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Under the guidance of: MR. S.B VANJALE

AARTI KUMARI ROLL NO. 19 BTECH SEM VII (COMP II)

TOPICS

INTRODUCTION AND RELATED TERMS CLASSICAL CRYPTOGRAPHY QUBITS KEY DISTRIBUTION ALGORITHMS QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY FUTURE SCOPE CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION PROCESS OF ENCODING IS CRYPTOGRAPHY PROCESS OF DECODING INFORMATION IS CRYPTOANALYSIS CRYPTOGRAPHY + CRYPTOANALYSIS CRYPTOLOGY CRYPTO MEANS HIDDEN OR SECRET LOGY MEANS STUDY .

with Eve listening .WHATS THE USE OF CRYPTOGRAPHY Communication between Alice and Bob.

" would now be "olleH ym eman si ecilA.CLASSICAL CRYPTOGRAPHY CIPHERS MEANS CONCEALING A MESSAGE CLASSICAL CIPHER OPERATES ON AN ALPHABET OF LETTERS(A-Z) 1." . TYPES: SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS "WIKIPEDIA" encrypts as "ZLNLSHGLD“ TRANSPOSITION CIPHERS "Hello my name is Alice. 2.

.ONE TIME PAD EXAMPLE FOR ONE TIME PAD Letters and punctuation marks encoded by numbers from 0 to 29 Encryption and decryption example for the one-time pad.

.LIMITATIONS OF CLASSICAL CRYPTOGRAPHY First. the security of many classical cryptosystems is based on the hardness of problems such as integer factoring or the discrete logarithm problem. the theory of quantum computation has yielded new methods to tackle these mathematical problems in a much more efficient way. Second.

” INTRODUCED BY SCHRÖDINGER [1935]. THE SPIN OF AN ATOM OR THE POLARIZATION OF A LIGHT PARTICLE CAN REPRESENT THE STATE OF A QUBIT. .QUBITS BIT: MOST IMP. FOR Eg. UNIT THE TWO DIFFERENT STATES CAN BE REPRESENTED IN VARIOUS WAYS. EVEN A CAT WITH ITS TWO BASIC STATES “DEAD” AND “ALIVE. BY A SIMPLE SWITCH OR BY A CAPACITOR. EVERY QUANTUM SYSTEM WITH AT LEAST TWO STATES CAN SERVE AS A QUBIT.

. • The code will remain uncracked as long as the key used remains secret. • He makes this key public.KEY DISTRIBUTION There are only two widely used methods of employing keys: secret-key distribution and public-key distribution. SECRET KEY DISTRIBUTION : • Only one key is used by both bob and alice • The same key is used to both encode and decode the plaintext. The other key he keeps to himself. PUBLIC KEY DISTRIBUTION : • A user chooses two interrelated keys. • He lets anyone who wants to send him a message know how to encode it using one key.

The problem with public-key cryptology is that it's based on the staggering size of the numbers The chief problem with secret key cryptology is how the two users agree on what secret key to use.KEY DISTRIBUTION PROBLEM Both the secret-key and public-key methods of cryptology have unique flaws. . The problem with secret-key cryptology is that there's almost always a place for an unwanted third party to listen in and gain information.

PHOTON BECOME A KEY WITH THE HELP OF BINARY CODE. THEY CAN'T BE ACCURATELY MEASURED AGAIN. A SOURCE OF UNPOLARIZED LIGHT. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHERS USE LEDS. THE THING ABOUT PHOTONS IS THAT ONCE THEY'RE POLARIZED. EXCEPT BY A FILTER LIKE THE ONE THAT INITIALLY PRODUCED THEIR CURRENT SPIN. .KEY DISTRIBUTION IN QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY USES PHOTONS TO TRANSMIT A KEY. TO CREATE A PHOTON.

Example of key distribution .

When Alice sends Bob her photons using an LED. (/) or ( \) [source: Vittorio]. she'll randomly polarize them through either the X or the + filters. so that each polarized photon has one of four possible states: (|). (--). Their conversation may sound a little like this: Bob: Plus Alice: Correct Bob: Plus Alice: Incorrect Bob: X Alice: Correct .

ALGORITHMS 1. SYMMETRIC-KEY ALGORITHM: same keys • • 2. RC4 BLOWFISH ASYMMETRIC KEY ALGORITHM: different keys • • • • RSA ALGORITHM KNAPSACK ALGORITHM MD5 SHA .

