. This distance is 8000 times farther than Pluto. Although accelerations of this magnitude are well within the capability of modern technology. and only a small fraction of the distance to the nearest star to the sun. Applying Eq. 3. It will be easier to solve the problem if we change the units for the initial velocity. 1 x = x0 + v0x + ax t2 . vx = v0x + ax t. and the time taken to stop the sled. it is also about the same distance that light travels in a day and a half. v0x = 1020 km/hr. −202 m/s2 = ax . much less a month. we are unable to sustain such accelerations for even several hours. km 1000 m hr km hr 3600 s = 283 m .7 × 1013 m.1 × 106 s = t. however. how far would the rocket ship travel? We apply Eq.0 × 10 m/s) = (0) + (9. the ﬁnal velocity. 2-28 using an initial position of x0 = 0. E2-45 Given in this problem are the initial velocity.The Internet Short Edition 13 (a) We are then asked for the time it will take for the space ship to acquire the ﬁnal velocity. so −202 m/s2 g 9. and considerably farther than any spacecraft has ever traveled. (0) = (283 m/s) + ax (1.4 s). The problem asks for this in terms of g. (3. 2 1 x = (0) + (0) + (9. v0x = 1020 and then applying Eq.

00 ft/s2 )(4.00 ft/s2 )t. 2-26. The time required for the constant speed portion of the trip is found from Eq. however. 2-26. By symmetry. and decelerating (4. 2-22. which is the convention of Eq.2 s). but it would be good practice to verify this last assumption with calculations. 2 x = 34. the distance traveled during deceleration should also be 34.18 s = t. rewritten as ∆x 554 ft ∆t = = = 33. vx = v0x + ax t.9 ft. this means that through most of the journey the elevator is traveling at the maximum speed.8 m/s2 .7 ft/s The total time for the trip is the sum of times for the three parts: accelerating (4. 2-28 that would make this possible. 2-26 and Eq. The total distance is given at 624 ft and in part (a) we found the distance covered during acceleration was 34.2 s.9 − 34.18 s). and deceleration to a stop. 2-30. constant speed motion. (b) The motion of the elevator is divided into three parts: acceleration from rest.7 ft/s) = (0) + (4. min 60 s s (a) The distance traveled during acceleration can’t be found directly from the information given (although some textbooks do introduce a third kinematic relationship in addition to Eq.18 s). The total is 41. (16. 2 1 x = (0) + (0) + (4.6 seconds. 2-29 is equivalent to Eq. This is considerably less than 624 ft. constant speed (33. we could have used either. .9) ft = 554 ft. Although we can orient our coordinate system any way we want. The acceleration would be 9.9 ft. v 16.9 ft. The same is true for Eq. 2-29 and Eq.7 . 4. The distance traveled at constant speed is then (624 − 34. 2-28. so we’ll write the maximum speed as 1000 ft ft min = 16. I choose vertical to be along the y axis with up as positive. E2-53 The initial velocity of the “dropped” wrench would be zero.) We can. And from this and Eq 2-28 we can ﬁnd the distance 1 x = x0 + v0x + ax t2 . Note that Eq. easily ﬁnd the time required for the acceleration from Eq.18 s)2 . 2-30 and Eq.The Internet Short Edition 14 E2-49 The problem will be somewhat easier if the units are consistent.

1 y = y0 + v0y t − gt2 . We manually insert the minus sign for the ﬁnal velocity because the object is moving down.8 m/s2 )(2.25 s) − 24.4 m/s = v0y . (b) We solve Eq.The Internet Short Edition 15 It turns out that it is much easier to solve part (b) before solving part (a).4 m.0 m/s) = (0) − (9.45 s) − (9. The negative sign indicates that the wrench landed below the point from which it was dropped. where we make our measurements from the point where the wrench was dropped. vy = v0y − gt. This results in an initial position of y0 = 29. (−24. E2-57 Don’t assume that 36.45 s = t. 27.8 because it is explicit in Eq. If we do this. 2 1 (0) = y0 + (0)(2. 2-30 for the initial velocity. needed to insert it if we had used Eq.4 m. it is positive because the wrench was dropped from a point above where it landed. 2 0 = y0 − 29. (a) Solve Eq. 2-29. 1 y = y0 + v0y t − gt2 .25 s) − (9. 2 1 (36. (a) Now we can easily use Eq. We could instead have chosen the initial point to correspond to y0 = 0. We don’t insert an extra minus sign in front of the 9.4 m We have set y = 0 to correspond to the ﬁnal position of the wrench: on the ground. 2-30 to ﬁnd the height from which the wrench fell. however.8 m corresponds to the highest point.8 m) = (0) + v0y (2. .8 m/s2 )t.45 s)2 .25 s)2 . 2-29 for the time of the fall. So that’s what we’ll do. we would have. 2-26. Let the distances be measured from the ground so that y0 = 0. 2.8 m.8 m/s2 )(2.8 m = v0y (2. we ﬁnd y = −29. 2 36.

