2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

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Agroforestry systems and food security among smallholder farmers of the Brazilian Amazon: A strategy for environmental global crisis1
Abreu, L.S. de2 , Watanabe, M. A.3 Key words: Food security, agrobiodiversity, small farmers, deforestation, ethical values

Abstract
The Amazon is known for its environmental importance for the climatic equilibrium, for its abundance and richness in biodiversity and its preservation is important to reduce global heating. Nevertheless, little research has analysed the possible positive role of the local farm population for environmental conservation. The paper investigates the possibility to conciliate the environmental conservation with the small farming expansion in the Amazon, to build agrobiodiversity, and at the same time improve food security. This social practice consequently would contribute to the reduction of deforestation and could thus falsify the old diagnosis of incriminating the poor farmers for forest and soil destruction. The study was conducted by the Associação de Produtores Alternativos, localized in territory of Ouro Preto d’ Oeste, Rondônia, in the Southwest of the Amazon. The study documented a number of forest preservation and agroecological methods used and concludes that institutional support to strengthening of social organization and local sustainable development projects is fundamental for the consolidation and amplification of the ecological experiences in the Amazon.

1. This article is an integrant part of a research project results named “Percepções e representações sociais do meio ambiente e das práticas agroambientais em pólos pioneiros do Proambiente da Amazônia”, which belongs to Embrapa – Brazilian Agricultural Research Enterprise. 2. Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Caixa Postal 69, 13820-000 Jaguariúna, SP, Brazil. E-mail: lucimar@cnpma.embrapa.br 3. As above

Effects of a feeding strategy to increase intramuscular fat content of pork under the conditions of organic farming
Abel, S.,1 Weissensteiner, R.,2 Marien, C.1, Zollitsch2, Sundrum, A.1 Key words: feeding strategy, pork quality, intramuscular fat, on-farm research

Abstract
Eating quality of pork is to a high degree influenced by the intramuscular fat (IMF) content. In previous studies under standardized conditions the feeding strategy was identified as a main source of variation for the IMF content in pork. In this study the effect of the implementation of a specific feeding strategy using a high portion of home-grown grain legumes on the IMF content of pork, was assessed under different conditions on German and Austrian farms. Results showed that IMF content ranged on a comparably high level of about 2.2 %. In contradiction to previous results under standardized conditions the factor feeding had no significant influence on the IMF. The feeding effect was overlapped by heterogeneous conditions on the different farms. IMF content showed greater variation between the farms than between groups within each farm.

1. Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and Animal Health, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, abel@mail.wiz.uni-kassel.de, www.uni-kassel.de/agrar/tiereg 2. Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Division of Livestock Sciences, 1180 Wien, Austria, roswitha.weissensteiner@boku.ac.at, www.nas.boku.ac.at

Potential of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) as Fertilizer in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis L Jacq.) Nurseries
AdeOluwa, O. O.1 and Adeoye G. O. Key words: organic agriculture, oil palm seedlings, empty fruit bunch, cow dung, fertilizer

Abstract
Oil palm is one of the major oil crops in the world. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) could serve as an alternative and cheaper organic fertilizer in oil palm farms. This study investigated the value of composts of different forms of EFB for raising oil palm in the nursery. The experiment, which covered the pre-nursery (< 3 months) and nursery stages (3-13 months) used different EFB: cow dung ratios (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40) as compost as well as cow dung only and mineral fertilizer (NPKMg 12-12-17-2). The composts were added to the soil at the rate of 4.8 g N /plant. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Data were collected on dry weight, nutrient concentrations, and soil pH changes. Oil palm seedlings under the application of unsoaked oil palm EFB and cow dung (60:40) were significantly (p< 0.05) higher in dry weight (18.0 g / plant) than those from the mineral fertilizer and control treatments (15.7 and 10.5 g / plant respectively ) in the nursery stage. Composts of unsoaked EFB and cow dung (ratio 60:40) was more suitable for raising oil palm seedlings in the nursery than other treatments used.

1. Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Corresponding author, Email: adeoluwaoo@yahoo.com

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Biological profitability of maize inoculation with selected rhizosphere micro organisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Glomus intraradices) under Water Deficit Stress
Aghaalikhani M.1 and Ehteshami S.M.R 2 Key Words: Maize, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Glomus intraradices, Phosphorus, Water Deficit Stress

Abstract
This research focused on evaluating the usefulness of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices) and a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens) to maize growth under water deficit stress. Field experiment was conducted at Soil and water research institute, Karaj Station, Iran, during 2006 growing season. Biological positive effects of the micro organisms on plant growth, nutrient uptake, grain yield and yield components in maize plants was recorded in the treatment receiving mixed inoculums of G. intraradices and P. fluorescens. Maize shoot P content, grain yield, yield components, harvest index, grain N and P, soil available P, root colonization percentage and water use efficiency increased significantly with the G. intraradices inoculation and P. fluorescens, alone or in combination under water deficit stress. The highest profitability was observed in the combined treatment of inoculation with G. intraradices and P. fluorescens, which synergistically increased plant growth compared with other treatments.

1. Assistant Professor of Crop Ecophysiology, Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, P. O. Box: 14115-336, Tehran, Iran (maghaalikhani@modares. ac.ir) 2. Assistant Professor of Crop Ecophysiology, Gilan University, Iran

Prolonged suckling period in organic piglet production – effects on selected immunological parameters
Ahrens, F.1, Pollmüller, T.2, Sünkel, Y.3, Bussemas, R.4, Weissmann, F.5 & Erhard, M. H.6 Key words: Organic piglet production, prolonged suckling period, weaning age, immune system

Abstract
During weaning, piglets are under strain from the loss of their dam, the change in feed, and a new microbiological environment. How much this strain influences the piglets depends mostly on their immune system. Piglets from organic production are weaned later (at least 40 days) than piglets from conventional rearing, but the performance and health status of organic piglets are often not satisfying. Therefore, it was the aim to investigate whether a prolonged suckling period of 63 days results in better immune status of piglets than with weaning at day 42. To answer that question we vaccinated piglets at different times with a “known” (by vaccination of dam) and an “unknown” antigen and analysed the plasma for immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and the antigen-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. Two farrowing cycles of 36 sows were recorded. Time of vaccination did not influence IgG concentration. In contrast, early weaned piglets showed a higher IgG concentration on day 49 than late weaned piglets. During the first farrowing cycle a significant immune response against both antigens was present in piglets vaccinated on day 42. Such a response was not found in piglets vaccinated on day 63 and in piglets of the second farrowing cycle. In conclusion, the results did not show an improved immune status of piglets undergoing a suckling period of 63 days.

1. Chair of Animal Welfare, Ethology, Animal Hygiene, and Animal Housing, Department of Veterinary Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Schwere-Reiter-Str. 9, 80637 Munich, Germany, E-Mail f.ahrens@lmu.de 2. As Above 3. As Above 4. Institute of Organic Farming, Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Trenthorst, 23847 Westerau, Germany 5. As Above 6. Chair of Animal Welfare, Ethology, Animal Hygiene, and Animal Housing, Department of Veterinary Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Schwere-Reiter-Str. 9, 80637 Munich, Germany

2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

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Options for improving soil fertility in the southern part of the Republic of Bénin: Where does Mucuna find its niche?
Akouègnon, G-E.1, Hoffmann, V.2 & Schultze-Kraft, R.3 Key words: legume adoption, soil fertility, ethno-economics, local knowledge, Bénin

Abstract
Empirical evidence has shown that small-scale farmers can use a non-food, green manure legume as soil-fertilising technology only if it provides immediate benefits other than soil fertility improvement. In the southern part of the Republic of Bénin, however, subsistence-oriented farmers chose Mucuna pruriens exclusively for soil fertility. In this they had the opportunity to select dual-purpose grain legumes for both soil fertility and food without season loss. The rationale behind this apparently irrational choice lies in the differentiated and economically sound land allocation to Mucuna and grain legumes.

1. Universität Hohenheim, Department of Agricultural Communication and Extension, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. E-Mail: guyerick@uni-hohenheim.de 2. As above. E-Mail: vohoff@uni-hohenheim.de 3. International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, E-mail: r.schultzekraft@cgiar.org

Consumers’ Awareness, Demands and Preferences for Organic Vegetables: A Survey Study in Shiraz, Iran
Alizadeh, A.1, Javanmardi, J.2, Abdollazadeh, N.3 & Liaghat, Z.4 Key words: organic vegetables, awareness, demand, preference

Abstract
Some Iranian vegetable producers use a lot of chemicals, but not in a safe way or at the optimum level. There are several reports about chemical residues in vegetables that have serious side effects on human health and the environment in that country. On other hand, many Iranian farmers traditionally use organic production practices, but organic cultivation in Iran is not in accordance with international regulations. Since vegetables are the most important category of organic products, and since the future of organic agriculture will largely depend on consumer demand, a survey of 470 respondents was performed in Shiraz regarding their level of awareness about organic vegetables, their tendency to consume of organic vegetables, the effect of proper appearance of vegetables on the tendency to purchase organic vegetables and the importance of the organic label and certification of organic vegetables. Results showed that about half of the respondents have knowledge of organic vegetables and that their tendency to consume organic vegetable is very high. The results also showed that proper appearance does not effect the tendency to purchase organic vegetables, and that almost all consumers prefer to purchase organic vegetables labelled as certfied. It is suggested that organic vegetable production be introduced and supported by the Iranian government

1. 2. 3. 4.

Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Email: ali.alizade57@gmail.com Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Email: jmljvn@yahoo.com Agricultural Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Email: negar_ab@yahoo.com Eram Gol Company, #2, 14th Ave. Eram St., Shiraz, Iran. Email : za19781@yahoo.com

A comparison of energy use in organic and conventional agriculture in Spain
Alonso, A. M.1, González, R., Foraster, L., Guzmán, G.I. & García, R. Key words: Organic Farming, Ecological Agriculture, Agroecology, Sustainable Agriculture, Energy Efficiency.

Abstract
The current situation of worldwide concern over the emission of greenhouse gases and its effect on the climate demands an evaluation, from the perspective of energy efficiency and more specifically of non-renewable energy sources, of tendencies for change in the management of agricultural systems that have arisen in recent years. This article uses energy balances to evaluate the contribution of organic agriculture to the increase in the energy efficiency of Spanish agriculture. The results show the higher nonrenewable energy efficiency (NREE) and the lower use of nonrenewable energy (NRE) in organic systems compared with conventional ones. Nevertheless, agricultural systems in general could still improve their energy efficiency.

1. Research and Training Centre for Organic Farming and Rural Development (CIFAED), Camino del Jau s/n, Apdo. 113, 18320 Santa Fe (Granada, Spain), E-Mail: Alonso@cifaed.es, Internet: www.cifaed.es

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Testing and scaling-up agroecologically based organic conservation tillage systems for family farmers in southern Brazil
Altieri, M.A.1, Lovato, P.M. 2, Lana, M.2 and Bittencourt H.2 Key words: agroecology, cover crops, weed suppression

Abstract
In southern Brazil several small farmers developed an innovative organic conservation tillage system (OCT) that does not depend on herbicides for weed control but relies instead on the use of cover crop mixtures (including various combinations of rye, vetch and raphanus) that leave a thick residue mulch layer on which traditional grain crops are directly planted, suffering very little weed interference during the growing season and reaching agronomically acceptable yield levels. Our research showed that the rye, fodder radish and vetch mixture effectively suppressed emergence of summer annual weeds in OCT systems. Because of the allelopathic effect of phytotoxins associated with the cover crops residues, farmers avoid toxic effects by placing crop seeds below the toxic layer (allelopathic zone) formed by the phytotoxins leached a short distance (5-10cm) from the mulch into the soil. In addition to weed suppression, residues also have positive effects on subsequent crops from increased soil quality parameters, improved crop nutrition, and in some cases suppression of soil-borne pathogens. Yields in most cases are 5-10% lower in OCT systems when compared to CT systems, but such differences are easily offset by the lower costs of production and the environmental benefits of OCT systems. In our trials the combination of grass and legumes enhanced biomass production and therefore mulch thickness, weed suppression, and organic matter inputs.

1. 137 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA Email: agroeco3@nature.berkeley.edu 2. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brasil. Email:plovato@mbox1.ufsc.br

Biogas and Organic Farming: Empirical evidence on production structure and economics in Germany
Anspach, V.1 & Möller, D.2 Key words: economics, energy, biogas plants, modelling, internal benefits

Abstract
Biogas production has an increasing importance on organic farms in Germany. Biogas plants have the possibility to produce energy, soil fertility and positive returns on capital. Yet previously no studies on the structure, economic outcomes and internal benefits of biogas production on organic farms existed. Therefore in 2006 and 2007 an empirical study, designed as a census, has been carried out to investigate these questions. Based on the empirical study a simulation model was built to analyse the economic potential. The highest economic potential, particularly if organic food and energy production are to be accomplished, was found for biogas plants which are mainly residual-based and on a farm scale size. The construction of small but also low priced biogas plants for organic farms will be a challenge.

1. University of Kassel, Faculty of Organic Agriculture Sciences, Department of Farm Management, Steinstraße 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail: V.Anspach@uni-kassel.de, Internet: www.uni-kassel.de/agrar/bwl 2. As Above, E-Mail: D.Moeller@uni-kassel.de

The effect of Avena sterilis L. invasion on weed abundance and diversity in conventional and organic cereal fields in the Mediterranean region
Armengot, L., José María, L., Chamorro, L., Romero, A. & Sans, F.X.1 Key words: Avena sterilis, invasion, diversity, cropping system, weeds

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyse the growth of the native invader weed Avena sterilis L. (wild oat) and its invasion effect on weed community abundance and diversity in relation to cropping system (organic vs. conventional) in dryland cereal fields under Mediterranean conditions. To achieve this, a comparative experimental design involving one conventional and one nearby organic field was used. Our results show that the effect of A. sterilis invasion on resident weeds and cereal biomass depended on the cropping system. Species richness and diversity of weed community were more negatively affected by the invasion in the conventional field, whereas cereal biomass was drastically reduced in the organic field. The cropping system did not affect the invasive ability of A. sterilis, but the higher A. sterilis biomass recorded in the conventional field suggests strong potential long-term invasions in this system.

1. Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona. Avda. Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona. E-mail larmengot@ub.edu

2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

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Soil fumigation with Allium sulfur volatiles and Allium by-products
Arnault, I.1, Vey, F. 2, Fleurance, C.3, Nabil, H.4, Auger, J.5 Key words: biofumigation, Allium spp., by-products

Abstract
Like Brassicaeae spp., Allium spp.have biofumigation properties attributed to sulfur components, mainly three disulfides: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dipropyl disulfide (DPDS); and diallyl disulfide (DADS), with an efficacy superior to that of DMDS. In this study, the biofumigant activity of Allium (onion and leek) by-products was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the experimental model consisted of a host-pathogen system: cucumber-Pythium ultimum. The results of the bioassay show that cucumber plants in compost inoculated with the pathogen and containing onion or leek by-products show better vegetative growth than the control. In vivo, soil biodisinfection with onion by-products in asparagus leads to a yield intermediate between the untreated soil and the methyl bromide treatment. Another aim of the present study was to get more data about the nematicidal activity of disulfides. The activity of DMDS and DADS was evaluated on two nematode species.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

CRITT INNOPHYT, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France, Email innophyt@univ-tours.fr LNPV UFPS, 93 rue de Curembourg, 45404 Fleury Les Aubrais, France SELT, le Riou, 41 250 Tour en Sologne IRD, UMR 134 BIOSOL32, Avenue H. Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex, France CRITT INNOPHYT, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France, Email innophyt@univ-tours.fr

The EU health claims regulation and its impact on the marketing of organic food
Aschemann, J.1, Maroschek, N.1 and Hamm U.1 Key words: health claims, consumer behaviour, marketing, communication strategy

Abstract
The so-called EU health claims regulation changes the legal framework for all health-related statements on food and in advertising. As health reasons are a major motive for purchasing organic food, organic market actors have to consider the opportunities and threats posed by the new regulation. This contribution discusses the relationship between the organic attribute and the health claim attribute on the basis of a literature review and expert interviews. We argued that there is no scientific basis for depicting organic products as ‘healthy as such’. The use of health claims for and on organic food can be problematic as well as promotive. Whether health claims are favourable or not depends, among other things, on product characteristics, the target consumer group and the future use of claims on competing conventional products.

1. Department of Agricultural and Food Marketing, University of Kassel, Steinstr. 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany. j.aschemann@uni-kassel.de

Information Acquisition Behaviour of Fair-Trade Coffee Consumers: a Survey by Means of an Information Display Matrix
Aschemann, J.1 and Hamm, U.1 Key words: Market research, marketing, information acquisition behaviour

Abstract
Fair-trade has grown into a noteworthy market segment. As a result, an increasing number of market players have emerged, each trying to communicate their own focal point in criteria and standards. However, the relative relevance of different criteria for the consumer remains unclear. This study explores the assessment of criteria in the choice of the most important fair-trade product, coffee, by tracing the information acquisition behaviour using an Information Display Matrix method. Special focus is given to organic production. Results serve as recommendations for those involved in the development of the organic fair-trade market.

1. Department of Agricultural and Food Marketing, University of Kassel, Steinstr. 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany. j.aschemann@uni-kassel.de

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Legume catch crops for reducing N leaching and substituting animal manure
Askegaard, M.1, Eriksen, J.2 Key words: soil fertility, catch crop species, residual effect.

Abstract
Organic cereal production on coarse sandy soil is a challenge because of low soil fertility and a general limitation on the use of animal manure. The possible exclusion of conventional animal manure in organic crop production increases the challenge further. Two factorial experiments were carried out aiming at investigating the potential of legume catch crops with respect to residual effects and effects on N leaching. Legume catch crops were compared with non-legume catch crops in systems with spring barley as the main crop each year. Grain yields were determined and N leaching losses measured by means of installed ceramic suction cups. The legume catch crops, especially white clover and red clover, showed large residual effects in succeeding spring barley, and clover was efficient in reducing N leaching losses. A clover catch crop had the potential to replace animal manure but attention should be paid to the risk for poor growth in soil recently cropped to clover.

1. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agroecology and Environment, Research centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, E-Mail margrethe.askegaard@agrsci.dk 2. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agroecology and Environment, Research centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, E-Mail jorgen.eriksen@agrsci.dk

Quality of organic feedstuffs grown in Trenthorst (Germany) – evaluated by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Aulrich, K. & Böhm, H.1 Key words: feed quality, NIRS, chemical constituents, energy

Abstract
In the present study we address the development of a rapid technique –NIRS– for the evaluation of organically produced feedstuffs in Trenthorst (Germany). The exclusive use of organically produced animal feedstuffs is fixed in the EU-VO 2092/91 for the year 2011. The differences of the contents of crude nutrients between the data of conventionally and organically analysed feedstuffs, as well as the possible differences of the contents from year to year, point out that a satisfying calculation of feed rations needs an exact knowledge of the chemical constituents of the feed components used. Therefore, well-defined material from field trials of the experimental station of the Institute of Organic Farming in Trenthorst of the years 2002-2005 was used for the determination of the contents of crude nutrients and energy in different grain legumes and cereals. All samples were analysed by classical chemical methods and also scanned by NIRS. Predictions of crude protein, crude ash, ether extract, starch, sugar and energy contents for pigs and dairy cattle showed satisfactory accuracy. The correlation coefficients for crude protein, ether extract and starch were 0.98, respectively. Standard error of prediction was below 0.1 MJ ME (pig) kg-1 DM and below 0.08 MJ NEL kg-1 DM. The prediction accuracy for crude fiber, fiber fractions and AMEN was poor. The prediction accuracy should be improved during further growing seasons.

1. Institute of Organic Farming, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Trenthorst 32, 23847 Westerau, Germany, E-Mail karen.aulrich@vti.bund.de, Internet www.vti.bund.de

The Comparative Energy Efficiency of Organic Farming
Azeez, G.S.E. & Hewlett, K.L.1 Key words: organic farming, energy, climate change, agriculture, food

Abstract
Organic farming is generally a more energy efficient system of food production. Comparative analyses of fifteen crop and livestock sectors indicate that UK organic farming uses around 26% less energy per tonne of output on average. The main energy saving is from the non-use of industrially produced inorganic nitrogen fertiliser. Organic farming is more energy efficient for wheat, most field vegetables, milk, red meat and pigs, but it is less efficient for poultry production.

1. Soil Association, South Plaza, Marlborough Street, Bristol, BS7 8AP, UK, Email khewlett@soilassociation.org, Internet www.soilassociation.org

2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

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Elemental Contaminants in Fertilizers and Soil Amendments Used in Organic Production
Baker, B.1 and Tracy, D.2 Key words: fertilizers, soil amendments, elemental contaminants.

Abstract
Elemental contaminants in fertilizers pose a threat to human health and the environment. Organic agriculture can take measures to protect the public and the environment from the long-term effects of these contaminants, also known as heavy metals. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) were identified as the top priority metals that need attention. Fertilizers and soil amendments used in organic production were randomly selected, and the laboratory results for the levels of As, Cd, and Pb compared against six different standards based on different models. Organic farmers are advised to avoid using fertilizers that may degrade the average levels found in soils in the United States. Standard-setting bodies are advised to prohibit the use of fertilizers and soil amendments that have As, Cd, and Pb that will result in the accumulation of those elements in the soil when applied at average loading rates on an annual basis.

1. Organic Materials Review Institute, PO Box 11558, Eugene, OR 97440, USA, E-Mail bb@omri.org, Internet www.omri.org 2. Antech Analytical Laboratories, 501 N.E. Thompson Mill Rd., Corbett, OR 97019, USA. E-mail antech@cascadeaccess.com

Plant Products as Biopesticides: Building On Traditional Knowledge Of Vrkshayurveda: Traditional Indian Plant Science
Balasubramanian, A. V.1, Arumugasamy, S.1, Vijayalakshmi, K. 1 & Subhashini, S.1 Key words: Biopesticides, traditional knowledge, sustainable agriculture, vrkshayurveda

Abstract
Today there is a global search for alternatives to chemical pesticides and as part of this process there are various efforts to test the use and efficacy of natural products for pest control and crop protection. Our Centre has been involved in exploring the traditional knowledge regarding the use of natural products for pest control and crop protection. As part of this effort, we have looked at the traditional folk practices prevalent among farmers as well as information from classical literature on the subject drawn from Vrkshayurveda (traditional Indian plant science). Following this, we have carried out experiments for standardizing and field testing promising natural products by determining the precise range and kind of pests controlled by them, determining the optimum concentration where they can be effective against pests without being harmful to useful organisms and predators as well as studying their mode of action. Subsequently, we have also developed storage forms of various of these products by using methods based on Ayurveda. Studies on the stability and shelf life of these products are also being carried out through an insect rearing laboratory. Finally, we have also set up village based biopesticides units where a range of these products are being prepared thus providing valuable inputs to sustainable agriculture and a means of livelihood to rural women and farmers.

1. Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems, 30, Gandhi Mandapam Road, Kotturpuram, Chennai – 600 085. India. E-mail: info@ciks.org, Internet: www.ciks.org

Biological control of kiwifruit and tomato bacterial pathogens
Balestra, G. M.1, Rossetti, A.2 & Quattrucci, A.3 Key words: natural extracts, organic agriculture, Ficus carica, Allium sativum.

Abstract
Biocontrol of bacterial pathogens is effected by using cupric salts associate to appropriate agronomical practices such as seed certification, irrigation and fertilization. In in vitro and in in vivo tests, aqueous extracts from Allium sativum and Ficus carica fruits reduce the survival and the damages (disease incidence and disease severity) caused by bacterial pathogens of kiwifruit (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Pseudomonas viridiflava) and of tomato (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) plants. In vitro tests, both vegetal extracts show antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains utilised at different concentrations (106 – 108 cfu ml-1). In vivo tests Allium sativum and Ficus carica extracts confirm their antimicrobial activity on P. s. pv. tomato reducing DI and DS after two weeks until to 60% and 67% and to 32% and 22%, respectively.

1. Dipartimento di Protezione delle Piante, Università degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis 01100 Viterbo, Italy, E-Mail: balestra@unitus.i 2. As Above 3. As Above

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

The effect of medium term feeding with organic, low input and conventional diet on selected immune parameters in rat
Baranska, A.1, Rembialkowska, E.2 , Lueck, L.3 & Leifert, C.3 Key words: Organic, conventional, low input food, food quality and safety, immune system, rat

Abstract
There is currently limited evidence for differences in nutritional value and ‘healthiness’ between organic and conventional foods. While organic standards aim at minimizing antibiotic and/or pesticide residues they have been described as a potential source of high mycotoxin levels, and bacterial diseases or parasites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rat feeds based on the organic, low input and conventional crops on the rats’ immune system function. Preliminary results obtained indicate a potential immunomodulatory effect of ‘low input’ foods that is not observed in rats fed conventional and organic diets.

1. Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland, E-mail anba@biol.uw.edu.pl, Internet www.biol.uw.edu.pl/zfz 2. Organic Foodstuffs Division, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland, E-mail: ewa_rembialkowska@sggw.pl 3. Nafferton Ecological Farming Group (NEFG) University of Newcastle, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield, NE43 7XD, United Kingdom

Protein quality and content of nitrite, nitrate and metals in commercial samples of organic and conventional cold meats
Barbieri, G., Macchiavelli, L. & Rivaldi, P. Key words: organic cold meat, protein, additives, heavy metals

Abstract
Twenty-six organic and conventional samples of cold meats were analysed and compared with respect to: meat protein quality, nitrite, nitrate and metal content to verify if organic products have any health advantage that may be attractive to consumers. Proteins quality was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D EF). Nitrite and nitrate content were measured by the Griess reaction. Metals were detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Electrophoretic data show differences in the quality of water-soluble proteins in uncooked products, in contrast to thermal treatment results, which revealed no differences between the organic and conventional products, although it is difficult to interpret these data. Metal analyses show significantly higher levels of Fe, Zn, Ca, Se, and Cu in organic meat. There was no significant difference detected in nitrite content, while nitrate was lower in organic compared to conventional salami. These results suggest that cooked organic meat products do not have any nutritional advantage over conventional ones, and that only seasoned products preserve the original quality of organic meat.

Increasing Cultivar Diversity of Processing Tomato under Large Scale Organic Production in California
Barrios Masias, F.1 & Jackson, L.2 Key words: cultivar mixtures, plasticity, interaction, cover crop

Abstract
At an organic farm in California, higher plant diversity was hypothesized to enhance ecosystem functions and services. Plant diversity was manipulated temporally and spatially: mustard cover crop vs. no cover crop (fallow) in winter, and mixtures with one (farmer’s best choice), three, or five processing tomato cultivars in summer. Soil N, soil microbial biomass, crop nutrient uptake, canopy light interception, disease, GHG emissions and biomass were measured. Results show that the mustard cover crop reduced soil nitrate (NO3-) in winter and also during the tomato crop, which was associated with decreased growth and canopy development. All cultivar mixtures had fairly similar yield and shoot biomass. The ‘choice cultivar’ (i.e. farmer’s best choice) showed plasticity depending on the mixture, tending to have higher biomass production in mixtures. This study shows the complexity of cultivar-mixture interactions. To achieve the greatest benefit for ecosystem functions in organic farming, mixtures require greater understanding of cultivar plasticity and phenological and physiological trait diversity.

1. Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA, E-Mail fbarrios@ucdavis.edu 2. As above, E-Mail lejackson@ucdavis.edu, Internet http://groups.ucanr.org/jacksonlab/

2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

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Dry cow therapy in an organic dairy herd of a milk and a dual purpose breed
Barth, K.1 Key words: mastitis, dry cow therapy, monitoring udder health

Abstract
According to the EU-Regulation for organic farming breeds chosen for the organic production should have the capacity to adapt to the local conditions to reduce the risk of diseases. The study compared the udder health status and the necessity of application of dry cow therapy (DCT) on cows of a dual purpose and a milk breed (Red and White Holsteins vs. Holstein-Friesian) kept under the same management conditions. Data records of one and a half year and 49 cows were analysed. 132 of 203 udder quarters were treated with an antibiotic at drying off. The treated quarters had significant higher readings for electrical conductivity, California Mastitis Test and the somatic cell count during lactation than the untreated group. Red and White Holstein cows received significantly more often a DCT than Holstein-Friesian cows. Thus, the results of our study do not support the presumption that older breeds are more robust against diseases and therefore fit better into organic dairy farming. Discussions about this topic should consider that the term “local condition” includes not only the climate but also the management conditions of the organic dairy farm.

1. Institute of Organic Farming, Johann Heinrich von Thunen-Institute - Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Trenthorst 32, 23847 Westerau, Germany, E-Mail kerstin.barth@vti.bund.de

Plant-probiotic microorganisms for a sustainable buffer of input reduction in organic and low-input tomato production systems
Baruffa, E.1, Picard, C.1,2, Sabbioni, F.3, Petrozza, A.4, Giovannetti, G.2, Bosco, M.1 Key words: organic tomato; input reduction; plant-probiotic microorganisms; sustainable production; farmer participation

Abstract
A consortium of plant-probiotic microorganisms is under investigation in open field conditions at the ICEA-certified Organic Farm “La Carioncella”, for its ability to ensure durable soil fertility while buffering a reduction in nutritional inputs. The primary objective of our three-year QLIF-WP333 project is to produce scientific data to help farmers in managing soil probiotics as a way to reduce inputs and production costs while maintaining the eeping quality and sustainability of organic and low-input tomato production systems.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy, E-Mail marco.bosco@unibo.it ; Internet: www.dista.unibo.it/person/bosco(e).php Centro Colture Sperimentali Valle d’Aosta s.r.l., 11020 Quart, Italy La Carioncella, ICEA-certified Organic Farm, 44012 Bondeno, Italy Metapontum Agrobios s.r.l., 75010 Metaponto, Italy

Improvement of winter wheat baking quality in ecological cultivation by enlargement of row spacing and undersown intercrops
Becker, K.1 and Leithold, G.1 Key words: organic farming, winter wheat, row spacing, baking quality, undersown intercrops

Abstract
Under ecological crop growing conditions, considerable problems consistently arise in fulfilling the baking quality of winter wheat demanded by consumers. The “wide row” procedure shows promising potential for effectively using the nutrient supply in ecological cultivation for the production of winter wheat with high baking performance. Increasing the distance between rows of winter wheat from 12.5 cm to 50 cm proved advantageous for the indirect quality parameters sedimentation value and gluten and crude protein concentration. Either no yield decreases or low decreases only up to 10% were noted. Because of an increased tendency to erode and in order to improve of the preceding crop’s value, creation of a green zone with legumes between the rows is necessary. To prevent competition between cover and catch crops, mulching of catch crops is required.

1. Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Professorship of Organic Farming, Karl-Gloeckner-Str. 21 c, 35394 Giessen, Germany, e-mail: konstantin.becker@agrar.uni-giessen.de

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Influence of organic farming on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal populations in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem.
Bedini, S.1, Cristani, C.2, Avio, L.3, Sbrana, C.4, Turrini, A.5 & Giovannetti, M.6 Key words: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, glomalin-related soil protein, spore population, biodiversity, organic farming.

Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are key components of the soil microbiota, fundamental for soil fertility, plant nutrition and functioning of agroecosystems. Data on the interactions between organic practices and AMF populations are limited and inconsistent. Here we compared AM fungal communities and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) content occurring in a recently converted organically farmed soil with those occurring in a conventionally managed soil. The results show that the two farming systems did not significantly differ in AM fungal spore populations and glomalinrelated soil protein. We hypothesize that in our experimental system, which was converted from conventional to organic farming only recently (5 years), there may not have been enough time to allow the establishment of differentiated AM fungal populations.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Dipartimento di Biologia delle Piante Agrarie, Università di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy As Above Istituto di Biologia e Biotecnologia Agraria, C.N.R., Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy As Above Dipartimento di Biologia delle Piante Agrarie, Università di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy As Above, E-Mail mgiova@agr.unipi.it, Internet www.agr.unipi.it/dbpa/giovannetti

Effects of reduced tillage on soil organic carbon and microbial activity in a clayey soil
Berner, A.1, Fließbach, A.1, Nietlispach, B.1 and Mäder, P.1 Key words: soil fertility; cultivation; soil organic matter; crop farming; reduced tillage

Abstract
In a long-term field trial recently launched (2002-2011), located in Frick (878 mm mean annual precipitation) near Basle, Switzerland, the effect of reduced tillage on soil fertility indicators and crop yield was studied in a heavy soil (45% clay) in a crop rotation under organic farming conditions. We present the results of soil analyses after three cropping years (2002-2005). Soil organic carbon (Corg) increased over that period by 7.4% (+1.5 g Corg kg-1 soil) in the 0-10 cm soil layer in the reduced tillage plots, while it remained constant in the ploughed plots. Soil microbial carbon (Cmic) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA, TTC-reduction) were 28% higher in reduced-tillage plots in this soil layer. Biological soil quality as calculated by Cmic to Corg was 15% enhanced under reduced tillage. In the 10-20 cm soil layer no significant Corg, Cmic, Cmic to Corg and DHA differences between the tillage schemes were found. It is suggested that reduced tillage improves important indicators of soil fertility during the conversion period. Long-term aspects of soil fertility, crop yield and weed infestation need investigation over a prolonged experimental period.

1. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland, E-Mail alfred.berner@fibl.org Internet www.fibl.org

The Potential Role of Organic Soil Fertility Management in the Kenya Highlands
Bett, K.E.1, Freyer, B.2 and Leonhartsberger, P.3 Key words: soil fertility, Kenya highlands, smallholders, legumes, organic farming

Abstract
Soil fertility degradation still remains the single most important constraint to food production in the Kenyan Highlands. It is estimated that 64% of the population resides in the highlands, with population densities in some areas of over 1000 persons/km2. Use of inorganic fertilisers on smallholdings in the Kenya Highlands has been steadily declining since the 1960s, when heavy promotion and subsidization of fertilisers coincided with the release of improved maize varieties and the creation of co-operatives such as the Kenya Grain Growers Co-operative Union. Currently, their use continues to be constrained by their high cost, the low purchasing power of smallholders, and limited access to credit facilities. Farm sizes are getting smaller, and this promotes continuous cropping with limited scope for crop rotation and inadequate soil fertility replenishment. Soil fertility improvement can be achieved through organic farming techniques such as biomass transfer, re-activation of the ‘N bulge’, and phosphorus scavenging. Legume intercropping with maize – Kenya’s staple food – as well as the implementation of short rain legume fallows are known to enhance maize yields in most cases.

1. University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Institute of Organic Farming, Austria). Email: kiprotiche@gmail.com 2. As above 3. As above

2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

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Effect of two Oat–legumes intercrop systems on weed flora under Mediterranean conditions
Bilalis, D.1, Konstantas, A.2, Efthimiadou A.3, Papatheohari Y.4 & Kakampouki I.5 Key words: intercropping, maize- legumes, LAI, weeds, PAR

Abstract
The experiments were conducted in Greece in 2002 and 2003. The objective of this research was to investigate i) the effect of intercrop system on weeds and ii) if each intercrop system (oat-pea or cereal legume) is going to affect the weed control differently. The light penetration within the canopy measured during the first experiment (2002), was decreased up to 90%, due to the increase of the companion crops’ leaf area. In both years the decrease of the available light to the weeds, has led to the reduction of the weed dry matter, in comparison to the pure stands. Finally the oat-bean intercrop system gave better results than oat-peas system. As a result we can say that the intercrop system constitutes a new approach to weed control for low input agriculture under Mediterranean conditions.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Agriculture University of Athens, Dept. of Crop Science, Iera Odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece, E-Mail bilalis@aua.gr, Internet http://www.aua.gr As above (E-Mail konar@aua.gr) As above (E-Mail efthimiadis@aua.gr) As above (E-Mail papatheohari@aua.gr) DIO Certification Body, Aristotelous 38, 104 33 Athens, Greece, E-Mail i.kakampouki@dionet.gr, Internet http://www.dionet.gr

Effects of shading on root and shoot development of melon (Cucubrita pepo) transplants in conventional and organic float system nurseries
Bilalis, D.1, Kanatas,P.2 & Konstantas, A.3 Key words: organic float system, conventional float system, shade, melon transplants.

Abstract
Float system is a common technique of tobacco and vegetables transplant production. We evaluated the shade effect on the roots and shoots development for two float systems surgeries (CV:conventional and ORG:organic) on melon transplants. The shade had differently influenced the development of the roots and shoots of the two float systems surgeries. Roots fresh weight and surface was significant higher under shade for organic transplants and significant lower under shade for conventional transplants. Hence, shoots fresh weight and surface was significant higher under shade for organic as well as conventional transplants. Because of the described differences in roots development, the transplants which were produced in the organic float system nursery had better quality under shade in contrast to those produced in conventional float system nursery which had better quality under light. The quality of transplants is related to their behaviour during the transplanting process, their resistance to the transplanting stress and their survival in the field.

1. Agriculture University of Athens, Dept. of Crop Science, Iera Odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece, E-Mail bilalis@aua.gr, Internet http://www.aua.gr 2. As above (E-mail pakanatas@yahoo.gr) 3. As above (E-Mail konar@aua.gr)

Toward Regionalized Models of Organic Food Production and Marketing in the US: The Case of Michigan (USA)
Bingen, J.1, Martinez, L.2 & Conner, D.3 Key words: midwest organic model, organic marketing portfolios, small-scale organic family farm, fresh produce wholesalers and brokers

Abstract
This paper outlines some of the key features of a Midwest organic model that could provide the foundation for a regionalized organic strategy in the US. Based on the results of several recent and on-going studies of organic fruit and vegetable production and marketing in Michigan, the paper looks specifically at the profile of Midwest organic farming, the diversified marketing strategies and portfolios of Midwest organic farmers, and the challenges and opportunities identified by wholesalers and brokers for sourcing organic produce from small family farms. Two approaches to assure the viability of the Midwest organic model are introduced.

1. Dept. of Community, Agriculture, Recreation & Resource Studies, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1222 USA 2. As Above 3. C.S. Mott Group for Sustainable Agriculture, Dept. of Community, Agriculture, Recreation & Resources Studies, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1222 USA

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Amaranth farming: Rural sustainable livelihood of the future?
Bjarklev, A., Kjær, T. and Kjærgård, B.1 Key words: Poverty, amaranth, sustainable livelihoods, value chain.

Abstract
Though amaranth has been studied intensively for its exceptional nutritional properties, little has been reported about its capacity for fighting poverty, securing food supplies, turning migrations, or its impact on the environment and the prospect for improvement of living conditions of those farmers cultivating amaranth. This paper addresses possibilities and limitations that Mexican small-scale farmers are facing to enhance sustainable livelihoods in the amaranth value chain. The study reveals that amaranth, as an alternative crop and livelihood, is perhaps one of the most complete endogenous natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the above-mentioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed by some of the associations in relation to knowledge and technology transfer, seeds distribution and contact to potential national and foreign buyers.

1. Dept of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC), Roskilde Univ., Denmark. araceli@ruc.dk

How to promote innovation and interdisciplinarity in organic food and farming research evaluation
Blanc, J.1, Alföldi, Th.2, Bellon, S.3 & Niggli, U.2 Key words: Research evaluation, Criteria and procedures, Innovation, Interdisciplinarity, CORE Organic.

Abstract
The development of organic food and farming research calls for system-oriented, innovative, interdisciplinary approaches. The process of evaluating research proposals is a crucial step towards this objective. Based on the EU CORE Organic pilot call for joint transnational research projects, we analysed to what extent the evaluation criteria and procedures implemented address this issue. Feedback on the experience of the target groups involved in this call was gathered and discussed in relation to findings from the literature. Our results show that interdisciplinary and innovative aspects could be better addressed, and evaluation criteria more clearly defined and delimited. This entails reshaping the main criteria and developing more suitable evaluation categories and sub-criteria. We also suggest creating mechanisms to enable funding of a few “risky” research projects, to facilitate entry of newcomers to the arena, to promote exploratory research projects and to support longitudinal interaction among applicants and assessors.

1. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CP 135, 53 rue Buffon, 75005, Paris. E-Mail jblanc@mnhn.fr 2. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland. E-Mail thomas.alfoeldi@fibl.org, urs.niggli@fibl.org, Internet www.fibl.org 3. National Institute for Agricultural Research INRA SAD, UR 767 Ecodévelopment, Domaine Saint Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France. E-Mail bellon@avignon.inra.fr

Organization of a Sustainable Agroforestry Model for Small Farmers in the Montes de Oro Region, Puntarenas, Costa Rica
Blanco-Metzler, H.1 & Diaz Porras, A.2 Key words: organic coffee, Costa Rica, small farmers, bird diversity, farming systems

Abstract
The Montes de Oro Region, in the Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, is a marginal agricultural area with coffee production as the main activity. The region faces a number of social and economic problems, worsened by the reduction in forest areas, increase in soil erosion, absence of sustainable land production alternatives and heavy dependence to imported pesticides. This project looked to protect the region’s biodiversity and to contribute to mitigate the negative environmental effects through the implementation of organic coffee production systems, integrating ecological, social and economic factors to offer sustainable and profitable production alternatives. Six components were looked at: associated crops, establishment of shade trees and windbreaks, fertilization, studies of bird diversity and improved coffee processing systems. We present the results of a three year study case.

1. Crop Protection Research Centre, CIPROC, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica, E-mail helgablanco@yahoo.com 2. Ministry of Agriculture, Montes de Oro Extensión Service, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

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Use of a mixture of biotite- and apatite-rich rock powder in a soil with inherent low soil fertility
Bleken, M.A.1, Krogstad, T.2, Speetjens, K.2 & Heim, M.2 Key words: Potassium, Phosphorus, Rock Powder, Ryegrass, Clover

Abstract
Long-term fertility of organically managed soils is challenged by repeated removal of plant nutrients through cash crops. The use of selected rock powders may contribute to maintain soil fertility. A pot trial with Italian ryegrass and white clover was used in order to study the potential of a biotiterich and of an apatite-rich rock powder to maintain and improve the nutrient supply of organically managed soils.

1. Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Fougnerbakken 3, 1432 Aas, Norway. marina.bleken@umb.no, Internet www.umb.no 2. As Above

Pest and Disease Management of Potato Crops with Homeopathic Preparations and Germplasm Variability *
Boff, P.1, Madruga, E.1, Zanelato, M.2,3 & Boff, M. I. C.2 Key words: plant homeopathy, genetic resistance, potato

Abstract
The Plateau of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, is the main potato seed producer of the country. Its regional climate, however, with wet summers has been pointed out as the main factor for restricting productive quality and raising prices. This research had, thus, the objective of studying the efficacy of homeopathic preparations, homemade formulations and genetic variability in the management of pests and diseases at field conditions on organic farming systems of potato crops. Two field experiments were installed during the 2006/07 crop season. In experiment 1, the following genotypes were planted as treatments: Catucha and Epagri (landrace), Monalisa and Agata (Holland), and Panda (Germany). In experiment 2, the statistical design was a split plot with the Monalisa, Catucha and Epagri genotypes as sub plots, and nine spray preparations as the main plot as follows: Chamomilla 60CH, Silicea 60CH, Kali 60CH, Thuya 60CH, biotherapic of Phytophthora infestans 60CH, water 60CH, the homemade preparations of Bordeaux mixture at 0,3% and of propolis extract at 0,5%, and, finally, a no-intervention treatment. Results showed that the Catucha genotype, a bred landrace, yielded 21 t ha-1 and presented the lowest disease incidence. Even though no preparation differed significantly from another; the Thuya homeopathic treatment yielded the best results with more than 26 t ha-1. Natural enemies were not affected by any of the spray preparations.

1. Agricultural Research Institute of Santa Catarina State-EPAGRI, Cx. P. 181, 88502-970 Lages, SC, Brazil. Email: pboff@epagri.sc.gov.br; Website: www.epagri.rct-sc.br 2. University of Santa Catarina State-UDESC, Cx. P. 281, 88520-000 Lages, SC, Brazil. Email: a2micb@cav.udesc.br. 3. Scholarship sponsored by CNPq-Brazil. * This research was partially supported by CNPq, proj.n. 55.3361/2005-08, and the Guarani-Serra Geral Network Consortium FAPESC/CNPq/ANA.

Plant Health and the Science of Pests and Diseases
Boff, M. I. C.1, Gonçalves, P. A. S. 2 & Boff, P.2 Key words: agroecology, phytiatry, plant protection

Abstract
The health/disease duality has developed alongside human history either as a struggle for survival or as a challenge of the human being to effectively get to know himself. To speak about pests and diseases of plants may not be as exciting as when speaking of human beings; however, entomology and phytopathology hold methodological similarities to conventional medicine, which, thus, allow for correlations among them. After all, plant protection and human medical science are based under common epistemological principles of modern scientific thought. Hence, the goal of this essay is to disclose certain disagreements of the disciplines of phytopathology and entomology with agroecological based science; yet, giving way to a discussion according to ecological principles. This is a theoretical essay, based on bibliographical research and on the direct experience of the authors with family farmers in the South of Brazil during the last 20 years.

1. University of Santa Catarina State-UDESC, Cx.P. 281, 88520-000 Lages, SC, Brazil. Email: a2micb@cav.udesc.br; Website: www.epagri.rct-sc.br 2. Agricultural Research Institute of Santa Catarina State-EPAGRI, Cx. P. 181, 88502-970 Lages, SC, Brazil. Email: pboff@epagri.sc.gov.br and pasg@epagri.sc.gov.br; Website: www.epagri. rct-sc.br. *This research has been partially supported by Guarani-Serra Geral Network Consortium FAPESC/CNPq/ANA.

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Monitoring of click beetles (Agriotes lineatus and A. obscurus) in organically managed farms in Northern Germany
Böhm, H.1, Koppe2, W. & Dreyer, W.3 Key words: potato, click beetle, pheromone traps, wireworm

Abstract
Wireworms, the larvae of Agriotes spp., are an increasing problem on many organically managed farms with potato or vegetable production. The damage caused by wireworms is economically significant. With the use of pheromone traps it is possible to get more information about the habitat requirements of click beetles. In 2005 and 2006 click beetles were monitored at different locations in northern Germany. Because of the warmer springtime in 2005, the first peak of click beetles was about two weeks earlier than in 2006. The second peak was found one month later. The presented data show the highest occurrence of click beetles in ryegrass-clover mixtures in both years. The catches in cereals were much lower than in ryegrassclover. The reasons for the differences of the trapped click beetles in the different cereal fields cannot been explained so far. In the majority of cases the trapped number of Agriotes lineatus was higher than for A. obscurus.

1. Institute of Organic Farming, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Trenthorst 32, 23847 Westerau, Germany, E-Mail: herwart.boehm@vti.bund.de, Internet www.vti.bund.de 2. Kompetenzzentrum Öko-Landbau Niedersachsen, Bahnhofstr. 15, 27374 Visslhövede, Germany, E-mail: w.koppe@oeko-komp.de, www.oeko-komp.de 3. Ökoring Niedersachsen e.V., Bahnhofstr. 15, 27374 Visselhövede, Germany, E-mail: w.dreyer@oekoring.de, Internet: www.oekoring.de

Impact of the drought on the fodder self-sufficiency of organic and conventional highland dairy farms
Boisdon, I.1 & Capitaine, M.2 Key words: fodder self-sufficiency, drought, highland dairy farm

Abstract
Eight highland dairy farms in the French Massif Central (4 organic and 4 conventional) were surveyed from 2000 to 2005 to understand the forage system functioning and the specificities of organic farms. During this period two important droughts occurred, which highly affected the fodder selfsufficiency of the organic farms, having consequences on more than a year of production. The conventional farms were less affected than the organic ones, and the farmers developed varied strategies including a reduction of the LU and the use of more maize. To maintain the stability of the milk production, organic farms had to increase the reliance on external fodder resources. The lack of security forage stores can explain the sensitivity of these farms and their incapacity to recover a good level of self-sufficiency.

1. Enita Clermont, UR AFOS, Marmilhat, F-63370 Lempdes, boisdon@enitac.fr, www.enitac.fr 2. As Above capitaine@enitac.fr

Effects of an organic and a conventional cropping system on soil fertility
Boldrini A.1, Benincasa P., Gigliotti G., Businelli D. & Guiducci M. Key words: crop rotation, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, carbon

Abstract
An experiment was started in 1998 in Central Italy to evaluate changes in soil fertility and the risk of N loss in an organic (ORG) and a conventional low input (CONV) cropping system. At the end of a 6-year rotation, ORG caused a higher plant biomass incorporation into the soil and thus a higher soil soluble organic carbon. The N surplus in ORG was 32% higher than in CONV, while no differences were recorded on N content in the top soil, so that ORG implicated a higher N loss from that soil layer. In ORG we recorded a higher phosphatase activity but a lower available soil P (due to application of rock phosphate in sub-alkaline soil) and a lower exchangeable K.

1. Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, 06121 Perugia, Italy, E-mail: arianna.boldrini@agr.unipg.it, Internet: www.agr.unipg.it,

2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

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Potential of X-Ray Spectrometry and Chemometrics to Discriminate Organic from Conventional Grown Agricultural Products
Bortoleto, G. G.1, De Nadai Fernandes, E. A.1, Tagliaferro, F. S.1, Ferrari, A. A.1 & Bueno, M. I. M. S.2 Key words: food authenticity, principal component analysis, X-ray spectrometry.

Abstract
This work describes an innovative analytical method based on X-ray spectrometry combined with chemometrics which presents high potential to discriminate conventional from organic grown tomatoes and coffee beans. This novelty is based on the irradiation of samples in a bench-top EDXRF equipment provided with a Rh tube and further treatment of the spectral data using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Multivariate analysis results showed a tendency in separating the samples according to the production mode (organic or conventional). Regarding the spectra obtained, the K-alpha peak of potassium showed to be the most responsible for discriminating different categories of samples. The chlorine K-alpha peak presented high capability in discriminating tomato and coffee samples from different origins. The method can be useful for food quality control to rapidly classify samples since the measurements can be done “in situ” with portable instruments. Nevertheless, it will be necessary to build robust classification models with a larger number of samples.

1. Nuclear Energy Center for Agriculture (CENA), University of São Paulo (USP), PO Box 96, 13400–970 Piracicaba, São Paulo – Brazil, E-mail lis@cena.usp.br 2. Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas (IQ-UNICAMP), PO Box 6154, 13083 –970 Campinas, São Paulo – Brazil, E-mail bell@iqm.unicamp.br

Efficacy Evaluation of Some Copper Formulations for the Control of Grapevine Downy Mildew with Low Dose Applications
Bortolotti, P.P1, Nannini, R. 2, Scannavini, M. 3, Antoniacci, L. 4 & Bugiani, R. 5 Key words: Plasmopara viticola, downy mildew, copper, organic farming, disease control

Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of old and new copper formulations to control downy mildew Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curtis) Berl. et. De Toni). Field trials were carried out over the years 2002, 2004 and 2005 in a grapevine growing area in the Po Valley with a high disease pressure. Among the traditional copper formulations, hydroxide-based products gave the best results. Other new copper formulations, including foliar fertilizers, simple adjuvants and resistance inducers were evaluated. In particular, resistance inducers with a low percentage of copper gave promising results even though some of them show some phytotoxic problems.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Consorzio Fitosanitario di Modena, Via Aandreoli 13, 41100 Modena (Italy) As Above ASTRA – Innovazione e Sviluppo l.t.d., 48018 Faenza – Via Tebano, 45, Italy. Servizio Fitosanitario (Plant protection Service) – Emilia-Romagna Region, Via Saliceto 81, 40128 Bologna (Italy), As Above

Tools for innovative organic breeding arise from rhizosphere microbial ecology
Bosco, M.1 & Picard, C.1. Key words: Plant genotype; below-ground potential; Organic breeding; Plant-probiotic micro-organisms.

Abstract
Research on soil microbial ecology is beginning to elucidate how and how much beneficial soil micro-organisms (i.e. plant-probiotics) contribute to plant integrity and plant environmental fitness. The differences so far highlighted among crop varieties show highly positive interactions with plantprobiotic microflora (PPM), and upgrade the role of soil PPM at the level of other essential factors for sustainable plant breeding. Current research efforts, aimed to rapidly achieve crop varieties fitting for low-input and organic production systems, finally take into account the capacity of each individual variety to efficiently exploit indigenous PPM.

1. Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy, E-Mail marco.bosco@unibo.it, Internet www.dista.unibo.it/person/bosco(e).php

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

A New Approach to Humus Balancing in Organic Farming
Brock, C. 1, Hoyer,U. 2, Leithold, G.1 & Hülsbergen, K.-J.2 Key words: humus balance, methods, management assessment

Abstract
Humus balances provide a profitable approach for humus dynamics assessment in farming practice. Nevertheless, there is a clear demand for methodological adaptation. This article presents a new approach to humus balancing using reproducible algorithms for the estimation of balance coefficients. Humus balance coefficients for crops and organic fertilizers are estimated according to a bipartite algorithm. Humus demand is calculated on the basis of crop yields referring to the nitrogen household in the plant-soil system. Humus supply is derived from organic matter input with plant material and fertilizers. The new approach facilitates the adaptation of the method to new situations.

