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by Ashok R Parikh, Engineering Consultant
INTRODUCTION 1.1 In today's competitive market scenario, all types of industries are under tremendous pressure to cut down their maintenance costs, as they form a significant portion of the operation costs. The industries are forced to look for different types of maintenance of the electrical equipments rather than usual preventive maintenance being carried out at a fixed interval of time. 1.2 Over the past twenty years or so, the concept of maintenance has been assuming different dimensions and changing a lot, perhaps more so than any other management discipline. The changes are due to a huge increase in the number and variety of plant equipments in the industries, which must be properly maintained. The electrical equipments with much more complex designs require new maintenance techniques and changing views on maintenance organization and responsibilities. 1.3 Maintenance activities are also responding to changing expectations as follows. Rapidly growing awareness of the extent to which electrical equipment failure affects safety of plant and personnel and the environment. Growing awareness of the connection between maintenance and product quality. Increasing pressure to achieve high plant availability remaining cost-effective.
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1.4 The changes are testing attitudes and skills in all branches of industry to the limit. Maintenance people are required to adopt completely new ways of thinking and acting, as the plant engineers and as the plant managers. At the same time, the limitations of maintenance systems are becoming increasingly apparent, no matter how much they are computerized. 1.5 In the face of this avalanche of change, the industries are looking for a new approach to the maintenance to avoid the false starts and dead ends which always accompany major upheavals. Instead they seek a strategic framework which synthesizes the new developments into a coherent pattern, so that they can evaluate them sensibly and apply those likely to be of most value to them and their companies. Effort is made in this paper to discuss some aspects of new approach. 2.0 FAILURES OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS 2.1 Failure of any electrical equipment or rather any equipment should be taken up seriously. Detailed analysis of each failure should be carried out, which will help in significant reduction of repeated failures of same nature. It is true that in spite of carrying out regular maintenance, failure of the equipment cannot be totally eliminated. Failures of different types of electrical equipments are reported by all the industries and some of the failures are quite serious resulting in substantial production losses besides causing consequential damage to the adjoining equipment as well. 2.2 For example, when the equipments like surge arrestors operating at extra high voltage fail, they explode like a bomb many a times resulting in scattering of solid porcelain pieces to a larger distance causing damage to the adjoining equipment. Similar situation is also observed during incident of fire in electrical switchboards due to heavy short circuit. 2.3 Unless regular equipment maintenance is carried out adopting any of the maintenance systems discussed in succeeding points, unscheduled failure of the equipments would go on resulting into large scale production losses in the industries on one hand and would increase the cost of maintenance on the other hand, as the cost of breakdown maintenance is normally more than that of other types of maintenance.
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METHODS OF MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT 3.1 Different methods of maintenance management for the electrical equipments being followed by the industries are discussed briefly as follows. To understand Predictive and Condition Monitoring based Maintenance Management program, it is essential to overview the traditional management techniques. Industrial plants typically employ either of two methods of maintenance management – Breakdown Maintenance or Preventive Maintenance. 3.2 Breakdown Maintenance Management (BMM)
3.2.1 The heading itself implies simple and straightforward logic – “When a machine breaks down, fix it”. This is a reactive maintenance management technique that waits for machine or equipment failure before any maintenance action is taken; however, it is actually a “nomaintenance” approach of the management. No expenditure is made on maintenance until a machine or system fails to operate. 3.2.2 Few plants adopt a true run-to-failure management philosophy, as in almost all instances, the industries carry out basic preventive maintenance tasks such as lubrication, monitoring of operating parameters and other machine adjustments. In this type of maintenance, however, the electrical machines and other plant equipment are neither rebuilt, nor are any major repairs made until the machine fails to operate. 3.2.3 BMM is the most expensive method of maintenance management. The major costs associated with this type of maintenance management are as follows. 22.214.171.124 of machine High spare parts inventory cost OR high value due to replacement
In absence of anticipated periodic maintenance requirements, the industry that adopting BMM must be able to react immediately to all possible failures within the plant. This reactive method of management forces the maintenance department to maintain large spare parts inventories that may include spare machines or at least all major components for all the critical equipment in the plant. The alternative is to rely on the equipment vendors that can provide immediate delivery of required spare parts to repair the equipment. 126.96.36.199 High overtime labour costs
The equipment may breakdown at any damned hour of day or night and hence it may be necessary to retain additional manpower to carry out the maintenance and repairing within least possible time to bring the equipment back into service to reduce the production losses. The manpower retained beyond normal duty hours would be paid substantial cost towards overtime.