8 s) − (9. We have two equations we can write. 1 y = y0 + v0y t − gt2 . (0) = (27. 2 1 and 1 y2 = y0 + v0y t2 − gt2 .8 m/s2 )(2. 2 y = 38. 1 y1 = y0 + v0y t1 − gt2 .3m. This is the height as measured from the ground.4 m/s.27 s is the time the pot passes the bottom of the window y2 = y1 − 1. vy = v0y − gt. vy = (27.4 m/s) − (9. 2-30 to ﬁnd the height to which the ball rises. then t2 = t1 + 0. using the result from part (a).8 = 1. 2-30.The Internet Short Edition (b) Solve Eq. 16 (c) We need to solve Eq. 2 . E2-61 The total time the pot is visible is 0.25 s).8 m/s2 )t.4 m/s) − (9.27 s on the way down. Deﬁne t1 to be the time at which the falling pot passes the top of the window y1 . because we do know the velocity at the highest point (vy = 0).27 s)2 . vy = 5.4 m/s)(2.54 s. 2 1 y = (0) + (27. 2-29 for the velocity. And then we ﬁnd the height to which the object rises.5 m above the point speciﬁed in the problem.1 m.8 m/s2 )(2. We’ll deﬁne the initial position as the highest point and make our measurements from there. so the ball rises 38. So we ﬁrst solve Eq. vy = v0y − gt.3 − 36. the pot is visible for 0. both based on Eq. Then y0 = 0 and v0y = 0.8 s)2 .8 s = t. 2-29. 2 2 1 y1 − 1. 2 1 1 y1 = (0) + (0)t1 − gt2 . but we don’t know how long it takes to get there.1 m = (0) + (0)t2 − g(t1 + 0. 2.

28 s)2 = −0.073 s2 ). l2 .38 m above the top of the window.1 m − g([0.28 s as the time when the falling pot passes the top of the window. The shortest path will be the diagonal across these two faces.8 m/s2 )(0. (a) The displacement vector can just be written. 12 ft. i j (b) The magnitude of the displacement vector is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. and 14 ft that will minimize the length. then the diagonal length across two faces will be given by 2 (l1 + l2 )2 + l3 . so the pot must have risen to 0.1 m − g(t1 + 0. in particular we want the largest square to be the smallest possible. . and l3 .38 m.54 s]t1 + 0. Trial and error works (there are only three possibilities). and l3 = 14. Then the minimal distance the ﬂy would walk is 26 ft. where we want to choose the li from the set of 10 ft.1 m − g(t2 + [0. 1 2 2 1 2 1 − gt1 = 1. 2 2 1 1 0 = 1. so the length of the path taken by the ﬂy must be greater than or equal to 21 ft.54 s]t1 + 0. or we can reason out that we want the squares to be minimal.The Internet Short Edition 17 Isolate y1 in this last equation and then set the two expressions equal to each other so that we can solve for t1 . a generalization of Pythagoras’ Theorem. P2-3 We align the coordinate system so that the origin corresponds to the starting position of the ﬂy and that all positions inside the room are given by positive coordinates. 2 This last line can be directly solved to yield t1 = 0. If the lengths of sides of the room are l1 . 1 1 − gt2 = 1. (c) The straight line distance between two points is the shortest possible distance. The negative sign is because the top of the window is beneath the highest point. (d) If the ﬂy walks it will need to cross two faces. |∆r| = √ 102 + 122 + 142 ft= 21 ft.27 s)2 . Use this value in the ﬁrst equation above and we 1 can ﬁnd y1 = − 2 (9. l2 = 12 ft. This will happen if l1 = 10 ft.073 s2 ). ˆ ∆r = (10 ft)ˆ + (12 ft)ˆ + (14 ft)k.