1. JLU Giessen, Professorship of Organic Farming, Karl-Gloeckner-Strasse 21c, 35394 Giessen, Germany, E-Mail organ.landbau@agrar.uni-giessen.de 2. TU Munich, Chair for Organic Agriculture, Alte Akademie 12, 85354 Freising, Germany, E-Mail sekretariat.oekolandbau@wzw.tum.de

The Impact of Site and Management Factors on Humus Dynamics in Long-term Field Experiments
Brock, C.1 & Leithold, G.2 Key words: humus dynamics, farming systems, long-term field experiments

Abstract
The impact of management and environmental site factors on quantitative and qualitative indicators of humus dynamics was investigated in eight long-term field experiments in Germany and neighbouring countries. Humus dynamics were basically influenced by environmental site conditions, but at a given site differences between farming systems could be ascerted. Mixed farming systems with farmyard manure application as a rule had a more favourable impact on humus dynamics than stockless systems. Whether an advantageous performance of humus dynamics in organic farming as compared to conventional farming will occur or not, is dependent on the respective farm types of both systems that are related to each other.

1. JLU Giessen, Professorship of Organic Farming, Karl-Gloeckner-Strasse 21c, 35394 Giessen, Germany, E-Mail christopher.j.brock@agrar.uni-giessen.de 2. As Above

Challenges in Transitioning to Organic Farming in West Bengal, India
Brodt, S.1 & Schug, D.2 Key words: developing countries, extension, Farmer Field Schools, Green Revolution, organic conversion

Abstract
This paper uses a case study of small-scale rice and vegetable producers in West Bengal, India to argue that some of the same infrastructural and technical roots to problems that plague small farmers attempting to use chemically-intensive farming methods also hinder their ability to fully convert to global-style organic farming. In particular, problems in accessing knowledge and technical inputs are likely to translate into difficulties in adopting and maintaining organic production practices. This case study raises the question of whether the global organic model, which is highly dependent on specialized, knowledge-intensive techniques and expensive inputs, offers a true alternative for the developing country context. A locally developed model based on low-cost, local resources and disseminated through local information networks with substantial farmer participation may offer a more viable alternative.

1. University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, California, 95616, USA, E-Mail brodtsb@yahoo.com. 2. 2325 Shire Lane, Davis, CA. 95616, USA, E-Mail dmschug@hotmail.com

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Opportunities and Obstacles in Adoption of Biodiversity-Enhancing Features on California Farms
Brodt, S.1, Klonsky, K.2, Jackson, L.3, Brush, S.4 & Smukler, S.5 Key words: biodiversity, ecosystem services, adoption, multifunctionality

Abstract
The USDA National Organic Program requires the conservation of biodiversity and the maintenance or improvement of natural resources on organic farms. On-farm biodiversity-enhancing features such as border plantings can provide many of these ecosystem services. However, which practices farmers currently use to manage non-cropped edges, why and how they use these practices, and how subsidies and technical assistance affect farmers’ ability and willingness to manage farm edges for biodiversity are little studied topics. Our study set out to identify the range of practices currently used to manage non-cropped field edges, roadsides, pond edges, and banks of permanent watercourses (sloughs, canals, ditches) in a case study area in California. Secondary objectives were to gauge local farmers’ awareness of planted hedgerows and vegetated waterways and to gather preliminary information about the range of incentives and constraints to installing such features.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of CA, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. E mail sbbrodt@ ucdavis.edu. As Above, E mail klonsky@primal.ucdavis.edu. Dept. of Land, Air & Water Resources, University of CA, Davis, CA 95616, USA. E mail lejackson@ucdavis.edu Dept. of Human and Community Development, University of CA, Davis, CA 95616, USA. E mail sbbrush@ucdavis.edu Ecology Graduate Group, University of CA, Davis, CA 95616, USA. E mail smsmukler@ucdavis.edu

Prolonged suckling period in organic piglet production – Effects on some performance and health aspects
Bussemas, R.1 & Weissmann, F.2 Key words: Organic piglet production, prolonged suckling period, weaning age, performance, health aspects

Abstract
The organic piglet suckling period typically takes about 6 weeks due to the minimum requirement of the EEC Regulation 2092/91 of 40 days. But piglets weaned in such a period are often characterized by inferior performance and health status. It is the aim of the present study to examine whether a prolonged suckling period of 63 days results in better performance and health status of the piglets. Therefore 36 sows were divided into 2 groups of 18 sows each as a control group with 42 days suckling period and a test group with 63 days suckling period. The rearing period for both the control group and the test group ended on day 77 p.n., which was also the end of the piglets´ data collection period. Three farrowing cycles with 108 litters were recorded. The extended suckling period resulted in an improved growth rate and in a reduced number of medically treated piglets and did not negatively affect the body condition and teats of the sows. Hence a prolongation of the suckling period compared to the minimum requirement of the EEC Regulation 2092/91 seems to be advisable.

1. Institute of Organic Farming in the vTI - Johann Heinrich von Thunen-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries (the former Federal Agricultural Research Centre, FAL), Trenthorst, 23847 Westerau, Germany, E-Mail: ralf.bussemas@vti.bund.de, Internet: www.vti.bund.de 2. As Above, Email: friedrich.weissmann@vti.bund.de

Economic aspects of the application of different organic materials as N-sources in organic production of lettuce
Cabilovski, R.1, Manojlovic, M.1, Bogdanovic, D.1 & Bavec, M.2 Key words: lettuce, fertilization, yield, profit

Abstract
In a field experiment on a farm registered for organic production, we studied the effect of the application of different organic materials (OM): farmyard manure (FYM), guano (G), soybean seed (S), forage pea seed (P) on lettuce yield. Besides yield, we also analyzed the economic profitability of the application of different OM. Fresh lettuce yield was significantly higher with OM treatments than with the treatments without fertilization. The highest yield was obtained with the FYM treatment (43.7 t ha-1), and the lowest with the application of P (42.0 t ha-1). The highest additional profit was obtained with the FYM treatment (1123 EUR ha-1) and the lowest with the application of P (475 EUR ha-1).

1. Faculty of Agriculture, 21 000 Novi Sad, Serbia, E-mail majacuv@polj.ns.ac.yu, Internet http://polj.ns.ac.yu 2. Faculty of Agriculture, SI 2000 Maribor, Slovenia, E-mail martina.bavec@uni-mb.si, Internet www.fk.uni-mb.si

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Energy efficiency of biomass production in managed versus natural temperate forest and grassland ecosystems
Callesen, I.1 & Østergaard, H.1 Key words: net primary production (NPP), natural ecosystems, harvested biomass, carbon storage, energy balance

Abstract
In a conceptual model study based on literature data from Danish ecosystems, energy yield from biomass production was compared in two semi-natural ecosystems (broadleaved forest and grassland) and their managed counterparts. The highest net energy yield of harvested biomass was obtained in the managed grassland system. The energy efficiency in terms of output:input ratios were about 190:1 in the managed beech forest and 6:1 in the managed grassland. This is discussed in relation to nitrogen cycling, carbon storage and energy efficiency of biomass production.

1. Biosystems Department, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. ingeborg.callesen@risoe.dk; hanne. oestergaard@risoe.dk

Factors explaining farmers’ behaviours and intentions about agricultural methods of production. Organic vs. conventional comparison.
Canavari, M.1, Lombardi, P.2 & Cantore, N.3 Key words: Organic farming, ethnocentrism, local origin, conversion

Abstract
We investigate the factors explaining behaviours and attitudes of farmers towards organic practices. Among a wide set of motivational, economic and environmental variables, we focus on those factors related to ethnocentrism of farmers and the importance of local origin labels. We find that ethnocentrism cannot explain neither the present status of farmers (organic vs. conventional) nor their future intentions about the adoption of agricultural methods of production. However, the absence of local origin labels is significantly affecting the choice of conventional farmers who do not convert to organic farming.

1. Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna. Dip. Economia e Ingegneria agrarie, Viale G. Fanin 50, 40127 Bologna, Italy, E-Mail maurizio.canavari@unibo.it, Internet www.unibo.it 2. As above, E-Mail pamela.lombardi@unibo.it 3. As above and Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, E-Mail nicola.cantore@unibo.it

Agronomic and environmental factors explaining Grain Protein Content variability in organic winter wheat
Casagrande, M:1, David, C.2, Etienne, C.2, Makowski, D.1, Valantin-Morison, M. and Jeuffroy, M.-H.1 Key words: organic winter wheat, Grain Protein Content, limiting factors, diagnosis

Abstract
A regional agronomic diagnosis was implemented to identify factors responsible for low values of Grain Protein Content (GPC) in a network of 35 organic winter wheat fields in South-Eastern France. The influence of water nutrition, radiation and temperature, weed density at flowering, nitrogen (N) status of crop at flowering and variety type were studied. Two statistical methods were used successively: classical linear regression and a mixing model approach based on a weighted sum of all possible linear combinations of explanatory variables. GPC was significantly related to variety type, crop N status and weed density. An analysis of variance showed that weed density was related to soil type and nitrogen supply.

1. INRA, UMR211 Agronomie, INRA/AgroParisTech, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France, E-mail mcasagrande@grignon.inra.fr, Internet www-agronomie.grignon.inra.fr 2. ISARA-Lyon, 23 Rue J Baldassini, F-69364 Lyon cedex 07, France, Internet www.isara.fr

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Effects of organic matter input on soil microbial properties and crop yields in conventional and organic cropping systems
Chirinda, N.1, Olesen, J.E.2 and Porter, J.R.3 Key words: soil organic matter, crop yield, crop rotation, soil microbiology.

Abstract
Unlike conventional cropping systems, which are characterised by targeted short-term fertility management, organic farming systems depend on longterm increase in soil fertility and promotion of soil biodiversity. This study sought to investigate long-term effects of organic matter inputs on various cropping systems in a 10-year-old experiment. Results show that in the long-term high C and N inputs enhance microbial activity. Microbial biomass N and the potential nitrification rate were higher in cropping systems based on green manure than in those reliant on inputs from animal manure and mineral fertilizer. Soil microbiological properties were affected by the individual crops in the rotation. The high microbial activity with increased organic matter inputs did not transform to enhanced crop productivity.

1. University of Aarhus, Inst. of Agroecology and Environment, Box 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, E-Mail Ngonidzashe.Chirinda@agrsci.dk, Internet www.agrsci.dk 2. University of Aarhus, Inst. of Agroecology and Environment, Box 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, E-Mail JorgenE.Olesen@agrsci.dk@agrsci.dk, Internet www.agrsci.dk 3. University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Life Sciences,Hoejbakkegaard Alle 9, 2630 Taastrup Denmark. Email: jrp@life.ku.dk

Are Organic Consumers Healthier than Others?
Christensen, T.1, Krarup, S.2 & Denver, S.2 Key words: Organic consumers, health, diets, consumer values.

Abstract
Recent research results indicate that organic consumers have a healthier diet than other consumers. This suggests that there might be a positive relationship between organic consumption and a healthy lifestyle. One aim of an ongoing research project is to analyse whether consumers with a high organic consumption have a higher interest in nutrition and a healthy living than other consumers. In order to test whether such a causal relationship exists, purchase data from Danish households are combined with information on these households’ perception of organic food and their health concerns.

1. Consumption, Health and Ethics Division, Institute of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 2. AKF, Danish Institute of Governmental Research, Nyropsgade 37, DK-1602 Copenhagen V, Denmark. sk@akf.dk. Internet www.akf.dk.

Can Organic Farming Contribute to Carbon Sequestration? A Survey in a Pear Orchard in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy
Ciavatta C.1, Gioacchini P.2 & Montecchio D.3 Key words: Organic Carbon Sequestration, Organic farming, Pear orchard

Abstract
The effect of organic fertilisation on the level of total organic carbon (TOC) in an 18-years old pear orchard (cv. Abate Fetel) was evaluated vs. a conventional pear orchard mineral fertilized (control). In both orchards soil samples (Typic Udochrept loamy soil) were taken at two depths (0-15 and 30-50 cm) along the row (tilled and mainly amended with compost) and in the inter-row space (grassed with different Graminaceae species in the organic orchard, bare in the conventional orchard). The area (elevation 20 m), located in Bologna province, Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy), is characterised by mean annual temperature 13.1 °C and rainfall around 750 mm. In the horizon 0-15 cm of the row an increase of about 14 tons ha-1 of TOC has been calculated after 18-years of cultivation and amendment compared to the control soil, which had received just mineral fertilisation. A significant increase of TOC (about 6.3 tons ha-1) was also measured in the top layer (0-15 cm) in the grassed inter-row, where this C sink is exclusively due to the cover crop. A survey of the role of organic vs. conventional farming on soil C sink/source is started in 2007 in 8 typical organic orchard farms located in Emilia-Romagna Region and it is still running.

1. Department of Agro-Environmental Science & Technology, viale Fanin n. 40, I-40127 Bologna, Italy, E-Mail claudio.ciavatta@unibo.it, Internet http://www.dista.agrsci.unibo.it 2. As Above 3. As Above

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Effects of husked oat varieties, variety mixtures and populations on disease levels, crop cover and their resulting yields
Clarke, S.M.1, Jones, H. 1, Haigh, Z. 1, Boyd, H. 1 & Wolfe, M.S. 1 Key words: husked oats; varieties; variety mixtures; diseases; crop cover

Abstract
Two seasons (2005/06 and 2006/07) of field experiments which aimed to study the suitability of new and established husked oat varieties, variety mixtures and a husked oat population for organic systems were established at two sites in the west and east of the UK. The ground cover and leaf area indices of the varieties had significant effects on final yields in the 2005/06. Mixtures generally yielded similarly to the means of component varieties but the mixtures in 2005/06 and 2006/07 had 25 % and 18 % less disease, respectively, than the average of the component varieties at one site.

1. The Organic Research Centre – Elm Farm, Hamstead Marshall, Newbury, Berkshire, RG20 0HR UK. Email: sarah.c@organicresearchcentre.com. Internet: www.organicresearchcentre.com.

The two-spotted spider mite can be controlled by water
Conte, L.1 & Chiarini, F.2 Key words: Tetranychus urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis, biological control, water

Abstract
The effects of a fogging system on the control of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) were studied in greenhouse cultivation of eggplant, cucumber and strawberry during the period 1999-2006. At the beginning the pest and the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis were released on the crops and then observations were made on the development of the populations of both mites. Fogging system effects were found in terms of lowering the T. urticae population and hindering the growth of powdery mildew fungus. Furthermore there was a yield increase in the cases of strawberry and cucumber in 2001 but no negative impact on pest management was ever detected, particularly on the biological control of the melon aphid (Aphis gossypii) achieved using multiple releases of parasitoids.

1. Scuola Esperienziale Itinerante di Agricoltura Biologica, E-mail: info@scuolaesperienziale.it, Internet: www.scuolaesperienziale.it 2. Veneto Agricoltura, Centro Sperimentale Ortofloricolo “Po di Tramontana”, via Moceniga 7, 45010 Rosolina (RO), Italy, E-mail: francesca.chiarini@venetoagricoltura.org, Internet: www. venetoagricoltura.org

Effects of crop management factors and the environment on pest and disease incidence in vegetables
Cooper, J.M.1, Schmidt, C.S.1, Lueck, L.1, Shotton, P.N.1 and Leifert, C.1 Key words: organic production, pesticides, Delia radicum, Sclerotinium sclerotiorum, Phytophthora infestans

Abstract
The Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) experiments are part of a long-term field trial that compares organic and conventional systems of crop rotation, crop protection and fertility management, in a factorial design. Pest and disease incidence in vegetables in the 2005, 2006 and 2007 season are reported. Cabbage root fly damage was always reduced under organic crop protection, but there were no consistent trends for the effects of fertility management on this pest. Sclerotinia in lettuce was consistently higher under conventional fertility management. Blight in potatoes was enhanced in the 2007 season by the combination of conventional fertility management and organic crop protection practices. Mechanisms for these effects, including the role of plant nutrition and the environment, are discussed.

1. Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, Newcastle University, Stocksfield, Northumberland, UK NE42 7XD, E-mail Julia.Cooper@nefg.co.uk

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Should organic farmers be rewarded for sequestering C in soil?
Cooper, J.M.1 and Melchett, P.2 Key words: organic farming, soil organic carbon, carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions

Abstract
The question of whether farmers, and organic farmers in particular, should be rewarded for sequestering C in soils is controversial. A review of the literature on long term experiments comparing organic and conventional systems, demonstrates that soils under organic management tend to have higher soil organic carbon (SOC) contents than conventionally managed soils. But the logistics of designing a system that compensates individual farmers for this ecosystem service are challenging. Agreements would have to be reached on the baseline system used for calculation of relative gains in SOC, values for emissions of other GHGs from soils (e.g. methane and nitrous oxide), the direct and indirect CO2 emissions associated with energy use and crop production inputs in the C sequestering system, and emissions associated with sources of SOC imported onto the farm. Alternatively, the evidence for generally higher SOC under organic management could justify an additional payment, for example under the UK Government’s Organic Entry Level Scheme.

1. Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, Newcastle University, Stocksfield, Northumberland, UK NE42 7XD, E-mail Julia.Cooper@nefg.co.uk 2. The Soil Association, South Plaza, Marlborough Street, Bristol, UK BS1 3NX, E-mail pmelchett@soilassociation.org

Sustainability assessment of wheat production using Emergy
Coppola, F.1, Haugaard-Nielsen, H2, Bastianoni, S.1 & Østergård, H.2 Key words: Organic and conventional production, soil type, wheat, emergy, sustainability assessment

Abstract
Sustainability of crop production has to be given high priority when global biomass resources are limited. Here emergy evaluation is applied in order to assess sustainability of crop production exemplified by winter wheat. Emergy evaluation takes into account all inputs involved in a production system (i.e. renewable and non-renewable, local and imported) and transforms them into a common measure of direct and indirect solar energy requirement. The evaluation of winter wheat production is conducted by comparing conventional and organic management on two soil types using Danish reference conditions. The resource use efficiency of wheat production per kg biomass is higher using conventional management practices. This is due to high yield based on large use of non-renewable resources. The environmental loading ratio from organic management practices is about a third of the conventional implying that the organic management can be considered more sustainable.

1. Dept. of Chemical and Biosystems Sciences, Siena University, via della Diana, 2A, 53100 Siena, Italy. coppola12@unisi.it; bastianoni@unisi.i 2. Risø National Laboratory DTU, P.O. Box 49, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. henrik.haugaard-nielsen.@risoe.dk; hanne.oestergaard@risoe.dk (corresponding author)

New Approaches to Phosphorus Regulation and Management
Cornish, P.S.1 and Oberson, A2 Key words: Phosphorus, certification, research, farming system

Abstract
Phosphorus (P) conservation and the environmental, ecological and economic issues related to over-use and under-use of P on organic farms are addressed. Re-examination of Certification Standards is recommended to ensure the conservation and efficient use of P through adaptation of organic management to local conditions, ecology, culture and scale. Changes that will conserve P and minimise environmental risk are identified, along with the necessary research to make this possible.

1. University of Western Sydney, Penrith South DC, 1979 Australia, Email p.cornish@uws.edu.au 2. Institute of Plant Sciences, ETH, Zurich. Email astrid.oberson@ipw.agrl.ethz.ch

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Survey of acaricide residues in Italian organic and conventional beeswax
Costa, C.1, Lodesani, M.2, Serra G. 2, Colombo R. 2 & Sabatini A.G. 2 Key words: beeswax / organic / coumaphos / fluvalinate / acaricide

Abstract
According to EU Regulation 1804/99, beekeepers converting to organic production methods must replace old combs, which contain residues of lipophilic acaricides used to control infestation of Varroa destructor, with residue-free wax. This poses problems due to difficulty in obtaining organic wax, passage of residues from old wax to new residue-free foundations and the risk of contamination of foundations in the wax transforming firms. To monitor the residue levels of Italian beeswax, samples produced between 1990 and 2006 were analysed for residues of most commonly used acaricides. The samples analysed for the two most commonly used active ingredients, coumaphos and fluvalinate, were classified according to the production method (organic, conventional or converting) and according to the kind of wax (melted or foundation). For all the considered a.i. the average levels of residues in all kinds of samples (organic and conventional) grouped by year, decreased during the considered time period. Classification according to production method showed that organic beekeeping practices have definitely reduced levels of residues, although these persist in wax for a long time. Average levels of acaricide residues in organic melted cap beeswax were used by most Italian Control Bodies for fixing thresholds levels for use of wax in organic beekeeping (200ppb for coumaphos and 100ppb for fluvalinate)..

1. CRA – Unità di ricerca di apicoltura e bachicoltura, via di Saliceto, 80 - 40128 Bologna, Italy, E-Mail cecilia.costa@entecra.it, Internet www.cra-api.it 2. As Above, E-mail marco.lodesani@entecra.it, giorgia.serra@entecra.it, roberto.colombo@entecra.it & annagloria.sabatini@entecra.it

CERTCOST – Economic Analysis of Certification Systems for Organic Food and Farming at EU level
Dabbert, S. 1, Lippert, C., Schulz, T. & Zorn, A. Key words: Organic inspection and certification, transaction costs, organic regulation

Abstract
With the ongoing growth of the organic sector and the spread of organic production across the EU, the field of organic certification has become a maze of competing labels and logos. This diversity reflects the specific conditions in different regions and countries, but can also lead to confusion for producers and consumers, as well as create a variety of costs. It is imperative to conduct a comprehensive economic analysis of the variety of existing certification systems and their impact on the internal European market for organic goods. This project proposes to combine the experience and knowledge of both researchers and SMEs to analyse the implementation of organic certification systems and to estimate all relevant expenditures or transaction costs for different certification systems along the organic food supply chain. Benefits of certification will also be analysed, using data on consumers’ recognition and willingness to pay for different organic logos and trademarks. Finally, recommendations will be drawn for the EU Commission, national competent authorities and private actors in organic food and farming on how to increase effectiveness and efficiency of organic certification.

1. Universität Hohenheim, Institute for Farm Management (410a), 70593 Stuttgart, Germany, Email dabbert@uni-hohenheim.de, www.uni-hohenheim.de/i410a

Consumers perceptions of combined “fair trade” and “organic agriculture” labels on food products
Daniel, M.1, Sirieix, L.2 & Bricas, N.3 Key words: ethical label, fair trade, organic agriculture, consumers’ representations

Abstract
Responsible, ethical, sustainable, citizen consumptions, those terms refer to new consumption behaviours more and more present in the market, society debates, or sociological and marketing research. This study is in the line with previous studies made on ethical consumption in the last ten years. We focused on the question “How do consumers perceive the combined « organic agriculture » and « fair trade » labels on the same product?” A qualitative survey, combining interviews and focus groups, showed the high diversity of representations and the interactions linked to those two concepts and their combinations. If the two labels are used by food chain stakeholders as complementary, they have been differently perceived by consumers: more, some consumers perceived some contradictions between them. We can distinguish six different profiles of consumers on the basis of perceived specific interactions: from the total synergy to the contradiction between “organic agriculture “and “fair trade”.

1. UMR Moïsa, Supagro Montpellier, 2 Place Viala 34060 Montpellier Cedex France,danielm@supagro.inra.fr 2. UMR Moisa, Supagro, Montpellier, Sirieix@supagro.inra.fr 3. UMR Moïsa, CIRAD, 73 rue J.F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, nicolas.bricas@cirad.fr

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Harmonizing Jhum (Shifting Cultivation) with PGS Organic Standards in Northeast India: Key features and characteristics of Jhum for process harmonization
Darlong V.1 Key words: Shifting cultivation, jhum, PGS, Northeast India

Abstract
Shifting cultivation, known as ‘jhum’ in Northeast India is widely distributed upland slash and burn agricultural system. Efforts to address jhum remained challenging tasks, more so due to its shortening cycle but continued livelihoods dependency for a large population of upland communities. With organic foods gaining popularity, harmonizing jhum with Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) organic standards may provide enhanced opportunities for improved livelihoods and environmental security in Northeast India. The paper explores these opportunities and focuses on the features and characteristics of jhum that would require in meeting the PGS organic standards.

1. NERCORMP-IFAD, Dhankheti, Shillong 793001, Meghalaya, India

Producers and Consumers Relationship Strategies in the Organic Market in Brazil
Darolt, M.R.1 & Constanty, H.2 Key words: Organic consumers, network organic farmer, consumers organization

Abstract
The paper deals with marketing strategies in different sales channels and organic producers and consumers relationship. The empirical study was conducted on 41 organic horticultural farms in 16 municipalities within the Curitiba Metropolitan Area, Paraná, Brazil. Two types of farmers were identified: 1-Rural, with origins and life trajectories in the rural area and 2-Neorural, with urban area background having migrated to the rural milieu. Farmers who sell directly to consumers use more than 3 marketing channels, their production systems are diversified (+ than 20 products), management is complex and the farm is versatile (inn, restaurant, pick-and-pay, rural tourism) and producer/consumer relationship is bigger. Integrated farmers (indirect sales) have only one sales channel. Farmers follow production plans from the buying companies and the output is marketed through supermarket chains. Farming systems are simple (- than 5 products) and relationship with consumers is insignificant. Events such as visit to organic farms, advanced buying, producer/consumer direct credit and organic farming courses or field days, have strengthened producer/consumer relationship and provided consumer support to an organic farms network.

1. Agricultural Research Institute of Paraná (IAPAR), C.P. 2031, CEP 80011-900, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Fax: (55) (41) 3356-4809; E-mail: darolt@iapar.br 2. Agricultural Research Institute of Hot Regions (Institut des Régions Chaudes), 1101, Avenue Agropolis BP – 5098 – 34033 Montpellier – France); E-mail: h_constanty@hotmail.com

Feed composition and strategies to improve poly-unsaturated fatty acid levels in organic cow milk
De Wit, J. & de Vries, A.1 Key words: omega-3, CLA, grass pellets, roughage quality.

Abstract
Like in various other countries, organic milk in the Netherlands has higher levels of poly-unsaturated fatty acids, particularly CLA and omega-3, than conventional milk. Monitoring results from a total of 25 farms between 2004 till 2007 are presented. Regression analysis indicates a negative effect of maize silage and positive effects of feeding fresh grass, grass pellets, red clover and addition of oil on CLA levels in milk fat. Results with omega-3 are similar, but omega-3 levels in milk fat seem less related to feed characteristics: the model with feed composition, seasonal effects and farm effects as major parameters, explains a smaller part of the variation, while farm influence is much larger with omega-3 compared to CLA. Farm influence might be caused by genetic differences and constant factors influencing roughage quality. Genetic influences are likely but could not be investigated as milk samples were not taken from individual cows. The influence of grass quality is suggested by the large effect of sampling date found in this study. Moreover, some high residual values and statistical estimates for individual farms seem often related to silage quality, botanically rich pastures and red clover feeding.

1. Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA Driebergen, the Netherlands. Email j.dewit@louisbolk.nl. Internet www.louisbolk.nl

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Beneficial System Outcomes in Organic Fields at the Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) Site, Greenfield, Iowa, USA
Delate, K., Cambardella, C., Chase, C. & Turnbull, R. Key words: Crop rotations, soil quality, corn, soybean, economics

Abstract
In 1997, Iowa State University established the first U.S. Land Grant University permanent faculty position in organic agriculture to assist farmers in the rapid expansion of organic production in that state. Research agendas, developed in consultation with organic farmers and processors, led to the establishment of the Neely-Kinyon Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) site in Greenfield, Iowa, in 1998 to study the long-term effects of organic production in terms of yield and economic performance, in addition to other system effects. Over nine years of comparison, there was no significant difference in corn or soybean yields in the organic and conventional systems. Organic corn yields in the longest rotation (C-S-O/A-A) over a 9–yr period were 9914 kg/ha compared to 10113 kg/ha in the conventional system and organic soybeans in the same rotation yielded 3043 kg/ha while conventional yields averaged 2906 kg/ha. Soil quality remains high in the organic system, with soil organic carbon and mineralizable nitrogen greater in the organic rotations relative to conventional, demonstrating greater C sequestration potential and N-use efficiency in the organic system. Over nine years, revenues generated from organic corn crops increased average revenues by a factor of 1.67 over conventional corn, while organic soybean revenues were 2.32 times greater than conventional soybean revenues.

Effects of Trichoderma applications on vines grown in organic nursery
Di Marco, S.1 & Osti, F1 Key words: Trichoderma, root development, disease, organic nursery

Abstract
A two-year trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of applications of commercial formulations of the fungus Trichoderma on graftlings of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in a commercial nursery where plants were grown under organic management. Treatments were carried out at callusing, rooting and callusing+rooting. Effects on the host-plant morpho-physiological characteristics were observed and depended on the type and timing of Trichoderma application. Treatment at rooting was the most effective whilst application at callusing and combination of treatments gave controversial results. The most noticeable effect of application of Trichoderma was an increase of quantitative-qualitative characteristics of the root system, with a consistent development of root hairs. Compared to untreated plants the percentage of certifiable plants treated at rooting was higher.

1. CNR, Istituto di Biometeorologia, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy, E-Mail s.dimarco@ibimet .cnr.it, Internet www.ibimet.cnr.it

Effects of Trichoderma harzianum applications on fresh pruning wounds in Actinidia deliciosa for the protection against pathogens associated with the “wood decay” of kiwifruit
Di Marco, S.1, Neri, L., Baraldi, R. & Osti F. Key words: kiwifruit, “wood decay”, pruning, Trichoderma harzianum

Abstract
A chronic wood wasting disease of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has recently been identified in Italian kiwifruit vineyards. This disease is principally caused by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Fomitiporia mediterranea. The “wood decay” causes a reduced productivity and longevity in the vineyards and influences the quality of the final product. “Wood decay” has a high incidence throughout the vineyards, and is difficult to eradicate once present, leaving prevention as the best defence strategy. The different pathogens causing the disease infect the plant mainly through pruning wounds. We studied a commercial formulation of Trichoderma harzianum T22 for the protection of pruning wounds, and thus for the prevention and reduction of the infection. The studies were carried out on potted plants, on shoots of the year that were cut, simulating a summer pruning, and treated with a T. harzianum commercial suspension. A different morphologic reaction was observed on treated and control shoots; physiological processes connected to the reaction, such as the variation in the levels of a growth-promoting hormone (auxin) and the content of total phenols were investigated through biochemical and histological analyses. The higher levels of auxin and phenols recorded in treated shoots suggested a stimulation of T. harzianum on the wound healing processes.

1. Istituto di Biometeorologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via P. Gobetti, 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy, E-mail l.neri@ibimet.cnr.it, Internet http://www.bo.ibimet.cnr.it

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Agronomic performance of annual self-reseeding legumes and their self-establishment potential in the Apulia region of Italy
Driouech, N.1, Abou Fayad, F.2, Ghanem, A.2 & Al-Bitar, L1. Key words: annual self-reseeding legumes, Trifolium spp., Medicago spp., biological nitrogen fixation, Mediterranean region.

Abstract
The agronomic performance, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) ability and self-establishment potential of seven species of annual self-reseeding legumes were investigated in Apulia region, Italy. For the first cropping cycle (2005-2006) preliminary results showed that Trifolium spp. performed better than Medicago spp. Among the seven species, five were more suitable to the site’s conditions. T. angustifolium and M. polymorpha gave the best results. T. angustifolium fixed 131.7 kg ha-1 year of nitrogen (15N isotope dilution method), produced 1976 kg ha-1 of seeds and 8.7 t ha-1 of dry matter (DM). M. radiata and M. rigidula were the less performing. During the second cropping cycle (2006-2007) results showed that Trifolium spp. selfestablished better than Medigaco spp. Regenerated species appeared to sustain optimum level of BNF. Again T. angustifolium was the best performing species producing the highest DM (7.7 t ha-1) and fixing nitrogen (146.7 kg) N ha-1 symbiotically. In contrast, M. polymorpha, was the less performing (0.3 t ha-1 of DM and 11.5 kg ha1 of BNF) while M. rigidula and M. radiata did not regenerate. Given the overall performance of all species, it was determined that T. angustifolium had the greatest potential for further development in this environment.

1. Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari- Via Celgie, 9 Valenzano (BA) 70010, Italy, E-Mail driouech@iamb.it, Internet : www.iamb.it 2. Master students at Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari-Italy

Organic Agriculture: A New Field of International Development Policy
Egelyng, H., Høgh-Jensen, H., Kledal P.R. and Halberg, N.1 Key words: Organic Agriculture, Development Policy. WDR ´08. OECD DAC ´06.

Abstract
This paper reviews strategically selected global policy documents and development literature and analyse perspectives on the role of organic agriculture (OA) as a possible vehicle for sustainable development in developing countries. It shows that not only has compliance assessed organics made entry in terms of projects and programmes in many LICs. OA is also gaining position in formal policies and strategies of international donor agencies and organisations. If agriculture is generally “back” in development business, organic farming has certainly “arrived”.

1. Henrik Egelyng is copyright holder and corresponding author, Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), Strandgade 56, DK 1401 Copenhagen, heg@diis.dk. Henning Høgh Jensen and Paul Rye Kledal are with University of Copenhagen and Niels Halberg is with University of Aarhus.

Meta-evaluation of action plans – The case of the German Federal Organic Farming Scheme
Eichert, C.1 Key words: Organic farming policy, Policy evaluation, Organic action plans

Abstract
Meta-evaluation can be seen as a quality control measure of policies or programs. For that purpose, a formal methodology is used when assessing the quality of an evaluation work. The presented meta-evaluation is based on an adapted version of the evaluation standards used by DEGEVAL (German evaluation society). The well-balanced design of the DEGEVAL standards makes them widely applicable and useful also for conducting meta-evaluations. This paper presents the results of a meta-evaluation undertaken on the evaluation of the German Federal Organic Farming Scheme. Concerning most sections the quality of the underlying study is excellent.

1. Universität Hohenheim, Institute for Farm Economics (410A), e-mail: eichert@uni-hohenheim.de, Internet: http://www.uni-hohenheim.de/i410a/

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Beneficial Invertebrate Activity in Organic and Conventional Vegetable Fields in Eastern England
Eyre, M.D.1, Labanowska-Bury, D.2, White, R. 3 & Leifert, C.4 Key words: Beneficial invertebrates; organic vegetables; field margins; farm management

Abstract
Beneficial invertebrate activity was assessed in 2005 and 2006 in three organic and one conventional vegetable field using pitfall and pan traps. Data was generated from a total of 208 trapping sites in cauliflower, leek, cabbage, purple sprouting broccoli and calabrese crops and 80 sites in planted field margins. More activity of epigeal invertebrates was found in Brassica fields compared with leek fields and there was more in organic than conventional Brassica fields. Activity of useful invertebrate groups in the field margins decreased with vegetation development and there appears to be a need for management of margins in order to optimise activity of the most appropriate beneficial groups for the crop planted.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7XD, UK; Mick.Eyre@nefg.co.uk Department of Applied Entomology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences- SGGW, Ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland; dodaska@yahoo.co.uk Westhorpe Flower & Plants Ltd, Westhorpe House, West End, Benington, Boston, Lincolnshire, PE22 0EL, UK; roger.white@mod.comp.co.uk Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7XD, UK; Carlo.Leifert@nefg.co.uk

Crop Type and Management Effects on Ground Beetle Species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Activity in an Extensive Plot Trial
Eyre, M.D.1, Shotton, P.N.2 & Leifert, C.3 Key words: Ground beetles, Carabidae, Fertiliser, Crop Protection, Organic farming

Abstract
The effects of crop type, and of fertility and crop protection management within crops, on ground beetle species activity were investigated using the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison Experiment, using pitfall traps in 2005. Thirteen species gave significant responses to crop type, with seven showing a preference for cereals and none for grass/clover. There were 22 significant responses to fertility and six to crop protection within crop types. Sixteen of the responses to fertility and four to crop protection resulted in more activity in organically managed plots. Fertility effects were found most in wheat, barley and grass/clover whilst crop protection effects were mainly in beans and vegetables. A better knowledge of the effects of fertility management is required following changes from conventional to organic farming.

1. Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7XD, UK; Mick.Eyre@nefg.co.uk 2. As Above, Peter.Shotton@nefg.net 3. As Above, Carlo.Leifert@nefg.net

Spider (Araneae) Species Activity, Crop Type and Management Factors in an Extensive Plot Trial
Eyre, M.D.1, Shotton, P.N.2 & Leifert, C.3 Key words: Spiders, Organic farming, Fertiliser, Crop protection

Abstract
Spider species activity in five crop types, with organic and conventional fertility and crop protection management, was assessed using pitfall traps in 2005. Significant differences in activity between crop types were seen with 16 species, with 14 most active in grass/clover and 12 least active in vegetable plots. Within crops there were 20 significant responses to fertility, with 16 more active in conventional plots. Crop protection management produced four significant models, with three preferences for organic management. Small linyphiid species showed a distinct preference for the densest vegetation on conventionally fertilised plots, whilst the larger lycosid species were more active on the more open organic plots. In general, there was more activity in conventionally managed crops, in contrast to other reports.

1. Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7XD, UK; Mick.Eyre@nefg.co.uk 2. As Above, Peter.Shotton@nefg.net 3. As Above, Carlo.Leifert@nefg.net

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Crop protection and soil fertility in organic okra cultivation in Mauritius
Facknath, S. and Hurree, B. Key words: Abelmoschus esculentus, Allium cepa, Azadirachta indica, pests, NPK, soil health, organic.

Abstract
Okra was grown in organic and conventional systems. The organic plots included an intercrop system, using onion in alternate rows. Well-decomposed manure was used as a soil amendment, and mulching was done with cane straw. A bird net prevented damage by birds to seeds. Neem extract was applied as and when needed based on economic threshold values of important pests. Parameters studied included plant height, leaf area index, soil pH, soil NPK, and yield and quality of harvested okra fruits. Okra was grown in the conventional plots in a monocrop system, fertilised with synthetic NPK fertilisers, and sprayed with synthetic pesticides. Comparison of soil, plant and yield parameters showed that leaf area index, plant height (from week 10) and fruit yield and quality were higher in the organic system compared to the conventional system, while pest damage was equal in the two systems. Soil pH and phosphorus levels were lower in the organic plots, while available nitrogen and potassium were higher in the organic plots.

Broilers welfare, health and production in organic and conventional systems.
Ferrante V.1, Baroli D.2 , Lolli S.3 and Di Mauro F.4 Key words: organic poultry, broilers, behaviour production, reactivity.

Abstract
Animal welfare, product quality and organic or niche production system rise to more and more interest. Organic farming has grown rapidly in European and Italian agriculture during the last decade. The aim of the trial was to compare five organic and five conventional broiler farms from the productive, health and behavioural point of view. The productive performance showed that conventional broilers (CB) consumed significantly less feed then organic broilers (OB) and the first got a better FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio). These different figures could be due to the different environment and life style. OB are more exposed to natural climate, they can move much more and then they increase feed consumption and FCR become worsen. The different age at slaughter determined the significant difference observed for the final body weight of g 2943±441 CB vs g 4486±346 of OB (P=0.0003). The same trend was observed for carcass and chest weight using the slaughtering age as covariate. The first weighed g 3530±581 for CB vs g 4410±219 for OB (P=0.01) and the second g 2450±432 for CB and g 3150±206 for OB (P= 0.01). The mortality was similar and the main cause was SDS (Sudden Death Syndrome) related to genetic factors. From the behavioural point of view the result might indicate that less intensive farming and the presence of an enriched environment, as in organic farming, seems to promote a better adaptation of animals, both to the environment and to man presence, ensuring better welfare conditions.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Department of Animal Science, Via Celoria, 10, 20133 Milan, Italy. Valentina.Ferrante@unimi.it As above As above Plada Industriale S.r.l., Via Cascina Bel Casule, 7 Milano. Francesca.Dimauro@it.hjheinz.com

Effects of weed management strategies on quality and enteric pathogen contamination of organic lettuce
Fischer-Arndt, M. T.1, Neuhoff, D.1 & Köpke, U.1 Key words: food quality, weed control, vegetable production, microbiology, farm yard manure

Abstract
Quality requirements for raw edible produce like lettuces include nutritional value and hygienic quality. Organic lettuce is often considered to cause a potential health risk for immunocompromised individuals due to assumed pathogen transfer from organically manured soils into lettuce heads (Lactuca sativa, var. capitata). The effect of different weed management strategies (rotary tiller, mouldboard plough combined with flame weeding, plastic mulch and straw layer, resp.) on pathogen transfer from fresh and composted farm yard manure were assessed in four field experiments in 2006 and 2007. Results gave no hint on any pathogen transfer given by the assumed pathways (contaminated soil particles transported by mechanical tools and/or splash effect of rain drops). Nitrate contents in lettuce were low ranging from 269 mg/kg to 828 mg/kg in fresh matter respectively. A new method for measuring leaf tissue firmness is being developed by using an artificial denture. Substantial negative effects of manure on lettuce quality were not recorded.

1. Institute of Organic Agriculture (IOL), University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 3, D-53115 Bonn, Germany, fischer8@uni-bonn.de, http://www.iol.uni-bonn.de

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The institutionalization of Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) in Brazil: organic and fair trade initiatives
Fonseca, M. F. de A. C.1, Wilkinson, J.2, Egelyng, H. 3 & Mascarenhas, G.C.C.4 Key words: standards and regulations, conformity assessment mechanisms, organic agriculture and fair trade, economy of conventions, social network analysis

Abstract
Since the nineties the Brazilian organic movements have been looking for alternatives to certification. They have argued that in and of itself or alone certification of family farms and small enterprise is not enough to promote either the learning processes associated with organic production or stimulate development of the local market. The discussion on a Brazilian System for Fair Trade began in 2004, and PGS were considered helpful for organizing farmers, providing guarantees and improving the market. In 2007, a draft of PGS regulation for use in organic was elaborated. The same actors who helped build the Organic System are also discussing Fair Trade System. With the help of public resources, NGOs and family farmers have established systems that provide credibility to consumers with regard to organic qualities and fair trade criteria. The use of PGS is a trend for family farmers trying to access quality markets and also helps participatory research. To some, one perceived challenge is to integrate the two policies (organic and fair trade) since the target publics are similar and the international cooperation agencies give support to both. However, current international initiatives for regulating PGS do not take into account the position of local movements. In the nineties a strategy blind to such a weakness split the organic movements in Latin America and it is unlikely that a similar strategy will promote harmonization or equivalence in the future.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Rio de Janeiro Agriculture Institute - PESAGRO-RIO. Alameda São Boaventura, 770, Niterói – RJ. Brazil. E-mail mfernanda@pesagro.rj.gov.br Internet www.pesagro.rj.gov.br Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro - UFRuralRJ/CPDA. Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) Ministry of Agriculture – SEAGRO-RJ.

Experiences with intercropping design – a survey about pulse cereal-combinations in Europe
Fragstein, P.1, Trydeman Knudsen, M. 2, Gooding, M.J.3, Dibet, A.4 & Monti, M.5 Key words: Intercropping, cereal grain legume combinations, survey, European countries, EU project

Abstract
A survey was carried out within five European countries with regard to the practice of cereal grain legume intercropping. The mostly given combination was spring barley-spring pea beside 27 other combinations between pulses and cereals. 72 % of all examples consisted of spring varieties, the rest of winter varieties, mainly a special case of the French South West with mild winter climate. Intercrops were mainly used for feeding purposes. Best experiences were named as better yield stability, effective weed suppression, and good quality of feed. Of the negative experiences complicated mechanical weed regulation, unequal maturation and additional costs for separation were mostly named. The interviewed farmers showed predominantly positive prospects for the development of intercropping on their farms, problems with sowing techniques were only of minor importance.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

University of Kassel, Department of Organic Farming & Cropping Systems, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, D37213, Witzenhausen, Germany, email pvf@mail.wiz.uni-kassel.de Danish Research Centre for Organic Food and Farming,Foulum, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark Department of Agriculture, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AT, UK Laboratoire d’Ecophysiologie et Agronomie, École Supérieure d’Agriculture, 49007 Angers Cedex 01, France. Department of Agrochemistry and Agrobilogy, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, 89061 Gallina-Reggio Calabria, Italy

The Differentiation Process in Organic Agriculture (OA) – between Capitalistic Market System and IFOAM Principles
Freyer, B.1 Key words: conventionalisation, differentiation, IFOAM-principles, organic agriculture, ethical values

Abstract
The organic food chain is in a differentiation process, in between of external (society and conventional agriculture) and internal driving forces (IFOAM principles). Seven external tension fields were identified, which affected the differentiation process. One of the most important internal driving forces was the development out of the four IFOAM principles. It is recommended to address all stakeholders in the organic movement and to identify possibilities for transferring aspects of the IFOAM principles into standards/ guidelines. Furthermore, it is necessary to intensify the network with key societal players.

1. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail Bernhard.Freyer@boku.ac.at, Internet www. nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html

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IFOAM principles in the light of different ethical concepts
Freyer, B.1 Key words: ethics, IFOAM-principles, organic agriculture, values

Abstract
The IFOAM principles of health, ecology, fairness and care are a product of debates on ethical values done by the organic movement from the last years. The paper discusses how the values are embedded and linked with ethical concepts. Furthermore, the question of how to transfer these values into practice is reflected.

1. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail Bernhard.Freyer@boku.ac.at, Internet www. nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html

Impact of different Agricultural Systems and Patterns of Consumption on Greenhouse-Gas Emissions in Austria
Freyer, B.1 & Weik, S. 2 Key words: greenhouse-gas emissions, CO2-equivalents, organic farming, nutrition patters, scenarios

Abstract
Agricultural systems as well as consumer patterns influence the green house gas emissions. Therefore, we analysed different farming systems, consumption patterns and seasonal oriented food consumption. Whereas conventional production and the current meat oriented nutrition patterns lead to high green house gas emissions, there is a tremendous reduction potential, if products are organically produced and if there is a shift to vegetarian-based diets.. Nevertheless, there is a need for research in terms of data quality, and a differentiation of farming systems as well as nutrition patterns.

1. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail Bernhard.Freyer@boku.ac.at, Internet www. nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html 2. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna

Influence of Young Children (3-6 years) on Organic Food Consumption in their Families
Freyer, B.1 & Haberkorn, A.2 Key words: attitudes, organic food consumption patterns, children, morphologic interview

Abstract
Our interest was to analyse families with young children (3-6 years) to understand their consumption patterns of organic foods. To understand the influence of children on organic food consumption, as well as the role and impact of kindergarten, we studied the attitudes, habits and behaviour of 24 mothers and one couple through qualitative interviews. We found that children positively influence the consumption of organic food in the families, and that organic foods served in kindergartens is highly accepted by the parents. Five consumer types were identified based on the criteria of motivation, knowledge and economic aspects. Three conflict fields influencing the decision making process for organic food. Consumption of organic products is not a linear development process but can change in different life periods.

1. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail Bernhard.Freyer@boku.ac.at, Internet www. nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html 2. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail andreasun@gmx.at

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Mycorrhization of winter wheat cultivars in organic farming
Friedel, J.K.1, Jakupaj, S.1, Gollner, M.1, Hrbek, R.1, Flamm, C.2, Oberforster, M.2, Zechner, E.3, Kinastberger, A.4 & Löschenberger, F.5 Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhiza, root colonisation, root length density, plant morphology, drought tolerance

Abstract
The root length density, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation and the total AM root length density of 12 winter wheat cultivars have been studied at seven sites in eastern Austria under organic farming. Root length density did not differ between the cultivars whereas AM colonisation and total AM root density did. Site effects were more pronounced than cultivar effects. All three traits generally were on a higher level in calcaric Phaeozems than in Cambisols. The AM colonisation and total AM root density decreased with increasing plant height and were positively correlated with crop yield. On calcaric Phaeozems, root length density in the subsoil was obviously more important for drought tolerance than AM colonisation in the topsoil.

1. Division of Organic Farming, Dept. of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, 1180 Vienna, Austria, E-Mail juergen.friedel@boku. ac.at, Internet www.nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html 2. Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), Institut für Sortenwesen, Spargelfeldstraße 191, 1226 Vienna, Austria, Internet www.ages.at 3. Saatzucht Edelhof, Edelhof 1, 3910 Zwettl, Austria, Internet www.saatzucht.edelhof.at 4. Verein zur Förderung der Mohn –und Getreidezüchtung, Edelhof 4, 3910 Zwettl, Austria, Internet www.saatzucht.edelhof.at/page.asp/1273.htm 5. Saatzucht Donau, Saatzuchtstrasse 11, 2301 Probstdorf, Austria, Internet www.saatzucht-donau.at

Contribution of N from frequently chopped green manure to a succeeding crop of barley
Frøseth, R.B.1, Hansen, S.2 & Bakken, A.K.3 Key words: cereals, plant residue, N recovery, soil N

Abstract
The aim of the present work was to study to what extent N in mulched green manure herbage contributes to spring barley grain yield the subsequent year. The green manure herbage was either chopped and left on stubble (GML) or removed (GMR). On silty clay loam with spring incorporated green manure the subsequent barley grain yield was 10% higher with GML than with GMR. The additional grain N yield of 4 kg ha-1 with GML corresponded to only 3 % of N in above-ground green manure biomass. On loamy soil with late autumn incorporated green manure the treatments did not affect the grain yield the subsequent year. How large part of the N that was lost through leaching or gaseous emissions and how large part that was built into soil organic matter was not measured. However, this investigation confirms that potential N losses from mowed green manure might be large. Alternative ways of using the herbage should be found.

1. Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Organic Food and Farming Division. Bioforsk, NO-6630 Tingvoll, Norway, E-mail randi.froseth@bioforsk.no, Internet www.bioforsk.no 2. As Above, E-mail sissel.hansen@bioforsk.no 3. Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Grassland and Landscape Division. Bioforsk, NO-7500 Stjørdal, Norway, E-mail anne.kjersti.bakken@bioforsk.no

Group suckling in organic sow units
Früh, B.1, Hagmüller, W.2, Aubel, E.3 , Simantke, C.4,3, Schwarz, P.4 & Baumgartner, J.4 Key words: organic pig production, lactating sows, group housing, animal health

Abstract
Group suckling - a combined system of single and group housing of lactating sows - appears a suitable system for organic pig production. The aim of the study was to describe the status quo of group suckling in organic farms. 31 organic sow units in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were investigated. Stockmen were interviewed, stables were inspected and animals were examined during three visits on each farm enterprise, respectively. The majority of farms kept three sows with piglets in one group suckling unit. 76 % of the group suckling sows (n=192) were in a good nutritional condition, 18 % were considered thin and 8 % of sows were too fat. Relatively few sows showed skin lesions caused by poor housing conditions. Only 18 of 203 sows behaved anxiously or aggressively. On average 9.1 piglets per sow and litter were weaned. Amongst the investigated farms, none was optimally managed. However, no plausible correlations between biological performance, animal health, human-animal relationship on the one hand and farmspecific production conditions (housing, management, feeding, watering) on the other hand were determined. It can therefore be deduced that the “success” or “failure” of the study farms can be attributed to the interaction of different factors rather than to individual production factors.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland, E-Mail Barbara.frueh@fibl.org; Internet www.fibl.org Institute of Organic Farming and Farm Animal Biodiversity, Wels, Austria Beratung Artgerechte Tierhaltung e.V.; Witzenhausen, Germany University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria

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Effect of undersowing winter wheat with legumes on the yield and quality of subsequent winter triticale crops
Fuchs R.1, Rehm A.1, Salzeder G.1 & Wiesinger K.1 Key words: undersowing, winter wheat, nitrogen catch crops, winter triticale, legumes

Abstract
The study presents results of a series of trials investigating the effects of undersowing nitrogen fixing crops (legumes) into winter wheat on the performance of the subsequent crop winter triticale. Trials were carried out between 2003 and 2006 at two sites in southern Bavaria, Germany. All species tested - black medic, birdsfoot trefoil, red clover, white clover and a legume-grass mixture - proved to be suitable. Compared to the “not-undersown” control treatment the undersown N-fixing crops had no statistically significant effect on the yield, protein content and other grain quality characteristics of the winter wheat crop, except for one site where protein yield was significantly higher in one year. There was also no difference in disease incidence between “undersown” and “not-undersown” winter wheat. Depending on the seasonal rainfall pattern the establishment of N-fixing crops in wheat had either a negative or a positive effect on the yield of the subsequent crop of winter triticale. Reductions in yield only occurred in the 03/04 season, which had an extremely dry summer in 2003. In the seasons 04/05 and 05/06, which had a more favourable distribution of annual precipitation, the establishment of certain legume crops increased the yield and protein content of winter triticale; however the effect was not statistically significant for all years and sites.

1. Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Vöttinger Straße 38, D-85354 Freising, E-mail: rupert.fuchs@lfl.bayern.de, Internet www.lfl.bayern.de

Exploiting weed management benefits of cover crops requires pre-emption of seed rain
Gallandt, E.R.1 & Molloy, T.1 Key words: cropping system; green manure; weed seedbank

Abstract
To manage weeds with reduced reliance on, or without herbicides, cropping systems require intervals during which rapid and significant reductions in the germinable portion of the weed seedbank occur or, if already small, management to maintain a low density. Cover cropping systems and component studies have identified single-season cover cropping practices that will lower the density of the germinable weed seedbank, offering an effective means for managing the weed seedbank while maintaining or improving soil health. Specifically, field experiments demonstrated that soil disturbance events associated with cover cropping encouraged germination and seedling establishment thereby reducing the density of germinable seeds in the weed seedbank. Of notable importance, however, are the disturbance events that preempt weed seed rain. If weeds are permitted to reach reproductive maturity in cash or cover crops, the “debits” to the seedbank resulting from early season disturbance will likely be overwhelmed by the resulting seed rain “credits.”