High equipment downtime and high cost of maintenance
This reactive method of maintenance results into rather high equipment downtime in most of the incidents of breakdown. Many times, all the spare parts required to set right the breakdown are not available and the vendor is approached to purchase the spares. Even if immediate delivery of required spares is affected, substantial time would always be lost before the equipment is repaired and put back into service. Moreover, the vendor would charge premiums for expedited delivery, which would substantially increase the costs of spare parts besides higher downtime required to correct machine failures. This happens due to the fact that it is not feasible to maintain all the spare parts for all the machines installed in the plant. 188.8.131.52 Loss of profit due to partial or total stoppage of production
This reactive maintenance may be appropriate for low value and non-critical equipments. For costly and critical equipments, it is not desirable to wait till the occurrence of breakdown, as the cost of breakdown is always more to the industries than the cost of preventive maintenance. The revenue loss due to non-availability of the system would be much more than the cost of the failed
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equipment. Therefore, it is more appropriate to identify the defect before failure to plan repair / replacement. Though, the equipment breakdowns cannot be avoided in totality, but incidents can be reduced to great extent with appropriate type of maintenance. 3.3 Preventive Maintenance Management (PMM)
3.3.1 An appropriate definition of preventive maintenance management is that when the maintenance program for the electrical equipment is time-driven, or in other words, the maintenance tasks are based on elapsed time or hours of operation, it is known as preventive maintenance. 3.3.2 Most of the industries follow the practice of PMM of electrical equipments and systems. As already discussed in foregoing point 2.2.1, the industries, though following BMM philosophy, do carry out basic preventive maintenance tasks such as lubrication, monitoring of operating parameters and other machine adjustments. In this type of maintenance, the equipments are inspected at a pre-determined period. 3.3.3 PMM program assumes that the equipments will degrade within a time frame typical of their particular classification. For example, LT motor will normally run for 12 months before it is required to be subjected to the preventive maintenance. The motor would be taken out of service upon completion of 12 months, even though it is working satisfactorily. The motor would be dismantled and various parts would be thoroughly inspected for any mark of damage under the preventive management techniques. The problem with this approach is that the mode of operation and system or plant-specific variables directly affects the normal operating life of machinery. The estimated mean-time-between-failures is not the same for a motor performing continuous duty at nearby uniform load and one that is performing continuous duty at varying load. 3.3.4 Obviously, PMM as per schedule may result into either unnecessary repairs or catastrophic failure. In the given example, the motor may not need to be dismantled and maintained after 12 months. Expenditure made for the labour and material to carry out the maintenance was wasted. The option of BMM is even costlier. If the motor fails before 12 months, it must be repaired using BMM techniques. 3.3.5 The frequency of inspection is determined based on the guidance provided by the manufacturer of the equipment in O&M Manual and one’s own experience. PMM program requires shut-down of the electrical equipment to be maintained for specific time duration. Maintenance procedure, periodicity of maintenance and formats for maintaining the records for various types of equipments is required to be devised referring to various relevant documents. 3.4 Predictive Maintenance Management (PDM)
3.4.1 The concept of “Predictive Maintenance Management (PDM)” is not new. PDM program is the maintenance program drawn out for the electrical equipments based on regular monitoring of the actual physical condition, operating parameters, operating efficiency and other indicators. Predictive maintenance is a condition-driven preventive maintenance program. 3.4.2 The common premise of PDM is that the data gathered by regular monitoring is technically analysed. Based on analysis, maximum time interval, which could be kept between repairs, would be predicted so as to minimize number and cost of unscheduled outages due to machine failures as well as reduce uncalled for scheduled outages for preventive maintenance and the cost thereof. 3.4.3 The concept of PDM was evolved in order to overcome numerous difficulties experienced by the industries while implementing BMM and PMM programs as discussed briefly in foregoing points. Besides overcoming technical problems, the maintenance practice was required to be made highly cost effective without jeopardizing the equipment performance, so as to remain most competitive in the market. 3.4.4 In fact, PDM can be considered as further extension of PMM program. Monitoring of operating parameters in critical high value equipments has been carried out since long. For