regardless of how close together the trains are.0 m/s = = 18. dt dt Then the instantaneous accelerations are a(2.0 m/s. The bird was ﬂying with constant speed this entire time.5 hr. so the distance ﬂown by the bird is (58 km/hr)(1.5 hr) = 87 km.0 m/s3 )(2. v av 14.0 s)3 − (2.0 m (2. which is the time derivative of the position. the bird is now on the other train.0 m/s3 )(2.0 s)2 − (6. (2. (b) The trains collide in the middle. We can get an expression for the instantaneous acceleration by taking the time derivative of the velocity a= dv d = (6.The Internet Short Edition 18 P2-7 (a) Don’t try to calculate this by brute force. dx d = (2.0 m/s.0 m/s and v(1.0 m/s3 )(1. This apparent paradox of an inﬁnite number of trips summing to a ﬁnite length was investigated by Zeno quite a number of years ago. This process can be repeated every time the bird touches one of the trains.0 m/s2 .0 s) − (1.0 m/s2 )t2 . . unless you are a glutton for punishment.0 m/s2 (c) Since the motion is monotonic we expect the average quantities to be somewhere between the instantaneous values at the endpoints of the time interval. But it makes this inﬁnite number of trips in a ﬁnite time.0 m/s3 )t2 = (12.0 m/s3 )(1.0 s) = 12.0 m/s2 and a(1.0 s The average acceleration is the change in velocity. After doing so. dt dt From this we ﬁnd average acceleration v= aav = (6.0 s) = 24.0 m/s3 )t3 = (6. P2-11 (a) The average velocity is displacement divided by change in time.0 s)3 = = = 14.0 s)2 18. Assume the bird has no size. so v(2.0 s) = 24. so once again the bird can ﬂy between the trains before they collide.0 s) 1. the trains are still separated. that is the case. (2.0 s (b) The instantaneous velocities can be found directly from v = (6. because eventually the trains do collide.0 s) 1.0 s) − (1. So we need an expression for the velocity.0 m/s3 )t. and the bird is just leaving one of the trains.0 s) = 6. The bird will be able to ﬂy from one train to the other before the two trains collide. so the bird will make an inﬁnite number of trips between the trains. using a simple application of distance equals speed times time we ﬁnd that the trains collide after (51 km)/(34 km/hr) = 1. Indeed.0 m/s3 )t2 . the trains have some separation.

with y0 = 36.40 m/s2 )(3. 000 m 2 1 2 during the acceleration phase. 2 1 1 = − at2 + a(12. (b) The distance traveled during the acceleration phase is then 1 d1 = at2 = (1. 1 d1 = at2 .40 s or t1 = 21.0 s. 2-28 except now with a = 0.8 m/s2 )t. The second half of the trajectory can be found from Eqs. Since the race only lasted 12. so we solve Eq. 1 y = y0 + v0y t − gt2 .2 m. We want to use these two expressions. 2-30 to ﬁnd the height to which the rocket rises.2 s)t1 .2 s we can ignore the second answer.2 s)−t1 . This time is used in Eq. 2-29 for time. the rocket velocity at the end of the acceleration phase is v = at = (20 m/s2 )(60 s) = 1200 m/s.8 m/s2 )(122 s)2 = 110000 m. 2 1 P2-21 The rocket travels a distance d1 = 1 at2 = 1 (20 m/s2 )(60 s)2 = 36. 2 . The distance covered during the acceleration phase is given by Eq.40 s)2 = 16. Since the runner started from rest we know that the constant speed is given by v = at1 . 2 1 = −(1.40 m/s2 )t2 + (34. 122 s = t. 2-29 and 2-30. where a is the runner’s acceleration. 2 1 = (36000 m) + (1200 m/s)(122s) − (9.2 s − t1 ). d2 = vt2 = at1 t2 . (a) The highest point of the trajectory occurs when vy = 0.2 m/s)t1 . to get 1 100 m = d1 + d2 = at2 + at1 (12. 1 This last expression is quadratic in t1 . (0) = (1200 m/s) − (9.The Internet Short Edition 19 P2-17 The runner covered a distance d1 in a time interval t1 during the acceleration phase and a distance d2 in a time interval t2 during the constant speed phase. vy = v0y − gt. 2 1 The distance covered during the constant speed phase can also be found from Eq. and is solved to give t1 = 3. 2-28 with v0x = 0. along with d1 +d2 = 100 m and t2 = (12. 000 m and v0y = 1200 m/s.