1. University of Maine Sustainable Agriculture Program,5722 Deering Hall, Orono, ME, 04469-5722. U.S.A. E-mail: gallandt@maine.edu, Internet www.umaine.edu/weedecology

Possibilities for breeding to improve responsiveness to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in onion
Galvan, G.A.1,2, Burger-Meijer, K.1, Kuyper Th.W.3, Kik, C.4 and Scholten, O.E.1 Key words: Onion, Allium cepa L., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, low input farming, Allium fistulosum, Allium roylei

Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in the uptake of nutrients and water from soil. However, some crops, for example onion, Allium cepa L., have a poorly developed root system. As a result, onion plants need a lot of fertiliser for growth, and they are sensitive to drought. The aim of this project is to study the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and development of Allium species and to determine whether it is possible to improve onions for mycorrhizal responsiveness by breeding. Variation among Allium species indicated that selection and thus breeding for high responsiveness to AMF is possible. Two years of experiments with genotypes of a population segregating for mycorrhiza responsiveness indicated that increase in dry matter may be a more reliable trait than responsiveness.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Plant Research International, WUR, Wageningen, The Netherlands, email: olga.scholten@wur.nl, * presenting author University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay Soil Quality Group, WUR, Wageningen, The Netherlands Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands (CGN), WUR, Wageningen, The Netherlands

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Evaluating trust in organic quality marks: a network approach using laddering data
Gambelli, D.1 & Naspetti, S.2 Key words: trust-building, laddering, network analysis, consumer behaviour

Abstract
A low level of information affects trust in organic quality in Italy. Since organic brands and labels credibility, depends on trust relationships that consumers perceive, it is crucial to understand which kind of relations are more relevant and which of them could have a positive or negative effect in the long-term. The purpose of this study is to examine trust relationship related to buying organic products, to better understand the consumer decision-making process and trust-builders inside the organic channel, using an innovative network approach based on laddering analysis.

1. Researcher of Agricultural Economics, DIIGA, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona, Italy. Email: danilo@agrecon.univpm.it 2. Research Assistant of Agro-food Marketing, DIIGA, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona, Italy. Email: simona@agrecon.univpm.it

Labour Quality Model for Organic Farming Food Chains
Gassner, B. 1 Freyer, B.2 & Leitner, H. 3 Key words: Corporate Social Responsibility-concepts, ethic values, labour quality, organic farming

Abstract
The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.

1. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail birgitgassner@a1.net, Internet www.nas. boku.ac.at/oekoland.html 2. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail Bernhard.Freyer@boku.ac.at, Internet www. nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html 3. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail Heidrun.Leitner@boku.ac.at, Internet www. nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html

Plant genetic resources in mountain oases of northern Oman
Gebauer, J.1, Luedeling, E.2, Hammer, K.3 & Buerkert, A.4 Key words: crop diversity, genetic erosion, indigenous knowledge, multicropping systems

Abstract
In this study we assessed the genetic resources of three mountain oases in the al-Hajar range using a GIS-based field survey and farmer interviews. While arid conditions prevail throughout the mountain range, the different elevations of the oases in the Jabal al Akhdar mountains provide markedly differing agro-climatic conditions. Overall, 107 different crop species were identified belonging to 39 families. Species number was highest among fruits (33 spp.), followed by vegetables (24 spp.). Intensive irrigation allows cultivation of a broad range of species at all oases. However, the number of species varied significantly among sites. Fruit species diversity and homogeneity of the distribution of individual fruit species was highest at Balad Seet and lowest at Maqta, as indicated by respective Shannon indices of 1.00 and 0.39 and evenness values of 32% and 16%. Century plant, faba bean and lentil were identified as relict crops, supporting oral reports of past cultivation and providing evidence of genetic erosion. Overall greatest species similarity was found between Balad Seet and Al Jabal al Akhdar, as indicated by a Sørensen coefficient of similarity of 67%. Overall the study shows a locationspecific but surprisingly diverse mosaic of crops in Omani mountain oases that merits further studies and conservation efforts.

1. Department of Organic Agriculture and Agroecosystems Research in the Tropics and Subtropics, Institute of Crop Science, University of Kassel, Steinstr. 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail tropcrops@uni-kassel.de, Internet http://www.uni-kassel.de/agrar/ 2. As Above 3. Department of Agrobiodiversity, Institute of Crop Science, University of Kassel, Steinstr. 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail khammer@wiz.uni-kassel.de, Internet http://www. uni-kassel.de/agrar/ 4. As 2

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Efficacy evaluation of copper formulations for the control of lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)
Gengotti, S.1, Tommasini, M.G.2, Antoniacci, L.3 & Bugiani, R. 4 Key words: lettuce, Lactuca sativa, downy mildew, Bremia lactucae, copper

Abstract
A four-year field trial was run to determine the effectiveness of copper fungicides and foliar fertilizers in controlling lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae Regel) in Italy’s Emilia-Romagna Region. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 4 replicates using the highly susceptible Camaro cultivar. Eleven different fungicide formulae and foliar fertilizers with low copper concentration were compared. Tribasic copper sulphate (Cuproxat S.D.I.), copper sulphate (Poltiglia Caffaro 20) and copper oxychloride (Pasta Caffaro Nc) exhibited the best control; the effects of pentahydrate sulphate (Kay Tee) and hydroxyde (Kocide 2000) were less consistent. Hydroxide sulphate (Poltiglia disperses), tribasic sulphate (Cuproxat liquido) and the Special Kopper were less effective. The action of the foliar dressings Kendal TE, Fertileader rame and Labicuper showed the most promising results. The only non-copper-based alternative product, grapefruit seed extract, or DF 100 V, proved to be ineffective. Some of the tested foliar sprays were thus as effective as some copper-based fungicides and released less copper into the environment.

1. 2. 3. 4.

ASTRA s.r.l. - Innovazione e Sviluppo, Via Tebano 45, 48018 Faenza (RA), Italy, E-Mail gengotti@crpv.it CRPV soc. coop. - Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali, Via Monticino 1969, 47020 Cesena (FC), Italy, E-Mail tommasini@crpv.it Servizio Fitosanitario, Emilia-Romagna Region, Via Saliceto 81, 40128 Bologna, Italy, E-Mail lantoniacci@regione.emilia-romagna.it As Above

Evaluation of natural active ingredients and agronomical techniques against flea beetle (Phyllotreta spp.) on open field organic garden rocket (Eruca sativa)
Gengotti S.1 and Tommasini M.G.2 Key words: garden rocket, flea beetle, Phyllotreta spp., rotenone, crop cover

Abstract
Natural pesticides and crop covering proved to be effective in containing flea beetle (Phyllotreta spp.) in a three-year trial of open-field organic garden rocket (Eruca sativa Miller) in Italy’s Emilia-Romagna Region. Although rotenone proved to be more effective than pyrethrins, it was still unsatisfactory. Crop cover with non-woven polypropylene sheets produced encouraging results in pest control.

1. ASTRA s.r.l. - Innovazione e Sviluppo, Via Tebano 45, 48018 Faenza (RA), Italy, E-Mail gengotti@crpv.it 2. CRPV soc. coop. - Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali, Via Vic.le Monticino 1969, 47020 Cesena (FC), Italy, E-Mail tommasini@crpv.it

A Model for Pre-Estimation of Production of Organic Cotton in Iran; Case study of Khorasan Province
Ghorbani, M.1, Darijani, A.2, Mahmoudi, H.3 and Mirakabad, H.Z.4 Key words: organic product, organic cotton, farm size, economics, modeling.

Abstract
Organic farming and organic production methods have gained importance in agriculture from environmental point of view as well as economical and social stand points. The purpose of this study was to propose a model in order to estimate the cotton production in organic farms of Khorasan province, Iran. Production of organic cotton was obtained through surveys of 241 farms in 2007, partial elasticity of production of different inputs were derived from Cobb-Douglass production function. The results revealed that the cotton production decreased by 34.2 percent when the chemical factors were eliminated. The drop off yield of organic fields in large farms (more than 10 ha) is higher than small (less than 5 ha) and medium (5 to 10 ha) size farms due to over-use of chemicals and fertilizers. Also, the maximum yield in conventional system was derived from mild region (3.044 t/ha), while the minimum belonged to warm region (1.48 t/ha). If organic products are to develop, it is recommended that financial support (subsidy), extension education, and providing non-chemical inputs be provided to compensate the related production loss.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, E-mail: Ghorbani@Ferdowsi.um.ac.ir Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

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Control of bovine sub-clinical mastitis by using herbal extract during lactation
Giacinti, G.1, Rosati, R.¹, Boselli, C.¹, Tammaro, A.¹, Amatiste, S.¹, Ronchi, B.2 Key words: sub-clinical mastitis, phyto-derived, dairy cow

Abstract
Objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of feeding administration of herbal extracts for the control of bovine subclinical mastitis during lactation. A total of 36 Italian Friesian lactating cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups: phyto-treated group, placebo-treated group, and control group. In phyto-treated group, cows received 5 gr. of standardised fluid extract of Spirea ulmaria L. and 6 gr. of standardised extract of Astragalus membranaceus BUNGE, administered orally as complex once daily for 15 days. Milk samples were collected from the mammary quarters before the beginning of the experiment, and then 14, 28 and 56 days after for analysis of bacteria, and somatic cells count (SCC). Milk flow and production were also recorded. The treatment positively influenced the health status of mammary glands, resulting particularly effective against Coagulase Negative Staphilococci. A reduction of infected quarters was highlighted in treated group ( 16.7% vs 30.2% and 37.5%, respectively in control and placebo groups; P<0.05). Further studies are needed to ascertain some aspects of herbal extracts action in ruminants and their effectiveness in different experimental and practical conditions.

1. Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana, Roma – Italia 2. Dipartimento di Produzioni Animali, Università della Tuscia, Viterbo – Italia - ronchi@unitus.it

The New ‘Local’: A Global Review of Using Geographical Indications
Giovannucci, D.1 Key Words: Geographical Indications, appellations, small farmers, developing countries, standards, tradition, culture, environment.

1. Work undertaken for the UN International Trade Center. The full document will be available in mid 2008. Author contact: D@DGiovannucci.net

Corporate Social Responsibility and Organic Farming –Experiences in Austria
Goessinger, K.1 & Freyer, B.2 Key words: Marketing, Corporate Social Responsibility, Organic farming, Ethical values, Food sector

Abstract
Although the market for organic products has been growing in Austria for a few years, the rising competition of so called regional, natural or sustainable products should be taken seriously. One solution in times of “conventionalisation” of organic farming could be higher ethical standards in organic farming and more effective communication of ethical values, as it has already been practised by a great number of medium-sized and large enterprises under the name of “Corporate Social Responsibility” (CSR). CSR refers to all services that are beyond legal requirements, performed on a voluntary basis. This article discusses the topic CSR and similar approaches in the Austrian organic sector on the basis of 30 interviews with Austrian organic farmers and processors. Its level of familiarity, its institutionalisation and the farmers´ and processors´ attitudes towards the Anglo-American concept are analysed. The article also points out which CSR services could be performed in the organic food chain by giving concrete examples and presents a typology of three different groups of organic farmers and processors concerning their exposure to written marketing of CSR or similar services.

1. University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Division of Organic Farming, Gregor Mendel Straße 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria, E-Mail Katharina.Goessinger@boku.ac.at, Internet www.nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html 2. University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Division of Organic Farming, Gregor Mendel Straße 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria, E-Mail Bernhard.Freyer@boku.ac.at, Internet www.nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html

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Innovations within the organic food sector – basis for novel business relations between agricultural and processing enterprises
Gottwald, F-Th. and Boergen, I.1 Key words: Innovative products and processes, cooperation, organic food industry, organic farming, processing industry.

Abstract
Innovations within the processing sector may stimulate new, and extend and stabilize existing business relations with agricultural enterprises along the market chain. Due to their regional focus, small and medium-sized businesses in organic food production are eminently dependent on collaboration. On the basis of the evaluation of 140 applications for the Innovation Contest, this paper demonstrates how new and sustainable revenues can be built up by entering economic collaborations with innovative businesses of the processing sector.

1. Schweisfurth-Stiftung Muenchen, Suedliches Schlossrondell 1, 80636 Muenchen, Germany, Email cthomas@schweisfurth.de, Internet www.schweisfurth.de

Potential Risk of Acrylamide Formation in Different Cultivars of Amaranth and Quinoa
Graeff, S.1, Stockmann, F.1, Weber, A. 1, Berhane, B. 1, Mbeng, K.J. 1, Rohitrattana, R. 1, Salazar, P. 1, Shoko, P. 1, Kaul, H.-P.2, Claupein, W. 1 Key words: asparagine, acrylamide, pseudocereals, cultivar, food products

Abstract
Acrylamide (AA), a potential human carcinogen, is formed in strongly heated carbohydrate-rich food as a part of the Maillard-reaction. The amino acid asparagine (Asn) and reducing sugars are considered to be the main precursors for AA formation. So far, research in AA has mainly focused on potato and cereal products, indicating the relevance of species, cultivars, amount of N fertilizer, and climatic conditions. Potential additional sources of acrylamide in food products might be pseudocereal grains (e.g. amaranth, quinoa). As amaranth and quinoa are often cultivated as cash crops in organic production systems, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of acrylamide formation in different amaranth and quinoa cultivars. Grain samples were collected from field trials in Germany and Austria consisting of 6 amaranth and 3 quinoa cultivars. The results indicated significant differences in the potential for acrylamide formation of quinoa cultivars and also slight differences between tested amaranth cultivars. It is obvious that the selection of cultivars with a low AA formation potential would offer a suitable strategy for the minimization of AA in foodstuffs.

1. Institute of Crop Production and Grassland Research, Universität Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 23, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany, E-Mail graeff@uni-hohenheim.de, Internet www.unihohenheim.de 2. Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Gregor-Mendel-Str. 33, 1180 Wien, Austria

Organic and biodynamic cultivation - a possible way of increasing humus capital, improving soil fertility and providing a significant carbon sink in Nordic conditions
Granstedt, A.1 & Kjellenberg, L.2 Key words: biodynamic farming, carbon sink, humus, organic farming, soil fertility

Abstract
In Sweden three different sets of long-term comparative trials have been carried out at the Biodynamic Research Institute since 1958. With biodynamic farming an average annual increase corresponding to 500 – 800 kg soil carbon per ha is documented.

1. Biodynamic Research Institute, Skilleby experimental farm, 153 91 Järna, Sweden, Switzerland, E-Mail artur.granstedt@jdb.se. Internet www. http://www.jdb.se/sbfi/ 2. As Above

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

On the inherent instability of the monoculture
Griffon, D.1 & Torres-Alruiz, M. D.1 Key words: Stability, Food webs, Network analysis, Agroecosystem architecture.

Abstract
In the last decades has been recognized that monoculture has harmful consequences: genetic erosion, soil loss, pollution, land concentration, increased poverty and so on. But, there is another aspect that has been underestimated, the instability that results of the oversimplification of monoculture’s trophic structure. Here, using network analysis, we show why the trophic structure of monoculture is inherently instable. Considering an agroecosystem as a complex network, we propose that for the design of stable agroecosystems we must generate architectures with redundancy of relations and homogeneous connectivity, because this compensates and modulates perturbations.

1. PFG en Agroecología, Universidad Bolivariana de Venezuela. Calle Leonardo Da Vinci, Los Chaguaramos. zip code 1040. Caracas, Venezuela, e-mail: d.griffon@lycos.com.

Wood Chips from Hedgerows – Biomass Potential for On-Farm Mulching and Bioenergy?
Gruber, S.1 & Claupein, W. 1 Key words: agro-eco-systems, soil protection, landscape, bioenergy

Abstract
Hedgerows are landscape features with ecological value and agricultural benefits which are appreciated in organic farming. Biomass from periodical cutting down of hedgerows is often unutilized litter. The study assesses different ways how to use wood chips from hedgerows, and quantifies the biomass potential for either mulching arable land with wood chips or, alternatively, for bioenergy use. The calculations are based on experiments at the experimental station for organic farming Kleinhohenheim and on literature. The yield of wood chips was clearly too low to mulch the total arable land of the model farm. Hedgerows on an area equal to 1% of the farm area yielded wood chips for 0.05 ha if 160 m3 ha-1 were applied. This layer significantly reduced weeds. Hedgerows covering 5% or 20% of the farmland would provide wood chips for about 0.2 or 1 ha for mulching or, used as firewood, they would cover the corresponding fuel oil demand of more than one average household. Compared to poplars in short rotation coppice on the same area, the energy output is low. Since an energy use of wood chips is ecological and economical inefficient, mulching seems a reasonable way to use wood chips from cutting hedgerow, in spite of low yields. Wood chips should be applied to thoroughly selected areas, such as slopes (protection from soil erosion), crops with wide inter-row-distance or to perennial, high-value crops.

1. Institute for Plant Production and Grassland Research, University of Hohenheim (340), 70593 Stuttgart, Germany, E-Mail grubersf@uni-hohenheim.de, Internet www.uni-hohenheim.de

Effects of Conservation Tillage on Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) in Organic Farming
Gruber, S.1 & Claupein, W.1 Key words: Soil tillage, weed management, crop rotation

Abstract
A long-term experiment was established to examine the crop yield and the weed infestation, focussed on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), as effect of different intensity of primary tillage (mouldboard plough deep or shallow, double-layer plough, chisel plough) in combination with or without stubble tillage. The most effective ways to keep the infestation of C. arvense at a low level were deep mouldboard ploughing and the use of a double-layer plough. After the experiment had run seven years, the thistle biomass was < 2 g DM m-2 in these treatments, compared to 23–26 g DM m-2 in the treatments with chisel ploughing or shallow ploughing. In all treatments, stubble tillage in addition to primary tillage significantly reduced the thistle biomass by 30–80 %. A high density of lucerne/grass re-growth occurred in the chisel plough treatment. The soil seed bank of thistles ranged between 220 (deep plough) and 6,400 seeds m-2 (chisel plough) in the sixth year of the experiment. Stubble tillage is essential if the chisel plough or shallow ploughing is used for conservation tillage in organic farming. The double-layer plough can control C. arvense comparable to deep ploughing.

1. Institute for Crop Production and Grassland Research (340), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany, E-Mail grubersf@uni-hohenheim.de, Internet www.uni-hohenheim.de

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Impact of agronomic measures on yield and quality of organic potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for industrial processing
Haase, T.1, Haase, NU, 2 & Heß, J.3 Key words: Nitrogen; Potassium; Preceding Crop; Pre-sprouting; Cultivar

Abstract
Three field experiments were conducted during 2002 and 2004 on two sites in Germany in order to examine the impact of preceding crop, pre-sprouting, N- and K-fertilization and cultivar on total tuber fresh yields, tuber DM, glucose and fructose concentration, as well as the colour of crisps and the quality score of French fries at harvest and after storage. Generally, total tuber yields depended very much on the growing season. However, highest yields were obtained when horn grits were applied along with potassium sulphate. Increasing yields after cattle manure fertilization could be attributed to K rather than N. Combined N and K fertilization may cause DM concentration to fall short of the required minimum for crisps. Pre-sprouting and storage increased tuber DM concentration considerably. Cultivars belonging to the very early and early maturity type showed the largest relative increase of reducing sugars due to storage. On the whole, results suggest that the effect of agronomic measures such as fertilization, preceding crop and seed-tuber preparation may be rather small and the response of internal tuber quality and quality of fried products difficult to predict. The quality standards for tuber raw stock can be accomplished best when adequate cultivars suitable for storage are chosen.

1. University of Kassel, Hessische Staatsdomäne Frankenhausen, Frankenhausen 1, D-34393 Grebenstein, Germany, thaase@wiz.uni-kassel.de, http://www.uni-kassel.de/Frankenhausen 2. Max Rubner Institute, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Schützenberg 12, D-32756 Detmold, norbert.haase@bfel.de, http://www.bfel.de 3. University of Kassel, Department of Organic Farming and Cropping, Nordbahnhofstrasse 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, jh@wiz.uni-kassel.de , www.wiz.uni-kassel.de/foel

Study the effects of conventional and low input production system on quantitative and qualitative yield of Silybum marianum L.
Haj Seyed Hadi, M.1, Darzi. M.2 & Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E.3 Key words: Silybum marianum, production system, planting time, seed yield, quality.

Abstract
This investigation was carried out in the spring of 2005 – 2007 in the Research Station of Rangelands in Hamand - Damavand region of IRAN to study the effects of conventional and low input production systems on seed yield and sylimarin percentage of Silybum marianum L. This experiment was done in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Treatments were 2 production systems (Conventional and Low input system) in the main plots, 3 planting time (25 of March, 4 and 14 of April) in the sub plots and 2 seed types (Improved and Native of Khoozestan) in the sub-sub plots. Results showed that there was a significant difference between production systems. The highest height (125.8cm) and number of capitols per plant (10.4) were obtained in conventional system. While other traits including capitol diameter (7.028cm), number of seed per capitol (125), 1000 seed weight (25.006g), seed yield (1888.072kg/ha), silymarin percentage (%7.711) and silymarin yield (150.443lit/ha) were recorded in the low input system. Results showed that because of using vermicopmpost and its effects on plant growth in low input system, highest seed yield and silymarin yield were obtained in this treatment. Seed planting in the first time of planting (25 of March) had the same effect on growth and yield. Highest values were recorded in the first time of planting (25 of March). Also, improved seed caused more seed and silymarin yield. Results showed that for getting highest seed and silymarin yield, using improved seed and low input production system is necessary. Also, according to the climatic condition, seed must be planted as early as possible. In this investigation, the best time of planting is 5 March).

1. IA Universitym Roodehen Branch, Department of Agronomy. IRAN. mrhshadi@yahoo.com 2. IA Universitym Roodehen Branch, Department of Agronomy, IRAN. mt_darzi@yahoo.com 3. Research Institute of forests and rangelands, Karaj. IRAN.

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Institutions and Policy Development for Organic Agriculture in Western Balkan Countries: a Cross-Country Analysis
Hamade, K.1, Midmore, P.2 and Pugliese, P.1 Key words: Western Balkans, organic support policy

Abstract
This paper uses a comparative qualitative approach to study the dynamic of institutional changes occurring in the organic movement, State agricultural institutions and policies, and in the organic supply chain, in six Western Balkan countries. It shows that the ‘Michelsen path’ (Michelsen et al., 2001) is identifiable in these countries, but in a different sequence. Additionally, a number of common trends are identified in the organic sector of the countries studied, leading to a converging trajectory in institutions and policy development for organic agriculture.

1. CIHEAM–MAIB Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, 70010-Valenzano, Italy 2. School of Management and Business, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, UK-SY23 3DD.

A discussion of norms for S supply in organic farming based on content in forage and ruminant performance in Norway
Hansen, S.1 & Bakken, A.K.2 Key words: forage, dairy cattle, deficiency, grassland, sheep

Abstract
The content of sulphur (S) in grassland on 27 Norwegian organic farms with dairy or sheep production was investigated in 2001 and 2002. The forage content of S was below the norms (2 g S kg DM-1) for both plants and animals in a large proportion of the samples. The average S content in forage at dairy farms was 1.4 g S kg DM-1 and at sheep farms 1.5 g. Even on grasslands with low plant S content (<1 g S kg DM-1), S-fertilization did not increase yields and increased the plants’ S content only very slightly. No indications of S deficiency were observed on the dairy farms. For one sheep farm with a forage S content of 1.1 ± 0.1g S kg DM-1, brittle and short winter wool was reported.

1. Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Organic Food and Farming Division. Bioforsk, NO-6630 Tingvoll, Norway, E-mail sissel.hansen@bioforsk.no, Internet www.bioforsk.no 2. Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Grassland and Landscape Division. Bioforsk, NO-7500 Stjørdal, Norway, E-mail anne.kjersti.bakken@bioforsk.no

Controlling insect pests of stored organic chamomile by controlled atmospheres
Hashem, M. Y.1 Key words: Carbon dioxide, chamomile, modified atmosphere, population dynamics.

Abstract
Different stages of Trupanea stellata and Lasioderma serricorne were exposed to four different gas mixtures differing in their CO2 content (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% CO2). In general, increase in carbon dioxide combined with decrease in oxygen resulted in increasing mortality. The gas mixture containing 80% CO2 was the most effective mixture to control the different stages of T. stellata (most tolerant than the different stages of L. serricorne insects). The use of this gas mixture to disinfest chamomile for 7day exposure in 30 m3 fumigation chamber under temperature range between 28.7-30.9oC, resulted in complete control.

1. Dept. of Economic Entomology and Pesticides, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, m_y_hashem@hotmail.com, coae@tedata.net.eg

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Energy balance of different organic biogas farming systems
Helbig, S.1, Küstermann, B.1 & Hülsbergen, K.-J.1 Key words: biogas, energy balance, energy crop, farming system

Abstract
The ecological impact of biogas plants depends on their integration into a given farming system. Therefore only farm-specific and no general statements are possible. In this paper, two different concepts of biogas production for an organic cash crop farm have been energetically balanced using a model software. The analysis of input and efficient use of fossil energy carriers provides information on the environmental relevance of the farm operations. Apart from this, renewable energy production in the farming systems is compared to food production, and changes in the farm output are described. It turns out that organically run cash crop farms can benefit from a reasonable integration of a biogas plant, both in food crop and energy production. An increased orientation on the growing of energy crops, however, leads to worse utilization of fossil energy carriers and reduced food production.

1. Lehrstuhl für Ökologischen Landbau, Technische Universität München, Alte Akademie 12, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany, E-Mail shelbig@wzw.tum.de

Quality of organically grown protein crops in Norway for livestock concentrates – limited N and S supplementation
Henriksen, B.I.F.1 & Prestløkken, E. 2 Key words: Camelina, Concentrates, Oilseed crops, Pea, Rape, Turnip rape

Abstract
The aim of organic farming husbandry is to be entirely based on an organically produced diet. Shortage of organically produced protein crops for production of concentrates supplying the European market and a contemporary ban on the use of fishmeal for ruminants in the EU have led to an increased need for organically produced feedstuffs for production of concentrates in Norwegian organic husbandry. Pea is the most commonly cultivated protein-rich crop in organic agriculture in Norway. For ruminants, peas have a low bypass protein content compared to common protein supplements, such as rape meal and soybean meal. Other high-protein crops with complementary properties are therefore needed to meet the demand in feed quality for ruminants, pigs and poultry. Oilseed crops, which are rich in both fat and protein, will become of considerable interest if problems related to their cultivation are solved. Currently, our experience with oilseed crops in organic agriculture is limited. a The four year research project “Organic protein feed and edible oil from oilseed crops” will serve to improve current knowledge and evaluate the feed quality of organically grown protein crops like rape, turnip rape and camelina. The project will provide knowledge about the rumen degradability of protein, starch and NDF (neutral detergent fibre) and intestine digestibility of protein and starch of organically grown, protein-rich crops necessary for the production of concentrates with an optimal feed quality.

1. Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Organic Food and Farming Division, N-6630 Tingvoll, Norway, E-Mail britt.henriksen@bioforsk.no, Internet www. bioforsk.no 2. Felleskjøpet Fôrutvikling, N-7005 Trondheim, Norway, E-Mail egil.prestlokken@umb.no, Internet www.fk.no

Food for Thought about Environmental Values and Food Demand
Henseleit, M.1 Key words: Environmental Preferences, Consumer, Labelling.

Abstract
It is a controversial discussion whether consumers are taking care of environmental issues when buying food. This question seems to be of significance to understand the demand for organic products, and thus many investigations have been made in this field. However, no strong relationship between attitudes and knowledge about environmental issues on the one hand and consumption behaviour on the other hand could be confirmed yet, and still there is a gap in thorough understanding of the demand for eco-friendly produced food. In this text it is discussed to what extent people are both willing and enabled to consider environmental footprints in their food choice by applying recent surveys of environmental preferences and food labels.

1. Institute for Agricultural Policy and Market Research, University of Giessen, Senckenbergstrasse 3, 35390 Giessen, Germany, E-Mail Meike.Henseleit@agrar.uni-giessen.de

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Response of old, new and organically bred winter wheat cultivars in different farming systems: concept and experimental layout in the DOK field trial
Hildermann I.1, Thommen A.1, Dubois D.2, Boller Th.3, Wiemken A.3 & Mäder P.1 Organic farming, organic breeding, winter wheat cultivars, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient acquisition potential

Abstract
Organic farmers often use winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars that have been bred under conventional high-input conditions. We test the hypothesis, whether old and organically bred cultivars are better adapted to low-input conditions through a better functioning of the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our aim is to assess the nutrient acquisition potential of old, new and organically bred winter wheat cultivars and to identify the role of AMF for nutrient uptake and growth. In October 2006, an experiment with 10 wheat cultivars was superimposed to all four field replicates of the DOK long-term experiment, comprising four different treatments with increasing nutrient input: unfertilized, biodynamic low and moderate intensity and conventional mineral system. Growth and harvest parameters such as plant density and length, growth habit, plant health, yield and grain quality will be assessed. Shoot and root samples were taken at tillering and flowering to analyse nitrogen and phosphorus content and AMF root colonization. In this paper, the current state of literature findings in the field of organic breeding is summarized and the experimental setup for variety testing in an existing long-term trial is outlined.

1. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland, E-Mail isabell.hildermann@fibl.org, Internet www.fibl.org 2. Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland, david.dubois@art.admin.ch, Internet www.art.admin.ch/aktuell/ 3. Botanical Institute, University of Basel, Section of Plant Physiology, Hebelstrasse 1, 4056 Basel, Switzerland, andres.wiemken@unibas.ch, Internet www.plantbiology.unibas.ch/index. html

Improving nutrient uptake in wheat through cultivar specific interaction with Azospirillum
Hoagland, L.1, Murphy, K.2, Carpenter-Boggs, L.3 & Jones, S.4 Key words: nitrogen, plant breeding, organic farming, diazotrophs

Abstract
Obtaining sufficient plant available nitrogen in organic dryland wheat cropping systems is difficult. This study was conducted to determine whether inoculation with Azospirillum could improve nitrogen uptake and increase crop yield, and whether there are differences among wheat cultivars in the ability to benefit from inoculation of these diazotrophic bacteria. Seed from twenty historic and modern wheat cultivars were either left untreated, or treated with a commercial inoculant of Azospirillum, and planted at two locations under certified organic management. In one location with lower fertility, inoculation significantly increased yield and protein, and clear differences existed among individual cultivars in response to the inoculant. In another location with higher fertility, none of the cultivars responded as favorably to the inoculant, and yield in some cultivars was reduced. Plant breeders should be able to select for beneficial cultivar interactions with Azospirillum to increase wheat yield and protein levels. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of site-specific soil conditions on the effectiveness of Azospirillum in organic systems.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, 201 Johnson Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA, E-mail lori_hoagland@wsu.edu Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, 201 Johnson Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA, E-mail kmurphy2@wsu.edu Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington State University, 201 Johnson Hall, Pullman WA 99164-6420, USA, E-mail lcboggs@wsu.edu Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, 201 Johnson Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA, E-mail joness@wsu.edu

Integrating pigeonpea in maize based farming systems may increase food production and alleviate poverty
Høgh-Jensen, H.1, Odgaard, R.2, Myaka, F.A.3, Sakala, W.D.4, Adu-Gyamfi, J.J.5 & Vesterager, J.M.1 Key words: multifunctional crops, intercrops, cash crops, gender, food security

Abstract
Pressure on natural resources implies that millions of farmers in semi-arid eastern and southern Africa face very low and declining crop yields. Major natural constraints are the nitrogen and phosphorus supply together with insufficient and highly variable rainfall. This article addresses the possibilities for improved soil fertility, increased productivity and income opportunities among smallholders in semi-arid eastern and southern Africa through the integration of improved pigeonpea in maize-based cropping systems. Specifically farmers’ experiences with cultivation and integration of pigeonpea

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Alle 9, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark, E-Mail hhj@life.ku.dk Danish Institute for International Studies, Strandgade 56, DK-1401 Copenhagen, Denmark Ilonga Agricultural Research Institute, P.O.Box 33, Kilosa, Morogoro, Tanzania Chitedze Agricultural Research Station, P.O.Box 158 Lilongwe, Malawi International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramer Strasse 5, A-400, Vienna, Austria

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in maize-based cropping systems are discussed. This includes how the integration of pigeonpea affects the livelihood situation of rural smallholders – male as well as female in terms of increased food security, increased income, improved gender equity in access to resources etc. While many ‘blessings’ of integrating the multi-purpose crop pigeonpea in maize-based cropping systems are confirmed, it is also shown that socio-economic and biophysical diversity must be taken into account when evaluating impact of pigeonpea on livelihoods of different groups of farmers.

Influence of amino acid level and production system on performance, health and behaviour in organic growing pigs
Høøk Presto, M.1, Andersson, H. K.1, Wallgren, P.2,3 and Lindberg, J. E.1 Key words: lysine, production systems, growing pigs, social interactions, health

Abstract
The influence of dietary amino acid levels (recommended, 7% and 14% lower) on performance and carcass quality was studied in organic indoor and outdoor pigs fed ad libitum in a 2-phase feeding system. The outdoor pigs grew faster during phase 2 than the indoor pigs (p=0.001), although feed conversion ratio did not differ (p=0.358). Dressing percentage was higher for outdoor than for indoor pigs (p=0.011) but lean meat content did not differ (p=0.904). The results indicate a discrepancy between pigs housed in different production systems rather than between pigs directed to different dietary amino acid levels. This suggests that growing/finishing pigs fed ad libitum can compensate for dietary amino acid levels lower than the current Swedish recommendations without affecting production results. Behaviour was affected by production system and showed that outdoor pigs walked significantly more (p=0.012) and tended to be rooting more (p=0.098) than indoor pigs. Sniffing, nibbling, pushing (p=0.001 for all) and tail manipulation (p=0.002) occurred more often indoors than outdoors. The incidence of pigs seropositive to erysipelas was higher outdoors (χ2-test; p=0.001). Ascaris suum infections were present in both production systems, whereas Eimeria sp only was found among outdoor pigs.

1. Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), PO Box 7024, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden¸ 2. National Veterinary Institute, (SVA), 751 89 Uppsala, Sweden, 3. Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), PO Box 7018, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Does regional organic screening and breeding make sense? Experimental evidence from organic outdoor tomato breeding
Horneburg, B.1 and Heiko, C. B.1

Key words: Organic breeding, tomato, Phytophthora infestans

Abstract
Does regional organic screening and breeding make sense? To answer this question we looked for experimental evidence in an organic outdoor tomato project. Potentially suitable varieties were collected, genotype x environment interactions were investigated and selection was carried out within three crosses at three farms in Central and Northern Germany. The resulting selections were compared at all farms. Screening within organic horticulture was the most important means of finding suitable varieties. After three years of evaluation, 71% of the 18 most successful varieties came from colleagues within organic horticulture. The analysis of the regional evaluation did not reveal strong interactions of varieties and locations. The rate of Phytophthora (late blight) fruit infections significantly depended on the year, thus stressing the need for long-term evaluation. Site specific adaptation was partially observed for late blight infections and for yield. The main advantage of multilocational selection, however, was to make use of the selection potential at each farm. At Rhauderfehn, the farm with the highest level of Phytophthora infections, selection led to reduced fruit infection and extended harvest period. Selection at Ellingerode resulted in the highest yield. We recommend multilocational breeding approaches with frequent exchange of breeding material and data.

1. Department of Crop Sciences, University of Göttingen, Von Siebold Str. 8, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany, bhorneb@gwdg.de

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Comparison of Organic and Conventional Beef-Suckler Farms in Germany
Hörning, B.1, Feige, M.1 & Dollinger, J.1 Key words: Beef cows, Beef production, Germany, System comparison

Abstract
This study aims to compare conventional and organic farms with beef-suckler herds. Addresses were collected mainly by contacting breeding associations and farmers’ magazines. 216 questionnaires were evaluated (34.1% of them organic). Beef-suckler production in Germany is an extensive production system (small farms, small herd sizes, high percentage of grassland, low soil points, etc.). 39% of farms had to fulfil special regulations for extensive grassland production and 43% carried out landscape conservation measures. Farmers specialize in beef-suckler production. 60% of them are part-time farmers. Beef production amounts to two thirds of their agricultural income. Most farmers keep only beef cattle on the farms. Other farm animals are kept in small stock sizes. This study has found only a few differences between conventional and organic farms. Organic farmers more often keep breeds of low intensity but more of them use direct marketing channels. On organic farms cows more frequently stay outside all year. Animal performances were the same in both production systems.

1. Department of Organic Livestock Production, University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde, Friedrich-Ebert-Str. 28, D-16225 Eberswalde, Germany, E-Mail bhoerning@fh-eberswalde.de, Internet http://www.fh-eberswalde.de/K1214.htm

Late blight in organic potato growing: managing resistance and early tuber growth
Hospers-Brands, M.1, Timmermans, B.1, van der Putten, P.2, Struik, P.2, Tiemens-Hulscher, M.1 & Lammerts van Bueren, E.1 Key words: late blight, organic potatoes, resistance, physiological age, yield formation

Abstract
In organic potato production yields are often reduced by potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Two aspects are important in late blight management: a sufficiently high (field) resistance to late blight, and early tuber formation. With early tuber formation the period of tuber growth is extended at the beginning, and with a high resistance level at the end. In 2006 and 2007 experiments were carried out in which the effects of the physiological age of seed tubers on field resistance to late blight and on tuber yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were tested for early and moderately late varieties. The results indicate that with the use of physiologically older seed tubers (by pre-sprouting) the field resistance to late blight is generally lower than with younger seed tubers. With physiologically older seed tubers, however, yields are generally higher at the time the crop has to be defoliated because of late blight. It is concluded that especially when the growing period of a potato crop is short, for example as a consequence of an early late blight epidemic, or when a late variety is grown, early tuber growth by the use of older (pre-sprouted) seed tubers is highly important to assure an acceptable yield level at the end of the growing season. Even in years with a long growing season, a late variety like Agria may yield up to 12 t/ha more when physiologically older seed tubers are used.

1. Louis Bolk Instituut, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA Driebergen, Netherlands, m.hospers@louisbolk.nl 2. Crop and Weed Ecology, Plant Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Haarweg 333, 6709 RZ Wageningen, Netherlands

Indicators for the Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter and their Application in Organic and Conventional Farming Systems
Hoyer, U.1, Reents, H.-J.1 & Hülsbergen, K.-J.1 Key words: soil organic matter, indicator, farming system, humus balancing

Abstract
In view of the problems caused by soil degradation, it becomes ever more important to estimate the influence of different management systems on soil organic matter (SOM). In the past, a number of indicators characterizing SOM have been elaborated, which, however, do not allow to draw conclusions on separate management measures or even future development tendencies. A promising approach might be humus balancing, which quantifies and evaluates the humus supply of soils on the basis of crop rotation and fertilization. Comparative studies on adjacent arable sites under both organic and conventional management in different climatic regions of Germany have revealed that the indicator soil organic carbon (SOC) depends mainly on the site conditions, whereas indicators characterizing active SOM like hot water soluble C (Chws), C in microbial biomass (Cmic) and the enzyme activities of β-glucosidase and catalase are stronger related to management methods. It became evident that humus balancing is a good indicator of the active SOM pool and thus also a qualified tool for demonstrating management effects.

1. Technical University of Munich, Chair for Organic Agriculture, Alte Akademie 12, 85354 Freising, e-mail: uta.hoyer@wzw.tum.de

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Development of organic farming in Central and Eastern European countries
Hrabalova, A.1 & Wollmuthova, P2 Key words: Central and Eastern European countries, Land use structure, Organic farming, Organic livestock

Abstract
The total organic area in the eight examined Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) increased to 907,900 ha and represented 2.73% of the utilised agricultural area (UAA) in 2005. This corresponds to an annual growth rate of 23.13%. However, the area of fodder crops represented over 65% of this increase. Estonia and the Czech Republic have the highest share (over 7%) in total organic area of UAA. At the same time these countries have seen a steady decrease of in-conversion area, which limits the potential for further growth. In the organic production structure, grassland and the production of fodder have become the main organic crop areas, mainly in Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Estonia and Latvia. In relation to organic livestock, beef production dominated with 67% in total CEECs organic livestock units, followed by dairy and sheep production with 14% and 8%, respectively, in 2005. Overall, sheep are the most popular species in nearly all CEECs when shares in total production are compared. Despite the rapid growth of organic farming (OF) in CEECs in recent years, the current arrangement of organic production can be noticed as one of many factors hindering the development of the organic food market and diversification of supplies.

1. Research Institute of Agricultural Economics, Kotlárská 53, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic, E-Mail hrabalova@vuze.cz, Internet www.vuze.cz 2. As above, E-Mail wollmuthova@vuze.cz

Effect of organic and conventional feed on potential biomarkers of health in a chickenmodel
Huber, M.1, Van de Vijver, L1, De Vries, A.1, Nierop, D.1, Adriaansen-Tennekes, R.2, Parmentier, H.2, Savelkoul, H.2, Coulier, L.3, Verheij, E.3, Freidig, A.3, Van der Greef, J.3 & Hoogenboom, R.4 Key words: Organic food, feeding experiment, chicken model, immunological parameters, biomarkers

Abstract
A feeding experiment was performed in two generations of chicken with feed from organic and conventional produce. The aim was to search for ‘biomarkers’, indicating different physiological effects from the feeds. Feed and chicken were extensively studied. Various differences in nutrient content were observed in the ingredients. Most consistent finding was a difference in protein content, resulting on average in a 10% higher protein content in the conventionally produced feeds. Although animals on both feeds were healthy, differences between the groups were found. The chicken, fed with conventional feed gained more weight, whereas the animals on the organic feed showed a stronger immune reactivity, a stronger reaction to a challenge to which they were exposed, as well as a slightly stronger recovery from this challenge, being a stronger ’catch-up-growth’. With these findings ‘biomarkers’ for future research are indicated. Interpretation towards ‘health’ appeared difficult, as the concept of ‘health’ is as yet scientifically not well defined.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24, NL-3972 LA Driebergen, The Netherlands, E-Mail m.huber@louisbolk.nl, Internet www.louisbolk.nl Wageningen UR - Animal Sciences Group, P.O. Box 338, NL-6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands TNO Quality of life, P.O. Box 360, NL-3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands

Sustainable management of foxtail meadows through hay making at seed maturity
Huguenin-Elie, O.1, Stutz, C.J. 1, Gago, R.2 & Lüscher, A.1 Key words: grassland management, meadow foxtail, Alopecurus pratensis, self-reseeding, botanical composition

Abstract
Harvesting meadows at early heading of the grasses yields large quantities of high quality forage but might in the long term cause the swards to deteriorate due to the lack of formation of mature seeds. We studied 4 cutting regimes on a foxtail meadow to define which would maintain the foxtail population naturally and is acceptable in terms of forage quality. The 1st cut of the different cutting regimes was done either at early shooting, shooting, early heading or seed maturity of Alopecurus pratensis L.. The 2nd cut of the 3 first treatments was simultaneous to the 1st cut of the 4th treatment and was ground dried to allow the seeds to fall on the soil. When the meadow was harvested regularly at early heading of A. pratensis, its botanical composition deteriorated within 5 years and its yield decreased. With a 1st cut at seed maturity, A. pratensis produced the most seeds and its proportion in the sward increased, but the forage had the lowest quality. In the treatments with the 1st cut at early shooting or at shooting, A. pratensis produced significant quantities of seeds during the 2nd regrowth, maintained its population and forage of intermediate quality was produced. Sustainable production of quality forage on intensive foxtail meadows might be achieved by periodically having the 1st cut at shooting and using the second regrowth at seed maturity for ground dried hay.

1. Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich, Switzerland, E-Mail olivier.huguenin@art.admin.ch, Internet www.art.admin.ch 2. AGFF, Swiss Grassland Society, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich, Switzerland, Internet www.agff.ch

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Cultivation and analysis of anthocyanin containing types of potatoes in organic farming regarding cultivability and additional health benefits
Hüsing, B.1, Herrmann, M.-E., Hillebrand, S.2 ,Winterhalter, P2, Schliephake, U.1 & Trautz, D.1 Key words: anthocyanin content, blue potatoes, additional health benefits, organic farming

Abstract
In a two year research project a representative spectrum of blue potato varieties were cultivated and tested in detail regarding disease infestation, yield potential and the influence of production systems (organic). Cultivation recommendations for blue potatoes could be deduced from this. Furthermore the varying anthocyanin content as well as the antioxidant capacity of the varieties used was analysed. Varieties with a particularly high content will undergo further tests to show the influence of the manner of preparation (boiling, steaming, frying) and determine their use for the processing industry. The combination of ecologically produced potatoes with „additional health benefits“ arouses the customers interest. The cultivation of high yield blue types can be an alternative to the cultivation of yellow fleshed high yield varieties in organic operating companies.

1. University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück, Oldenburger Landstrasse 24,49090 Osnabrück, Germany, E-Mail B.Huesing@fh-osnabrueck.de, Internet www.fh-osnabrueck.de 2. TU-Braunschweig, Institute of Food Chemistry, Schleinitzstrasse 20, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany, E-Mail S.Hillebrand@tu-bs.de, Internet www.tu-braunschweig.de/ilc

Effect of colostrum type on serum gamma globulin concentration, growth and health of goat kids until three months
Iepema. G.1, Eekeren, N. van1 & Wagenaar, J.P.1 Key words: goat production, goats kids, colostrum, immunity, immunoglobulin

Abstract
In this study the effect of three colostrum types; goat, cow and artificial colostrum, on serum gamma globulin concentration (GGC), growth and health of goat kids during the first three months of the rearing phase was measured. Thirty newborn goat kids were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; goat colostrum (GC), cow colostrum (CC) and artificial colostrum (AC). At 2, 28, 56 and 86 days serum GGC and live weight were measured. The three colostrum types were analysed on immunoglobulin G (IgG). Goat colostrum contained twice as much IgG as cow colostrum and artificial colostrum. At 2 and 28 days GC kids had a higher serum GGC than CC and AC kids. At 56 and 86 days no significant differences in serum GGC between the groups were found. No effect of colostrum type on daily weight gain was found. Eight out of thirty goat kids under study suffered from health problems. Health problems and mortality were heavier among the AC kids. It can be concluded that for a successful passive transfer of immunity goat colostrum is necessary. When it is not possible to provide goat colostrum because of health reasons (disease transmission), cow colostrum is the best alternative. In that case good farm management is even more important.

1. Louis Bolk instituut, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA, Driebergen, The Netherlands, E-Mail g.iepema@louisbolk.nl, Internet www.louisbolk.com

Excreting behaviour of pigs from organic housing systems in relation to ammonia emission
Ivanova-Peneva, S.G.1, Aarnink, A.J.A.2 & Verstegen, M.W.A.2 Key words: pigs, organic housing, excreting behaviour, ammonia emission

Abstract
The objective of this study was to establish a pattern of excreting behaviour of pigs in relation to ammonia emission and to predict the ammonia emission rates from clean and fouled with excretions areas. The study involved 3 organic pig farms in which the housing systems included straw pens inside and a paved yard outside. Two pens with fattening pigs were chosen on each farm and measurements of excreting behaviour and ammonia emission were made at two stages in the fattening period, at approximately 45 and 80 kg of body weight. Behaviour was observed with video cameras at two consecutive days for 24 hours. From video recordings urinations and defecations, including the corresponding times, were noted. Diagrams of the excretion activity pattern during the day for every weight class and every farm were made. From the figures of the frequency of urinations during the day it was clear, that in all the tree farms there were two excretion peaks – one in the morning and one in the afternoon-evening hours. Clean areas inside emitted 1.9 g ammonia.day-1m-2 and clean areas ouside – 2.7 gday-1m-2. Inside polluted areas had a higher emission than the polluted areas on the outside yard – 13.3 gday-1m-2 vs 11.4 gday-1m-2, resp.

1. Agricultural Institute, 3 Simeon Veliki blvd., 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria, E-Mail ivanovapeneva@gmail.com 2. Wageningen University, Animal Science Group, P.O. box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands, E-Mail andre.aarnink@wur.nl, Internet www.asg.wur.nl

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Cross-Disciplinary Analysis of the On-Farm Transition from Conventional to Organic Vegetable Production
Jackson, L.1 , Smukler, S.2, Murphree, L.3, Yokota, R.4, Koike, S.T.5 & Smith, R.F.6 Key words: Soil, cropping systems, organic transition, regression trees, canonical correspondence analysis

Abstract
This farm-scale analysis of the three-year transition to organic from conventional vegetable production tracked the changes in crop, soil, pest and management on two ranches (40 and 47 ha) in the Salinas Valley, California. Many small plantings of a diverse set of cash crop and cover crop species were used, as compared to only a few species in large monocultures in conventional production. The general trends with time were: increase in soil biological indicators, low soil nitrate pools, adequate crop nutrients, minor disease and weed problems, and sporadic mild insect damage. Some crops and cultivars consistently produced higher yields than others, relative to the maximum yield for a given crop. Differences in insect and disease damage were also observed. These results support the value of initially using a biodiverse set of taxa to reduce risk, then later choosing the best-suited varieties for optimal production. The grower used some principles of organic farming (e.g., crop diversity, crop rotation, and organic matter management), but also relied on substitution-based management, such as fertigation with soluble nutrients, initially heavy applications of organic pesticides, and use of inputs derived from off-farm sources. The organic transition was conducive to both production goals and environmental quality.

1. Dept. of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA, E-Mail lejackson@ucdavis.edu, Internet http://groups.ucanr.org/ jacksonlab/ 2. Dept. of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA, E-Mail smsmukler@ucdavis.edu 3. Santa Catalina School, 1500 Mark Thomas Dr., Monterey, CA 93940, USA 4. Tanimura and Antle, Inc., P.O. Box 4070, Salinas, CA 93912, USA 5. University of California Cooperative Extension, 1432 Abbott St., Salinas, CA 93901 USA, E-Mail stkoike@ucdavis.edu 6. University of California Cooperative Extension, 1432 Abbott St., Salinas, CA 93901 USA, E-Mail rifsmith@ucdavis.edu

The effects of different cattle manure levels and branch management methods on organic production of Cucurbita pepo L.
Jahan, M., Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M. and Dehghanipu, F.1 Key words: Schneider squash, manure, seed oil, yield, organic production.

Abstract
To study the effects of different manure levels and two branch management methods on organic production of Schneider squash, a field experiment was conducted during 2005 and 2006. Treatments were four manure levels (10, 15, 20, 25 ton ha-1) and two branch management methods (with and without a wood pole), which were allocated to main plots and subplots, respectively. Results showed that the crop performed better in branch management without a wood pole than with a wood pole. Results showed that in the first year, manure level had a significant effect on fruit and seed yields. However, these traits were not significantly affected by manure levels in the second year. For both years, there were no differences in seed numbers due to manure levels. Seed oil content was slightly increased when the manure level was increased from 10 to 25 ton ha-1.

1. Faculty members of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, P. O. Box 91775-1163, Fax: +98 511 878 7430. Corresponding Author’s E-mail: jahan@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

Comparison of Different Intercropping Arrangements of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and Lentil (Lens culinaris)
Jahan, M., Koocheki, A. & Nassri Mahalati, M.1 Key words: row intercropping, strip intercropping, cumin, lentil, LER.

Abstract
To evaluate the effect of different intercropping pattern of cumin and lentil on plant growth and yield, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in the growing season of the year 2004. Treatments were: A: row intercropping of cumin and lentil B: strip intercropping of cumin and lentil (three cumin rows and three lentil rows) C: strip intercropping of cumin and lentil (four cumin rows and four lentil rows) D: sole crop of cumin (six rows) E: sole crop of lentil (six rows). For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 4 replications was used. Results showed economic and biologic yield of cumin, 1000-seed weight, number of seed per umbel were affected by different intercropping and there was a decreasing trend in these parameters from intercropped to the sole crop.

1. Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.

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2nd ISOFAR Scientific Conference - Cultivating the Future Based on Science

Biological and economic yield and also harvest index for lentil were higher in sole crop compared with intercrop. The highest Land Equvalent Ratio -LER (1.86) was obtained from treatment A (row intercropped) and the least (1.26) was obtained in treatment C ( strip intercropped ). There was a decreasing trend in LER from row intercropped to strip cropping

Agromere: how to integrate urban agriculture in the development of the Dutch city of Almere?
Jansma, J.E.1, Visser, A.J.1, de Wolf, P.1 & Stobbelaar, D.J. 2 Key words: Urban agriculture, sustainable cities, stakeholder management

Abstract
Urban agriculture produces green city areas with as an extra dimension providing food, energy, care, education or recreation for the civilians. And thus it can contribute to a more sustainable and liveable cities. The objective of the project Agromere is to create a process which will lead to a new residential quarter where agriculture is fully integrated in city live. Agromere is situated in the fast growing city of Almere, the Netherlands. In a combined stakeholder and design process a township is designed which integrates living (5,000 inhabitants) with urban agriculture on 250 ha. During this process an enthusiastic network of stakeholders has been established which developed innovating and unique ideas on urban farming. The potential for organic farming in the city is high because of its emphasis on animal welfare and consumer relations.

