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Published by: Sonam Gupta on Oct 29, 2011
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Motivation concepts

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure.Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. Explanations of intrinsic motivation have been given in the context of Fritz Heider's attribution theory, Bandura's work on self-efficacy, and Deci and Ryan's cognitive evaluation theory (see self-determination theory). Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in), believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition and to children who received no extrinsic reward.[4] Self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalised by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs. Internalised extrinsic motivation has been shown to lead to more positive outcomes, such as wellbeing, increased productivity and task satisfaction.[citation needed] The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by manyintelligence

which motivates a person to seek food. even later when the treat is removed from the process Techniques of Motivation There are two types of techniques of Motivation: financial techniques . These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. Yale School of Management professor Victor Vroom's "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people will decide whether to exert self control to pursue a particular goal. yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently. whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval. the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others.tests). Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger. Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. By contrast.

Advantages Increases speed of work and therefore productivity Often workers not entitled to sick pay or holiday pay which reduces cost Disadvantages Workers do not concentrate on quality of work as emphasis on speed of work .non-financial techniques Financial techniques of Motivation : Wages and Salaries Wages are normally paid per hour worked and workers receive money at the end of the week. Overtime is paid for any additional hours worked during the week. Advantage Simple and easy to use for businesses Disadvantage Workers may resent being paid the same as colleagues who they feel is not so productive Piece-rate Piece-rate is paying a worker per item they produce in a certain period of time. It was recommended by the motivation theorist Taylor and had close links with working on production lines. However salaries are annual (based on a year’s work) and are paid at the end of each month.

in they try to speed up output Fringe Benefits These are often known as ‘perks’ and are items an employee receives in addition to their normal wage or salary e. The targets are often evaluated and reviewed in regular appraisals with managers.Workers may ignore company rules.g. Advantages Encourages loyalty to a company so employees may stay for longer Helps meet a workers human and social needs Disadvantages Widespread use to a majority of employees will increase costs sharply Performance-related pay This is paid to those employees who meet certain targets. free meals. such as Health and safety issues. It is system that is being increasingly used in businesses in the UK. private health insurance. company car. Advantages Easier for managers to monitor and control their staff Reduces the amount of time spent on industrial relations (negotiations with trade unions) Disadvantages It can be difficult to measure the performance of employees in service based industries .

This means staff are in the same position as shareholders. .It does not promote teamwork and can lead to workers feeling they are treated unfairly if colleagues are awarded more Profit sharing This is a system whereby employees receive a proportion of the company’s profits. Advantages Should improve loyalty to the company and break down the “them and us” barrier if all staff given same amount Workers are more likely to accept changes to their working practices if they can see that it may decrease costs and so increase profit Disadvantages The share given to employees is often too small to provide a worthwhile incentive Workers may feel that however hard they work it will not have a noticeable effect on the company’s profit level. It means that some staff are also shareholders. so therefore no incentive Share ownership This is a common incentive for senior managers who are given shares in the company rather than a straightforward bonus or membership of a profit sharing scheme.

rather than just simply providing more variety to the work. This is motivating for several reasons: It gives workers the chance to test themselves and use their full range of ability It is more motivating than job enlargement or job rotation (see below) as it increases the complexity or challenge involved in the task.Advantages Employees will work harder as they have a stake in the company. Non –financial Techniques of Motivation i. just like a shareholder has Workers are less likely to leave the firm Disadvantages Often only available to senior managers so can cause resentment among other staff. challenging and complex tasks. Workers should also be given the opportunity to complete a whole unit of work rather than individual separate tasks. Workers should obtain a greater sense of achievement and possibly more praise or recognition of their work when they have successfully completed a tougher task .Job enrichment Job enrichment means giving workers more interesting.

. If they do not.Teamworking Teamworking is where employees work in groups or teams. quality circles and management teams. examples include production teams (often known as cells). perhaps rotating jobs with other members in your team.Workers respond better as managers have shown trust in the fact that they possess the ability to handle the increasing complexity and pressures of the work.Empowerment Empowerment is like delegation. Teamworking has other advantages to a firm over and above improving motivation. The managers need to judge carefully however what an appropriate task is for a worker to handle.if it is too complex for the workers or they do not posses the correct skill level. as employees are likely to be multi-skilled (able to do more than one persons job) as they have learnt from other team members or undertaken formal job rotation. This will reduce the monotony or repetition involved in a persons work but over time this will not increase a person’s satisfaction or sense of achievement. This can meet a worker’s social needs as a person can more easily build friendships and feel a sense of belonging to a unit or group and hopefully to the business as a whole. It is when power or authority is given to employees so they can make their own decisions regarding their working life. that even if managers pass down authority to their subordinates. but not increasing the challenge of the job. It is the manager’s job to judge whether a subordinate can cope with more authority and decision-making power. For instance workers have control over how to use their time and deciding the priority of tasks that need to be done. then expensive mistakes could be made. they are still responsible for the work that is done by them. They are encouraged to consider problems they face and come up with some solutions. This applies in much the same way as being a member of a sports team or any other team representing a school or college. ii. iv. workers must have adequate training and/or good skill levels in order to be trusted to make the correct decisions. For empowerment to be successful. then expensive mistakes can be made that could affect the whole business. Job rotation is a part of this and involves having a wider variety of tasks to do. It should be noted however. iii. This means they can cover any absences and can quickly adapt to a new production technique. It can lead to greater flexibility of production.Job enlargement Job enlargement means simply giving workers more tasks to do of a similar nature or complexity. A business can create a number of different types of team.