0 s. But this initial velocity is the same as the ﬁnal velocity at the end of the freely falling part of the motion. 2-30 for the time when the rocket has returned to the ground. I’m going to use g = 32 ft/s2 for the acceleration of free-fall. but not the time taken nor the initial velocity at the start of the deceleration phase. However. 2-30. to ﬁnd the total time we need to add on the 60 seconds of accelerated motion. so her average speed during deceleration is given by Eq. So neither Eq.8 m/s2 )t2 . but we don’t know the time to fall. 2-27. 2 This quadratic expression has two solutions for t.0 s) = −96 ft/s. P2-25 This is a problem that is best solved backwards. we could get that time from Eq. since we know the initial velocity at the start of the fall (0) and the distance through which she fell (144 ft). Now we reverse our approach and work forwards through the problem and ﬁnd the time she fell from Eq. and then use Eq. 2 which is a simple quadratic with solutions t = ±3. and then use Eq. Only the positive solution is of interest. we could apply Eq. one is negative so we don’t need to worry about it. y = 1 1 (vy + v0y ) = ((0) + (−96 ft/s)) = −48 ft/s. So now we are prepared to solve the problem. the other is t = 270 s.The Internet Short Edition 20 (b) The easiest way to ﬁnd the total time of ﬂight is to solve Eq. 2 2 . I’ve written this equation a number of times in the past few pages. then forwards. 2 1 (0) = (36000 m) + (1200 m/s)t − (9. 1 (0 ft) = (144 ft) + (0)t − (32 ft/s2 )t2 . since we assume she was falling forward in time. However. 2-30. 2-29 to ﬁnd her speed when she hit the ventilator box. 2-28 is of much use. 2-26 nor Eq. Use this time in Eq. Since inches and feet are used throughout. 2-29 to ﬁnd this ﬁnal velocity. since her deceleration is assumed uniform. We would need to use Eq. 2-26 to ﬁnd the acceleration. 2-27 to ﬁnd her average velocity (if we knew her initial velocity). The total time is then 330 seconds. Then 1 y = y0 + v0y t − gt2 . We want to ﬁnd the deceleration of the woman. This becomes the initial velocity for the deceleration motion. We know the distance through which she decelerated (18 in) and her ﬁnal velocity (0). vy = (0) − (32 ft/s2 )(3. This is the free-fall part of the problem. So all that we need to ﬁnd is the initial velocity at the start of the deceleration phase. so I’ll just substitute the variables in directly. v av . 2-22 to ﬁnd the time elapsed during deceleration since we know the distance.

Then 2nτ is the number of objects that are in the air at any time. . 2-30 for an object which falls a distance h from rest: 1 0 = h + (0)t − gt2 . Let τ be the amount of time that any one object is in the air. But τ is twice this. Finally. y = ∆y/∆t. Do this by standing in front of a bathroom mirror and ﬂapping a hand up and down as fast as you can. In terms of g this is a = 97g. I doubt I could toss objects higher than 4 meters. We’ll estimate n. t = 2h/g. So the number of objects that can be juggled is 4n 2h/g We need to estimate n. we use this in Eq. because the object had to go up before it could come down. which can be found by multiplying through by 1 = g/(32 ft/s2 ). I can manage to simulate 10 tosses in 5 seconds while frantic. where the negative sign indicated that she was still moving downward. 2 solving. 2-26 to ﬁnd the acceleration. so my absolute maximum would be about 7 objects. P2-31 Assume each hand can toss n objects per second.5 ft). So the maximum number of objects I could juggle to a height h would be 3.031 s). but τ can be found from Eq. The important positive sign is because she is accelerating upward when she stops. which gives a = +3100 ft/s2 . (0) = (−96 ft/s) + a(0. used with the distance of 18 in (1.6 h/meters. and putting numbers into the expression gives ∆t = 0. where the “2” comes from the fact that (most?) jugglers have two hands. We actually used ∆y = −1.The Internet Short Edition 21 This average speed. In reality I almost juggled one object once.031 s.5 ft. which means n = 2 tosses/second. can be used to ﬁnd the time of deceleration v av .