1. Wageningen University & Research, BU of Applied Plant Research, p.o. box 430, 8200 AK Lelystad, The Netherlands, e janeelco.jansma@wur.nl, I www.ppo.wur.nl 2. Wageningen University & Research, Van Hall Larenstein, p.o. box 9001, 6880 GB Velp, The Netherlands, e derk-jan.stobbelaar@wur.nl, I www.vanhall-larenstein.nl

Wheat populations: parental performance and stability in organic and non-organic environments
Jones, H.1, Boyd, H. E.1, Clarke, S.1, Haigh, Z. E. L.1 and Wolfe, M.1 Key words: winter wheat, organic, non-organic, yield stability, populations

Abstract
Twenty winter wheat varieties used as parents in a half diallel crossing programme for the production of wheat populations were grown in field trials at two organic and two non-organic sites over three years in England. Yields of the varieties between the two non-organic sites were highly correlated, but less so between the two organic sites and between the non-organic and organic sites. At the non-organic sites, most of the variation in yield (60%) was due to varietal differences, whereas, at the organic sites, it was due largely to the effects of environment (79%), and genotypic variation only accounted for 9%. More detailed analysis, using AMMI (Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction), allowed stricter comparisons among individual varieties. With the exception of the variety Deben, different varieties performed well in terms of yield and stability in the two systems. In particular, Tanker performed well in the non-organic trials, but was below average under organic conditions, whereas Renan gave the reverse response. The results indicate the importance of specific trials for non-organic and organic variety performance evaluation.

1. The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, Wakelyns Agroforestry, Metfield Lane, Fressingfield, Eye, Suffolk, IP21 5SD, UK. hannah.j@organicresearchcentre.com

Organic winter wheat: optimising planting
Jones, H.1, Haigh, Z. E. L.1, Baddeley, J. A.2 , Boyd, H. E.1, Clarke, S.1, Rees, R. M.2 and Wolfe, M.1 Key words: wheat, agronomy, interactions, composite cross populations

Abstract
Data from the second year of experiments at three sites (Wakelyns in SE and Sheepdrove in SW England; and Chapel Farm in SE Scotland) to investigate the effects of interactions among a range of agronomic practices (row spacing, seed density, weeding and undersowing with clover) on winter wheat performance are presented, and compared with first year results. Trends seen at all years and sites indicate that narrow row drill arrangements with high seed rates result in the highest yields. This combination also performed well for emergence and establishment. The effect of drill arrangement was significant (P<0.05) at two of the three experimental sites with establishment of 282 and 232 plants m-2 at Sheepdrove and Chapel farm respectively. There were significant interactions between row spacing and seed density at all three sites. A new composite cross population integrated into the experiment has performed well for a number of traits including canopy cover and grain yield.

1. The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, Wakelyns Agroforestry, Metfield Lane, Fressingfield, Eye, Suffolk, IP21 5SD, UK. zoe.h@organicresearchcentre.com 2. Scottish Agricultural College, Kings Buildings, West Main Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK.

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Research Needs in Organic Vegetable Production Systems in Tropical Countries With a Focus on Asia
Juroszek, P.1 & Tsai, H.H. Key words: soil fertility, crop nutrition, superior variety, pest control, natural resources

Abstract
Well-managed organic vegetable production systems (OVPS) can provide food security and healthy diets for humans, while being less harmful to the environment and more efficient in natural resource use. However, most OVPS research is carried out in developed countries, mainly under temperate or subtropical climatic conditions. Institutionalized research in organic farming in most tropical countries appears to be relatively new, and it is not a significant focus for the International Agricultural Research Centers. Tropical farmers in Asia producing vegetables organically, whether by design or default, must overcome significant challenges organic growers in temperate climates seldom face, including a lack of suitable varieties, heavy rainfall and the year-round presence of pests. According to our online literature survey, tomato is the vegetable most commonly researched in organic farming, followed by lettuce, carrot and cucumber; we found little research on crops important to tropical Asia, such as eggplant, chili pepper, different cucurbits such as gourds, and locally important indigenous vegetables. To improve and promote OVPS in tropical countries, institutional research is needed to identify and develop vegetable varieties, alternative crop protection and management methods better suited to the tropics.

1. AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center, CEM-Unit, Organic Vegetable Program, Shanhua, Taiwan 74199, E-Mail: juroszek@avrdc.org, Internet: www.avrdc.org

Weed species diversity and cover-abundance in organic and conventional winter cereal fields and 15 years ago
Kaar, B. 1 & Freyer, B.2 Key words: conventional / organic farming, diversity, weeds, winter cereals

Abstract
In this research, we compared the weed species development in conventional and organic winter cereals in Upper Austria. The investigations were done in 2003 in 15 paired conventional and organic farms. Following Braun-Blanquet procedure, a total of 105 weed species were found. 57 of them were found only in organic, four only in conventional fields and 48 in both. Therefore, there were 105 weed species in organic fields and 52 in conventional fields. More of the endangered species (Red List species) were found in organic fields. Low species diversity observed in 2003 compared to that in 1988 in the same field was attributed to higher temperature and low rainfall in the recent years. The question arises if under increasing temperature and dryness the diversity of species is regressing and endangered the biodiversity of weeds and linked with that also insects and other species as well as offers space for weeds with strong competition to cultivated crops.

1. E-Mail Bernhard.Kaar@gmx.at 2. Division of Organic Farming; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendelstr. 33, A-1180 Vienna, E-Mail Bernhard.Freyer@boku.ac.at, Internet www. nas.boku.ac.at/oekoland.html

Application of standardised biocrystallization on milk and butter samples
Kahl, J., Busscher, N.1, Mergardt, G.1 & Ploeger, A.1 Key words: organic food, biocrystallization, milk, butter

Abstract
Milk and butter samples from different feeding regimes were tested with standardised biocrystallization method. When computerized texture analysis is applied, milk and butter samples from different feeding regimes can be differentiated as statistical significant.

1. University of Kassel, Organic Food Quality and Food Culture, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail: kahl@uni-kassel.de <mailto:kahl@uni-kassel.de>

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Authentication of organic wheat samples from a long-term trial using biocrystallization
Kahl, J.1, Busscher, N1, Mergardt, G1, Mäder, P2, Dubois, D2 & Ploeger, A1 Key words: authentication, organic food, biocrystallization, wheat

Abstract
Organic and conventional wheat grain samples from a long-term field trial were tested with standardised biocrystallization method. In 1999-2006 the organic samples can be separated from the conventional samples using computerized texture analysis and standardised visual evaluation of the crystallization patterns. Moreover the organic samples can be classified in 2005-2006 after training in 2003.

1. University of Kassel, Organic Food Quality and Food Culture, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail: kahl@uni-kassel.de 2. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland

Mineralization of lupine seed meal and seedlings used as N fertilizer in organic vegetable production
Katroschan, K.1 & Stützel, H.1 Key words: C:N, lupine seedlings, lupine seed meal, N mineralization, organic fertilizer

Abstract
Seeds of grain legumes are currently discussed as N fertilizer in organic vegetable production. They can be produced by the farmers themselves and applied in well controlled amounts flexibly in time and space. Most research investigating the N mineralization of grain legume seeds was carried out using coarsely milled seeds. We hypothesized that seed germination alters the chemical composition leading to a higher N release compared to seed meal. In a pot experiment the C:N ratio of lupine seeds was shown to decrease noticeably within the first two weeks after sowing. After an incubation period of 1300°Cd net N mineralization was significantly higher for the lupine seedlings compared to the seed meal and close relationships between N mineralization and C:N ratio were found. In field experiments with white cabbage, carried out in 2005 and 2006, similar relationships were found but sowing followed by an early incorporation of seedlings after 12 and 13 days showed an N supply similar to the seed meal treatment only. Strong priming effects, mainly caused by the lupine seed meal, are discussed to be a possible reason. Late incorporation after 42 and 37 days resulted in significantly lower N supply and cabbage yield.

1. Institute of Biological Production Systems, Vegetable Systems Modelling, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover, Germany, E-Mail katroschan@gem.unihannover.de

The use of copper seed treatments to control potato late blight in organic farming
Keil, S.1, Benker, M.2 & Zellner, M.1 Key words: Phytophthora infestans, primary infections, stem blight, Öko-Simphyt

Abstract
In organic farming, potato late blight still is an unsolved problem. Up to now copper fungicides have been the most effective way to control this disease. In order to postpone the beginning of the blight epidemic, as well as the start of spraying, primary stem infections (stem blight) should be reduced by copper seed treatment. In field trials, copper fungicide treatments not only reduced stem blight and the spreading of the pathogen from infected seed tubers, but also decreased the number of infected daughter tubers.

1. Bavarian State research Centre for Agriculture, Lange Point 10, 85354 Freising, Germany 2. Chamber of Agriculture North Rhine Westphalia, Nevinghoff 40, 48147 Münster, Germany

Animal welfare and food safety: danger, risk and the distribution of responsibility
Kijlstra, A.1 & Bos, A.P. Key words: animal welfare, food safety, dioxins, paratuberculosis, toxoplasma

1. Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 65, 8200 AB The Netherlands, e-mail: aize.kijlstra@wur.nl

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Abstract
Increased animal welfare may pose risks for public health, such as increased bacterial, viral or parasitic infections or an increased level of environmental contaminants in the food product. Examples include Campylobacter in organic boilers, Toxoplasma in pigs and poultry meat and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk. Concerning environmental contaminants it is known that free-foraging laying hens will produce eggs that contain higher dioxin levels than hens kept in cages. Furthermore, outdoor chickens are considered to play an important role in the case of Avian flu outbreaks. This review indicates that it is possible to tackle each of the issues mentioned. Risk management is not only a responsibility of the government, but also should be divided amongst the participants in the food chain, including the consumer. To this end it is important that transparency about risks be maintained and optimal communication employed.

Comparative analysis of conventional and organic farming systems: Nitrogen surpluses and nitrogen losses
Kelm, M., Loges, R. & Taube, F. Key words: Nitrogen, nitrate, leaching, farming systems, nitrogen fixation

Abstract
Nutrient management is a key factor for both economic viability and environmental performance of farming systems. On 32 representative conventional and organic farms in Northern Germany, nutrient management was analyzed in the interdisciplinary monitoring project “COMPASS”. Organic farms had significantly lower nitrogen (N) surpluses compared with conventional farms. The majority of organic farms had very low or even negative N surpluses, indicating insufficient N supply in the cropping system. Nitrogen leaching, however, was too high in many cases on both conventional and organic farms. Strategies for a more targeted nutrient supply in organic farming need to be developed and implemented.

Development of organic farming in distant rural Maori communities in New Zealand through successful participatory approaches
Kerckhoffs, L.H.J.1 Key words: Participatory research, Maori communities, New Zealand, traditional knowledge, agronomical tools

Abstract
A research partnership was initiated between scientists of Crop and Food Research and rural Maori communities in the Tairawhiti region of New Zealand to help these communities with the transition from extensive agriculture to intensive organic horticulture. Within the project, growers are working together with agricultural scientists, extension specialists and social scientists using participatory approaches, what has proved to be a powerful tool for increasing the relevance and effectiveness of research for these communities. Progress towards original goals has been slower than expected, but mutual trust and developed relationships between the scientists and the community were recognised as the key factor in the project, and both groups were able to learn new and valuable skills. Many hands-on tools and techniques that made a real difference within the context of local organic vegetable cropping were developed and successfully employed.

1. NZ Institute for Crop and Food Research (CFR), RD2, 265 Lawn Rd, 4172 Hastings, New Zealand. E-Mail Kerckhoffsh@crop.cri.org.nz, Internet www.crop.cri.nz

Intercropping of oilseeds and faba beans
Kießling, D. & Köpke, U. 1 Key words: row distance, plant available nitrogen (PAN), resource use efficiency, land equivalent ratio (LER)

Abstract
Intercrops are considered as less susceptible to pests and diseases and may inhibit weeds more efficiently resulting in enhanced yields and profitability. N2 fixation of legumes is an important nitrogen (N) input factor of Organic Farming systems and results in partly unused plant available soil N (PAN) in sole cropped faba beans. Simultaneously cultivated oilseeds may function as sinks for PAN and enhance biodiversity with all positive aspects. In this respect we investigated several oilseeds intercropped with faba beans at different row distances. Depending on row distance we analysed e.g. the use of soil nutrients and land equivalent ratio (LER). Intercropped oilseeds deplete PAN between FB rows significantly already in early development. In 2007 yield performance was impaired by the extreme weather conditions. Under these circumstances LER > 1 in intercrops at wider row distance suggests facilitative interactions and some kind of compensation.

1. Institute of Organic Agriculture, University Bonn, Katzenburgweg 3, 53115 Bonn, Germany, E-Mail: daniela.kiessling@uni-bonn.de, Internet: www.iol.uni-bonn.de

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Preliminary Findings on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Organic Wheat
Kirk, A.1,2, Fox, S.1, Entz, M.2 & Tenuta, M.3 Key words: Spring wheat, arbuscular mycorrhiza, heritage wheat, phosphorus

Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi aid many crop plants in the uptake of phosphorus, which is one of the most limiting nutrients in organic crop production. Genotypic variation for mycorrhizal colonization exists in wheat cultivars. Mycorrhizal colonization and yield were studied in 5 modern wheat cultivars and 5 older wheat cultivars to investigate if differences in colonization exist between the cultivars. Cultivars that may be better suited for organic production are identified.

1. Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2M9, E-Mail sfox@agr.gc.ca. 2. Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2, E-mail M_Entz@umanitoba.ca 3. Department of Soil Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada R3T 2N2, E-mail tenutam@cc.umanitoba.ca.

Incidence of anthelmintic resistance in cattle farms in Northern Germany – first results
Kleinschmidt, N.1, von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G.2, Demeler, J.2 & Koopmann, R.1 Key words: animal health, cattle, animal husbandry and breeding, gastro-intestinal nematodes

Abstract
Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is an increasing problem worldwide especially for small ruminants and it is also rising in cattle. To maintain the efficacy of anthelmintics is an important objective. The current project aims at the investigation of the current efficacy of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics for strongylid nematodes in first season grazing (FSG) calves in Northern Germany. On 8 participating farms in Northern Germany faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) with ivermectin (IVM) were performed. On 3 farms the efficacy of IVM was found to be ≤90% and on only 4 farms it was > 95% at 14 days post treatment (d.p.t.). Only 2 farms showed a reduction ≥ 95% at 21 d.p.t.. This survey reveals a rising problem of AR. The problem of drug resistance places the welfare of animals at risk. In organic farming, without a preventive treatment, livestock may harbour high worm counts. Therefore it is necessary to maintain powerful anthelmintic drugs to guarantee the welfare of animals that need salvage treatment. To investigate the AR problem in cattle more surveys with different anthelmintic drug classes are urgently needed.

1. Institute of Organic Farming of Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Trenthorst 32, 23847 Westerau, Email nina. kleinschmidt@vti.bund.de, Internet www.vti.bund.de 2. Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Email gv.samson@tiho-hannover, Internet www.tiho-hannover.de

Risk factors for feather pecking in organic laying hens –starting points for prevention in the housing environment
Knierim, U.1, Staack, M.1 Gruber, B. 2, Keppler, C. 1, Zaludik2, K. & Niebuhr, K.2 Key words: poultry, laying hens, pullet rearing, feather pecking, housing

Abstract
Feather pecking still presents a major problem in organic laying hen farming. In order to identify important risk factors during the laying period as well as during the rearing period in an exploratory epidemiological approach, we followed birds from 23 organic rearing units in Austria and Germany to 46 laying units. Management and housing conditions were recorded during one day visits in the 16th to 18th and 30th to 40th week of age, respectively. As an indicator of feather pecking, feather conditions of random samples of 30 hens per laying farm were assessed. Average feather scores from 0 (best) to 3 (worst) were calculated. The average score of 0.73 (± 0.44) was not significantly different from the score of 0.77 (± 0.33) from 54 conventional farms assessed in the same way (p=0.247). 73 % of the total variance in feather score between the different organic farms could be explained by 6 variables. About 79 % of the explained variation was due to rearing conditions. The major risk factors for poor plumage were little elevated perch space, few drinking places and no regular scattering of grain during the rearing period, as well as poor litter quality during the laying period. It is concluded that these are feasible starting points for improved prevention strategies against feather pecking.

1. Department of Farm Animal Behaviour and Husbandry, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail knierim@wiz.uni-kassel.de, Internet www. uni-kassel.de/agrar/fnt 2. Institute of Animal Husbandry and Welfare, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria, E-mail Knut.Niebuhr@vu-wien.ac.at, Internet : www.vuwien.ac.at/Tierhaltung/

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Dropping organic certification - effects on organic farming in Norway
Koesling, M.1, Løes, A.-K.2, Flaten, O.3 & Lien, G.4 Key words: organic farming standards, opting out, motivations for organic farming

Abstract
From 2002 to 06, the annual dropout rate of certified organic farmers averaged 7.3%. A project was started in 2007 to explore farmer’s reasons for opting out of certified organic production. Important factors seem to be public regulations including standards for organic farming, agronomy, economy, and farm exit. While many organic farmers with relatively small holdings have opted out, farmers with more land and larger herds tend to convert to organic agriculture. The trend towards larger-scale farms in organic than in conventional agriculture, encouraged by the design of the organic farming payments, challenges the organic principles of diversity and fairness. Means should be considered to ensure that small organic enterprises are also economically viable.

1. Bioforsk Organic Food and Farming Division, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, 6630 Tingvoll, Norway, E-Mail matthias.koesling@bioforsk.no, Internet www.bioforsk.no 2. As Above, E-Mail anne-kristin.loes@bioforsk.no 3. Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF), Postboks 8024 Dep, 0030 OSLO, Norway, E-mail Ola.Flaten@nilf, Internet www.nilf.no 4. As Above, E-mail Gudbrand.Lien@nilf.no

Organic wheat quality from a defined Italian field-trial
Kokornaczyk, M.1, Kahl, J.2, Roose, M.2, Busscher, N.2 & Ploeger, A.2 Key words: organic wheat, quality, lutein, total protein, biocrystallization

Abstract
Organic and conventional wheat grain (Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum) samples coming from a defined field trial in Italy were measured in 2005 and 2006 for their total protein content and the contents of lutein and zeaxanthin. Additionally the samples were analyzed by means of the biocrystallization method. The grain samples could be differentiated by the total protein content, which was higher in the conventional samples. The organic samples contained a higher lutein content in Triticum aestivum but lower in Triticum durum. Biocrystallization differentiated Triticum durum from Triticum aestivum and organic from conventional grown samples when visual evaluation was applied. Differentiation of farming systems was possible for biocrystallization evaluated with computerized texture analysis but not significant for all samples and years.

1. University of Pisa, Dep. Agronomy and Agro-Ecosystem Management, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy 2. University of Kassel, Dep. Organic Food Quality and Food Culture, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany

Strategies for a diversified organic pork production
Kongsted, A.G.1, Claudi-Magnussen, C.2, Hermansen, J.E.1 & Andersen, B.H.1 Key words: Organic, pigs, pork, breed, male pigs

Abstract
Possible reasons for the low market share of organic pork may be heavy price competition with conventional produced pork products combined with no or small distinctive characteristics in appearance and quality, both regarding eating quality (flavour, tenderness) and ethical quality (production methods). The overall aim of this study is to identify strategies for a diversified organic pork production with high credibility and superior eating quality based on pigs foraging in the cropping system, use of a traditional breed and no castration. Preliminary results indicate that the use of a traditional breed, the Danish Black-Spotted pig, might be a way to produce pork, which in appearance differ from conventional pork and at the same time improve the credibility of organic pig production.

1. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University, PO Box 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, AnneG.Kongsted@agrsci.dk, John.Hermansen@agrsci.dk, BentHindrup.Andersen@agrsci.dk 2. DMRI Consult, Danish Meat Research Institute, Maglegårdsvej 2, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark, CCM@danishmeat.dk

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Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and free-living nitrogen- fixing bacteria on growth characteristics of corn (Zea mays L.) under organic and conventional cropping systems
Koocheki, A., Jahan, M. & Nassiri Mahallati, M.1 Key words: Organic and low input cropping systems, mycorrhiza, free-living nitrogen- fixing bacteria.

Abstract
In recent years, biological fertilizers have received special attention in sustainable agriculture. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and freeliving nitrogen-fixing bacteria had significant effects on corn photosynthesis and yield; the highest photosynthesis rate and yield were obtained with dual inoculation with fungus plus bacteria. These outcomes were also affected by cropping systems, but to a lesser extent. Therefore in organic and low input cropping systems, a combination of mycorrhiza and free-living bacteria performed satisfactorily.

1. Faculty members of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, P. O. Box 91775-1163, Fax: +98 511 878 7430. Corresponding Author’s E-mail: akooch@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

Veterinary treatment in organic husbandry
Koopmann, R.1, Ganter, M.2 & Link, M.3 Key words: animal health, animal husbandry and breeding, animal treatment

Abstract
The organic farming regulations put emphasis on the preservation of animal health by prophylaxis in the agriculture. The No 5 of the regulation EC 1804/99 (EC organic regulation) Appendix I B defines the veterinary treatments in organic animal husbandry. The veterinarian can use any medicine, which is effective for the indication and the animal species. If possible, effective homeopathics, phytotherapeutics or the like should have priority. Problems of implementing the EC organic regulation into the daily farm practice arise mostly from the doubling of the withdrawal period and the restriction of the numbers of treatments. The strict ban on prophylactic treatments is not mentioned any longer in the new regulation 834/2007, which shall apply as from 1st January 2009. Clarification of the guidelines for animal treatments in organic farming seems to be useful for farmers, veterinarians and boards of control.

1. Institute of Organic Farming of the Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Trenthorst 32, 23847 Westerau, Germany, E-mail regine.koopmann@fal.de 2. Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover, Klinik für kleine Klauentiere, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, E-mail martin.ganter@tiho-hannover.de 3. 27259 Varrel, Auf der Loge 1, E-mail ml@tierarzt-link.de

A Conceptual Framework for Soil management and its effect on Soil Biodiversity in Organic and Low Input Farming
Koopmans, C.J.1 & Smeding, F.W.2 Key words: Soil biology, soil management, biodiversity, sustainability, soil model

Abstract
Learning how to manage beneficial soil biological processes may be a key step towards developing sustainable agricultural systems. We designed a conceptual framework linking soil management practices to important soil-life groups and soil fertility services like nutrient cycling, soil structure and disease suppression. We selected a necessary parameter set to gain insight between management, soil life and soil support services. The findings help to develop management practices that optimise yields, soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming.

1. Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972LA Driebergen, E-mail c.koopmans@louisbolk.nl, Internet www.louisbolk.nl 2. As above

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Direct Seeding of Faba Beans in Organic Agriculture
Köpke, U.1 & Schulte, H. Key words: weed control, high residue reduced tillage system, mulch, precrop oats, gross margin

Abstract
Field experiments carried out at two experimental sites over two years showed that temporary direct seeding (DS) of faba beans (FAB) is possible in Organic Agriculture (OA) when weed pressure of perennials is low. Weed density of DS treatments was significantly lower when compared with mouldboard plough (MP, control) although no clear effects on annual weeds were given by the precrop oats neither by the amount of crop residues (0, 4, 6 t ha-1) nor the sowing density of autumnal sown oats (0, 600, 1200, 1800 seeds m-2) simulating hail-shattered grains. No significant differences in grain yield but lower costs of labour and fuel were determined for DS compared with MP. Estimated DS gross margins exceeded MP gross margins when DS yield losses remained lower than 0.95 t ha-1 as compared with MP yields.

1. Institute of Organic Agriculture (IOL), University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 3, 53115 Bonn, Germany, E-Mail: ukiol@uni-bonn.de, Internet: www.iol.uni-bonn.de

Impact of Organic Crop and Livestock Systems on Earthworm Population Dynamics
Kotcon, J. B.1 Key words: Long-Term Experiments, Farming systems, soil biodiversity, rotations.

Abstract
Earthworm population dynamics and diversity were evaluated in long-term farming systems experiments at the West Virginia University Organic Research Farm from 2000-2007. Farming systems included vegetable and field crop rotations, with versus without annual compost amendments. Field crop rotations with livestock included three years of clover-grassland. Earthworms were monitored by hand-sorting soil samples. Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus were the most common species observed. Cultivation adversely affected earthworm populations in all systems, while compost amendments either had no effect or increased earthworm populations. The population structure shifted toward younger age classes and lower biomass. Inclusion of clover-grassland in the rotation for pasture and hay production for sheep had no significant effects on populations in the field crop systems.

1. West Virginia University, Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, P. O. Box 6108, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506. USA. jkotcon@wvu.edu. Tel. 1-304-293-8822.

How transgenic crops impact on biodiversity
Kotschi, J.1 Key words: biodiversity, developing countries, genetic engineering, transgenic crops

Abstract
Genetic engineering is heralded as key technology to intensify agriculture and the acreage under transgenic crops is increasing. Agricultural diversity, on the other hand, can be considered a global resource base for food and bio-energy that may be vital in responding to unknown future needs. The article discusses the impact of genetic engineering on agricultural biodiversity, concludes that GE crops have amplified the negative impact of farming on biodiversity and proposes alternatives.

1. AGRECOL, Johannes Acker 6, 35041 Marburg, Germany, kotschi@agrecol.de, www.agrecol.de

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Laboratory Studies of the Activity of Spinosad against Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) Depending on Different Temperature
Kowalska, J.1 Key words: Leptionotarsa decemlineata, spinosad, temperature, control

Abstract
Mortality of the Colorado potato beetle larvae (Say) and adults caused by commercial formulation of spinosad at 15, 20 and 250C was determined under laboratory conditions. The insects and the leaves of potatoes were sprayed with the insecticide. Thus, the insecticide was toxic by exposure to treated surfaces and ingestion. Three concentrations of insecticide were used: 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05%. The effect was assessed the 6th day after treatment. All concentrations caused mortality both adults and larvae; however mortality of tested insect stages increased as concentration of spinosad increased. For adults was observed the highest mortality in combination with 0.2% at 150C, whereas at this same temperature in combination with 0.1% was reached the lowest mortality. In tests with the larvae was observed that 0.2% of spinosad caused the lowest mortality at 250C, whereas concentration 0.1% of spinosad reached the best results at this same temperature. For adults and larvae concentrations 0.05% of spinosad reached the lowest mortality and differences between results in this combination depend on temperature were not observed.

1. Institute of Plant Protection, W. Wegorka 20 Str., Poznan, Poland; E-mail: J.Kowalska@ior.poznan.pl

The impact of medium term feeding diets from four management systems on body composition and plasma corticosterone concentration in male rats
Królikowski, T.1, Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J.1, Rembiałkowska, E.2, Lueck, L.3 Leifert, C.3 Key words: bioactive compounds, conventional diet, corticosterone, low input diet, organic diet

Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of feed from different production systems (organic, conventional and two low input systems) on food intake, body chemical composition and plasma corticosterone (Cs) concentrations in rats. The experiment was conducted in 104 Wistar male rats divided into 4 dietary experimental diets (OF-OP, OF-CP, CF-OP and CF-CP, each in four replicates) and one control group consuming feed ad libitum for three months. Plasma Cs levels by RIA, body composition by standard chemical methods and body weight gain were determined. Results show statistically significant lower plasma Cs concentrations in rats fed on CF-CP (P<0.05) and standard (P<0.001) diets. Body chemical composition also varied depending on the fertility management of the crops used for the rat feed.

1. Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Departament of Dietetics, Chair of Nutritional Physiology, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw Poland 2. Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Departament of Functional Food and Commodities, Chair of Organic Foodstuffs Division, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw Poland 3. Nafferton Ecological Farming Group (NEFG) University of Newcastle, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield, NE43 7XD, United Kingdom

The Prospects of Organic Agriculture Development in the Chosen Regions of Poland – Podkarpacie and Kurpie.
Kucinska, K., Pelc, J., Golba, J. & Popławska, A. 1 Key words: organic agriculture, development, Kurpie, Podkarpacie, Poland

Abstract
Organic farming is developing dynamically in the European Union. In Poland its growth is dynamic but still not on a wide scale. The area of organic farms has just exceeded 1%. Research shows that the main obstacles of the dynamic development of organic farming are lack of properly educated young farmers, lack of efficient distribution system of organic products in Poland and abroad and a lot of small farms of low productivity.

1. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, Warsaw Agricultural University, Poland

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Emission of Climate-Relevant Gases in Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems
Küstermann, B.1 & Hülsbergen, K.-J.2 Key words: greenhouse gas emission, carbon cycle, C sequestration, farming system

Abstract
In 81 commercial farms in Germany, emissions of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O from crop production have been computed by model-based analyses. The considered influence factors comprise farm structure, mass and energy inputs as well as cultivation methods. A linear correlation was found between energy input and greenhouse gas potential. Due to lower N and energy inputs and also higher C sequestration as a result of humus restoration, the organic farms revealed area-related emissions (785 kg CO2 eq ha-1 a-1) that were 2.75 times lower than the emissions from conventional farms (2165 kg CO2 eq ha-1 a-1).

1. Chair of Organic Agriculture, Technical University Munich, Alte Akademie 12, Germany, E-Mail Kuestermann@wzw.tum.de, Internet www.wzw.tu-muenchen.de/oekolandbau/ 2. As Above

Efficacy of biological insecticides to control the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotasara decemlineata) in organic farming
Kühne, S.1, Reelfs, T.2, Ellmer, F.2, Moll, E.1, Kleinhenz, B.3 & Gemmer C. 2 Key words: Plant protection, insecticides, Colorado potato beetle, forecast model

Abstract
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotasara decemlineata Say) is one of the most important pests on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). In the present study, we compared the efficacy of three biological insecticides – Neem (NeemAzal-T/S), pyrethrum/rapeseed oil (Spruzit Neu) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis (Novodor FC) – against this pest in field trials conducted from 2005 to 2007. The combined and temporarily shifted application of neem and B.t.t. reduced significantly the number of beetle larvae and the percentage of defoliation due to larval feeding, and increased the potato yield considerably. The SIMLEP3 forecasting model is useful for determining the optimal timing of the treatment. Pyrethrum/rapeseed oil did not lead to a significant reduction of Colorado potato beetle larvae.

1. Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants – Julius Kuehn Institute, Stahnsdorfer Damm 81, 14532 Kleinmachnow, Germany, E-Mail stefan.kuehne@jki.bund.de, Internet www.jki. bund.de 2. Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, A.-Thaer-Weg 5, 14195 Berlin, Germany 3. ZEPP, Rüdesheimerstr. 60-68, 55545 Bad Kreuznach, Germany, E-Mail kleinhenz@zepp.info Internet www.zepp.info

How do farmers research and learn? The example of organic farmers’ experiments and innovations: A research concept
Kummer, S.1, Ninio, R.1, Leitgeb, F.1 & Vogl, C.R.1 Key words: Farmers’ experiments, Organic farming, Local knowledge.

Abstract
Experimenting, adapting and innovating are central features of farmers’ activities all over the world. Farmers hold valuable knowledge about their environment, they actively do experiments, and have their own research traditions. The development of organic farming systems is continually evolving through the experiments and innovations of organic farmers. So far, there has been little attempt to study the nature, characteristics, and factors associated with the experimental processes of farmers in a systematic, comprehensive way. A current research project investigates learning processes of organic farmers in Austria, Cuba and Israel through researching the multifaceted experiments they conduct and the innovations they obtain as possible results. This paper presents the research concept of the project.

1. Working Group for Knowledge Systems and Innovations, Division of Organic Farming, Department for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Gregor Mendel Str. 33, A-1180 Wien. E-Mail: orgexp@boku.ac.at

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Local food networks and the change of the agrofood system
Lamine, C.1 Key words: food systems, consumers, food democracy, system redesign, trajectories

Abstract
Can alternative local food networks, through the relocalization of production and consumption and the higher proportion of organic practices, bring significant changes in the agrofood system? Drawing on the case of French Amaps, the distinction between an “input substitution paradigm” and a “system redesign” paradigm, which is at the crossroads of agricultural and social sciences, will help to assess the changes which occur in consumers and producers practices and in their interactions.

1. INRA Eco-Innov, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France, E-Mail clamine@grignon.inra.fr

Profitability of sow husbandry in organic farming– Performance and construction costs for group housing of lactating sows
Lange, K.1 & Möller, D.2 Key words: sows, group housing, profitability, performance, construction costs of sow housing

Abstract
The group housing of lactating sows represents an economically interesting and also animal welfare alternative to the otherwise usual individual housing in this phase. Aim of this study is to fill existing information gaps and create more planning security. The performance efficiency of the housing system is determined on the basis of biological parameters, based on empirical data of a co-operation project. The influence of the housing system on the construction costs for housing sows is examined by construction models, which are defined on the basis of empirical data and by an expert interview. Better performance data are reached by the group housing system analysed here compared to other studies. The results show that the housing system is both suitable and efficient on farm level. The group housing of lactating sows causes a reduction of construction costs. This difference is especially noticeable when modifying existing buildings. The saving potential is 993 € per housing place.

1. University of Kassel/ FB 11/ Department of Farm Management, Steinstr. 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany. Email: lange@uni-kassel.de, Internet: www.uni-kassel.de/agrar/bwl/ 2. As Above, Email: d.moeller@uni-kassel.de

Diversity as a key concept for organic agriculture
Langer, V.1 & Frederiksen, P.2 Key words: crop diversity, farm diversity, indicator, biodiversity, mixed farming

Abstract
Diversity is a key concept of organic agriculture and is intuitively perceived as having positive, but not always explicit, consequences for the internal functioning of the farm as well as for the impact on environment and farmland nature. In two groups of specialised organic farms (arable and dairy) and a group of mixed farms, links between production diversity and diversity at the scales above and below, as well as relations to potential farmland biodiversity, are examined. Results show that diversity in different scales are not consistently correlated, i.e. neither high diversity in farm household on-farm activities, nor diversity in agricultural production are linked to high crop and land use diversity. Furthermore, there are no simple relations between diversity measures and potential benefits for farmland biodiversity.

1. Dept. of Agricultural Science, University of Copenhagen, Hojbakkegaards Alle 9, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark, E-Mail vl@life.ku.dk, Internet www.life.ku.dk 2. Dept. of Policy Analysis, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark, E-mail pfr@dmu.dk, Internet www.dmu.dk

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Construction of prices for organic products enhancing farmers’ profiles diversity in the South East of France
Lauvie P.1,2, Bellon S.2 Key Words: marketing choices, agricultural techniques, values, price

Abstract
The Provence-Côte d’Azur region is a French leader for organic farming, both in term of bulk production and number of farmers. This study aims at identifying organic farmers’ profiles diversity within the region and at creating a framework in order to understand the construction of prices for organic food. Targeting technical, economical and marketing channel choices issues, elaboration of prices for organic commodities is studied through 20 interviews, where farmers’ values were also considered. As results, first enhancement of the organic products is highly correlated to the natural and logistic resources. Moreover, most organic farmers have elaborated innovative marketing channels in order to cope with the local supply and demand. Indeed, a large number of farmers are involved in direct selling, even in combination with other marketing channels, in order to enhance their production through prices. Finally, farmers’ values have an important influence on final prices. Indeed several organic farmers pay a great attention to social, ethical, environmental issues, beyond a basic compliance with the organic standards. As a result, fairness, environmental issues, or rural development lead farmers to implement innovative techniques and marketing strategies with a final incidence on price construction.

1. MSc student ‘Organic Food Chain Management’, Hohenheim University, Germany. 2. INRA SAD (National Institute for Agricultural Research), UR 767 Ecodévelopment, Domaine Saint Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France. E-Mail bellon@avignon.inra.fr

Soil quality indicators in organic and conventional farming systems in Slovakia
Lehocka, Z.1, Klimekova, M.2 & Bielikova, M.3 Key words: farming management system, organic system, conventional system, chemical, biological soil properties

Abstract
In this study we compare some chemical and biological soil properties using the organic and conventional systems. In 2003 and 2004 the soil characteristics were observed on the precise field experiment plots in Borovce (near Pieštany, in the western part of the Slovak Republic) where organic management has taken place since 1995. The soil representative is loam and clay, loam degraded Chernozem on loess. The chemical and biological soil properties were determined within two farming systems: organic and conventional. The lower values of soil reaction and the higher contents of organic matter and inorganic nitrogen in the soil were measured under organic treatment. Organic management also positively affected a number of the cellulolytic and ammonification bacteria as well as microbial biomass content, ammonification and nitrification activity. The earthworm population was more developed at the organic variant. During the years 2003 and 2004, after eight years of organic management utilisation, the tendency of increased biological activity in the soil under organic management was observed.

1. Slovak Agricultural Research Centre - Research Institute of Plant Production, Bratislavska cesta 122, 921 68 Piestany, Slovak Republic, E-Mail lehocka@vurv.sk, Internet www.vurv.sk 2. As Above 3. As Above

Towards cognitive holism in organic research
Leiber, F.1 & Fuchs, N.1 Key words: development of organic farming, scientific methods, holistic science

Abstract
In the course of the close interplay between any scientific approach and its object, research has a modifying impact on the latter. The same is true for agriculture as scientific object. This is a particularly evident problem in organic farming, as the worldview of organic farming, arguments in marketing and farming practice seem to be in contrast to contemporary academic science which is, however, of great significance for organic research. Thus, organic research often appears to be carried out on the same theoretical basis which is opposed by organic practice and its ethical and philosophical backgrounds. At various levels, the apparent antagonism between holism and reductionism is part of this problem. This paper discusses whether holistic science is necessarily in contradiction to analytic and reductionist methods, or whether different scientific approaches could be brought together and linked in a cognitive process of building wholeness in thinking and imagination.

1. Section for Agriculture, Goetheanum, 4143 Dornach, Switzerland, E-Mail nikolai.fuchs@goetheanum.ch, Internet www.agricultural-section.org

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Research—Teaching Integration in Agroecology and Organic Farming1
Lieblein, G.2, Caporali, F.3, von Fragstein, P4. & Francis, C.5 Key words: farming systems, agroecology, organic farming, action research, learning landscapes

Abstract
Integration of research and teaching enhances the success of students in both areas, and contributes to preparation of graduates who are capable of handling the complexity of location-specific challenges in farming and food systems. A European Network of Organic Agriculture Teachers (ENOAT) convened a workshop in Italy in 2007 to explore the current state of integration and potentials for further developing this learning strategy in universities. We concluded that integration brings motivation to students and greater relevance to their learning environment, both key issues in providing success in the learning landscape

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

With collaboration of 20 ENOAT workshop participants from 13 countries, Pieve Tesino, Italy, August 2007 Norwegian Univ. Life Sciences, Posboks 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway, E-mail geir.lieblein@umb.no Univ. of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo De Lellis, IT-01100 Viterbo, Italy, E-mail caporali@unitus.it Univ. of Kassel, DE-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-mail pvf@mail.wiz.uni-kassel.de Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915, U.S.A., E-mail cfrancis2@unl.edu

Occurrence of intestinal helminths in two organic pig production systems
Lindgren K.1, Lindahl, C.2, Höglund, J.3 & Roepstorff, A. 4 Key Words: fattening pigs, organic husbandry, outdoor, pasture rotation, helminths

Abstract
Organically raised pigs are at particular risk of being infected with pasture borne endoparasites, but the housing and management system may nevertheless have a great impact on transmission. In the present study pasture rotation routines on six pig farms representing two different organic management systems were compared; 1) a mobile system, in which the pigs during the summer were living in huts on pastures that were included in a long-term crop rotation scheme, while they during the winter were stabled with access to a concrete yard; 2) a stationary system, in which the pigs all year round were stabled with access to outdoor pastures in the summer time and a concrete yard in the winter. On one farm per system, the faecal excretion of nematode eggs from the pigs were analysed for a period of 3 years. Furthermore, soil samples were collected on a mobile farm to investigate levels of nematode eggs from fields with different pig/fertilizer history. The results showed that the use of a stationary system did not fulfil the actual recommendations for prevention of nematodes. The infection levels of A. suum and Oesophagostomum spp were high in the young pigs in both systems. In contrast, T. suis egg excretion was steadily very low in the mobile system, while the infection level increased during the observation period in the stationary system. The number of eggs in soil from the fields that had been used as pig pastures until November was larger compared to those used only until September, or that was fertilized by manure.

1. JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, P.O.Box 7033, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden, +46 18 30 33 29, Kristina.Lindgren@jti.slu.se, www.jti.slu.se 2. Adress As Above, Cecilia.Lindahl@jti.se 3. Department of Parasitology (SWEPAR), National Veterinary Institute and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden, johan.hoglund@bvf.slu.se 4. Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C. Denmark, aro@life. ku.dk

Do organic livestock farms in Switzerland earn higher work incomes?
Lips, M.1 Key words: work income, organic farming, conventional farming

Abstract
In order to analyse the influence of organic farming on work income per standard working day, a multiple regression is carried out for Swiss farms engaged in livestock production, using farm accounts as a data basis. The work income of organic farms is CHF 24 (20%) higher per standard working day than that of farms participating in the “Proof of Ecological Performance” programme.

1. Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Tänikon, 8356 Ettenhausen, Switzerland; e-mail: markus.lips@art.admin.ch; Website: www.art.admin.ch

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Organic vs. Conventional Field Trials: the Effect on Cauliflower Quality
Lo Scalzo R., Iannoccari T., Genna A., Di Cesare L.F., Viscardi D., Ferrari V. & Campanelli G. Key words: cauliflower, organic, conventional, rotation, phytochemicals

Abstract
Cauliflowers represented 10% of the vegetable production in EU and are rich sources of phytonutrients. Consumer’s requests are for safe products, cultivated without massive chemical inputs. The aim of this work was to evaluate 6 years of organic (OR) and conventional (CO) field trials on 16 genotypes of cauliflower, employing crop rotation. Yield of production and quality-nutraceuticals characteristic were determined. Yield and florets weights significantly decreased in OR (about 25%) respect to CO. The differences in dry matter, soluble solids and pH between each OR and CO were negligible. The acidity and vitamin C was higher (14 and 18%) in OR respect to CO. Total polyphenol index, thiols and antioxidant indexes resulted slightly higher in OR, with no significance with CO fields. As regards the sulphur-nitrogen volatile amounts, the total average difference between OR and CO resulted not significant, with a difference for the single samplings. Some differences were found comparing single tipologies, that showed different agronomical responses to different crop management. White tipologies are positively influenced by CO, while green ones were more productive in OR fields. The present experiments meet the objective to prevent nutraceutical quality loss of OR cauliflower respect to the CO.

Residues in beeswax after conversion to organic beekeeping
Lodesani, M.1 & Costa, C.2 Key words: beekeeping / beeswax / acaricide/ residue / Apis mellifera

Abstract
Beekeepers interested in converting their honey farms to organic management must replace old combs with organic foundations. The experiment described in this paper compares two methods of replacement of old combs, “fast” (5 combs per year) and “slow” (2 combs per year), by measuring the levels of acaricide residues in the newly built combs. Considered acaricides were coumaphos (Perizin and Asuntol), fluvalinate (Apistan) and clorfenvinphos (Supona). Significant differences between the two replacement groups were observed only for the Apistan group in the third year, confirming high lipophilicity of fluvalinate. The residue levels in the newly built combs three years after beginning the conversion were significantly lower than initial levels for all products. Direct contamination of the combs was evaluated at the beginning of the trial and was found to be highest in Asuntol-treated hives and lowest in Perizin-treated hives. Residues in honey exceeding EU Maximum Residue Limit were found only in the case of Asuntol.

1. CRA – Istituto Nazionale di Apicoltura, via di Saliceto, 80 - 40128 Bologna, Italy, E-Mail mlodesani@inapicoltura.org, Internet www.inapicoltura.org 2. As Above, E-mail ccosta@inapicoltura.org

iPOPY – innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth. School meals – and more!
Løes, A.-K.1, Nölting, B.2, Kristensen, N.H.3, Spigarolo, R.4, Strassner, C.5, Roos, G.6, Mikkola, M.7 & Mikkelsen, B.E.8 Key words: consumers, food policy, iPOPY, supply chain, nutrition and health

Abstract
One of eight pilot projects in the European CORE Organic programme, innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth, (iPOPY) will study efficient ways of implementing organic food in public serving outlets for young people (2007-10). By analysing practical cases of school meal systems and other food serving outlets for youth, we will identify hindrances and promoting factors in the participating countries (Denmark, Finland, Italy and Norway). Policies, supply chains, certification systems, the young consumers’ perception and participation, and health effects of implementation of organic policies and menus are focussed in iPOPY. The main aim is to suggest efficient policies and comprehensive strategies to increase the consumption of organic food among young consumers in a public setting, and fostering sustainable nutrition. Interdisciplinary project tools under development will be presented along with the first project results, which will be available by June 2008.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Bioforsk Organic Food and Farming Division, N-6630 Tingvoll, Norway, E-Mail anne-kristin.loes@bioforsk.no; Internet www.bioforsk.no and www.ipopy.coreportal.org Center for Technology and Society of the Technical University of Berlin, Germany, Internet www.ztg.tu-berlin.de Innovation and Sustainability, Technical University of Denmark; Internet www.ipl.dtu.dk State University of Milan, Department of Food Crop Science, Italy; Internet www.unimi.it University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Germany; Internet www.fh-muenster.de SIFO-National Institute for Consumer Research, Norway; Internet www.sifo.no University of Helsinki, Finland; Internet www.helsinki.fi/university The National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark ; Internet www.food.dtu.dk

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Nitrate leaching and energy efficiency of stockless arable systems compared with mixed farming and a non-organic system on fertile soils in Northern Germany
Loges, R., Kelm, M. & Taube, F.1 Key words: nitrate leaching, energy efficiency, stockless organic farming, conventional farming

Abstract
Previous studies based on either small-scale plot experiments or modelling approaches, indicate a lower risk of nitrate leaching and a higher energy efficiency in organic than in conventional farming systems. Because there is still a lack of data measured at the farm scale, which also take farm type and farming practices into account, a comparison between an N-intensive non-organic, two organic all-arable crop rotations and a typical rotation of a mixed organic farm was carried out over a three-year period at a highly productive site in Northern Germany. Comparing the all-arable crop rotations, the organic systems had 70% lower potential yields than the regional typical conventional crop rotation. In spite of 60% lower input of fossil energy an N-intensive organic crop rotation showed 20 percent lower energy efficiency than a comparable conventional. In the present study, the higher N inputs and higher N surplus in the conventional system did not lead to significantly higher nitrate leaching than in the organic all-arable crop rotations. Comparison of an organic all-arable crop rotation with the corresponding mixed farming system showed significantly higher potential yields, higher energy efficiency and lower nitrate leaching in the organic mixed farming system. Management of the grass/clover (mulching versus feeding) had the strongest influence on nitrate leaching and energy efficiency in the organic systems. The decision to undertake stockless instead of mixed organic farming should not only be based on economic reasons, but also take the important aspects of energy and nitrogen efficiency into account.

1. University of Kiel, Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Department of Grass and Forage Science/Organic Agriculture, 24118 Kiel, Germany, E-Mail rloges@email.uni-kiel.de, Internet www.grassland-organicfarming.uni-kiel.de

Autumn sown catch crop understoreys as strategy to reduce nitrate leaching in winter cereals
Loges, R., Mauscherning, I. & Taube, F.1 Key words: intercropping, catch crops, winter cereals, nitrate leaching

Abstract
Under conditions with wet mild winters due to high nitrate leaching risk growing systems with high nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency in autumn are necessary, especially after pre crops with a high N release. In 2003 and 2004 a field trial was conducted in Northern Germany to investigate autumn N uptake and nitrate leaching in autumn sown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) grown intercropped with catch crops. Catch crops in pure stands were sown as control. In each system three catch crops common vetch (Vicia sativa), forage rape (Brassica napus) and oats (Avena sativa) were tested simultaneously. The experiment was run parallel after grass clover (high N status) and oats (low N status). N uptake, soil mineral nitrogen (Nmin) and nitrate leaching of all stands were determined. Especially with winter wheat intercropping with catch crops increased N-uptake in autumn. In all stands forage rape and oats led to a higher N uptake than common vetch. In comparison to pure sown winter wheat, intercropping reduced Nmin by more than 30 %. Nitrate leaching was highest after grass clover. Averaged over both pre crops intercropping of winter wheat and catch crops led to a reduction of nitrate leaching in a range of 38 to 60 %. Grown as intercrop to winter oilseed rape forage rape and oats decreased nitrate leaching compared to pure sown rape by 50 and 39 %, respectively. If cultivation of winter wheat after N intensive pre cop in winter mild climates is wanted, an intercropped production system with catch crops is a mean to reduce N leaching risks. Further investigations are necessary to clarify on yield performance of the main crops when growing together with catch crops.

1. University of Kiel, Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Department of Grass and Forage Science/Organic Agriculture, 24118 Kiel, Germany, E-Mail rloges@email.uni-kiel.de, Internet www.grassland-organicfarming.uni-kiel.de

Gender Effects on Adoption of Organic Weed Management Techniques
Lohr, L.1 & Park, T.A.2 Key words: technology adoption, information sources, count data, weeds

Abstract
Nearly 21% of U.S. organic farmers are women, compared with 9% of all U.S. farmers. Little research has isolated the factors influencing adoption of organic farming practices by male and female organic farmers. Male organic farmers adopt more weed control practices than female organic farmers and use a different portfolio of techniques. Results from a count data model and a national survey of U.S. organic farmers were used to decompose observed gender differences in technology adoption into a characteristics effect and a coefficient effect. The analysis shows that 40% of the adoption

1. Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-7509, USA, E-Mail llohr@agecon.uga.edu, Internet www.uga.edu 2. As Above

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differential is due to differences in characteristics of male and female organic farmers. Education, experience, information sources, and institutional support are key factors causing the gender gap in number and type of adopted practices.

The Impact of Labor and Hiring Decisions on the Performance of U.S. Organic Farms
Lohr, L.1 and Park, T.A. Key words: labor management, seasonal workers, elasticity of complementarity

Abstract
An increased emphasis on the viability and growth of local food systems which reduce “food miles” has promoted efforts encouraging farmers and processors to sell and distribute food products to local consumers. The elasticity of complementarity is used to predict adjustments in relative wage payments if organic farmers commit to local selling. We use comprehensive U.S. data on organic practices to show that a commitment to local sales leads to lower organic farm incomes. Policies that promote a shift to local sales would lead to decreased use of seasonal workers and higher wages for seasonal workers with smaller adjustments in the wages of year-round workers.

1. Fehler! Nur HauptdokumentDepartment of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7509, U.S.A. e-mail: TPark@agecon.uga.edu, tel: +1-706-542-0731

Effect of wheat production system components on food preference in rats
Lueck, L.1, Velimirov A.2 , Shiel R.S.1, Cooper, J.1M. & Leifert, C.1 Key words: wheat, food preference, systems comparison

Abstract
In the study presented the effects of two major system components - fertility management and crop protection - were tested in a rat preference test for the first time. Wheat samples produced under 4 combinations of these management factors: -a) organic fertility and crop protection management, b) organic fertility management and conventional crop protection c) conventional fertility management and organic crop protection and d) conventional fertility management and crop protection - generated in the Nafferton factorial systems comparison (NFSC) trial at Newcastle University, were used as experimental diets. Results showed that the organically fertilised wheat was preferred by rats (P = 0.001) while the organic crop protection resulted in reduced wheat consumption (not significant). This might indicate that the rats did not sense or did not select against possible traces of plant protection agents but responded more clearly to differences that were caused by the fertility management.

1. Nafferton Ecological Farming group, Newcastle University, Stocksfield NE43 7XD, UK, E-mail lorna.lueck@nefg.co.uk 2. FiBL - Austria, Theresianumgasse 11/1, A-1040 Wien, Austria, E-mail albiveli@yahoo.com

Organic agriculture and rural livelihoods in Karnataka, India
Lukas, M.1 & Cahn, M.2 Organic agriculture, sustainable livelihoods, rural development, India, Karnataka

Abstract
The research explored the effects a change from conventional to organic farming had on the livelihoods of a group of farmers in Karnataka, South India. It involved semi-structured interviews with organic farmers, NGOs, consumers, marketing organisations, and the State Agricultural Department. The farmers in the case study perceived that they had improved their livelihoods over the long term by the conversion from conventional to organic farming. Reduced costs for external inputs and reduced labour requirements together with similar or higher yields and premium prices resulted in higher netfarm incomes. The conversion to organic farming reduced the reliance on credits and the risk of crop failure due to pests, diseases and droughts, thereby reducing vulnerability. In addition, the farmers mentioned enhanced natural assets, reduced risk of pesticide poisonings, improved food safety, higher levels of self-sufficiency, and the access to networks supporting knowledge exchange and political participation as important benefits of the conversion. However, almost all the case study farmers noted that the conversion period was difficult due to temporarily declining yields and a lack of information and experiences. This is likely to be a major constraint preventing asset-poor farmers from adopting organic agriculture.

