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00826438 Problems of Power System Frequency and Active Power Control

# 00826438 Problems of Power System Frequency and Active Power Control

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03/18/2014

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# Problems of Power System Frequency and Active Power Control

N.Gurov Dr. Sc. Eng. nonmember 1.Andreevsky A.Vorzhev V.Chuvychin Ph.D student Professor, Dr.Hab.Sc.Eng. Ph.D student nonmember nonmember Senior Member, IEEE Department of Power and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical University control process to follow pre-set law for any parameters of the generator. Simulation results are presented in paper. To approve suggested regulation method the authors have done experimental investigation of hydrogenerator’s loading process at the Riga power plant using dynamic control law. Experiments proved possibility of practical implementation at different power stations. 111. FREQUENCY AND ACTIVE POWER CONTROL DURING EMERGENCY In modern power systems there is a big variety of emergency conditions with a wide range of dynamics. The misbalance of generation and load can cause an overload of intersystem tie, loss of its stability and as a result islanding in the power system. In a part of the system with surplus of generation frequency can go up. Especially it is dangerous in an island containing nuclear power plant with narrow allowed frequency operational range. After disconnection of nuclear station emergency process may have avalanche character. Existing automation is not adaptable to the variety of emergency situations in the power system. Authors suggested new effective method for frequency control in the power system during emergency situation. Measuring the initial and current values of frequency and rate-of-change of corresponding frequencies, determining point at the phase plane ( df/dt, f ) which determines the state of the system at considered moment, and knowing control law at the any instant, the final value of frequency can be determined. Thus, control system is adaptable to the situation. To prevent high frequency increase hydro generators should be disconnected from the system. Method proposes disconnection of generators one after another with control of frequency and rate-of-change of frequency. It allows to implement frequency control in effective manner without overshooting. IV. CONCLUSION 1. Frequency control problem is topical especially for the power systems having not uniform structure of generating units. 2. Quality of the frequency control in the power system is related to dynamics of power regulation by the power stations participating in control. Dynamics of regulation depends on dynamic properties of governors and all control system. 3. To avoid tie-line power oscillations governor’s parameters of regulating stations should be similar. 4. The authors expanded the phase plane method for a new frequency (active power) governor control. The method requires measuring both the frequency and the rate-of-change of frequency to estimate the system state at any given time. 5. To approve suggested regulation method the authors have done experimental investigation loading the generator using dynamic control law.

Abstract This paper illustrates the result of research done by authors in the area of frequency and active power control.
For interconnected power system besides of common frequency regulation there is a need to control tie-line load flows. . Control problem can be divided into two parts: control of normal and emergency conditions. The reasons of interconnection’s oscillations are considered as well as new method for regulation of frequency without oscillations. For efficient control the authors propose a method based on the use system phase plane. This method is efficient for control of normal and emergency situations in the power system. Results of simulations presented in the paper. Keywords: frequency control, governor, dynamic characteristics I. INTRODUCTION For interconnected utilities besides frequency control active power tie-line control was accomplished by comparing net actual interchange to net scheduled interchange. Problems became very actual with creation of the new power systems in the Eastern Europe. Frequency control problem is especially topical for the power systems, having not uniform structure of generating unit. In the power system with almost equal amount of hydro and steam type generation it is difficult to synchronize participation in frequency control for all units. Control problem can be divided into two parts: control of normal and emergency conditions. Existing control systems are designed to control precalculated normal and especially emergency situations and they are nod adaptive to the situation in utility. 11. PROBLEMS OF FREQUENCY AND ACTIVE POWER CONTROL FOR NONUNIFORM POWER SYSTEM Quality of the frequency control in the power system is related to dynamics of power regulation by the power stations participating in control. Dynamics of regulation depends on dynamic properties of governors and all control system. Specially selected electric power stations are contributing to interconnection frequency regulation. The distribution of the load among parts of a system influences electric power oscillation’s character along the tie-line. Especially large oscillations take place for dynamic control in pool with different types of generations stations. Paper consideres examples of dynamic load behaviour between two systems with prevailing hydropower structure. Analysis allowed authors to come to the following solution of frequency regulation problem. It is more effective to control frequency and active power using dynamic control law. For efficient control the authors propose a method based on the use of system phase plane. In this case at the any instant generator’s state may be described by the point at a phase plane with coordinates f and dfldt, or P and dP/dt. Let us assume the desired dynamic control law as a curve at a phase plane. This curve should be set in the memory of microprocessor-based governor which forces

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