Fx = max = (9. We will solve these for the mass as m1 = F/a1 and m2 = F/a2 . This can be used in component form of Eq. Putting in the numbers. Since a1 > a2 we can conclude that m2 > m1 22 .17×10−9 s.1×1015 m/s2 ) = 1. We are given the distance through which the electron accelerates and the ﬁnal speed.0×10−15 N. m (25 kg) E3-9 There are too many unknowns to ﬁnd a numerical value for the force or for either mass.17×10−9 s) We are not done yet. since ∆x = v av. 2-14 to ﬁnd the acceleration. we do this by ﬁrst ﬁnding the acceleration. The net force on the electron is from Eq. ax = ∆vx (5. Fx = max . 2-22. This net force is used with Newton’s Second law to ﬁnd the acceleration. on the object. Write the expression for the motions of the ﬁrst object as Fx = m1 a1x and that of the second object as Fx = m2 a2x . 2-27 v av.9×106 m/s.Chapter 3 Force and Newton’s Laws E3-3 We want to ﬁnd the force on the electron. so Fx = F . E3-5 The net force on the sled is 92 N−90 N= 2 N. 3-5.0×10−2 m/s2 .x = 1 1 (vx + v0x ) = (5. that’s actually the most involved part of the problem.8×106 m/s) − (0) = = 1. so ax = Fx (2 N) = = 8. we ﬁnd that the time is ∆t = 5.x ∆t. 2 2 From this we can ﬁnd the time spent accelerating from Eq.1×1015 m/s2 . In both cases there is only one force. Assuming constant acceleration we can ﬁnd the average speed during the interval from Eq.8×106 m/s) + (0) = 2. F . ∆t (5. we subtract because the forces are in opposite directions.11×10−31 kg)(1. So don’t try.

0 N)/(9. Then a = 2. Just a reminder.2 m/s2 at the instant that a2x = 2. Then Newton’s second law gives Fx = −9.6 m/s2 ) = 9.60 m/s2 ) = 12. (b) There is only one (relevant) force on block 1. the mass didn’t change between these two points.2 N. 1/a2 + 1/a1 1/(3. So a1x = −2. If g = 9. E3-11 The existence of the spring has little to do with the problem except to “connect” the two blocks. (a) Apply W = mg again. because g = 0. W = mg. . There is still mass. 3-7.0 m/s2 ) which is the same as part (a) except for the sign change. there is no weight. so at this point W = (2. the force of block 2 on block 1.The Internet Short Edition 23 (a) The acceleration of and object with mass m2 − m1 under the inﬂuence of a single force of magnitude F would be a= F F 1 = = . There is only one (relevant) force on the block. 2 ) − 1/(12. and that mass is still 2.30 m/s2 ) + 1/(12. Note the minus sign. (b) Similarly. however. then m = W/g = (26.30 m/s which has a numerical value of a = 4. the force of block 1 on block 2.60 m/s2 . (b) If there is no gravitational force.59 m/s2 .9 N. then the acceleration of block 1 would be positive. it isn’t frivolous.6 kg)a1x .9 N= m1 a1x = (4.8 kg)(2.65 kg. (a) The net force on the second block is given by Fx = m2 a2x = (3.55 m/s2 .0 m/s2 ) m2 − m1 F/a2 − F/a1 1/(3. the consequence of this connection is that the force of block 1 on block 2 is equal in magnitude to the force of block 2 on block 1. only the weight did. We could have instead deﬁned the direction of acceleration of block 2 to be negative.9 N. it reﬂects the fact the two block are necessarily accelerating in opposite directions.65 kg. the acceleration of an object of mass m2 + m1 under the inﬂuence of a force of magnitude F would be a= 1 1 = . E3-15 The numerical weight of an object is given by Eq. By Newton’s third law this force has a magnitude of 9.81 m/s2 .6 m/s2 . but now g = 4.81 m/s2 ) = 2.65 kg)(4.