1. Centre for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstraße 6, 28359 Bremen, Germany Email: martin-lukas@zmt-bremen.de, Internet: www.zmt-bremen.de 2. KoruNZ Consulting, 19 Karen Lane, Christchurch, New Zealand, Email: Cahn.sha@xtra.co.nz

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Influence of Vicia hirsuta control with kainite on winter cereals
Lukashyk, P.1, Berg, M.2 & Köpke, U.2 Key words: Organic farming, hairy tare, kainite, crop damage, corn yield

Abstract
In four field experiments (2002, 2003) the influence of Vicia hirsuta control with kainite applications (59% NaCl, 17% KCl, and 16% MgSO4) on growth of winter cereals was examined. Leaf damage (yellowing) of both winter wheat and winter rye increased with increasing kainite concentrations. At early application dates [growth stages (GS) 23-32] crop damages were low (up to 16.8%) and crop stands recovered rapidly from the injuries caused by the salts. The application of kainite solutions (350 kg ha-1) at later growth stages of winter wheat (GS 39) caused severe crop damages up to 48% and crop regeneration was low. Yield relevant damages of winter crop caused by using kainite were not determined. The overhead potash fertilisation with kainite granulate (53.5 kg K ha-1) at GS 23-24 of winter wheat and GS 27-29 of winter rye, resulted in lower crop yield and grain weight due to the enhanced growth of V. hirsuta.

1. Institute of Sugar Beet Research, Department of Coordination, D-37079 Göttingen, Germany, E-Mail lukashyk@ifz-goettingen.de, Internet: www.ifz-goettingen.de 2. Institute of Organic Agriculture, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany, E-Mail iol@uni-bonn.de, Internet: www.iol.uni-bonn.de

Socio-Economic Effects of Organic Agriculture in Africa
Lyons, K.1 and Burch, D.2 Key words: global South; socio-economic impacts; food security; rural development.

Abstract
The African continent has experienced significant growth in the organic sector in recent years. This paper draws from in-depth interviews with fifty organic farmers across four selected countries – Egypt, Ghana, Kenya and Uganda – to document the socio-economic impacts associated with the uptake of organic farming practices. Our results demonstrate five benefits for farmers, farm families and surrounding communities arising from entry into organics: increased farm incomes; expanded marketing opportunities; empowerment of farmers; health benefits, and; sustaining environments. Our paper concludes with a series of recommendations to assist the on-going expansion of organics in Africa.

1. Dr. Kristen Lyons, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia. 4111. Email: Kristen.lyons@griffith.edu.au 2. Prof. David Burch, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia. 4111. Email: d.burch@griffith.edu.au

Ancestral Livelihoods in Amazon River Floodplains
Madaleno, I.1 Key words: Livelihood Improvements, Socioeconomics, Developing Countries.

Abstract
Amazon’s historical peasantries, the Caboclos, are the legitimate heirs of aboriginal knowledge, displaying a good repertoire of imaginative forms of natural resources management, adapted to climate change and its extremes in temperature and rainfall. Caboclos are capable of restarting livelihoods and breeding life after each flood, surviving on multiple functions, activities and tasks, maintaining a respectful relationship with the forest and the floodplains, as with numerous waterways that drive away from the Amazon and penetrate the jungle. Vegetable farming uses organic fertilisers, Caboclos tending the alluvial rich soil every time the river falls shorter in order to stock food surplus for the rainy season, to fulfil ongoing household nutritious needs, as to get cash to meet other basic necessities. The fundamental research objective is to recover traditional organic farming and forest management practises along Lower Brazilian Amazon River margins so that they might be presented as models for similar tropical environments.

1. Portuguese Tropical Research Institute (IICT), Junqueira, 86-1º, 1300-344 Lisbon, Portugal, E-Mail Isabel-madaleno@netcabo.pt, Internet www.iict.pt

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Antioxidant Activity of Vegetables from Different Management Systems
Maggio, A. 1 , De Pascale S. & Barbieri G. Key words: antioxidants, potato, escarole, tomato.

Abstract
In this paper we considered the relationship between organic farming and accumulation of functional metabolites with antioxidant activity. The level of these molecules, with high nutritional value, usually increases in response to various environmental stresses and, consequently, it may be higher in organic crops that are generally more exposed to environmental stressors compared to conventional crops. Here we provide evidence that organic farming may enhance the antioxidant capacity of 10-15 % in tomato and potato. We also demonstrate that the absence of mulching may cause a 15% increase of the antioxidant activity in organic escarole, indicating that different cultivation techniques may also affect the accumulation of these metabolites. Based on these results, we conclude that organically grown products may also be considered and marketed as potential functional foods.

1. Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy – University of Naples Federico II. Via Università 100, Portici 80055 – Italy - E-mail albino.maggio@unina.it

Management Strategies and Practices for Preventing Nutrient Deficiencies in Organic Crop Production
Malhi, S. S. 1, Brandt, S. A.2, Zentner, R. P.3, Knight, J. D.4, Gill, K. S.5, Sahota, T. S.6 and Schoenau, J. J.4 Key words: Amendments, crop rotation, organic crop production, rock phosphate, nutrient deficiencies

Abstract
Field experiments are underway in Canada to determine the influence of management practices (crop diversity, green manure, legumes) and amendments (Penicillium bilaiae, rock phosphate, elemental S, gypsum, manure, wood ash, alfalfa pellets) on crop yield. In the alternative cropping systems study established in 1995, crop yields for organic system without any chemical input were 30-40% lower than the conventional system with high inputs. But, lower input costs plus price premiums for organic produce normally more than offset lower yields, resulting in favourable economic performance and energy efficiency. Legume, green manure and compost manure helped to replace nutrients lacking in the soil and improved crop yields. In the organic system, amount of P removed in crop exceeded that of P replaced and this can be a major yield limiting factor. In amendments experiments, there was small effect of granular rock phosphate fertilizer and/or Penicillium bilaiae in increasing soil P level and crop yield in the application year. Other findings suggested the use of elemental S fertilizer, gypsum, manure, wood ash or alfalfa pellets to improve nutrient availability, and yield and quality of produce. In conclusion, integrated use of management practices and amendments has the potential to increase sustainability of crop production as well as improve soil quality plus minimize environmental damage.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 1240, Melfort, SK, Canada S0E 1A0; E-mail: malhis@agr.gc.ca Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Scott, SK, Canada; E-mail: brandts@agr.gc.ca Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, SK, Canada; E-mail: Zentner@agr.gc.ca Department of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; E-mail: diane.knight@usask.ca; jeff. schoenau@usask.ca Smoky Applied Research and Demonstration Association, Fahler, Alberta, Canada; E-mail: sarda@serbernet.com Thunder Bay Agricultural Research Station, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada; E-mail: tarloksahota@tbaytel.net

The use of mulch to increase Spider (Arachnidae) numbers; a habitat approach to biological insect control
Manns, H.R., Murray, D.L. & Beresford, D.V. Key words: mulch, population viability analysis, habitat diversity, spiders

Abstract
The potential for insect predators to contribute to a biological balance of insect species was explored with mulch. Insects were collected in pitfall traps in outdoor microplots over 3 seasons in southern Ontario, Canada. Treatments varied each season with crops of oats or soybeans, with residue of straw, corn stalks or paperfibre, and with residue tilled in or surface applied. In 2006 at the peak of spider population density there was a significant effect of the plant and the paperfibre residue on increasing spider density. Existing data sets on spiders by Spiller and Schoener (1988 & 1994) were analyzed to assess the potential to increase spider survival from improved carrying capacity of their habitat. Spider census data was tested with curve fitting models in Aikaike Information Criteria (AIC). Spider populations of Metepeira, with sizeable numbers, were density dependent. Demographic data was assembled from Spiller & Schoener, 1988 and population size was projected with RAMAS Ecolab. Increasing the carrying capacity increased spider populations in the model projections. Mulch improves spatial diversity and could increase spider density from reduced intraspecific competition in the plot experiments. Increasing spider numbers with habitat complexity in agricultural systems could allow spiders to reduce specific pest problems through maintaining the balance of insect species.

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Potentially mineralizable nitrogen is soils green manured with biocidal crops
Marchetti, R.1, Lazzeri, L.2, Malaguti, L. 3, Orsi, A. 4 & Ponzoni, G. 5 Key words: green manure, N mineralization, Brassicaceae, methyl bromide, metam sodium

Abstract
Biofumigant crops used as green manure, in addition to producing a biocidal effect on some soil-borne pathogens and pests, could represent a source of N for crop nutrition. In two laboratory experiments we compared i) the potentially mineralizable N (PMN) of a silty clay soil after incorporation of glucosinolate-containing (GLS+) and non-containing (GLS–) plants, or after incorporation of metam sodium; and ii) the mineralization rate of different types of soils (silty clay, loam and loamy sand) after green manuring with GLS+ crops. After a 3-month incubation, the PMN of the silty clay soil amended with the GLS+ Brassica juncea was significantly higher than the unamended control and the soil amended with Triticum aestivum and Eruca sativa. Metham sodium, while showing a remarkable nitrification inhibition activity, gave rise to amounts of inorganic N (mainly in the ammonium form) of the same level as B. juncea. Mineralization rate was higher in the loamy sand soil than in the loam and in the silty clay soils. Biofumigant crops used as green manure, by increasing N availability in soil, may represent an interesting source of N for the following crops in organic agriculture.

1. Council of Agricultural Research (C.R.A.) Agronomical Research Institute, Modena Section, Viale Caduti in Guerra 134, 41100 Modena, Italy. Current address: C.R.A. Pig Husbandry Research Unit, Via Beccastecca, 345, 41018 San Cesario S/P (Modena), Italy. E-mail: rosa.marchetti@entecra.it 2. C.R.A. Research Center for Industrial Crops. Via di Corticella, 133, 40129 Bologna, Italy 3. As 2 4. As 1 5. As 1

Effects of red clover and maize silages on the carriage of gut pathogens in steers
Marley, C.L.1, Scott, M.B.1, Bakewell, E.L.1, Leemans, D.K.1, Sanderson, R1. & Davies, D.R.1 Key words: Red clover silage, maize silage, pathogens, cattle, faecal shedding

Abstract
An experiment investigated the effects of increasing proportions of red clover (RC) (Trifolium pratense) silage relative to maize (M) (Zea mays) silage in the diet of steers on the pathogenic microflora of gut digesta and faecal samples. The experiment consisted of 3 periods of 21 d. Eight Hereford x Friesian steers were used, with 4 maintained on a 90 % maize: 10 % red clover (90M:10RC) silage diet throughout and 4 receiving 90M:10RC silage in period 1 then 50M:50RC, 10M:90RC in periods 2-3, respectively. Populations of Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli were enumerated at time points in each period. L. monocytogenes data showed disparity between periods. In the latter part of period 2, L. monocytogenes populations were higher in the rumen, duodenum and faeces of steers offered 50M:50RC but in period 3, L. monocytogenes populations were lower in the faeces of steers fed the higher level of red clover silage (P < 0.05). Despite negligible E. coli levels in the diets, populations of E. coli, including E. coli 0157, were detected in the steers throughout the trial. Diet effects on E. coli levels were not apparent at any of the three sites examined. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of red clover and dietary pathogen load on gut and faecal pathogen populations.

1. Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth SY23 3EB UK, E-Mail david.davies@bbsrc.ac.uk, Internet www.iger.bbsrc.ac.uk

Production of grain legume crops alternative to soya bean and their use in organic dairy production
Martini, A.1, Migliorini P. 2, Lorenzini, G.1, Lotti, C.1, Rosi Bellière S. 2, Squilloni, S.1, Riccio, F.1 Giorgetti, A.1 & Casini M.3 Key words: high protein pea, field bean, lupin, dairy cattle

Abstract
This work evaluates the possibility to substitute external soya bean, a high risk GMO alimentary source, with other legumes produced on farm, such as sweet lupin, protein pea and field bean, as alternative protein source in the formulation of diet in organic dairy cattle nutrition. In 2005/2007 periods both the field and feeding trials were carried out in an organic dairy farm in Tuscany. The performances of grain legumes crops were evaluated in terms of grain yield and quality of grains. The alimentary experiment was carried out on dairy cattle fed with two diets: A with extruded soya bean and B with bitter lupin + field bean + high protein pea. In the field trial the Italian sweet lupin varieties (Multitalia) were the most interesting for CP production and pea the best for yield. The feeding trial provided that the protein content was higher for the A diet (with soya bean) while fat, somatic cells and urea

1. Department of Scienze Zootecniche University of Florence; via delle Cascine 5, 50144 Firenze – Italy, E-Mail andrea.martini@unifi.it, internet www.zoot.unifi.it 2. Department of Agronomy and Land Management (DISAT), University of Florence Piazzale delle Cascine 18, 50144 Florence, Italy, E-Mail paola.migliorini@unifi.it, Internet www.unifi.it/ disat 3. Cooperativa Agricola Emilio Sereni, via La Brocchi, 27, 50032 Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI), E-Mail coop.agricolaemilioseren@tin.it

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content did not differ.

Pisum sativum as alternative protein source in diets for buffalo cows in middle and late stage of lactation
Masucci, F.1, Di Francia, A.1, De Rosa, G.1, Romano R. 2, Varricchio M.L.1 & Grassi, C.3 Key words: Bubalus bubalis, Alternative protein source, Peas, Milk production.

Abstract
A study was carried out at an organic buffalo farm in order to examine the effect of feeding peas (Pisum sativum L.) as an alternative protein source for buffalo cow diets during middle and late stage of lactation. Two concentrates were formulated to contain, as fed basis, either 350 g/kg of soybean cake (control concentrate, CC) or 450 g/kg of peas (experimental concentrate, ExpC) as the main protein sources. The two concentrates were almost isonitrogenous (on average, crude protein 240 g/kg DM). Twenty buffalo cows were blocked into two groups according to lactation number and previous milk yield and were assigned to one of two dietary treatments from 10° day in milk onwards: control group was offered in the milking parlour 3 kg of CC, while treatment group was offered the same quantity of ExpC. All cows were fed a total mixed ration containing 3 kg of CC. The experimental period was from 100° day in milk onwards. Daily milk yield was not affected by treatment, as well as, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, urea content, fatty acid composition and clotting properties. Results support the partial substitution of soybean meal with peas in diets for buffalo cows with no negative effects on milk yield and composition.

1. Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell’Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, sezione Produzione Animale, via Università 133, 80055 Portici, Italy, E-Mail masucci@unina.it 2. Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, via Università 133, 80055 Portici, Italy. 3. Veterinary practitioner

How effective are ‘Effective Microorganisms’? Results from an organic farming field experiment
Mayer, J:1, Scheid, S.1 and Oberholzer H.R.1 Key words: Effective microorganisms, biofertilizer, soil fertility, soil biology

Abstract
The effectiveness of ‘Effective Microorganisms’ (EM) was investigated in a four years field experiment (2003-2006) at Zurich, Switzerland. The experiment was designed to enable clear differentiation between effects of the microorganisms in the EM treatments (Bokashi and EMA) and its substrate (sterilized treatments). Crop yields and soil microbiological parameters as soil respiration and microbial biomass were determined. The EM treatments showed no effect on yield and soil microorganisms which were caused by the EM microorganisms. Observed effects could be related to the effect of the carrier substrate of the EM products. The sampling time showed stronger effects on soil microbial biomass and soil respiration compared to the effect of the treatments. Hence ‘Effective Microorganisms’ are not able to improve yields and soil quality in mid term (4 years) in arable farming under temperate climatic conditions as in Central Europe.

1. Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland, Email Jochen.Mayer@art.admin.ch, Internet www.art.admin.ch

Research into Practice: Mind the Gap
Measures, M.1 Key words: Organic research; dissemination; adoption; advice.

Abstract
The uptake of organic research by commercial producers has been variable due to a number of factors including lack of access to research findings, financial pressures, research priorities, market demands and producer perspectives. Consequently “best organic practice” is not universally applied and apparently intractable problems remain, even though in some cases solutions are available. This paper identifies the role of advisers in supporting organic farmers and the establishment of a system for disseminating the results of research through a number of routes including a web-based archive, advisory leaflets and workshops.

1. Director, Institute of Organic Training and Advice (IOTA), Cow Hall, Newcastle on Clun, Craven Arms, Shropshire, UK, E-mail mark@organicadvice.org.uk, Internet www.organicadvice. org.uk

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Organic beef production by Maremmana breed: qualitative meat characteristics
Mele, M. 1, Morbidini, L. 2, Cozza, F. 2, Pauselli, M. 2 & Pollicardo, A. 1 Key words: Maremmana breed, Organic beef, meat quality

Abstract
Meat quality of Maremmana young bulls and steers was evaluated during three consecutive years, according to an extension service experimental program. Cooking loss values of meat samples were lower in meat from steers, whereas shear force values were higher. Meat from steers was darker than meat from young bulls, as a consequence of a low level of Lightness and a high level of Chroma. Meat chemical composition showed a higher content of intramuscular fat in steer meat, which showed also a lower level of saturated fatty acids and a higher level of unsaturated fatty acids. Conjugated linoleic acid content in meat fat either from young bulls or from steers was similar to that found in meat from confined cattle fed preserved forages and concentrates. However steer meat showed higher CLA content than young bull meat.

1. DAGA, Section of Animal Science, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto, 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy), E-mail mmele@unipi.it, Internet www.agr.unipi.it 2. Department of Applied Biology, Section of Animal Science, University of Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06122 Perugia, Italy, E-Mail morbidini@agr.unipg.it, Internet www.agr.unipg.it

Understanding the Organic Consumer through Narratives: an International Comparison
Midmore, P.1, Ayres, N.1, Lund, T. B.2, Naspetti, S.3, Zanoli, R.3 & O’Doherty Jensen, K.2 Key words: European organic consumer analysis

Abstract
Consumer narratives drawing on life history, events and influences are used to explain evolving consumer behaviour with regard to purchasing and consumption of organic products. Triangulated qualitative interviews, involving 54 principal participants in major and average sized cities in Denmark, the UK and Italy form the empirical basis of the study, combined with shopping trip observation and supplementary interviews. The research uses Gardner’s (2004) concept of ‘change of mind’ as a starting point for analysis. While cultural and geographical contexts vary across countries, a key finding is that consumer behaviour co-evolves with market development. The study concludes that potential future marketing strategies must distinguish carefully between strongly committed and occasional consumers of organic products.

1. School of Management and Business, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, UK-SY23 3DD. 2. Dept. of Human Nutrition: Sociology of Food Research Group, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. 3. Department DIIGA, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy.

Effect of green manure on weeds and soil fertility in two organic experimental agroecosystems of different ages. Results from 2 years.
Migliorini, P.1, Vazzana, C.1 & Moschini, V. 1 Key words: green manure, organic fertilisers, weeds, soil fertility, Mediterranean organic farming

Abstract
In order to acquire more information about green manure practices in the Mediterranean environment, green-manure crops from two seasons (2003/2004 and 2004/2005) were compared and evaluated in two agroecosystems (“Old Organic” and “Young Organic”) of the Montepaldi Long Term Organic Experiment in Tuscany. Data collection included green manure crop (biomass, weeds competition capacity, N and C content), weed biodiversity on maize, and soil fertility characteristics over three periods (in October before sowing the green manure, in April before the incorporation of the greenmanure in the soil, and in September at the maize harvest). The different green manure species produced no significant effects on the weeds and N% and C% in the soil. Weeds characteristics (weed species and Shannon Index) showed statistically significant differences among the two agroecosystems, even though the initial condition of the two soils were similar.

1. Department of Agronomy and Land Management (DISAT), University of Florence Piazzale delle Cascine 18, 50144 Florence, Italy, E-Mail paola.migliorini@unifi.it, Internet www.unifi.it/ disat

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Performance of grain legume crops in organic farms of central Italy
Migliorini, P.1, Tavoletti, S 2 Moschini, V.3 & Iommarini , L.2 Key words: pea, faba bean, lupin, grain legumes, Mediterranean crop

Abstract
In the 2005-2006 growing season, eight varieties of faba bean, pea and lupin were compared in two organic farms, located in two regions of Central Italy (Tuscany and Marche), to evaluate their adaptation to local environment and agronomic performance in terms of grain yield and competitive ability against weeds. Pea showed a higher grain production than faba bean and lupin, which were negatively effected by the environmental conditions during winter 2005 and spring 2006. Time of seeding seems to be very important for the competitive ability against weed of the different varieties. In Tuscany the lupin Italian variety Multitalia, the only one Italian variety, obtained interesting performance in terms of grain yield and weed competition, although the spring seeding.

1. Department of Agronomy and Land Management (DISAT), University of Florence Piazzale delle Cascine 18, 50144 Florence, Italy, E-Mail paola.migliorini@unifi.it, Internet www.unifi.it/ disat 2. Department of Food Science, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy, email s.tavoletti@univpm.it. 3. Department of Agronomy and Land Management (DISAT), Univerity of Florence Piazzale delle Cascine 18, 50144 Florence, Italy, E-Mail valentina.moschinii@unifi.it, Internet www.unifi. it/disat

Overcoming constraints and barriers for organic public procurement – Applying the theory of loosely coupled systems to the case of organic conversion in Danish municipalities
Mikkelsen B.E1 Key words: public food systems, organic public procurement, organic foods, organic conversion, public foodservice

Abstract
Organic food and farming has been an integrated part of agricultural policies in most European countries for many years. In some cases this priority has resulted in strategies aimed at increasing public procurement of organic foods. Public service provision in schools, institutions and kindergartens include consumption of huge amounts of foods. This paper analyses three Danish local government cases of introduction of organic foods in public foodservice in order to study what kind of influence this has had on the governance of public foods. The findings suggest that organic food policies seem to result in a rethinking of public food provision and the creation of virtual public food systems. The findings also suggest that these developments have been fuelled by a sub optimal functioning of the foodservice supply chain and that this in turn has forced administrators to see food procurement in a new horizontal perspective in which different types of public foodservice is looked upon as a whole. The findings suggest that the emerging organic food policies have modernised the way in which public food is governed and that organic foods have created a sense of public political consumption. The paper discusses the opportunities that this development creates for the organic food sector and in particular whether the development can open up further the public as a sales channel for organic food.

1. National Food Institute, Danish Technical University

Exploring close consumer-producer links to maintain and enhance on-farm biodiversity
Milestad, R.1, Björklund, J.1, Westberg, L.1, Geber, U.2 & Ahnström, J.3 Key words: local selling, on-farm biodiversity, producer – consumer links, diversification

Abstract
This paper deals with the question of whether local selling of farm products improves on-farm biodiversity. In contrast to the main agricultural trend of farms specialising and increasing in size in response to the national and global markets, increasing numbers of Swedish farmers are instead diverting their efforts towards selling at local markets. Based on a study of six farms, the paper explores the nature of diversity on these farms and identifies factors supporting diversity. The study shows that farmers who interact with consumers are encouraged to diversify their production. The actual crops and varieties grown are determined by a combination of the natural conditions prevailing on the farm and the conditions created by the farmer in terms of marketing strategy for the products.

1. Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7012, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. rebecka.milestad@sol.slu.se Internet www.sol.slu.se 2. Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7047, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. ulrika.geber@cul.slu.se, Internet www.cul.slu.se 3. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 7044, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. johan.ahnstrom@ecol.slu.se, Internet www.ecol.slu.se

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Use of biodegradable mulching in vegetable production
Minuto, G.1, Guerrini, S.2, Versari, M.2, Pisi, L.1, Tinivella, F.1, Bruzzone, C.1, Pini, S.3 & Capurro, M.3 Key words: soil mulching, thermoplastic starch, implementation, BIOMASS project.

Abstract
Trials were carried out in Liguria during three years (2004-2006) to evaluate the use of innovative starch based bioplastics for soil mulching. All trials carried out in open field as well as in greenhouse on different vegetable crops demonstrated the effectiveness of biodegradable films in controlling weeds and in increasing yield. The use of biodegradable mulching films found application in integrated production regulations set up by the regional authority and it is potentially adoptable in an organic farming context.

1. Centro di Sperimentazione e Assistenza Agricola, Regione Rollo 98, 17031 Albenga (SV), Italy, Email cersaa.direzione@sv.camcom.it 2. Novamont SpA, Via G. Fauser 8, 28100 Novara, Italy, Email guerrini@materbi.com 3. Regione Liguria, Via G. D’Annunzio, 16121 Genova, Italy, Email stefano.pini@regione.liguria.it

Antimicrobial effect of dietary nitrate in weaning piglets challenged or not with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium
Modesto, M.1, D’Aimmo, M.R.2, Stefanini, I.3, Mazzoni, M.4, Bosi, P.5 & Biavati, B.6 Key words: nitrates, intestinal microbiota, weaning piglets, Salmonella.

Abstract
The maintenance of a beneficial bacteria balance in the gut is important to increase the animal’s resistance to diseases. Nitrite may kill gut pathogens representing a non-immune defence mechanism. Nitrite can be derived from dietary nitrate that is reduced under the acidic conditions of the oral cavity. An in vivo study was designed in order to establish the antimicrobial effects of dietary nitrate on the gut microbiota and on the health of 96 weaning piglets. The pigs were fed a diet containing high levels of nitrate (15 mg/kg feed and 150 mg/kg feed) and then challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Changes of the intestinal microbiota composition were assessed by analysing the stomach and jejunum contents from all the pigs. Results showed that nitrate only affected the population levels of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in both segments. Pigs challenged with Salmonella showed a reduction in the levels of E. coli and clostridia in the jejunum suggesting a mechanism of competition for niches or for active sites. The time from challenge significantly decreased the number of LAB in stomach and jejunum. It also decreased the population density of clostridia in the stomach. The supplementation of feedstuff with high dietary nitrate intake contemporarily to the challenge with Salmonella did not affect the degree of ulceration in the pigs.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Department of Agroenvironmetal Science and Technology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy, E-mail mmodesto@agrsci.unibo.it Department of Agroenvironmetal Science and Technology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy, E-mail mdaimmo@agrsci.unibo.it Department of Agroenvironmetal Science and Technology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy, E-mail stefanin@agrsci.unibo.it Department of Agri-food Protection and Improvement (Diproval), University of Bologna, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy, E-mail Maurizio_mazzoni@libero.it Department of Agri-food Protection and Improvement (Diproval), University of Bologna, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy, E-mail paolo.bosi@unibo.it Department of Agroenvironmetal Science and Technology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy, E-mail bruno.biavati@unibo.it

How can the organic dairy farmer be self-sufficient with vitamins and minerals?
Mogensen, L.1, Kristensen, T. 1, Søegaard, K. 1 & Jensen, S.K. 1 Key words: Dairy, Decision support model, Mineral, Vitamin,

Abstract
The aim of the present paper is to present a prototype of a decision support model simulating the feed and vitamin supply during a year on a farm selfsufficient with feed. The model takes into account that the content of vitamin and minerals depends on choice of crops, conservation method, season, plant development at harvest, quality of the silage production, and duration of storage together with traditional optimizing of the feeding scheme.

1. University of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, E-mail Lisbeth.Mogensen@agrsci.dk, Internet www.agrsci.dk

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Comparative dynamics of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) roots under organic and conventional management systems with special reference to water use
Mohotti, A. J.1, Damayanthi,M.M.N.2, Anandacoomaraswamy, A.3 & Mohotti, K. M..4 Key words: organic, tea, roots, water use

Abstract
Comparative measurements were carried out in the on-going, long-term organic and conventional comparison “TRI OR-CON” trial at the Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka. The tea was grown organically using tea waste (TW), neem oil cake (NOC), compost (COM) as soil amendments using IFOAM guidelines, which were compared with tea grown conventionally (CONV) with recommended synthetic inputs. Responses of the tea yield, root system and mass volume sap flow were studied. The tea bushes showed comparable responses between all the treatments, the differences of which were not statistically significant: They exhibited similar yield, root distribution, growth, extension rates, mortality, mass volume flow of water and water use efficiency (WUE). The organically grown (ORG) tea bushes invested more roots in deeper soil layers than the CONV bushes. The results showed that in terms of plant growth, managing tea organically is as equally feasible as managing tea in the conventional manner.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Plant Physiology Division, Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Talawakele, Sri Lanka, E-Mail mohottij@yahoo.com Plant Physiology Division, Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Talawakele, Sri Lanka, E-Mail dnalika@yahoo.com Agronomy Division, Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Talawakele, Sri Lanka, E-Mail anandacoo@yahoo.com Entomology Division, Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Talawakele, Sri Lanka, E-Mail mohottik@yahoo.com

Effects of Biogas Digestion of Slurry, Cover Crops and Crop Residues on Nitrogen Cycles and Crop Rotation Productivity of a Mixed Organic Farming System
Möller, K.1, Stinner, W. & Leithold, G. Key words: nitrogen, nutrient management, digestion, renewable energies

Abstract
Manures and crop residues can be utilised for digestion, without any significant losses of nutrients. This paper presents the results of field trials about the effects of biogas digestion in a mixed organic cropping systems on nutrient cycling and yield of a whole crop rotation. Digestion of slurry affected yields and N uptake only after soil incorporation. The inclusion of crop residues for digestion increased the amounts of “mobile” manure. N uptake and yield of non-leguminous main crops increased about 10%, due to a more adapted allocation of nutrients within the whole cropping system by reallocation of N towards the crops with higher N needs. Additionally, removing the cover crops in autumn and their digestion increased the fertilizing efficiency of N, lowering the risk of leaching losses.

1. Professur für Organischen Landbau, Universität Gießen, Karl Glöckner Str. 21c, D-35394 Gießen. Email: kurt.moeller@alumni.tum.de

Use of grass and red clover silage mixtures for milk production and whole-body N partitioning by dairy cows
Moorby, J. M.1, Ellis, N. M., Fisher, W. J., Davies, D. R. & Scollan, N. D. Key words: dairy cows, grass silage, milk production, nitrogen partitioning, red clover.

Abstract
Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation were used in a 4×4 Latin square changeover experiment with four 4-week periods to investigate the effect of altering the ratios of red clover (RC) and ryegrass silage (GS) in the forage component of their diet. Ratios (in the dry matter (DM)) were: R0, 0 RC:1 GS; R34, 0.34 RC:0.66 GS; R66, 0.66 RC:0.34 GS; R100, RC 1:0 GS. All cows received ad libitum access to their allocated forage with 4 kg of a standard concentrate per day. Results are presented in order of R0, R34, R66 and R100 respectively. Feed DM intakes (16.7, 17.8, 18.3, 19.0 kg d-1, s.e.d. 0.24, Plin<0.001) and milk yields (25.2, 26.1, 26.5, 26.1 kg d-1, s.e.d. 0.47, Plin<0.05, Pquad<0.05) increased as the proportion of RC in the forage increased. Nitrogen (N) intake and excretion of N in urine and faeces increased (P<0.01) with increasing proportion of RC in the diet, but milk N secretion as a proportion of diet N intake, decreased (P<0.01). It is concluded that the best balance of feed intakes, milk yields and efficiency of utilisation of dietary N was achieved when cows were offered a diet with RC silage as 0.66 of the forage.

1. Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, UK, E-Mail jon.moorby@aber.ac.uk, Internet www.iger.bbsrc.ac.uk

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Effects of mixing red clover and maize silages on milk production and whole-body N partitioning in dairy cows
Moorby, J. M.1, Ellis, N. M., Fisher, W. J., Davies, D. W. R. & Davies, D. R. Key words: dairy cows, maize, milk production, nitrogen partitioning, red clover.

Abstract
Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation were used in a 3×3 Latin square changeover experiment with three 4-week periods to investigate the effect of altering the ratios of red clover (RC) silage and maize silage in the forage component of their diet. Ratios (in the dry matter (DM)) were: RC10, 0.1 RC:0.9 maize; RC50, 0.5 RC:0.5 maize; RC90, 0.9 RC:0.1 maize. All cows received ad libitum access to their allocated forage with 4 kg of a standard concentrate per day. Whole-body N partitioning and whole-tract diet digestibility measurements were carried out using a subset of cows (n=9). Results are presented in order of RC10, RC50 and RC90 respectively. Feed DM intakes (19.6, 20.5, 19.5 kg DM d-1, s.e.d. 0.32, P<0.01) and milk yields (26.1, 27.3, 25.7 kg milk d-1, s.e.d. 0.54, P<0.01) were highest on diet RC50. Milk protein concentrations decreased (P<0.001) as forage RC proportion increased, and protein yields were significantly (P<0.01) higher on diet RC50. Urine N excretion was lowest (as a ratio to N intake), and milk N secretion was highest, on diet RC10. It is concluded that milk and protein yields can be improved by feeding RC silage as 1:1 mix with maize silage, but that the efficiency of utilisation of forage N was reduced when diets contained more than 0.1 RC silage.

1. Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, UK, E-Mail jon.moorby@aber.ac.uk, Internet www.iger.bbsrc.ac.uk

Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations
Moreira, C.F.1, De Nadai Fernandes, E.1 & Tagliaferro, F.S.1 Key Words: Shaded Coffee, Organic Agriculture, Sustainability, Coffee Quality, Chemical Elemental Composition

Abstract
Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of biodiversity and high demand for inputs. Shaded coffee system has more biodiversity, recycles and fix more chemical elements, such as N, P, K, Ca and C, having a great potential to mitigate the global warming, being consequently more sustainable. In Brazil, shaded coffee system is not well trusted and known as less productive. Seeking for organic coffee sustainability, this work evaluates productivity, coffee quality and chemical composition of coffee beans from two distinct organic coffee systems: shaded and full sun, in the largest arabica coffee producing region of the world, south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For productivity and coffee quality there was no statistical difference, although there was a tendency of superiority for the shaded treatment. For coffee beans composition, the shaded system presented higher K values. Considering the results obtained, the shaded system can be suited to increase organic coffee sustainability in this region of Brazil.

1. Nuclear Centre for Agriculture, Av. Centenário, 303 - CEP: 13400-970 - Piracicaba, São Paulo – Brazil, E-Mail: lis@cena.usp.br

Organic Agriculture as Livelihood Strategy: A Case Study in a Rural Community of Southern Brazil.
Moreno-Peñaranda, R.1 and Egelyng, H.2 Key words: Brazil, Organic Agriculture, Agroecological Income, Livelihood Strategy, Market and Non-Market Values, Community.

Abstract
This paper presents the findings of a case study of a Brazilian community pursuing a livelihood strategy based on certified organic agriculture. Using the sustainable rural livelihoods framework, the paper identifies three different organic livelihood strategies involving varying degrees of capitals. The paper concludes that understanding the implications of these different organic strategies and their rationales is a prerequisite for policy-makers to tailor policies and programmes aiming to assist rural communities benefit from organic agriculture as a vehicle for advancing rural development.

1. Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 2. Danish Institute for International Studies, Strandgade 56, DK 1401 Copenhagen.

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Yield and quality of organic versus conventional potato crop
Mourão I.1, Brito, L.M.1 & Coutinho J. 2 Key words: Compost, N uptake, nutrient content, potato grades.

Abstract
The improvement of organic fertilization practices is essential to increase organic potato production in the highland region of NW Portugal, with environmental benefits and better returns. For that reason, the response of organic potato was evaluated throughout a randomized block design experiment, with two cultivars (Raja and Virgo) and increasing rates of composted organic pig manure (0, 15, 30 and 45 t ha-1). These cultivars were also grown with mineral N fertilizer (120 kg N ha-1) under conventional practices to compare the results between crop systems, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 125 days after planting. Crop yield was not improved with increasing rates of compost application because the N mineralization rate of the compost was small and soil organic matter was high (8%). Organically grown cv. Virgo yielded 66.0% of the conventional crop, whereas Raja yielded 46.6%. The N uptake of the organic crop (tubers and foliage) was 37.0 kg ha-1 for Raja and 50.5 kg ha-1 for Virgo, respectively 21.1% and 27.8% of the N uptake by the same cultivars grown with mineral fertilizer. Although foliage N content was increased for the conventional crops, differences between N content of organic and conventional tubers were not significant, as well as for K, Ca and Mg.

1. Escola Superior Agrária de Ponte de Lima/IPVC, Refóios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima, Portugal, E-mail: isabelmourao@esa.ipvc.pt 2. CECEA, Dep. Edafologia, Universidade Trás-os-Montes Alto Douro, Ap. 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real, Portugal, E-mail: j_coutin@utad.pt

Environmental Impacts and Economic Differences in grassland based Organic Dairy Farms in Germany – Modelling the Extremes
Müller-Lindenlauf, M.1, Deittert, C1 & Köpke, U. 1 Key words: Organic, dairy, LCA, Economic return, Farm model

Abstract
Differences in environmental impact and economic returns between intensive and low-input organic dairy production are investigated using two simplified model farms with different amounts of concentrates being fed. In four scenarios, ecological and economic effects of restricting the more intensive farm management practice beyond the existing regulations of organic farming are analysed. In the initial situation, the intensive farm has a financial advantage of about 600.00 € per ha compared with the low-input farm, while the environmental risks caused by its production system are higher in several Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) categories. We showed for the model case that limiting livestock density and using regional grown concentrates bring about considerable improvements in LCA results, while restricting the amount of concentrates used does not. These three scenarios result in economic deterioration for the intensive farm. A fourth scenario increasing the share of pasture in daily dry matter intake (DMI) to a minimum of 50% during the grazing season has positive effects environmentally as well as economically.

1. University of Bonn, Institut für Organischen Landbau, Katzenburgweg 3, 53115 Bonn, m.lindenlauf@uni-bonn.de

Effect of cultivar and soil characteristics on nutritional value in organic and conventional wheat
Murphy, K.1, Hoagland, L.2, Reeves, P.3 & Jones, S.4 Key words: micronutrients, soil organic matter, quality, organic wheat cultivars, soil pH

Abstract
Evidence of greater nutritional value in organic crops is currently a subject of intense debate. Our objectives in this study were to test for grain mineral concentration in 35 winter wheat cultivars in paired organic and conventional systems, and to determine the influence of cultivar, soil characteristics and farming system on mineral concentration. Here we report preliminary results that show that the grain mineral concentration in organic wheat was higher for copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) and lower in calcium (Ca), than the grain mineral concentration in conventional wheat. No difference was found between systems for iron (Fe) concentration. Cultivar was significant in determining mineral concentration for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn and P. Soil mineral concentration was not responsible for grain mineral concentration, with the exception of P. The organic wheat farming systems had higher grain mineral concentrations of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn than the conventional systems, possibly due in part to increased soil organic matter and pH in the organic systems. Growing specific cultivars capable of exploiting particular soil conditions may be necessary in order to optimize the nutritional value in organic farming systems.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, 201 Johnson Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA, E-mail kmurphy2@wsu.edu Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, 201 Johnson Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA, E-mail lori_hoagland@wsu.edu USDA-ARS, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, 2420 Second Avenue North, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA, E-mail preeves@gfhnrc.ars.usda.gov Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, 387 Johnson Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA, E-mail joness@wsu.edu

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Breeding for nitrogen use efficiency in organic wheat systems
Murphy, K.M.1, Dawson, J.C.1 & Jones, S.S.1 Key words: nitrogen use efficiency, plant breeding, winter wheat, dryland systems

Abstract
Improving crop nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is important to reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture, for both perennial and annual crops. This study tested winter wheat breeding lines developed in organic and conventional systems, historic wheat varieties and perennial wheat under organic management. There were significant differences among selection categories and among genotypes. However, standard methods of measuring NUE may not be appropriate when the breeding objectives are to reduce N use. Alternative methods of evaluating breeding materials, including regression analysis of grain protein deviation (GPD) and principal component analysis (PCA) were explored. GPD was not found to discriminate well between genotypes in this study, but PCA showed promise in examining the relationship among measured variables and among genotypes.

1. Winter Wheat Breeding and Genetics, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University. 281 Johnson Hall, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.

Effects of silage or probiotics on performance and gut microbial composition of organic growing-finishing pigs
Nagel, P.1, Domig, K. J.2, Hagmüller, W.3, Pfalz, S.2, Kronsteiner, S.2, Ortner, B.2, Sundrum, A.4 & Zollitsch, W.1 Key words: organic, growing-finishing pigs, nutrition, performance, microbiota

Abstract
This paper will deal with the effects of the oral application of a probiotic preparation (Bifidobacterium animalis) and of the provision of forage (maize and grass silage) to growing-finishing pigs on the composition of the intestinal microbial population and faecal microflora as an important determining factor for pork safety. 76 pigs were reared in 4 different dietary treatments. Clinical health and immune status plus faeces samples and samples of the gut content from the duodenum, ileum, caecum and colon were collected from each animal. Since the second round of the feeding experiment was only finished in March, the datasets are still incomplete because analyses are ongoing, but preliminary results are already available. Microbial analysis showed that CFU (per g DM of faeces) of bifidobacteria ranged from 2.6*10^8 (maize silage treatment) to 8.7*10^8 (probiotic treatment). CFU counts of E.coli showed a significantly lower amount for the control treatment (4.4*10^5) compared with the grass silage- group (3.0*10^6). Blood analysis did not show significant differences between treatments. Both the high level of animal performance (ADG between 902 and 929 g/d) and the negative clinical findings confirm the good health status of the animals. Statistical analysis with the complete data set will soon show whether the trends from these preliminary results will be confirmed for the overall experiment.

1. 2. 3. 4.

BOKU- University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems Gregor Mendel Strasse 33, A-1180 Wien, Austria BOKU- University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Gregor Mendel Strasse 33, A-1180 Wien, Austria AREC- Agricultural Research and Education Centre Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Institute of Organic Farming and Farm Animal Biodiversity, Austrasse 10, A-4600 Thalheim/Wels, Austria University of Kassel, Department of Animal Nutrition and Animal Health, Nordbahnhofstrasse 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany

Monitoring the welfare of sheep in conventional and organic farms using an ANI 35 L derived method
Napolitano, F.1, De Rosa, G.2, Ferrante, V.3 Barbieri, S.3 & Braghieri, A.1 Key words: sheep, welfare monitoring, organic farming, reliability

Abstract
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the inter-observer reliability of a welfare monitoring scheme to be applied to sheep, and compare the welfare state of the animals between 10 organic and 10 conventional sheep farms. No significant differences were observed between organic and conventional farms in terms of housing characteristics and animal based parameters (P>0.10). This result may be due to the fact that most of the farms, both conventional and organic, based their farming systems on an extensive use of the land by grazing animals. The monitoring protocol proved to be feasible (the mean time needed to perform the assessment of welfare was 45 min per farm) and reliable: a significant correlation between observers was observed for total score and all sheets (P<0.001), while the correlation was significant for all animal based parameters (integument alterations, animal dirtiness, hoof overgrowth and lameness; P<0.001), apart from lesions (P>0.10).

1. Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Animali, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy, E-Mail fabio.napolitano@unibas.it, Internet http://www.unibas.it/utenti/napolitano/index.htm 2. Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell’Ambiente e delle Produzioni animali, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Università 133, 80055 Portici (Napoli), Italy, E-Mail giderosa@unina.it 3. Dipartimento di Scienze Animali, Sezione di Zootecnica Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 10, 20133 Milano, E-mail valentina.ferrante@unimi.it

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Collaborative relationships in the organic wheat supply chain: a case study on three EU Countries
Naspetti S.1, Paladini M.E.1, Bteich M.R.2, Zanoli R.1 Key words: organic supply chain analysis, wheat, food quality, food safety.

Abstract
The study was conducted as a part of a EU-wide survey on organic supply chains, carried on in 8 European Countries. In this paper we report the results of the study regarding the winter wheat supply chain in Italy, France and Hungary. In depth interviews with key-informants were carried on in 2006 to investigate the relationships within the supply chain. Results show a low level of collaboration among various actors especially on cost and benefits sharing.

1. DIIGA, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona, Italy. Email: Naspetti: simona@agrecon.univpm.it, Paladini: m.elena@agrecon.univpm.it, Zanoli: zanoli@ agrecon.univpm.it 2. IAM, Mediterranean Agricultural Institute, Valenzano, Italy. Email: bteich@iamb..it

Principles and practicality of organic dairy cattle breeding: different options and implications
Nauta, W.J..1 & Roep, D.2 Key words: organic breeding, dairy cattle, organic principles, strategies of development

Abstract
As yet there is no set of generally acknowledged rules for organic animal breeding. Most organic farmers depend on conventional breeding programmes, which conflict with organic principles. Do we need a separate, distinct organic breeding system? And how can we support the development of organic breeding? These questions were explored in a PhD study. In general organic farmers and other interest groups express the need for a separate, fully organic breeding system, particularly in view of the modern reproduction technologies used in conventional breeding. Also the difference in the magnitude of GxE between organic and conventional milk production indicates that a separate breeding program might be needed. In practice, however, organic farmers respond to different, and sometimes opposing, strategic and practical considerations. In this situation three options are identified in the development of organic breeding: adaptation of conventional breeding, an organic breeding program and improved natural breeding. Each path has its own implications and demands. Organic breeding is the subject of experimentation and learning on the one hand and of social debate on organic principles on the other. This process needs to be enhanced and interconnected, before well-founded decisions can be taken on further development of organic breeding.

1. Louis Bolk Institute LBI, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972LA Driebergen, The Netherlands, E-Mail w.Nauta@louisbolk.nl, Internet www.louisbolk.nl 2. Rural Sociology Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, NL-6706 KN, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Does Wheat Cultivar Choice Affect Crop Quality and Soil Microbial Communities in Cropping Systems?
Nelson, A.1, Frick, B.2, Clapperton, J.3, Quideau, S.4 & Spaner, D.1 Key words: wheat, soil microbial community, breadmaking quality, organic and conventional management

Abstract
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars may have differential effects on soil microbial communities and the breadmaking quality of harvested grain. We compared six Canadian spring wheat cultivars under organic and conventional management systems for yield, breadmaking quality and soil phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) profile. Yields were lower, but protein levels were higher in the organic system. Cultivars differed for quality traits, but all cultivars had acceptable levels for processing. There were small differences in PLFA profiles for cultivars in the conventional system, but none in the organic system. More significant correlations between grain quality and PLFA measures were present in the organic system. Protein levels and breadmaking quality at least equal to conventional systems can be achieved in organic systems. Wheat cultivars differed for grain quality in both organic and conventional systems, and culivars altered the soil microbial profile in conventional systems. Microbes may play a greater role in determining crop quality in organic systems than in conventional systems.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 0M6, E-Mail agnelson@ualberta.ca Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A8 Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB, T1J 4B1

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Participatory Guarantee Systems: New Approaches to Organic Certification - The Case of Mexico
Nelson, E.1, Gómez Tovar, L2, Schwentesius, R3 & Gómez Cruz, M.4 Key words: organic certification, participation, local food systems, Mexico

Abstract
In an effort to address some of the problems associated with mainstream organic certification (such as high costs, extensive bureaucracy, inflexible processes, and a lack of community development focus), groups around the world have begun to develop alternative systems commonly referred to as participatory guarantee systems (PGS). These systems are based on the standards of mainstream certification agencies, but differ in that they adapt them to suit local conditions, employ simple verification procedures, minimize bureaucracy and costs, and incorporate an element of environmental and social education for both producers and consumers. This paper presents the experience of PGS in Mexico, with a focus on the case study of the Tianguis Orgánico Chapingo (Chapingo Local Organic Market). It is based on participant observation and informal interviews conducted by the authors during the course of their work as scholar-activists developing and promoting PGS as a certification option for Chapingo, as well as for an additional 16 markets that form the Mexican Network of Local Organic Markets.

1. 2. 3. 4.

University of Guelph, School of Environmental Design and Rural Development, E-Mail enelson@uoguelph.ca University of Chapingo, Department of Agroecology, E-mail gomezlaura@yahoo.com University of Chapingo, Centre for Economic, Social, and Technological Research on Global Agriculture and Agro-industry, Email rsr@avantel.net, Internet www.chapingo.mx/ciestaam As above

Effects of Trichoderma harzianum applications on fresh pruning wounds in Actinidia deliciosa for the protection against pathogens associated with the “wood decay” of kiwifruit
Neri, L., Baraldi, R., Osti F. & Di Marco, S.1 Key words: kiwifruit, “wood decay”, pruning, Trichoderma harzianum

Abstract
A chronic wood wasting disease of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) has recently been identified in Italian kiwifruit vineyards. This disease is principally caused by Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Fomitiporia mediterranea. The “wood decay” causes a reduced productivity and longevity in the vineyards and influences the quality of the final product. “Wood decay” has a high incidence throughout the vineyards, and is difficult to eradicate once present, leaving prevention as the best defence strategy. The different pathogens causing the disease infect the plant mainly through pruning wounds. We studied a commercial formulation of Trichoderma harzianum T22 for the protection of pruning wounds, and thus for the prevention and reduction of the infection. The studies were carried out on potted plants, on shoots of the year that were cut, simulating a summer pruning, and treated with a T. harzianum commercial suspension. A different morphologic reaction was observed on treated and control shoots; physiological processes connected to the reaction, such as the variation in the levels of a growth-promoting hormone (auxin) and the content of total phenols were investigated through biochemical and histological analyses. The higher levels of auxin and phenols recorded in treated shoots suggested a stimulation of T. harzianum on the wound healing processes.

1. Istituto di Biometeorologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via P. Gobetti, 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy, E-mail l.neri@ibimet.cnr.it, Internet http://www.bo.ibimet.cnr.it

Comparative analysis of conventional and organic farming systems: Diversity and abundance of farmland birds
Neumann, H., Loges, R. & Taube, F.1 Key words: Nature conservation, environmental sustainability, biodiversity, fauna, birds

Abstract
A comparative study on the abundance of breeding birds and wintering birds was carried out over the period 2005-2007 in conventionally and organically managed arable fields in Northern Germany. Birds were surveyed on 40 (breeding season) and 35 (non-breeding season) pairs of fields (conventional/ organic), which were selected with regard to similar field sizes, comparable boundary structures (hedges, shrubs) and representative crop rotations. Averaged over three years of investigation, skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and, less distinct, pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) occurred more often on organic fields. In contrast, yellow wagtails (Motacilla flava) showed higher abundances on conventional fields in one year. The diversity of farmland bird species was not affected by farming system (conventional/organic) neither during the breeding season nor during the non-breeding period. Over the winter, carnivore bird species occurred more often in organically managed fields while the total abundance of herbivore species was not affected by farming systems.

1. University of Kiel, Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Department of Grass and Forage Science/Organic Agriculture, 24118 Kiel, Germany, E-Mail hneumann@email.uni-kiel. de, Internet www.grassland-organicfarming.uni-kiel.de

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A pilot socio-economic analysis of QLIF dairy projects
Nicholas, P.1, Lampkin, N.1, Leifert, C.2, Butler, G.2, Klocke, P.3 & Wagenaar, J.4 Key words: Dairy, milk quality, mastitis, calf rearing, financial cost-benefit

Abstract
A pilot socio-economic impact assessment was carried out on three dairy projects within QLIF to identify the business, consumer and policy issues likely to influence the adoption of the innovations resulting from QLIF. A socio-economic analysis is presented related to the key outcomes from the three projects which include: management systems to reduce mastitis and antibiotic use in organic dairy farms and how milk quality can be enhanced through high forage organic feeding systems. Due to a lack financial data costs had to be assumed based on other studies. The socio-economic analysis identified a significant number of potential economic and social implications of implementing strategies developed in the QLIF project that aim at increasing animal health welfare and milk quality.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Institute of Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Wales, SY23 3AL. E-mail: pkn@aber.ac.uk Nafferton Ecological Farming Group (NEFG), Newcastle University, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL), Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA Driebergen, The Netherlands

Financial success of organic farms in Germany
Nieberg, H.1 & Offermann, F.1 Key words: farm economics; profitability; farm comparisons

Abstract
The conversion to organic farming is financially rewarding for many farmers in Germany. The majority of the organic farms make a profit above that of comparable conventional farms. A comparison of successful with less successful farms, measured by the average difference in ‘Farm Net Value Added’ to comparable conventional farm groups, highlights that the success of the conversion is less dependent on structural and site-specific factors than on the management ability of the farmers – above all in the area of marketing.

1. Institute of Farm Economics, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute (vTI) - Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries; Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany, E-Mail: hiltrud.nieberg@vti.bund.de, frank.offermann@vti.bund.de, Internet www.vti.bund.de

Identifying the gap between stated and actual buying behaviour on organic products based on consumer panel data
Niessen, J.1 & Hamm, U.2 Key words: Marketing research, consumer panel, consumer buying behaviour

Abstract
Evaluating the German demand for organic food in the majority of cases has been done by interviews, which are restricted by massive overestimation of consumers themselves. By using consumer panels, it is possible to survey actual consumer behaviour in combination with consumer attitudes and sociodemographic data and also by additionally requested consumers’ stated buying behaviour. Such methodology enables exposure and quantification of the gap between stated and actual buying frequency. Also the dimension of conventional products bought by mistake, while intending to get organics, can be identified. These results may give considerations for prospective survey design and adjustment of marketing policy.