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example, monitoring of oil and winding temperatures in the transformers has been a normal practice under PMM program. Under PDM program, in case of abnormal trend of temperatures, the maintenance group would estimate when to take shutdown for necessary maintenance to remove the problem and inform the production group probable date. The transformer would be attended accordingly so as to avoid major breakdown. If breakdown takes place in between, the repairing job would be carried out under BMM. 3.4.5 Similarly, critical machines such as turbines and generators are always provided with highly reliable control and instrumentation system to continuously monitor operating parameters such as vibrations, speed, voltage, current, winding temperature, exciter circuits, etc. to assess the condition of such rotating machines. 3.4.6 However, the condition monitoring systems considered as a part of PDM have their own limitations in the sense that they are unable to monitor few other vital operating parameters like internal core temperatures, hot spots on windings, condition of insulating oil, etc. It is necessary to open the machine and inspect to find out probable damage inside. In case of transformer, the oil samples are drawn out periodically and got tested at recognised laboratory for number of tests to assess the condition of oil. 3.4.7 The short-comings of PMM and PDM programs have led the plant engineers to carry out further research to upgrade the systems to reduce various short-comings by further optimisation and make it cost-effective. The improved system has been named as “Condition Monitoring based Maintenance Management” so as to differentiate with predictive maintenance. 3.5 Condition Monitoring based Maintenance Management (CDM)
3.5.1 As discussed elsewhere, condition monitoring based maintenance management (CDM) is further evolution of preventive and predictive maintenance management. CDM program comprises of methods which attempt to “predict” or diagnose problems in the electrical equipments based on analysis of findings, which is more or less similar to the method adopted under PDM. Predictions are usually based on the trending of parameters and test results. 3.5.2 CDM adds two enormously important dimensions to PDM as follows. CDM deals with the entire system as an entity. A major shift from the piecemeal methodologies of PDM can be seen in this holistic approach to maintenance. The system can still be implemented “one step at a time,” and it realizes its greatest potential when applied consistently and evenly across the entire range of system maintenance concepts. Another added dimension in CDM program is the concept of ignoring or extending maintenance intervals. Evaluation and trending techniques under predictive maintenance have been used historically to confirm maintenance decisions which were taken previously based on the expert opinions. While CDM system may often find defects under development not otherwise identifiable, as seen from Figure.1. One may feel apparently that CDM does little toward reducing the cost of preventive maintenance, as CDM program may actually increase the maintenance costs marginally for some installations due to additional analysis. But it is not so as discussed elsewhere in the paper. Consider the following simple example.
An insulation test is performed on a 220 kV substation bus. The one (1) minute test result of 6/1996, corrected for temperature, is 5,225 Meg-ohms. The minimum value of 5,000 Meg-ohms is acceptable as per applicable Indian Standards. The initial evaluation might be to accept the equipment and continue to keep in service. Reviewing Figure 1 further, however, would undoubtedly lead one to a totally different conclusion.
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Figure.1 - Insulation Resistance Trending Chart The trend of IR values over a period of time clearly shows a serious deterioration of bus insulation level. The last two readings, taken six months apart, show a drop from approximately 10,500 Meg-ohms to 5,225 Meg-ohms. This clearly shows that the failure may take place any time. Assuming continuance of this trend, the insulation resistance of this bus bar is likely to reach zero within next one year. This simple example clearly establishes the value of plotting the trend and, by extension, the value of applying condition monitoring techniques to the test results. 3.5.4 As discussed above, this technique is implemented to assess the condition of almost all the parts of the equipment. The condition of the equipment is assessed based on monitoring of various operating parameters and by conducting different condition monitoring tests. The operating parameters are monitored generally on-line, whereas, some of the condition monitoring tests are performed on on-line and some are performed on off-line. Based on the evaluation of operating parameters and/or test results and plotting their trend, the decision is taken as to when the maintenance of that equipment should be taken up. However, this type of maintenance would need sophisticated testing equipments and skills for analyzing the test results. 4.0 DECISION FOR CONDITION MONITORING BASED MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENTS 4.1 It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the development of performance and dependability models for analysis, assessment and justification of CDM program. The scope is kept limited to some basic issues that should be taken into consideration while deciding to develop CDM strategy for the industry. The impact of any maintenance initiatives, including condition monitoring, should be predictable and measurable, and indeed somewhere around the performance and dependability of the operating unit. 4.2 Among the most sensible measures of performance is the production rate or throughput of the plant. However, in performance and dependability analysis, the "random" nature of failures should not be forgotten. Also the industry should remember that condition monitoring systems, especially fully integrated technologies, themselves, are susceptible to faults and failures and require due care (maintenance). 4.3 Various factors influencing the decision to implement CDM
4.3.1 Various factors for efficient and effective planning of CDM program are projected in the drawing format for ease of understanding in Figure.2.