22×105 kg.8 m/s2 )t2 . I’ll substitute the variables in directly. 2 2 This average speed. and it isn’t the force of gravity on the man. 2-30.4×105 N) = max . vy = (0) − (9.The Internet Short Edition 24 E3-19 We’ll assume the net force in the x direction on the plane as it accelerates down the runway is from the two engines.22×105 kg)(9. . so W = mg = (1. 2-29 to ﬁnd his speed when he hit ground.1 m/s) + a(0. E3-23 Look back at Problem 2-25 for a detailed description of solving the ﬁrst part of this exercise.8 m/s2 )(0.6 m/s. 2-26 to ﬁnd the acceleration.31 s. That the net force is positive means that it is directed up. used with the distance of -2. v av.48 m) + (0)t − (9. (a) Find the time during the “jump down” phase from Eq.1 m/s.31 s) = −3. Only the positive solution is of interest. We won’t go through all of the reasoning here.8×104 N. we use this in Eq. This isn’t the force of the ground on the man.81 m/s2 ) = 1.022 m). which gives a = 220 m/s2 .2 cm (-0. (b) The average net force on the man is Fy = may = (83 kg)(220 m/s2 ) = 1. 2 which is a simple quadratic with solutions t = ±0. and putting numbers into the expression gives ∆t = 0.1 m/s)) = −1.014 s). so his average speed during deceleration is given by Eq. can be used to ﬁnd the time of deceleration v av. it is the vector sum of these two forces. 1 (0 m) = (0. Use this time in Eq. This becomes the initial velocity for the deceleration motion. Finally.y = 1 1 (vy + v0y ) = ((0) + (−3.20×106 N. Then m = 1. so Fx = 2(1. a direct consequence is that the upward force from the ground must have a larger magnitude than the downward force of gravity.y = ∆y/∆t.014 s. We want the weight of the plane. (0) = (−3. 2-27.

Since the objective is to gently lower the object we will assume the upward force is as large as it can be. From appendix G we ﬁnd 1 lb = 4. FBA = 2. Applying Eq. not a measure of mass. So long as you lower the cord with this acceleration (or greater). 500 kg)(1. It starts from rest. which is W = mg = (19.7 × 10 N. and solve. the object was accelerating up.500 kg. so the net force on the system is Fy = FBA − (1. 2 1 −16 m = (0) + (0)(4. Then Fy = FOC − FOG = (387 N) − (445 N) = −58 N. It will be necessary to know the mass of the object sooner or later. can be considered to act on a system consisting of the helicopter alone. or the helicopter + car (or is it a Hummer?). (b) We basically repeat the above steps except: (1) the system will consist only of the car. it can also be written as Fy = may = (4500 kg)(1. E3-31 (a) The vertical (upward) force from the air on the blades. 2-28.4 m/s2 ) = 6300 N. an upward force from the cord FOC (which has a maximum value of 387 N) and a downward force from gravity FOG .2 s.3 m/s2 .2 s)2 2 . Equate the two expression for the net force. Then the weight of the car is W = mg = (4500 kg)(9. There are two vertical forces on the 45 kg object. using Eq. 3-7.2×105 N.91×105 N) = 2.8 m/s2 ) = 45 kg.4 m/s ) = 2. The net force is Fy = FCC − (4. so the weight is (100 lb)(4. and the only other force acting on the system is the force of gravity.8 m/s2 ) = 1. The force of gravity is directed down. 000 N. 500 kg)(9. FCC = 50. the upward force on the object from the cable will be less than the breaking strength.2 s) + ax (4.91×105 N). the object must be accelerating downward according to ay = Fy /m = (−58 N)/(45 kg) = −1. the total mass of this system is 19. FBA − (1. and (2) the upward force on the car comes from the supporting cable only FCC .4×104 N). The positive sign for the acceleration was important.8 m/s2 ) = 4. But don’t stop! The instant that you feed the cord out with an acceleration of less than −1. We choose the latter. and the object will fall with an acceleration equal to g.3 m/s2 the cord will snap. FBA . accelerating through a distance of 16 m in a time of 4.The Internet Short Edition 25 E3-25 Remember that pounds are a measure of force. P3-3 (a) Start with block one.448 N/1 lb) = 445 N.91×105 N. m = W/g = (445 N)/(9. similarly the cord will break if it pulls upward on the object with a force greater than 387 N. Since the net force is negative. Equating. 1 x = x0 + v0x t + ax t2 .4×104 N.448 N. The net force can also be found from Newton’s second law: Fy = 2 4 may = (19.7×104 N.