1. University of Hohenheim, Institute for Agricultural Policy and Agricultural Markets, Schloss, Osthof-Süd, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany, E-Mail niessen@uni-hohenheim.de, Internet www.uni-hohenheim.de 2. University of Kassel, Department of Agricultural and Food Marketing, Steinstr. 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail hamm@uni-kassel.de, Internet www.uni-kassel.de/alm

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Bioactive compounds in tomatoes: effect of organic vs conventional management in Parma in 2006
Nobili, F.1, Finotti, E.1, Foddai, M.S.1, Azzini, E.1, Garaguso, I.1, Raguzzini, A. 1, Tisselli, V.2, Piazza, C.3, Durazzo, A.1 & Maiani, G.1 Key words: organic tomato, nutritional quality, carotenoids, polyphenols, TEER

Abstract
External and internal factors such as variety, season, location, ripening, growing conditions, technological and domestic processes could affect the content of bioactive compounds in food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different agronomical practices (organic vs conventional) on the nutritional quality of tomatoes. Fresh tomatoes (cv. Perfectpeel), cultivated under organic and conventional practices were analysed for vitamin C, lycopene, β-carotene, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, naringenin, rutin, quercetin, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP). CaCO2 monolayer cell cultures were used for testing membrane damage by Trans Epithelial Electrical Resistance(TEER). Results showed that for lycopene, naringenin and rutin no significant differences were observed. For β-carotene and coumaric acid significantly higher values were found in organic samples. Values of vitamin C, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin and TAC were significantly higher in conventional tomato, but the FRAP values were significantly higher in organic tomato. The observed TEER values were not significant different between organic and conventional tomato.

1. Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, finotti@inran.it 2. Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali, Cesena, Italia 3. Azienda Sperimentale Stuard, Parma, Italia

The German organic sector from the perspective of social-ecological research on agriculture and nutrition
Nölting, B.1 Key words: social conditions, development of organic agriculture, education-consulting-knowledge transfer, consumer protection, sustainable development.

Abstract
Social-ecological research analyses agriculture and nutrition from the perspective of sustainable development. This interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach embeds the organic sector in a broad societal and ecological context, integrating normative aspects into its research methodology. New insights from six German research projects are presented.

1. Center for Technology and Society of the Technical University of Berlin, ER 2-2, Hardenbergstr. 36 A, 10623 Berlin, Germany, noelting@ztg.tu-berlin.de, Internet www.ztg.tu-berlin.de

Perceived Constraints and Opportunities for Brazilian Smallholders Going Organic: a case of coffee in the state of Minas Gerais
Nordlund, E. Dam1 and Egelyng, H.2 Key words: Brazil, Organic Agriculture, barriers, opportunities, certification.

Abstract
This paper presents the findings of an analysis of the perceived rationales of smallholders for declining or entering organically certified coffee production, in the case Poço Fundo region, Minas Gerais. Based on group interviews and questionnaires, the rationale for farmers who declined organic production were found to be avoidance of perceived risk of harvest failure associated with the process of convertion from conventional to organic coffee production. Rationales for farmers who entered organic production included non-market benefits such as environmental quality and life quality enhancement.

1. University of Copenhagen. Faculty of Life Sciences. 2. Danish Institute for International Studies, Strandgade 56, DK 1401 Copenhagen.

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Factors Affecting Market Outlet Use by U.S. Organic Handlers
Oberholtzer, L.1, Dimitri, C 2 & Lohr, L.1 Key words: U.S., organic handlers, market outlets, multinomial logit model.

Abstract
The U.S. organic sector has expanded rapidly over the last decade, resulting in significant changes throughout the supply chain. Intermediaries need to move greater quantities of organic food to a growing numbers of retailers. As organic sales continue to increase, intermediaries marketing to several types of outlets may be better placed to adapt to changing market conditions. Data from a survey of U.S. organic handlers is used to identify which characteristics are associated with the number of marketing outlets handlers serve. The analysis finds that handlers with a greater share of organic sales and those certified organic longer are more likely to sell in more than one market outlet, while those selling products locally and regionally rely on fewer outlets.

1. Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. E-Mail loberholtzer@ers.usda.gov [Lohr: llohr@agecon.uga.edu] 2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, D.C. Email: cdimitri@ers.usda.gov. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Economic Research Service or the US Department of Agriculture.

The sustainable livelihoods approach: A frame for furthering our understanding of organic farming systems
Oelofse, M.1 & Høgh-Jensen, H.1 Key words: Sustainable livelihoods, organic agriculture, agricultural research

Abstract
The rapid development of organic agriculture on a global scale has led to an increased inclusion of producers in developing and transitional countries in the organic food chain. In order to enhance the theoretical frame for the analysis and understanding of the impact that inclusion in the organic food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended as it enables us to maintain important elements of the sustainability vision, yet emphasises that a number of assets influence farmers’ livelihoods and it maintains the focus on salience, legitimacy, and credibility in the research.

1. Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegård Allé 28, Taastrup 2630, Denmark, E-Mail myles@life.ku.dk

Accessing the World Market for Organic Food and Beverages from Nigeria
Olabiyi, T. I.1, Okusanya, A. O. 2 & Harris, P. J. C.3 Key words: Export, Nigeria, market opportunities, organic food, organic beverages

Abstract
A study in 2005-2006 assessed the opportunities for and constraints to Nigeria accessing the international organic market. The study comprised semistructured interviews with agricultural produce exporters and government officials in Nigeria, and with representatives of certification agencies in the UK, and focus group discussions with farmers’ groups in Ogun State, Nigeria. Fresh and canned pineapple and mango, ginger, and herbs and spices were ranked as having very high potential for Nigeria in the international market. Fruit juice concentrates, palm oil, cashew nuts, honey and cotton were among those products classified as high potential. Constraints identified included lack of awareness of organic farming techniques, high certification costs, lack of institutional support, enabling policies, infrastructure, and marketing facilities, limited access to capital and inability to capture economies of scale.

1. Faculty of Business, Environment and Society, Coventry University, CV1 5FB, U.K - E-Mail: Timothy.Olabiyi@coventry.ac.uk 2. As Above 3. As Above

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Population Density and Distance to Market Does not Influence the Farmers’ Use of Organic Manure
Olayide, O.1, Alene, A.2, Ikpi, A.3 & Nziguheba, G.4 Key words: Organic manure, socio-economic-ecological-modeling, integrated soil fertility management, Savannas, Nigeria.

Abstract
This study developed and employed a socio-economic-ecological-modeling (SEEM) framework in its analyses. The SEEM is made up of four resource use domains of high/low population density and high/low access to market and two agro-ecologies in the savanna of Nigeria. Data used comprises a sample of 320 farm households in northern Nigeria. The pattern of organic manure use varied slightly and insignificantly across agro-ecological and resource use domains. The major finding of the study is that the resource use domains made use of same amount of organic manure. The level of organic manure use is, however, below the recommended levels for the cereal-based production systems in the study area. Policy that encourages the intensity of manure use and crop-livestock integration is recommended to support integrated soil fertility management practices in the study area.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Corresponding author: E-mail: waleolayide@yahoo.com. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. IITA-Malawi, e-mail: a.alene@cgiar.org As above, e-mail: a.ikpi@comcast.net IITA-Ibadan, e-mail: g.nziguheba@cgiar.org

Nitrogen use efficiency of cereals in arable organic farming
Olesen, J.E.1, Rasmussen, I.A.2 & Askegaard, M.3 Key words: crop rotation, spring barley, winter wheat, winter rye, nitrogen supply.

Abstract
The effect of nitrogen (N) supply and weeds on grain yield of spring barley, winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) catch crop (with and without), and 2) manure (with and without). The apparent recovery efficiency of N in grains (nitrogen use efficiency, NUE) from NH4-N in applied manure varied from 29 to 38% in spring barley and from 23 to 44% in winter cereals. The NUE of above-ground N in catch crops sampled in November prior to the spring barley varied from 16 to 52%, with the highest value on the coarse sandy soil and the lowest value on the sandy loam soil. The NUE of N accumulated in grass-clover cuttings varied from 14 to 39%, with the lowest value on the coarse sandy soil, most likely because of high rates of N leaching. The NUE declined with increasing amounts of N accumulated in the grass-clover cuttings. This indicates that grain yields can be improved by removing the grass-clover cuttings and applying the N contained in the cuttings in spring to the cereal crops, possibly after fermentation in a biogas reactor.

1. University of Aarhus, Inst. of Agroecology and Environment, Box 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, E-Mail JorgenE.Olesen@agrsci.dk@agrsci.dk, Internet www.agrsci.dk 2. University of Aarhus, Inst. of Integrated Pest Management, Box 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, E-Mail IlseA.Rasmussen@agrsci.dk, Internet www.agrsci.dk 3. University of Aarhus, Inst. of Agroecology and Environment, Box 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark, E-Mail Margrethe Askegaard@agrsci.dk, Internet www.agrsci.dk

Is automatic milking acceptable in organic dairy farming? Quantification of sustainability indicators.
Oudshoorn, F. W.1 & de Boer, I. J. M.2 Key words: organic dairy, automatic milking system, sustainability indicator, milk quality

Abstract
The objective of this research, was to quantify sustainability indicators of organic dairy farms using Automatic Milking Systems (AMS), and a comparative group of organic dairy farms using conventional milking systems (CMS). Milk yield per cow was higher for AMS farms but did not result in higher net return to management. Nitrogen surplus per ha of available land was higher for AMS farms, Animal health was unaffected by AMS use, as also most milk quality aspects; somatic cell count, clostridium spores and urea. Acid degree value (ADV), measured as free fatty acids (FFA) in the milk, was higher in milk from AMS users. Labour time was decreased by almost 50% for AMS users, to 2.3 min/cow/day. It could be concluded from quantification of selected indicators on economy, environment, cow health, milk quality, and labour time, that the organic dairy farms using AMS, in spite of the substantial decrease in grazing time, show potential for a sustainable development.

1. University of Århus, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Schüttesvej 17, 8700 Horsens, DK. FrankW.Oudshoorn@agrsci.dk 2. Wageningen University, Animal production Systems, Marijkeweg 40, 6709 PG Wageningem, NL.

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Changes in light fraction soil organic matter and in organic carbon and nitrogen in compost amended soils
Owen, J.1 Lynch, D.2 & Fillmore, S.A.E.3 Key words: snap beans, soil organic matter, nitrogen, carbon, compost

Abstract
Organic vegetable growers can use compost to supply crops with nutrients and increase soil organic matter (OM), but little information is available about the transformations of compost OM over time in organically managed systems. This study examined light fraction soil organic matter (LFSOM) and organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in organically and conventionally managed snap bean cropping systems (continuous beans (CB) and a fully phased beans/fall rye rotation (BR)) following three years of fertility treatments (1x and 3x compost, and 1x synthetic fertiliser, where 1x provided 50 kg ha-1 N). Light fraction C and N increased with compost amendment, with the C:N ratio significantly lower in composted plots than in synthetically fertilised plots. Rotation and weeding method played no role in the composition of LFSOM, or the percentage of LFSOM making up whole soil organic C or N. Light fraction N and C roughly doubled in the 1x compost plots over the three years, compared with synthetically fertilised plots, but was only 2.5 times higher in 3x compost plots. While the addition of 13 t ha-1 C increased whole soil C by 5.6 Mg ha-1, tripling the amount of added C raised whole soil C by 9.9 Mg ha-1. 1x and 3x compost increased whole soil N by 20 and 33%, respectively, compared with the 1x synthetically fertilised plots. The 3x compost treatment only, by reducing bulk density, improved soil physical properties.

1. Senator Hervé J. Michaud Research Farm, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1045 St. Joseph Road, Bouctouche, New Brunswick, Canada E4S 2J2, E-Mail: OwenJ@agr.gc.ca Internet http://www4.agr.gc.ca/AAFC-AAC 2. Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, P.O. Box 550, Truro, Nova Scotia, B2N 5E3, Email: DLynch@nsac.ca Internet http://nsac.ca/pas/staff/dlynch/ default.asp 3. Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 32 Main Street, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Canada, B4N 1J5 E-mail: FillmoreS@agr.gc.ca Internet www4. agr.gc.ca/AAFC-AAC

Season-long supply of plant-available nutrients from compost and fertiliser in a long term organic vs. conventional snap bean rotations experiment
Owen, J.1, LeBlanc, S2 & Fillmore, S.A.E.3 Key words: compost, plant nutrients, ion exchange membranes, seasonal changes

Abstract
In Canada, stockless organic vegetable cropping systems may use compost for fertility. However, information to guide growers about when nutrients become available in the soil over the growing season is lacking. Detailed analysis of plant nutrient supply was conducted over three years in a multi-site rotations experiment using two cropping sequences. The experiment compared conventional fertility treatment (synthetic fertiliser (1x N)) with organic treatments (annual compost amendment at a low (1x N) and a high rate (3x N)). Plant-available soil nutrients were captured using sequential two-week burials of ion exchange membranes. Ions were eluted and quantified. Variation in nutrient supply over time, and effects attributable to crop rotation and fertility regime were evaluated with analysis of variance and of principal components. Results showed season-long supply of plant nutrients was more affected by year than fertility regime or rotation, even in composted plots where large residual effects were expected. Synthetic fertiliser and 1x compost resulted in very similar seasonal plant nutrient supplies. While 3x compost caused some significant changes, the gains in plant nutrient supply was modest enough to suggest little or no advantage in this one respect to warrant the cost of amending at greater than the 1x rate.

1. Senator Hervé J. Michaud Research Farm, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1045 St. Joseph Road, Bouctouche, New Brunswick, Canada E4S 2J2, E-Mail: OwenJ@agr.gc.ca Internet www4.agr.gc.ca/AAFC-AAC 2. As above 3. Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 32 Main Street, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Canada, B4N 1J5 E-mail: FillmoreS@agr.gc.ca Internet www4. agr.gc.ca/AAFC-AAC

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Consumer Appreciation of Carcass Quality of Organic vs Conventional Suckling Lamb Production
Palacios, C.1, Revilla, I.2, Vivar-Quintana, A.M.3, Lurueña-Martínez, M.A.4 & Severiano-Pérez, P.5 Key words: suckling lamb, carcass quality, meat colour, consumer acceptance.

Abstract
Carcass characteristics of sucking lambs (n= 40) of two breeds reared under conventional and organic conditions were analysed including objective and subjective parameters for fatness and conformation, meat and fat colour. Consumer acceptance was also studied using the home-use test. Results showed that the characteristics of the carcass of suckling lamb were similar for both types of production systems pointing out that organic production system did not affect fatness or muscle development. However, organic meat was darker (higher L* and a* values) probably related with the higher amount of exercise, although fat was not more yellow. In contrast consumers did not consider organic meat darker and there were not significant differences in appearance related with the similar conformation. These results reflect that consumer perceive organic meat as at least as good as conventional production not only regarding environmental quality but also regarding carcass quality.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Area de Producción Animal, Universidad de Salamanca, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Ambientales, Avda Filiberto Villalobos, 119, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. Area de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad de Salamanca, EPS de Zamora, Avda Requejo 33, 49022 Zamora, Spain, E-Mail irevilla@usal.es, Internet www.usal.es As Above As Above Facultad de Química, Departamento de Alimentos y Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Escola s/n 450010 Mexico D.F. México.

Price Premiums for Organic Food from Australia and China
Paull, J.1

Key words: Country of Origin Labelling (CoOL), eco-labels, certified organic, eco, natural, adjunctive labelling, food labels, provenance.

Abstract
Australian consumers (N=221) were surveyed to establish their valuations of food, based on provenance, organic status and eco-labelling. For Chinese produce Organic attracted a 6.4% premium, and Certified Organic an 11.6% premium. Australian produce attracted a 7.9% premium for Organic, and a 16.5% premium for Certified Organic. For Chinese produce Natural added a 1.7% premium, and Eco 2.9%, compared to Australian produce which added a 2.6% premium for Natural, and 2.8% for Eco. Chinese produce was devalued by 20.6%, compared to Australian produce (alternatively Australian produce attracted a premium of 26.0% over Chinese product). Respondents who volunteered comments, indicated they were “dubious of” or lacked “trust” in the labelling of food from China; affordability and buying “local” were also issues mentioned by respondents. Certified Organic offers an opportunity for Chinese producers to improve their return on effort, and raise the status of their produce. Adjunctive labelling can add 14.6% to consumer valuations of Chinese produce.

1. The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia

Growing rapeseed in mixed cropping with cereals
Paulsen, H. M.1 Key words: seed density, rapeseed, barley, rye wheat, LER

Abstract
Yields of mixed cropping systems of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) with winter rye, winter wheat and winter barley in organic farming are reported by the example of a one year field trial in Trenthorst, North Germany. The trial was established as perpetuation of trials in the years before with different seed densities and row distances due to very low yields of both components to increase the overall yield of the mixtures. Winter rapeseed was heavily suppressed by the cereals when grown in mixture with rye. The winter rapeseed yields were more adequate in relation to the chosen seed reduction in combination with wheat. In systems with delayed drilling of the cereals between rows of rapeseed, wheat and barley had problems in field establishment and rapeseed yields were over-proportional in relation to the chosen seed reduction. Land equivalent ratios (LER) were around 1 in all systems. The use of those mixtures as practicable yield buffer in organic farms needs further evaluation.

1. Institute of Organic Farming in the Johann Heinrich von Thunen-Institute (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, hans.paulsen@vti.bund.de

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Rearing improvement in organic Maremmana beef production: “in vivo” performance and carcass characteristics.
Pauselli, M.1, Mele, M. 2, Morbidini, L.3 , Cozza, F. 4 & Pollicardo, A.5 Key words: Maremmana breed, Organic beef production, carcass characteristics

Abstract
“In vivo” performance and carcass characteristics of Maremmana young bulls and steers were evaluated during a three year extension service program based on the improvement of animal performance and the production of steers. Average slaughter ages were 568, 562 and 642 (P<0.01) days and the average slaughter weights were 494.2, 567.2 and 548.2 kgs (P<0.01) respectively for young bulls in the first and second trial year and steers in the third, with a dressing percentage of 52.3%, 53.6% and 54.82% (P<0.01) respectively. No significant differences were found in carcass conformation and fatness scores which were similar to those found by other authors in the same breed reared in similar conditions.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Department of Applied Biology, Section of Animal Science, University of Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06122 Perugia, Italy, E-Mail zootel@unipg.it, Internet www.agr.unipg.it DAGA, Section of Animal Science, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto, 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy), E-mail mmele@unipi.it, Internet www.agr.unipi.it Department of Applied Biology, Section of Animal Science, University of Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06122 Perugia, Italy, E-Mail morbidini@agr.unipg.it, Internet www.agr.unipg.it Department of Applied Biology, Section of Animal Science, University of Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06122 Perugia, Italy, E-Mail zootel@unipg.it, Internet www.agr.unipg.it DAGA, Section of Animal Science, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto, 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy), E-mail alice.pollicardo@libero.it, Internet www.agr.unipi.it

Soil tillage in organic farming: impacts of conservation tillage on soil fertility, weeds and crops
Peigné, J.1, Aveline, A.2, Cannavaciuolo, M.2, Giteau, J.-L.3 & Gautronneau, Y1 Key words: no tillage, mouldboard ploughing, soil structure, earthworms, weeds

Abstract
Organic farmers are encouraged to adopt conservation tillage to preserve soil quality and fertility and prevent erosion. In the framework of a national study, we compared conservation (no tillage NT and reduced tillage RT) and conventional (mouldboard ploughing MP and shallow mouldboard ploughing SMP) tillage systems in 3 field experiments and 2 on-farm surveys. We measured the impacts of soil tillage on: (1) soil compaction: more compacted soil under NT and RT, (2) earthworm populations: more earthworms under NT, (3) weed infestation: weed level tends to be higher under NT, but it is not a general trend, and (4) crops: crop yields are lower under NT according to weed infestation. Then, independent of soil type and experimental year (2 to 5 years), it seems that soil physical fertility decreases under NT and RT. But, the first reason of a decline of crop yield under NT is the weed infestation.

1. ISARA Lyon, 23 r Jean Baldassini, 69364 Lyon cedex 7, France, peigne@isara.fr, 2. ESA Angers, 55 r Rabelais 49007 Angers Cedex 01, France, a.aveline@groupe-esa.com 3. Chambre d’agriculture des Côtes d’Armor, av Chalutier Sans Pitié B.P. 540 22195 PLERIN CEDEX, France, Jean-Luc.GITEAU@cotes-d-armor.chambagri.fr

Agronomic options for the management of phosphorus in Australian rain-fed organic broadacre farming systems
Penfold, C.M.1 and McNeill, A.M.2 Key words: phosphorus, manures, composts, P-efficiency, organic matter

Abstract
The paper is an overview of strategies for agronomic management of P in organic broad-acre farming systems within the Australian rain-fed cereal/ livestock belt. It concludes that to raise and maintain adequate plant-available P in these systems the importation of organic manures or composts from off-farm will be required, although the immediate issue may be access to economically viable sources. Improving the P-use efficiency of the system by incorporating species into rotation or intercropping systems that are able to access P from less soluble sources has been a successful strategy elsewhere in the world and deserves further research effort in Australia. Agronomic management to maximise quantity and quality of pasture and crop plant residues undoubtedly builds labile soil organic matter and facilitates P cycling, but the strategy may be of limited benefit in low rainfall areas that do not have the capacity to produce large plant biomass inputs. Progress in selection and breeding for cereal genotypes that are more P-efficient and other plant genotypes that can access less labile P sources is gaining momentum but still remains a long term prospect.

1. School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Australia 2. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia

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Changes in mineral content and CO2 release from organic greenhouse soils incubated under two different temperatures and moisture conditions
Pepin, S.1, Dorais, M.2, Gruyer, N.3 & Ménard, C.4 Key words: soil respiration; moisture content; biological activity; soil temperature

Abstract
In organic greenhouse vegetable productions, the turnover rate of organic amendments may be a limiting factor for optimal crop productivity and quality. Hence, we determined the mineralization potential of several organic greenhouse soils maintained at two temperatures (17, 23°C) and water potentials (–35, –250 mbars). Replicate cores of structurally intact soils were collected in plastic cylinders, saturated with water and adjusted to the appropriate matric potential. Additional soil samples were sieved, placed in glass jars and incubated under the same treatment conditions. Soil nutrients, gas concentration (O2, CO2, N2O) and microbial activity (CO2 release) were measured over a 25-week period during aerobic incubation. Large variations in nutrient and organic matter content were observed among intact soil samples. CO2 efflux declined exponentially with time, decreases being most apparent in soils having high organic matter content. An increase in temperature lead to enhanced soil respiration rates, mainly during the first weeks of incubation. Overall, mineralization rates were only slightly affected by moisture level or temperature. Gas diffusion, and thus soil biological activity, may be momentarily hindered during frequent irrigations. Yet, our findings indicate that in general matric potentials of –35 and –250 mbars both result in similar mineralization rates in these soils.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Horticulture Research Centre, Département des sols et de génie agroalimentaire, Laval University, Québec, Canada, G1V 0A6, E-mail steeve.pepin@sga.ulaval.ca Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Envirotron bldg, Laval University, Québec, Canada, G1V 0A6, E-mail: doraisma@agr.gc.ca As in 1 As in 2

An integrated approach project for the revaluation of a traditional sourdough bread production chain
Piazza, C.1, Giudici, P.2, Corbellini M.3, Gianinetti, A.4, Morcia, C.4 & Terzi, V.4 Key words: wheat, sourdough bread, organic farming, old and new varieties, sensory evaluation.

Abstract
The influence of organic and conventional farming systems on the performance of a panel of old and modern Italian bread wheat varieties has been evaluated, with the aim to individuate an agronomic protocol suitable for the production of a sourdough bread traditionally prepared in a hill zone of Emilia-Romagna. The agronomic and technological characterisation of the wheat samples obtained in organic and conventional farming conditions has been done and the sensorial qualities of the sourdough bread obtained have been evaluated.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Azienda Sperimentale Stuard, Via Madonna dell’Aiuto, 43100-San Pancrazio (PR), Italy Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie dell’Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Microbiologia degli Alimenti, Via Kennedy 17, 42100-Reggio Emilia, Italy C.R.A., Unità di ricerca per la selezione dei cereali e la valorizzazione delle varietà vegetali, Via Mulino 3, 20079-Sant’Angelo Lodigiano (LO), Italy C.R.A., Genomic Research Centre, Via San Protaso 302, 29017-Fiorenzuola d’Arda (PC), Italy

Weed Control in Organic Onion
Piazza, P.1 and Conti, M.2 Key words: onion, weed control, flaming, transplanting.

Abstract
Weed control is a major management concern in extensive plantings of organic vegetables. We tested organic onion under conventional sowing with mechanical and flaming weed control against transplants. The parameters logged included weed number and species and bulb yield, size and storability. We found fewer weeds and higher yields in the transplanted than in the sown treatments.

1. Azienda Sperimentale Stuard, Strada Madonna dell’Aiuto, 7/A S, Pancrazio (PR), Italy 2. Azienda Sperimentale Stuard, Strada Madonna dell’Aiuto, 7/A S, Pancrazio (PR), Italy

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Consumers and their impact on food and farming systems in North America and Germany Examples relating to GMO issues
Pick, D.1 Key words: Organic Consumers, rural development, Biodiversity, Genetic Engineering, Labelling of Ge-food, feed and seeds.

Abstract
Consumers in North America and Germany tried in different ways to impact their regional farmers, supermarkets, regional as well as national politicians, food related laws as well as food based land use systems in order to be able to continue consuming ge-free foods and to get sufficient information on all levels of the food chain enabling them to do so. As much success as consumers in the US and Germany had with the initiation and establishment of ge-free regions, US consumers did not succeed with their ge-food labelling campaigns. Only in Vermont a ge-seed Labelling law could be passed. In Germany ge-food, ge-feed and ge-seed have to be labelled by law. German Consumers and low input farmers tried to get also products derived from ge-feed included in ge-labelling laws. It seems a consumer influenced compromise that a new German legislation is about to be adopted which would allow for an easier Non-GMO-Labelling of food. Yet consumer opportunities to make informed choices about the food they eat seem to be still limited, especially in North America with the practical absence of federal ge-food, feed and seed labelling laws. Thus a few years ago, actors of the organic and natural food Industry teamed up to launch the so called Non-GMO Project, which shall soon open its Verification Program to the North American natural and organic food industry, offering a standard for ge-free or Non-GMO verification.

1. University of Kassel, Economics of Town and Regional Development, Henschelstrasse 2, 34109 Kassel, Germany, E-Mail Doris.Pick@Uni-Kassel.de

Authenticity tests of organic products (Golden Delicious and Elstar) applying sensory analysis
Ploeger, A.1, Röger, M.1 & Weibel, F.2 Key words: sensory evaluation, quantitative descriptive analysis, apple quality

Abstract
In the governmental funded project BÖL-02OE170/F, apple samples from different farming systems (organic and conventional) were differentiated and classified by sensory evaluation. Samples from farm pairs derived from geographical neighbouring locations. Each farm pair consisted of one farm producing apples according to organic land use system and one producing conventionally. Factors of influence as growing conditions, climate, soil and harvest time were comparable within each pair. For sensory evaluation, a descriptive analysis panel was trained according ISO-standards of descriptive analysis. The quantitative descriptive analysis method (QDA) enables to show a complete product profile with all sensory characteristics of a product as well as their intensity. Over 2 crop periods (2004/2005), 18 apple samples (9 pairs) were evaluated by QDA method; 5 samples pairs of the variety “Golden Delicious” and 4 sample pairs of the variety “Elstar”, each with 3 replicates and 6 apples per replicate. In the first crop year, descriptive analysis was done to develop product profiles of all samples. Based on these data, a classification model was developed to classify sensory characteristics of organic vs. conventional apple cultivation. According to this model, from 9 defined trial sample pairs, 8 sample pairs could be classified according to the farming system in the second year.

1. University of Kassel, Dep. Organic Food Quality and Food Culture, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany 2. Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FIBL), Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick

Sensory evaluation of processed wheat from a defined field- trial (QualityLowInputFood)
Ploeger, A.1, Röger, M.1 , Lueck, L.2 and Leifert, C.2 Key words: sensory evaluation, organic wheat quality, variety, QDA

Abstract
The integrated project QualityLowInputFood (QLIF) aims to improve quality, ensure safety and reduce costs along the organic and “low input” food supply chains. Beside safety, freshness, general health benefits as well as nutritional value, one reason for consumers demanding organic foods are more tasty products (Bourn/Prescott 2002). Therefore it is important to evaluate how the sensory attributes such as taste, flavour and texture of fresh and processed products are influenced by the different management systems. For sensory evaluation, in crop year 2005 seven wheat samples were assessed by a trained sensory panel, each with 4 field replicates (in total = 28 samples). The wheat samples were processed to wholemeal bread and

1. University of Kassel, Dep. Organic Food Quality and Food Culture, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, a.ploeger@uni-kassel.de 2. University of Newcastle, Agriculture building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU United Kingdom

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biscuits for evaluation. A descriptive panel (12 persons) was well trained according DIN 10967 as well as for quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). This method enables to show a complete product profile with all sensory characteristics and their intensity in appearance, aroma, texture, mouthfeel and flavour attributes. For wholemeal-bread, results in crop year 2005 showed no significant differences between the different farming systems. The influence of varieties were higher than farming management effects. The varieties “Paragon”, “Zebra” and “Fasan” were significant different to “Monsun” in texture attributes.

The use of organic certified compost to control soilborne diseases caused by Phytophthora spp.
Pugliese, M.1, Gullino, M.L.2 & Garibaldi, A.3 Key words: wastes, suppressiveness, soil biodiversity, Phytophthora nicotianae, Trichoderma spp.

Abstract
Soilborne pathogens can cause serious damages to economically important crops. Control of these diseases has traditionally depended upon rotations and soil quality improvement strategies. Compost has shown a suppressive activity against soilborne pathogens, and its use may decrease the severity of root rot diseases, optimize waste recycling and increase yields in organic farming. An organic certified compost produced from biowaste, green and yard wastes in a composting plant in the North-West of Italy, has been analysed for its suppressiveness against Phytophthora disease. The organic certified compost has been compared with a conventional compost produced in the same composting plant and with a peat substrate. In the first group of trials, composts maturity and quality have been estimated using Wood’s End Lab’s “Solvita” Compost Maturity Test Kit, and germination and plant grown bioassays. In a second group of trials, the organic certified compost, has been assessed for its suppressive activity in greenhouse against Phytophthora nicotianae on tomato and Phytophthora capsici on zucchini. In a third group of trials, compost was used alone or enriched with microorganism of the fungal genus Trichoderma and the suppressiveness in open field towards Phytophthora capsici on pepper has been evaluated. Organic certified compost quality was comparable to peat quality. Organic certified compost showed to have a disease suppressive activity in greenhouse, compared to peat amendment, against Phytophthora spp.. The disease suppresiveness of certified compost reached 76% in the case of tomato. The results were not confirmed in open field, even when compost was enriched with Trichoderma spp.

1. Centre of Competence for the Innovation in the agro-environmental sector (AGROINNOVA), University of Torino - Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy. E-mail massimo. pugliese@unito.it, Internet www.agroinnova.org 2. As Above 3. As Above

The development of an international curriculum on organic farming in China
Pugliese, M.1 & Gullino, M. L.1 Key words: China, education, standards, academic institutions, teaching, learning

Abstract
The project “Organic farming: social, ethical, economical, scientific and technical aspects in a global perspective” was founded by European Commission within the framework of Asia Link programme. The specific objective was the development of a curriculum on organic farming suitable to the Chinese educational framework, and the development of relevant learning and teaching tools supporting the implementation of the developed curriculum within the Chinese partners’ institutions. It consisted of four major components: seminars, visits abroad, PhD student mobility and summer schools. The developed curriculum consist of six major components for a total of 30 credits: a core course on organic farming (8 credits); four specific courses in biological system management of pests, diseases and weeds, soil quality management, organic animal production, and food quality and food safety (20 credits); and approximately 2 credits for experimental learning on farms. Direct target groups of the project activities were professors and associate professors, postgraduate and graduate students. The project indirectly addressed also private and public industries, non-governmental and governmental organisations. The project lasted 24 months, starting from December 2005.

1. Centre of Competence for the Innovation in the agro-environmental sector (AGROINNOVA), University of Torino - Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy. E-mail massimo. pugliese@unito.it, Internet www.agroinnova.org

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Element composition and quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Biweri), grown with sheep-manure composts
Radics, L.1, Pusztai, P1, Biró, B.2; Biró, Zs.1; Németh, T.2 & Monori, I.3 Key words: compost, manure, phosphorus, nitrogen, lettuce

Abstract
Two representative Hungarian soil-types (slightly humus sandy and loamy saline) were used to study the effect of various compost-products, made from sheep-yard manure and phosphorous amendments on the biomass-production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Biweri) in a pot-experiment. Two types of phosphorous amendments, such as raw-phosphate with high- or a phosphorous rock with low solubility were used as amendments during the twelve-week composting process. Pots of five-hundred g weight were used and considering the ecophysiological demand of the lettuce, low (30 t/ha) optimum (60 t/ha) and provocative (120 t/ha) levels of manure compost were applied to the soils. Yield of lettuce and mineral content analysis were done by ICP and soil-analysis by TVG. Statistical differences were shown (LSD5%) following ANOVA. An increasing yield of lettuce was recorded simultaneously by the compost doses up to the provocative level at both soil-types. Effect of composts was found to be the best at the low-fertility sandy soil with slight humus content. Among the compost-types, the low-releasing-phosphorous-rock was the most appropriate also on the sandy soil. Summarizing the results, sheep-manure-composts could be the prospective amendments for the low-fertility soils.

1. University of Corvinus, Dept. of Ecology and Sustainable Agriculture, Budapest, E-mail laszlo.radics@uni-corvnus.hu 2. Research Institute for Soilscience and AgroChemistry of the Hung. Acad. Sci. (RISSAC HAS), Laboratory of Rhizobiology,Budapest, E-mail biro@rissac.hu 3. University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Research Station of Karcag

Indigenous sheep breeds in organic livestock production in karst areas of Croatia
Radin, L.1, Šimpraga M.1, Vojta, A. 1, Marinculic, A.1 Key words: sheep, indigenous, karst, organic, Croatia

Abstract
Organic sheep breeding in Croatia is based on indigenous breeds, which are well adapted to their environment. This practice eliminates most of the problems usually encountered when imported foreign breeds have to be adjusted to the new conditions. Karst areas, encompassing about 50% of Croatian territory, are the natural habitat to eight of nine indigenous sheep breeds. These areas are nearly free from pollution, which makes them ideal for organic production. These facts were the foundations for the onset of the projects “Organic lamb production in Croatia” and “Standardisation of some health parameters of Croatian indigenous sheep breeds”. Their goal is to promote and support the development of organic sheep production in Croatian karst areas. In the course of two years, we monitored housing conditions, feeding regime and general health status of animals from five organic flocks. We took blood and faeces samples to determine normal ranges of key physiological and biochemical parameters, since no such previous data existed. They will provide the basis for health monitoring as an aid to veterinarians and sheep breeders in organic production. The development of organic livestock production in the karst areas of Croatia is aimed at accelerating the economic growth of this underdeveloped region by providing a framework for creating a competitive product, while preserving the traditional way of life and protecting the environment.

1. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Heinzelova 55, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia, e mail: lada_radin@vef.hr

“Aurora Tropical”: a model of Ecological Horticulture, Case studies of 11 Onion and Shallot cultivars
Ramirez-Guerrero, H.1, Moyeja-Guerrero, J.1, Gonzalez-Casamayor, P.1, Renaud-Rodriguez, D. 1, Paz-Leon, R.1, Lugo-Gonzalez, J. 1 & Anzalone-Graci, A. 1 Key words: semi-arid climate, tropic, alliums, vegetable, sustainable

Abstract
A proposal is presented for a model programme of ecological horticulture which could contribute to improved vegetable crop production and biodiversity in tropical agroecosystems. Each step of the model “Aurora Tropical” was successfully applied for producing pesticide-free onions and shallots in semiarid conditions of Venezuela and for comparing simultaneously growth and productivity of 11 cultivars. The model steps include a good knowledge of the vegetable crop, market, soil/substrate, irrigation water, climate, microclimate, companion crops and the current and indigenous horticultural technologies. Also, the proposal recognizes the distinction between agriculture and horticulture in tropical environments. Growth and yield results indicate that the onion cultivars Americana, Cimarron and H10020 were the top performers for leaf area, bulb diameter and yield. Furthermore, the red shallot 10026 showed the highest total soluble solids and dry matter content, and also a good relative yield. Shallots (from true seed) and other local and exotic vegetables have a great potential in tropical environments.

1. Programa Horticultura, Posgrados de Agronomia, Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado. Cabudare, Zip Code 400, Lara state, Venezuela, E-Mail hramirez@ucla.edu.ve, Internet www.ucla.edu.ve

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Promotion of Organic Vegetable Production through Farmers’ Field School in Chitwan, Nepal
Rana Bhat, B.1 & Ghimire, R.1 Key words: Farmers Field School, Biopesticides, Participatory Guarantee System

Abstract
Organic vegetable production is important for economic uplifting of farm community. Research and development activities were carried out to promote organic vegetable production in Chitwan. Activities were carried out in four farmers groups in Chitwan district. Sidhuwa modality of group farming was followed for effective implementation of activities. Farmers’ Field School was conducted to evaluate the effect of different organic pesticides on winter vegetables. Different biopesticides had differential effects in yield and disease suppression of winter vegetables but mixture of more than one biopesticide was effective in controlling major diseases and better yield of crops. Thus, this study showed that there is wide scope for use of biopesticides in organic vegetable production. However, this result should be verified by repeating same experiments for at least three seasons.

1. Ecological Services Centre, Kshetrapur, Chitwan, Nepal, ecoscentre@wlink.com.np

Use of Tharu Ethnobotanical Knowledge for Organic Insect Pests Management of Cucurbita pepo L. cv. ‘zucchini’
Rana Bhat, B.1 Key words: Ethnic community, plant resources, pesticidal plants, farmers’ field experiment.

Abstract
Tharu ethnic communities are rich in ethno-botanical knowledge on the utilization of plants for various proposes to fulfil their daily needs. They have precise knowledge about distribution, abundance, cultural practices, pest management, harvesting, and proper use of these plant resources. Gurau of Tharu communities and elderly people have sound knowledge on medicinal and pesticidal plants. Information on twenty-four locally available plants having pesticidal value, have been collected from the Tharu communities of Dibya Nagar and Meghauli VDCs, Chitwan. Out of them four of the most promising plants were selected to test their efficacy in farmers’ field conditions. In order to assess the effectiveness of plant materials on insect pests of vegetables, a farmers’ field experiment was conducted in Dibya Nagar during the summer of 2006. The plants selected to test efficacy against insect pests of Zucchini are Azadiracta indica, Justicia adhatoda, Persicaria barbata, and Artemisia indica. Plant extracts made from fresh green leaves of the selected plants at a concentration of 1:5 were applied at seven days intervals. It was found that A. indica had most promising effect on the pests, followed by P. barbata. However, all other treatments had positive effect. Similarly, the research result indicated possibility of using plant materials towards development of organic pest management methods.

1. Ecological Services Centre, Chitwan, Nepal, E-mail: ecoscentre@wlink.com.np

Comparison of effect of zinc-enriched pod of Phaseolus vulgaris and inner rice husk composts with zinc sulphate and zinc 14% chelate on zinc availability in maize plant in a calcareous soil
Rasouli, S.1, Azizi, P.1, Forghani, A.1 & Asghar Zade, A.2 Key words: Zinc-enriched compost, zinc sulphate, zinc chelate, maize, calcareous soil

Abstract
Mixtures of Zn salts and organic matter have been used successfully in controlling zinc deficiency in various crops. The aim of the present study was to optimize the effectiveness, on zinc availability in maize, of natural organic substances by enriching them with zinc sulfate. For this purpose pod of Phaseolus vulgaris and inner rice husk, as abundant organic wastes in the north of Iran, were incubated with increasing quantities of zinc sulphate. The effect of these zinc-enriched composts, zinc sulphate, and zinc 14% chelate on zinc availability in maize in a calcareous soil was studied in a greenhouse experiment. DTPA-extractable zinc of the soil, total zinc concentration, and chlorophyll of plant leaves were measured. Soil applications of all treatments, especially zinc-enriched composts, increased DTPA-extractable zinc more than control treatment, but this increase is not significant for zinc chelate. The plant analysis indicated that zinc-enriched composts of both organic matters significantly increased total zinc concentration in plant leaves more than control treatment, and their effects increased by increasing the level of enrichment until toxic level, even over that of zinc chelate. Non-enriched of both organic matters and zinc chelate had the most effect on leaf chlorophyll and significantly increased the amount of chlorophyll more than control treatment.

1. University of Guilan, Departement of Soil Science, Rasht, Iran, E-mail: pirouz_azizi@yahoo.com 2. Organization of Soil and Water, Tehran, Iran

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Annual clovers and medics in living mulch systems: Competition and effect on N supply and soil fertility
Reents, H.-J. 1 and Baresel, J. P. 1 Key words: genetic resources, legumes, crop farming, plant nutrition, living mulch

Abstract
The potential of a large number of species of self-reseeding annual clovers and medics as continuous ground cover in living mulch systems with cereals in southern Germany and their effect on N supply and soil properties were assessed. Adapted legume species could be identified. The competition of the legumes on rye was limited but not on wheat. Positive effects on N supply and on indicators of soil fertility could be evidenced

1. Lehrstuhl für Ökologischen Landbau, TU München, 85354 Freising, reents@wzw.tum.de

The Content of Selected Antioxidant Compounds in Bell Pepper Varieties from Organic and Conventional Cultivation Before and After Freezing Process
Rembiałkowska E.1 & Hallmann E. Key words: bell pepper, antioxidant compounds, vitamin C, carotenoids, rutin

Abstract
Sweet bell pepper is one of the best sources of ascorbic acid and a fair source of carotenoids in human diets. The levels of vitamin C are very variable and may be affected by maturity, genotype and processing. Vegetable freezing is one of the most efficient and adequate preservation methods. Organic fresh vegetables contained more bioactive compounds than conventional ones. Two bell pepper cultivars (Roberta and Ozarowska) have been selected for analysis. Vegetables were cultivated on organic and conventional farms in Poland. Ripe bell peppers have been collected in the same week of ripening and were chemically analyzed twice: fresh before freezing and after six month of storage in -20°C. Vitamin C content, carotenoids also the total flavonols content have been determined in fruits. Organically produced bell peppers contained significantly more vitamin C and lutein than conventionally grown fruits. Processing with aid of freezing considerably decreases the content of the bioactive compounds in red bell peppers.

1. Warsaw University of Life Sciences, ul. Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland, e-mail ewa_rembialkowska@sggw.pl, ewelina_hallmann@sggw.pl

Organic vs Conventional Suckling Lamb Production: Product Quality and Consumer Acceptance
Revilla, I.1, Vivar-Quintana, A.M.2, Lurueña-Martínez, M.A.3, Palacios, C4 & Severiano-Pérez, P.5 Key words: suckling lamb, physico-chemical composition, fatty acids, eating quality, consumer preference.

Abstract
Samples of suckling lambs (n=40) of two breeds reared under conventional and organic conditions were analysed to asses physico-chemical characteristics, including instrumental texture, and nutritional quality in terms of fatty acid composition. Consumer acceptance was also studied using the home-use test. Results revealed that organic suckling lamb meat is healthier as shown by the lower saturated fatty acid levels, the higher polyunsaturated fatty acid contents and the higher ω6/ω3 ratiko. The organic meat had lower instrumental hardness, received higher scores in all sensory parameters, and had statistically better fat sensation and higher ratings for overall liking. These results lend support to the notion among consumers that organic products are healthier and tastier.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Area de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad de Salamanca, EPS de Zamora, Avda Requejo 33, 49022 Zamora, Spain, E-Mail irevilla@usal.es, Internet www.usal.es As Above As Above Area de Producción Animal, Universidad de Salamanca, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Ambientales, Avda Filiberto Villalobos, 119, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Alimentos y Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Escola s/n 450010 Mexico D.F. México.

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Juveniles’ organic food preferences and how parents deal with them
Riefer, A. and Hamm, U.1 Key words: Family, Children, Organic Food, Grounded Theory

Abstract
According to recent research it can be assumed that expenditures for organic food in families with children are declining as children get older. For organic food marketing this raises the question which kind of changes in families’ organic food consumption appear over time and why they appear. For this purpose qualitative interviews with juveniles and parents were conducted and phenomenon-based relationship models designed. The phenomenon „parent’s dealing with changed food preferences of juvenile children“, which is presented here, provides an insight into juveniles’ demands regarding organic food products and parents’ strategies and actions to deal with these. Thereby sweets, salty food snacks and chocolate spreads turn out to be organic food products mainly rejected by juveniles. As main reason for rejection the criteria of taste can be identified. Dealing with their children’s preferences, parents follow the two strategies „making concessions“ and „not making concessions“. Product type, product attributes, consumption situation and price emerge as subjectively meaningful conditions for the interviewed parents. According to the results, marketing strategies for the organic food products concerned should mainly be targeted to juveniles’ demands on taste on the one hand and parents’ demands on ingredients on the other.

1. Agricultural and Food Marketing, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Science, University of Kassel, Steinstr. 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail a.riefer@uni-kassel.de, Internet www. uni-kassel.de/fb11cms/alm

Knowledge Transfer in the Animal Health Planning Process: Putting Research into Practice
Roderick, S.1, Ellis, K2 & Bassett, A.3 Key words: Animal health plan, knowledge transfer

Abstract
Animal health plans are now widely accepted as a tool that can provide a structured approach to health promotion and positive welfare. This requires a partnership between farmer and veterinary advisor as well as a good knowledge of organic farming practice by animal health professionals. This paper describes an electronic compendium of information relevant to animal health and welfare in organic farming, the main aim of which is to provide resource material and a training tool for those working with organic livestock farmers. The approach involved an extensive and detailed literature search, synthesis to provide advisory material and the development of a website. The compendium is divided into species specific sub-sections covering Disease Management, Veterinary Management and Health and Welfare and includes over 2500 references and web-site links. The compendium covers 45 cattle, 44 sheep, 32 poultry and 27 pig diseases and conditions as well as extensive sections pertaining to each species’ behavioural requirements. Throughout there are links to relevant elements of organic farming legislation. By providing information on new research and practical solutions to treating and avoiding disease it is expected that the compendium will contribute to improved knowledge amongst farmers, veterinarians and advisors and thereby enabling the development of animal health plans that promote high standards of animal health and welfare in organic farming.

1. Organic Studies Centre, Duchy College, Rosewarne, Camborne, Cornwall, TR14 0AB, UK, E-Mail s.roderick@cornwall.ac.uk 2. Division of Animal Production and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, Bearsden, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK, E-mail [k.ellis@vet.gla.ac.uk 3. Dartfordleigh House, Postbridge, Yelverton, Devon, PL20 6TJ, UK, E-mail annabassett55@tiscali.co.uk

Wheat trials networks for determining characters for organic breeding
Rolland, B.1, Al Rifaï M.1, Bataillon P.1, Fontaine, L.2, Gardet O.3 & Oury F.-X.4 Key words: plant breeding, organic farming, low inputs, pure lines, winter bread wheat

Abstract
The objectives of the French national institute of agronomy (INRA) cereals programme are to evaluate genetic material from breeding programmes for low input systems (high disease and lodging resistance, low seeding rate, good response to low level of nutrients, standard quality) including organic conditions. The aim of the study is to define important agronomic characteristics of cultivar adapted to organic farming. Despite some relation with agronomical performances in low input system, weeds competitiveness, productivity and baking quality are specific in organic farming. Productivity and baking quality are linked to nutrient acquisition ability: nitrogen uptake and nitrogen-use-efficiency. The selection of new lines based on weed competition and N efficiency is necessary. Thus, we define an index selection method.

1. 2. 3. 4.

INRA UMR APBV, BP 35327, 35653 Le Rheu, France, E-mail bernard.rolland@rennes.inra.fr Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique (ITAB), 9 rue André Brouard – BP 70510, 49105 ANGERS Cedex 02, France, E-mail laurence.fontaine@itab.asso.fr, Internet www.itab.asso.fr INRA AO Expérimentation et Finition des Variétés INRA Ferme du Moulon91190 Gif-sur-Yvette INRA UMR ASP 63000 Clermont-Ferrand

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Contribution to organic breeding programmes of wheat variety testing in organic farming in France
Rolland, B.1, Fontaine, L.2 & Bernicot, M-H.3 Key words: variety, winter bread wheat, breeding, screening, organic farming.

Abstract
Bread winter wheat is one of the most important cash crops for French organic farmers. Nevertheless, most of varieties available on the market were bred for conventional farming systems (with high inputs of mineral fertilizers and chemicals for crop defense). In order to obtain correct levels of yield and quality, it is important i) to screen current varieties to find the best suited for organic conditions, and ii) to rapidly obtain suitable varieties that are specifically bred for organic farming conditions. Bread wheat variety trials under organic conditions have been coordinated since the year 2001, to centralize and evaluate results at national level. The ringtest not only aims to compare varieties, but also to support organic breeding, as it provides an opportunity to evaluate the ability of advanced lines bred for organic farming to meet the needs of farmers and millers for agronomic and quality traits. Trials are also used to study specific traits required for organic farming (such as weed competitiveness), so that they can become selection criteria in specific breeding programmes. In addition, protocols and results obtained in variety trials in organic farming give information to discuss about possibility of low input VCU testing (Value for Cultivation or Use).

1. INRA UMR APBV, BP 35327, 35653 Le Rheu, France, E-mail bernard.rolland@rennes.inra.fr 2. Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique (ITAB), 9 rue André Brouard – BP 70510, 49105 ANGERS Cedex 02, France, E-mail laurence.fontaine@itab.asso.fr, Internet www.itab.asso.fr 3. Arvalis – Institut du végétal, La Minière, 78280 Guyancourt, France

The successful use of organic food products in eating out: A German case study
Rückert, J.J.1 Key words: Sustainable food consumption, organic food products, eating out, organisational change

Abstract
Food consumption in western industrial countries seems problematic in the context of sustainable development. Organic agriculture and organic food products have a high significance in the German debate about sustainable food consumption. An important question for socio-scientific research is how a higher acceptance and consumption of organic food products can be promoted. This presentation will not focus on food consumption of private households – as it is customary – but on organisations of eating out. The empirical proof is given by a recent research by the author about the use of organic food products in catering facilities as promoted by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection in Germany. From a theoretical perspective the presentation will firstly consider how a change towards sustainable nutrition with organic food products in catering facilities can be both conceptualized and examined. Secondly, the applied methods will be described. And finally, based on the theoretical assumptions the important empirical results will be presented. The study shows that concepts of sustainable nutrition are long-term learning and conditioning processes of the organisations.

1. University Hohenheim, Institute for Social Sciences in Agriculture, Subinstitution: Rural Sociology with Gender Studies, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany, E-Mail rueckert@uni-hohenheim.de, Internet www.uni-hohenheim.de

Opportunities for small organic shops despite the rise of organic supermarkets
Runge, S.1, Cornehl, M.2 & Häring. A.M.3 Key words: organic shops, specialised supermarkets, marketing

Abstract
Similar to the trend in the German organic food industry as a whole, development on the Berlin organic market is currently very dynamic. As a result, many organic supermarkets and chains are moving to Berlin, creating a major challenge for small Berlin organic shops in particular. We examined the current competitive situation on the natural foods retail market on the basis of a market analysis and interviews with experts. Potential measures for improving the competitive positioning of smaller organic shops were identified. Although to date not many smaller organic shops have been driven from the market, experts and market players expect the structure of the market to change to the detriment of organic shops because organic supermarkets have better competitive advantages in many areas including communication policy, pricing policy, sales floor layout, etc.. However, small organic shops have still not yet totally exploited their full marketing potential, particularly with respect to the sales mix policy and communication policy. For small shops to compete on the market, they need to have a distinct profile, strengthen their function as a local supplier and systematically increase the already high level of customer satisfaction.

1. University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde, Friedrich-Ebert-Str. 28, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany, Email: Silke.Runge@gmx.de. 2. Borker Str. 13A, 16866 Kyritz, Germany. Email: mfrancke@web.de. 3. As above Nr 1.

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Development of a mobile organic piggery for outdoor pork production – function, productivity, animal behaviour and environmental risk assessments
Salomon, E.1, Andresen, N.2, Gustafsson, M.1, Nyman, M.3, Ringmar, A.1 & Tersmeden, M.1 Key words: Outdoor, fattening pigs, foraging, feed conversion, plant nutrient balance

Abstract
Pens in outdoor pig systems in general become permanent during the grazing period. The excretion behaviour of the pigs creates plant nutrient hotspots within pens. In this study we developed a mobile organic piggery (MOP) without electric fencing that can be moved to a new grazing area each day. The aims were to distribute plant nutrients evenly, provide the pigs with continuous access to fresh herbage, and improve productivity and the working environment. Initially, 25 fattening piglets were installed in the MOP on a clover/grass ley. Nitrogen, P and K flows to and from the MOP were monitored during 87 days. The purchased feed included 80% of the energy norm for pigs in indoor systems and the pigs were automatically fed. The MOP was moved 65 times. Behavioural studies including excretion behaviour were conducted during a two-week period. Net nutrient accumulation was 88 kg N, 31 kg P and 10 kg K ha-1 for the total grazing area (4212 m2). Average liveweight gain was 675 g day-1. Average feed conversion rate was 2.7 kg feed kg-1 liveweight gain. The pigs grazed, on average, almost half the day. With the MOP system it was possible to use a lower quality concentrate feed in terms of energy and protein supply in combination with regular access to fresh herbage. The MOP system also allowed a more even distribution of animal manure within the total grazing area, compared with permanent pens. Avoiding harmful point loads of nutrients decrease the risk of nutrient losses.

1. JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 7033 SE-750 07 Uppsala. 2. HS – The Rural Economy and Agricultural Societies, P.O. Box 9084, SE-291 09 Kristianstad. 3. Källunda Häglinge, SE-280 10 Sösdala

The impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on tomato fruit quality
Salvioli, A.1, Novero M.1, Lacourt, I.2 & Bonfante, P.1 Key words: Tomato, AM fungi, Mycorrhizas, fruit productivity, real-time RT-PCR

Abstract
The project investigates the potential impact of mycorrhizal fungi, which have been acknowledged as a new class of bio-fertilizers, on the quality of vegetables. To verify such a hypothesis, we selected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a model plant to examine whether the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plant development may be extended to some qualitative fruit features. As a second step, five genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis and volatile compounds were selected. Their expression was investigated through a real-time RT-PCR comparison of mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants.

1. Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale dell’Università and Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante – CNR, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125-I, Torino, Italy 2. Sotral SpA, via Livorno 60, 10144 Torino, Italy.

Impact of agricultural liberalisation on the relative importance of price premiums for the profitability of organic farming
Sanders, J.1, Stolze, M.1 & Lampkin, N.2 Key words: agricultural liberalisation, price premiums, relative profitability

Abstract
In the literature, impressive evidences can be found with respect to the importance of price premiums for the absolute and relative profitability of organic farms. However, depending on the agricultural support framework, the relative economic importance of price premiums varies considerably. Model results presented in this paper suggest that the relative importance is likely to decline, if producer prices decline substantially and more support payments are transferred directly to farmers as envisaged in the framework of currently discussed liberalisation reforms in Switzerland or the EU.

1. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland, E-Mail juern.sanders@fibl.org, matthias.stolze@fibl.ch, Internet www.fibl.org 2. Aberystwyth University, Institute of Rural Sciences, Llanbadarn Fawr, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3AL, UK, E-mail nhl@aber.ac.uk, Internet www.irs.aber.ac.uk

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Green manuring for tropical organic cropping – A comparative analysis
Sangakkara, U. R.1, Weerasekera1, D. N. & Freyer, B.2 Key words: green manures, application, soils, yields, seasons

Abstract
Green manuring is an essential component of tropical organic farming. Field studies evaluated the use of three legumes as in situ or ex situ green manures, along with a nonlegume green manure and a control to ascertain their impacts on soil properties and yields of maize and mung bean grown in major (wet) and minor (dry) seasons. In situ green manuring, especially with legumes, had the most beneficial impact on soil properties, while with ex situ methods, the use of leaves alone improved soil properties. Yields were increased to a greater extent by green manuring in the minor season, and the in situ system proved to be more beneficial. In ex situ green manuring, greater benefits were obtained by the application of leaves alone. The impact of different green manures and their application methods is presented.

1. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka (ravisangakkara@sltnet.lk) 2. Institute of Ecological Agriculture, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Organic matter addition in organic farming – Impact on root development and yields in maize and cowpea over dry seasons
Sangakkara, U.R., Bandaranayake, P.S.R.D., Dissanayake, U. & Gajanayake, J N. Key words: Organic matter, WHC, Roots, Maize, Cowpea, Yields

Abstract
Organic matter and its proper management are vital in tropical organic farming to maintain productivity. A field study thus placed rice straw or Gliricidia leaves on the soil surface or the material was incorporated into soil. The impact of these treatments on soil moisture, root development and yields of organically grown maize or cowpea were evaluated in an Asian dry season. Incorporation increased soil moisture retention in the soil and hence induced better root growth, culminating in higher yields. The impact was greater in maize, especially with Gliricidia leaves. The benefits of incorporating organic matter in dry seasons for tropical organic farming are presented.

Inoculation affects nitrogen balances of composts and growth, yield and microflora of Phaseolus beans
Sangakkara, U.R.1, Weerasekera, D.N., Attanayake, K.B. & Attanayake, A M U. Key words: Compost, Inoculation, Effective Microorganisms, Quality, Crop growth,

Abstract
The impact of organic matter and two types of inoculums on composting and subsequent growth of common beans was evaluated under tropical field conditions. The composts were made of commonly available organic matter with different C:N ratios, and inoculums consisting of cattle manure slurry, Effective Micro organisms or a mixture of both were added. The mixture of cattle manure and Effective Microorganisms increased N availability and reduced C: N ratios of compost than when applied individually. Legume green matter enhanced compost quality and growth yields. The nodulation and mycorrhizal populations of roots of beans were increased by a mixture of inoculums and using diverse materials in the compost. The usefulness of inoculums such as EM, which is available in all continents is presented on the basis of this study.

1. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka (Email ravisangakkara@sltnet.lk)

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Invertebrate communities in soils of organic and conventional farming: conversion trial in the Czech Republic
Šarapatka, B., Laška, V. and Mikula, J. Key words: soil, organic farming, conventional farming, epigeic fauna, edaphon Abstract This paper focuses on the evaluation of invertebrate communities at an experimental site in Prague – Uhrineves (CZ) where an organic farming experiment (organic vs. conventional farming) started 13 years ago. The result of the research shows that strong effect to soil fauna during our evaluation had tillage and other disturbances of soil surface and also the amount of organic matter brought into soil. The research proved the complexity and integrity of agro-ecosystems in which individual actions considerably affect the biological activity of the soil and the occurrence of different groups of fauna, often without any relationship to a certain agricultural system. For these reasons, soil-protecting management practices are important to the soil inhabitants and must be established in the agronomy practices of organic farming.

Dissemination of Organic Agricultural Information: The Role of Key Communicator Networks in Rural Bangladesh
Sarker, M.A.1 and Itohara, Y.2 Key words: Dissemination, organic agricultural information, key communicators, communication networks and rural Bangladesh

Abstract
The study was attempted to measure the role of the key communicators in the dissemination of organic agricultural information in the Tangail district of Bangladesh. The findings of the study revealed that there are six key communicators who are actively working in disseminating organic agricultural information among the ordinary farmers. Among these six key communicators, one is high communicator who usually provide advice and information to ordinary farmers as well as other key communicators. Thus identifying these key communicators from a community, the development organization can train up them and use them successfully in the promotion of organic farming in rural Bangladesh.

1. Doctoral student, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Japan E-Mail: milton_suma@yahoo.com

Pilot scale application of ozonated water wash – effect on microbiological and sensory quality parameters of processed iceberg lettuce during shelf-life
Särkkä-Tirkkonen, M.1, Leskinen, M.1 & Ölmez, H.2 Key words: ozone, iceberg lettuce, fresh-cut-vegetables, minimal processing

Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of ozonated water wash on the microbiological and sensory quality parameters of minimally processed iceberg lettuce in pilot scale in comparison to aqueous chlorine wash. Alternative solutions for chlorine are needed, since its use is prohibited in organic food processing. Iceberg lettuce samples were washed with three different ozone solutions and the water wash and the 100 ppm chlorine wash were used as control. Ozone generator based on corona discharge was used to produce ozone at level 7 ppm. The samples (150 g) packed in oriented polypropylene pouches were stored for 10 days at + 5oC and the microbiological and sensory quality was analysed on days 1, 6 and 10. There was no significant difference between chlorine wash samples and the samples washed 1 min in a machine with ozonated water concerning the microbiological quality. Compared with the chlorine with lower concentrations of ozone it is possible to control the microbial load. Concerning the sensory quality all samples endured all of the treatments well except the treatment with 7 ppm ozone for 5 min. As a conclusion the bubbling gaseous ozone in water can be as effective disinfection method as chlorine wash when the following processing parameters are taken into account: concentration of ozone during the whole process, exposure time, water temperature and the amount and type of the organic material.

1. University of Helsinki, Ruralia Institute, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FIN-50100 Mikkeli, Finland, Internet www.helsinki.fi/ruralia/mikkeli 2. TÜBITAK Marmara Research Center, Food Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze Kocaeli, Turkey

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Mineral nitrogen in the course of a cash crop and two livestock rotations first results from the long-term monitoring Trenthorst
Schaub, D.1, Paulsen, H.M.1, Böhm, H.1 & Rahmann, G.1 Key words: crop rotation, mineral nitrogen, production system, long-term monitoring

Abstract
The long-term monitoring Trenthorst, situated near Lübeck in a temperate maritime climate on loamy soils, was established in 2003 and compares two cash crop and three livestock farming systems. We studied the soil mineral nitrogen contents of one cash crop and two livestock farms, specialised in dairy cows and goats/oilseeds resp., with the hypothesis that the livestock farms show a more even course of Nmin in the rotation and a higher rotation mean. The rotation average of Nmin in the cash crop farm was not lower than the ones in the livestock farms. But in the course of the rotations differences became evident: compared to the livestock farms the cash crop farm showed higher Nmin-values after the first rotation year (mulched vs. cut grass clover) but lower values in the fourth and fifth year of the rotation. As a precise nitrogen supply via manure as in the livestock farms is impossible in a self-sustaining cash crop farm, the excess of nitrogen at the beginning and the lack of it towards the end of the rotation could not be balanced. A way to improve this might be the use of green manure crops for biogas production and the application of the residues as manure. But as no full rotation period has yet passed, a longer study period is necessary to confirm the results.

1. Johann Heinrich von Thunen-Institute (vTI) - Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Organic Farming, Trenthorst 32, 23847 Westerau, Germany, E-Mail dagmar.schaub@vti.bund.de, Internet www.vti.bund.de

Eco-Regions: How to link organic farming with territorial development
Schermer, M.1 & Kirchengast, Ch.2 Key words: Eco-Region, territorial development

Abstract
Organic farming in Austria has seen a rapid development as all over Europe. In some alpine regions over 50% of the farms have converted to organic. Thus the idea of forming “Eco-Regions” (“Bioregionen” in German), transforming organic farming values from a farm level to a regional scale, emerged. The paper presents the results of an action research based project to develop a model for the formation of Eco-Regions and to monitor the success in cross-sectoral networking. Besides a number of prerequisites also bottlenecks for the formation become apparent. The paper describes the model and the implementation in two distinct regions.

1. Institute of Sociology, University of Innsbruck; Universitätsstraße 15; A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. e-mail: markus.schermer@uibk.ac.at; 2. As Above

Analysis of differences between EU Regulation (EEC) 2092/91 in relation to other national and international standards
Schmid O.1 , Huber, B. 1 , Ziegler K. 1 , Jespersen, L.M, 2 & Plakolm G.3 Key words: standards, organic agriculture, regulatory framework, standards database

Abstract
Differences between the EU Regulation (EEC) 2092/91 and selected private as well as governmental organic standards were analysed as part of an EU-funded research project on the revision of this regulation. Most of the differences were found in the following areas: conversion, fertilising, animal feeding, veterinary treatment and animal husbandry. Many differences have specific justifications, influenced by specific national or regional circumstances or policy framework. The variations between the EU Regulation, governmental and private-sector standards do not concern basic requirements; i.e. there is a general agreement on the main general principles of organic agriculture within the EU. A certain regional flexibility can be justified.

1. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Socio-Economic Division, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland, otto.schmid@fibl.org 2. Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Denmark 3. Höhere Bundeslehr- und Forschungsanstalt Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Austria

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National-scale modelling of N leaching in organic and conventional horticultural crop rotations - policy implications
Schmutz, U.1, Rayns, F.1, Firth, C.1, Nendel, C.2, Lillywhite, R.3, Zhang, K.3 and Rahn, C.3 Key words: Nitrogen leaching, modelling, crop rotations, vegetables, water framework directive

Abstract
A method is presented to model N leaching in crop rotations on a national scale. Representative crop rotations for different regions and soil types are used in the cross- disciplinary, plant, soil, environment & economics model EU-Rotate_N. By comparing contrasting farming systems (organic and conventional) in the UK, their strengths and weaknesses in delivering environmental and economic sustainability can be assessed. Modelling results show that the annual leaching in different horticultural rotations and UK regions, using median weather, is within the range of 13 - 88 kg N/ha/year for organic and 54 - 130 kg N /ha/year for conventional. The weighted annual average figures are 39 kg N/ha/year for organic and 81 kg N/ha/year for conventional, respectively. It is concluded that organic horticultural rotations, with a current share of 6.1% already contribute to lower overall N losses from agriculture. However, on a UK national scale, only a large share of organic land use (e.g. > 50%) has a large effect on reducing N losses. Similar reductions are also predicted by substantial cuts in conventional N inputs, giving a policy choice if pollution from agriculture steps up further on the political agenda.

1. Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA), Garden Organic Ryton, Coventry CV8 3LG, United Kingdom, e-mail: USchmutz@HDRA.org.uk 2. Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV35 9EF, United Kingdom 3. Institut für Gemüse- und Zierpflanzenbau (IGZ), Theodor-Echtermeyer-Weg 1, 14979 Großbeeren, Germany

Effects of different stocking rates with dairy cows on herbage quality and milk production in organic farming
Schori, F.1 Key words: stocking rate, milk production, organic farming, herbage quality, dairy cow

Abstract
In order to identify the optimum stocking rate for grazing dairy cows in organic farming, grazing experiments were conducted from 2004 to 2006. Cows of one herd were divided into two groups during vegetation periods. The paddocks of the rotational pasture were split in a way that the low stocking rate group (SRL) had 15% more pasture area than the high stocking rate group (SRH). Post grazing sward height for SRH, was decisive for the simultaneous change of the sub-paddocks. Annual stocking rates for SRH were 2.0, 2.3 and 2.3 cows per hectare (ha). In the offered herbage mass for SRL significant lower ash-, CP-, APDE- and APDN values as well as higher NDF values were detected. Sugar- and NEL values were unaffected. No significant differences were found for milk production per cow, but milk production per ha was significantly higher for SRH. Apart from two exceptions (lactose 2005 and urea 2006), no significant differences were identified for milk composition. The attribution of more pasture area without topping leads to a lower pasture quality. Increasing the stocking rate, within limits, slightly reduces the milk yield per cow, but clearly improves the utilization of grown herbage.

1. Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station ALP, Tioleyre 4, 1725 Posieux, Switzerland, E-Mail fredy.schori@alp.admin.ch, Internet www.alp.admin.ch

Organic Methods for Control of Root Rot in Pea and Spinach in Northeastern U.S
Schrum, H.1, Kotcon, J.2 & Verlinden, S.3 Key words: root rot, organic disease control

Abstract
The root rot disease complex is a limiting factor in organic production of cool season crops. This study aimed to increase seedling stands of peas and spinach by altering the seed environment such that the growing conditions of the seeds were favored over those of the pathogens. We compared treatments of raised (ridged) seed beds, dairy and vermicompost troughs, transplanting, and a biocontrol soil drench. Of the methods tested, transplanting provided the most reliable and best crop stands for both seasons (p=0.05) Since this method relies on the biological resistance the plants develop naturally with age, this method could prove applicable across many climates and other crops which are threatened by root rot.

1. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Email: hannahwitten@yahoo.com 2. As above. 3. As above

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The importance of amino-N for humus formation studied by comparing amino-N input to the soil and soil total nitrogen content in long-term experiments
Schuler, Ch.1, Raupp, J.2 & George, E.3 Key words: soil organic matter, nitrogen fractions, amino acids, soil fertility

Abstract
Humus formation is thought to depend directly on carbon input. Referring to earlier studies we tested the role of amino-bound nitrogen (amino-N) input to the soil using data of 10 long-term experiments with different fertilization and crop rotation treatments. In 8 out of the 10 experiments there was a significant positive correlation between the amino-N input and soil total N content. This correlation was much stronger than the one of total N input and soil N content, indicating that amino-N was more important for soil N accumulation than total N input. Amino-N from farmyard manure seems to be more effective in this respect than amino-N from other organic fertilizers.

1. Humboldt University Berlin, Germany; E-Mail xtiana@web.de 2. IBDF, Institute for Biodynamic Research, Darmstadt, Germany, E-Mail raupp@ibdf.de Internet www.ibdf.de 3. Humboldt University Berlin, and IGZ, Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Grossbeeren and Erfurt, Germany; E-Mail George@igzev.de Internet www.igzev.de

Effects of Farm Type and Different Intensities of Soil Tillage on Cash Crop Yields and Soil Organic Matter
Schulz, F.1, Brock, Chr.2 & Leithold, G.3 Key words: crop rotation, tillage, long-term field experiment

Abstract
An organic long-term field experiment has been carried out at the experimental station Gladbacherhof (Giessen University, Germany) since 1998 to survey the performance of agronomical, economical and ecological indicators dependant on farm type and tillage intensity. This article presents results on cash crop yields and changes in humus contents in the first two rotations of the experiment. It can be concluded that organic stockless farming without ley affects cash crop yields and demands special attention with regard to a sustainable humus management. Stockless farming with rotational ley on the other hand up to now showed a satisfactory performance when compared to a mixed farm type with livestock. As for the yields, reduced tillage systems could cope with the regularly ploughed reference system if at least a shallow turning of the soil was carried out. An increase of humus contents was not induced by reduced tillage systems.

1. Lehr- und Versuchsbetrieb Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen, 65606 Villmar, Germany, Franz.Schulz@agrar.uni-giessen.de 2. Professur für Organischen Landbau, University of Giessen, Karl-Glöckner-Str. 21C, 35394 Giessen, Germany, organ.landbau@agrar.uni-giessen.de 3. As Above

Influence of fertilisation on furanocoumarins content in two celeriac varieties
Schulzová, V., Botek, P., Hajšlová, J.1, Babicka, L., Kourimská, L. & Václavíková, K.2 Key words: celeriac, fertilisation system, furanocoumarins, food safety, anaerobically fermented pig slurry

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the way of celeriac cultivation on the content of naturally occurring toxicants - furanocoumarins. Their levels have been shown to be strongly affected by an individual variety and also fertilization method. Organic farming using anaerobically fermented pig slurry was compared with mineral, combined, and non-fertilized farming. The climatic conditions in particular crop years play an important role in the furanocoumarins occurrence.

1. Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technická 3, 16628 Prague 6, Czech Republic; E-mail vera.schulzova@vscht.cz, Internet www.vscht.cz 2. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Quality of Agricultural Products, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; Internet www.czu.cz

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Quality of thyme herb (Thymus vulgaris L.) from organic cultivation
Seidler-Łozykowska, K.1, Golcz, A.2, Kozik, E.2 and Wójcik, J.1

Abstract
In five field experiments the quality of thyme herb and usefulness of Polish cultivar ‘Słoneczko’ for organic cultivation were tested. The following features were tested: dried herb yield, stem content in dried herb, essential oil content, nitrate content, macro- and microelements content and microbiological purity. Only from Słonsk thyme herb yield was higher compared with the yield from conventional cultivation though it contained high amount of stems. Thyme herb was characterized by higher content of essential oil and increased content of macro- and microelements except calcium. Evaluation of microbiological purity showed that for both types of cultivation herb contamination did not exceed standard for raw materials treated with hot water.

1. The Research Institute of Medicinal Plants 61-707 Poznan, phone: 61 65 17 190, fax 61 65 17 192, email: klozykowska@iripz.pl 2. A. Cieszkowski Agricultural University 60-098 Poznan, Zgorzelecka 4

Evaluation of Crop Rotation on Organic Farms in Northern Serbia
Seremesic, S.1, Milosev, D.2 & Manojlovic, M.3 Key words: crop rotation, organic agriculture, crop management

Abstract
The objective of this paper was to analyze six organic farms in northern Serbia in order to evaluate crop rotation composition and identify its role in cropping technology of the organic production. The major agronomic indicators of organic crop rotation were analyzed: number of crops and their ratio, number of different crop schemes and fields in rotation, land coverage with crops, crops structure, etc. Information was acquired by visiting and surveying farmers during the 2005/06 as well as reading their documentation required for certification. The obtained results showed that the farmers carried out production on a 3-4-year rotation basis. The cropping plan was strongly driven by market demands. Compromises with design and structure of the rotation were compensated with additional crop management or organic fertilizers. The potential for the development of good farming management based on efficient crop rotation has not been fully achieved.

1. University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, D. Obradovica 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia, Email srdjan@polj.ns.ac.yu, Internet http://polj.ns.ac.yu/ 2. As above 3. University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, D. Obradovica 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia, Email majacuv@polj.ns.ac.yu, Internet http://polj.ns.ac.yu/

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Profitability of Organic Agriculture in a Transition Economy: the Case of Organic Contract Rice Farming in Lao PDR
Setboonsarng, S.1, Stefan, A.2, Leung, P.S.3 & Cai, J.4 Key words: Laos, rice, contract farming, switching regression, profitability

Abstract
Poverty is prevalent among smallholder farmers in transition economies where market failures prevail and where the capacity of the public sector is limited. This study assesses the potential of organic contract farming as a private sector institutional arrangement to reduce rural poverty. Contract farming appears to facilitate market linkages for smallholder farmers to produce organic rice for export markets while providing necessary technical supports. Using an endogenous switching regression model to assess the profitability of organic contract farms and conventional farms in Lao PDR, it was found that organic farmers under contract earn significantly higher profit than conventional farms. The findings also showed that organic contract farming tends to provide the greatest increase in income to farmers with below average performance. These findings suggest that contract farming can be an effective mechanism to facilitate the development of organic agriculture and an effective tool to improve the profitability and raise incomes of small farmers, thereby reducing poverty in rural areas with limited market development.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Asian Development Bank Institute, 3-2-5 Kasumigaseki 8F, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan, E-Mail ssetboonsarng@adbi.org, Internet www.adbi.org As Above, email astefan@adbi.org Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, E-Mail psleung@hawaii.edu, Internet www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mbbe/ Chinese Academy of Finance and Development, The Central University of Finance and Economics, Xue Yuan Nan Lu 39, Beijing, China, E-Mail junning.cafd.cufe@gmail.com

Impacts of Institutional Arrangements on the Profitability and Profit Efficiency of Organic Rice in Thailand
Setboonsarng, S.1, Leung, P.S.2 & Cai, J.3 Key words: Thailand, poverty reduction, institutional arrangement, NGO, profit, profit efficiency

Abstract
This study assesses the performance of organic small farmers in Thailand under different institutional arrangements and over time. It was found that while organic farmers were significantly more profitable and profit efficient than conventional farmers, the level of profitability varies under different intermediaries. Farmers organized by NGOs on degraded marginal land showed a pattern of increasing profit and profit efficiency over time, after the transition period. On the other hand, farmers organized by a private sector firm on newly opened forest land exhibited a pattern of stable profit and increasing yields over time. The results showed that farmers under non-profit NGOs received the highest level of profit, followed by farmers under the private firm and finally the for-profit NGO. These findings suggest that while organic agriculture can increase the economic performance of small farmers, institutional arrangement is an important factor in realizing the broader benefits of organic agriculture for poverty reduction.

1. Asian Development Bank Institute, 3-2-5 Kasumigaseki 8F, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan, E-Mail ssetboonsarng@adbi.org, Internet www.adbi.org 2. Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, E-Mail psleung@hawaii.edu, Internet www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/mbbe/ 3. Chinese Academy of Finance and Development, The Central University of Finance and Economics, Xue Yuan Nan Lu 39, Beijing, China, E-Mail junning.cafd.cufe@gmail.com

Nitrogen Utilization in Integrated Crop and Animal Production
Seuri, P. Key words: nitrogen utilization, nutrient circulation, integrated production

Abstract
The principles of organic production are based on integration between crop and animal production and self-regulated nutrient intensity. A comparison between specialized dairy and crop farm models and an integrated dairy and crop farm model showed 24 % higher total production per area and higher nitrogen utilization in the integrated system. The main factors were more efficient nutrient circulation, better utilization of legume crops and low intensity of nitrogen on non-legume crops.

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Influence of alleycropping microclimate on the performance of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in the semi-desert region of northern Sudan
Shapo, H.E.1 & Adam, H.S. Key words: Irradiance, Semi –Arid, Acacia stenophylla, Evapotranspiration, Water use

Abstract
An alley cropping system was established at Hudieba Research Station (17.57’N and 33.8’ E) on a loamy sand soil of the semi-desert region of northern Sudan. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of modified microclimate in 6-m wide alleys formed by Acacia ampliceps and Acacia stenophylla on growth and yield of groundnut. and sesame. Above-ground interactions were determined by measuring air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar energy and shade length and behaviour. Groundnut and sesame were evaluated for growth and yield by laying out sample plots at southern, central and northern part of the alleys and at control plots. Due to microclimatic modifications in the alleys, the yield of both crops in the alleys significantly (p=0.01) exceeded that of the sole crop. Yield reduction at the northern alley was fully compensated by high yield increase at southern and central alleys. The yield of groundnut increased by 37.7 and 19.6 % in the A.stenophylla and A.ampliceps alleys, respectively. On the other hand, the yield of sesame increased with the stenophylla-alley (+40.3%), while it decreased with ampliceps-alley (-51.5%). The results indicated that the competition for light was the major factor contributing to the increase or reduction of growth and yield of groundnut and sesame.

1. Haider Shapo, Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan, Africa, P.O Box 126, E-mail, hsafi123@yahoo.com

Socio-psychological characteristics of farmers in the adoption of organic farming practices in coconut based homesteads of humid tropics
Sherief, A.K.1, Anilkumar, A.S.1, Sakeer Husain2 A. and Jayawardana, J.K.J.P.3 Key words: homestead, socio-psychological characteristics, adoption, organic farming

Abstract
A study was conducted to find out the socio-psychological characteristics of farmers in the adoption of organic farming practices in coconutbased homesteads of the humid tropics. Multistage random sampling technique was followed to select 105 ‘coconut based homestead farmers’ in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state, India. A pre-tested structured interview schedule was administered to elicit data. The study revealed that the farmers’ socio-psychological characteristics such as education, innovativeness, risk orientation, market perception, self-confidence, information seeking behavior, awareness, knowledge and attitude towards organic farming practices have significant correlation with their adoption behaviour.

1. Associate Professor - Kerala Agricultural University, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-695522, Kerala, India, E-mail:aksherief@gmail. 2. Assistant Professor - Kerala Agricultural University, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-695522, Kerala, India 3. Research Scholar - Kerala Agricultural University, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-695522, Kerala, India

Evaluation of Farm Biodiversity with Indicators in the Context of Sustainability
Siebrecht, N. & Hülsbergen, K.-J.1 Key words: Biodiversity, Assessment, Indicators, Sustainability, Organic Farming

Abstract
Organic farming depends on the promotion of biodiversity and the corresponding functions. No tools are known for the obtention of farm-specific information explaining the influence of farm management on biodiversity. The paper describes an approach that allows estimating such effects. It has been applied in an experimental farm with an organic and a conventional farm section. The results distinguish between both sections. The investigations made so far allow concluding that multiple-structured low-input systems achieve better marks than specialized high-input systems. For further development and validation additional studies are required. It is planned to test the indicator model in numerous farms, in order to disclose bottlenecks and deficiencies.

1. Chair of Organic Farming, Technical University Munich, Alte Akademie 12, 85350 Freising, Germany, E-Mail: norman.siebrecht@wzw.tum.de, Internet www.wzw.tum.de/oekolandbau

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Influence of intercropping and irrigation frequencies on leaf development and taro (Cocoyam) productivity under organic management
Silva, E .E. da1; Azevedo, P. H. S de1; Almeida, M. M. T. B.1; De-Polli, H.2 & Guerra, J. G. M.2 Key words: Organic Agriculture, Colocasia esculenta, Crotalaria juncea und Green Manuring

Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the intercropping and irrigation frequencies on the leaf development and productivity of taro (Colocasia esculenta) under organic management. The experiment was set up as a randomized complete block design, a factorial 2 x 2, with four replications. Taro was cultivated in monoculture or intercropped with Crotalaria juncea under two irrigation frequencies: every 3.5 days for 30 minutes and every 15 days for 2 hours. The intercropping increased taro petiole length but did not increase leaf area. The same effects were observed for irrigation frequency on the leaf area and petiole, length at the 30th and 60th days after C. juncea cutting. The amount of taro yield and offshoot number of class 1 (category up to 40g) were affected negatively by the intercropping. However the total number, total yield and average weight of the offshoot were not affected by the intercropping. The irrigation frequency promoted positive effects in the number and weight of offshoot (category of 80g weight or higher), as well as in the total taro yield and average offshoot weight. The conclusion was that the short frequency irrigation contributed for the development and productivity of taro offshoots and the intercropping with C. juncea did not decreased the total productivity of taro cropping.

1. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica/Rio de Janeiro/Brazil - ZIP code. 23890-000, e-mail: edmilson@cnpab.embrapa.br Internet: www.cnpab.embrapa.br 2. Embrapa Agrobiologia, BR 465, km 7, Seropédica/Rio de Janeiro/Brazil – ZIP code: 23890-000

Consumers willingness to pay for Fair trade and organic products
Sirieix, L.1 and Tagbata D.2 Key words: Fair trade. Organic products. Labels. Taste. Image. Experimental method. Willingness to Pay

Abstract
More and more products are now both “organic and fair trade” but little is known about consumers perception of these double labels. In this article, we examine the importance of the “organic” and “fair trade” labels in the consumers’ buying decisions and the effect on the perception of the taste of the product by the consumers in the valuation of these labels. We also propose a consumers’ typology according to their degree of valuation of these labels, and analyze the motivations of their behaviour. Three consumers’ clusters were identified according to their reactions to the “organic and fair trade” label - the first cluster represents the people insensitive to the label’s presence, and contained nearly one half of the sample; for a second cluster, the “organic and fair trade” labels’ influence on the improving image of the products was positive and important; finally, for the third cluster, the valuation of the “organic and fair trade” label was determined by the product’s taste.

1. Professor, UMR MOISA, Montpellier Supagro, France, sirieix@supagro.inra.fr 2. PhD, Institut du Développement et de la Prospective, Université de Valenciennes, France, tagbadidier@yahoo.fr

Consumers motivations for buying local and organic products in developing vs developed countries
Sirieix, L.1, Kledal, P. & Santiago de Abreu, L: Key words: local products, organic food, food miles, consumers, developing countries

Abstract
Despite numerous studies reporting on organic consumer profiles, little is known on consumers motivations for buying local and organic products. More precisely, do consumers prefer local products because they want to support local producers or do environment and the question of food miles matter in their choice ? Besides, very little is known about organic consumers in developing countries, since most surveys are generally conducted in developed countries. Our purpose is to fill this double gap. By conducting qualitative surveys based on individual interviews in four developing countries (Brazil, Egypt, Uganda and China) and two European countries, France and Denmark, we plan to study consumers choice for organic products from supermarkets, farmers markets or local organic food network respectively. Products are selected to cover examples of imported organic products that compete with comparable products of local origin.

1. Corresponding author sirieix@supagro.inra.fr

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First results from Brazil and France show that French consumers are more concerned by the environment than Brazilian consumers, but that most consumers in both samples are not concerned by food miles and their subsequent environmental impacts. Results also shed light on different patterns related to commitment of supporting small or local farmers, and suggest implications for policy makers.

Effect of green manure rotation, biol and cultivar on the production of organic spinach (Spinacea oleracea)
Siura, S.1 & Davila, S2 Key words: Biol, green manure rotation, spinach, Spinacea oleracea

Abstract
Two cultivars (Open Pollination OP and hybrid) were evaluated in a rotation with green manure (Crotalaria juncea) and four biol concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 100%) on organic spinach crop. A statistical complete randomized block under factorial design was used. The yield was highly statically significant for the rotation with green manure (24.3 t/ha), biol (25.8 t/ha) and the interaction of rotation x cultivar (25.2 t/ha), where the production of the OP was superior to hybrid, when green manure was used. High yields obtained when green manure in rotation and high biol concentrations were used, justifies its wide and common use, especially with small farmers, improving the spinach organic production efficiency even when an OP cultivar was used.

1. Horticulture Department, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. saray@lamolina.edu.pe 2. Vegetable Research Program, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. huerto@lamolina.edu.pe

Change in the weed seed bank during the first four years of a five-course crop rotation with organically grown vegetables
Sjursen, H.1, Brandsæter, L.O.1 & Seljåsen, R.2 Key words: weed seed bank, red clover, yellow sweetclover , vegetables, crop rotation

Abstract
In a five-course rotation with organic vegetables (white cabbage, carrot and onion) the weed seed bank was reduced the year after two continuous years with red clover, mainly because of mowing and no soil cultivation the second year red clover. The year after the weedy yellow sweetclover the weed seed bank increased.

1. Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research (Bioforsk), Plant Health and Plant Protection Division, Høgskolevn. 7, N-1432 Ås, E-mail: helge.sjursen@bioforsk.no 2. Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research (Bioforsk), Arable Crops – Landvik, Reddalsvn. 215, N-4886 Grimstad

Assessment of skin damages in dairy cows
Smolders, G.1 Key words: skin damage, location, housing, assessment period, benchmarking

Abstract
Skin damages were assessed at 48 conventional and organic farms with mainly cubicle houses. Scores from 1 – 9 were given depending on type and size of the damaged skin at 9 locations of the cow: outer hock, inner hock, knee and body all left and right hand side and the neck. Only the highest score per location is recorded and remarks of unusual findings are made separately. The most frequent and most severe affected location is the outer hock followed by the knee. Only 14 percent of all cows did not have any damage, 34 percent had only hairless patches and 24 percent of the cows did have at least one swelling. Correlations of the mean farm score for the left and right hand side are high for the outer hock and low for the body. To have the most impact in advising farmers, assessment should preferably be made at the end of the housing period, the most threatening period in animal welfare in the Netherlands. This system allows benchmarking within and between farms.

1. Animal Sciences Group of WUR, Postbox 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands. E-mail: gidi.smolders@wur.nl. Internet: www.asg.wur.nl

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Enhancing Biodiversity and Multifunctionality of an Organic Farmscape in California’s Central Valley
Smukler, S.M.1, Jackson, L.E.2, Sánchez Moreno, S.3, Fonte, S.J.4, Ferris, H.5, Klonsky, K.6, O‘Geen, A.T.7, Scow, K.M.8 & Cordova-Kreylos, A.L. 9 Key words: Multifunctionality, Biodiversity, Organic Farming, Ecosystem Function

Abstract
Organic farmers in the USA increasingly manage the margins of previously monocultured farmed landscapes to increase biodiversity, e.g. they restore and protect riparian corridors, plant hedgerows and construct vegetated tailwater ponds. This study attempts to link habitat enhancements, biodiversity and changes in ecosystem functions by: 1. inventorying the existing biodiversity and the associated belowground community structure and composition in the various habitats of an organic farm in California’s Central Valley; and 2. monitoring key ecosystem functions of these habitats. Two years of inventories show greater native plant diversity in non-cropped areas. While nematode diversity did not differ between habitats, functional groups were clearly associated with particular habitats as were soil microbial communities (phospholipid fatty acid analysis). Earthworm diversity did not differ between habitats, but biomass was higher in non-cropped areas. Habitats with woody vegetation stored 20% of the farmscape’s total carbon (C), despite their relatively small size (only 5% of the total farm). Two years of monitoring data of farmscape C and nitrogen (N) through emissions, runoff and leaching showed distinct tradeoffs in function associated with each habitat. Clearly habitat restoration in field margins will increase both landscape biodiversity and the multifunctionality of the farmscape as a whole.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Dept. of Land, Air and Water Resources (LAWR), Univ. of California, Davis (UCD), CA, 95616 USA Email smsmukler@ucdavis.edu Dept. of LAWR, UCD, CA, 95616 USA Email lejackson@ucdavis.edu Dept. of Nematology, UCD, CA, 95616 USA Email ssanchezmoreno@ucdavis.edu Dept. of Plant Sciences, UCD, CA 95616 USA Email sjfonte@ucdavis.edu Dept. of Nematology, UCD, CA 95616, USA Email hferris@ucdavis.edu Dept. of Ag. & Resource Economics, UCD, CA, 95616, USA Email klonsky@primal.ucdavis.edu Dept. of LAWR, UCD, CA, 95616, USA Email atogeen@ucdavis.edu Dept. of LAWR UCD, CA, 95616, USA Email kmscow@ucdavis.edu Dept. of LAWR UCD, CA, 95616, USA Email analucia.cordova@gmail.com

Occurrence and level of patulin contamination in conventional and organic apple juices marketed in Italy
Spadaro, D.1, Ciavorella, A.2, Frati, S.2, Garibaldi, A.2 & Gullino, M.L.2 Key words: apple juice, HPLC, mycotoxin, patulin, Penicillium expansum.

Abstract
A survey on the occurrence of patulin was conducted during 2005 on conventional (98 samples) and organic apple juices (37 samples) marketed in Italy. Patulin could be quantified in 34.8% of the samples ranging from 1.58 to 55.41 µg kg-1. With the exception of one sample, the level of patulin was lower than 50 μg kg-1, the maximum permitted threshold in fruit juices according to the European legislation. A similar incidence of positive samples was found in conventional and organic apple based juices, and the magnitude between the mean contamination levels, although higher in organic (10.92 µg kg-1) than in conventional juices (4.77µg kg-1), was not statistically significant (P=0.771; Mann-Whitney test). The current study was undertaken also to investigate the possible influence of the type of apple juice (mixed, clear or cloudy) on the occurrence and level of patulin contamination. Mean levels of patulin were significantly lower in mixed apple juices (4.54 µg kg-1) than in pure apple juices (9.32 µg kg-1). Levels of patulin contamination were comparable in clear and cloudy juices.

1. DIVAPRA – Plant Pathology, University of Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, I-10095 Grugliasco, Italy 2. AGROINNOVA University of Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, I-10095 Grugliasco, Italy

Efficacy of indigenous botanicals and bio-rationals in the management of cabbage pests in an organic farming system
Ssekyewa, C.1, Mwine, J.1, Kalanzi, F.1 & Kudamba, C1 Key Words: Biological control, botanicals, cabbage, concoctions, pests

Abstract
Cabbage is an economically important crop in Uganda. Pests are number one constraint limiting qualitative and quantitative production. Organic cabbage production is picking up and farmers use botanicals to control pests. Used botanicals are not evaluated scientifically, though there is a rich indigenous knowledge about pest management. This has resulted into misuse of botanicals, and as such, pest management is labour intensive and uneconomical. Therefore, a study was conducted during to growing seasons to evaluate farmer used botanicals against major cabbage pests. Pests usually found on cabbage were recorded. Note was taken of percentage number of leaves damaged by the diamond back moth, aphids and the cabbage

1. Uganda Martyrs University, Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.BOX 5498, Kampala, Uganda Tel. 256382410611 Fax. 256382410100; E-mail: cssekyewa@umu.ac.ug

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lopper per plant per treatment. Yield was also noted at harvest stage. Generated data was analyzed for variance (ANOVA) using SPSS and graphs were made using Excel computer programme. Use of Tephrosia powder and solution was found to be the most effective treatment against cabbage pests. This treatment was better than a mixture of citronella, chili, andTephrosia solution. Tephrosia powder and solution, as well as chili solution spray are recommended for use against cabbage pests in the organic farming system.

Yielding and Selected Leaf Diseases of Old Winter Wheat Cultivars in the Organic System
Stalenga, J. & Jonczyk, K. Key Words: winter wheat, old cultivars, cultivar selection, leaf diseases

Abstract
Intensity of leaf infestation by selected fungal pathogens and yielding of old winter wheat cultivars (Ostka Kazimierska, Kujawianka Wiecławicka, Wysokolitewka Sztywnosłoma) against a background of modern winter wheat cultivars (Kobra, Roma, Korweta, Sukces, Zyta, Mewa) in conditions of organic farming was assessed. The research was based on a special field experiment established in 1994 year on a grey-brown podzolic soil in which different crop production systems are compared. The research was conducted in 2005 and 2006. Average for 2 years grain yield of winter wheat for all cultivars amounted to 3.0 t/ha. In both years the largest yields were noted for modern winter wheat cultivars. Old cultivars of wheat reacted better on water deficiency than modern ones. The yield decrease for all cultivars was mainly affected by low level of resistance on fungal pathogens responsible for leaf diseases. Only in 2005 leaves of old cultivars were more than modern cultivars infested by fungal diseases.

Are soil biological properties and microbial community structure altered by organic farm management?
Stark, C.H.1 Key words: DGGE; enzyme activity; farming techniques; soil biota; soil dilution plating

Abstract
Environmental conditions and farm management practices have a considerable impact on soil biota, affecting nutrient cycling processes and ecosystem functioning. Understanding how management practices influence soil fertility and agricultural productivity is essential to improve the sustainability of agroecosystems. The effect of farming history on microbial soil properties was assessed by analysing soil samples from two organic and conventionally managed sites. Cmic and Nmic, enzyme activities, bacterial community composition (PCR-DGGE) and total numbers of fungi and bacteria (soil dilution plating) were determined. Results suggested that organic farming practices did not have a clear positive effect on soil microbial biomass and activity; distinct differences in bacterial community composition were detected by PCR-DGGE but not by soil dilution plating. Findings indicate that practices commonly associated with conventional farming (application of mineral fertilisers or pesticides) have a less pronounced effect on the soil microbial community than other management techniques (e.g. manure application and crop rotation).

1. Environmental & Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; email: che.stark@yahoo.de

Organic farming and biodiversity – how to create a viable farm business including conservation issues
Stein-Bachinger, K.1 & Fuchs, S. 2 Key words: nature conservation, target species, arable farming systems, management plan, multidisciplinary approach

Abstract
The extension of organic farming (OF), the increasing recognition of the advantages for improving agro-biodiversity, and the fact that the protection of nature and natural species cannot be taken for granted, has resulted in several interdisciplinary activities. The first of these was the Brodowin Nature Conservation Farm project. Conflicts between nature conservation and modern, large-scale OF, focusing on arable land use systems, were identified, evaluated and solved. Suggestions for adequate financial reward for ecological performance were worked out. The tested optimisation strategies were implemented in a second project: preparing a whole farm management plan based on maps marked with fields having a high potential for specific target species. The aim was to achieve the highest benefit for nature conservation issues with the least expenditure by the farm. A manual is being produced as a third project, with a series of examples for the integration of nature conservation measures, based on the results of our own projects and data sourced in literature, along with different experts. The manual will allow the user to see immediately either how target species/groups can be directly promoted or how measures can be selected, and what effects these have on the business.

1. Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Institute of Land Use Systems and Landscape Ecology, G, E-Mail kstein@zalf.de, Internet www.zalf.de 2. As Above, E-Mail piluma@aol.com

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Biogas in stockless organic Farming: Effects of Digestion of Clover/grass, Cover Crops and Crop Residues on Nitrogen Cycles and Crop Rotation Productivity
Stinner, W.1, Möller, K. & Leithold, G. Key words: nitrogen, nutrient management, digestion, renewable energies, stockless farming system

Abstract
A common practice in stockless organic farming systems is to leave the biomass from clover/grass-ley and crop residues in the field for their residual fertility effect. No farmyard manures for transfer of nutrients within the system are available. Clover/grass-ley biomass and crop residues represents an unexploited energy potential that could be harnessed by the digestion in biogas plants for production of methane, thus replacing ruminants by the biogas digester. In field trials by implementing a whole crop rotation comprehending six crops were carried out in 2002-2005 to evaluate whether the use of N could be improved by processing biomass described above in a biogas digester and using the effluents as a fertilizer, compared to general practice. Results indicate that digestion of crop residues resulted in more efficient manuring systems, not only by the implementation of an additional “product” (power energy), but also by getting more efficient cropping systems with higher DM and N yields of most of the non-legume crops, combined with a reduction of N losses due to denitrification and a reduction of the nitrate leaching risk. The causes were a better and more evenly allocation of nutrients within the whole crop rotation, a higher N input via N2 fixation, lower N losses and probably a higher N availability of digested in comparison to the same amounts of nutrients in undigested organic manures.

1. Professur für Organischen Landbau, Universität Gießen, Karl Glöckner Str. 21c, D-35394 Gießen. Email: walter.stinner@agrar.uni-giessen.de

Influence of cropping systems on the potential formation of acrylamide in different cultivars of wheat
Stockmann, F.1,,Graeff, S.2, Weber, A.3 & Claupein, W.4 Key words: acrylamide, asparagine, production systems, cultivars, food products

Abstract
Acrylamide (AA) – probably carcinogen – is thermally created in carbohydrate-rich food (e. g. cereals) within the Maillard-Reaction by the reaction of asparagine and reducing sugars. First steps to decrease AA focused on changes in the technological food production process. However, these possibilities are limited due to occurring taste anomalies and consumer tolerance. Therefore, it might be an alternative to influence the precursors of AA. Up to now, multiple studies considering the influence of fertilisation, species, and cultivars on the content of asparagine (Asn) and reducing sugars have been carried out. But there is still a lack of information about the influence of the production system on the AA level. It can be expected that the amount of AA is different and might be lower in organic production systems, because of the difference in nitrogen management (amount and type). The aim of this study was to check organically and conventionally grown wheat samples of different cultivars for the level of the precursor Asn and the AAformation-potential. The samples were obtained from locations in Switzerland and Germany. Partial significant differences in the amount of Asn and in the AA-formation-potential suggested an influence of the production system and thus a further chance to intervene.

1. Institute of Crop Production and Grassland Research, Universität Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 23, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany, E-Mail fastock@uni-hohenheim.de, Internet www.unihohenheim.de 2. As Above 3. As Above 4. As Above

Organic Pilot Farms in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany)
Stumm, C.1 & Köpke, U. 1 Key words: on-farm research, participation, inter- and transdisciplinarity

Abstract
Since 1993, research, advisory service and practice work together in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) on solutions for selected issues of plant cultivation and animal husbandry with practical relevance for organic farmers. The project that is funded by NRW and the European Union entails demonstration and optimisation of selected organically operating farms and their methods of production as well as professional advice. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Organic Agriculture and executed in cooperation with the Chamber of Agriculture and contributes effectively to the expansion of Organic Agriculture (OA) in NRW. In this successful participatory and interdisciplinary cooperation between practice, extension service and research, 30 farms that are distributed all over NRW and integrate a wide range of different types of production in their typical

1. Institute of Organic Agriculture (IOL), University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 3, 53115 Bonn, Germany, www.iol.uni-bonn.de, iol@uni-bonn.de

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local region are involved in developing the research questions, executing experiments and discussing results. Solutions are assessed and optimised on farm level and demonstrated in the practice of major farms in order to secure the knowledge transfer in extended agricultural practice. The feasibility of the methods is immediately assessed by practitioners and transmitted to colleagues.

Livestock Production Practices of Registered Organic Farmers in Uttarakhand State of India
Subrahmanyeswari, B.1 & Chander, M.2 Key words: Organic standards, animals, organic farmers, Uttarakhand, India

Abstract
The authors studied 180 organic farmers, randomly selected out of 4459 organic farmers registered with Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB), in the North Indian state of Uttarakhand (770 34’ and 810 02’E longitude and 280 43’ to 310 27’ latitude). These farmers were interviewed during 2006-07, using semi-structured Interview schedule, so as to know their Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) in context of their livestock production activities in particular. All the farmers had maintained some animals under crop livestock subsistence mixed farming system, mainly to meet household requirements of milk and more importantly cow dung for use in crop field. These farmers were mostly focussed on organic crop production activities, with active technical and marketing support from UOCB. The animal husbandry practices were mostly traditional but very close to organic livestock production systems when contrasted with the organic livestock standards. It was concluded in the study that conversions to organic livestock production systems would be much easier for these organic farmers, if technical and marketing support is extended beyond crops to cover livestock.

1. Department of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Extension, N T R College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram-521102 (AP) INDIA, Email: eswariext@gmail.com 2. Division of Extension Education, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122 (UP) India, Email: mahesh64@email.com

Monitoring Agriotes lineatus and A. obscurus in organic production using pheromone traps
Sufyan, M.1, Neuhoff, D. 1& Köpke, U.1 Key words: pheromone traps, Agriotes spp., range of attractiveness

Abstract
Wireworms, particularly Agriotes lineatus and A. obscurus are becoming a problem in organic crop production causing economically severe damage on potatoes and other arable crops. Since pesticide application for direct control is not allowed in organic farming, reliable methods for quantifying wireworm infestation levels and forecasting damage are urgently needed for any control strategy. In the present work, the assessment of the range of attractiveness of pheromone traps to male A. lineatus and A. obscurus beetles was investigated in 2006 and 2007. The results indicated that the trap recovery rate of released beetles was more dependent on release distance than on time. Recovery rates greater than 40% were only noted for short release distances (up to 10 m), while less than 10% of the beetles released at a distance of 60 m returned to the traps. Recovery rates of click beetles were also negatively affected by cold and wet weather conditions. Most of the beetles were recovered within the first 3 days.

1. Institute of Organic Agriculture (IOL), University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 3, D-53115 Bonn, Germany, msufian@uni-bonn.de, http://www.iol.uni-bonn.de

Carbon sequestration in organic and conventional managed soils in the Netherlands
Sukkel, W.1, Geel, W. van1 & Haan, J.J. de1 Key words: organic matter, carbon sequestration, farm management, organic agriculture

Abstract
Next to other important agronomic and ecological aspects, the organic matter sequestration in the soil plays an important role in the CO2 balance. Based on detailed farm registrations, the input of effective organic matter and the changes in carbon sequestration in the soil was calculated for a large number of organic and conventional farms in the Netherlands. Results show that both organic and conventional management resulted in a decrease of the pool of organic carbon in the soil. The average decrease for the conventional management was 401 kg ha-1 year-1 and for the organic management 261 kg ha-1 year-1. The input of effective organic matter in the soil was significantly higher in organic than in conventional farms. Animal manure was the main contributor to this difference.

1. Wageningen University and Research Centre, dep. Applied Plant Research. Edelhertweg 1, 8219 PH, Lelystad, The Netherlands, E-Mail: wijnand.sukkel@wur.nl

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Market Integration Shape Organic Farmers’ Organisation
Sultan, T.1, Mursal, A.1, Salem, S. G.1, Liu, Y.1, Oelofse, M.1, Knudsen M.T.1, El-Araby, A.2, Delve, R.J.3, Yuhiu, Q.4, Hauser, M.5, Kledal, P.6, Egelyng, H.7, Halberg, N.8 & Høgh-Jensen, H.1

Abstract
Increasing consumption of organic products in globalised food chains will require the involvement of thousands more smallholder farmers in many regions of the world. A study of Egypt, China and Uganda identified the three key factors of property rights regimes, cultural differences and social organisation as determents of the supply chain organisation and farmers’ degree of direct integration in the export markets. Patterns are emerging where smallholder farmers are being socially and economically linked to larger farmers who may do some processing before the raw materials are handed over to the contracting company. Where transactions costs are high, local communities may develop and contract out the land directly to exporting companies who farm using employees. Four organisational patterns are identified which each leads to different types of livelihood benefits for the producers; preliminary results indicate that income and a reliable market access are the dominant benefits.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Allé 9, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark, E-mail hhj@life.ku.dk Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Sham University, P.O.Box 68, Haidaik Shoubra, 11241 Cairo, Egypt TSBF-CIAT, P.O. Box MP228, 12.5km peg, Mazowe Road, Harare, Zimbabwe College of Resource and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing, China University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Gregor Mendel Straße 33, A-1180 Vienna, Austria. Institute of Food and Resource Economics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 25, DK-1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark. Danish Institute for International Studies, Strandgade 56, DK-1401 Copenhagen, Denmark Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, Postboks 50, 8830 Tjele, Denmark

Organic livestock production - trapped between aroused consumer expectations and limited resources
Sundrum, A.1 Key words: standards, inconsistencies, conflict of aims, credibility, change in paradigm

Abstract
Literature reviews reveal that the implementation of organic standards have failed to clearly improve status of animal health and welfare on many farms in comparison to conventional production. The a huge variability with respect to this issue between organic farms indicate profound discrepancies between claim and reality of organic livestock farming. Thus, the hypothesis that the implementation of minimum standards will automatically provide benefits for the issue of animal health and welfare has been refuted by farm practice. As a consequence, organic farmers and retailers can no longer stick to the claim that organic products of animal origin are of higher value with respect to the issue of animal health and welfare. Reasons for the limited effects of the organic standards are multi-factorial and assumed to be farm specific in the fist place. On the other hand, limited availability of resources such as nutrients, labour time and investments within organic farm systems together with a high pressure on the production costs by retailers make any improvments very difficult. In order to preserve the credibility of organic agriculture and the confidence of the consumers in organic products there is a need for more transparency and for a change in the paradigm from a standard-oriented to an output-oriented approach. Credible information about the specific level of product and process qualities emerged by each farm has to be provided. Simultaneously, a high level of animal health and welfare has to be honoured by premium prices to cover the additional costs and efforts that are needed to improve the current situation.

1. Department of Animal Nutrition and Animal Health, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr.1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail Sundrum@wiz.uni-kassel.de, Internet www.wiz.uni-kassel.de

Towards loose housing in Swedish organic dairy production
Swensson, C1 Key words: milk production, dairy cow houses, tethered cows, loose housing

Abstract
For hundreds years there has been a tradition with tethered dairy cows in Sweden. The last decades the old fashioned way to hold cows have been questioned and the number of dairy cows in loose housing has been increasing. Last year (2004) 19 percent in total of all farms with milk production in Sweden had their cows in loose housing. Because of EU-legislation concerning all organic production no farms are allowed to build tie stalls any more and after 2010 all organic dairy cows are supposed to live in loose-housing systems. The aim of the thesis was mainly to find out the number of farms with tethered organic dairy cows. Furthermore the purpose was to study if there are any

1. Dept. of Rural Buildings, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 59, SE 23053 Alnarp Sweden. Christian.swensson@ltj.slu.se

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regional differences regarding the building system for organic dairy herds. There are important differences between buildings made for conventional dairy cows and organic ones. Some examples from organic rules are that calf and cow are allowed to go together during the whole colostrums period and the area per animal in some cases is bigger. That often makes organic buildings for dairy cows more expensive to build than conventional ones. In the end of 2004 60 percent of the organically kept dairy cows, which is equivalent to 40 percent of the farms in Sweden, were already in loose-housing systems depending on that decision. There are big regional differences.