This is the secret behind successful businesses. promotions. . they usually inspire employees through monetary rewards. In the corporate world. and good citizens of the country. People maybe inspired and motivated by both tangible and intangible things. As a result. and leaders understand the power of motivating their people to realize pre-set goals. their employees feel good about their job and feel that they are valuable members of the company. and praises. Studies show that people are more likely to climb up the corporate ladder or succeed in any venture when they are motivated and inspired. excellent academic records. These people care to do things right and deliver well. corporations. These two elements are proven to bring out the best in people.Benefits of motivation People perform at their best when they are inspired and motivated. Parents. teachers.

Personal relationships also need motivation and inspiration to last. People stay together because they have motivating factors in continuing their relationships (ex. . Inspire people with success stories. Example. People who would like to do a life-changing task or event also need inspiration and motivation. They can also get inspiring words from religious groups that will surely help to get them back on track. This will teach them how to get rid of negative thoughts and ultimately regain control of their lives. This happens only when they are motivated regularly. in order to attain happiness and confidence. Encouraging words from their loved ones and friends can make a whole difference in their lives. Motivate people by trusting them. companionship. iii) Changes can be easily brought in a firm if employees have complete faith on its firm. These kinds of people loose the ability to see the good side and resort to self-pity. Love.) In brief advantages of motivation can be as follows: i) It keeps the employee cheerful thus imparting delight on group by keeping them merry. When people are presented with potential advancement.The power of motivation and inspiration cannot be underestimated. obese people who are desperately in need of help to loose weight and get their lives on track. Trust people to do things right and expect more innovation. people desperately need motivation and inspiration when they are down. Many leaders use this tool to motivate people in driving for excellence that will take them to the next level of their employment. and ownership. ii) Each member of organization feels for the company and tries to gives his sincere effort in achieving new goals. People who are constantly depressed and simply cannot see the bright side of life must be inspired too. This will bring their focus back and will motivate them to contribute in order for the company to succeed. On personal issues. need somebody or something to fire up their desire in reducing their dress size. more initiative. Letting them know that their employment is secure saves them from worrying and feeling unsure about the organization. etc. they are more likely to work on it. appreciation. People are generally responsible and inspired when being told about projects instead of step-by-step procedures they have to follow strictly to complete the task. Here are some tips that can motivate and inspire people: People need motivation when they feel that they are about to lose their jobs because of the company’s instability.

Performance can be improved by motivation. vi) It raises self respect and raises discipline among employees. viii) It helps to avoid strikes and other such activity that hampers company’s production. v) Productivity is the outcome of performance.iv) Motivation gives job satisfaction. Limitations of motivation . vii) It helps to improve the interest and attitude of employees which is useful while training employee which require their complete attention and devotion. ix) It helps in making the efficient use of available human resources.

. The theories and approaches to motivation have a homogeneous view of individuals. Managers need to discover how motivation varies in different cultures. The recession reduces job mobility as workers stay on rather than take risk by changing job. ii. job type and differences in organizational structures. vi. It places the responsibility for actions on individuals rather than the context in which they find themselves. people’s motivation and attitude to work are influenced by age. They are restrictive and don’t consider the broader concerns influencing people in organizations. low productivity. There could be a high correlation between employment stability and dissatisfaction. Research has tended to focus on motivation of lower grade workers rather than management. vii.Limitations of Motivation are few in numbers. The models of motivation are narrow. These theories are unable to explain poor quality. sex. viii. income. iv. The meaning people attach to work varies considerably and may account for why individuals’ contributions to work vary enormously. let us analyze some of them: i. The reason for sharing these limitations is to make you aware of the different influences on motivation of individuals. v. However. and high absenteeism. iii.

Her teacher told her that she had made much progress. you do something because you want to do it — and not because you have to do it. If you have motivation. and this increased her motivation to keep on learning. The lazy man does not have the motivation to do what must be done. Examples of Intrinsic Motivation .Examples of motivation Some of the best examples of motivation are as follows: Your motivation to do something is the reason why you want to do it. The lazy learner needs a bit of motivation to help him get through the pain of learning. The need to communicate in English can be a good motivation for learning English pronunciation. My interest in medicine was my biggest motivation to study chemistry.

The writer who only writes poems to be submitted to poetry contests would be one example of extrinsic motivation. A third example of extrinsic motivation is selecting a major in college based on salary and prestige. Examples of Extrinsic Motivation There are many possible extrinsic motivation examples. rather than personal interest in the major. . The person who dislikes sales but accepts a sales position because he or she desires to earn an above average salary is another example of extrinsic motivation. and playing chess because you enjoy effortful thinking are some intrinsic motivation examples.Writing short stories because you really enjoy writing them. reading a nonfiction book because you are curious about the topic.

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