−2v0x = (−1.5 N = (3. This means that half of the time is spent coming down from the highest point.2 kg)ax . There is one (relevant) force P = 6. Then Fx = P = 6. and then slides back down.1 s)2 = −4. rises to some highest point. 0. so Newton’s second law will be applied as Fx = mtotal ax . Since the acceleration while the block moves up the plane is the same as the acceleration while the block moves down the plane.1 s. but careful. so the time to “fall” is 2. If the initial and ﬁnal velocities are related by a sign. then vx = −v0x and Eq. 2 The negative sign is because it ended up beneath the starting point. See the statement at the end of the problem.1 s) + (−1. the time it takes to go up the ramp is the same as the time it takes to come back down. (b) The second block is projected up the plane with some initial velocity. 6. Now for the second block. it is reasonable to assume that the motion is symmetric: the magnitude of the initial velocity at the bottom of the incline is the same as the magnitude of the ﬁnal velocity on the way down.4 kg + 1.8 m/s. −v0x = v0x + ax t. The acceleration of the second block is identical to the ﬁrst for much the same reason that all objects fall with approximately the same acceleration.97 m/s2 = ax . It is the total mass of the system that matters.1 kg + 2. 2-26 would become vx = v0x + ax t.The Internet Short Edition 26 we ﬁnd the acceleration to be ax = −1.5 N on this system. (c) The time it takes the second block to go up the ramp is the same as the time it takes to come back down.8 m/s2 .0 m. 2-28.8 m/s2 )(2. which gives an initial velocity of v0x = 3. application of Newton’s second law.5 N. The distance traveled is found from Eq.8 m/s2 )(4. The negative sign is because I choose the convention that lower down the ramp is negative. . (a) Consider all three carts as one system.2 s). P3-7 This problem requires repeated. 1 x = (0) + (0)(2.

we’ll do it that way. The horizontal force P is a vector of magnitude P . There is one force on the third car.97 m/s2 ). so our application of Newton’s second law will be Fx = F23 = m3 ax = (1. and since the only relevant quantities in this problem are directed along what I’ll conveniently choose to call the x-axis. The system contained two masses. Yes. M +m . except that there are no numbers here. (c) We can either repeat part (b) except apply it to the second and third cart combined.2 N directed to the right. We’ll assume that force has a magnitude R.2 kg)(0. so Newton’s law applied to the system gives F12 = (m2 + m3 )ax = (2. (a) Treat the system as including both the block and the rope.97 m/s2 ) = 3. Solve this for ax and get ax = P/(M + m). there is the force of the rope on the block. We know the acceleration of the car from part (a). Substituting in the results from part (a) we ﬁnd R= M P. so that the mass of the system is M + m. F12 .. so Fx = F23 if we choose the convention that right is positive. so Fx = R for the net force on the block. the acceleration of the block is the same as the acceleration of the block + rope.5 N. Since looking at the second and third cart combined involves fewer forces. and this is the only (relevant) force on the block. There is one (relevant) force which acts on the system. we’ll restrict ourselves to a scalar presentation. the pull from car two F23 directed to the right. Then Newton’s second law would be written as P = (M + m)ax .2 kg)(0.The Internet Short Edition 27 (b) Now choose your system so that it only contains the third car. so we need to add them in the above expression. The unknown can be solved to give F23 = 1. P3-11 This problem is really no diﬀerent than Problem 3-7. ax is the same in part (a) and (b). instead. There is one (relevant) force on our system. The horizontal force doesn’t act on the block. The Fx = F12 . (b) Now consider only the block. In this case Newton’s second law would be written R = M ax . the force of the ﬁrst cart on the second.4 kg + 1. or we can just look at the second cart. so Fx = P .

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