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CRITICALITY OF EQUIPMENT FOR SUSTANING PRODUCTION
COST OF NEW EQUIPMENT V/S CDM COST
First and foremost requirement is to know how critical the production process is and also how critical the electrical equipment participating in the process is for sustaining the process irrespective of its rating.
FACTORS FOR CONSIDERATION OF CONDITIO MONITORING BASED Criticality of equipment for sustaining production MAINTENANCE M ANAGEMENT
The equipment criticality is generally decided based on following
EQUIPMENT AVAIALBILITY OF DUTY STANDBY REDUNDANCY CYCLE Certain key electrical equipments participating in the process with no standby are to be
Common plant utilities such as captive power generator, motor driven cooling water pumps, incoming grid power supply system, etc. and safety systems, failure of which may have consequential effect on entire plant or large area are falling under the definition of most critical equipments or systems.
considered as next to most critical items. iii. The electrical equipments or systems causing most impact on morale and productivity are falling under the category of critical equipments, but not the most critical one. iv. Lowest criticality is to be considered for the electrical equipments or systems which are used sparingly or may cause little effect on the plant output.
For example, the power transformer installed for receiving the grid power supply and for transforming it to usable voltage level is the most critical equipment to maintain continuous power supply to sustain the production. The failure of this transformer would result into total stoppage of critical process due to loss of power supply to entire plant. It is therefore essential to consider this transformer for condition monitoring mechanism irrespective of its rating. The cost of CDM system would be negligible in comparison to financial losses due to unscheduled stoppage of production. Had CDM is installed, in all probability an indication of developing fault would be available well in advance to initiate necessary action to attend the problem in a quick but planned manner. 4.3.3 Cost of electrical equipment downtime
Even if the cost of electrical equipment may not be significant, but its failure may be causing total stoppage of critical process, that specific equipment is required to be considered for CDM irrespective of its rating. If the process is taking longer time duration to restart and achieve capacity level, then the small equipment is all the more important to cover
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under CDM. There would be number of small size motors playing vital role to sustain the process stream and failure of one may disturb entire process. 4.3.4 Effect of outage on environment and surroundings
In many industries, the effect of unscheduled stoppage of process would be catastrophic on environment or surroundings due rapid change in operating parameters like increase of vessel pressure/temperature, release of hazardous or poisonous substance from the stopped process, etc. due to loss of controls. For example, petroleum refining and petrochemical industries are susceptible to such incidents. Such process or systems are essentially required to be considered for implementation of CDM. 4.3.5 Cost of new equipment v/s. cost of CDM
In some of the processes, the cost of new spare equipment, kept for immediate replacement, may be significantly lower than that of CDM system. In case replacement of failed equipment is time consuming or restart of process is found taking more time, then such equipment or system may be considered for covering under CDM. 4.3.6 Equipment duty cycle
As far as feasible, the critical electrical equipment running round the clock nearer to its rated capacity may be considered for implementing CDM, as monitoring of parameters of running equipment supplements the efforts of plant engineers to get advance knowledge of oncoming problem and take corrective action without causing adverse impact on the ongoing production or reducing the production losses to great extent. 4.3.7 Availability of standby (redundancy)
Many industries adopt philosophy of installing number of standby electrical equipments as a measure of caution. Even the source of standby power supply is also well maintained and power supply is made available within few seconds to meet emergency situation. In such cases, a thoughtful decision may be taken by the plant engineer depending on other factors discussed in above points. 5.0 IMPLEMENTATION OF CDM PROGRAM 5.1 After deciding to go for the implementation of CDM based on evaluation of various factors discussed in foregoing points and other factors, if any, as per the company policy, it is discussed hereunder how the industry can practically introduce CDM program without causing much disturbance to the plant and personnel. 5.2 It is needless to mention that the implementation of CDM would be difficult in the working plant than in the plant under construction. Though the factors discussed in Point.4 should necessarily be considered to support the decision to introduce CDM program in the new plant, it would be easy to accommodate in the new equipment or system. The cost of CDM would not be difficult to incur, as it would be included in the overall capital investment for the project. 5.3 In the plant already working, major hurdles against acceptance of CDM program would be generally as follows. i. First major hurdle in most of the working industries is the capital investment proposed to be made for CDM program irrespective of amount of investment involved. ii. It may not be technically possible to carry out modification in the equipment or system to incorporate add-ons required for condition monitoring. iii. No management would like to stop the ongoing production as far as possible, which may be necessary to introduce CDM program, even when the time duration of stoppage is marginal. iv. The shop floor people may resist the introduction of new system assuming that it would increase their work load.