SEND CT AS THE CIPHER TEXT TO THE RECEIVER.RSA ALGORITHM RIVEST. CALCULATE THE CIPHER TEXT CT FROM THE PLAIN TEXT PT AS: CT= PTE mod N. . SELECT THE PUBLIC KEY (ENCRYPTION KEY) E SUCH THAT IT IS NOT A FACTOR OF (P-1) AND (Q-1). 2. 7. SHAMIR AND ADLEMAN. 4. CALCULATE THE PLAIN TEXT PT FROM THE CIPHER TEXT CT AS FOLLOWS: PT= CTD mod N. 6.s P AND Q. CHOOSE 2 LARGE PRIME NO. FOR ENCRYPTION. STEPS: 1. 5. SELECT THE PRIVATE KEY (DECRYPTION KEY) D SUCH THAT THE FOLLOWING EQUATION IS TRUE: (D*E)MOD(P-1)*(Q-1) = 1. 3. CALCULATE N=P*Q. FOR DECRYPTION.

IF THE KNAPSACK IS 1. IS IT POSSIBLE TO PUT SOME OF THEM IN A BAG IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE BAG HAS A CERTAIN WEIGHT.12.14.20. e.KNAPSACK ALGORITHM DEVELOPED BY RALPH MERKLE AND MARTIN HELLMAN BASED ON KNAPSACK PROBLEM.g. THEN THE PLAIN TEXT AND THE RESULTING CIPHER TEXT WILL BE: PLAIN TEXT 0 1 1 0 1 1 KNAPSACK 1 7 8 12 14 20 CIPHER TEXT 7+8+14+20=49 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 7 8 12 14 20 1+7+8=16 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 7 8 12 14 20 7+12+14=33 .7. GIVEN A PILE OF ITEMS. EACH WITH DIFFERENT WEIGHTS.8.

not to transmit any message data. Quantum cryptographic devices typically employ individual photons of light and take advantage of either the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle or Quantum Entanglement. .QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY An important and unique property of quantum cryptography is the ability of the two communicating users to detect the presence of any third party trying to gain knowledge of the key. with the help of photons. Third party introduce some anomalies. Quantum cryptography is only used to produce and distribute a key.

are two types of photon's polarization. . certain pairs of physical properties are complementary in the sense that measuring one property necessarily disturbs the other. The two complementary properties that are often used in quantum cryptography.UNCERTAINITY The effect arises because in quantum theory. rectilinear (vertical and horizontal) and diagonal (at 45° and 135°).g. This statement is known as the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. e.

e. The entangled particles cannot be described by specifying the states of individual particles and they may together share information in a form which cannot be accessed in any experiment performed on either of the particles alone. . photons.ENTANGLEMENT It is a state of two or more quantum particles. in which many of their physical properties are strongly correlated.g.

BB84 PROTOCOL 1984: Bennett and Brassard Alice generates two random bits.a2 Alice prepares a qubit as follows: Bits States 00 01 10 11 Alice \ / + - a1 determines which basis a2 is an encoded bit in that basis then sends the qubit to Bob . a1.

they discard that round This protocol is repeated (4+delta)n times A1 B1 ? 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 x x . Bob measures in the (/ . Bob measures in the (+ .Bob receives the qubit Bob chooses a random bit b1 and measures the qubit as follows: if b1=0. -)basis obtaining a bit b2 Alice and Bob publicly compare a1 and b1 if they are the same (Bob measured in the same basis that Alice prepared) then a2=b2 if they disagree. \) basis if b1=1.

With high probability. Alice and Bob have 2n successes To check for Eve’s interference: • Alice chooses n bits randomly and informs Bob • Alice and Bob compare their results for these n bits • If more than an acceptable number disagree. they abort evidence of Eve’s tampering (or a noisy channel) Alice and Bob use the remaining n bits as a private key! .

DRAWBACKS Man in the middle attack Photon number splitting attack .

a major factor limiting the development of practical systems for widespread commercial use. The ultimate goal is to make QKD more reliable.FUTURE SCOPE Future developments will focus on faster photon detectors. integrate it with today's telecommunications infrastructure.7 km. achieved by Los Alamos/NIST using the BB84 . and increase the transmission distance and rate of key generation. As of March 2007 the longest distance over which quantum key distribution has been demonstrated using optic fibre is 148.

.CONCLUSION Quantum cryptography promises to revolutionize secure communication by providing security based on the fundamental laws of physics. The devices for implementing such methods exist and the performance of demonstration systems is being continuously improved.

Any queries ? .

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