The effect of companion plants on Lygus feeding damage to bean
Szafirowska, A.1 & Kolosowski, S.1 Key words: Lygus, bean seeds, organic farming, companion plants

Abstract
The aim of research was to find out the protective effect of companion plants against lygus bugs (Lygus spp.) in organic production of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..). The field experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005. Bean were sown on three dates: May 10, 25, June 10. As companion plants the following species were applied: red beet (Beta vulgaris L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L..). At harvest the bean seeds were examined for the presence of seed-pitting caused by lygus bugs. The lowest percentage of damaged seeds, demonstrated the samples obtained from plots cultivated in the close proximity of dill and marigold The number of pitted seeds depended on the date of seeds sowing and the year of experiment.

1. Research Institute of Vegetable Crops, ul. Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3, 96-100 Skierniewice, Poland. E-mail aszafir@inwarz.skierniewice.pl, Internet www.inwarz.skierniewice.pl

A comparison of organically and conventionally grown vegetable crops: results from a 4-year field experiment
Tabaglio, V.1, Gavazzi, C2 & Nervo, G.3 Key words: organic farming, conventional farming, vegetable crops

Abstract
A four-year field trial (2004-2007) was carried out to compare performances of organic and conventional farming systems in the Po Valley (Northern Italy). Four vegetable crops were grown in the sequence: 2004 – processing tomato; 2005 – bean followed by savoy cabbage; 2006 – processing tomato; and 2007 – zucchini. The experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, the management system being the main factor (OF, organic farming vs. CF, conventional farming) with the rate of nitrogen fertilisation as the secondary factor. N efficiency of the organic fertilizers was assumed as being 50-75%). In all four of the years studied, the two farming systems did not show significant differences in marketable yields for any vegetable crops. The reduction in OF compared with CF was 17% for tomato-2004 and 2% for zucchini; in contrast, for cabbage and tomato-2006 the yields in OF were 10% and 3% higher respectively.

1. Institute of Agronomy and Field Crops, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza, Italy, E-Mail vincenzo.tabaglio@unicatt.it, Internet www.unicatt.it 2. As Above 3. Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Via Paullese 28, 26836 Montanaso Lombardo (LO), Italy.

Effect of Biofertilizers on Agronomic Criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Tabrizi, L., Koocheki, A. & Ghorbani, R.1 Key words: hyssop, biofertilizer, agronomic criteria, essential oil

Abstract
An experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the effects of pure or combinations of biofertilizers on agronomic and quality criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), a medicinal and aromatic plant from Labiateae family at the Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2006 and 2007. A complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Treatments containing Azospirillum/Azotobacter(Nitroxin), Azospirillum/Bacillus subtilis/ Pseudomonas fluorescens (Super Nitro Plus), Glomus intraradices (Mycorrhizal inoculant), Pseudomonas fluorescens, Glomus intraradices / Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azospirillum/ Azotobacter/ Glomus intradica / Pseudomonas fluorescens and a control. The results indicated that in general application of biofertilizers enhanced yield and other plant criteria in this plant. In

1. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. P.O.Box:91775-1163. Email akooch@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

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terms of all plant criteria, the plants performed better with application of Super Nitro Plus and a mixture of Glomus intraradices and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

Strategies to Induce Cooperation from Farmers in an Organic Food Supply Chain: the Case of Bio Market, Inc., Japan
Taniguchi, Y.1 Key words: quality, supply chain, collective reputation, conventionalization, contract

Abstract
Organic food supply chains often face a challenge to receive stronger commitment from farmers necessary to access the mainstream food market. This study measured the farmers’ effort level was by using a proxy indicator, and sought factors that affect the level, based on the data obtained from an organic food supply chain in Japan. Four factors were found: (1) the farmers’ self-evaluation on their effort level, (2) satisfaction with the terms of contract, (the farmers’ self-evaluation on their product quality, and (4) the farmers’ dependence on the chain as a source of income; are related to the effort level realized by an individual farmer. Based on the result, the study has concluded that the measures that lower the self-evaluation of farmers’ performance can make the farmers more cooperative with the aims of the chain.

1. Assistant Professor, School of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Miyagi University, 2-2-1, Hatatate, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0215, Japan Email: taniy@myu.ac.jp

Growth performance of broilers fed with different strains of probiotics
Tarun, M.1 Key words: Broilers, probiotics

Abstract
Generally, this study aimed to determine the effects of different strains of probiotics on the growth performance of broilers. Specifically, to determine the effects of feeding different strains of probiotics on the growth performance of broiler and utilizing broiler chicks, An all mash ration with 21% CP was formulated. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used and Least Significant Differences (LSD) when comparing treatments; T1-Control (0 Probiotics), T2- 2 kg Lactobacillus sp./MT of feeds, T3- 2 kg Bacillus sp./MT of feeds, and T4-2 kg Pediococcus sp./MT of feeds. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences among treatments on the final body weight of broilers given diets with different strains of probiotics. Based from the result of the study, the inclusion of 2 kg Lactobacillus sp./MT of feeds in the diet of broilers had improved the growth of the experimental birds in terms of body weight, gain in weight, feed conversion and its economic returns due to the lactic acid content of Lactobacillus sp. The result obtained from this study suggest that inclusion of 2 kg of Lactobacillus sp. per metric tons of feeds can safely be used in the diet of broilers to produce an organically grown chicken for table meat as it produced the highest gain in weight, feed conversion and return above feed cost.

1. Professor, Isabela State University, San Mariano Campus, Sta. Filomena, San Mariano, Isabela, Philippines, E-Mail: mercedes_tarun@yahoo.com, Mobile phone: +63-919-5380-051

A multidisciplinary approach to improve the quality of organic wheat-bread chain
Taupier-Létage, B.1, Abécassis, J.2, David, C. 3, Fontaine, L.4 & Viaux, P5 Key words: organic wheat, flour, bread, nutritional quality, baking quality, taste, flavour

Abstract
The main challenge for organic farmers, millers and bakers is to fulfill consumers’ expectations of providing healthy and safe products. The quality of organic grain can be modulated by agronomic modifications on genotypes, crop management, crop rotation and soil fertility, but the milling process and finally the baking process are also key factors in producing bread of high baking quality, nutritional value, taste and flavour. Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient in achieving acceptable yield levels of sufficient bread-making quality, but previous results have shown that organic wheat tends to have lower protein content, dough mixing tolerance and loaf volume. The selection of genotypes with high N use efficiency, weed competitiveness and disease resistance allowed improving the agronomic performance. Besides protein content and protein composition, the baking performance of organic wheat bread also depended on flour starch damage, amylase activity, ash content and particle size distribution. The milling technique had a critical effect on both baking performance and nutritional value whereas the baking process may improve the bioavailability of minerals through acidification process

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique ITAB, 159 Rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris Cedex 12, France, E-Mail bruno.taupier-letage@wanadoo.fr, Internet www.itab.asso.fr INRA, CIRAD, Montpellier Supagro, Université Montpellier 2, UMR 1208, Montpellier France, E-mail abecassi@supagro.inra.fr, Internet www.inra.fr ISARA Lyon, 23 Rue Baldassini, 69364 Lyon cedex 07, E-mail davidc@isara.fr, Internet www.isara.fr Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique ITAB, 159 Rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris Cedex 12, France, E-Mail laurence.fontaine@itab.asso.fr, Internet www.itab.asso.fr Arvalis Institut du Végétal, Boigneville, 91720 Boigneville, France, E-mail p.viaux@arvalisinstitutduvegetal.fr Internet www.arvalisinstitutduvegetal.fr

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(sourdough). Finally, this programme allowed to better characterize stakes and constraints of the whole organic wheat-flour-bread chain due to a multidisciplinary approach.

Performance of Organic Grain Cropping Systems in Long-Term Experiments
Teasdale, J.R.1 & Cavigelli, M.A.1 Key words: organic farming, no-tillage, crop rotation, soil carbon, weed control

Abstract
Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from two long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments can increase soil carbon, nitrogen, and yield potential more than conventional no-tillage, despite the use of tillage in organic systems. However, reduced-tillage organic systems present challenges for weed control, particularly with simple rotations typical of conventional grain cropping systems. Organic systems that employ more complex rotations including a hay crop have demonstrated greater potential for improved weed control, increased nitrogen availability, and increased yields.

1. USDA-ARS Sustainable Agricultural Systems Lab, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, E-Mail john.teasdale@ars.usda.gov, michel.cavigelli@ars.usda.gov

A Longitudinal Study of Mastitis on an Experimental Farm with Two Herds, One Managed Organically, the other Conventionally
Thatcher, A.1, Petrovski, K.1, Holmes, C1, Dowson, K.1, Kelly, T.2 & McLeod, K.3 Key words: mastitis, organic, bulk milk somatic cell count, Staphylococcus aureus

Abstract
Mastitis in two herds managed as a comparison between organic and conventional dairy farming systems was monitored for 4 years utilising regular bacterial culture of milk samples, individual and bulk somatic cell counts and observation by farm staff. The objective was to develop strategies for the control of mastitis in organic cows without the use of antibiotics. The herds showed differences in clinical mastitis incidence, subclinical mastitis prevalence and bulk milk somatic cell count. Despite these differences, the level of mastitis in the organic herd remained manageable.

1. Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand, K.R.Petrovski@massey.ac.nz 2. Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand 3. DairyNZ, Private Bag 3221, Hamilton, New Zealand

Differences between spring wheat cultivars in susceptibility to Fusarium caused seedling blight
Timmermans, B.G.H.1 & Osman, A.M.1 Key words: Spring wheat, Fusarium, seedling blight, cultivar differences, growth rates

Abstract
Fusarium spp. present on spring wheat seeds can infect seedlings and cause reduced plant densities and higher wheat infestations. In the current project, variation between commercially available spring wheat cultivars in their tolerance to Fusarium seedling blight was investigated in a pot and a field trail. Additionally, initial growth rates of cultivars were measured to investigate possible relations with tolerance. Preliminary analysis shows presence of tolerance differences between the spring wheat cultivars in the pot and field experiment. This difference was relatively robust (experiment x cultivar interaction was not significant). Preliminary analysis also showed a relation between tolerance and initial growth rates of cultivars in the field experiment. The presence of robust differences in tolerance and relations with growth rates of commercially available cultivars form good possibilities for future breeding.

1. Louis Bolk Instituut, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA Driebergen, The Netherlands, b.timmermans@louisbolk.nl, Internet www.louisbolk.nl

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Effects of homeopathic and mineral treatments on dark leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola on cauliflower
Trebbi, G.1, Fantino1, M.G., Dinelli, G. 1, Marotti, I. 1, Burgio, G.1, Nani, D. 2 & Betti, L. 3 Key words: homeopathic treatments, dark leaf spot, cauliflower, arsenic trioxide, Alternaria brassicicola

Abstract
This research aimed at verifying the efficacy of some homeopathic and mineral treatments on Alternaria brassicicola/cauliflower interaction. Growth chamber experiments and a field trial were performed, using Brassica plants artificially inoculated with the fungus. In growth chamber experiments, infection was significantly reduced by arsenic trioxide 35 decimal potency (As2O3 35 d) and in field trial by both As2O3 35 d and bentonite treatments.

1. Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology , Viale G. Fanin, 42 40127 Bologna,Italia 2. Italian Society of Anthroposophic Medicine, Milano, Italia 3. Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology , Viale G. Fanin, 42 40127 Bologna, Italia

Experiences of Veterinarians Using Acupuncture on Farm Animals
Trei, G.1, Brandt, B.1 & Hörning, B.1
Key words: Acupuncture, farm animals, veterinarians, Germany

Abstract
The aim of this study was to collect information about experiences of veterinarians with acupuncture. 27 German veterinarians who regularly used acupuncture on farm animals were interviewed. Most vets had received special training in acupuncture. This treatment method was most often used on horses, followed by cattle (mainly dairy cows). It was especially applied against common diseases which could easily be cured. Treatment costs were higher for horses than for cattle. There has been an increased demand for acupuncture mainly for horses.

1. Department of Organic Livestock Production, University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde, Friedrich-Ebert-Str. 28, D-16225 Eberswalde, Germany, E-Mail bhoerning@fh-eberswalde.de, Internet http://www.fh-eberswalde.de/K1214.htm

Experimental systems to monitor the impact of transgenic corn on keystone soil microorganisms
Turrini, A.1, Sbrana, C.2 & Giovannetti, M.3 Key words: GMO, environmental impact, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, co-existence, non-target organisms.

Abstract
Risks and benefits of transgenic crop plants should be evaluated not only by assessing pollen flow, but also by considering soil persistence of transgenic products, such as Bt toxins, which can accumulate in the soil and remain active for a long time. Moreover, transgenic plants are often ploughed under as crop residues, representing a potential hazard for non-target arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, a group of beneficial plant symbionts fundamental for soil fertility. In this study we monitored the effects of transgenic corn plants (Bt 11 and Bt 176) and their residues on AM fungal growth and root colonization ability. Both transgenic plants decreased mycorrhizal colonization and Bt 11 plant residues negatively affected mycorrhizal establishment by indigenous endophytes, four months after their incorporation into soil.

1. Department of Crop Plant Biology University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy, E-Mail turrini@agr.unipi.it 2. Intitute of Biology and Agricultural Biotechnology, CNR, UO Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa, Italy, E-mail sbrana@ibba.cnr.it, Internet www.ibba.cnr.it 3. Department of Crop Plant Biology University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy, E-Mail mgiova@agr.unipi.it, Internet www.agr.unipi.it/dbpa/giovannetti/

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Grain yield of different winter pea genotypes in pure and mixed stands
Urbatzka, P.1, Graß, R.1, Schüler, C.1, Schliephake, U. 2, Trautz, D. 2 & Heß, J. 1 Key words: cropping, winter pea, mixed stands

Abstract
In organic farming, harvest of spring peas is a problem because of the often high density of weeds, but also the low yield stability. In the present experiments, seven different genotypes of winter peas (six regular types and one semi-leafless type) and one spring pea (semi-leafless) were examined between 2004 and 2007 in pure and mixed stands (with cereals) in terms of their suitability as a harvest crop at two different sites per season in Germany (experimental fields of the University of Kassel Frankenhausen (2004-2007), Hebenshausen (2004) and the experimental farm of the University of Applied Sciences Osnabrueck, Waldhof (2005-2007). Grain yields of the regular leaf type in mixed stands during the first three years varied because of varying N supply (preceding crops and weather conditions). When availability of N was relatively low, pea grain yield ranged between 2.5 and 4.0 t ha-1 in Frankenhausen and 1.5 and 2.5 t ha-1 in Waldhof, and were at levels comparable to spring pea yield, which varied from 2.0-3.4 to 1.5 t ha-1, respectively. In addition, mixtures contribute rye yield. At a relatively high N supply, pea yields were relatively low, but rye yields relatively high. Crude protein concentration and concentration of some amino acids (lysine, tryptophan and arginine) partially were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the regular leaf types than in the semi-leafless types.

1. Department of Organic Farming and Cropping, University Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany, E-Mail urbatzka@uni-kassel.de, Internet www.wiz.uni-kassel.de/ foel/index_en.html 2. Faculty of Agricultural Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Applied Science, Oldenburger Landstraße 24, 49090 Osnabrueck, E-mail u.schliephake@fh-osnabrueck.de, Internet www.al.fh-osnabruck.de

Development of animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy farming in Europe
Vaarst, M.1, Leeb, C., Nicolas, P., Roderick, S., Smolders, G., Walkenhorst, M., Brinkman, J., March, S., Stöger, E., Gratz, E. Lund, V., Henriksen, B.I.F., Hansen, I. & Neale, M.

Abstract
Good animal health and welfare is an explicit goal of organic livestock farming, and will need continuous development and adjustment on the farms. Furthermore, the very different conditions in different regions of Europe calls for models that can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. A European project with participants from seven countries have been established with the aim of developing principles for animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy farming, based on a process where knowledge about the status within a given herd will be included as background for taking decisions and planning future improvements. An important part of the planning process is communication with other farmers as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors). Other principles such as systematic evaluation of how the improvements work in the farm ensure the continuity of the planning process. This presentation gives an overview over the current animal health and welfare planning initiatives in the participating countries and lines up the principles which are being gradually implemented in partner countries in collaboration with groups of organic farmers and organisations.

1. Corresponding author: University of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, P.O.Box 50, DK – 8830 Tjele, Denmark, Mette.Vaarst@agrsci.dk. Contact details and the references to the project and to all co-authors can be found at http://aniplan.coreportal.org.

Potential implementation problems of the EU OAP: a failure mode and effects analysis
Vairo, D. & Zanoli, R1 Key words: Organic Action Plan, implementation problems, indicators, synergies, conflicts.

Abstract
Since 2001, the EU Commission has followed principles of good governance (EC, 2001). One of the five principles of good governance is participation in the formulation of policies and their implementation. The aim of this paper is to provide a first evaluation of the EU Organic Action Plan (OAP) and the Organic action plan evaluation toolbox (ORGAPET) combining the knowledge of researchers from different countries (AND, CH, CZ, DE, DK, IT, NL, SI, UK) with external expertise (Advisory Committee, EU Commission).

1. DIIGA - Polytechnic University of Marche - Via Brecce Bianche - I-60131 ANCONA (Italy), E-mail daniela@agrecon.univpm.it; zanoli@agrecon.univpm.it.

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Nitrogen balances in Dutch organic greenhouse production
Voogt, W.1, Burgt, G.J.H.M. van der2 and Cuijpers, W.J.M.3 Key words: greenhouse, modelling, nitrogen balance.

Abstract
The organic greenhouse production in the Netherlands is limited with regard to the number of growers, but plays an important role in EU organic greenhouse production. In the high-technology greenhouses a high production level is realized but nitrogen balances of this production system have been questioned. In order to document and improve the nitrogen balance, the production of seven greenhouses was monitored and soils were repeatedly analysed. The model “Bemestingsrichtlijn biologische kasteelten” (Fertilization Guide Organic Greenhouse Production) has been developed to simulate nitrogen availability and to fine-tune manure applications to crop demand. In the course of four years the overall nitrogen surpluses decreased sharply, but due to the observational character of the research no statistical analyses can be made. Part of the high surpluses in the first years can be explained by initial investments in soil organic matter. Calculation of the dynamic balance gives more possibilities to fine-tune farmers’ fertilization strategies. Growers that followed the model-based advise for manure application, realized a substantial reduction of nitrogen surpluses.

1. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Greenhouse Horticulture, Bleiswijk, The Netherlands 2. As above 3. Louis Bolk Instituut, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA Driebergen, Netherlands, E-Mail w.cuijpers@louisbolk.nl, Internet www.louisbolk.nl

The significance of mycorrhizal fungi for crop productivity and ecosystem sustainability in organic farming systems
van der Heijden, M.G.A1, Rinaudo, V2, Verbruggen, E2., Scherrer, C1., Bàrberi, P.3 & Giovannetti, M.4 Key words: organic agriculture, plant-soil interactions, crop productivity, mycorrhizal symbiosis

Abstract
Mycorrhizal fungi are widespread in agricultural systems and are especially relevant for organic agriculture because they can act as natural fertilisers, enhancing plant yield. Here we explore the various roles that mycorrhizal fungi play in sustainable farming systems with special emphasis on their contribution to crop productivity and ecosystem functioning. We review the literature and provide a number of mechanisms and processes by which mycorrhizal fungi can contribute to crop productivity and ecosystem sustainability. We then present novel results, showing that mycorrhizal fungi can be used to suppress several problematic agricultural weeds. Our results highlight the significance of mycorrhizal fungi for sustainable farming systems and point to the need to develop farming systems in which the positive effect of these beneficial soil fungi is optimally being utilized.

1. Organic Farming Systems, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland; E-Mail marcel.vanderheijden@art.admin.ch 2. Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam. 3. Land Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy. 4. Department of Crop Plant Biology, University of Pisa, Italy.

Sustainability evaluation of long term organic farm systems
Vazzana C.1, Raso E. 2 & Migliorini P. 3 Key words: Sustainability Indicators, LTE, Organic Agriculture

Abstract
The paper deals with the evaluation of sustainability at farm level in a long term experimental farm, organically managed since 1992 in Tuscany. The aim was to develop and implement a multi-objective organic agriculture, to establish new concepts of farming as result of long term research analysis and to provide a practical and easy understanding on what is necessary to change or improve in farming management. Soil fertility and biodiversity indicators are taken into consideration in the period 1992-2006: the weak points and the improvement obtained by the farm management are underlined. The values of indicators changed rapidly towards the desired ones in the first 6 years period. After 13 years, in 2006, the situation appears almost stable, P is still a problem, some little discrepancies for C/N ratio and KAR indicate the need to re-examine some of the production methods.

1. Department of Agronomy and Land Management (DISAT), University of Florence P.le delle Cascine 18, 50144 Florence, Italy, E-Mail concetta.vazzana@unifi.it, Internet www.unifi.it/ disat 2. As above E-Mail enrico.raso@unifi.it 3. As above E-Mail paola.migliorini@unifi.it

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A new approach to soil tillage for organic vegetable production: permanent beds
Védie H.1, Berry D.2, Leclerc B.3, Grébert D. 4, Lhôte J.M. 5 Key words : organic vegetable production, soil tillage, permanent beds, soil fertility

Abstract
The effect of controlled traffic with permanent crop beds was compared to mouldboard ploughing in France for organic vegetable production. Four trials were carried out over a period of three to seven years at four sites with different pedo-climatic conditions. Variable results were obtained, depending on soil type (susceptibility to compaction), tillage machinery type, vegetable type (root or not, grown from seed or transplant) and weed development. However, permanent crop beds with controlled traffic generally improved biological activity and reduced labour demand.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

GRAB (Organic Agriculture Research Group), Site Agroparc, BP 1222, 84911 Avignon cedex 9, France; E-Mail: helene.vedie@grab.fr SERAIL, 123 Chemin du Finday,69126 BRINDAS, France; E-mail: berry.serail@wanadoo.fr ITAB, 149 rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris cedex 12, France; E-mail: blaise.leclerc@itab.asso.fr PLRN, Route d’Estaires, 62840 LORGIES, France; E-mail: d.grebert@wanadoo.fr ACPEL, Le Petit Chadignac,17100 SAINTES, France; E-mail: acpel@wanadoo.fr

Efficacy of Cydia Pomonella granulosis virus (cpgv) in controlling codling moth in the Emilia-Romagna region
Vergnani, S.1,Caruso, S2, Boselli, M.3, Pasqualini, E.4, Key words: Apple orchard, Pear orchard, Cydia pomonella, Granulosis virus, Efficacy

Abstract
During the period 1999 to 2007, numerous field trials were carried out in the Emilia Romagna region in order to test the efficacy of Cydia pomonella Granulosis Virus-based (CpGV) products in controlling codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The trial results demonstrate that CpGV-based products can be considered among the best larvicides currently available on the market. Good results were achieved against I generation larvae, while applications against successive generations did not always provide satisfactory control.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali. Via Vicinale Monticino 1969 – 47020 Diegaro di Cesena (Fc). vergnani.stefano@tiscali.it Consorzio Fitosanitario di Modena. Via Andreoli, 13 – 41100 Modena. caruso@consorziofito.mo.it Servizio fitosanitario regionale Emilia Romagna. Via Corticella 133. 41029 Bologna mboselli@regione.emilia-romagna.it Dista - Università di Bologna. Via Fanin 14. 41029 Bologna. epasqual@agrsci.unibo.it

Investigations on the efficacy of different products for the control of Stephanitis pyri in an organic pear orchard during the two-year period 2004-’05
Vergnani, S.1 & Caruso, S.2 Key words: Stephanitis pyri, organic pear orchard, control.

Abstract
The results of two trials, carried out respectively in 2004 and 2005, against Stephanitis pyri in an organic pear orchard are reported. Different formulations of the following active substances were tested: pyrethrum + PPBO, rotenone, rotenone + pyrethrum + PPBO, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040, Marsiglia and potassium soap; and quassia wood. The pyrethrum + PPBO- and rotenone-based formulated products showed good efficacy, when applied against neonate larvae. A good efficacy was also observed with the azadirachtin-based formulation, but the product may have phytotoxic effects on pear, and therefore its use is not recommended. The B. bassiana-based product showed partial efficacy in controlling the target pest, while the efficacy of the formulations based on Marsiglia soap, Potassium soap and Quassia wood was not satisfactory.

1. Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali. Via Vicinale Monticino 1969 – 47020 Diegaro di Cesena (Fc). vergnani.stefano@tiscali.it 2. Consorzio Fitosanitario di Modena. Via Andreoli, 13 – 41100 Modena. caruso@consorziofito.mo.it

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Effect of additional heating, floor length, straw quantity and piglet nest accessibility on piglet losses in organic farrowing pens
Vermeer, H.M.1 & Houwers, H.W.J.1 Key words: farrowing, piglet mortality, organic, pig, pen design

Abstract
Newborn piglets on organic pig farms have a lower chance to survive their first week than conventional piglets. Poorer climatic conditions, a loose housed mother, large litters with low birth weights are some of the causes. In a series of experiments the effect of housing and climate measures were investigated. Additional floor heating around farrowing to increase vitality did not reduce piglet mortality. Enlargement of the solid floor to facilitate maternal behaviour also didn’t show a lower mortality. In the third experiment the amount of straw didn’t give a lower mortality, but longer flaps in the opening of the piglet nest tended to reduce mortality.

1. Animal Sciences Group of Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, the Netherlands, E-Mail herman.vermeer@wur.nl, Internet www.asg.wur.nl

Direct marketing of beef in organic suckler cattle farms: economic results and impact on breeding system management
Veysset, P.1, Ingrand, S2 & Limon, M. Key words: beef, suckler cattle, direct marketing, organic farming

Abstract
In response to the bovine crises of 1996 and 2000, and also to the poorly structured organic beef market chain, direct marketing of beef to consumers by the farmer has developed. We studied the impact of this marketing system on economic performance and farming practices. The results show that direct marketing can generate added value, despite the extra costs. Farmers have made the necessary changes to their practices, and have adapted their herd management. Through strengthening the link between the farm and the outside world, direct marketing offers an alternative to the expansion of farms, making it possible to support a greater workforce with the same structure.

1. INRA Clermont-Theix, UR506 Unité Economie de l’Elevage, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France, e-mail veysset@clermont.inra.fr 2. INRA Clermont-Theix, UMR1273 METAFORT, équipe TSE, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France, e-mail ingrand@clermont.inra.fr

Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) activity, fruit infestation and temperature in an organic table olive orchard in southern Crete
Volakakis, N.1, Eyre, M.D.,2 E.Kabourakis3 & Leifert, C.4 Key words: Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, organic olives, temperature, climate

Abstract
Olive fly activity and olive fruit infestation was monitored in a table olive orchard in southern Crete throughout most of 2006 using McPhail traps. Flies were trapped weekly for 40 weeks, starting at the beginning of February. The fly data was split into 10 four-week periods. Male, female and total fly activity was significantly related to sampling period, maximum temperature and relative humidity but the pattern of catches was not consistent. Activity increased from February until July but declined in August and was very low in September, October and November. The low activity in the last three months was reflected in low fruit infestation levels, with a maximum of 3.6% in October which contrasts with infestation levels usually around 30%. Olive fly mortality is high above 31oC and the average mean maximum temperature in the four months June-September was above 34oC. High summer temperatures, with low humidities, appear to have considerably limited olive fly activity and fruit infestation and pest control measures may have to be adapted to these conditions.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7XD, UK; nikolaos.volakakis@ncl.ac.uk As Above, Mick.Eyre@nefg.net National Agricultural Research Foundation, P.O.Box 2229, 71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece; ekab@nagref-her.gr Nafferton Ecological Farming Group, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Nafferton Farm, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7XD, UK; Carlo.Leifert@nefg.net

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Plant traits affecting thrips resistance in cabbage
Voorrips, R.E.1,2, Steenhuis-Broers, G.1, Tiemens-Hulscher, M.3 & Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.3 Key words: Brassica oleracea var capitata; Thrips tabaci

Abstract
The development of thrips populations and thrips damage in 15 cabbage varieties was monitored in two years of field experiments in the Netherlands.. A number of morphological and physiological plant traits were also measured. The most important factors leading to a low level of thrips damage were late development of a compact head, a low Brix value and a high amount of leaf wax. Two open-pollinated cabbage varieties with low and high susceptibility to thrips damage were crossed in both reciprocal combinations. The resulting F1 populations were intermediate for susceptibility to thrips damage.

1. Plant Research International, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands 2. Corresponding author; E-mail roeland.voorrips@wur.nl 3. Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA Driebergen, The Netherlands

Mastitis incidence and milk quality in organic dairy farms which use suckling systems in calf rearing
Wagenaar, J.P.T.M.1 & Smolders, E.A.A.2 Key words: udder health, suckling systems, mastitis, somatic cell count

Abstract
In order to identify important factors influencing animal health and general disease resistance, detailed qualitative and quantitative farm data were collected from 99 organic dairy farms in the Netherlands. Mastitis incidence and milk quality were focal points of the data collection. In this paper the results of a group of farms which rear dairy calves in suckling systems (n=11) are presented. It was found that compared to other farms in the study (n=88), suckling systems in calf rearing had no clear adverse effects on mastitis incidence and milk quality. In 2006 average clinical mastitis incidence on suckling farms was 14%, on other farms 20%. The percentage of cows with a somatic cell count less than 250,000 at drying-off was lower (60 vs. 66%) at suckling farms. Also immediately after calving the percentage of cows with a somatic cell count less than 250,000 was lower (65 vs. 75%) on suckling farms. Between other farms and suckling farms, but also within suckling farms, distinctively different attitudes to disease management prevailed. Most suckling farms recently introduced suckling systems in calf rearing. Only 1 or 2 generations of suckled heifers had been introduced into the herds up to now. In order to judge whether suckling systems have a potential to improve udder health in future dairy herds, evaluation should be carried out again once suckled heifers constitute the majority of the herd.

1. Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24 NL-3972 LA Driebergen, the Netherlands, www.louisbolk.nl 2. Animal Sciences Group, P.O. Box 65 NL-8200 AB Lelystad, the Netherlands, www.asg.wur.nl

Relationships between sow and piglet traits in organic production outdoors and indoors
Wallenbeck, A.1 & Rydhmer, L.1 Key words: organic production, piglet mortality, piglet growth, weight loss, backfat loss

Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe sow and piglet traits and the relationship between them in animals bred for conventional production kept in organic outdoor and indoor environments. 40 sows were studied during a seven week lactation. In parity one and three the sows farrowed outdoors (April to September) in huts and were moved to family grazing paddocks two weeks post partum (pp). In parity two and four the sows farrowed indoors (October to March) in individual pens and were moved to family pens with deep straw bedding two weeks pp. High backfat and weight loss during lactation was related to low piglet mortality and the relationship was stronger outdoors than indoors. Large litters had lower piglet growth than small litters and the relationship was stronger indoors than outdoors. Sows with larger litters were thinner and lighter at weaning than sows with smaller litters and the relationships were stronger outdoors than indoors. Our interpretation is that the outdoor environment stimulates sows to mobilise their energy reserves and produce milk, to a larger extent than the indoor environment does.

1. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics, BOX 7023, SE-75007, Uppsala, Sweden, E-post: Anna. Wallenbeck@hgen.slu.se, Internet: www.cul. slu.se/forskning/ekogris

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Cropping Intensity and Organic Amendments in Transitional Farming Systems: Effects on Soil Fertility, Weeds, Diseases and Insects
Wander, M.1, Eastman, C. Zaborski, E., Eastburn, D., Masiunas,J., Engiseth, N. Ugarte,C., Marzano, S.-Y. & Rosa, I. Key words: Organic transition strategies; farming systems; soil quality, plant quality,

Abstract
The Windsor Organic Research Trial (WORT) is a farming systems experiment initiated in 2003 to investigate alternative strategies for transitioning to certified organic vegetable production that compares the influence of transition schemes that differ in management intensity (cropping, tillage) and organic matter inputs on weeds; soil organic matter and nutrient availability; soil invertebrate communities; and the relationship between soil fertility, plant health and insect/disease pressure. Soil quality was improved during transition in all systems. Conventional soil tests were unable to document differences among systems that were reflected in biotic indicators. The pasture-based transition system was superior.

1. NRES, University of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave, Urbana IL 61801, USA, mwander@uiuc.edu

Searching for an alternative oil crop for organic farming systems in temperate climates
Weber, E.A.1, Elfadl, E.2, Reinbrecht, C.3, Graeff, S. 4 & Claupein, W.5 Key words: safflower, accessions, selection, seed yield, oil content

Abstract
Safflower is an oil crop widely grown in semiarid and arid regions whose oil is valuable because of its high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview of the methods for identifying potential genotypes suitable for cultivation in temperate climates. From 2002 to 2005 a great many safflower accessions from a worldwide safflower collection were screened at several locations in Germany and Switzerland. More than 75 % of the accessions tested failed under the humid conditions of the first year because they did not set seed. During 2004 and 2005, seed yield per row and oil content from 486 tested accessions varied between 0 and 428 g and between 0 and 21 %, respectively. Twenty selected accessions showed seed yields between 1.4 and 2.1 t ha-1 and oil contents ranging between 21 and 23 %. Although yield potential of given accessions was strongly dependent upon climatic factors, well adapted safflower accessions for more humid conditions were identified. For future research there are several agronomic challenges to be solved for cultivating safflower in organic farming systems, such as increasing oil content and optimizing weed and disease control.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

University of Hohenheim, Institute of Crop Production and Grassland Research, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany As Above Pflanzenzucht SaKa GbR, Dorfstraße 39, D-17495 Ranzin, Germany As 1 As 1

Quassia, an Effective Aphid Control Agent for Organic Hop Growing
Weihrauch, F.1, Schwarz, J. 1 & Engelhard, B.1 Key words: Hop, Humulus lupulus, Phorodon humuli, plant protection, quassia

Abstract
In the first three decades of the 20th century, quassia extract was widely used in hop growing as a chemical agent to control Phorodon humuli and other insect pests. In the first years of the 21st century this compound was rediscovered by German organic hop growers. In several efficacy trials conducted during five field seasons, quassia products proved to be effective control agents for P. humuli in organically grown aroma cultivars. A systemic variant developed by painting a suspension of quassia extract to the bines was the best method of application. This method proved not only to be very effective, but was also best from an environmental point of view. The optimal systemic application rate was determined as 24 g/ha of the active ingredient quassin. In order to generate the data necessary for registration of quassin in Annex I of the EU Council Directive 91/414/EEC, further efficacy trials were conducted during 2007. The results emphasize the importance of this compound as currently the only suitable aphid control agent in organic hop growing, especially when applied systemically.

1. Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture, Institute for Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Hop Research Center, Huell 5 1/3, 85283 Wolnzach, Germany, E-mail Florian. Weihrauch@LfL.bayern.de, Johannes.Schwarz@LfL.bayern.de, Bernhard.Engelhard@LfL.bayern.de, Internet www.lfl.bayern.de

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Winter grazing as an alternative to mulching or mowing grass clover swards
Westphal, D., Loges, R & Taube, F.1 Key words: grassland, grass/clover, forage quality, wheat, nutrient management

Abstract
Management factors like the type of defoliation and seed mixture influence yield and forage quality of grass clover mixtures. In comparison to harvesting, grazing is less cost intensive. For economical reasons a maximum duration of grazing period is required. Grazing over winter can cause pasture damages. This problem is of minor relevance for grass clover grown on arable land in the last production year, which is ploughed in the following spring. This study compares different grass clover mixtures concerning yield, forage quality and suitability for winter grazing. With this background, tall fescue exerted more significant effect on the dry matter yield than perennial ryegrass. White clover showed significant superiority over all the other tested species, with regard to protein and energy contents. Otherwise, swards with red clover and alfalfa had a significantly higher legume contents and produced higher dry matter and N yields than the other swards. Plots grazed in different periods over winter showed a clear significant loss of grazable matter. The highest loss of dry matter which also was accompanied by a decrease in crude protein and energy content was observed in mixtures with Lucerne. Under mulching systems and early grazing high nitrate losses were measured. After ploughing, the early grazing systems resulted in lower spring wheat yields than grazing in January or cutting systems.

1. Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Grass and Forage Science / Organic Agriculture, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Hermann-Rodewald-Str. 9, 24118 Kiel, Germany, E-Mail rloges@email.uni-kiel.de, Internet www.grassland-organicfarming.uni-kiel.de

Effect of Compost versus Animal Manure Fertilization on Crop Development, Yield and Nitrogen Residue in the Organic Cultivation of Potatoes
Willekens, K.1, De Vliegher, A.1, Vandecasteele, B.1 and Carlier, L.1 Key words: fertilization trial, compost, potato yield, N-residue, organic

Abstract
Organic farmers in Flanders use manure from extensive conventional livestock systems due to a lack of animal manure from organic producers. The research question was if on-farm prepared compost mainly consisting of vegetal residues can be a good alternative. A long-term fertilization trial with a 4-year crop rotation of maize - potatoes - spring barley - red clover is carried out on two fields with a time difference of one year. The fertilization treatments are on-farm prepared compost, applied as a single dose and a double dose, farmyard manure, slurry and slurry combined with composted municipal waste. This paper concerns the experimental results of the potato crop in 2006 and 2007. The nitrate content of the plant juice was monitored and the potato yield and nitrate content in the soil profile at the end of the growing season were determined. In 2006 the potato yields were significantly higher for both farm compost treatments while the nitrate residues in soil were significantly lower. The early, high and constant leaf blight disease pressure in 2007 resulted in lower yields and less marked treatment effects. This investigation demonstrated that application of mature compost can result in a faster development of the potato crop in the first weeks of the growing season, which is important for sufficient yields in organic potato growing.

1. Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Plant, Crop Husbandry and Environment, Burg. van Gansberghelaan, 109, box 1, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium E-Mail: koen. willekens@ilvo.vlaanderen.be, Internet: www.ilvo.vlaanderen.be

The antioxidant compounds in experimental diets for rats based on plant materials from organic, low-input and conventional agricultural systems
Wisniewska, K., Rembiałkowska, E., Hallmann, E., Rusaczonek, A., Lueck, L. & Leifert, C. Key words: feed, organic, conventional, low input, polyphenols

Abstract
Results presented in this paper are part of a study that investigates the effect of four production systems on the health of rats. This study was aimed at evaluating differences in the levels of flavonols, total polyphenols, beta-carotene and lutein, which are well-known antioxidants in food and feed. In this experiment, feed was produced according to four different agricultural systems: organic farming (without synthetic pesticides and mineral fertilizers), low-input 1 (organic plant protection in combination with mineral fertilizers), low input 2 (conventional pest management and organic fertilizers) and conventional farming (synthetic pesticides and mineral fertilizers). The results indicated that feed prepared from the organically produced plants contained more antioxidant compounds, especially total polyphenols, flavonols and lutein. Feed produced for experiments with diets for rats varied significantly in a series of key phytochemical compounds and therefore had the potential to produce different health effects in the subsequent feeding trials.

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Learning in context – improved nutrient management in arable cropping systems through participatory research
Wivstad, M.1 & Nätterlund, H.2 Key words: Participatory research, sustainability, organic farming, nutrient management, organic fertilisers

Abstract
Participatory research (PR) provides opportunities to build knowledge relevant to site-specific farms conditions. This study used a PR approach to develop nutrient management strategies in stockless organic farming. A thorough problem identification process was carried out and the problem prioritised was how to combine preceding crop effects with fertilisation strategy in crop rotations. On-farm fertiliser (biogas digestion residues, chicken manure and meat-bone meal) experiments were conducted in spring wheat and winter rapeseed. Significant yield responses were achieved in spring wheat, up to 1200 kg ha-1, and they were higher than in rapeseed. The implications of the results for nutrient management at crop rotation level are discussed.

1. Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. 2. Agricultural Society, Individual Extension Malmöhus, Borgeby Slottsväg 13, 237 91 Bjärred, Sweden.

Wheat populations: population performance and stability in organic and non-organic environments
Wolfe, M., Boyd, H. E., Clarke, S., Haigh, Z. E. L. and Jones, H.1 Key words: winter wheat, organic, non-organic, mixtures, yield stability, populations

Abstract
Twenty winter wheat varieties were used as parents in a half diallel crossing programme for the production of wheat populations and physical mixtures that were then grown in field trials at two non-organic and two organic sites over three years in England. Yields of the populations and mixtures were compared with those of the relevant varieties grown as pure stands. In general, there was an improvement in yielding ability in the populations which was achieved while maintaining a high level of stability across environments. Potential improvements through selection or introduction of broader based populations are discussed.

1. The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, Wakelyns Agroforestry, Metfield Lane, Fressingfield, Eye, Suffolk, IP21 5SD, UK. wolfe@wakelyns.deamon.co.uk

Japanese organic tomato intercropped with living turfgrass mulch
Xu, H.L.1, Ma, G.1, Shah, R.P2. & Qin, F.F1. Key words: blight, IMP, intercropping, living mulch, organic, VAM, tomato, turfgrass

Abstract
Stripe cultivation of crops with turfgrass as living mulch has been adopted in orchard systems and proved effective in disease control and fruit quality improvement. However, no research has tried turfgrass as living mulch for field vegetable crops. In the present study, field tomato was stripe-cultivated with Kentucky blue grass and showed high resistance against leaf blights resulting in improved fruit yield and quality. Lower nitrate concentration in tomato leaves stripe-cultivated with turfgrass might be one of the reasons for decreased risk of fungal infection. Turfgrass is alive with high activity throughout the year and the root is colonized and mutually benefiting from each other with mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizal colonization was high in turfgrass root, and also much higher in roots of tomato plants with turfgrass as living mulch than in the tomato plants without turfgrass. This might be another reason for decreased infection risk of fungi. In conclusion, as a living mulch, an annually ever living turfgrass root system with mycorrhizae colonized, making a living soil and improving soil conditions, avoided the infection by soil-borne pathogens in tomato plants that are stripe-cultivated with turfgrass.

1. International Nature Farming Research Centre, Nagano 390-1401, Japan 2. Integrated Rural Development Research Project, GPO 8975, EPC 1830, Kathmandu, Nepal

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The Circular Economy of a Local Organic Food Chain: Xiedao in Beijing
Yuexian L.1, Høgh-Jensen, H.2, Egelyng. H.3 Key words: Local and organic food chain, Circular Economy, Leisure Agriculture

Abstract
The local organic food market in China is growing and socalled leisure agriculture has been widely accepted and advocated in urban areas as a positive means of relaxation. This paper presents an analysis of a local organic food chain based on leisure agriculture and seeks to explain development of organic food in Urban China using the theoretical frame of the Circular Economy. The study uses a local organic food chain involving Xiedao as a case. In conclusion, the paper provides an estimate of the energy use efficiency of the chain.

1. Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark and Information Institute, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China. Email: liy@life.ku.dk 2. Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 3. Danish Institute for International Studies, Strandgade 56, DK-1401 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Consumers Values and Motives regarding Organic Food Products in Poland
Zakowska-Biemans, S.1 Key words: consumer, organic food, motives, values

Abstract
Poland, like all new European Union member states has experienced significant growth in organically managed land and the number of organic farms in the last few years. However, there are still many barriers to overcome to stimulate the consumption of organic foods. There is a need to learn more about the emotions, cognition and behaviour of Polish organic consumers in order to develop effective marketing strategies. Polish consumers are motivated to buy organic food because of its perceived health and safety attributes. The highest interest in organic food is observed among consumers who value animal welfare, environment protection and self-fulfilment.

1. Warsaw University of Life Sciences, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland, E-Mail sylwia_zakowska_biemans@sggw.pl, Internet www.sggw.pl

Impact of the adoption of participatory guarantee systems (PGS) for organic certification for small farmers in developing countries: the case of Rede Ecovida in Brasil
Zanasi, C.1, Venturi P2. Key words: organic certification, transaction costs, participatory guarantee systems, developing countries, local markets

Abstract
Different types of organic certification have been developed to overcome the problem of its relatively high cost for small organic farmers in developing countries. Among these the participatory guarantee systems (PGS) for organic certification, which does not involve a third party certification body. Providing a theoretical framework able to define the characteristics of PGS influencing its role in promoting local market development and communities social cohesion, as well as the access to export markets, is the aim of this paper. The level of formalism in the relationship among the stakeholders involved in the PGS, its interaction with the flexibility and the scope of their relationship, social control as a substitute for a third party certification body, are considered as influencing factors. A case study is provided: a survey among organic farmers involved in the participatory certification, members of the Rede Ecovida (Brasil), has been carried out, as well as interviews to the different stakeholders. The positive effect of the participatory approach on local organic market development and its still very low chances to access the export market emerged. An interesting finding regards the role of the farmers network (Rede Ecovida) in promoting trust on PGS certified organic products beyond the boundaries of the local communities.

1. DIPROVAL – Economic Unit- Bologna University, via F.lli Rosselli 107, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy E-Mail cesare.zanasi@unibo.it. 2. DIPROVAL – Rural Engineering Unit - Bologna University, via F.lli Rosselli 107, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy

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Diversification and specialisation as development strategies in organic farms
Zander, K. 1 Key words: diversification, specialisation, organic farming, socio-economics, Germany.

Abstract
Unsatisfying economic performance, continuous work overload or the entrance of the younger generation are often the starting point for reorientation of the farm’s organisation in order to increase the farm’s efficiency. Theoretically, farmers are faced with two main options when looking for a viable farm strategy: diversification or specialisation. Based on a quantitative and qualitative survey of 40 farms, the results show that the decision to either diversify or specialise is usually a multi-dimensional issue. Only the analyses of the interactions between many different factors may help to understand the decision processes on farms. One central result of the study is that the personality of the farmer is the key driving factor in the decision on specialisation or diversification. The study also reveals that, whereas cost reduction is observed to be a valuable strategy in conventional farming, it seems to be of very limited relevance in organic farming in Germany.

1. Department of Agricultural and Food Marketing, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Steinstrasse 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany. E-Mail k.zander@unikassel.de, Internet www.agrar.uni-kassel.de/alm

Soil Fertility and Biodiversity effects from Organic Amendments in Organic Farming
Zanen, M.1, Bokhorst1, J. G. & Koopmans, C.J.1 Key words: soil biology, soil microbial biomass, soil quality, manure, compost

Abstract
After a completed rotation of seven years, soils of the Manure as a Chance (MAC) trial were analysed for the effect of organic amendments on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Yields suggest significant differences due to different organic amendments after seven years. In treatments receiving farm yard manure and bio waste compost yields increased over time. Soil properties indicate changes in soil carbon, nitrogen mineralization en plant feeding nematodes due to different organic amendments. No significant changes in microbial and fungal biomass were found.

Improving Soil Structure and Nitrogen Use Efficiency by GPS-controlled Precision Tillage Technology in Organic Farming
Zanen, M. 1 & Koopmans, C.J2. Key words: soil structure, GPS-controlled traffic systems, nitrogen use efficiency.

Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage technique (GPS-controlled traffic system and traditional tillage) and level of fertilization (farmers’ practice or phosphate equilibrium) on yield, soil structure and nitrogen use efficiency. Manure inputs could be seriously reduced without yields being diminished during the first three years of the intensive crop rotation. Results suggest that an improved soil structure under GPScontrolled precision tillage enhances nitrogen use efficiency.

1. Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24, 3972 LA, Driebergen, The Netherlands, E-Mail m.zanen@louisbolk.nl Internet www.louisbolk.nl 2. As above

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Role of forage legumes mixed cropping on biomass yield and bacterial community composition
Zarea, M.J.1, Ghalavand, A2 & Jamshidi, E.3 Key words: Mixed cropping, legume crops, free-living N2-fixing bacteria, rhizosphere bacteria population, Azotobacter spp

Abstract
Intercropping berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) may increase forage yield and free-living N2-fixing bacterial species community. Berseem clover was mixed with Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.) at ratios of 1:0, 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 and with Persian clover/ annual medic (Medicago regidula cv. Regidula) at ratio of 1:1:1 at Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat modares university, Tehran, Iran in 2007. Mixed ratio had significant effect on total forage yield. Total forage yield was greatest with a 1:1:1 ratio of clovers to annual medic. Total intercrop yields with clovers/ annual medic at 1:1:1 plants m–2 was 214.37g m–2 DM yields. Mixed cropping increased rhizosphere microorganisms viz. bacteria, free-living N2-fixing bacteria and Azotobacter counts. Free-living N2-fixing bacterial species and Azotobacter populations of 96 g-1 soil*103 cells and 24 g-1 soil*102 cells, respectively, obtained from mixed cropping with 1:1:1 clovers to annual medic ratios.

1. Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University (T.M.U), Tehran, (2). Faculty of Agriculture, Ielam University, Ielam, Iran, E-Mail Zarea@modares.ac.ir 2. Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University (T.M.U), Tehran, 3. M.Sc. Of agronomy, Tarbiat Modares University (T.M.U).

Evaluation of Laying Hen Strains for biodynamic Farms
Zeltner, E.1 Poultry, Animal nutrition, Animal health, Animal husbandry and breeding, Performance

Abstract
In biodynamic and organic agriculture mostly the same strains of laying hens as in conventional agriculture are used. These strains require feed with a high nutrition level to tap the full potential of their genetic. When this feed is not available it may lead to health problems and ethological interferences as well as to a deficiency of performance. In this study, four potential adequate strains are evaluated and compared with a commercial strain using health and ethological parameters as well as characteristics of performance under biodynamic conditions. After one laying period the laying performance of Amberlik, Hyline, Sperber and Sussex was high but only the plumage condition of Sussex was acceptable. Therefore this strain will be used for further investigations.

1. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Ackerstrasse, 5070 Frick, Switzerland, E-Mail esther.zeltner@fibl.org, Internet www.fibl.org

The US Organic Food Shopper
Zepeda, L.1 Key words: consumer attitudes, profiles; organic food

Abstract
Survey data from a random sample of US food shoppers is analyzed to identify significant factors in organic food demand. Qualitative data is also collected to explore motivations, perceptions and knowledge of both organic and conventional food shoppers. Results indicate that shopping venue, food knowledge, and food beliefs are key to organic food demand. Qualitative investigations indicate some scepticism towards organic labels by both organic and conventional shoppers. Not all organic shoppers viewed the increasing availability of organic foods through conventional venues and brands positively. These shoppers perceive commercialization to run counter to creating a local food system. In addition, perceptions of organic food shoppers were diverse, often conflicting, and sometimes quite negative.

1. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Consumer Science, 1300 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706 USA, E-Mail lzepeda@wisc.edu

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Organic operators’ satisfaction with their certification body – a survey in Germany
Zorn, A. & Renner, H.1 Key words: Organic inspection and certification, organic association, organic processors, satisfaction, Germany

Abstract
Organic certification represents different functions for the stakeholders involved in this process. For a producer of organic food, it is mainly a service provided by a certification body. Hardly any information currently exists on organic operators’ satisfaction with this service. In a survey of German organic processors, we examine the satisfaction and other questions connected to the relationship certification body – client and offer insights for certification bodies and organic associations.

1. Universität Hohenheim, Institute for Farm Management (410a), 70593 Stuttgart, Germany, www.uni-hohenheim.de/i410a, zorn@uni-hohenheim.de, heike.renner@uni-hohenheim.de. The data used for this paper originates from Heike Renner’s Master Thesis, prepared during her studies in Organic Food Chain Management in Hohenheim.

What can organic agriculture contribute to sustainable development? Long-term comparisons of farming systems in the tropics
Zundel, C.1, Kilcher, L.1 & Mäder, P.1 Key words: long-term experiments, system comparison, production systems, tropics, sustainability

Abstract
Despite the high demand for sound data on the agronomic, ecological and economic performance of organic agriculture in developing countries, systematic comparison of organic and conventional farming systems has not so far been carried out. The Research Institute of Organic Farming (FiBL), together with its partners, is presently establishing long-term comparisons of farming systems in various agro-ecological and agro-economic contexts to study the different parameters that are essential for sustainable development. To date, three study areas have been selected: (a) a sub-humid area in Kenya where farming is subsistence-oriented; (b) a semi-arid area in India where cotton is produced for the export market; and (c) a humid area in Bolivia where perennial fruits and cacao are produced for the domestic and export markets. The key elements in these comparisons are replicated long-term field trials. These are complemented by farm surveys and short-term trials under on-farm conditions. This network of comparison of farming systems in the tropics is expected to (1) put the discussion on the benefits and drawbacks of organic agriculture on a rational footing; (2) help to identify challenges for organic agriculture that can then be addressed systematically; (3) provide physical reference points for stakeholders in agricultural research and development and thus support agricultural policy dialogue at different levels.

1. Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL – Research Institute of Organic Agriculture), Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland, christine.zundel@fibl.org, www.fibl.org

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