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v. Management would be aware about failure of equipments, problems experienced and their nature, process stoppages on this account, etc. and may not agree to implement CDM program based on the data gathered so far. 5.4 On-line OR off-line CDM
5.4.1 Once the decision is taken to implement CDM, it is essential to further decide whether to go for on-line or off-line condition monitoring system or combination of both modes depending on various issues discussed. 5.4.2 As already discussed in brief elsewhere in the paper, practice of on-line as well as off-line condition monitoring has been adopted as a part of preventive maintenance and predictive maintenance in some of the critical electrical equipments. 5.4.3 Power transformers, power generators and large sized HV motors are well known examples of on-line monitoring system. CDM systems used on these equipments have been providing useful data of operating parameters for assessing the condition of the equipments, though some vital parts of the equipments have not been covered under CDM due to limitations of technology available at that time. Whatever data generated from operating parameters was hardly analysed to assess the condition of equipment. 5.4.4 The examples of off-line condition monitoring system are measurement of insulation resistance values for transformers, motors, cables, etc., testing of insulating oil, winding DC resistance measurement in motors and transformers, etc., which are carried out at fixed interval of six/twelve months under preventive or predictive maintenance programs. In most of the cases, the data so generated was not used to plot the trend and further assess the condition of electrical equipments. Necessary corrective action would be initiated in the event of observation of abnormal data, or otherwise the data would remain written in some register. 5.4.5 The industries started taking major interest in so-called “on-line” monitoring system since last 15 years of so. The concept of CDM, quite correctly, is based on the belief that if electrical equipment can be evaluated through on-line system, and yet still remain in service, the overall cost of maintenance will definitely go down. Consider the example of transformer oil. In order to analyse the condition of insulating oil, the sample is to be taken and send to laboratory for off-line analysis. It may take few days to get the report for complete assessment of condition of oil. If, in some way, the condition of the transformer oil could be evaluated while still in service, significant savings in the cost of analysis and cost of maintenance would be realised. 5.4.6 Considering example of possibility of on-line monitoring of condition of the transformer oil, such practice would make enormous sense in many situations for many kinds of electrical equipments. Generators, for example, can be readily monitored based on a number of available parameters, including the following: Stator voltage, current, and phase angle Exciter current and voltage Temperatures at strategic points in winding Cooling air/water temperature, cooling water pressure or cooling gas density Bearing vibrations Noise measurement Lubricating oil pressure and temperature
5.4.7 Other electrical equipment such as SF6/vacuum circuit breakers, protective relays, small motors, etc. are not as readily accessible using on-line techniques to monitor some vital parameters. Through diagnostic oil tests, the condition of transformers may be evaluated while on-line; however, a complete transformer evaluation would require involvement of parameters such as insulation resistance and/or polarization index readings, winding resistance, insulation power factor, etc. which can be generated only through off-line testing. 5.4.8 Ultimately, the decision to use on-line measurements, off-line measurements, or both will be based on an overall evaluation of economics and system availability.
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Preliminary preparation phase for CDM in the working industry
5.5.1 In case of new industry, it would be easy to implement CDM as apart of respective equipment or system itself after evaluating various factors discussed in Point.4. The new industry may also take into account various technical and financial aspects of CDM discussed in this paper. 5.5.2 Considering the difficulties in introducing CDM in the working plant as discussed in Point.5.3, it is appropriate to discuss issues relevant to incorporation of CDM program in the working plant. 5.5.3 One of the very attractive aspects of CDM is the fact that it can be implemented in a relatively inexpensive, step-by-step approach without much difficulty. Because CBM is based on the equipment oriented concepts of PDM, it can be applied gradually — one system at a time. Eventually the entire power system is included in the program and cost savings would begin to multiply thereafter. 5.5.4 Whenever any major revision in the maintenance management is made, it is essential to include review the safety procedures relevant to that specific electrical equipment or system for consequences of CDM. 5.5.5 Data Collection and Storage Procedures
The major difference between PMM/PDM and modern CDM is the use of maintenance data collected. In the past, maintenance data obtained at fixed interval under the maintenance program was reviewed and filed in most of the industries. Hardly any attention was paid to comparison of data or plotting of trend of results obtained.
As described in this paper, trend plotting and statistical analysis are the fundamental building blocks of CDM. Comparison of absolute values, and perhaps more importantly, comparing data deviations via statistical analysis provide information never before available. Obviously, a statistically relevant database is required to be maintained for getting advantages of CDM.
As mentioned, many industries have at least maintained good records of operating data, maintenance data and test results over the years for the equipments and systems. This data is to be converted to a computerized database, which one may find time consuming, but simple.
The table structure for database should be as general as possible and it can be developed as per suitability of the maintenance organization created in the industry. The structure should allow create database for various types of electrical equipment as well as incorporate future modifications. Each maintenance and testing result record should be correctly dated to allow identifying the specific test interval. 184.108.40.206 Along with maintenance database, it is necessary to develop the equipment database. If desired, the equipment database may be linked to the master maintenance database. It may also be incorporated in the master maintenance database; however, more flexibility is realized if they are kept separate. 5.5.6 Equipment failure and outage information
A compilation of equipment’s unscheduled outage data is a must to help assessment of risk of failure under CDM program. This information may include such data items as type of outage, cause of failure, outage duration (with dates), work carried out in brief, spares used (if any), cost incurred and other such data.
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Outage information can be used to prioritize the implementation sequence of the CDM program. Obviously, the equipment or system with a high failure rate and/or a high value to the production should be enrolled in the program first.
Preliminary budget and plan
The final and most important step of preliminary preparation is the estimation of preliminary plan and a budget for implementing CDM program. It may be noted that as the plan for implementing CDM would be preliminary, one should expect modifications as the actual program implementation begins and consequently the actual cost may also revise. For example, the equipment such as low and medium voltage circuit breakers are not as readily predicted as the transformers, the concept of detailed statistical analysis may be dropped in favor of a less rigorous approach. 5.6 Practical implementation phase of CDM program in the working industry
5.6.1 Once preliminary strategy and budget costing for the proposed program is approved, the database and other information gathered in preliminary phase will be put to work as an active Condition Monitoring Based Maintenance Management Program. 5.6.2 Development of detailed evaluation criteria and methods
Based on the database gathered in preliminary phase, the maintenance management team should decide the statistical evaluation techniques to be used as an analytical tool and control strategies. The exact nature of strategies, to be used, may become known with passage of time. If desired, the services of qualified and experienced CDM consultant can be engaged to assist the selection and implementation of appropriate strategies. 5.6.3 Finalisation of recommended maintenance procedures and intervals
Initial source of normal maintenance and trouble shooting is the O&M Manual supplied by the equipment manufacturer. As the details provided in the manual would be general, the maintenance procedures can be added as needed based on the opinions and observations of the engineers and skilled technicians. The ambient environmental conditions are also extremely important in the overall evaluation. 5.6.4 CDM Report Formats
Since long, the printed formats or handwritten registers have been around in almost all the industries to record the maintenance work carried out and test results. The major limitation of printed formats is the need for modification and manual transfer of handwritten data into the various computer databases.
With the advent of computers, specifically laptops, the data for all the activities can be directly entered into the computer at the site of maintenance. The information can then be downloaded into the main maintenance PC and/or a company local area network. 220.127.116.11 As another option, if the testing equipment has in-built memory to store the test results, the data so stored may be transferred into the maintenance PC from the test equipment. This approach is especially effective when the test is actually performed under computer control. 6.0 OPTIMIZING CDM PROGRAM 6.1 Large numbers of industries have sincerely implemented CDM programs, however all the industries have not been able to generate measurable benefits. Technology limitation is not the
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principle cause of these failures, but it is their failure to make the necessary changes in the workplace that would permit maximum utilization of these predictive tools. 6.2 Some of the proactive steps, which can eliminate these restrictions, are narrated hereunder to help gain maximum benefits from CDM program.
Organisation culture change
6.3.1 There is a perception in the minds of corporate-level managers that CDM technologies are exclusively a maintenance management or breakdown prevention tool, which must be drastically changed at the corporate level and permeate throughout the plant organisation. Though sound simple, it is daunting task to change this corporate attitude toward perception of CDM, as most of the corporate-level managers have rather limited or no knowledge or understanding of maintenance—or even the need for maintenance—convincing them that a broader use of CDM technologies is extremely difficult. In their view, the maintenance group is solely responsible for the breakdowns and unscheduled delays. They cannot understand that most of these failures are the result of issues not related to maintenance. 6.3.2 If the data regarding equipment reliability in various industries are judiciously reviewed, the maintenance relevant production interruptions and quality problems would be found to the tune of around 15 – 20%. Remaining 80 – 85% problems would be found totally out of purview of the traditional maintenance function’s responsibility. Other non-maintenance causes are incorrect design of equipment/system, inappropriate operating practices, sub-standard spare parts and numbers of other non-maintenance causes are the major contributors to production and productquality problems, not maintenance. 6.3.3 CDM program should be used as a plant or process optimization tool to detect, isolate, and provide solutions for the deviations from desired performance, which may result in lost capacity, poor product quality, increased costs, or a threat to employee safety. 6.3.4 CDM program has the capability to perform this critical role, but that is simply not being used to optimum. To accomplish this task either of following approaches can be considered.
The first approach would be to select engineers having knowledge of one or more of these requirements. For example, the group might consist of the best operations, maintenance, and technical personnel available from the current workforce. Care must be taken to ensure that each group member has some real knowledge of his specialty area. This group may be made accountable for total plant optimisation. This group must have the authority to cross all functional boundaries and to implement changes under CDM to correct the problems observed with analysis. 18.104.22.168 The second approach is to hire services of professional reliability consultants. This approach may be found easier at first glance, but not so because there are very few qualified and experienced reliability professionals available at very high cost. Most of these professionals would prefer to offer their services as short-term consultants. Hence, extreme caution is required to be exercised in selecting the consultant. 6.3.5 This new group must have a thorough knowledge of machine and process design, and be able to implement best practices in both operation and maintenance of all critical production systems in the plant. In addition, they must fully understand procurement and plant engineering methods that would provide best life-cycle cost for these systems. Finally, the group must understand the proper use of CDM program. Few plants have existing employees who have knowledge of these fundamental requirements. 6.3.6 After formation of new team, necessary training for the reliability team must be the first priority. The team member having maximum knowledge and skills to carry out the assigned function may impart training especially regarding application of CDM based on concept of reliability. Sufficient training is a must to ensure maximum return on the investment made for the
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new team and system. This training should focus on process or operating dynamics for each of the critical production systems in the plant. 6.3.7 All the plants have few superstars who do not have a real, in-depth knowledge of their perceived specialty. In other words, the best operator may in fact be the worst contributor to reliability or performance problems. Although he may get more capacity through the unit than anyone else, the practices followed by him may be the root-cause of chronic problems experienced in the plant. 6.3.8 As the suggested approach is a radical departure from the traditional organisation culture found in most industries, the resistance would be met to change from all levels of the organisation. With few exceptional employees who understand the absolute need for a change for betterment of plant, most of the workforce would not voluntarily accept this new functional group; however, the formation of a dedicated group of professionals that is absolutely and solely responsible for reliability function and production optimisation of total plant operation is essential. It is the only way any industry can achieve and sustain optimum performance. 6.4 Proper Use of Predictive Technologies
6.4.1 System components, such as circuit breakers, transformers, cables and so on, are an integral part of the electrical system and must operate within their design parameters before the system can meet its designed performance levels. The question would arise, why then, do most CDM programs treat these components as isolated machines and not as part of an integrated system? Instead of evaluating a transformer or circuit breaker as part of the total system, most CDM analysts limit the use to simple diagnostics of the condition of that individual component. As a result, no effort is made to determine the influence of system variables, like load, speed, voltage, product, or instability on the individual component. These variations are generally effect of process equipment variables and hence are often the root-cause of the observed problem in these components. Unless process variables are considered, it would not be possible to determine the true root-cause of problem. Instead, the recommendations would be made to correct the symptom (e.g., damaged bearing, misalignment), rather than the real problem. 6.4.2 The converse is also true. When diagnostics under CDM are limited to individual components, the system problems cannot be detected, isolated, and resolved. The system, not the individual components of that system, generates capacity, revenue, and profit for the plant. Therefore, the system must be the primary focus of analysis under CDM along with individual component. 6.4.3 When one thinks of predictive maintenance, current (load), voltage, HV testing, insulation measurement, oil analysis, etc. is the normal vision. These are powerful tools of CDM, but they cannot throw light on the plant problems. Used individually or in combination, these cornerstones of CDM technologies cannot meet all the diagnostics requirements to achieve and sustain optimum plant performance levels. To gain maximum benefit from CDM program, the following changes are needed: Process parameters, such as pressures, flow rates, retention time, temperatures, and others, are absolute requirements in all CDM and process optimization programs. These parameters define the operating parameters of the process and are essential requirements for system operation. In many cases, these data are readily available. 7.0 PRO & CONS OF CDM PORGRAM 7.1 Advantages of all the technologies are always accompanied with disadvantages like all the coins have two sides. After discussing basic aspects of CDM program, the advantages and disadvantages of CDM mechanism are discussed briefly hereunder. 7.2 Advantages Maintenance can be performed when it is actually required and not based on elapsed time basis as done under preventive maintenance program. Increases equipment availability time as decision for preventive maintenance is based analysis of data generated by condition monitoring, creating optimum production revenue
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and profit due to increasing equipment and/or system availability time by avoiding unnecessary preventive maintenance shutdowns. Standardizes procedures, times, and sizeable maintenance costs. Minimizes parts inventory as the spare parts are procured based on knowledge of developing problem through CDM. Cuts overtime due to reduction in unanticipated breakdown maintenance and actual breakdown/preventive maintenance planned based on condition monitoring, Balances workload by appropriately prioritising the maintenance depending on analysis of data available through CDM and schedules optimum utilisation of resources on hand by prioritising the work of maintenance. Reduces need for standby equipment due to increase in reliability of equipment and system reducing probabilities of unanticipated breakdowns. Improves safety and pollution control as system as a whole is attacked along with individual system equipment. Stimulates action based on advance planning instead of reaction based action in breakdown maintenance. Assures consistent quality, as CDM observes system along with equipment and analysis of observations, readings, test data, etc. is carried out to find out root cause as far as possible. Promotes benefit/cost optimization. Disadvantages Exposes equipment to possible damage as sometime the judgement of anticipated problem based on analysis of CDM data may prove wrong and the equipment may got damaged prior to planned day of maintenance. Moreover, the equipment is taken up for maintenance based on indication of developing problem only. Failures in new parts, as the observations for new parts are sparingly made anticipating no deterioration of condition in near future. Sometime uses more spare parts due to inadvertent breakage of some parts during dismantling of equipment for maintenance and replacement of some internal parts found in bad shape upon dismantling based on further analysis under CDM. Increases initial costs due to incorporation of additional instruments/tools for CDM. Requires more frequent access to equipment to monitor depending on observance of some anticipated problem through CDM. Time of repair and duration for repair cannot be same for two identical equipments, as no two identical equipments would show exactly the same time to failure due to various factors such as variations in material, manufacturing, installation, operation and skill of maintenance applied by personnel, etc.
CDM IS MORE THAN MAINTENANCE 8.1 At present, CDM is mostly used as a maintenance management tool to prevent unscheduled downtime and/or catastrophic failures. Although this function is definitely important, CDM program can provide substantially more benefits by expanding its mission. 8.2 CDM program’s focus should be on using it as a maintenance and production optimisation tool; on eliminating unnecessary downtime - both scheduled and unscheduled; eliminating unnecessary preventive and corrective maintenance tasks; extending the useful life of critical systems; reducing the total life-cycle cost of these systems; on using it as plant production optimisation tool.
CONCLUSION 9.1 In the present competitive environment, all the industries are making efforts to reduce the operation and maintenance (O&M) expenditure. Maintenance costs are a major part of the total operating costs of all manufacturing or production plants. One of the biggest factors to reduce
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O&M cost is to minimize the plant outage duration due to failure of equipments or for unnecessary maintenance. Implementation of condition monitoring based maintenance (CDM) is the need of the hour, as it greatly supplements the efforts to cut down O&M costs as construed from the discussion provide din the paper.
9.2 CDM is much more than maintenance task. It is the means of improving productivity, product quality, and overall effectiveness of manufacturing and production plants. CDM is not simply vibration monitoring or thermal imaging or transformer oil analysis or any of the other nondestructive testing techniques that are being marketed as predictive maintenance tools. Effective CDM program can save significant maintenance costs, which is otherwise wasted as the result of unnecessary or improperly carried out maintenance. 9.3 The result of ineffective maintenance management represents a loss. Perhaps more important is the fact that ineffective maintenance management significantly affects the ability to manufacture quality products that are competitive in the world market. The losses of production time and product quality can result from poor or inadequate maintenance. However, there could be other causes as well for the loss of production and effect on the quality of product. 9.4 Until recently, the general opinion has been “Maintenance is a necessary evil” or “Nothing can be done to reduce the maintenance costs.” Perhaps these statements were true 10 - 15 years ago, but the development of microprocessor based instrumentation that can be used to monitor the operating condition of equipment, machinery, and systems has provided the means to manage the maintenance operation. This instrumentation has provided the means to reduce or eliminate unnecessary repairs, prevent catastrophic machine failures, and reduce the negative impact of the maintenance operation on the profitability of manufacturing and production plants.
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